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Sample records for sikkut raini stamm

  1. Stamm gastrostomy for postoperative gastric decompression in gynecologic oncology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, M S; Cardosi, R J; Lemert, R; Drake, J G

    2001-08-01

    The aim of this study was to report our experience with Stamm gastrostomy for postoperative gastric decompression on a gynecologic oncology service. This was an observational study over the 9-year period ending in October 2000. A 24 French MIC gastrostomy with the Stamm technique was used. Criteria for a gastrostomy are outlined in the text and tubes placed for palliation were excluded. Patients were followed to determine length of open drainage, time to removal, related complications, and those who may have benefited. A total of 167 patients had 174 nonpalliative gastrostomy tubes placed. Nine percent of the patients had related complications with a major complication rate of 2%. Overall, approximately one-third of the patients appeared to benefit from the gastrostomy tube. The results support the safety and efficacy of the MIC gastric tube in patients undergoing extensive gynecologic cancer surgery which is likely to impact the function of the gastrointestinal tract. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  2. Rainy Weather Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Karen

    1996-01-01

    Presents ideas on the use of rainy weather for activities in the earth, life, and physical sciences. Topics include formation and collision of raindrops, amount and distribution of rain, shedding of water by plants, mapping puddles and potholes, rainbow formation, stalking storms online, lightning, and comparing particles in the air before and…

  3. Rainy Day Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gormsen, Niels Joachim; Greenwood, Robin

    We study the good- and bad-times performance of equity portfolios formed on characteristics. Many characteristics associated with good performance during bad times—value, profitability, small size, safety, and total volatility—also perform well during good times. Stocks with characteristics signi...... generated during good times. We also show how an investor can build a “rainy day” portfolio that minimizes underperformance during bad times...

  4. Rainy Day Fun: Rain-Inspired Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanger, Annie Moretz

    1999-01-01

    Rainy days are opportunities to teach campers about weather and to plan activities around a rain theme. Indoor and outdoor science-based activities concerned with rain, water, or water conservation are suggested for specific age groups from ages 5-7 through 11-14. Campers can also develop ideas for activities using questions provided. (CDS)

  5. Rainy season characteristics of the Free State Province of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rainbow statistical software was utilised to test for normality and determine probabilities at 20%, 50% and 80% risk levels. The other rainy season characteristics investigated were the probability of onset failure and probability of rainy season duration of less than 50, 100, 120 and 140 days. These rainy season indices were ...

  6. Characteristics of Urban Heat Island in Enugu During Rainy Season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... throughout the day and night during rainy season. Its structure was observed to be greatly influenced by weather, city, metabolism, anthropogenic activities and local geographic features, land-use, land-cover as well as vegetation and population. Keywords: Measurement, Temperature, Urban, Rural, Rainy, Vegetation.

  7. Rainy Days: Program Ideas That Make a Splash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Randall

    1996-01-01

    Stresses the importance of planning ahead for rainy day activities at camp. Suggested outdoor activities include learning to build a fire in the rain, dam building, canoe puzzles, and holey garbage-can fill; indoor activities include crafts, pass the present, human game pieces, and opportunities for cabin groups to plan and host a fun activity.…

  8. Edu retsept: uued alad / Siim Sikkut

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sikkut, Siim

    2009-01-01

    Autor usub, et majanduslangusest väljatulekuks tuleks Eesti ettevõtetel seada eesmärgiks välisturgude uutesse niššidesse sisenemine, seda eelkõige keskkonna- ja säästva energeetika toodete ning tervise- ja heaolutoodete valdkonnas

  9. A Lagrangian identification of the main sources of moisture affecting northeastern Brazil during its pre-rainy and rainy seasons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Drumond

    Full Text Available This work examines the sources of moisture affecting the semi-arid Brazilian Northeast (NEB during its pre-rainy and rainy season (JFMAM through a Lagrangian diagnosis method. The FLEXPART model identifies the humidity contributions to the moisture budget over a region through the continuous computation of changes in the specific humidity along back or forward trajectories up to 10 days period. The numerical experiments were done for the period that spans between 2000 and 2004 and results were aggregated on a monthly basis. Results show that besides a minor local recycling component, the vast majority of moisture reaching NEB area is originated in the south Atlantic basin and that the nearby wet Amazon basin bears almost no impact. Moreover, although the maximum precipitation in the "Poligono das Secas" region (PS occurs in March and the maximum precipitation associated with air parcels emanating from the South Atlantic towards PS is observed along January to March, the highest moisture contribution from this oceanic region occurs slightly later (April. A dynamical analysis suggests that the maximum precipitation observed in the PS sector does not coincide with the maximum moisture supply probably due to the combined effect of the Walker and Hadley cells in inhibiting the rising motions over the region in the months following April.

  10. Aspects Concerning the Rainy Spells in the Western Plain of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EUGENIA ŞERBAN

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyses the rainy spells on the territory of the Western Plain at the North of the Mureş River. Daily precipitation data were used from a number of 5 weather stations and for a period of 42 years (1961-2002. Only the stations with a common observation period were chosen. Periods with two or more consecutive rainy days were studied and the analyses show a total of about 7,000 rainy spells. The number of the rainy spells grows from the South to the North once with the latitude but also from the West to the East, once with the altitude. Within a year may occur, on the average, about 30-35 rainy spells with an average duration of 4 days. The duration of the rainy spells varies between 2-19 days. On the analysed territory, 119-141 rainy days may occur annually, on the average. Namely, on this territory it rains on the average about 4-4.5 months a year. Most of the rainy days were recorded in the intervals November-January and April-June.

  11. Rainy season change in Sanjiangyuan, China area based on the meteorological stations data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhanqing; Peng, Dailiang; Wen, Jingyi; Gong, Zhi; Wang, Tiantian; Hu, Yuekai; Wu, Yuxi; Xu, Junfeng

    2017-07-01

    The Sanjiangyuan area is famous as the Chinese water tower, it is a transition zone of semi-humid, semi-arid and arid area. An area of about 400,000 square kilometers and the water source of billions of people, also the ecological barrier of the whole of Asia’s economic and social development.Based on the daily rainfall data of 13 meteorological stations in Sanjiangyuan area from 1985 to 2015, the rainfall indexes such as the rainy season from the beginning and the ending of the rainy season were extracted. And the trend of rainy season in the study area was analyzed. The results show that the daily rainfall in the Sanjiangyuan area accounts for more than 50% of the annual rainfall; the onset of the rainy season in the eastern part of Sanjiangyuan has a delayed trend and the central area has a tendency to advance; the number of days in the rainy season has decreased in the past 30 years, reduced 4d. There is a positive correlation between the starting date of rainy season and the average rainfall in the rainy season. The changes of these rainy seasons are of great significance to the economic development and ecological protection of the region.

  12. Characteristics of precipitation in the rainy season of Koxkar Glacier, Tianshan Mountain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, C. C.; Yao, S. X.; Han, H. D.; Zhao, Q. D.

    2017-08-01

    Precipitation is widely recognized as the major driving force of hydrologic system, and changes of its pattern could have direct impacts on water resources, especially in mountains. The total precipitation and rain days based on observation were analysed in Koxkar glacier catchment in rainy season during the period of 2009 - 2016. The results have shown that the total precipitation of rainy season fluctuates randomly with no significant trend of increasing or decreasing. The rain days of different precipitation classes differ noticeably, and are inconsistent with the contribution of total precipitation in rainy season. The maximum daily precipitation influences the monthly precipitation. These characteristics of rainy season precipitation display the important factor for the study of glacier changes.

  13. Summary appraisals of the Nation's ground-water resources; Souris-Red-Rainy region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Harold O.

    1978-01-01

    A broad-perspective analysis of the ground-water resources and present and possible future water development and management in the Souris-Red-Rainy Region is presented. The region includes the basins of the Souris River within Montana and North Dakota; the Red River of the North in South Dakota, North Dakota, and Minnesota; and the Rainy River within Minnesota. The region includes 59,645 square miles, mostly in North Dakota and Minnesota.

  14. Sub-seasonal predictability of the onset and demise of the rainy season over monsoonal regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardi, Rodrigo J.; Pegion, Kathy V.; Kinter, James L.; Cash, Benjamin A.; Adams, Jennifer M.

    2017-02-01

    Sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) retrospective forecasts from three global coupled models are used to evaluate the predictability of the onset and demise dates of the rainy season over monsoonal regions. The onset and demise dates of the rainy season are defined using only precipitation data. The forecasts of the onset and demise dates of the rainy season are based on a hybrid methodology that combines observations and simulations. Although skillful model precipitation predictions remain challenging in many regions, our results show that they are skillful enough to identify onset and demise dates of the rainy season in many monsoon regions at sub-seasonal (approximately 30 days) lead-times in retrospective forecasts. We verify sub-seasonal prediction skill for the onset and demise dates of the rainy season over South America, East Asia, and Northern Australia. However, we find low prediction skill for the onset and demise of the rainy season on sub-seasonal scales over the Indian monsoon region. This information would be valuable to sectors related to water management.

  15. Comparison of Freshwater Mollusc Assemblages between Dry and Rainy Season in Situ Gede System, Bogor, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priawandiputra, W.; Nasution, D. J.; Prawasti, T. S.

    2017-03-01

    Anthropogenic activities, which reduced and damaged natural situ (freshwater ponds), also reduced fauna diversity in its aquatic ecosystem. Freshwater molluscs in the situ, one of the largest numbers of animals group with documented extinction, may also be impacted. The aims of this study were to record and to compare the abundance and species composition of freshwater molluscs between dry and rainy season in three situ. The freshwater molluscs were determined by twelve sampling points in Situ Gede (SG), Situ Panjang (SP) and Situ Burung (SB). Samplings were conducted once during dry season (August 2015) and rainy season (February 2016). Total abundance of molluscs encountered was 4321 individuals, which was comprised of 76 bivalve individuals (1.75 %) and 4245 gastropods individuals (98.44%). The abundance of molluscs were generally higher in rainy season than in dry season in all situ, while species richness showed the contrary. The species composition was significantly different between dry and rainy season in SP and SB but no significant differences was found in SG. From eight dominant species, there were six dominant species such as Filopaludina javanica, Melanoides tuberculata, Thiara scabra, Sermyla requeti, Pila scutata (gastropods) and Pilsbryoconcha exilis (bivalve) which were found in high numbers during dry season while two gastropod species (Pomacea canaliculata and Wattebledia crosseana) was numbered higher in rainy season than dry season.

  16. Uncertainties in projected climate changes of the rainy season over West Africa related to bias adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Grigory; Bosshard, Thomas; Wilcke, Renate; Yang, Wei; Kjellström, Erik; Bärring, Lars

    2015-04-01

    Bias adjustment has become an integral part of pre-processing of climate simulations for use in impact modeling studies. Considered now as a necessary step to deal with inability of climate models to accurately simulate the present/recent climate, bias adjustment is a statistical approach missing physical arguments. Even if bias adjustment is widely used nowadays it is still a topic for debates and criticism. One of the main questions is what level of uncertainty does bias adjustment introduce to future climate projections? In this study, using an ensemble of the CORDEX-Africa simulations, we investigate potential impact of bias adjustment on the simulated rainy season in West Africa. A number of characteristics reflecting different aspects of the rainy season are used, namely: onset and cessation of the rainy season, mean intensity, total amount of precipitation and intra-seasonal variability within the rainy season. All these characteristics are evaluated in the original CORDEX-Africa simulations and in bias-adjusted ones for a reference period first and then future climate projections of these characteristics are compared between two ensembles. Additionally, we examine how bias adjustment may impact selection of a smaller more manageable ensemble of regional climate simulations from a grand one.

  17. Vegetative substrates used by larval northern pike in Rainy and Kabetogama Lakes, Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne L. Timm; Rodney B. Pierce

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to identify characteristics of aquatic vegetative communities used as larval northern pike nursery habitat in Rainy and Kabetogama lakes, glacial shield reservoirs in northern Minnesota. Quatrefoil light traps fished at night were used to sample larval northern pike in 11 potential nursery areas. Larval northern pike were most commonly sampled among...

  18. Phytoplankton dynamics of a tropical river: A dry and rainy season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out in River Ethiope in the Niger Delta area ofNigeria, to assess the influence of seasonal dynamics on the phytoplankton composition, density and diversity. Samples were collected in the dry and rainy season. Qualitative phytoplankton samples were collected by towing 55 ìm mesh plankton net while ...

  19. Growth and yield responses of rainy season field tomatoes to timing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and yield responses of rainy season field tomatoes to timing and splitting of fertilizer application. G O Oko-Ibom, J E Asiegbu. Abstract. Growth and yield responses of eight (8) tomato cultivars (UN-83, Nsukka Local NHle-7-7-1, Roma VFN, Ronita, Ife 1, Rossol, and Ace VF) to different times and modes of NPK ...

  20. 33 CFR 207.360 - Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the United States. 207.360 Section 207.360 Navigation... REGULATIONS § 207.360 Rainy River, Minn.; logging regulations for portions of river within jurisdiction of the...

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in Eastern Amazon during the Rainy Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista da Silva Ferreira, Douglas; Barreiros de Souza, Everaldo; Cavalcanti de Moraes, Bergson; Meira Filho, Luiz Gylvan

    2015-01-01

    Empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) and composites analysis were employed on pentad data in order to investigate the tropical atmospheric-ocean patterns over the Atlantic Ocean and the spatial-temporal characteristics of the rainfall in eastern Amazon during the peak of the rainy season (February to April). The EOF results evidenced that the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is the main rainfall-producing system in eastern Amazon during the rainy season. Conditions associated with the southward SST gradient in the intertropical Atlantic formed the dynamic patterns that favored the position of the ITCZ to south of the equator, thus explaining the predominance of positive precipitation anomalies in eastern Amazon, especially in the state of Maranhão and northeastern Pará during the February and April months. PMID:25793218

  2. Regional Frequency Analysis of Extreme Dry Spells during Rainy Season in the Wei River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunxian She

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our research analyzes the regional changes of extreme dry spell, represented by the annual maximum dry spell length (noted as AMDSL during the rainy season in the Wei River Basin (WRB of China for 1960–2014 using the L-moments method. The mean AMDSL values increase from the west to the east of the WRB, suggesting a high dry risk in the east compared to the west in the WRB. To investigate the regional frequency more reasonably, the WRB is clustered into four homogenous subregions via the K-means method and some subjective adjustments. The goodness-of-fit test shows that the GEV, PE3, and GLO distribution can be accepted as the “best-fit” model for subregions 1 and 4, subregion 2, and subregion 3, respectively. The quantiles of AMDSL under various return levels figure out a similar spatial distribution with mean AMDSL. We also find that the dry risk in subregion 2 and subregion 4 might be higher than that in subregion 1. The relationship between ENSO events and extreme dry spell events in the rainy season with cross wavelet analysis method proves that ENSO events play a critical role in triggering extreme dry events during rainy season in the WRB.

  3. Fewer rainy days and more extreme rainfall by the end of the century in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Benjamin; Macron, Clémence; Monerie, Paul-Arthur

    2017-04-01

    Future changes in the structure of daily rainfall, especially the number of rainy days and the intensity of extreme events, are likely to induce major impacts on rain-fed agriculture in the tropics. In Africa this issue is of primary importance, but the agreement between climate models to simulate such descriptors of rainfall is generally poor. Here, we show that the climate models used for the fifth assessment report of IPCC simulate a marked decrease in the number of rainy days, together with a strong increase in the rainfall amounts during the 1% wettest days, by the end of the 21st century over Southern Africa. These combined changes lead to an apparent stability of seasonal totals, but are likely to alter the quality of the rainy season. These evolutions are due to the superposition of slowly-changing moisture fluxes, mainly supported by increased hygrometric capacity associated with global warming, and unchanged short-term atmospheric configurations in which extreme events are embedded. This could cause enhanced floods or droughts, stronger soil erosion and nutriment loss, questioning the sustainability of food security for the 300 million people currently living in Africa south of the Equator.

  4. Bifurcation of Lane Change and Control on Highway for Tractor-Semitrailer under Rainy Weather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Peng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method is proposed for analyzing the nonlinear dynamics and stability in lane changes on highways for tractor-semitrailer under rainy weather. Unlike most of the literature associated with a simulated linear dynamic model for tractor-semitrailers steady steering on dry road, a verified 5DOF mechanical model with nonlinear tire based on vehicle test was used in the lane change simulation on low adhesion coefficient road. According to Jacobian matrix eigenvalues of the vehicle model, bifurcations of steady steering and sinusoidal steering on highways under rainy weather were investigated using a numerical method. Furthermore, based on feedback linearization theory, taking the tractor yaw rate and joint angle as control objects, a feedback linearization controller combined with AFS and DYC was established. The numerical simulation results reveal that Hopf bifurcations are identified in steady and sinusoidal steering conditions, which translate into an oscillatory behavior leading to instability. And simulations of urgent step and single-lane change in high velocity show that the designed controller has good effects on eliminating bifurcations and improving lateral stability of tractor-semitrailer, during lane changing on highway under rainy weather. It is a valuable reference for safety design of tractor-semitrailers to improve the traffic safety with driver-vehicle-road closed-loop system.

  5. Nutritional Performance of Cattle Grazing during Rainy Season with Nitrogen and Starch Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Lazzarini

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogen and starch on the nutritional performance of grazing cattle during the rainy season. Five rumen cannulated Nellore steers, averaging 211 kg of body weight (BW, were used. Animals grazed on five signal grass paddocks. Five treatments were evaluated: control (forage only, ruminal supplementation with nitrogen at 1 g of crude protein (CP/kg BW, ruminal supplementation with starch at 2.5 g/kg BW, supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW and starch (2.5 g/kg BW, and supplementation with nitrogen (1 g CP/kg BW and a mixture of corn starch and nitrogenous compounds (2.5 g/kg BW, thereby resulting in an energy part of the supplement with 150 g CP/kg of dry matter (DM. This last treatment was considered an additional treatment. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 ×5 Latin square design following a 2×2+1 factorial arrangement (with or without nitrogen, with or without starch, and the additional treatment. Nitrogen supplementation did not affect (p>0.10 forage intake. Starch supplementation increased (p0.10, NB obtained with nitrogen plus starch supplementation was greater than NB obtained with either nitrogen or starch exclusive supplementation. Supplementation with starch and nitrogen to beef cattle grazing during the rainy season can possibly improve digestion and nitrogen retention in the animal..

  6. Model Development for Risk Assessment of Driving on Freeway under Rainy Weather Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Cai

    Full Text Available Rainy weather conditions could result in significantly negative impacts on driving on freeways. However, due to lack of enough historical data and monitoring facilities, many regions are not able to establish reliable risk assessment models to identify such impacts. Given the situation, this paper provides an alternative solution where the procedure of risk assessment is developed based on drivers' subjective questionnaire and its performance is validated by using actual crash data. First, an ordered logit model was developed, based on questionnaire data collected from Freeway G15 in China, to estimate the relationship between drivers' perceived risk and factors, including vehicle type, rain intensity, traffic volume, and location. Then, weighted driving risk for different conditions was obtained by the model, and further divided into four levels of early warning (specified by colors using a rank order cluster analysis. After that, a risk matrix was established to determine which warning color should be disseminated to drivers, given a specific condition. Finally, to validate the proposed procedure, actual crash data from Freeway G15 were compared with the safety prediction based on the risk matrix. The results show that the risk matrix obtained in the study is able to predict driving risk consistent with actual safety implications, under rainy weather conditions.

  7. Increasing levels of crude protein in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplements with differents levels of crude protein (CP or mineral supplements on the nutritional parameters and performance of beef heifers grazing Uruchloa decumbens in the rainy season. A complete random design was employed. The treatments were made up of increasing levels of CP in the multiple supplements and a control treatment (MM in which animals were offered only mineral mixture. Multiple supplements contained 17; 30; 43 and 56% of CP, for treatments CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG (g was 447.7; 554.6; 638.4; 587.9; 590.4, for treatments MM, CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. A quadratic effect of the levels of crude protein was found (p< 0.10 on ADG. A greater intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, ether extract (EE, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, and digested dry matter (p< 0.10 was found in animals supplemented with multiple supplements. Multiple supplements increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, EE and NFC. Supply of multiple multiple supplements for heifers grazing in medium to high quality pastures in the rainy season improves the performance of the animals.

  8. Analysis of non-rainy attenuation on earth-space path in Ota, Southwest Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omotosho, T. V.; Akinwumi, S. A.; Usikalu, M. R.; Ometan, O. O.; Adewusi, M. O.; Abdullah, M.

    2017-05-01

    Propagation effects due to atmospheric gases and tropospheric scintillation requires accurate modelling in the design of satellite communication systems. The combination of the two attenuation phenomena was observed within the period of August 2014 to December 2015. The result of this paper presents the on-going observation and data analysis of non-rainy attenuation on earth-space path in Ota, Southwest Nigeria. Results of clear-sky attenuation vary between 0 dBm and 4.85 dBm in January and February 2015 respectively. While a value of 4.23 dBm and 4.75 dBm were observed in October 2014 and 2015 respectively. The results will be useful for satellite communication system design and will be submitted to ITU-R Study group 3 Databank.

  9. Simulated sensitivity of African terrestrial ecosystem photosynthesis to rainfall frequency, intensity, and rainy season length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Kaiyu; Good, Stephen P.; Caylor, Kelly K.; Medvigy, David; Pan, Ming; Wood, Eric F.; Sato, Hisashi; Biasutti, Michela; Chen, Min; Ahlström, Anders; Xu, Xiangtao

    2018-02-01

    There is growing evidence of ongoing changes in the statistics of intra-seasonal rainfall variability over large parts of the world. Changes in annual total rainfall may arise from shifts, either singly or in a combination, of distinctive intra-seasonal characteristics –i.e. rainfall frequency, rainfall intensity, and rainfall seasonality. Understanding how various ecosystems respond to the changes in intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics is critical for predictions of future biome shifts and ecosystem services under climate change, especially for arid and semi-arid ecosystems. Here, we use an advanced dynamic vegetation model (SEIB-DGVM) coupled with a stochastic rainfall/weather simulator to answer the following question: how does the productivity of ecosystems respond to a given percentage change in the total seasonal rainfall that is realized by varying only one of the three rainfall characteristics (rainfall frequency, intensity, and rainy season length)? We conducted ensemble simulations for continental Africa for a realistic range of changes (‑20% ~ +20%) in total rainfall amount. We find that the simulated ecosystem productivity (measured by gross primary production, GPP) shows distinctive responses to the intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics. Specifically, increase in rainfall frequency can lead to 28% more GPP increase than the same percentage increase in rainfall intensity; in tropical woodlands, GPP sensitivity to changes in rainy season length is ~4 times larger than to the same percentage changes in rainfall frequency or intensity. In contrast, shifts in the simulated biome distribution are much less sensitive to intra-seasonal rainfall characteristics than they are to total rainfall amount. Our results reveal three major distinctive productivity responses to seasonal rainfall variability—‘chronic water stress’, ‘acute water stress’ and ‘minimum water stress’ - which are respectively associated with three broad spatial patterns

  10. Supplementation levels for non-lactating cows grazing during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelson Antonio Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate levels of concentrate supplementation (1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 kg day?1 for grazing dairy cows kept on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania pasture during the rainy season on nutrient intake and digestibility and rumen parameters. Four rumen cannulated non-lactating Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were used in this study by a 4X4 Latin square design, which presented an average initial body weight of 521.69±31.98 kg. Each period lasted 17 days, being the first 10 days were used for animal adaptation and the remaining seven days for data collection. There was no effect (P > 0.05 of supplementation levels on total dry matter intake, although forage dry matter intake has been linearly decreased (P 0.05 on the digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, or ether extract. There was a linear increase (P 0.05 or time after supplementation on rumen pH. Rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration responded quadratically (P < 0.05 to times after supplementation, with a maximum estimated concentration of 17.61 mg dL?1 at 3.87 h after supplementation. Increasing supplementation levels for grazing dairy cows reduces forage intake but has no negative effects on total dry matter intake or rumen-fluid pH.

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Cholera Outbreaks during the Rainy Season in Mandalay, Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roobthaisong, Amonrattana; Okada, Kazuhisa; Htun, Nilar; Aung, Wah Wah; Wongboot, Warawan; Kamjumphol, Watcharaporn; Han, Aye Aye; Yi, Yi; Hamada, Shigeyuki

    2017-11-01

    Cholera, caused by Vibrio cholerae , remains a global threat to public health. In Myanmar, the availability of published information on the occurrence of the disease is scarce. We report here that cholera incidence in Mandalay generally exhibited a single annual peak, with an annual average of 312 patients with severe dehydration over the past 5 years (since 2011) and was closely associated with the rainy season. We analyzed cholera outbreaks, characterized 67 isolates of V. cholerae serogroup O1 in 2015 from patients from Mandalay, and compared them with 22 V. cholerae O1 isolates (12 from Mandalay and 10 from Yangon) in 2014. The isolates carried the classical cholera toxin B subunit ( ctxB ), the toxin-coregulated pilus A ( tcpA ) of Haitian type, and repeat sequence transcriptional regulator ( rstR ) of El Tor type. Two molecular typing methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA), differentiated the 89 isolates into seven pulsotypes and 15 MLVA profiles. Pulsotype Y15 and one MLVA profile (11, 7, 7, 16, 7) were predominantly found in the isolates from cholera outbreaks in Mandalay, 2015. Pulsotypes Y11, Y12, and Y15 with some MLVA profiles were detected in the isolates from two remote areas, Mandalay and Yangon, with temporal changes. These data suggested that cholera spread from the seaside to the inland area in Myanmar.

  12. Raindrops Keep Falling on My Tent: The Rainy Day Book. Packed with Hundreds of Great Ideas of What To Do in Camp When It Pours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Joy

    This booklet lists numerous ideas to use for rainy-day camp activities, and many that are appropriate for other situations. Chapter 1, "Rain Can Be Beautiful" encourages planning for and a positive attitude about rain. It suggests ways to take advantage of rainy days to relax, read about camping skills, repair equipment, or test campcraft skills.…

  13. Faunal diversity during rainy season in reclaimed sodic land of Uttar Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S K; Srivastava, S P; Tandon, Pankaj; Azad, B S

    2009-07-01

    Faunal diversity is an indicator of soil amelioration. Estimating the population size or density of an animal species in an area is fundamental to understand its status and demography and to plan for its management and conservation. Considering this, faunal diversity in reclamed sodic land was monitored during rainy season 2000-01 at different locations of district viz., Aligarh, Etah, Fatehpur, Mainpuri and Raebareli in Uttar Pradesh. The Shannon-Weiner species diversity index (H) of different fauna complex of each location was compared with zero years (1995-1996) indexes (before reclamation). Insects diversity index, in reclaimed sodic soil, varied from 3.8178 (Fatehpur: Bariyampur) to 4.623 (Fatehpur: Katoghan), which was 3.028 in zero year at Katoghan in Fatehpur 'H' index of other-arthropods ranged widely from 0.9743 (Etah: Bawali) to 2.0674 (Mainpuri: Pundari). The species diversity index of molluscs registered as high as 1.8637 at Ladhauwa site in Aligarh, which exhibited identical with Saripur site of Raebareli. 'H' index of mammal resulted with the highest (2.19) at Pundari in district Mainpuri. The avifauna and amphibian's indices were recovered maximal at Saripur site of Raebareli and Bariyampur site of Fatehpur respectively. Our result revealed that various fauna enriched with soil reclamation, which is good indicator of restoration of land, primarily due to soil-arthropods and earthworms and its eventual improvement along with succeeding rice-wheat cropping system widespread over there. It clearly shows that soil fauna strongly affects the composition of natural vegetation and we suggest that this knowledge might improve the restoration and conservation of biodiversity.

  14. Temporal dynamics of airborne fungi in Havana (Cuba) during dry and rainy seasons: influence of meteorological parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaguer, Michel; Aira, María-Jesús; Rodríguez-Rajo, F. Javier; Rojas, Teresa I.

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine for first time the influence of the main meteorological parameters on the atmospheric fungal spore concentration in Havana (Cuba). This city is characterized by a subtropical climate with two different marked annual rainfall seasons during the year: a "dry season" and a "rainy season". A nonviable volumetric methodology (Lanzoni VPPS-2000 sampler) was used to sample airborne spores. The total number of spores counted during the 2 years of study was 293,594, belonging to 30 different genera and five spore types. Relative humidity was the meteorological parameter most influencing the atmospheric concentration of the spores, mainly during the rainy season of the year. Winds coming from the SW direction also increased the spore concentration in the air. In terms of spore intradiurnal variation we found three different patterns: morning maximum values for Cladosporium, night peaks for Coprinus and Leptosphaeria, and uniform behavior throughout the whole day for Aspergillus/ Penicillium."

  15. Effects of Supplements with Different Protein Contents on Nutritional Performance of Grazing Cattle During the Rainy Season

    OpenAIRE

    J. F. Figueiras; E. Detmann; M. O. Franco; E. D. Batista; W. L. S. Reis; M. F. Paulino; S. C. Valadares Filho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplements with different crude protein (CP) contents on grazing cattle intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation pattern, and nitrogen (N) metabolism characteristics during the rainy season. Five ruminal and abomasal cannulated Holstein?Zebu steers (296 kg body weight, BW) were used in a 5?5 Latin square design. The animals grazed five signal grass paddocks (0.34 ha). The five treatments evaluated were: Control (no supplement) and...

  16. The rainy season increases the abundance and richness of the aquatic insect community in a Neotropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, H S; Silva, L C F; Pereira, C L; Simião-Ferreira, J; Angelini, R

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in aquatic systems and changes in water levels, whether due to rains or dam-mediated control can cause changes in community structure, forcing the community to readjust to the new environment. This study tested the hypothesis that there is an increase in the richness and abundance of aquatic insects during the rainy season in the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, with the premise that increasing the reservoir level provides greater external material input and habitat diversity, and, therefore, conditions that promote colonization by more species. We used the paired t test to test the differences in richness, beta diversity, and abundance, and a Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) was performed to identify patterns in the community under study. Additionally, Pearson correlations were analyzed between the richness, abundance, and beta diversity and the level of the reservoir. We collected 35,028 aquatic insect larvae (9,513 in dry period and 25,515 in the rainy season), predominantly of the Chironomidae family, followed by orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Odonata. Among the 33 families collected, only 12 occurred in the dry season, while all occurred in the rainy season. These families are common in lentic environments, and the dominance of Chironomidae was associated with its fast colonization, their behavior of living at high densities and the great tolerance to low levels of oxygen in the environment. The hypothesis was confirmed, as the richness, beta diversity, and abundance were positively affected by the increase in water levels due to the rainy season, which most likely led to greater external material input, greater heterogeneity of habitat, and better conditions for colonization by several families.

  17. The rainy season increases the abundance and richness of the aquatic insect community in a Neotropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HS Santana

    Full Text Available Alterations in aquatic systems and changes in water levels, whether due to rains or dam-mediated control can cause changes in community structure, forcing the community to readjust to the new environment. This study tested the hypothesis that there is an increase in the richness and abundance of aquatic insects during the rainy season in the Serra da Mesa Reservoir, with the premise that increasing the reservoir level provides greater external material input and habitat diversity, and, therefore, conditions that promote colonization by more species. We used the paired t test to test the differences in richness, beta diversity, and abundance, and a Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS was performed to identify patterns in the community under study. Additionally, Pearson correlations were analyzed between the richness, abundance, and beta diversity and the level of the reservoir. We collected 35,028 aquatic insect larvae (9,513 in dry period and 25,515 in the rainy season, predominantly of the Chironomidae family, followed by orders Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, and Odonata. Among the 33 families collected, only 12 occurred in the dry season, while all occurred in the rainy season. These families are common in lentic environments, and the dominance of Chironomidae was associated with its fast colonization, their behavior of living at high densities and the great tolerance to low levels of oxygen in the environment. The hypothesis was confirmed, as the richness, beta diversity, and abundance were positively affected by the increase in water levels due to the rainy season, which most likely led to greater external material input, greater heterogeneity of habitat, and better conditions for colonization by several families.

  18. Total Water Storage Change in Cameroon: Calculation, Variability and Link with Onset and Retreat Dates of the Rainy Season

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    Guy Merlin Guenang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Total water storage change (TWSC was calculated using CRU (Climatic Research Unit monthly gridded data for the period 1962–1993 over Cameroon. Investigations were conducted to link its annual cycle with both the beginning and the end of the rainy season. A method was derived as an alternative to determine onset and retreat dates of the rainy season. Two methods were used for the calculation of TWSC. The first method used potential evapotranspiration (PET from the Thornthwaite formula (PET T H and the second, CRU gridded PET data estimated from the Penman–Monteith formula (PET P M . A comparative study of the corresponding TWSC, namely TWSC T H and TWSC P M , respectively, was done. According to the preliminary results, the study area is classified as humid below latitude 8 ∘ N and semiarid above. The results of the spatial and temporal variations showed a close correlation between the two methods, but with a slight gap between their different values, those of TWSC P M being larger and fluctuating less. The annual cycles of TWSC and PR generally showed similar patterns, and their intensities decreased from the southern part of the area (Equatorial forest zone to the northern part (Sahelian zone. For mean T W S C = 0 , two different points were identified: the first and the second corresponding dates matching the onset and retreat months of the rainy season, respectively, except in the arid area (Sahelian zone, where only the retreat month of the rainy season was perfectly determined. The delay observed in the determination of rainfall onset date in that area is assigned to PET formulas that are defined only for humid areas and to the influence of high temperature just before the beginning of the rainy season, promoting the rapid evaporation of soil water immediately after the first rains. Application of the same method ( T W S C = 0 for the individual year showed similar performances. Although TWSC is always negative in Zone 3 and positive

  19. Possible Changes in the Characteristics of the Rainy Season over Northern South America: Results from a Regional Climate Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Francisco; Costa, Alexandre; Gandu, Adilson; Sales, Domingo; Araújo, Luiz

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Simulations were performed with RAMS6.0 to evaluate possible changes in the behaviour of the rainy season over the Amazon region, within the CORDEX domain of the Inter-tropical Americas. We forced the regional model using data from one of the CMIP5 participants (HadGEM2-ES), both for the Historical Experiment (1980-2005) and along the XXI century under RCP 8.5 (heavy-emission scenario). Regarding projections, we analyzed results for three time slices, short (2014-2035), middle (2044-2065) and long term (2078-2099), according to the following steps. First, the spatially averaged precipitation in non-overlapping pentads over 7 sub-regions over northern South America was calculated ("boxes" 1 to 7). Then, we calculated the climatological annual cycle for each one of them. Finally, dates of the onset and demise of the rainy season are found, validating the model results against GPCP observations and checking for projected changes. In general, in the Historical Experiment, the model delays the onset of the rainy season over the northern areas and anticipates it over most inland sub-regions. Over eastern Amazon, the regional model represents it properly, besides a delay in the demise of about one month. In short-term projections, there is a slight increase in precipitation and a modest anticipation of the rainy season onset in the coastal areas. Projected changes in the annual cycle of most sub-regions are relatively modest for the short-term and mid-term periods, but may become very significant by the end of the century. Over Colombia (Box 1), which has a bimodal precipitation annual cycle, the model projects a late century increase in the first precipitation peak. Little change is projected for the two boxes roughly covering Venezuela, the Guianas and the northernmost portion of northern Brazilian states (Boxes 2 and 3). The box covering northern Peru and Ecuador (Box 4) shows increased March-April precipitation, but with no significant changes in the

  20. Network global navigation satellite system survey to harmonize water-surface elevation data for the Rainy River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeweid, Jeffrey R.; Silliker, R. Jason; Densmore, Brenda K.; Krahulik, Justin

    2016-08-15

    Continuously recording water-level streamgages in Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir are used to regulate water levels according to rule curves established in 2000 by the International Joint Commission; however, water levels at streamgages were referenced to a variety of vertical datums, confounding efforts to model the flow of water through the system, regulate water levels during periods of high inflow, and evaluate the effectiveness of the rule curves. In October 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Resources Canada, International Joint Commission, and National Park Service began a joint field study with the goal of obtaining precise elevations referenced to a uniform vertical datum for all reference marks used to set water levels at streamgages throughout Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir. This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Natural Resources Canada, International Joint Commission, and National Park Service.Three field crews deployed Global Navigation Satellite System receivers statically over 16 reference marks colocated with active and discontinued water-level streamgages throughout Rainy River, Rainy Lake, Namakan Reservoir, and select tributaries of Rainy Lake and Namakan Reservoir. A Global Navigation Satellite System receiver also was deployed statically over a National Geodetic Survey cooperative base network control station for use as a quality-control reference mark. Satellite data were collected simultaneously during a 5-day period and processed independently by the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Canada to obtain accurate positioning and elevations for the 17 surveyed reference marks. Processed satellite data were used to convert published water levels to elevations above sea level referenced to the Canadian Geodetic Vertical Datum of 2013 in order to compare water-surface elevations referenced to a uniform vertical datum throughout the study area. In this report, an “offset” refers to the

  1. Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid forest

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    M. I. Gosselin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols pose risks to human health and agriculture and may influence the evolution of mixed-phase clouds and the hydrological cycle on local and regional scales. The availability and reliability of methods and data on the abundance and properties of atmospheric bioaerosols, however, are rather limited. Here we analyze and compare data from different real-time ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF instruments with results from a culture-based spore sampler and offline molecular tracers for airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Commercial UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer and WIBS-3 (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor, version 3 instruments with different excitation and emission wavelengths were utilized to measure fluorescent aerosol particles (FAPs during both dry weather conditions and periods heavily influenced by rain. Seven molecular tracers of bioaerosols were quantified by analysis of total suspended particle (TSP high-volume filter samples using a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD. From the same measurement campaign, Huffman et al. (2013 previously reported dramatic increases in total and fluorescent particle concentrations during and immediately after rainfall and also showed a strong relationship between the concentrations of FAPs and ice nuclei (Huffman et al., 2013; Prenni et al., 2013. Here we investigate molecular tracers and show that during rainy periods the atmospheric concentrations of arabitol (35.2 ± 10.5 ng m−3 and mannitol (44.9 ± 13.8 ng m−3 were 3–4 times higher than during dry periods. During and after rain, the correlations between FAP and tracer mass concentrations were also significantly improved. Fungal spore number concentrations on the order of 104 m−3, accounting for 2–5 % of TSP mass during dry periods and 17–23 % during rainy

  2. Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ila Gosselin, Marie; Rathnayake, Chathurika M.; Crawford, Ian; Pöhlker, Christopher; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine; Schmer, Beatrice; Després, Viviane R.; Engling, Guenter; Gallagher, Martin; Stone, Elizabeth; Pöschl, Ulrich; Huffman, J. Alex

    2016-12-01

    Bioaerosols pose risks to human health and agriculture and may influence the evolution of mixed-phase clouds and the hydrological cycle on local and regional scales. The availability and reliability of methods and data on the abundance and properties of atmospheric bioaerosols, however, are rather limited. Here we analyze and compare data from different real-time ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF) instruments with results from a culture-based spore sampler and offline molecular tracers for airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Commercial UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer) and WIBS-3 (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor, version 3) instruments with different excitation and emission wavelengths were utilized to measure fluorescent aerosol particles (FAPs) during both dry weather conditions and periods heavily influenced by rain. Seven molecular tracers of bioaerosols were quantified by analysis of total suspended particle (TSP) high-volume filter samples using a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). From the same measurement campaign, Huffman et al. (2013) previously reported dramatic increases in total and fluorescent particle concentrations during and immediately after rainfall and also showed a strong relationship between the concentrations of FAPs and ice nuclei (Huffman et al., 2013; Prenni et al., 2013). Here we investigate molecular tracers and show that during rainy periods the atmospheric concentrations of arabitol (35.2 ± 10.5 ng m-3) and mannitol (44.9 ± 13.8 ng m-3) were 3-4 times higher than during dry periods. During and after rain, the correlations between FAP and tracer mass concentrations were also significantly improved. Fungal spore number concentrations on the order of 104 m-3, accounting for 2-5 % of TSP mass during dry periods and 17-23 % during rainy periods, were obtained from scaling the

  3. Plant species visited by the Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus (Aves, Trochilidae at Chapada dos Veadeiros, during the rainy season

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    Gabriel Baruffaldi Ghiringhello

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits of the Horned Sungem remain little known. This study aimed to identify the plant species most often visited by H. bilophus with feeding purposes (consumption of nectar during the rainy season at Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, Goiás. Observations were made during two rainy seasons (January 2006 and February 2008. The methodology consisted of walking through trails within two areas of campo sujo and two areas of campo rupestre. The record of an individual consuming the nectar of a flowering plant was considered to constitute a visit. A total of 296 visits were observed, comprising eight species of shrubs and herbs. The most often visited plant species were Bauhinia tenella (Caesalpinoideae and Vochysia pumila (Vochysiaceae in campo sujo, and Lychnophora ericoides (Asteraceae in campo rupestre. These three species were commonly found at the study sites. In both physiognomies, Heliactin bilophus consumed the nectar of few plant species. The most frequently visited species bore high numbers of flowers.

  4. Cadmium, copper and lead in macroalgae from the Veracruz Reef System, Gulf of Mexico: spatial distribution and rainy season variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horta-Puga, Guillermo; Cházaro-Olvera, Sergio; Winfield, Ignacio; Avila-Romero, Marisol; Moreno-Ramírez, Margarita

    2013-03-15

    This study focused on the spatial distribution of trace metals in the Veracruz Reef System in the Southern Gulf of Mexico, and its variability in the early (July) and late (September) rainy season of 2008, by analyzing the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb in benthic macroalgae. Mean concentrations are lower (Pb 295 ± 347 ng g(-1), Cd 17.9 ± 15.0 ng g(-1)), or similar (Cu 3.4 ± 4.5 μg g(-1)) to those reported from other coastal areas. Cd and Pb concentrations are influenced by the discharge of the Jamapa River, evidencing a fluvial control on coastal trace metal levels. Also, Cd and Cu concentrations were lower in the late rainy season, when there is a high load of suspended sediments derived from fluvial discharge, which probably adsorb dissolved metals decreasing their bioavailability. Pb concentrations have been decreasing in the last two decades in the SGM, after the banning of leaded-gasoline in the late 20th century. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

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    Cook Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART method. Results A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively. P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November, whilst P. vivax force of infection was higher in the western region and remained similar in both surveys. In the western region, malaria transmission changed very little across the season (for both species. CART analysis for P. falciparum in the east highlighted age, ethnicity, village of residence and forest work as important predictors for malaria exposure during the rainy season. Adults were more likely to increase their antibody responses to P. falciparum during the

  6. Supplementation of beef cattle grazing Brachiariabrizantha during the dry and rainy seasons: performance and carcass ultrasound prediction

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    Geisi Loures Guerra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic group, sex and level of protein-energy supplementation on the performance and carcass traitsultrasound prediction of weaned calves Nellore and crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus. A completely randomized design in a factorial 2x2x2, were used, with two levels of protein-energy supplementation, two sex and two genetic groups. Fifty-six animals were used (28 Nellore and 28 crossbred ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus, equally divided between males and females, maintained on grazing Brachiariabrizanthacv. Marandu and evaluated in three experimental periods: period 1 = protein-energy supplementation in the dry season; period 2 = protein-energy supplementation during the rainy season; period 3 = only mineral supplementation. In the dry season, they were supplemented with levels of 0.5 and 1% of body weight (BW and in the rainy season with 0 and 1% BW. Dry matter intake (kg day-1, % BW, g kgBW0.75-1 was estimated. In vivo ultrasound measurements of carcass were: loin eye area (LEA, fat thickness (FT and rump fat thickness (RFT. There was influence of genetic group and protein-energy supplementation levels on average daily gain (ADG of animals in period 1 and 2 (P < 0.05. Sex affected the ADG only in period 2, and the males had 754 gday-1 and females, 582 g day-1. There was no interaction of genetic group x sex x supplementation level. At the end of the experimental period (end of period 3, it was found that male animals and crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus had higher ADG (716 and 748 g day-1, respectively. The values of dry matter intake (DMI were influenced by genetic group and sex, in all periods, verifying highest intake in crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus, with better feed conversion for crossbred animals. Regarding ultrasound measurements taken on the carcass, the influence of sex on FT and RFT, it was observed, and the males showed higher

  7. Meteorological context of the onset and end of the rainy season in Central Amazonia during the GoAmazon2014/5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Fisch, Gilberto F.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Sousa, Natanael V.; Fu, Rong; Zhuang, Yizhou

    2017-06-01

    The onset and demise of the rainy season in Amazonia are assessed in this study using meteorological data from the GoAmazon experiment, with a focus on the 2014-2015 rainy season. In addition, global reanalyses are also used to identify changes in circulation leading to the establishment of the rainy season in the region. Our results show that the onset occurred in January 2015, 2-3 pentads later than normal, and the rainy season during the austral summer of 2015 contained several periods with consecutive dry days in both Manacapuru and Manaus, which are not common for the wet season, and resulted in below-normal precipitation. The onset of the rainy season has been strongly associated with changes in large-scale weather conditions in the region due to the effect of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Regional thermodynamic indices and the height of the boundary layer did not present a significant difference between the onset and demise of the wet season of 2015. This suggests that local changes, such as those in the regional thermodynamic characteristics, may not have influenced its onset. Thus, variability of the large-scale circulation was responsible for regional convection and rainfall changes in Amazonia during the austral summer of 2014-2015.

  8. Meteorological context of the onset and end of the rainy season in Central Amazonia during the GoAmazon2014/5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Marengo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The onset and demise of the rainy season in Amazonia are assessed in this study using meteorological data from the GoAmazon experiment, with a focus on the 2014–2015 rainy season. In addition, global reanalyses are also used to identify changes in circulation leading to the establishment of the rainy season in the region. Our results show that the onset occurred in January 2015, 2–3 pentads later than normal, and the rainy season during the austral summer of 2015 contained several periods with consecutive dry days in both Manacapuru and Manaus, which are not common for the wet season, and resulted in below-normal precipitation. The onset of the rainy season has been strongly associated with changes in large-scale weather conditions in the region due to the effect of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO. Regional thermodynamic indices and the height of the boundary layer did not present a significant difference between the onset and demise of the wet season of 2015. This suggests that local changes, such as those in the regional thermodynamic characteristics, may not have influenced its onset. Thus, variability of the large-scale circulation was responsible for regional convection and rainfall changes in Amazonia during the austral summer of 2014–2015.

  9. Precipitation characteristics over the steep slope of the Himalayas in rainy season observed by TRMM PR and VIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yunfei; Pan, Xiao; Xian, Tao; Liu, Guosheng; Zhong, Lei; Liu, Qi; Li, Rui; Wang, Yu; Ma, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Characteristics of the precipitation in rainy season over the steep Himalayas and adjacent regions, including four selected sectors of the flat Gangetic Plains (FGP), foothills of the Himalayas (FHH), the steep slope of the southern Himalayas (SSSH), and the Himalayan-Tibetan Plateau tableland (HTPT), are investigated using collocated satellite datasets from the TRMM PR and VIRS at pixel level during May-August of 1998-2012. Results indicate that the rain frequency increases significantly from the FGP via FHH to the lower elevations of the SSSH ( 2.5 km), then decreases as the elevation further increases up to the HTPT, and reaches the minimum over the HTPT. Along with such spatial variation of the rain frequency, mean rain rates (RRs) are the heaviest over the FGP (4 mm h-1) and the FHH (5.5 mm h-1), medium over the SSSH (2-4 mm h-1), and the weakest over the HTPT (less than 2 mm h-1). More than 60% of precipitation over the FGP, FHH, and HTPT is produced by ice-phase topped clouds, while more than 70% over the SSSH is from mixed-phase topped clouds. Analysis suggests that the highest rain frequency over the SSSH in rainy season may be caused by a strong upward motion over the SSSH as warm moist air monsoon flow interacting with the terrain of the Himalayas, while the heaviest RR over the FHH may result from low-level convergence where the air flow is blocked by the SSSH. The elevation and relief effects have linear relationships with precipitation over the south sub-region of the SSSH, which indicates that both effects play important roles on precipitation over complex plateau topography.

  10. Characterization of the rainy season in Burkina Faso and it's representation by regional climate models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, B.; Karambiri, H. [Institut International d' Ingenierie de l' Eau et de l' Environnement (2iE), Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Polcher, J. [Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique du CNRS, Institut Pierre Simon Laplace, Paris Cedex 05 (France); Rockel, B. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht Institute of Coastal Research/Group Regional Atmospheric Modeling, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    West African monsoon is one of the most challenging climate components to model. Five regional climate models (RCMs) were run over the West African region with two lateral boundary conditions, ERA-Interim re-analysis and simulations from two general circulation models (GCMs). Two sets of daily rainfall data were generated from these boundary conditions. These simulated rainfall data are analyzed here in comparison to daily rainfall data collected over a network of ten synoptic stations in Burkina Faso from 1990 to 2004. The analyses are based on a description of the rainy season throughout a number of it's characteristics. It was found that the two sets of rainfall data produced with the two driving data present significant biases. The RCMs generally produce too frequent low rainfall values (between 0.1 and 5 mm/day) and too high extreme rainfalls (more than twice the observed values). The high frequency of low rainfall events in the RCMs induces shorter dry spells at the rainfall thresholds of 0.1-1 mm/day. Altogether, there are large disagreements between the models on the simulate season duration and the annual rainfall amounts but most striking are their differences in representing the distribution of rainfall intensity. It is remarkable that these conclusions are valid whether the RCMs are driven by re-analysis or GCMs. In none of the analyzed rainy season characteristics, a significant improvement of their representation can be found when the RCM is forced by the re-analysis, indicating that these deficiencies are intrinsic to the models. (orig.)

  11. Variability of onset and retreat of the rainy season in mainland China and associations with atmospheric circulation and sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Hao, Zhenchun; Shao, Quanxi; Hao, Jie; Nyima, Tsring

    2018-02-01

    Precipitation plays an important role in both environment and human society and is a significant factor in many scientific researches such as water resources, agriculture and climate impact studies. The onset and retreat of rainy season are useful features to understand the variability of precipitation under the influence of climate change. In this study, the characteristics of onset and retreat in mainland China are investigated. The multi-scale moving t-test was applied to determine rainy season and K-means cluster analysis was used to divide China into sub-regions to better investigate rainy season features. The possible linkage of changing characteristics of onset and retreat to climate factors were also explored. Results show that: (1) the onset started from middle March in the southeast of China to early June in the northwest and rainy season ended earliest in the northwest and southeast while the central China had the latest retreat; (2) Delayed onset and advanced retreat over time were observed in many parts of China, together with overall stable or increased rainy-season precipitation, would likely lead to higher probability of flooding; (3) The onset (retreat) was associated with the increased (decreased) number of cyclones in eastern China and anticyclone near the South China Sea. Delayed onset, and advanced retreat were likely related to cold and warm sea surface temperature (SST) in the conventional El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) regions, respectively. These results suggest that predictability of rainy season can be improved through the atmospheric circulation and SST, and help water resources management and agricultural planning.

  12. Effects of Supplements with Different Protein Contents on Nutritional Performance of Grazing Cattle During the Rainy Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Figueiras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplements with different crude protein (CP contents on grazing cattle intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation pattern, and nitrogen (N metabolism characteristics during the rainy season. Five ruminal and abomasal cannulated Holstein×Zebu steers (296 kg body weight, BW were used in a 5×5 Latin square design. The animals grazed five signal grass paddocks (0.34 ha. The five treatments evaluated were: Control (no supplement and 1.0 g of supplement/kg BW with 0, 330, 660, and 1,000 g of CP/kg as-fed. The supplement was composed of starch, soybean meal, urea, and ammonium sulphate. There was a positive linear effect (p≤0.033 of the CP content in the supplements on the organic matter (OM, CP, and digested OM intakes. The provision of supplements did not increase (p≥0.158, on average, total and ruminal digestibilities of OM and CP. However, the increase in CP content in the supplements caused a positive linear effect (p≤0.018 on ruminal digestibilities of OM and CP. Additionally, a quadratic effect of the CP contents of the supplements were observed (p = 0.041 for the ruminal digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, with the highest estimate obtained with the CP content of 670 g/kg. The supply of supplements increased (p<0.001 the ruminal ammonia N concentration, which also changed linearly and positively (p<0.001 according to increase in CP content in the supplements. The apparent N balance and relative N balance (g/g N intake were not, on average, changed (p≥0.164 by the supplements supply. However, both showed a tendency of a linear increase (p≤0.099 with increasing supplement CP content. The supplements increased (p = 0.007 microbial N production in the rumen, which also changed linearly and positively (p = 0.016 with increasing supplement CP content. In conclusion, protein supplementation in grazing cattle during the rainy season, while

  13. First study on infestation of Excorallana berbicensis (Isopoda: Corallanidae on six fishes in a reservoir in Brazilian Amazon during dry and rainy seasons

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    Huann Carllo Gentil-Vasconcelos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the infestation levels of Excorallana berbicensis on Acestrorhynchus falcirostris, Ageneiosus ucayalensis, Geophagus proximus, Hemiodus unimaculatus, Psectrogasterfalcata and Serrasalmus gibbus in a reservoir in the Araguari River basin, northern Brazil, during the dry and rainy seasons. For P. falcata, the infestation levels due to E. berbicensis were greater during the rainy season. For all the species studied, the peak parasite prevalence was in the month of highest rainfall levels and there were two peaks of parasite abundance: one in the month with highest rainfall level and the other in the month of transition from the rainy season to the dry season. In these hosts, around 70% of the E. berbicensis specimens were collected during the rainy season. The body conditions of the hosts also did not suffer any seasonal influence. Despite the differences in seasonal rainfall levels, there was no fluctuation in transparency, turbidity, pH, electric conductivity, temperature and dissolved oxygen levels in the water, due to the stability of these parameters during the seasonal cycle investigated in this artificial Amazon ecosystem. This was the first report on the seasonality of infestation by E. berbicensis associated with fish.

  14. Statistical analysis of the relationship between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation across Inner Mongolia, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Chen, Xin; Zhou, Limin; Xue, Yan; Lin, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Exploring possible relationships between climate-induced maize yield and rainy-season precipitation under climate change is fundamental to science-based decision for food security in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region (IMAR). To determine the relationship of maize yield with precipitation variables across IMAR during 1960-2012, we selected 11 precipitation indices of rainy season and divided IMAR into four sub-regions—west, middle, east, and northeast using principal component analysis and K-means clustering methods. Results show that climate-induced maize yield is more sensitive to precipitation variability in the west and middle IMAR. The most important precipitation factor that limits maize yield is moderate precipitation days in these two sub-regions. Moreover, west and middle Inner Mongolia was dominated by decreasing precipitation during the rainy season. Furthermore, the El Niño/La Niña-Southern Oscillation cycle has the significant influence on the rainy-season precipitation in the west and middle IMAR.

  15. Koerajuhi amet lisab tavatööle vürtsi / Rainer Lang, Andres Vesselov, Rainis Oper ; interv. Tanel Saarmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lang, Rainer

    2008-01-01

    Koerajuhid piirivalve-seersant Rainer Lang Saatsest, piirivalve-veebel Rainis Oper Värskast ning Saatse kordoni ülem piirivalve-kapten Andres Vesselov räägivad koerajuhiks saamisest ning teenistuskoerte koolitamisest. Lisa: Kagu PVP teenistuskoerad; Osalemine võistlustel 2008

  16. Physiological Response of Local and Saanen x Local Cross Goats during the Late Rainy Season in North-eastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degli, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare in vivo performance and environmental adaptation of two genetic types of goats raised in north-eastern Brazil, 20 females (10 local and 10 Saanen x local were used in this experiment. During the late rainy season the goats were monitored for the following parameters: body weight, body (BT and skin temperature (ST, respiratory (RR and heart rate (HR as well as the air temperature (AT and humidity (HU in the pens in the morning (MR and afternoon (AR. From May to June the crossbred goats showed a significant gain (P< 0.05; the live weight of F1 was superior to the local goats (P< 0.05 at the end of the experiment. The physiological response during the AR was significantly superior to MR (P< 0.05 for all parameters. The local goats achieved the highest values of BT and ST during the experiment. On average, the physiological rhythms (RR and HR were higher in crossbred than local goats. In conclusion, crossbred goats showed to be less at risk to environmental stress condition in north-eastern Brazil.

  17. The variation of cloud amount and light rainy days under heavy pollution over South China during 1960-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuanbo; Dan, Li

    2017-11-09

    The ground observation data was used to analyze the variation of cloud amount and light precipitation over South China during 1960-2009. The total cloud cover (TCC) decreases in this period, whereas the low cloud cover (LCC) shows the obvious opposite change with increasing trends. LCP defined as low cloud cover/total cloud cover has increased, and small rainy days (pollution in the form of anthropogenic aerosols. The horizontal visibility and sunshine duration are used to depict the anthropogenic aerosol loading. When horizontal visibility declines to 20 km or sunshine duration decreases to 5 h per day, LCC increases 52% or more and LCP increases significantly. The correlation coefficients between LCC and horizontal visibility or sunshine duration are - 0.533 and - 0.927, and the values between LCP and horizontal visibility or sunshine duration are - 0.849 and - 0.641, which pass 0.001 significance level. The results indicated that aerosols likely impacted the long-term trend of cloud amount and light precipitation over South China.

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE STATISTICAL BEHAVIOUR OF DAILY MAXIMUM AND MONTHLY AVERAGE RAINFALL ALONG WITH RAINY DAYS VARIATION IN SYLHET, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. J. HASAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate, one of the major controlling factors for well-being of the inhabitants in the world, has been changing in accordance with the natural forcing and manmade activities. Bangladesh, the most densely populated countries in the world is under threat due to climate change caused by excessive use or abuse of ecology and natural resources. This study checks the rainfall patterns and their associated changes in the north-eastern part of Bangladesh mainly Sylhet city through statistical analysis of daily rainfall data during the period of 1957 - 2006. It has been observed that a good correlation exists between the monthly mean and daily maximum rainfall. A linear regression analysis of the data is found to be significant for all the months. Some key statistical parameters like the mean values of Coefficient of Variability (CV, Relative Variability (RV and Percentage Inter-annual Variability (PIV have been studied and found to be at variance. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variation of rainy days also analysed to check for any significant changes.

  19. Duration of the breeding season on the reproductive performance of Anglo-Nubian goats during dry and rainy periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Monteiro Almeida-Irmão

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of breeding season (BS duration on goat reproduction during dry (DS and rainy (RS periods. Females were kept 300 m apart from bucks for 60 days. Females were randomly distributed among BS groups of 25 (BS25, 35 (BS35, and 45 (BS45 days during DS and RS. All females cycled, except during BS45 in DS (95%. The duration of BS did not affect estrous incidence during DS and RS. The percentage of females with two estrous was similar in RS (BS25: 30%, BS35: 35%, BS45: 35% and DS (BS25: 25%, BS35: 30%, BS45: 25%. Three estrous were observed in BS35 and BS45 during RS (5%. First estrous (FE and second estrous (SE were detected from days in BS25 (FE: 1-21, SE: 7-21, BS35 (FE: 1-23, SE: 6-27, and BS45 (FE:1-23, SE: 9-20 during RS. During DS, estrous were detected within days BS25 (FE: 1-17, SE: 6-23, BS35 (FE: 1-20, SE: 6-24, and BS45 (FE: 2-21, SE: 6-21. Pregnancy rates were similar in RS (BS25: 90%, BS35: 95%, BS45: 95% and DS (BS25: 75%, BS35: 80%, BS45: 75%. In conclusion, goat BS can be shorten despite weather without any effect on reproduction.

  20. Diurnal cycle of precipitation over Fujian Province during the pre-summer rainy season in southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, Anning; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Ben; Fang, Dexian; Zhang, Lujun; Wu, Yang

    2017-11-01

    Precipitation diurnal cycle over Fujian in the pre-summer rainy season has been revealed based on the hourly rain gauge data during 2009-2013. The precipitation amount (PA) over northwestern Fujian and most southeast coasts shows relatively small diurnal variability. This is in contrast to large diurnal variations in the mountainous areas. Regional differences in precipitation diurnal cycles are obviously noted among the coastal, valley, hilly, and mountainous areas. The precipitation diurnal cycles are significantly affected by the terrain elevation and distance to coast, PA and precipitation frequency (PF) show much more pronounced double diurnal peaks with the terrain elevation and distance to coast increased. However, the precipitation intensity (PI) basically shows one distinct late afternoon diurnal peak for different elevations and distances to coast. Four typical patterns of precipitation diurnal cycle are further identified by cluster analysis. The four typical PF patterns show relatively apparent morning peaks over coasts, inland mountains, and hills in addition to distinct late afternoon maxima. Low PF with weak diurnal amplitude is mainly located over the coastal areas, while high PF with strong diurnal amplitude is found over the valley, hilly, and mountainous regions. The PA exhibits a weak early morning peak and a relatively strong late afternoon peak over coastal, hilly, or mountainous areas and windward slopes but only one distinct late afternoon peak over the valley regions and leeward slopes. The amplitude of PA diurnal cycle is the weakest over the coastal areas but the strongest over the valley regions or leeward slopes among the four PA patterns. The four PI diurnal cycle patterns consistently show distinct afternoon peaks.

  1. Unusual past dry and wet rainy seasons over Southern Africa and South America from a climate perspective

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    Omar Bellprat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern Africa and Southern South America have experienced recent extremes in dry and wet rainy seasons which have caused severe socio-economic damages. Selected past extreme events are here studied, to estimate how human activity has changed the risk of the occurrence of such events, by applying an event attribution approach (Stott et al., 2004comprising global climate models of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5. Our assessment shows that models' representation of mean precipitation variability over Southern South America is not adequate to make a robust attribution statement about seasonal rainfall extremes in this region. Over Southern Africa, we show that unusually dry austral summers as occurred during 2002/2003 have become more likely, whereas unusually wet austral summers like that of 1999/2000 have become less likely due to anthropogenic climate change. There is some tentative evidence that the risk of extreme high 5-day precipitation totals (as observed in 1999/2000 have increased in the region. These results are consistent with CMIP5 models projecting a general drying trend over SAF during December–January–February (DJF but also an increase in atmospheric moisture availability to feed heavy rainfall events when they do occur. Bootstrapping the confidence intervals of the fraction of attributable risk has demonstrated estimates of attributable risk are very uncertain, if the events are very rare. The study highlights some of the challenges in making an event attribution study for precipitation using seasonal precipitation and extreme 5-day precipitation totals and considering natural drivers such as ENSO in coupled ocean–atmosphere models.

  2. NUTRITIVE QUALITY OF TEN GRASSES DURING THE RAINY SEASON IN A HOT-HUMID CLIMATE AND ULTISOL SOIL

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    Rodrigo Ortega-Gómez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritive quality of ten grasses harvested at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of regrowth was assessed during the rainy season (August-October 2008, in the humid tropics of Veracruz, Mexico. Grasses tested included four Brachiaria spp.: “insurgente”–B. brizantha, “signal”–B. decumbens, Chetumal–B. humidicola, “mulato I”–B. brizantha x B. ruziziensis; three Panicum maximum: Mombasa, “privilegio”, Tanzania; and three Pennisetum spp.: Taiwán, and the hybrids P. purpureum x P. glaucum “Cuban” king grass and “purple” king grass. Means for crude protein by grass group were: Pennisetum spp. (9.9 % = P. maximum (8.7 % > Brachiaria spp. (7.6 %, whereas means for in situ dry matter disappearance (ISD were: Pennisetum spp. (69.7 % > Brachiaria spp. (65.1 % > P. maximum (59.7 %. Crude protein and ISD significantly decreased by 0.42 % and 1.50 % per week. Neutral detergent fiber was not affected by model effects (mean 71.4 %. Means for acid detergent fiber (ADF by grass group were: P. maximum (47.6 % = Pennisetum spp. (44.0 % > Brachiaria spp. (42.8 %, whereas means for lignin (LIG were: P. maximum (8.5 % > Pennisetum spp. (7.6 % > Brachiaria spp. (6.7 %. The ADF and LIG significantly increased by 1.21 % and 0.19 % per week. Pennisetum spp. had the highest nutritive value at all regrowth ages.

  3. [Response of fine root decomposition to simulated nitrogen deposition in Pleioblastus amarus plantation, rainy area of West China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Li-Hua; Chen, Gang; Peng, Yong; Hu, Hong-Ling; Hu, Ting-Xing; Zhang, Jian

    2014-08-01

    As an important contributor to carbon (C) flux in the global C cycle, fine root litter decomposition in forests has the potential to be affected by the elevated nitrogen (N) deposition observed globally. From November 2007 to January 2013, a field experiment involving monthly simulated deposition of N in a Pleioblastus amarus plantation was conducted in the Rainy Area of West China. Four levels of nitrogen deposition were included as control (0 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), low nitrogen (5 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)), medium nitrogen (15 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)) and high nitrogen (30 g N x m(-2) x a(-1)). After 3 years of simulated N deposition experiment (January 2011) , a two-year fine root decomposition experiment was conducted in the simulated N deposition plots using litterbag method, under monthly experimental N deposition. The decomposition rates of fine roots were fast first and then slow. Mass loss of fine roots in the first year of decomposition was up to 60%, and the change of the remaining mass was very slow in the second year. The time of 50% and 95% mass loss of fine roots was 1.20 and 5.17 years, respectively, under the conditions of no addition N input. In general, decomposition rates were underestimated using negative exponential model. Simulated N deposition significantly inhibited the decomposition of fine roots. The remaining mass in the high nitrogen treatment was 51.0% higher than that in the control, after two years of decomposition. Simulated N deposition increased C, P and K contents in the remaining mass of litter. Compared with the control, soil pH decreased significantly in the medium and high nitrogen treatments, soil organic C, total N, ammonium and nitrate contents and fine root biomass of P. amarus increased significantly in the high nitrogen treatment after simulated N deposition for 4. 5 years. Key words: nitrogen deposition; fine root decomposition; Pleioblastus amarus.

  4. Pupal productivity in rainy and dry seasons: findings from the impact survey of a randomised controlled trial of dengue prevention in Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Jiménez-Alejo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The follow-up survey of a cluster-randomised controlled trial of evidence-based community mobilisation for dengue control in Nicaragua and Mexico included entomological information from the 2012 rainy and dry seasons. We used data from the Mexican arm of the trial to assess the impact of the community action on pupal production of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti in both rainy and dry seasons. Methods Trained field workers inspected household water containers in 90 clusters and collected any pupae or larvae present for entomological examination. We calculated indices of pupae per person and pupae per household, and traditional entomological indices of container index, household index and Breteau index, and compared these between rainy and dry seasons and between intervention and control clusters, using a cluster t-test to test significance of differences. Results In 11,933 houses in the rainy season, we inspected 40,323 containers and found 7070 Aedes aegypti pupae. In the dry season, we inspected 43,461 containers and counted 6552 pupae. All pupae and entomological indices were lower in the intervention clusters (IC than in control clusters (CC in both the rainy season (RS and the dry season (DS: pupae per container 0.12 IC and 0.24 CC in RS, and 0.10 IC and 0.20 CC in DS; pupae per household 0.46 IC and 0.82 CC in RS, and 0.41 IC and 0.83 CC in DS; pupae per person 0.11 IC and 0.19 CC in RS, and 0.10 IC and 0.20 CC in DS; household index 16% IC and 21% CC in RS, and 12.1% IC and 17.9% CC in DS; container index 7.5% IC and 11.5% CC in RS, and 4.6% IC and 7.1% CC in DS; Breteau index 27% IC and 36% CC in RS, and 19% IC and 29% CC in DS. All differences between the intervention and control clusters were statistically significant, taking into account clustering. Conclusions The trial intervention led to significant decreases in pupal and conventional entomological indices in both rainy and dry seasons. Trial registration ISRCTN

  5. Physical, chemical and microbiological aspects during the dry and rainy seasons in a pond covered by macrophyte used in aquaculture water supply

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    Samuel Generoso Dias

    Full Text Available AIM: The water quality of a pond covered by macrophytes and used as a water supply for aquaculture was evaluated during the dry and rainy seasons; METHODS: Six points were established for water sampling, at water inflow and outflow. Samplings were carried out monthly between June 2008 and May 2009; RESULTS: Inflow points P1, P2 and P3 in the pond had higher nutrient concentrations and high trophic rates. Moreover, capybaras in the area caused sediment suspension and an increase in fecal coliforms. There was significant difference (p < 0.05 in the concentrations of nutrients in water between the dry and rainy seasons. The outflow of water caused by rain carried the material around the pond directly into the water; CONCLUSIONS: The system studied was influenced by rain and lack of adequate management of the surrounding area. Water quality was deteriorated by increase in nutrient concentrations, fecal coliforms and reduction of dissolved oxygen in the water during the rainy season. This was due to allochthonous material from the area surrounding the pond that affected negatively the supply system.

  6. Examination of Libby, Montana, Fill Material for Background Levels of Amphibole from the Rainy Creek Complex Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, David T.; Langer, William H.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    Natural background levels of Libby-type amphibole in the sediment of the Libby valley in Montana have not, up to this point, been determined. The purpose of this report is to provide the preliminary findings of a study designed by both the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and performed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The study worked to constrain the natural background levels of fibrous amphiboles potentially derived from the nearby Rainy Creek Complex. The material selected for this study was sampled from three localities, two of which are active open-pit sand and gravel mines. Seventy samples were collected in total and examined using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer. All samples contained varying amounts of feldspars, ilmenite, magnetite, quartz, clay minerals, pyroxene minerals, and non-fibrous amphiboles such as tremolite, actinolite, and magnesiohornblende. Of the 70 samples collected, only three had detectable levels of fibrous amphiboles compatible with those found in the rainy creek complex. The maximum concentration, identified here, of the amphiboles potentially from the Rainy Creek Complex is 0.083 percent by weight.

  7. Changing contribution rate of heavy rainfall to the rainy season precipitation in Northeast China and its possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yi-He; Chen, Hai-Shan; Teng, Fang-Da; Wang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Ji; Zhao, Chun-Yu

    2017-11-01

    Based on the daily precipitation data from 208 meteorological stations in Northeast China, NCEP/NCAR reanalysis monthly mean wind, sea level pressure data and NOAA reconstructed monthly mean sea surface temperature (SST) data from 1961 to 2013, the contribution rate of heavy rainfall to the total rainfall (hereafter referred to as "heavy rainfall contribution rate" or HRCR) during the rainy season in Northeast China was investigated. The changing characteristics of HRCR in the context of global warming are analyzed. The relationship between the HRCR and the contemporaneous atmospheric general circulation and early SST anomaly was analyzed to understand the possible physical mechanism responsible for the changing HRCR before and after the warming. Results show that during the whole study period (1961-2013), no evident trend in the HRCR has been detected. However, during cold period (1961-1979), the HRCR showed a significantly declining trend, while during warm period (1981-2013), the HRCR does not exhibit any trend. During cold period, the anomalous North Pacific summer monsoon and March North Atlantic tripole SSTA are the main factors affecting the HRCR, while the West Pacific summer monsoon, the East Asian subtropical westerly jet and March North Pacific dipole SSTA are responsible for the HRCR in the warm period. In the cold period, due to the air-sea interaction, March Atlantic tripole SSTA can influence the North Pacific summer monsoon in the late July-August, in turn affecting the HRCR. In the warm period, March North Pacific dipole SSTA tends to cause anomalies in the West Pacific summer monsoon and the position of the East Asian subtropical westerly jet axis in the July-August through air-sea interaction, thereby affecting the HRCR. During 1961-1979, the weakening of the North Pacific summer monsoon might have been the primary cause of the significant decline in the trend of the HRCR in the cold period. In 1981-2013, the absence of significant trends of the

  8. Productive and nutritional performance of grazing beef heifers supplemented in the dry season and/or in the dry-rainy transition season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of supplementation with multiple supplement or mineral mixture in the dry season (phase 1 and/or dry-rainy transition season (phase 2 on nutritional variables and productive performance of beef cattle in Uruchloa decumbens pasture. 40 heifers at initial age and average weight of 8 months and 200 ± 3.74 kg, respectively in a complete random design with four treatments and 10 replicates, were used. In the phase 1, two groups of animals were fed multiple supplement and the other two groups were fed only mineral mixture ad libitum. In the second phase of the experiment, the two groups that received multiple supplements, one continued to receive multiple supplements and the other was receiving only mineral. Regarding the two groups fed only mineral mixture in the phase 1, one continued receiving mineral mixture in phase 2 and the other receiving supplement in phase 2. In the phase 1, supplemented animals presented higher daily average gain (DAG, the supplementation increased intake in kg/day of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, digested dry matter (DDM, and total digestible nutrients (TDN and it improved digestibility of all dietary constituents (P<0.10, except those of neutral detergent fiber (NDFap and ether extract (EE (P<0.10. The supplementation in the dry-rainy transition season (phase 2 increased intake in kg/day of DM, forage dry matter (FDM, OM, forage organic matter (FOM, CP, EE, DDM, digested neutral detergent fiber (DNDF and indigestible neutral detergent fiber. There was an interaction effect on supplementation in the dry season and in the dry-rainy transition season on the DAG, NFC intake, on the coefficients of DM, OM, CP, NDFap and on the content of TDN. It is recommended the use of multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the growth phase in the dry season and in the rainy-dry transition period. Supplementation in the dry season

  9. Very high CO2 exchange fluxes at the peak of the rainy season in a West African grazed semi-arid savanna ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Ardoe, Jonas; Guiro, Idrissa

    2016-01-01

    Africa is a sink of carbon, but there are large gaps in our knowledge regarding the CO2 exchange fluxes for many African ecosystems. Here, we analyse multi-annual eddy covariance data of CO2 exchange fluxes for a grazed Sahelian semi-arid savanna ecosystem in Senegal, West Africa. The aim...... to that of other semi-arid savanna sites due the short length of the rainy season. An inter-comparison between the open-path and a closed-path infrared sensor indicated no systematic errors related to the instrumentation. An uncertainty analysis of long-term NEE budgets indicated that corrections for air density...... response to climate change....

  10. Spatial-temporal variations of dominant drought/flood modes and the associated atmospheric circulation and ocean events in rainy season over the east of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoni; Huang, Fei

    2012-06-01

    By using Season-reliant Empirical Orthogonal Function (S-EOF) analysis, three dominant modes of the spatial-temporal evolution of the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over the east of China are revealed for the period of 1960-2004. The first two leading modes occur during the turnabout phase of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) decaying year, but the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over the east of China are different due to the role of the Indian Ocean (IO). The first leading mode appears closely correlated with the ENSO events. In the decaying year of El Niño, the associated western North Pacific (WNP) anticyclone located over the Philippine Sea persists from the previous winter to the next early summer, transports warm and moist air toward the southern Yangtze River in China, and leads to wet conditions over this entire region. Therefore, the precipitation anomaly in summer exhibits a `Southern Flood and Northern Drought' pattern over East China. On the other hand, the basin-wide Indian Ocean sea surface temperature anomaly (SSTA) plays a crucial role in prolonging the impact of ENSO on the second mode during the ENSO decaying summer. The Indian Ocean basin mode (IOBM) warming persists through summer and unleashes its influence, which forces a Matsuno-Gill pattern in the upper troposphere. Over the subtropical western North Pacific, an anomalous anticyclone forms in the lower troposphere. The southerlies on the northwest flank of this anticyclone increase the moisture transport onto central China, leading to abundant rainfall over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and Huaihe River valleys. The anomalous anticyclone causes dry conditions over South China and the South China Sea (SCS). The precipitation anomaly in summer exhibits a `Northern Flood and Southern Drought' pattern over East China. Therefore, besides the ENSO event the IOBM is an important factor to influence the drought/flood patterns in the rainy season over

  11. Evaluation of the efficiency of the photo Fenton disinfection of natural drinking water source during the rainy season in the Sahelian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ndounla, J., E-mail: juliette.ndounla@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering GPAO, Station 6, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Institut International d' Ingénierie de l' Eau et de l' Environnement, Laboratoire Eau, Dépollution, Ecosystème et Santé (LEDES), 01 BP 594 Ouagadougou 01 (Burkina Faso); Pulgarin, C., E-mail: Cesar.pulgarin@epfl.ch [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Institute of Chemical Sciences and Engineering GPAO, Station 6, CH 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15

    The photo-disinfection of water from two different wells (W1, pH: 4.6–5.1 ± 0.02) and (W2 pH: 5.6–5.7 ± 0.02) was carried out during the rainy season at Ouagadougou–Burkina Faso, West Africa. The weather variation during the rainy season significantly affects the photo-disinfection processes (solar disinfection and photo-Fenton). The dilution of the water by rainwater highly affected the chemical composition of the wells' water used in this study; very low iron contents Compared to the ones recorded during the dry season were recorded in all water samples. Both photo-disinfection processes were used to treat 25 L of water in a compound parabolic collector (CPC). None of them have shown the total inactivation of both wild enteric bacteria strains (total coliforms/E. coli and Salmonella spp.) involved in the treatment. However, the total coliforms/E. coli strains were totally inactivated during the exposure under most of the photo-Fenton treatment. Also, the remaining strains, especially those of Salmonella spp. were achieved during the subsequent 24 h of dark storage under the action of the Fenton process. Under uniquely solar radiation, total inactivation was recorded only in the total coliforms/E. coli strains. The impact of the available irradiance on the efficiency of the photo-Fenton disinfection of natural water was highlighted during the exposure under high intermittent solar radiation. The impact of the HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentration of both wells' water on the evolution of the pH during the photo-disinfection was recorded. Drastic decrease was noticed after the initial fast increase in presence of low HCO{sub 3}{sup −} concentration while a steady state was observed after the increase in presence of higher concentration. The redox activities of the nitrogen components of the water during both photo-disinfection processes have led to increased concentration of nitrite in all the cases and variations were noticed in that of nitrate and

  12. Evaluation of the efficiency of the photo Fenton disinfection of natural drinking water source during the rainy season in the Sahelian region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndounla, J; Pulgarin, C

    2014-09-15

    The photo-disinfection of water from two different wells (W1, pH: 4.6-5.1 ± 0.02) and (W2 pH: 5.6-5.7 ± 0.02) was carried out during the rainy season at Ouagadougou-Burkina Faso, West Africa. The weather variation during the rainy season significantly affects the photo-disinfection processes (solar disinfection and photo-Fenton). The dilution of the water by rainwater highly affected the chemical composition of the wells' water used in this study; very low iron contents Compared to the ones recorded during the dry season were recorded in all water samples. Both photo-disinfection processes were used to treat 25 L of water in a compound parabolic collector (CPC). None of them have shown the total inactivation of both wild enteric bacteria strains (total coliforms/E. coli and Salmonella spp.) involved in the treatment. However, the total coliforms/E. coli strains were totally inactivated during the exposure under most of the photo-Fenton treatment. Also, the remaining strains, especially those of Salmonella spp. were achieved during the subsequent 24h of dark storage under the action of the Fenton process. Under uniquely solar radiation, total inactivation was recorded only in the total coliforms/E. coli strains. The impact of the available irradiance on the efficiency of the photo-Fenton disinfection of natural water was highlighted during the exposure under high intermittent solar radiation. The impact of the HCO3(-) concentration of both wells' water on the evolution of the pH during the photo-disinfection was recorded. Drastic decrease was noticed after the initial fast increase in presence of low HCO3(-) concentration while a steady state was observed after the increase in presence of higher concentration. The redox activities of the nitrogen components of the water during both photo-disinfection processes have led to increased concentration of nitrite in all the cases and variations were noticed in that of nitrate and ammonia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  13. Spatial analysis of temporal trend of rainfall and rainy days during the Indian Summer Monsoon season using daily gridded (0.5° × 0.5°) rainfall data for the period of 1971–2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Das, Prabir Kumar; Chakraborty, Abhishek; Seshasai, M. V. R

    2014-01-01

    Daily gridded (0.5° × 0.5°) rainfall data between 1971 and 2005 were used to detect spatial patterns of trend in rainfall and rainy days during the Indian Summer Monsoon (June to September). A non‐parametric (Mann–Kendall test...

  14. A review of scientific literature examining the mining history, geology, mineralogy, and amphibole asbestos health effects of the Rainy Creek igneous complex, Libby, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandli, Bryan R; Gunter, Mickey E

    2006-11-01

    This article reviews the past 90 yr of scientific research directed on multiple aspects of the unique geology and environmental health issues surrounding the vermiculite deposit found at Libby, MT. Hydrothermal alteration and extensive weathering of the ultramafic units resulted in the formation of a rich deposit of vermiculite that was mined for 67 yr and used in numerous consumer products in its expanded form. Later intrusions of alkaline units caused hydrothermal alteration of the pyroxenes, resulting in formation of amphiboles. Some of these amphiboles occur in the asbestiform habit and have been associated with pulmonary disease in former miners and mill workers. Identification of these amphibole asbestos minerals has received little attention in the past, but recent work shows that the majority of the amphibole mineral species present may not be any of the amphibole species currently regulated by government agencies. Epidemiological studies on former miners have, nevertheless, shown that the amphibole asbestos from the Rainy Creek igneous complex is harmful; also, a recent study by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry shows that residents of Libby who had not been employed in the vermiculite mining or milling operations also appear to have developed asbestos-related pulmonary diseases at a higher rate than the general public elsewhere. Since November 1999, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has been involved in the cleanup of asbestos-contaminated sites in and around Libby associated with the mining and processing of vermiculite.

  15. Structural characteristics of atmospheric temperature and humidity inside clouds of convective and stratiform precipitation in the rainy season over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Fu, Yunfei

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a merged dataset constructed from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission precipitation radar rain products and Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive data is used to investigate the thermal structural characteristics of convective and stratiform precipitation in the rainy season (May-August) of 1998-2012 over East Asia. The results show that the storm tops for convective precipitation are higher than those for stratiform precipitation, because of the more unstable atmospheric motions for convective precipitation. Moreover, the storm tops are higher at 1200 UTC than at 0000 UTC over land regions for both convective and stratiform precipitation, and vice versa for ocean region. Additionally, temperature anomaly patterns inside convective and stratiform precipitating clouds show a negative anomaly of about 0-2 K, which results in cooling effects in the lower troposphere. This cooling is more obvious at 1200 UTC for stratiform precipitation. The positive anomaly that appears in the middle troposphere is more than 2 K, with the strongest warming at 300 hPa. Relative humidity anomaly patterns show a positive anomaly in the middle troposphere (700-500 hPa) prior to the occurrence of the two types of precipitation, and the increase in moisture is evident for stratiform precipitation.

  16. Petrology of the Rainy Lake area, Minnesota, USA-implications for petrotectonic setting of the archean southern Wabigoon subprovince of the Canadian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Rainy Lake area in northern Minnesota and southwestern, Ontario is a Late Archean (2.7 Ga) granite-greenstone belt within the Wabigoon subprovince of the Canadian Shield. In Minnesota the rocks include mafic and felsic volcanic rocks, volcaniclastic, chemical sedimentary rocks, and graywacke that are intrucded by coeval gabbro, tonalite, and granodiorite. New data presented here focus on the geochemistry and petrology of the Minnesota part of the Rainy Lake area. Igneous rocks in the area are bimodal. The mafic rocks are made up of three distinct suites: (1) low-TiO2 tholeiite and gabbro that have slightly evolved Mg-numbers (63-49) and relatively flat rare-earth element (REE) patterns that range from 20-8 x chondrites (Ce/YbN=0.8-1.5); (2) high-TiO2 tholeiite with evolved Mg-numbers (46-29) and high total REE abundances that range from 70-40 x chondrites (Ce/YbN=1.8-3.3), and (3) calc-alkaline basaltic andesite and geochemically similar monzodiorite and lamprophyre with primitive Mg-numbers (79-63), enriched light rare-earth elements (LREE) and depleted heavy rare-earth elements (HREE). These three suites are not related by partial melting of a similar source or by fractional crystallization of a common parental magma; they resulted from melting of heterogeneous Archean mantle. The felsic rocks are made up of two distinct suites: (1)low-Al2O3 tholeiitic rhyolite, and (2) high-Al2O3 calc-alkaline dacite and rhyolite and consanguineous tonalite. The tholeiitic felsic rocks are high in Y, Zr, Nb, and total REE that are unfractionated and have pronounced negative Eu anomalies. The calcalkaline felsic rocks are depleted in Y, Zr, and Nb, and the REE that are highly fractionated with high LREE and depleted HREE, and display moderate negative Eu anomalies. Both suites of felsic rocks were generated by partial melting of crustal material. The most reasonable modern analog for the paleotectonic setting is an immature island arc. The bimodal volcanic rocks are

  17. Malaria in Zimbabwe: comparisons of IFAT levels, parasite and spleen rates among high, medium and lower altitude areas and between dry and rainy seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siziya, S; Watts, T E; Mason, P R

    1997-09-01

    To study the extent of malaria prevalence among children at various elevations above sea level and in children during the dry and rainy seasons in Zimbabwe. Cross sectional. Primary and secondary schools. The number of children (aged about eight years in Grade Three and 13 years in Form One) examined in November 1992 was 103 in Chitungwiza (above 1,200 m), 94 in Gokwe (900 to 1,200 m) and 96 in Sasame (under 900 m). In April 1993 it was 86 in Chitungwiza, 78 in Gokwe and 81 in Sasame. Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Test (IFAT) levels, parasite and spleen rates. No splenomegaly was detected in children in schools above 900 m. While no parasitaemia was detected in children in schools above 1200 m, one (0.6%, 95% CI to -0.6 to 1.7) child and 37 (20.9%, 95% CI 14.9 to 26.9) children in schools between 900 and 1,200 m and below 900 m, respectively, had parasitaemia. The IFAT levels were lowest in children in areas above 1,200 m and increased significantly with decreasing altitude (x2 for linear trend 332, p rural areas used no protective measures against malaria. All children in schools under 900 m reported that their homes were sprayed, but very few other prophylactic measures (seven children used antimalarial drugs and 15 children used a net) were reported. Malaria acquisition is uncommon above 900 m and the people in these areas are highly vulnerable to malaria.

  18. The density and biomass of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Negro and the Amazon Rivers during the rainy season: the ecological importance of the confluence boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Nakajima

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The boundary zone between two different hydrological regimes is often a biologically enriched environment with distinct planktonic communities. In the center of the Amazon River basin, muddy white water of the Amazon River meets with black water of the Negro River, creating a conspicuous visible boundary spanning over 10 km along the Amazon River. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the confluence boundary between the white and black water rivers concentrates prey and is used as a feeding habitat for consumers by investigating the density, biomass and distribution of mesozooplankton and ichthyoplankton communities across the two rivers during the rainy season. Our results show that mean mesozooplankton density (2,730 inds. m−3 and biomass (4.8 mg m−3 were higher in the black-water river compared to the white-water river (959 inds. m−3; 2.4 mg m−3; however an exceptionally high mesozooplankton density was not observed in the confluence boundary. Nonetheless we found the highest density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence boundary (9.7 inds. m−3, being up to 9-fold higher than in adjacent rivers. The confluence between white and black waters is sandwiched by both environments with low (white water and high (black water zooplankton concentrations and by both environments with low (white water and high (black water predation pressures for fish larvae, and may function as a boundary layer that offers benefits of both high prey concentrations and low predation risk. This forms a plausible explanation for the high density of ichthyoplankton in the confluence zone of black and white water rivers.

  19. Local feeding strategies and milk composition in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Ávila, Ángel René; Wattiaux, Michel A; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the work was to identify local feeding strategies in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico, and to determine their effects on milk yields (MY), milk composition and economic viability. Twenty-two dairy farms were monitored by monthly visits, recording and sampling milk from between two and six cows in each farm, live-weight was also recorded. Samples from feeds used in that month were taken and feeds given to the dairy herd were weighed. Economic data was also recorded. Milk composition and milk urea nitrogen were determined, as well as chemical composition of feeds. Eighteen feedstuffs were identified, grouped in: HNH feeds-high in neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in DM matter; HNL feeds-high in NDF but low in DM; HCh feeds-high in non-fibrous carbohydrates; and HCP feeds-high in crude protein. Four feeding strategies were identified: strategy 1 uses HND, HNL and HCP; strategy 2-HND, HNL, HCh and HCP; strategy 3 HNH and HCP; and strategy 4 HNL and HCP. Of participating farms, 73.4% followed strategy 1, 11.3% strategy 2, 11.3% strategy 4 and 3.8% strategy 3. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between strategies for MY and milk composition, but there were differences (P  0.05) model relating intake of feed groups and milk fat content, but milk protein and SNF contents were significantly explained by intake of HCP. When expressed as MY and milk components yield, milk fat yield was significantly explained by intake of all four feed groups, but milk protein and SNF yields were explained only by intake of HCP and LW. MUN excretion was explained also by HCP intake. All feeding strategies produced positive economic returns, on average generating the equivalent of 3.45 minimum wages of the area.

  20. Climatologia do comportamento do período chuvoso da região sudeste do Brasil Climatology of the rainy period behavior in the southeast region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosandro Boligon Minuzzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisados dados diários de 203 estações pluviométricas localizadas na região Sudeste do Brasil, com o objetivo de caracterizar climaticamente e analisar a tendência do comportamento do período chuvoso. Os resultados indicam que o período chuvoso inicia mais cedo (entre 13 e 22 de setembro e tem maior duração (210 a 229 dias na região litorânea de São Paulo. Comportamento oposto ao observado nas regiões Norte e Vale do Jequitinhonha, em Minas Gerais, onde o período chuvoso inicia em média, entre os dias 23 de outubro a 2 de novembro, durando apenas 136 a 155 dias. As datas de início e a duração do período chuvoso estão fortemente correlacionadas entre si, bem como, entre o total de precipitação e a duração do período chuvoso em praticamente todo o Sudeste do Brasil. De modo geral, desde meados da década de 1970, o período chuvoso tem iniciado precocemente e durado mais no Sudeste do Brasil. Quanto à quantidade de chuva, esta tem ocorrido em maiores quantidades somente na área MG3 (sudeste de Minas Gerais e no estado de São Paulo.Daily data from 203 pluviometric stations, located in the Southeast region of Brazil, were studied with the objective to characterize climatically and analyze the tendency of the behavior of the rainy period. The results indicate that the rainy period begins early (between 13 and September 22th and has larger duration (210 to 229 days at the coastal area of São Paulo. Behavior opposed to the observed in the areas North and Vale do Jequitinhonha, in Minas Gerais, where the rainy period begins on average, among October 23th on November 2nd, only lasting 136 to 155 days. The duration and the dates at the beginning of the rainy period are strongly correlated, as well as, among the precipitation total and the duration of the rainy period in practically the whole Southeast region of Brazil. In general, from middles of the 1970's, the rainy period has started earlier and lasted more in the

  1. Prevalence and etiology of buffalo mastitis and milk somatic cell count in dry and rainy seasons in a buffalo herd from Analândia, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J.L. Pizauro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate somatic cell count (SCC, prevalence and etiology of mastitis in a dairy buffalo herd from Analândia, São Paulo State, Brazil, in the dry and rainy seasons. Additionally, antimicrobial susceptibility profile of microorganisms isolated from milk samples was also evaluated. 1,042 milk samples from female Murrah buffaloes in a dairy farm located in Analândia, São Paulo State, Brazil, collected between May 2011 and November 2012 were analyzed. After the mammary gland physical examination, strip cup test and California Mastitis Test (CMT were performed. Afterwards, 50mL of milk samples from each mammary quarter were collected aseptically for SCC in automatic equipment and microbiological examination. The antimicrobial sensitivity profile to ampicillin, cefoperazone, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, oxacillin, penicillin, and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim was evaluated by disk diffusion method. The monthly average temperature and pluviometric index were obtained from "Centro Integrado de Informações Agrometeorológicas" (CIIAGRO of "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas" (IAC. Milk samples with positive results in the microbiological test showed average SCC of 137,720 cells/mL in the dry period and 190,309 cells/mL in the rainy period. Although a higher number of isolated microorganisms was observed in buffalo milk samples during the rainy period (69/600 compared to the dry period (50/442, the season had no significant effect on the frequency of isolation of microorganisms. The main genera of microorganisms isolated were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (38.4%, Streptococcus agalactiae (28.8%, and Bacillus spp. (7.56% during the dry season and Corynebacterium sp. (23.5%, Streptococcus spp. (32.3%, and Streptococcus agalactiae (9.24% during the rainy period. Multidrug resistance was observed in 30.1% of the isolated microorganisms.

  2. Short-term assessment of the sediment deposition rate and water conditions during a rainy season on La Azufrada coral reef, Gorgona Island, Colombia

    KAUST Repository

    Lozano-Cortés, Diego F

    2014-02-01

    One of the major stresses on corals is the settlement of suspended sediment on their surfaces. This leads to the blocking of light, the covering of the coral mucus surface and an increased risk of disease. For this reason sediment deposition on a reef is considered a highly important variable in coral reef studies. With the use of sediment traps and oceanographic sensors, the sediment deposition rate and water conditions during a rainy season (April-May 2009) on a Tropical Eastern Pacific coral reef (La Azufrada) at Gorgona Island in Colombia were investigated. To quantify sediment deposition, sediment traps were established in nine stations along the coral reef (three stations per reef zone: backreef, flat and slope). To minimize disturbance by aquatic organisms in the sediment traps these were filled with hypersaline borax-buffered 10% formaline solution before their deployment; animals found in the filter contents were fixed and stored in a 4% formalin solution, frozen and identified in the laboratory. To determine the water conditions, discrete samples of water from 1 m and 10 m depths were collected using a Niskin bottle. Oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen) as well as turbidity, chlorophyll and nutrient concentration (nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus) were measured in the samples from both depths. Vertical records of temperature and salinity were carried out with a Seabird-19 CTD nearest to La Azufrada and water transparency was measured using a Secchi disk. We found a mean trap collection rate of 23.30±4.34gm-2d-1 and did not detect a significant difference in the trap collection rate among reef zones. The mean temperature and salinity in the coral reef depth zone (0-10m layer) were 26.98±0.19°C and 32.60±0.52, respectively. Fourteen taxonomic groups of invertebrates were detected inside the sediment traps with bivalves and copepods being the most abundant and frequen. The findings presented here constitute the first report

  3. Sensitivity of the boreal forest-mire ecotone CO2, CH4, and N2O global warming potential to rainy and dry weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ťupek, Boris; Minkkinen, Kari; Vesala, Timo; Nikinmaa, Eero

    2015-04-01

    In a mosaic of well drained forests and poorly drained mires of boreal landscape the weather events such as drought and rainy control greenhouse gas dynamics and ecosystem global warming potential (GWP). In forest-mire ecotone especially in ecosystems where CO2 sink is nearly balanced with CO2 source, it's fairly unknown whether the net warming effect of emissions of gases with strong radiative forcing (CH4 and N2O) could offset the net cooling effect of CO2 sequestration. We compared the net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) estimated from the carbon sequestrations of forest stands and forest floor CO2 fluxes against CH4 and N2O fluxes of nine forest/mire site types along the soil moisture gradient in Finland. The ground water of nine sites changed between 10 m in upland forests and 0.1 m in mires, and weather during three years ranged between exceptionally wet and dry for the local climate. The NEE of upland forests was typically a sink of CO2, regardless the weather. Though, xeric pine forest was estimated to be a source of CO2 during wet and intermediate year and became a weak sink only in dry year. The NEE of forest-mire transitions ranged between a sink in dry year, while increased stand carbon sequestration could offset the reduced forest floor CO2 emission, and a source in wet year. The NEE of two sparsely forested mires strongly differed. The lawn type mire was balanced around zero and the hummock type mire was relatively strong NEE sink, regardless the weather. Generally, nearly zero N2O emission could not offset the cooling effect of net CH4 sink and net CO2 sink of upland forest and forest-mire transitions. However in sparsely forested mires, with N2O emission also nearly zero, the CH4 emission during wet and intermediate year played important role in turning the net cooling effect of NEE into a net warming. When evaluating GWP of boreal landscapes, undisturbed forest-mire transitions should be regarded as net cooling ecosystems instead of hotspots of net

  4. Physic nut seed productivity (Jatropha curcas L.), in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages; Produtividade de sementes de pinhao-manso (Jatropha curcas L.), da estacao chuvosa, submetido a diferentes laminas de irrigacao e adubacao potassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, Fabio Ponciano de; Faria, Manoel Alves de; Portela, Jaqueline Damyane [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], E-mail: fpdagricola@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, Ednaldo Liberato de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Januaria, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this research was to value the Physic nut seed productivity, in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages, for 2008, 2009 and for the accumulated of theses years, in Lavras - MG, Brazil. The experimental design was the one of randomized blocks, in split plot design, with four replicates. The treatment levels were four water levels (plots) and four potassium dosages (subplots). The irrigation was applied based on the amount estimated by the water balance considering the class A pan evaporation (ECA) and rain depths - L{sub 0} (non irrigated), L{sub 40}, L{sub 80} and L{sub 120} (40, 80 and 120% of the balance respectively). The potassium dosages were K{sub 30}, K{sub 60}, K{sub 90} and K{sub 120} (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.ha{sup -1} respectively). It was used the drip irrigation system. It was used the Sisvar 4.0 software, for analysis of variance and the Tukey test at 5% level of probability to compare the means. However, it was possible to observe in rainy season, that the irrigation has not changed the Physic nut seed productivity. The potassium level 120 kg.ha{sup -1} in all significant situations was the treatment with higher productivity. (author)

  5. Lactic acid microbiota identification in water, raw milk, endogenous starter culture, and fresh Minas artisanal cheese from the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil during the dry and rainy seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, R D; Oliveira, L G; Sant'Anna, F M; Luiz, L M P; Sandes, S H C; Silva, C I F; Silva, A M; Nunes, A C; Penna, C F A M; Souza, M R

    2016-08-01

    Minas artisanal cheese, produced in the Campo das Vertentes region of Brazil, is made from raw milk and endogenous starter cultures. Although this cheese is of great historical and socioeconomic importance, little information is available about its microbiological and physical-chemical qualities, or about its beneficial microbiota. This work was aimed at evaluating the qualities of the cheese and the components used for its production, comparing samples collected during the dry and rainy seasons. We also conducted molecular identification and isolated 50 samples of lactic acid bacteria from cheese (n=21), water (n=3), raw milk (n=9), and endogenous starter culture (n=17). The microbiological quality of the cheese, water, raw milk, and endogenous starter culture was lower during the rainy period, given the higher counts of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus and total and thermotolerant coliforms. Enterococcus faecalis was the lactic acid bacteria isolated most frequently (42.86%) in cheese samples, followed by Lactococcus lactis (28.57%) and Lactobacillus plantarum (14.29%). Lactobacillus brevis (5.88%), Enterococcus pseudoavium (5.88%), Enterococcus durans (5.88%), and Aerococcus viridans (5.88%) were isolated from endogenous starter cultures and are described for the first time in the literature. The lactic acid bacteria identified in the analyzed cheeses may inhibit undesirable microbiota and contribute to the safety and flavor of the cheese, but this needs to be evaluated in future research. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Der Apfel fällt nicht weit vom Stamm? Die werbliche Darstellung von Jugend- und Elterngeneration im Vergleich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Maria Derra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Geschlechterinszenierungen in Werbeanzeigen sind spätestens seit Goffman (engl. Original 1976 / dt. Übersetzung 1981 ein beliebtes Forschungsthema. Dabei wurde ein expliziter Generationenvergleich bisher jedoch vernachlässigt. Eine inhaltsanalytische Untersuchung der werblichen Inszenierung von Männern und Frauen mit dem Schwerpunkt auf einem Vergleich der Jugend- und Elterngeneration (hier: 14- bis 19-Jährige vs. 40- bis 49-Jährige zeigt, dass die Anzeigenwerbung heute einerseits auf veränderte gesellschaftliche Rahmenbedingungen reagiert und mit traditionellen Darstellungsprinzipien gebrochen hat. Andererseits wird ersichtlich, dass gerade jugendliche Werbeprotagonisten/-innen in ein Werbekorsett der Äusserlichkeiten eingepasst und stark genormt werden. Die Generation 40–49 besitzt dagegen bezüglich ihres Äusseren mehr Freiräume, ist jedoch auf anderen Ebenen, z. B. im Bereich der beworbenen Produkte, weiterhin an traditionell geschlechtlich bestimmte Rahmungen gebunden.

  7. ESPERMATIC EVALUATION IN YOUNG BOER GOATS BORN IN THE RAINY AND DRY SEASONS AVALIAÇÃO ESPERMÁTICA DE CAPRINOS JOVENS DA RAÇA BOER NASCIDOS NAS ESTAÇÕES CHUVOSA E SECA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Queiros Gondim Bezerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    This study had the objective to distinguish spermatic and seminal parameters in animals born during the dry (n=11 and rainy (n=11 seasons. In the rainy season, the spermatic concentration ranging from 0.90 to 2.7 x 109/mL, the progressive motility from 16.0% to 62.0%, the mass movement from 0.3 to 2.6, vigor from 1.1 to 2.8, major sperm defects of 18.3% to 3 % and minor sperm defects from 16.1%  to 3.4% . In the dry season, the spermatic concentration varied from 0.96 to 2.15 x 109/mL, the progressive motility from 35.4% to 64.1%, the mass movement form 1.7 to 3.1, vigor from 2.0 to 3.0, major sperm defects from 16.9% to 4.2% and minor sperm defects from 17.5% to 3.2%.  It was observed positive correlation between spermatic motility versus spermatic mass movement, spermatic motility versus spermatic vigor as well as a negative correlation between motility versus major sperm defects of the spermatozoa and between motility and spermatozoa smaller defects respectively, in the rainy and dry seasons. Based on these results we conclude that Boer male goats born in dry season have sexual retardation of three months in comparison to those born in the rainy station. 

    Key words:  Birth season, boer, goat, puberty, sperm morphology.

    Este trabalho objetivou determinar motilidade, turbilhonamento, vigor, defeitos maiores e menores dos espermatozoides de caprinos da raça Boer durante a estação chuvosa (n = 11 e seca (n = 11. Na estação chuvosa, a concentração espermática variou de 0,90 ± 1,46 x 109/mL a 2,7 x 109/mL, a motilidade progressiva de 16,0% a 62,0%, o turbilhonamento de 0,3 a 2,6 , vigor de 1,1 a 2,8 , defeitos maiores de 18,3% a 3% e menores de 16,1% a 3,4%. Na estação seca, a concentração espermática variou de 0,96 x 109/mL a 2,15 x 109/mL, a motilidade progressiva de 35,4% a 64,1%, o turbilhonamento de 1,7 a 3,1, vigor de 2,0 a 3,0, defeitos maiores de 16,9% a 4

  8. Detection and validation of stay-green QTL in post-rainy sorghum involving widely adapted cultivar, M35-1 and a popular stay-green genotype B35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama Reddy, Nagaraja Reddy; Ragimasalawada, Madhusudhana; Sabbavarapu, Murali Mohan; Nadoor, Seetharama; Patil, Jagannatha Vishnu

    2014-10-18

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important dry-land cereal of the world providing food, fodder, feed and fuel. Stay-green (delayed-leaf senescence) is a key attribute in sorghum determining its adaptation to terminal drought stress. The objective of this study was to validate sorghum stay-green quantitative trait loci (QTL) identified in the past, and to identify new QTL in the genetic background of a post-rainy adapted genotype M35-1. A genetic linkage map based on 245 F9 Recombinant Inbred Lines (RILs) derived from a cross between M35-1 (more senescent) and B35 (less senescent) with 237 markers consisting of 174 genomic, 60 genic and 3 morphological markers was used. The phenotypic data collected for three consecutive post-rainy crop seasons on the RIL population (M35-1 × B35) was used for QTL analysis. Sixty-one QTL were identified for various measures of stay-green trait and each trait was controlled by one to ten QTL. The phenotypic variation explained by each QTL ranged from 3.8 to 18.7%. Co-localization of QTL for more than five traits was observed on two linkage groups i.e. on SBI-09-3 flanked by S18 and Xgap206 markers and, on SBI-03 flanked by XnhsbSFCILP67 and Xtxp31. QTL identified in this study were stable across environments and corresponded to sorghum stay-green and grain yield QTL reported previously. Of the 60 genic SSRs mapped, 14 were closely linked with QTL for ten traits. A genic marker, XnhsbSFCILP67 (Sb03g028240) encoding Indole-3-acetic acid-amido synthetase GH3.5, was co-located with QTL for GLB, GLM, PGLM and GLAM on SBI-03. Genes underlying key enzymes of chlorophyll metabolism were also found in the stay-green QTL regions. We validated important stay-green QTL reported in the past in sorghum and detected new QTL influencing the stay-green related traits consistently. Stg2, Stg3 and StgB were prominent in their expression. Collectively, the QTL/markers identified are likely candidates for subsequent verification for their

  9. Suplementos múltiplos de auto controle de consumo na recria de novilhos no período das águas Multiple supplements of self controlled intake for steers during the growing phase in the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o uso de suplementos de autocontrole de consumo sobre o desempenho de 24 novilhos mestiços com idade e pesos médios iniciais de 12 meses e 172 kg, respectivamente, recriados em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. durante o período das águas, com disponibilidade média de 10,82 ton./ha. Forneceu-se sal mineral (SAL e suplementos à base de: uréia, mistura mineral, milho grão triturado e farelo de soja (MFS; uréia, mistura mineral, farelo de soja e farelo de glúten de milho (FGFS; e, uréia, mistura mineral, farelo de trigo e farelo de soja (FTFS, com teor protéico médio de 53,60% de PB. Não se verificou efeito da suplementação sobre os ganhos médios diários (P>0,05, que foram de: 0,820; 0,950; 1,020 e 0,970 kg/animal/dia, respectivamente, para SAL, MFS, FGFS e FTFS. Contudo, foram obtidos ganhos adicionais em torno de 20%, os quais são de grande relevância na intensificação da pecuária de ciclo curto em pastagens.Twenty four crossbred steers, with average initial age and weight of 12 months and 172 kg, respectively, grazing Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., in the rainy season (10.82 ton. Dry matter/ha, were used in the performance assay to evaluate the effect of supplements of self feed. Mineral salt (SAL and supplements based on: urea, mineral mix, grounded corn grain and soybean meal (MFS; urea, mineral mix, soybean meal and corn gluten meal (FGFS; and urea, mineral mix, wheat bran and soybean meal (FTFS, with average protein content of 53.60% CP, were fed. It was not observed effect (P>0.05 of supplementation on the average daily gain, of 0.820, 0.950, 1.020 and 0.970 kg/animal/day, respectively, for SAL, MFS, FGFS and FTFS. However, significant additional gains (20% were observed for supplemented steers.

  10. COMPETIÇÃO ENTRE VARIEDADES PLURILOCULARES DE TOMATE EM GOIÂNIA NA ESTAÇÃO CHUVOSA COMPETITION BETWEEN PLURILOCULAR TOMATO VARIETIES IN THE RAINY SEASON IN GOIÂNIA-GO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ernst Sonnenberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram comparadas 15 variedades pluriloculares de tomate, durante a estação chuvosa e quente de 1970/71, em Goiânia: Floradel F.M., Fleradel L.B.T., Tropi-gro, Tropic, Floralou, Manalucie, 2003 D—2 DBK. Híbrido Sekaiichi F—l, Maçã de Ibirité, L—352, Porter’s Pride, Foremost E—21, Firebird, Grand Prix e RoyaI Ace. A única variedade de crescimento determinado foi Tropi-gro, que, por esta razão não foi podada para duas hastes, como todas as demais, conduzidas com tutoramento. Híbrido Sekaiichi F—l, seguido pela variedade Tropic, destacou-se na produção de frutos grandes, bem formados e com peso unitário igual ou superior a 200 g, sem haver diferenças significativas entre ambos. Quanto à incidência do Lóculo Aberto, Tropic revelou-se um pouco mais suscetível do que Sekaiichi. Em segundo plano, quanto à produção de frutos de tipo bem aceito pelo consumidor, também se destacaram: Floradel F.M., Floralou, Floradel L.B.T. e L—352.

    Fifteen plurilocular tomato varieties were compared during the hot and rainy season of 1970/71, in Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil: Floradel F.M., Floradel L.B.T., Tropi-gro, Tropic, Floralou, Manalucie, 2003 D—2 DI—DBK, Hybrid Sekaiichi F—l, Maçã de Ibirité, L—352, Porter’s Pride, Foremost E—21, Firebird, Grand Prix and Royal Ace. The variety Tropi-gro was the only one with determinate habit of growing, all the others were indeterminate, pruned to two stems and staked. In yielding large, well shaped, marketable, fruits over 200 grams, the Sekaiichi F—1 Hybrid ranked first, followed by Tropic, without significant difference between them. Concerning Open Locule (Catface Tropic is something more subject to that injury than Sekaiichi. Other rather good varieties were: Floradel F.M., Floralou, Floradel LB.T. e L—352.

  11. Regulaarse sporditreeningu mõjust liigutusvõimete arengule 11-18-aastastel poistel / Jaan Loko, Rein Aule, Erki Kangur, Tõnu Sikkut...[jt.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1999-01-01

    Uuringu eesmärgiks oli välja selgitada liigutusvõimete arengu iseärasused 11-18-aastastel noorkergejõustiklastel ja võrrelda nende dünaamikat mittesportlaste omaga, vaatlusalusteks 357 Tartu Kergejõustikukooli õpilast (poissi)

  12. Desempenho de novilhos Nelore em pastejo na época das águas: ganho de peso, consumo e parâmetros ruminais Performance of Nellore young bulls in the rainy season period: weight gain, intake and ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Henrique de Tonissi e Buschinelli de Goes

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a suplementação a pasto de novilhos, durante o período das águas. O experimento foi realizado na Fazenda do Braga, em Araponga-MG, no período de janeiro a abril de 1999. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos Nelore, inteiros, com idade média de 24 meses e peso inicial de 335 kg, e nove novilhos fistulados, em pastagens de capim-gordura (Melinis minutiflora e capim-braquiária (Brachiaria radicans. Utilizou-se três suplementos comerciais: suplementação com sal mineral (SM, suplementação com sal proteínado à base de milho, farelo de trigo e uréia (MT, e um suplemento com sal proteínado à base de farelo de trigo e farelo de soja (TS. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste SNK, a 5% de probabilidade. Os animais foram divididos em grupos de oito e distribuídos em três piquetes e apresentaram ganhos de peso de 0,60; 0,76; e 0,88 kg/dia para os suplementos SM, TS e MT, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre médias, para os animais que receberam os dois suplementos protéicos, apresentando consumo de suplemento de 0,13; 0,23; e 0,20 kg/dia, para SM, TS e MT, respectivamente. A concentração de amônia ruminal foi maior nos animais suplementados com MT e o pH, para todos os tratamentos, manteve-se acima de 6,2. Os animais recebendo suplementação protéica apresentaram melhor desempenho, quando comparados aos que receberam a SM.The objective was to evaluate the effect of supplemention of young bulls, under grazing, in the rainy season period. The experiment was conducted at the Braga Farm in Araponga, MG, in the period from january to april of 1999. Using twenty four young bulls with 335 kg LW of initial body weight, and nine fistulated steers, in Gordura (Melinis minutiflora and Brachiaria radicans grass. Three comercial supplements were used: mineral salt supplement (SM, corn-wheat meal and urea based protein supplement (MT and wheat-soybean meal based protein

  13. Evaluación de accesiones de Brachiaria brizantha en suelos ácidos: Época de máximas precipitaciones Evaluation of Brachiaria brizantha accessions in acid soils: Rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuseika Olivera

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En un suelo ácido de baja fertilidad, se estudió una colección de 36 accesiones de la especie B. brizantha, con el objetivo de seleccionar las accesiones de mejor comportamiento general, sobre la base de algunos indicadores cuantitativos, durante el período lluvioso. La plantación se realizó en parcelas de 3 x 1 m, sin réplicas. Los indicadores estudiados fueron: la altura de la planta, la hojosidad, el vigor, la cobertura, las afectaciones producidas por plagas y enfermedades, la presencia de clorosis y el rendimiento de biomasa. Para la interpretación de los resultados se utilizó el análisis de componentes principales (ACP y análisis de conglomerados. Mediante el primero se detectó una alta variabilidad para las dos primeras componentes (77,19%; mientras que el segundo permitió identificar seis grupos diferentes. Se concluye que las accesiones, en general, mostraron un adecuado desarrollo en las condiciones edafoclimáticas existentes y algunas sobresalieron por su aceptable rendimiento y adaptación a este ambiente. Del total de la colección, las más sobresalientes para estos suelos fueron: B. brizantha CIAT-26646, CIAT-16317, CIAT-26032, CIAT-16809, Nº 1, CIAT-16473, CIAT-16154, CIAT-16334, CIAT-16335, CIAT-16197, CIAT-16132, CIAT-16322, CIAT-16485, CIAT-16303, CIAT-16448, CIAT-16311, CIAT-16332, CIAT-16819, CIAT-16110 y CIAT-16482. Se recomienda estudiar el material seleccionado en condiciones de pastoreo, con el fin de determinar las variedades precomerciales en este ambienteIn a low fertility acid soil, a collection of 36 accessions of the B. brizantha species was studied, with the objective of selecting the accessions of better general performance, based on some quantitative indicators, during the rainy season. The plantation was carried out in 3 x 1 m plots, without replications. The indicators studied were: plant height, leafiness, vigor, cover, affectations caused by pests and diseases, presence of chlorosis and

  14. EVALUACIÓN DE LA ROTIFEROFAUNA PRESENTE EN EL COMPLEJO DE PAJARALES DURANTE LA ÉPOCA LLUVIOSA, DEPARTAMENTO DE MAGDALENA, COLOMBIA Assessment Of The Pajarales Complex Rotiferofauna During The Rainy Season, Departamento De Magdalena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEBASTIÁN CELIS

    phylum, due to its high reproductive rates and the efficiency in energetic transformation process. We sampled the rotifers with a van Dorn bottle, during the second rainy season in 2006. During each sampling we registered salinity, temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen. We calculated the rotifer diversity using the Shannon-Wiener H’ (log10 index comparing among sampling sites and sampling dates to establish variations along the study period. The physico-chemical variables were graphically related with the diversity values calculated using 0,05 for α and 95% for the confidence interval. We found a total of 20 morphotypes belonged to Brachionidae, Lecanidae, Filiniidae, Synchaetidae, Hexarthriidae and Testudinellidae families, been Brachionidae and Lecanidae the most abundant. The relationships between diversity and physico-chemical variables, show salinity as the main responsible of the rotifer diversity. In conclusion, the current rotiferofauna in the PC is most abundant and diverse than 16 years ago, before the recommunication with the Magdalena River. Likewise, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH and salinity of the CP waters were different. Taking into account that salinity was the most influent factor in the rotiferofauna diversity, the river recomommunication probably favored the increment of rotiferofauna diversity in the PC.

  15. Fontes de proteína em suplementos múltiplos para bovinos em pastejo no período das águas Protein sources of in multiple supplements for cattle on pasture during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito do fornecimento, no período das águas, de suplementos formulados com diferentes fontes de proteína sobre os parâmetros nutricionais de bovinos de corte em recria. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês × Zebu com peso vivo médio inicial de 300 kg, fistulados no esôfago e no rúmen, distribuídos em cinco piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens de 0,3 ha, em delineamento quadrado latino incompleto (5 × 5, com quatro períodos e cinco tratamentos, em quatro períodos experimentais de 14 dias. Como tratamentos, avaliaram-se suplementos à base de farelo de soja (FS, farelo de algodão (FA, 38% PB, farelo de glúten de milho (FGM, 60% PB e farelo de trigo + uréia (FTU e um tratamento testemunha, constituído apenas de mistura mineral (MM. A quantidade diária de suplemento fornecida foi fixada para fornecer aproximadamente 180 g de PB/dia. As fontes protéicas afetaram apenas o consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e o de PB, que foi maior quando fornecido o suplemento à base de farelo de algodão e menor quando fornecida a mistura mineral. Não houve efeito das fontes protéicas sobre as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes. O pH e os níveis de nitrogênio amoniacal do líquido ruminal (N-NH3 não foram influenciados pelas fontes protéicas avaliadas, mas todos os valores mantiveram-se nos limites favoráveis à digestão da forragem. As fontes de proteína não afetaram a eficiência microbiana, em média 9,96 g PBmic/100g NDT, nem as concentrações de nitrogênio uréico no plasma (NUP, média de 12,78 mg/dL, e a excreção de nitrogênio na urina (NUr, média de 63,14 g/dia.The effect of feeding, in the rainy season, multiple supplements formulated with different sources of protein on nutritional characteristics of growing beef cattle was evaluated. Five Holstein-Zebu crossbred steers with initial live weight of 300 kg, fistulated in the esophagus and in the rumen, were assigned to

  16. Composição química de forrageiras e seletividade de bovinos em bosque-de-sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth. nos períodos chuvoso e seco Chemical composition of forage and selectivity by bovines of "sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth. in the rainy and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednéia de Lucena Vieira

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi desenvolvida no período de junho de 1999 a março de 2000, com o objetivo de determinar, nos períodos chuvoso e seco, a composição química de sabiá (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia Benth., com acúleo e sem acúleo, na dieta de bovinos em condições de pastejo e a composição botânica do bosque de sabiá e da dieta selecionada. Não foi observada diferença significativa quanto à composição química entre os sabiás com e sem acúleo, obtendo-se valores médios, no período chuvoso, de 26,45% de matéria seca (MS, 27,63% de proteína bruta (PB, 44,39% de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, 25,80% de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, 1,24% de cálcio (Ca, 0,22% de fósforo (P, 1,63% de potássio (K e 1,12% de sódio (Na. No período seco, os valores médios observados foram de 42,39% de MS; 19,30% de PB; 39,05% de FDN; 21,83% de FDA; 1,25% de Ca; 0,15% de P; 1,63% de K e 0,27% de Na. Para a composição botânica da dieta, observou-se que, durante o período chuvoso, as amostras de extrusa apresentaram maior participação de sabiá (83,1% que no período seco ( 12,3%. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que, durante o período chuvoso, os animais selecionaram sabiá em maior quantidade para sua dieta e que a coleta manual, como realizada, superestimou a fração fibrosa da dieta calculada a partir da composição química da extrusa.This trial was carried out from June 1999 to March 2000 to evaluate the chemical composition of samples of sabiá legume (Mimosa caesalpiniaefolia Benth., with and without thorns, collected in the rainy and dry seasons and to compare the botanical composition of sabiá pasture with that of the diet selected by the grazing animals. No significant difference was observed in chemical composition between samples of sabiá with and without thorns. The mean values obtained in the rainy samples were: 26.45% drymatter (DM, 27.63% crude protein (CP, 44.39% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, 25.80% acid detergent fiber

  17. Influência da La Niña na estação chuvosa da região sudeste do Brasil Influence of La Niña in the rainy season of the southeast region of Brazil

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    Rosandro Boligon Minuzzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Dados diários de 203 estações pluviométricas, localizadas na região Sudeste do Brasil (SEB, foram utilizados com o propósito de analisar estatisticamente a influência do fenômeno La Niña (LN, no comportamento trimestral da precipitação durante a estação chuvosa (EC. A série referente a data de início da estação chuvosa em anos de ocorrência do fenômeno climático, foi classificada, baseada no seu valor médio, máximo e mínimo. A análise das influências do LN no final da estação chuvosa, foi realizada mediante a adoção da técnica dos quantis, para nove áreas pré-definidas do SEB. A quantidade trimestral de precipitação, foi classificada e correlacionada com o Índice de Oscilação Sul (IOS e a temperatura da superfície do mar (TSM de quatro regiões do Pacífico Equatorial, com a aplicação dos desvios normalizados e correlações com 'defasagem', respectivamente. Concluiu-se que durante o LN, a estação chuvosa tende a se prolongar na área SP2. Porém, no contexto geral, o fenômeno climático não influenciou o início da estação chuvosa da região Sudeste do Brasil, enquanto, as anomalias expressivas de precipitação, observadas principalmente a partir do trimestre novembro-janeiro, pouco estiveram correlacionadas com o comportamento da TSM do Pacífico Equatorial e, ou, o IOS.Daily data from 203 pluviometric stations, located in the Southeast region of Brazil (SEB, were used in order to analyze, statistically, the influence of the La Niña (LN phenomenon, in the threemonthly rainfall regime during the rainy season (RS. The series related date at the beginning of the rainy station in years of occurrence of the climatic phenomenon, were classified, based on their medium, maximum and minimum value. The analysis of the influence of LN phenomena at the end of the rainy season was accomplished by using the quantis technique, for nine areas of SEB defined previously. The amount of threemonthly precipitation

  18. Regional circulation differences between a rainy episode and a nonrainy episode in eastern São Paulo State in March 2006 Diferenças na circulação regional entre um episódio chuvoso e um episódio não-chuvoso no leste do Estado de São Paulo em março de 2006

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    Prakki Satyamurty

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The differences between the regional flow characteristics of a rainy episode and a nonrainy episode in March 2006 in eastern São Paulo state are discussed. The surface humidity and temperature characteristics do not show significant differences between the two cases. The composites of the middle tropospheric geopotential field and the lower-tropospheric wind field show a short-wave trough in the Atlantic off southern Brazil during the rainy episode. In the upper troposphere, the Bolivian high is stronger during the rainy episode than during the nonrainy episode, indicating that the troposphere over tropical South America is warmer during the rainy episode. The low-level jet in the rainy case does not penetrate northern Argentina, and is more NW-SE oriented, indicating that the humidity transport is more toward the southeastern Brazil. The moisture flux convergence over the eastern São Paulo at the 850-hPa is fairly strong in the rainy case whereas it is divergent in the nonrainy case. The presence of a low pressure area in the South Atlantic with westward tilt in the vertical provides synoptic forcing for the rising motion over eastern São Paulo state. These differences seem to be useful indicators for distinguishing rainy and nonrainy episodes.As diferenças nas características do escoamento atmosférico regional entre um episódio de chuva e outro de não-chuva sobre a parte leste do estado de São Paulo durante março de 2006 são discutidas. Os compostos dos campos de umidade e temperatura próximos à superfície durante os dois episódios distintos não mostram diferenças significativas. Os compostos de geopotencial em 500-hPa e ventos na baixa troposfera mostram um cavado de onda curta no Atlântico a leste da costa da Região Sul do Brasil durante o episódio chuvoso. O jato de baixos níveis tem uma orientação noroeste-sudeste sobre o norte da Bolívia durante o episódio chuvoso, indicando que o transporte de umidade é dirigido

  19. Rainy season characteristics of the Free State Province of South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-01-20

    Jan 20, 2011 ... false onset of rains and the plants' crop water requirements are ... skill in forecasting of planting dates, but, when agrometeoro- .... Statistical analysis. The dates for the onset and cessation of rains, length of the growing season and seasonal rainfall were analysed for each station using Rainbow software, ...

  20. The Tour du Canton defeats the rainy weather

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    On 8 June, over 2200 runners set off from the Route Marie Curie, outside Restaurant No. 1, in the third leg of the 2011 Tour de Canton race. CERN's mixed team held onto the first place in the inter-enterprise competition.   Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director for Administration and General Infrastructure gives the start to runners at the Tour du Canton (8 June 2011). Hosted by the CERN Running Club in collaboration with the communes of Meyrin and Satigny, the race gave runners and their families the chance to pay a flying visit to CERN. “The Tour du Canton races give different areas the opportunity to show off their part of the Canton of Geneva,” says David Nisbet, a member of the Club and one of the organizers of the event. “It was a chance for us to bring unlikely visitors onto the CERN site for a day of competition and fun.” With the starting/finishing line located outside Restaurant No. 1, runners got a look at CERN’s new restaurant extensio...

  1. Study on Late Rainy Season Aerial Pollutant Gases Concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research on the concentrations of pollutant gasses in tropical livestock buildings is needed in order to establish baselines for exposure limits in the context of ... gas detectors that employed a catalytic bead sensor for flammable gas and electrochemical sensors for other gas measurements were used for the gas analyses.

  2. Tõde on Rahvaliidule valus / Rainis Ruusamäe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruusamäe, Rainis, 1965-

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik, Severnoje Poberezhje 5. dets. lk. 2,2, Vooremaa 7. detsember lk. 2, Meie Maa 6. detsember lk. 2, Hiiu Leht 6. detsember lk. 2, Koit 5. detsember lk. 6, Pärnu Postimees 6. detsember lk. 15, Valgamaalane 10. detsember lk. 2. Autori sõnul ei taha ERL tunnistada, et maa erastamise õiguse andmine firmadele oli viga. ERL-i ja Reformierakonna poliitilisest kokkuleppest. Autor: Rahvaerakond Mõõdukad. Parlamendisaadik

  3. Rainy season period prevalence of helminths in the domestic fowl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only one cestode specie, Raillietina tetragona was observed and it had the highest prevalence rate of 92.5% of the screened birds. No cestode was recovered. Polyparasitism predominated more than monoparasitism. Male fowls carried significantly (p<0.5) more parasite burden than the females. The implications of the ...

  4. Fósforo na produtividade e qualidade de sementes de feijão Carioca Precoce cultivado no período das águas Phosphorus on the productivity and seed quality of bean Carioca Precoce cultivated during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudemir Zucareli

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O fósforo é o nutriente que mais limita a produtividade do feijoeiro em solos brasileiros, podendo influenciar na qualidade fisiológica de sementes. Objetivou-se com o trabalho avaliar a produtividade e a qualidade de sementes de feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L. do cultivar Carioca Precoce cultivado no período das águas em resposta à adubação fosfatada. Foram avaliadas seis doses de P (0; 30; 60; 90; 120 e 150 kg de P2O5 ha-1, aplicados no sulco da semeadura na forma de superfosfato triplo, com cinco repetições. A produtividade de sementes foi determinada com base na massa das sementes produzidas na área útil da parcela experimental. A qualidade das sementes foi avaliada por meio das seguintes determinações: massa de 100 sementes, teor de água, germinação, primeira contagem, teor de água após o envelhecimento acelerado, germinação após o envelhecimento acelerado, condutividade elétrica, emergência de plântulas no campo e massa de matéria seca de plântulas. A produtividade de sementes do feijão Carioca Precoce, cultivado no período das águas, aumentou linearmente em função do suprimento de P. A massa de 100 sementes e a qualidade fisiológica das sementes não foram alteradas pelo incremento das doses de P.Common bean is an important crop in Brazilian agriculture and phosphorus (P deficiency is one of the most yield limiting factors for this crop, thus plant P-deficiency can hamper the seed physiological quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity and quality of common bean seeds cv. Carioca Precoce cultivated during the rainy season in response to phosphate fertilizer. Six levels of P (0; 30; 60; 90; 120 and 150 kg of P2O5 ha-1, with five replications, were applied in the groove of sowing as triple superphosphate. The seeds yield, at the experimental plot, was determined by the dry weight. Seed quality was evaluated through the following determinations: 100-seed mass, seed moisture content

  5. Concentrate and crude protein levels in diets for dairy Gyr lineage cows grazing elephant-grass during the rainy season Níveis de concentrado e proteína bruta em dietas para vacas da raça Gir linhagem leiteira sob pastejo de capim-elefante durante a época das águas

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    Rafael Monteiro Araújo Teixeira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of three levels of concentrate (2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 kg/cow/day and two levels of crude protein (CP (14 and 16% total dietary dry matter, in comparison to mineral mixture (control on the intake, apparent digestibility, milk composition and yield and on feed efficiency and use of concentrates of cows grazing elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum in the rainy season. Twenty-one milking Gyr cows with average body weight of 426 kg and yield of 13.0 kg of milk/cow/day at 55 days of lactation were distributed in randomized blocks design, with seven diets (treatments in a 3 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement and three replications, in a period of 84 days. Forage dry matter intake was not influenced by the diets, but total dietary dry matter intake increased by 45% with the inclusion of concentrate in the diet. However, milk yield increased by only 17% (1.76 kg more milk per day with the use of concentrate. For dairy Gyr cows grazing elephant-grass during the rainy season, 2 kg of concentrate/cow/day and 14% of CP in the total diet provided the best productive response without harming body weight.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de três níveis de concentrado (2,0; 4,0 e 6,0 kg/vaca/dia e dois de proteína bruta (PB (14 e 16% da matéria seca total da dieta em comparação à mistura mineral (controle no consumo, na digestibilidade aparente, na produção e composição do leite e na eficiência alimentar e de utilização de concentrados de vacas sob pastejo de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum na época das águas. Vinte e uma vacas Gir linhagem leiteira com média de 426 kg de peso vivo e produção de 13,0 kg de leite/vaca/dia, aos 55 dias de lactação, foram distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com sete dietas (tratamentos, em arranjo fatorial 3 × 2 + 1 e três repetições, num período de 84 dias. O consumo de matéria seca de forragem não foi influenciado pelas

  6. Beef cattle supplementation maintained on pasture of “Panicum maximum” cv. Tanzânia-1 on rainy season Suplementação de bovinos de corte mantidos em pastagem de "Panicum maximum" cv. Tanzânia-1 no período das águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Garcia Caramori Júnior

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective with this study was to evaluate the effect of different supplementation levels in Nelore bulls during rainy season. It was used 32 Nelore bulls with 18 months old and 374 Kg of body live weight (LW, which were submitted to one of the four treatments: T1, pasture with mineral salt; T2, pasture plus 0.2% of LW of concentrate ration; T3, pasture plus 0.4% of LW with concentrate ration; T4, pasture plus 0.6% of LW with concentrate ration. Animals were kept on pastures of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia-1 divided in four fields with 3 hectares, for each group. Supplements were constituted of mineral salt, corn meal, soybean meal, soybean hulls and urea. Animals were weighed at the beginning and every 28 days to determinate average daily weight gain (ADG, and kept under rotational grazing and pasture mass availability was evaluated. ADG was not influenced by the levels of supplement. The use of Tanzania grass with adequate mass pasture availability allowed higher performance of the beef cattle in rainy season, that presented ADG of 0.99kg/animal.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de suplementação sobre o desempenho de touros Nelore PO, durante o período das águas. Foram utilizados 32 animais de 18 meses de idade, com peso vivo médio inicial de 374 Kg, os quais foram divididos em quatro grupos e submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos experimentais avaliados: mistura mineral (T1; suplementação com concentrado na base de 0,2% do peso vivo (T2; suplementação com concentrado de 0,4% do PV (T3 e suplementação com concentrado de 0,6% do PV (T4. Os animais foram mantidos durante 84 dias em pastagem de Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia -1, dividida em quatro piquetes de 3 ha , de modo que cada um dos grupos de animais fosse mantido de acordo com o tratamento utilizado. O concentrado foi composto de mistura mineral, fubá de milho, farelo de soja, casca de soja e uréia. Os animais foram pesados no início e a

  7. Formas de utilização do milho em suplementos para novilhos na fase de terminação em pastagem no período das águas: desempenho e parâmetros nutricionais Corn, in different forms, in multiple supplements for finishing crossbred steers on pasture during rainy season: performance and nutrition parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlos Oliveira Porto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da forma de utilização do milho em suplementos no desempenho de novilhos na fase de terminação, durante o período das águas, em pastagem de capim-braquiária. Utilizaram-se 16 bovinos mestiços com peso inicial de 384 kg e 18 meses de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos mistura mineral (MM (controle; milho triturado (MT; milho desintegrado com sabugo (MDS; e milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS - e quatro repetições. Os animais foram mantidos em pastagem de 6 ha de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf, dividida em quatro piquetes de 1,5 ha, com disponibilidade de matéria seca total (MST de 4,77 t/ha e MSpd (matéria seca potencialmente digestível de 3,14 t/ha. Para avaliação dos parâmetros nutricionais, utilizaram-se quatro animais mestiços fistulados no esôfago, no rúmen e no abomaso, com peso médio inicial de 390 kg, distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 × 4, composto de quatro tratamentos e quatro períodos experimentais. Os animais do grupo controle receberam mistura mineral diariamente (60 g/dia, enquanto os demais receberam os suplementos (1,0 kg/dia. Os suplementos múltiplos não influenciaram o desempenho dos animais, mas as concentrações séricas de uréia foram maiores nos animais sob suplementação. O consumo de PB, assim como a digestibilidade total de PB, aumentou com o uso dos suplementos múltiplos. Os animais do grupo controle (mistura mineral apresentaram maior consumo de matéria seca e matéria orgânica de pasto. O uso de suplemento múltiplo (1 kg/dia no período das águas promoveu aumento numérico de até 165 g/animal em relação à suplementação com mistura mineral. O milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo e o milho desintegrado com sabugo equivalem ao grão de milho triturado.The effect of corn feeding forms in multiple supplements on performance of finishing steers grazing signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens Stapf during rainy

  8. Structural and successional variability of periphytic algal community in a Amazonian lake during the dry and rainy season (Rio Branco, Acre Variação estrutural e sucessional da comunidade de algas perifíticas em lago amazônico durante o período seco e chuvoso

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    Raquel C.S França

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The colonization process and successional patterns of a periphytic algal community were evaluated in a Amazonian Viveiro Lake (Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil. Sampling was performed over a period of 35 days; at four-day intervals for 20 days, and then at five-day intervals. Water sampling for physical, chemical and biological analyses was done during the dry and rainy season. Glass slides were used as artificial substrates for periphyton colonization. The structural community was evaluated through population density, algae class, diversity indices and descriptive species. Species richness, diversity and evenness increased as succession progressed. While density of Bacillariophyceae, Euglenophyceae and Zygnemaphyceae increased with succession, Cyanobacteria remained dominant. Synechocystis aquatilis, Synechocystis diplococcus and Navicula pseudolanceolata were the main descriptive species in both the dry and rainy season. Cymbela tumida, Frustulia rhomboides, Trachelomonas lacustris and Closterium acicularis was correlated with an increase in hydrologic level during the rainy season. Conversely, the density of Chlamydomonas sp., Chroomonas nordstedtii, Trachelomonas volvocinopsis, Trachelomonas volvocina and Synechococcus linearis was correlated with an increase in water transparency during the dry season. In general, the periphytic algal community showed high diversity and species richness independent of season. Season also had little influence on representation of algae class and main descriptive species. However, successional patterns varied by season, and changes in hydrologic levels acted directly on the succession path of periphytic algae. More research on periphyton dynamics is needed to improve our understanding of tropical lake ecosystems, especially in Amazonian.A colonização e o modelo sucessional da comunidade de algas perifíticas foram avaliados no amazônico Lago do Viveiro (Rio Branco, Acre, Brasil. Amostragens foram realizadas no per

  9. Avaliação do consumo e ganho de peso de novilhos em pastejo rotacionado de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Napier, na estação chuvosa Evaluation of intake and weight gain of steers in rotacional grazing of elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum. cv. Napier, during the rainy season

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    Eleonora D'Avila Erbesdobler

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi conduzida na Fazenda Experimental da EPAMIG-Leopoldina, MG, onde foram avaliados o consumo de capim-elefante, a efetividade da limitação do tempo de pastejo a quatro horas diárias, para manter o consumo próximo à mantença e o ganho de peso de 36 novilhos ¾ Gir-Holandês, em cinco períodos sucessivos de 36 dias, na estação chuvosa. Os tratamentos foram: livre acesso ao pasto (pastejo irrestrito e pastejo restrito. A disponibilidade de matéria verde seca do capim-elefante nos cinco períodos variou de 4,0 a 7,8 kg/100 kg PV. Os animais com livre acesso ao pasto consumiram o equivalente a 1,61 vezes o dos animais de pastejo restrito e tiveram ganho de peso de corpo vazio médio diário de 516,4 g, com um ganho estimado de 432,5 kg por hectare, estando dentro da faixa de ganho de peso verificada para capim-elefante no Brasil. O consumo de energia metabolizável por unidade de tamanho metabólico manteve-se estável nos três primeiros períodos, elevando-se nos dois últimos períodos, em que ocorreram os maiores ganhos de peso dos animais. Quatro horas diárias de pastejo garantiram consumo próximo à mantença.The research was conducted in the experimental farm of the EPAMIG-Leopoldina, MG, to evaluate intake of elephantgrass, the effectiveness of limiting grazing time to four daily hours for keeping intake close to maintenance level, and the weight gain of thirty-six steers during five successive periods of thirty-six days, during the rainy season. The treatments were: free access to pasture (unlimited grazing and restricted grazing. The availability of green dry matter varied from 4.0 to 7.8 kg/100kg LW. The average daily weight gain of animals with free access to pasture was 516.5 g and their dry matter intake corresponded to 1.61 times that from the restricted grazing ones. The estimated gain per hectare was 423.5 kg, which is within the range reported for elephantgrass in Brasil. Metabolizable energy intake, per

  10. Physical, chemical and microbiological aspects during the dry and rainy seasons in a pond covered by macrophyte used in aquaculture water supply Aspectos físico-químicos e microbiológicos nas estações de seca e chuva em viveiro coberto por macrófitas usado no abastecimento de água para aquicultura

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    Samuel Generoso Dias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The water quality of a pond covered by macrophytes and used as a water supply for aquaculture was evaluated during the dry and rainy seasons; METHODS: Six points were established for water sampling, at water inflow and outflow. Samplings were carried out monthly between June 2008 and May 2009; RESULTS: Inflow points P1, P2 and P3 in the pond had higher nutrient concentrations and high trophic rates. Moreover, capybaras in the area caused sediment suspension and an increase in fecal coliforms. There was significant difference (p OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar durante as estações seca e estação chuvosa a qualidade da água de um viveiro, coberto por macrófitas, utilizado como sistema de abastecimento de água para aquicultura; MÉTODOS: Foram estabelecidos 6 pontos para a coleta das amostras de água na superfície do viveiro, envolvendo entradas e saídas da água. As coletas foram realizadas mensalmente entre junho de 2008 e maio de 2009; RESULTADOS: Os pontos P1, P2 e P3 devido à entrada de água no viveiro apresentaram maiores concentrações de nutrientes com elevado estado trófico e, a entrada de capivaras nestes locais promoveu a suspensão do sedimento e aumento de coliformes fecais. Há significativas diferenças (p < 0,05 nas concentrações de nutrientes na água entre seca e chuva, com o escoamento de água gerado pela precipitação carreando material do entorno do viveiro para a água; CONCLUSÕES: O sistema estudado sofre influência direta da precipitação e da ausência de manejo adequado da área do entorno. Durante a estação chuvosa a qualidade da água ficou comprometida com aumento da concentração de nutrientes, coliformes fecais e redução do oxigênio dissolvido na água, devido ao material alóctone proveniente da área ao redor do viveiro, afetando negativamente o sistema de abastecimento.

  11. The influence of castanhão reservoir on nutrient and suspended matter transport during rainy season in the ephemeral Jaguaribe river (CE, Brazil Influência do açude Castanhão no transporte de nutrientes e materiais em suspensão durante a estação chuvosa no intermitente rio Jaguaribe (CE, Brasil

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    MM. Molisani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of nutrient and suspended matter concentrations and loads entering and leaving the Castanhão reservoir during the rainy season were carried out to assess the influence of this large reservoir on land-sea fluvial transport in the ephemeral Jaguaribe river basin. Spatial variation indicated statistically significant attenuation of concentrations only for total phosphorous and suspended matter across the reservoir. Strong retention of nutrients and suspended matter loads by the reservoir was observed with average trapping efficiency of 89% for dissolved silicon, 98% of soluble reactive phosphorus, 71% for ammonium, 87% for total nitrogen, 98% for total phosphorus and 97% for suspended matter compared to the reservoir inflow. The dam operational procedure defined by the ephemeral conditions of the river reduced water releases compared to reservoir inflow and induced strong retention of nutrient and suspended matter loads within the reservoir when fluvial transfer occurs in this semiarid watershed.Medidas de concentrações e fluxos de nutrientes e material particulado em suspensão de entrada e saída do Açude Castanhão foram efetuadas para determinar a influência de um grande reservatório no transporte fluvial entre o continente e o oceano na bacia hidrográfica intermitente do Rio Jaguaribe. A variação espacial indicou uma atenuação estatisticamente significativa ao longo do reservatório somente para as concentrações de fósforo total e material particulado em suspensão. Os resultados indicam uma forte retenção de nutrientes e do material particulado em suspensão com eficiências de retenção de 89% para sílica dissolvida, 98% para fósforo solúvel reativo, 71% para amônia, 87% para nitrogênio total, 98% para fósforo total e 97% para o material particulado em suspensão em relação aos fluxos de entrada no reservatório. A rotina de operação da barragem definida pela condição intermitente do Rio Jaguaribe

  12. Seletividade de herbicidas: II - aplicação de herbicidas em pós-emergência inicial e tarida da cana-de-açúcar na época das chuvas Herbicide selectivity: II - herbicide application at initial and late and post-emergence of sugarcane in the rainy season

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    C.A.M. Azania

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho testar a seletividade dos herbicidas diuron+hexazinone, azafenidin+hexazinone, metribuzin e isoxaflutole, aplicados em pósemergência inicial e tardia das plantas de cana-de-açúcar, cultivar RB835089, na época das chuvas, em soqueira de terceiro corte, após colheita com queima prévia do canavial, em Araras-SP. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com testemunhas pareadas, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, existindo uma testemunha capinada para cada tratamento químico dentro de cada bloco. Os tratamentos foram: diuron+hexazinone (1.170+330 g ha-1, azafenidin+hexazinone (192,5+247,5 g ha-1, metribuzin (1.920 g ha-1, isoxaflutole (127,5 g ha-1 e testemunha. Concluiu-se que os herbicidas foram mais fitotóxicos quando aplicados na pós-emergência tardia. Em pós-emergência inicial, o isoxaflutole foi o único produto que afetou a produtividade agrícola. Na pós-emergência tardia, todos os herbicidas prejudicaram a produtividade agrícola, sendo o diuron+hexazinone o único produto que não afetou as características tecnológicas e o rendimento de açúcar.This research aimed to evaluate the selectivity of azafenidin+hexazinone, diuron+hexazinone, metribuzin and isoxaflutole to sugarcane, applied at initial and late post-emergence during the rainy season. The study was conducted over 3-yr sugarcane ratoons (cv. RB 835089, in Araras, SP. The experiment was arranged in randomized blocks with five treatments and four replications, and one weeded control for each treatment within each block. The treatments used were: (diuron+hexazinone (1,170 + 330 g ha-1, azafenidin+hexazinone (192.5+247.5 g ha-1, metribuzin (1,920 g ha-1 and isoxaflutole (127.5 g ha-1 and weed control. It was concluded that the herbicides damaged sugarcane the most when applied during late post-emergence. At early post-emergence, isoxaflutole was the only herbicide affecting yield. In late post-emergence, all the

  13. Inglased puhkavad Haljalas toodetud patjadel / Merike Lees

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lees, Merike, 1976-

    2005-01-01

    TOP-i 1. koht. Ülevaade Briti perefirma filiaali, patju ja tekke valmistava Baltic Fibres OÜ tegevusest. Kommenteerib Haljala vallavanem Jüri Sikkut. Lisa: Baltic Fibres OÜ. Diagramm: Kasum 15 miljonit suurem kui mullu

  14. Consumo e digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas sob suplementação com fontes de compostos nitrogenados e de carboidratos Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during rainy season and supplemented with different sources of nitrogenous compounds and carbohydrates

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    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-08-01

    suplemento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of different chemical forms of nitrogenous compounds (protein and non-protein and carbohydrates (starch and soluble fiber on intake, digestibility, and ruminal synthesis of microbial protein in cattle supplemented during rainy season. It was used five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, with average initial body weight of 211 ± 35 kg and fistulated in the rumen and abomasum. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on corn + soybean meal; corn + urea, citrus pulp + soybean meal, and citrus pulp + urea. The supplements were balanced to present 30% of crude protein (CP, on dry matter (DM basis, and provided at 3 g/kg BW. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, composed of two sources of nitrogenous compounds, two sources of carbohydrates and a control treatment. Pasture intake was reduced when supplements were fed to animals, with average substitution coefficient of 2.11 g of DM of pasture/g of DM of supplement. Supplementation did not alter the total and ruminal digestibility coefficients of DM and the dietary content of total digestible nutrients (TDN neither. Supplemented animals presented higher ruminal and total digestibility coefficients of CP than non-supplemented animals. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS, average of 123.1g of microbial CP/kg, was not changed by supplementation. However, animals supplemented with corn presented higher EMPS in comparison to animals supplemented with citrus pulp (137.6 and 106.1 g microbial CP/kg of TDN, respectively. Protein-energy supplementation for cattle grazing in tropical pastures during rainy season does not cause nutritional benefits, which reflects the high coefficient of substitution of forage by the supplement.

  15. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos para recria de novilhos mestiços em pastejo durante o período de transição seca/águas: desempenho produtivo e características nutricionais Energy sources in multiple supplements for growing crossbred steers on pastureduring the dry to rainy seasons: performance and nutritional characteristics

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    Michele Lopes do Nascimento

    2009-06-01

    starch or fiber in multiples supplements on performance and nutritional characteristics of finishing crossbred steers in the dry/rainy transition season, grazing Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. The experimental area was divided into 5 paddocks with 2.0 ha each, with dry matter availability of 4.309,4 kg/ha. Twenty-four castrated crossbred steers were used, initially 24 month old and 314.46 kg. For each animal, one of the five treatments was randomly applied: mineral mixture ad libitum, pearl millet grain or corn grain, as starchy energy sources, citrus pulp or wheat bran, as fibrous energy sources. To the different energy sources, the following were added: mineral mixture, cotton seed meal and urea, so that they composed supplements with 30% of crude protein based on the natural matter, supplied at the level of 1.5 kg/animal/day. In relation to control group, significant effect of the supplementation on the diary gain was not verified. The average daily gain obtained with the fibrous sources was 17.43% higher than that obtained with the starchy sources. The dry matter (DM, organic matter, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, crude protein (CP, ether extract, digestible DM, total digestible nutrients and neutral detergent fiber (NDF indigestible intakes (kg/animal/day was higher for supplemented animals in relation to the control group. CP and NFC total apparent digestibility were lower for animals that received only MM. Excretion of urea by urine, and the urea plasmatic level were lower for animals fed MM only. Multiple supplements with high digestible fiber sources in association with urea promoted better performance to the animals than that formulated with starchy sources and urea. The supplementation in the dry/rainy season, in 0.4% of the BW do not affect the NDF digestibility, regardless of the energy source.

  16. Protein sources in suplements to bovines on pastur in the dry and transition between the dry and the rainy periods Fontes de proteína em suplementos para bovinos em pastejo nos períodos da seca e de transição seca-águas

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    Marina Oliveira Martins

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplements with different protein sources were evaluated during the dry season and between the dry and the rainy seasons. We used 20 animals, with 220 kg average body weight and 10 months old age, in five paddocks (2 ha, in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and four replicates. The supplements with 38% of crude protein (CP in the dry matter (DM basis were supplied daily at 0.5% of their weight. The treatments employed were supplements based on: soybean meal /wheat meal (SMWM, wheat meal/urea (WMUR, cottonseed meal 38% of CP (CM38, cottonseed meal 28% of CP/urea (CMU28, wheat meal, cottonseed meal 38% of CP/urea (WCMU, and mineral salt was present in all the supplements. The treatment CM38 allowed superior animal performance compared with the treatments SMWM, WMUR and CM28; the treatment WCMU was superior to the treatments WMUR and CM28. We also used five Holstein-zebu steers, 10 months old and initial weight of 170 kg, fistulated in the esophagus and rumen. These animals were grazing in five paddocks (0.3 ha each in a completely randomized design. The intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF was superior in treatments of WMU and CM28 in relation to CM38 and WCMU; and the digestibility of DM obtained in SMWM and WMUR treatments were superior to those of CM38, CM28, and WCMU, and the digestibility of CP’s WMU was superior to those of CM38 and CM28.Suplementos múltiplos com diferentes fontes de proteína foram fornecidos a bovinos, na seca e transição seca/águas, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho. Foram utilizados 20 animais com peso vivo (PV médio de 220 kg e idade aproximada de 10 meses, em cinco piquetes de dois hectares cada, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O fornecimento dos suplementos, que tinham aproximadamente 38 % de proteína bruta (PB na matéria seca (MS, foi diário, em nível de 0,5 % do PV. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de suplemento à base de

  17. Produção de leite de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu em pastagem de capim-elefante, com e sem suplementação de concentrado durante a época das chuvas Milk yield of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows supplemented or not with concentrate during the rainy season

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    F. Deresz

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar o efeito da suplementação da pastagem de capim-elefante com concentrado na época das chuvas e início da seca, entre dezembro e junho, sobre a produção e composição do leite e ganho de peso de vacas mestiças Holandês ´ Zebu. Os tratamentos foram pastagem de capim-elefante sem concentrado (SC e com 2,0kg de concentrado/vaca/dia (CC. A área experimental de pastagem foi dividida em 44 piquetes de 606m² cada um, 22 por tratamento, com duas repetições de área. Foram usadas 12 vacas, sendo seis por tratamento. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso. A pastagem foi manejada em pastejo rotativo com três dias de ocupação por piquete e 30 dias de descanso. A taxa de lotação foi de 4,5 vacas/ha. A pastagem foi adubada com 200kg/ha/ano de N e de K2O. As produções médias de leite corrigido para 4% de gordura foram de 11,6± 0,3 e 12,5± 0,3kg/vaca/dia e o ganho médio diário por vaca de 211 e 244g, para os tratamentos SC e CC, respectivamente. Houve diferença (PThis work aimed to study the effect of concentrate supplementation of elephantgrass pasture during the rainy season and at the beginning of the dry season, on milk yield, milk composition and weight gain of crossbred Holstein ´ Zebu cows. The treatments were: elephantgrass pasture with no concentrate supplementation (NC and with 2kg concentrate supplementation cow/day (WC. The experimental area was divided in 44 paddocks with 606m² each, corresponding to 22 paddocks per replication and six cows per treatment. The cows were alloted to the treatments according to a completely randomized block design. The pasture was managed in a rotational system with 30 days resting period and three days grazing per paddock. The stocking rate was 4.5 cows/ha. The pasture was fertilized with 200kg/ha/yr of N and K2O. The average fat corrected (4% milk yield was 11.6± 0.3 and 12.5± 0.3kg/cow/day and the average daily weight gain during the

  18. Condições termodinâmicas de eventos de precipitação extrema em Belém-PA durante a estação chuvosa Thermodynamic conditions of extreme rainfall events in Belém-PA, Brazil, during the rainy season

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    João Paulo Nardin Tavares

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available As condições termodinâmicas de uma região são muito importantes para o desenvolvimento da convecção úmida profunda, principalmente nas regiões tropicais. Portanto, o objetivo deste trabalho foi o de entender e caracterizar o papel das condições termodinâmicas da atmosfera durante os eventos de precipitações extremas na estação chuvosa, no período de 1987 a 2007, em Belém (PA. Os resultados mostram que as precipitações extremas, em sua maioria (56% apresentam um ambiente precursor com forte instabilidade, indicada pelos altos valores de CAPE (acima de 1000 J/kg e valores significativos dos índices de instabilidade. Houve, contudo, eventos com baixos valores de CAPE na sondagem das 1200 UTC do dia do evento, mas valores maiores na véspera, o que indica que a chuva em questão pode ter começado na madrugada e ter perdurado por várias horas, atravessando a hora da sondagem, explicando a queda deste parâmetro. Os índices de instabilidade K, TT e LI apresentaram uma boa representação do ambiente, prognosticando as tempestades com chuvas fortes com índice de acerto de até 74%, se levados em conta os eventos em que todos os índices apontavam os mesmos resultados e indicavam forte instabilidade. As condições termodinâmicas de forte instabilidade ajudam a promover, mas não são as únicas responsáveis pelas tempestades convectivas com precipitações extremas.The thermodynamic conditions from any region are very important to the development of the deep, moist convection, mainly in the tropical region. Therefore, the aim of this work was to understand and characterize the role of atmospheric thermodynamic conditions during extreme rainfall events in the rainy season, in Belém (PA, Brazil. The results show that the extreme rainfall, in their majority (56% present a pre-storm environment with strong instability, indicated by the CAPE high values (above 1000 J/kg and meaningful values of the instability indexes. There was

  19. Consumo de matéria seca e desempenho de novilhas das raças Girolando e Guzerá sob suplementação na caatinga, na época chuvosa, em Pernambuco, Brasil Dry matter intake and performance of Girolando and Guzerá heifers and Guzerá under supplementation in caatinga, during the rainy season, in Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Daniel Fernando Ydoyaga Santana

    2010-10-01

    total dry matter (DM differed among breeds with values of 5.44 and 6.75 kg/day, respectively for Guzerat and Girolando breeds. For animal fed cottonseed cake supplementation, total DM intake was higher than in the control group (no supplementation, however, it was similar for those under spineless cactus and cottonseed cake + spinelles cactus supplementation. Daily average body weight gain (517 and 434 g/animal, respectively, for Girolando and Guzerat groups did not differ among breeds neither was affected by breed õ supplementation interaction. However, among strategies of suplementation, values were significantly different and they were 412, 620, 371 and 498 g/animal/day, respectively, for control and cottonseed cake suplementation group; spineless cactus; cottonseed cake + spineless cactus. In Pernambuco semiarid, 1 kg of cottonseed cake supplementation improved daily average weight gain, regardless to breed of the animal during the rainy season.

  20. Níveis de uréia em suplementos múltiplos para terminação de novilhos em pastagem de capim-braquiária durante o período de transição águas-seca Urea levels in multiple supplements for finishing beef cattle on palisade grass pasture during the rainy to dry transition

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    Maykel Franklin Lima Sales

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de suplementos múltiplos com diferentes níveis de uréia sobre o desempenho produtivo e os parâmetros nutricionais de bovinos em fase de terminação mantidos em pastagem diferida de capim-braquiária (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu no período de transição águas-seca. A disponibilidade estimada de matéria seca das pastagens variou de 16.360 a 9.358 kg/ha. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo, utilizaram-se 20 novilhos mestiços não-castrados, com 20 meses de idade e 376 kg de peso vivo. Os animais foram agrupados em lotes com pesos semelhantes, segundo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em quatro piquetes de 1,5 ha, onde receberam 1,5 kg/dia de suplemento isoprotéico (20% de PB, constituído de grãos de milho e soja moídos, mistura mineral e uréia nos níveis 0,0; 1,6; 3,2 ou 4,8% na matéria natural. O ganho médio diário - valor médio foi de 0,570 kg/dia - não foi influenciado pelos níveis de uréia do suplemento. Os parâmetros nutricionais foram avaliados utilizando-se quatro animais mestiços Holandês × Zebu, não-castrados, com peso médio inicial de 320 kg, fistulados no esôfago, rúmen e abomaso. Os animais receberam as mesmas quantidades de suplemento fornecidas aos animais do experimento de desempenho. Os níveis de uréia não afetaram significativamente o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal. Para obtenção de ganhos de 0,5 a 0,6 kg/dia, pode-se utilizar apenas milho, uréia e mistura mineral em suplementos múltiplos para terminação de bovinos em pasto diferido.The effects of multiple supplements with different urea levels on the productive performance and nutritional characteristics, for finishing beef cattle kept in deferred pasture of palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu in the transition period of rainy to dry season were evaluated. The estimated dry matter availability of the pasture ranged from 16,360 to 9,358 kg/ha. In the performance trial, 20

  1. Níveis de energia em suplementos múltiplos para terminação de novilhos em pastagem de capim-braquiária no período de transição águas-seca Energy levels in multiple supplements for finishing beef cattle grazing palisade grass pasture during the rainy to dry transition season

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    Maykel Franklin Lima Sales

    2008-04-01

    finishing beef cattle grazing palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, during the rainy to dry transition season. For the performance evaluation, 24 crossbred bulls, 18 month old and 330 kg of initial body weight (BW, were distributed to a completely randomized design, in four paddocks of 1.5 ha each. Four treatments were evaluated: mineral mix (MM and corn and whole soybean grain based supplements offered in three levels: 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 kg/d, allowing TDN intake of, respectively, 0.832; 1.163 and 1.496 kg/d. There was a positive linear effect of the energy levels on the average daily gain and on the final body weight. The nutritional parameters were assessed in four crossbred bulls , with average initial 300 kg BW, fitted with esophageal, ruminal and abomasal cannula, and fed similar diets of those animals used in the performance. There was no ffect of supplementation on dry matter intake (DMI, although it was observed a linear reduction in forage intake. The intakes organic matter from pasture, of the NDF from the total diet and of the pasture was negative linearly affected by the energy levels. There were not observed effects of supplementation levels on the total apparent digestibility of the nutrients, except for CP, which showed a quadratic effect by the level of supplementation. Additional weight gain, ranging from 20 to 30%, can be obtained in beef cattle supplemented with increasing amounts of energy during the finishing phase; however, those gains depend of the substitution of forage intake by the supplement.

  2. Replacement of soybean meal by treated castor meal in supplements for grazing heifer during the dry-rainy season period Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de mamona tratado em suplementos para novilhas em pastejo no período de transição seca-águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplement with different levels of castor meal (Ricinus communis L. treated with calcium oxide on intake, on the total apparent digestibility of dietary components, on the efficiency of microbial synthesis and on the performance of beef heifers grazing Brachiaria decumbens during the dry-rainy transition period. The experimental area was composed of five 2.5-ha paddocks with availability of potentially digestible dry matter of 2,858.4 kg/ha. It was used 25 Nellore heifers and 10 crossbred with predominance of Zebu breed heifers at 13 months of age and body weight of 210 ± 0.8 kg in a completely randomized experimental design. Supplements contained approximately 25% of crude protein (CP and they were formulated with 0; 33; 67 and 100% of castor meal replacing soybean meal. Daily weight gain was 366.1 g for animals in the control group and 439.7; 478.9; 556.3; and 493.9, respectively for those fed supplements with 100% of soybean meal and 33, 67 and 100% castor meal. There was no effect of treated castor meal levels on daily weight gain of the animals, which was higher in those animals fed supplements. Levels of castor meal had decreasing linear effect on intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, digested dry matter and digestible neutral detergent fiver and on the intake of total digestible nutrients. Coefficients of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE and non-fibrous carbohydrates were greater for animals under supplementation. Microbial efficiency, expressed in g of crude protein per kg of consumed TDN, did not differ among groups. Replacement of soybean meal by castor meal treated with calcium oxide does not harm animal performance.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de suplementos múltiplos com diferentes níveis de farelo de mamona (Ricinus communis L. tratado com óxido de cálcio sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total de componentes da

  3. Consumo e dinâmica ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementação com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Intake and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein nitrogen and, or true protein during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body weight and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullaes were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams/d of crude protein (CP were supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. There were no effects of supplementation on voluntary intake, except for CP intake, which was increased by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin in the supplements caused linear effect on the CP intake. The intakes of the other diet components were not affected by the supplement composition. There was no effect on ruminal rate of passage of fibrous compounds. Supplementation increased the estimates of common rate of lag and degradation of NDF. However, no effect of supplement composition alteration was observed on this parameter. Supplementation of cattle with rumen degradable (protein or non-protein nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during rainy season does not affect voluntary intake of pasture.

  4. Digestibilidade total e parcial e balanço nitrogenado em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementos com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Total and partial digestibility and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein and, or true protein nitrogen during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    this study was to evaluate the effect of different true protein:non-protein nitrogen ratios in supplements on digestibility, microbial protein synthesis and nitrogen balance in grazing cattle during rainy season. Five crossbred Holstein × Zebu steers, averaging 335±35 kg of body weight and fitted with rumen and abomasum canullae were used. The treatments were: control (only pasture, and supplements based on urea, 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, 1/3 of nitrogenous compounds from urea and 2/3 of nitrogenous compounds from albumin, and albumin. Two hundred grams of crude protein (CP were daily supplied from supplements. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five 15-day experimental periods. Supplementation did not affect the total digestibility coefficients or the diet content of total digestible nutrients. Supplementation increased ruminal apparent digestibility coefficient of CP, which moved from negative for the control treatment to positive, but not different from zero, for treatments involving supplementation. Supplementation increased the rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration. Nitrogen balance was enhanced by supplementation. The replacement of urea by albumin caused a cubic effect on the nitrogen balance, with the higher value obtained at 1/3 of supplemental CP as urea. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis was not influenced by supplementation or supplement composition. Supplementation with ruminal degradable nitrogenous compounds for grazing cattle during the rainy season increases the efficiency of use of pasture mainly by improving the body nitrogenous compounds retention.

  5. Níveis de proteína em suplementos para terminação de bovinos em pastejo durante o período de transição seca/águas: consumo voluntário e trânsito de partículas Effects of feeding different protein levels of supplements to finishing cattle in pasture during the dry to rainy transition season on voluntary intake and passage of particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e os parâmetros da cinética de trânsito de partículas em bovinos suplementados durante a fase de transição entre os períodos seco e chuvoso. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos Holandês x Zebu com idade e peso médios iniciais de 24 meses e 304 kg, respectivamente, manejados em cinco piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens (0,34 ha. Foram fornecidos suplementos (4 kg/animal/dia, constituídos por fubá de milho, grão de soja integral, uréia, sulfato de amônia e mistura mineral, formulados para apresentarem níveis de 12, 16, 20 e 24% de proteína bruta (PB, com base na matéria natural. O experimento foi conduzido em quatro períodos experimentais de 21 dias e analisado por delineamento em quadrado latino 4 x 4. O quinto animal, mantido sem suplementação (controle, foi utilizado como medida de comparação descritiva. A forragem selecionada pelos animais apresentou teores médios de PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN de 109,9 e 564,4 g/kg de matéria seca (MS, respectivamente. A variação do nível de PB dos suplementos não alterou os consumos de MS, de matéria orgânica e de FDN. O fornecimento de suplementos reduziu o consumo de pastagem e ampliou o consumo de MS total em relação ao controle, com coeficiente médio de substituição de 0,41. O nível de PB dos suplementos não afetou a taxa de passagem ruminal das partículas, cujo valor médio (0,034 h-1, foi superior ao observado no controle (0,029 h-1.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the voluntary intake and ruminal passage of particles in supplemented finishing cattle during the drought to rainy transition season. Five Holstein x Zebu steers averaging 304 kg of live weight and 24 months of age located in five paddocks (0.34 ha each of Brachiaria decumbens were used in this trial. The supplements fed (4 kg/animal/day contained ground corn, whole soybean, urea, ammonium sulfate, and minerals and were formulated to yield, on as-fed basis, 12, 16, 20

  6. Conteúdo de energia líquida para mantença e ganho do capim-elefante e mudanças na composição corporal de novilhos em pastejo, durante a estação chuvosa Net energy content for maintenance and weight gain of elephantgrass and changes on body composition of grazing steers during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Alencar Fontes

    2005-10-01

    elevados.The net energy content for maintenance (NEm and gain (NEg of the napiergrass, under rotational grazing, as well as the changes on protein and fat concentrations in body and in weight gain of 36 ¾ Gyr-Holstein steers, grazing the forage, during the rainy season were determined. Half of steers had grazing time restricted to four hours daily, to limit energy intake to a level close to the maintenance level, and half had free access to the pasture. Six steers were slaughtered at begining of the trial, to determine initial body composition, and six (three from each treatment, at each subsequent 35 day. Prediction equations of the changes of body composition, with increase of body weight, were fitted by regression of log10 body content of protein and fat on log10 empty body weight. By differentiation of those equations, the prediction equations of composition of weight gain were obtained. The energy concentrations were estimated from protein and fat content and respective calorie equivalents. By regression of retained energy (RE on metabolizable energy (ME intake, the efficiency of ME utilization for gain, as the regression coeficient, and the ME requirement for maintenance (level of ME intake for RE = 0 were estimated. The efficiency of utilization of ME for maintenance (Km was obtained by the ratio: Km = NEm/MEm. The NEm and NEg of napiergrass were determined, respectively, as the products of Km and Kg to ME content of the forage, and the values 1.02 and 0.59 Mcal/kg dry matter, respectively, were obtained. The protein concentrations in the body and in body weight gain remained in higher levels and the fat energy concentrations remained in lower levels than those reported, in Brazil, for zebu and crossbred steers showing higher weight gains.

  7. Should Business Reform Public Education? A "Rainy Night" for Georgia Teachers and Implications for Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliff, John Vincent

    Into the "quality of public schools" issue step politicians with quick fixes--"proven" business practices variously rejected by experts Peter Drucker (Management by Objectives) and W. E. Deming (Quality Management). These include the following. Determine product quality by inspection--hence, compare school quality by testing teachers and students.…

  8. On mean state of the atmosphere at the end of rainy season in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor operational upper air network had therefore been responsible for the poor products users get from the forecast office. This paper describes the wind ... Analysis of both the zonal and meridional wind components showed that the southerlies were favourable for bad weather. The winds were found to be generally weak ...

  9. Ingestive behavior of grazing heifers receiving crude glycerin supplementation during the dry-rainy season transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Visintin Silva de Almeida

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The search to find food alternatives for corn and feeding alternatives that reduce the cost of production has been constant. The use of oleaginous grains to produce ethanol and biodiesel has produced an excess of byproducts, especially biodiesel which produces crude glycerin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of including crude glycerin on the ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers supplemented with pasture. Thirty-six crossbred heifers with an initial mean weight of 301.5 ± 31 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replicates per treatment. The animals were kept in a Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf 'Marandu' pasture in a rotational-grazing system. The treatments tested were 0.0%, 3.33%, 6.66%, and 9.99% crude glycerin included in total DM to replace corn (Tea mays L. Including crude glycerin reduced the time for grazing and eating at the trough and increased idle time. Rumination was quadratically influenced. Eating time (min kg-1 DM and neutral detergent fiber [NDF] was reduced, while rumination time (min kg-1 DM and NDF was quadratically affected by adding glycerin. The variables, time spent per ruminated bolus and the number of chews per day, were not affected. The number of boluses per day showed a quadratic effect. The number of grazing, idle, ruminating, and eating at the trough periods were not affected by including crude glycerin; means were 15.1, 24.9, and 13.3 and 3.71 periods d-1, respectively. Feed and rumination efficiency (kg h-1 DM and NDF increased when crude glycerin was included in the diet. Including crude glycerin promotes feed and rumination efficiency in grazing heifers.

  10. Partitioning of snowy and rainy precipitation in a case of a north Adriatic frontal passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Monai

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of snow fall in the plains of the Northern Italian region Veneto is presented from a forecasters' perspective. Contrasting forecast guidance came from the ECMWF global model and the limited area model LAMI. The former showed a marked warm-moist Sirocco flow coming from the Adriatic Sea onto the coast at all levels, the latter discerned a distinct cold air flow from the north-east along the foothills of the Alps. The integrated observing network of the Centro Meteorologico di Teolo ARPA Veneto revealed this cold-air structure and helped the forecaster in the choice of the forecast and underpin the snowfall alert to the road authorities. It is argued that this feature is a crucial element for the occurrence of snowfall over the Veneto plains, and that the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model was essential in describing this mesoscale feature. The nature of the north-easterly flow is thought to be a combination of a Bora like flow and a barrier jet induced by flow blocking by the Alps.

  11. Elevation - LiDAR Survey - Rainy River, MN and Canada (Border Water)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — In November of 2006, Sanborn was contracted by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, St. Louis District on behalf of the St. Paul District to execute a LIDAR (Light...

  12. Milk quality in high production systems during dry and rainy seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the milk quality of crossbred cows from five production systems according to the quality parameters required by Normative Instruction No. 62 (NI 62). Five different production systems were used, with different environmental and sanitary conditions, and with animals from different breeds in two ...

  13. Milk quality in high production systems during dry and rainy seasons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usuario

    2015-10-28

    19-24. Dohoo IR Leslie KE (1991). Evaluation of changes in somatic-cells counts as indicators of new intramammary infections. Prev. Vet. Med. 10(3):225-237. Dürr JW (2002). Atualização em pastagem e produção animal –.

  14. Characteristics of Particulate Carbon in Precipitation during the Rainy Season in Xiamen Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhui Zhao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Measuring wet deposition of organic carbon (OC and elemental carbon (EC aerosol is crucial for the understanding of their circulation and climate effect. To further understand the wet deposition of particulate carbon (OC and EC, precipitation samples were collected from April to August 2014 on Xiamen Island in China. EC and water insoluble organic carbon (WIOC concentrations were analyzed using a thermal optical method to investigate temporal variations and wet deposition fluxes. The average EC and WIOC concentrations were 7.3 μgC·L−1 and 495.3 μgC·L−1, respectively, which are both comparable to the results reported in European areas. EC and WIOC concentrations were higher in spring than in summer. Higher EC concentrations were found in April, which were probably associated with the transport of air masses from northern continental areas. Higher WIOC concentrations were found in May and were mainly attributed to air masses from the South China Sea. Lower concentrations of EC and WIOC in the summer were primarily due to the clean air masses transported from the ocean. The wet deposition flux was calculated as the product of concentration and precipitation amount. Average wet deposition fluxes of EC and WIOC were estimated to be 0.6 mgC·m−2·month−1 and 36.7 mgC·m−2·month−1, respectively. Wet deposition fluxes of EC and WIOC exhibited similar concentration trends. The largest flux in EC wet deposition occurred in April (1.8 mgC·m−2·month−1, while the largest flux in WIOC wet deposition occurred in May (63.1 mgC·m−2·month−1.

  15. Complete breeding failures in ivory gull following unusual rainy storms in North Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Yannic

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural catastrophic events such as heavy rainfall and windstorms may induce drastic decreases in breeding success of animal populations. We report the impacts of summer rainfalls on the reproductive success of ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea in north-east Greenland. On two occasions, at Amdrup Land in July 2009 and at Station Nord in July 2011, we observed massive ivory gull breeding failures following violent rainfall and windstorms that hit the colonies. In each colony, all of the breeding birds abandoned their eggs or chicks during the storm. Juvenile mortality was close to 100% at Amdrup Land in 2009 and 100% at Station Nord in 2011. Our results show that strong winds associated with heavy rain directly affected the reproductive success of some Arctic bird species. Such extreme weather events may become more common with climate change and represent a new potential factor affecting ivory gull breeding success in the High Arctic.

  16. Der Abbau von Fluorbenzol und seinen Homologen durch Burkholderia fungorum FLU 100

    OpenAIRE

    Strunk, Niko

    2007-01-01

    Der Stamm Burkholderia fungorum FLU 100 besitzt die unter den Bakterien äußerst selten zu findende Eigenschaft, Fluorbenzol als alleinige Kohlenstoff- und Energiequelle nutzen zu können. Außerdem kann der Stamm auch die anderen Monohalogenbenzole sowie Benzol und Toluol - als Reinstoff oder in beliebigen Mischungen - vollständig produktiv verwerten. In dieser Arbeit wurden ein Teil des Abbauweges sowie die Einsatzmöglichkeiten des Stammes im Rahmen der biologischen Abluftreinigung erforscht. ...

  17. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Jackie; Speybroeck, Nico; Sochanta, Tho

    2012-01-01

    In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess...

  18. 75 FR 39612 - IJC Will Review Bi-National Management of the Lake of the Woods and Rainy River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE IJC Will... report is expected to be released by the end of 2011. In the meantime, the IJC will make periodic reports to the governments that will include plans for engaging with federal governments and relevant...

  19. Building hazard maps of extreme daily rainy events from PDF ensemble, via REA method, on Senegal River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo Osorio, J. D.; García Galiano, S. G.

    2011-11-01

    The Sudano-Sahelian zone of West Africa, one of the poorest of the Earth, is characterized by high rainfall variability and rapid population growth. In this region, heavy storm events frequently cause extensive damage. Nonetheless, the projections for change in extreme rainfall values have shown a great divergence between Regional Climate Models (RCM), increasing the forecast uncertainty. Novel methodologies should be applied, taking into account both the variability provided by different RCMs, as well as the non-stationary nature of time series for the building of hazard maps of extreme rainfall events. The present work focuses on the probability density functions (PDFs)-based evaluation and a simple quantitative measure of how well each RCM considered can capture the observed annual maximum daily rainfall (AMDR) series on the Senegal River basin. Since meaningful trends have been detected in historical rainfall time series for the region, non-stationary probabilistic models were used to fit the PDF parameters to the AMDR time series. In the development of PDF ensemble by bootstrapping techniques, Reliability Ensemble Averaging (REA) maps were applied to score the RCMs. The REA factors were computed using a metric to evaluate the agreement between observed -or best estimated- PDFs, and that simulated with each RCM. The assessment of plausible regional trends associated to the return period, from the hazard maps of AMDR, showed a general rise, owing to an increase in the mean and the variability of extreme precipitation. These spatial-temporal distributions could be considered by Organization for the Development of the Senegal River (Organisation pour la mise en valeur du fleuve Sénégal, OMVS), in such a way as to reach a better balance between mitigation and adaptation.

  20. Investigations into rhizosphere microflora. IV. Fungal association in different root regions of some rainy-season crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Srivastava

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and rhizoplane microflora of the crown and distal regions of Echinochloa crusgalli (L. Beauv. and Paspalum scrobiculatum L. were studied from seedling stage to the harvest. The variation in bacterial and fungal flora in relation to host species, stage of development and żonę of the rhizosphere were studied. The differences between fungal and bacterial flora are described. The relation between rhizosphere microflora and roots exudates is described.

  1. [Low molecular weight carboxylic acids in precipitation during the rainy season in the rural area of Anshun, West Guizhou Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Lee, Xin-Qing; Huang, Dai-Kuan; Huang, Rong-Sheng; Jiang, Wei

    2009-03-15

    40 rainwater samples were collected at Anshun from June 2007 to October 2007 and analysed in terms of pH values, electrical conductivity, major inorganic anions and soluble low molecular weight carboxylic acids. The results showed that pH of individual precipitation events ranged from 3.57-7.09 and the volume weight mean pH value was 4.57. The most abundant carboxylic acids were acetic (volume weight mean concentration 6.75 micromol x L(-1)) and formic (4.61 micromol x L(-1)) followed by oxalic (2.05 micromol x L(-1)). The concentration levels for these three species during summer especially June and July were comparatively high; it implied that organic acids in Anshun may came primarily from emissions from growing vegetations or products of the photochemical reactions of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Carboxylic acids were estimated to account for 32.2% to the free acidity in precipitation. The contribution was higher than in Guiyang rainwater, which indicated contamination by industry in Guiyang was more than in Anshun. The remarkable correlation(p = 0.01) between formic acid and acetic acid suggest that they have similar sources or similar intensity but different sources. And the remarkable correlation (p = 0.01) between and formic acid and oxalic acid showed that the precursors of oxalic acid and formic acid had similar sources. During this period, the overall wet deposition of carboxylic acids were 2.10 mmol/m2. And it appeared mainly in the summer, during which both concentration and contribution to free acidity were also relatively high. Consequently, it was necessary to control emission of organic acids in the summer to reduce frequence of acid rain in Anshun.

  2. Eesti tööstus tõuseb jalgadele

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Artiklis tutvustatakse Arengufondi "Tööstusvedurid 2018" projekti ja Eesti Tööandjate Keskliidu ettepanekuid tööstuse arendamiseks ning Saku Õlletehase ja tõstuksetootja Kinema OÜ kogemusi tootlikkuse tõstmisel. Selgitusi jagavad Arengufondi arenguseire juht Kitty Kubo, Arengufondi majandusekspert Siim Sikkut, majandus- ja kommunikatsiooniministeeriumi majanduspoliitika talituse juhataja Raul Allikivi, Eesti Tööandjate Keskliidu juhataja Tarmo Kriis, Saku Õlletehase tootmisdirektor Martin Paukson ja Kinema OÜ tegevjuht Andrus Allikoja

  3. Edaphic factors controlling summer (rainy season) greenhouse gas emissions (CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}) from semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nóbrega, Gabriel N. [Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ/USP, Av.Pádua Dias 11, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13.418-260 (Brazil); Ferreira, Tiago O., E-mail: toferreira@usp.br [Departamento de Ciência do Solo, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz, ESALQ/USP, Av.Pádua Dias 11, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13.418-260 (Brazil); Siqueira Neto, M. [Laboratório de Biogeoquímica Ambiental, Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, CENA/USP, Av. Centenário 303, Piracicaba, São Paulo 13.400-970 (Brazil); Queiroz, Hermano M.; Artur, Adriana G. [Departamento de Ciências do Solo, Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Av. Mister Hull 2977, Campus do Pici, Fortaleza, Ceará 60.440-554 (Brazil); Mendonça, Eduardo De S. [Departamento de Produção Vegetal, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, UFES, Alto Universitário s/n, Alegre, Espírito Santo 29.500-000 (Brazil); Silva, Ebenezer De O. [Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária, Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Agroindústria Tropical, Pós Colheita, Dra. Sara Mesquita Street, 2270, Planalto Pici, Fortaleza, Ceará 60.511-110 (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    The soil attributes controlling the CO{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4} emissions were assessed in semiarid mangrove soils (NE-Brazil) under different anthropogenic activities. Soil samples were collected from different mangroves under different anthropogenic impacts, e.g., shrimp farming (Jaguaribe River); urban wastes (Cocó River) and a control site (Timonha River). The sites were characterized according to the sand content; physicochemical parameters (Eh and pH); total organic C; soil C stock (SCS) and equivalent SCS (SCS{sub EQV}); total P and N; dissolved organic C (DOC); and the degree of pyritization (DOP). The CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} fluxes from the soils were assessed using static closed chambers. Higher DOC and SCS and the lowest DOP promote greater CO{sub 2} emission. The CH{sub 4} flux was only observed at Jaguaribe which presented higher DOP, compared to that found in mangroves from humid tropical climates. Semiarid mangrove soils cannot be characterized as important greenhouse gas sources, compared to humid tropical mangroves. - Highlights: • GHG emission was associated with different soil characteristics. • Highest CO{sub 2} emissions were found in mangroves with larger dissolved C and lower DOP. • Less CH{sub 4} flux was due to low DOP in semiarid mangrove soils.

  4. The effects of energy and protein supplementation strategy and frequency on the performance of beef cattle that grazed on Tanzania grass pastures during the rainy season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorin, R L; Saad, R M; Silva, L D F; Galbeiro, S; Cecato, U; Junior, F L Massaro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the different supplementation strategies for finishing Nellore beef cattle on pastures of Tanzania guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. 'Tanzania'). The experiment was performed in a 12 ha area divided into 12 paddocks of 1 ha each. Forty-eight, 2-year-old, non-castrated Nellore cattle with an initial body weight (BW) of 384 kg (SEM = 21) were used in this study. The following supplementation strategies were evaluated: (1) mineral supplement supplied once per week (MS), (2) energy and protein supplement with intake regulator (2 g/kg BW) supplied once per week (EPS1), (3) energy and protein supplement (7 g/kg BW) supplied daily (EPS2), and (4) energy and protein supplement (7 g/kg BW) supplied three times per week (EPS3). The average daily gain (ADG) of animals receiving EPS3 was 0.177 kg/day higher than those receiving EPS1 (p Tanzania guinea grass is nutritionally limited and can be amended using supplements, thereby increasing animal performance. Animal performance was higher with increased protein and energy supplementation (7 g/kg BW), independent of the frequency with which supplements were administered.

  5. Evidence of hydraulic lift for pre-rainy season leaf out and dry-season stem water enrichment in Sclerocarya birrea, a tropical agroforestry tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Rinaldo, Andrea; Parlange, Marc B.

    2014-05-01

    We use stable isotopes of water as tracers to follow water use by five Sclerocarya birrea trees in a catchment in South Eastern Burkina Faso interspersed with millet fields, gallery forest, Sudanian savanna, and fallow fields. Isotopic ratios were determined from water extracted from stems of the trees and sub-canopy soil of two of them, while nearby ground water, precipitation, and surface water was sampled weekly. A unique configuration of sensors connected with a wireless sensor network of meteorological stations measured sub-canopy shading, the temperature and humidity in the canopy, through-fall, and soil moisture under two of the trees. Both water extracted from sap and water extracted from soil is extremely enriched in the dry season, but drop to levels close to the ground water in February or March, which coincides with the growth of leaves. Dates of leaf out were confirmed by changes in δDH and δO18 concentrations of water, photographic documentation & pixel analysis, and analysis of sub-canopy radiation and proceeded the rise in humidity and flow that was later detected in the sub-canopy soil, the trunk of the tree (sap-flow), and atmosphere (canopy VPD). Examination of the isotopic signature suggests that size of tree plays an important role in duration and timing of this leaf-out as well as the degree of enrichment during the peak of the dry season. Further examination of the isotopic signatures of the roots suggested that the trees are performing hydraulic redistribution, or lifting the ground water and "sharing it" with the soil in the rooting zone in the dry season. The enriched level of xylem in this case is a product of water loss, and enrichment, along the travel path of the water from the roots to the tip of the stem, as evidenced by the variation according to size of tree. Vapor pressure deficit, soil water, and soil moisture interactions support this picture of interacting controls, separate from hydrologic triggers on the water movement in the tree.

  6. Influence of wasting and stunting at the onset of the rainy season on subsequent malaria morbidity among rural preschool children in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillol, Florie; Cournil, Amandine; Boulanger, Denis; Cissé, Badara; Sokhna, Cheikh; Targett, Geoffrey; Trape, Jean-François; Simondon, François; Greenwood, Brian; Simondon, Kirsten B

    2009-02-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, malaria and malnutrition are major causes of morbidity and mortality in children less than five years of age. To explore the impact of malnutrition on subsequent susceptibility to malaria, a cohort of 874 rural preschool children in Senegal was followed-up during one malaria transmission season from July through December. Data on nutritional status and Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia were collected at baseline. Malaria morbidity was monitored through weekly home visits. Wasted children (weight-for-height z-score < -2) were at lower risk of having at least one subsequent clinical malaria attack (odds ratio = 0.33; 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.81, P = 0.02), whereas stunting (height-for-age z-score < -2) or being underweight (weight-for-age z-score < -2) was not associated with clinical malaria. Although non-biological explanations such as overprotection of wasted children by their mothers should be considered, immunomodulation according to nutritional status could explain the lower risk of malaria attack among wasted children.

  7. Pühast palmipuudest / Urmas Petti

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Petti, Urmas, 1965-

    2013-01-01

    Inimeste teadvustatud ja teadvustamata kujutlustest religiooni kohta; autor tsiteerib kirjanikke: Claude Duneton (jutustus "Punaste metsade taga", orig. "Loin des forêts rouges"), Kurt Vonnegut, Peter Stamm (romaan "Agnes")

  8. Vienkamieniai asmenvardžiai su lie. darg-: jų pamatas ir ryšiai su dvikamieniais asmenvardžiais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Sinkevičiūtė

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available DIE EINSTÄMMIGEN NAMEN MIT LIT. darg-: IHRERE GRUNDLAGE UND VERBINDUNGEN MIT DEN ZUSAMMENGESETZTEN NAMENZusammenfassungIn diesem Aufsatz wird die Grundlage der einstämmigen Namen mit darg- und ihrere Verbindungen mit diesen Stamm habenden zusammengesetzten Namen untersucht. Die vorhandenen Daten weisen darauf hin, daß die zusammengesetzten und einstämmigen Namen mit darg- nicht nur in Litauen, sondern auch in Lettland (? und Preußen anzutreffen sind. Baltische einstämmige Namen mit darg- bestehen: 1 aus dem ersten Stamm des zusammengesetzten Namens und dem Anfang des zweiten Stammes (litauische, lettische (? und preußische Namen, 2 aus dem ersten oder zweiten Stamm des zusammengesetzten Namens (litau­ische und preußische Namen.Den Stamm darg- habende einstämmige litauische Familiennamen, die sich auf die ersten oder zwei­ten Stämme, oder den ersten Stamm und den Anfang des zweiten Stammes der zusammengesetzten Na­men beziehen lassen, herrschen in den Arealen der Nord- und Südenniederlitauer vor. Durch die struktu­relle Analyse der zusammengesetzten und einstämmigen Namen mit darg- wird festgestellt, daß diese Namen miteinander in Verbindung stehen. Die niederlitauischen einstämmigen Namen mit darg- entstan­den aus den zusammengesetzten Namen der Strukturtypen Dar-gVC-, Dar-gVCC-. Die zusammengesetzten Namen mit dem Stamm darg- konnten aus den einstämmigen hypokoristischen Formen mit darg- später entstanden. Unter Berufung auf vorhandenes Material kann man behaupten, daß die hypokoristischen For­men mit darg- den Einfluß auf das System der zusammengesetzten Namen ausübten.

  9. Ultrafast Phenomena 6. Proceedings of the International Conference (6th) Held in Kyoto, Japan on July 12-15, 1988. Springer Series in Chemical Physics, Volume 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Dynamics of Optical Nonlinearities in Wide-Gap I-VI Semiconductors By J. Puls, W. Rudolf , F. Henneberger, D. Lap, V. Petrov, U. Stamm, and B. Wilhelmi...variationMl and luminescence depolarization[lil. Acknowledgements We gratefully acknowledge stimulating discussions with C. Stanton and K. Hess and...Semiconductors J. Puls 1, W. Rudolf 2 , F. Henneberger 1, D. Lap2 , V. Petrov2 , U. Stamm 2. and B. Wilhelmi 2 1Humboldt-Universitat, Sektion Physik

  10. Nurses' perceptions about Botswana patients' anti-retroviral therapy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anti-retroviral drugs(ARVs) are supplied free of charge in Botswana. Lifelong adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is vital to improve the patient's state of well-being ... weerstand bied teen anti-retrovirale behandeling (ARB). Persone met ARB-weerstandbiedende MIV stamme kan dit versprei na ander mense toe, wat ...

  11. Die leksikografiese hantering van neo-klassieke en pseudo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die Griekse of Latynse elemente funksioneer soas affikse, maar hul kombineerbaarheid met affikse om woorde te vorm, bring hul affiksstatus in die gedrang. Hierdie elemente verskil boonop morfologies en semanties dusdanig van affikse dat daar na hulle as neo-klassieke stamme verwys kan word. Die leksikografiese ...

  12. Encrusted and incarcerated urinary bladder catheter: what are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-11-25

    Nov 25, 2010 ... Urinary bladder catheter encrustations are known complications of long-term urinary catheterisation, which is commonly seen in ... urinary bladder catheter include extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy and lithoclast. We describe here .... 9. Stamm WE. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections: epide-.

  13. H1N1 Influenza A hos mennesker og svin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Erik

    2009-01-01

    Den nye pandemiske influenza A stamme H1N1 er hovedsagelig et nyt virus, som spredes mellem mennesker, men virusset er formodentlig opstået ved blanding af to svineinfluenza-virus og har derfor bibeholdt evnen til at kunne smitte fra mennesker til svin og fra svin til svin. Det er derfor vigtigt...

  14. Gebed en die vorming van Christelike identiteit in Openbaring

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    31 Jul 2015 ... Wanneer Johannes voor 'n engel in verwondering neerval, word hy aangesê om op te staan omdat ... hoor Johannes dat die verloste skare uit 144 000 bestaan, verlos uit die twaalf stamme van Israel ... Huttefees sou aanbidders byvoorbeeld fees vier deur palm-, wilger- en ander blaarryke takke te swaai.

  15. La storia di Griselda. Affinità genetiche e tipologiche

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Michel

    2012-01-01

    Griseldahistorien, oprindelig stammende fra Boccaccios Decameron, genfindes i mange litteraturer. Man har redegjort for forholdet mellem de forskellige versioner ved stemmaer. Et interessant aspekt er imidlertid at en version der ikke kan stamme ned fra en anden alligevel kan udvise slægtsskab me...

  16. Un lettore rozzo dell'Ur-Novellino

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftgaard, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Håndskriftet Panciatichi 32 fra Nationalbiblioteket i Firenze, den ældste og vigtigste tekstkilde til 'Il Novellino', indeholder nogle tegn i margenen, som hidtil er blevet set som tilfældige tegn på tekstens modtagelsen blandt lokale handelsmænd. Det vises derimod her, hvordan tegnene ikke stamm...

  17. Caractérisation saisonnière des eaux de puits à usage maraîchère ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Caractérisation saisonnière des eaux de puits à usage maraîchère et domestique de Korhogo (Côte d'Ivoire). Rachelle Ida Yapo, Véronique Mambo, Alfredo Carlos Alder, Marie Jeanne Ohou-Yao, Raymond Ligban, Daouda Dao, Christian Stamm, Bassirou Bonfoh ...

  18. Page 1 34 REFERENCES 1. Douglas J. Sleigh and Morag C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Douglas J. Sleigh and Morag C. Timbury. 1986. Urinary Tract. Infections – in Notes on Medical Bacteriology, 2 nd ed.,. Edinburgh:Churchil Livingstone Medical Text. 2. Walter Stamm and Marvin Truck. 1980. Urinary Tract. Infections: Pyelonephritis and Related Conditions—in. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 9th ...

  19. Kyllinger har effektivt immunforsvar mod herpes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Forskere ved Københavns Universitet, Fakultet for Biovidenskab har studeret kyllingens MHC molekyler og kan derigennem forklare hvorfor en særlig stamme indenfor denne art er modstandsdygtige mod en særlig herpesvirus. Udgivelsesdato: 18. januar 2008...

  20. Luster measurements of lips treated with lipstick formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Santosh; Issa, Nevine; Streuli, David; McMullen, Roger; Fares, Hani

    2011-01-01

    In this study, digital photography in combination with image analysis was used to measure the luster of several lipstick formulations containing varying amounts and types of polymers. A weighed amount of lipstick was applied to a mannequin's lips and the mannequin was illuminated by a uniform beam of a white light source. Digital images of the mannequin were captured with a high-resolution camera and the images were analyzed using image analysis software. Luster analysis was performed using Stamm (L(Stamm)) and Reich-Robbins (L(R-R)) luster parameters. Statistical analysis was performed on each luster parameter (L(Stamm) and L(R-R)), peak height, and peak width. Peak heights for lipstick formulation containing 11% and 5% VP/eicosene copolymer were statistically different from those of the control. The L(Stamm) and L(R-R) parameters for the treatment containing 11% VP/eicosene copolymer were statistically different from these of the control. Based on the results obtained in this study, we are able to determine whether a polymer is a good pigment dispersant and contributes to visually detected shine of a lipstick upon application. The methodology presented in this paper could serve as a tool for investigators to screen their ingredients for shine in lipstick formulations.

  1. resistance patterns of aeromonas salmonicida to common ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    emergence of low level resistance. Cross resistance to the quinolones was recorded in laboratory induced mutants and reduced susceptibility to oxytetracycline of the quinolone-developed mutants (Stamm, 1989). Transfer of tetracyclines and sulphonamides drug resistance determinants were recorded in. A. salmonicida ...

  2. Jejuno-jejunal intussusception: an unusual complication of feeding jejunostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Sunil; Prabhu, Raghunath; Thangavelu, Siddharth; Shenoy, Rajgopal

    2013-06-27

    The jejuno-jejunal intussusception is a rare complication of jejunostomy tube placement. We are reporting a case of 33-year-old man who was suffering from absolute dysphagia due to carcinoma of cricopharynx with advanced metastatic disease, who underwent Stamms feeding jejunostomy as a part of palliative care. After 1 month he presented with colicky type of pain in the abdomen and vomiting. Sonogram of abdomen revealed a target sign and a feeding tube in a dilated jejunum. Abdominal CT proved the sonographic impression of jejuno-jejunal intussusception. He, therefore, underwent exploratory laparotomy and resection and anastomosis of the intussuscepted bowel. New feeding jejunostomy (FJ) was done distally from the anastomotic site. As per the literature this complication has been reported in Witzels jejunostomy. In our case the patient had undergone Stamms jejunostomy with placement of a Ryle's tube. Intussusception should be considered if a patient comes with abdominal pain and vomiting following FJ.

  3. Analysis of the temporal structure of the daily rainfall observed at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The analysis of the frequency distributions of daily rainfall revealed that 25% of rainy days give rainy heights greater than 15mm while 50% of rainy days occur with rainy heights less than 5mm. The frequency distribution of daily rainfall has been well modeled by Gamma and Weibull law. The seasonal cycle of daily rainfall ...

  4. Honningsvamp og skælhat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Iben Margrete; Skov, Simon

    2010-01-01

    De fleste hatsvampe, som vokser omkring træer, er ganske uskadelige eller ligefrem nyttige for træerne. Men honningsvampe og skælhatte er vednedbrydende og kan angribe levende træers stamme eller rødder. Tilstedeværelsen af disse svampe medfører, at træernes stabilitet bliver forringet med tiden....

  5. 13 Febr. 1955. B. GD r . B. G emser , Hebreeuse Spraakkuns, JL van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    ons die voorkeur daaraan gee dat die nif al in 'n afsonderlike hoofstuk behandel word; die pi'êl, die pu'al en die hitpa'ël as intensiewe stamme in een hoofstuk, en die hifil met die hofal as kousatiewe in een hoof stuk. Vir die beginner in Hebreeus is dit meer oorsigtelik wanneer die formasies so gerangskik is. Die hoofstuk ...

  6. The Theoretical Foundation of Reduced Basis Methods (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    priori convergence theory for reduced- basis approximations of single-parametric elliptic partial differential equations , J. Sci. Comput., 17(2002), pp... elliptic partial differential equations , C. R. Acad. Sci., Paris, Ser. I, Math., 335(2002), pp. 289–294. (Cited on pp. 20, 21) [23] Y. MADAY, B. STAMM... elliptic coercive partial differential equations Ñ applica- tion to transport and continuum mechanics, Arch. Comput Method E, 15(2008), pp. 229–275

  7. Identification of Splice Variants as Molecular Markers in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    this is Cockayne syndrome (CS), which is caused by mutations in the CSA, CSB, or the xeroderma pigmentosum genes (e.g., XPG). The transcription...In Cockayne syndrome , correction of the defect using gene therapy might be one therapeutic treat- ment. In Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease and in...in Cockayne syndrome patients from XP group G. Science 275: 990–993, 1997. 14. Daoud R, Mies G, Smialowska A, Olah L, Hossmann KA, and Stamm S

  8. More volunteers in football clubs. An evaluation of a method to increase the number of volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Splinter, Mariëlle; Egli, Benjamin; Schlesinger, Torsten; Nagel, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of clubs experience difficulties in recruiting and retaining sufficient numbers of volunteers to manage and staff their clubs (Lamprecht, Fischer, & Stamm, 2012). In order to facilitate volunteer recruitment, sport clubs need a specific strategy to recruit and retain volunteers for both formal positions and ad hoc tasks. Therefore, the intervention “More Volunteers in Football Clubs” was designed and its impact was evaluated in detail. The question this evaluation researc...

  9. TECHNIQUE OF JEJUNOSTOMY

    OpenAIRE

    E. Tarcoveanu

    2005-01-01

    Feeding difficulties is an important problem of some patients (postoperative feeding in major interventions, acute pancreatitis etc.). Many of these patients are managed by jejunostomy. This paper presents the surgical technique for temporary or permanent jejunostomy by laparoscopic and open approach. Standard technique is Witzel jejunostomy but in some cases it is indicated other types of interventions: Stamm, Liffmann, Albert or Roux jejunostomy. It is also presented postoperative complic...

  10. Entwicklung und Charakterisierung einer photoschaltbaren Histondeacetylase-ähnlichen Amidohydrolase

    OpenAIRE

    Korbus, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Die Kontrolle von Enzymen durch einen externen Lichtstimulus ermöglicht eine präzise, orts- und zeitaufgelöste Steuerung definierter chemischer Reaktionen und demnach die Katalyse bestimmter Substrate. Die vorliegende Arbeit beschreibt die Entwicklung und Charakterisierung eines reversibel photoschaltbaren Biokatalysators, einer Histondeacetylase-ähnlichen Amidohydrolase (HDAH) von Bordetella/Alcaligenes Stamm FB188, welcher in einen aktiveren oder inaktiveren Zustand durch cis/trans Photoiso...

  11. Molecular Genetics of Alopecia Areata in Dundee Experimental Bald Rats and in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Kuhn, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) (MIM 104000) ist eine chronisch entzündliche Erkrankung des aktiv wachsenden Haarfollikels in der Anagenphase mit einer starken genetischen Komponente. Sie ist im Allgemeinen durch einen kreisrunden Haarverlust am Kopf oder aber auch an anderen Körperstellen charakterisiert. Die Krankheitsentstehung ist nach wie vor unklar wobei ein gewebespezifischer Autoimmunmechanismus vermutet wird. In dieser Studie wurde der Stamm Dundee Experimental Bald Rat (DEBR) als Nagetierm...

  12. Practices In The Field Of Social Integration And Volunteering Of Swiss Sport Clubs

    OpenAIRE

    Albrecht, Julia; Adler Zwahlen, Jenny; Nagel, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    Organised sport is considered to have a high potential for both, enhancing bio-psychological health and social integration (e.g. Elling, de Knop & Knoppers, 2001). However, people with disabilities or migration background are less physically active and underrepresented in sport clubs (e.g. Becker & Anneken, 2013; Lamprecht, Fischer & Stamm, 2014). The aim of this contribution is to provide a qualitative description of specific sport clubs that support social integration and voluntary engageme...

  13. Disease: H00553 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8) PMID:11167112 (gene) Stamm C, Friehs I, Ho SY, Moran AM, Jonas RA, del Nido PJ Congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis: a simple lesion? Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 19:195-202 (2001) ... ...H00553 Congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis Congenital supravalvar aortic stenosis is a rare stenotic lesi...on of the left ventricular out flow tract. The malformation consists a supravalvar

  14. Zum Typus des ossetischen Kasussystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Horst Schmidt

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Altiranisch ist das altindogermanische Kasussystem weitgehend erhalten geblieben; im Singular (Sg. der avestischen (av. Nominaldeklination werden noch die acht Kasus Nominativ, Akkusativ, Genetiv, Dativ, Ablativ, Lokativ, Instrumenta! und Vokativ unterschieden; z.B. o-Stamm ahura- 'Gott': ahuri5, ahuram, ahurahyii., ahurai usw.; im Altpersischen ist dieses System durch den Zusammenfall von Dativ und Genetiv um einen Kasus reduziert worden. Auch in der typologischen Anordnung der Morpheme hat das Altiranische den aus dem Indogermanischen (idg. ererbten Status einer flektierenden Sprache bewahrt. Es ist charakterisiert durch Merkmale wie die Differenzierung von rrwnothematischer und heteroklitischer Deklination2 (vgl. Stamm vs. r/n-Stamm: av. ahura- vs. hvarǝ 'Sonne', Genetiv xvǝng, Caland-Wackernagelschen Suffixwechsel (av. dǝrǝz-ra- 'fest' : dǝrǝz-i-ra0a- 'festen Wagen habend' 3, Ablaut (av. dātā 'Geber', Genetiv dāvro, Formvariation4 (aav. Genetiv Sg. ahura-hyā vs. dāvr-ō oder Autonomie des Wortes.

  15. Feeding gastrostomy in children with complex heart disease: when is a fundoplication indicated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Jennifer L; Soeken, Timothy A; Correa, Alfred J; Zamora, Irving J; Fallon, Sara C; Kissler, Mark J; Fraser, Charles D; Wesson, David E

    2016-03-01

    Malnutrition is common among children with complex heart disease (CHD). Feeding gastrostomies are often used to improve the nutritional status of such patients. Our purpose was to evaluate a cohort of children with CHD following open Stamm gastrostomy without fundoplication. We reviewed all CHD patients who underwent feeding gastrostomy placement from 1/1/2004 to 4/7/2015. Demographic data, cardiac diagnoses, operative details, post-operative complications, and the need for GJ feeding and fundoplication were examined. Open Stamm gastrostomy was performed in 111 patients. Median age at surgery was 37 weeks (3 weeks-13.7 years); average weight was 5.3 ± 4.9 kg. Thirty-four patients (30 %) experienced a total of 37 minor complications, including tube dislodgement after stoma maturation (20), superficial surgical site infection (13), mechanical failure (3), and bleeding (1). Three patients experienced a major complication (need for return to the OR or peri-operative death <30 days). Three patients required a subsequent fundoplication. Fifty-six surviving patients (62 %) continue gastrostomy feeds, of which 7 (13 %) patients require GJ feeds. Children with CHD tolerate an open Stamm gastrostomy well with minimal major complications. These results support very selective use of fundoplication in infants and children with CHD who require a feeding gastrostomy.

  16. Análise econômica da suplementação protéico-energética de novilhos durante o período de transição entre água-seca Economic analysis of protein and energy supplementation of steers during the transition period between the rainy and dry seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.A. Barbosa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se economicamente o efeito da suplementação protéico-energética em dois níveis de ingestão diária, 0,17% e 0,37% do peso vivo, sobre o desempenho de novilhos, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu utilizando-se 14 animais por tratamento. Os tratamentos foram: SM - suplementação mineral (controle, SUP1 - suplementação protéico-energética com média de ingestão diária de 0,17% do peso vivo e SUP2 - suplementação protéico-energética com média de ingestão diária de 0,37% do peso vivo. Novilhos que receberam a suplementação protéico-energética SUP1 e SUP2 apresentaram maiores ganhos de peso, 0,655 e 0,746kg/animal/dia, respectivamente em relação aos que receberam apenas suplementação mineral, 0,535kg/animal/dia. Os maiores lucros operacionais, observados para os animais dos tratamentos SUP1 e SUP2. 67,12 e 72,08 R$/animal/período, respectivamente, em relação aos do tratamento controle, 66,67 R$/animal/período; os resíduos para remuneração foram de R$59,92, R$55,10 e R$54,85/animal/período, para novilhos que receberam SUP2, SUP1 e SM, respectivamente e sugerem que a suplementação protéico-energética possibilitou maior retorno econômico.The effects of protein and energy supplements at two levels of daily intake - 0.17% and 0.37% of live weight (LW - on the performance of steers under Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture were economically evaluated using 14 steers per treatment. Treatments were: MS - mineral supplementation (control, SUP1 - protein and energy supplementation with an average daily intake of 0.17% of live weight, and SUP2 - protein and energy supplementation with an average daily intake of 0.37% of live weight. Steers of treatments SUP1 and SUP2 showed higher weight gains, 0.655 and 0.746kg/animal/day, respectively, in relation to those in the control group, 0.535kg/animal/dia. Higher operational profits were observed, R$67.12/animal/period and R$72.08/animal/period, for steers from SUP1 and SUP2 treatments, respectively; in comparison to the R$66.67/animal/period for MS treatment. The residual remunerations of R$59.92, R$55.10, and R$54.85/animal/period, for steers from SUP2, SUP1, and SM, respectively, strongly suggest that energy-protein supplementation allow higher economic profit.

  17. Vetores selváticos de doença de Chagas na área urbana de Manaus (AM: atividade de vôo nas estações secas e chuvosas Chagas' disease wild vectors in the urban area of Manaus, State of Amazonas, Brazil: flight activities in dry and rainy seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricleide de F. Naiff

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Adultos de Rhodnius prolixus, R. pictipes e Panstrongylus geniculatus encontrados em casas em Manaus apresentam altas taxas de infecção por Trypanosoma cruzi. Rhodnius spp não apresentavam sazonalidade acentuada, porém os encontros de machos de P. geniculatus eram muito mais freqüentes na estação seca.Adults of Rhodnius prolixus, R. pictipes and Panstrongylus geniculatus found in houses in Manaus have high rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Rhodnius spp. were found throughout the year, but males of P. geniculatus were significantly more frequent in the dry season.

  18. Seasonal dynamics of the inorganic pollution in a Niger Delta River ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The level of inorganic anions of the Eleme River over the rainy and dry season periods was investigated. Results indicated that parameters like temperature, conductivity and total dissolved solids were higher during the dry than rainy seasons. Others like pH, phosphate, sulfate and dissolved oxygen had higher rainy than ...

  19. Effect of soil warming and rainfall patterns on soil N cycling in Northern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Ravi; Lægdsmand, Mette; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2010-01-01

    temperate climates, which is a major source of N pollution. An open-field lysimeter study was carried out during 2008-2009 in Denmark on loamy sand soil (Typic Hapludult) with three factors: number of rainy days, rainfall amount and soil warming. Number of rainy days included the mean monthly rainy days...

  20. Assessment of the ecological status and threats of Welala and Shesher wetlands, lake Tana Sub-Basin (Ethiopia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atnafu, N.; Dejen, E.; Vijverberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    The ecological status of the Welala and Shesher Wetlands, on the eastern side of Lake Tana, were studied during pre-rainy, main-rainy, post-rainy and dry seasons from May 2009 to January 2010. Species composition, diversity and abundance of macrophytes, benthic macro-invertebrates and birds were

  1. Judicial Review under NEPA -- Lessons for Users of Various Approaches to Environmental Impact Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    provide fertile grounds for litigating the question of whether a team contains the right mix of disciplines for planning a project. THE RELEVANCE OF NEPA...TO CONTROL EXISTING VEGETATION.o wA 3. PREPARE THE SOIL FOR PLANTING OR SEEDING USING FIRE. P I) S (* L L 4. FERTILIZE THE SOIL AT RECREATION SITES, S...20366 (W.D. Wis., 1971) Sierra Club v. Stamm ( Strawberry Aqueduct and Collection System), 307 F.2d 788, 5 ELR 20209 (10th Cir., 1974) Simmans v. Grant

  2. Video Automatic Target Tracking System (VATTS) Operating Procedure,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-15

    AO-AIO𔃾 790 BOM CORP MCLEAN VA F/A 17/8 VIDEO AUTOMATIC TARGE T TRACKING SYSTEM (VATTS) OPERATING PROCEO -ETC(U) AUG Go C STAMM J P ORRESTER, J...Tape Transport Number Two TKI Tektronics I/0 Terminal DS1 Removable Disk Storage Unit DSO Fixed Disk Storage Unit CRT Cathode Ray Tube 1-3 THE BDM...file (mark on Mag Tape) AZEL Quick look at Trial Information Program DUPTAPE Allows for duplication of magnetic tapes CA Cancel ( terminates program on

  3. Humane hämatopoetische Stammzellen - Einflüsse von Proteinasen, Inhibitoren und dreidimensionalen Kulturbedingungen

    OpenAIRE

    Schmal, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Für viele Leukämiepatienten ist eine Stammzelltransplantation die lebensrettende Thera-piemaßnahme. Spenderzellen werden heutzutage hauptsächlich durch Leukapherese gewon-nen, nachdem sie durch G-CSF-Behandlung aus ihrer schützenden Knochenmarknische ins periphere Blut mobilisiert wurden. Zwischen 5 und 40 % der Spender sind jedoch nicht in der Lage, ausreichend hohe Mengen hämatopoetischer Stamm- und Vorläuferzellen (HSPCs) zu mobilisieren. Daher ist eine genaue Aufklärung der molekularen Pr...

  4. Kloning og ekspression og undersøgelse af funktionen af de tre sammenhængende DNA-bindende domæner fra den humane transcriptionsfaktor sp1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosicka, Iga; Gylling, Anne; Nielsson, Linnea Drost

    2013-01-01

    sekvensen af det indsatte DNA bekræftes ved sekventering. Plasmidet anvendes også til transformation af en E. coli stamme, som er udviklet med henblik på at udføre protein ekspression, hvorefter et fusionsprotein indeholdende sp1’s DNA-bindende domæner udtrykkes, oprenses og testes for dets evne til......I dette kursus (Studieretningsprojekt), som i alt forløber over tre-fire dage, afprøver vi almindelige molekylærbiologiske teknikker såsom RNA oprensning, cDNA syntese, PCR, skæring med restriktionsenzymer, ligering, kloning, DNA sekventering og ekspression af rekombinant protein udtrykt i E. coli...... for de DNA bindende domæner af sp1, opformerer netop denne region. PCR produktet bliver efter trimning af enderne med restriktionsenzymer ligeret ind i en E. coli ekspressionsvektor (et plasmid). Det rekombinante plasmid transformeres ind i en E. coli stamme, hvorefter der isoleres plasmid DNA, hvor...

  5. Inside CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Andri; Heuer, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    For most people locations that hold a particular importance for the development of our society and for the advancement of science and technology remain hidden from view. CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, is best known for its giant particle accelerator. Here researchers take part in a diverse array of fundamental physical research, in the pursuit of knowledge that will perhaps one dayrevolutionize our understanding of the universe and life on our planet. The Swiss photographer Andri Pol mixed with this multicultural community of researchers and followed their work over an extended period of time. In doing so he created a unique portrait of this fascinating “underworld.” The cutting-edge research is given a human face and the pictures allow us to perceive how in this world of the tiniest particles the biggest connections are searched for. With an essay by Peter Stamm.

  6. Structural studies of naturally occurring toxicogenic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, J. P.

    1977-10-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP), saxitoxin, is a neurotoxin isolated from Alaska butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus), mussels (Mytilus californianus) and axenic cultures of the dinoflagellate Gonyaulax catenella. The structure of saxitoxin has been determined through the use of single crystal X-ray diffraction. It possesses a unique tricyclic arrangement of atoms containing two guanidinium moieties and also a hydrated ketone. The relative stereochemistry is presented as well as the absolute configuration. The chemical constitution of a tremorgenic metabolite, paxilline, isolated from extracts of the fungus Penicillium paxilli Bainier has been determined. Paxilline represents a previously unreported class of natural compounds formed by the combination of tryptophan and mevalonate subunits. The complete stereostructure of two other fungal metabolites, paspaline and paspalicine, closely related to paxilline but isolated from Claviceps paspali Stammes have also been determined and are presented. The stereochemistries of paxilline, paspaline and paspalicine are identical at corresponding chiral centers.

  7. ’n Literêre aspek van ons Latynse erfenis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. D. van der Walt

    1974-03-01

    Full Text Available Dit is die Romeine, en by name die veldheer Julius Casesar en sy legioene, wat die “Insula Batavorum” uit die mistige skemering van die prehistorie gehaal het kort voor die begin van die Christelike jaartelling. Hierdie “eiland van die Bataviere” moet verstaan word as die gebied tussen die Waal en die Ryn — die kern van die Lae Lande by die See, die latere staat Nederland. Die Bataviere was een van die baie Germaanse stamme, die ou bewoners van Noordwes-Europa, teen wie die Romeine gestuit het in hulle veroweringstogte. Volgens die Latynse geskiedskrywer Cornelius Tacitus was hulle gedugte vegters maar het vroeg ’n bondgenootskap met die Romeine aangegaan — hoewel daar ook in die verwarring wat in die Ryk gevolg het op die dood van Nero (68 nC, ’n mislukte opstand van die Bataviere was onder leiding van Cajus Julius Civilis.

  8. Steni muinasjutuvõistluse võitjad selgunud / Ants Roos, Ann Roos

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Roos, Ants

    2008-01-01

    Steni XVI muinasjutuvõistluse žüriisse kuulusid: Ann Roos, Ants Roos, Leelo Tungal, Krista Kumberg, Leida Olszak, Ülle Väljataga. Tulemused: I koht Siim Niinelaid, II koht Julius Air Kull, III koht Mihkel Rammu. Žürii eriauhinnad: Anna Kristin Peterson, Elis Ruus, Rain Hallikas, Mariliis Peterson, Marjaliisa Palu, Karl Kirsimäe, Margaret Pulk. Ergutusauhinnad: Karmel Klaus, Martti Kaljuste, Kristina Korell, Mirjam Võsaste, Mihkel Põder, Iirys Kalde, Miriam Jamul, Mari-Ann Mägi, Ketlin Saar, Liisbeth Kirss. Muud eriauhinnad said: Allan Läll, Berle Mees, Anett Kuuse, Karl Erik Kübarsepp, Grete Tamm, Siim Niinelaid, Kaisa Marie Sipelgas, Ellen Anett Põldmaa, Evelin Laul, Karl Laas, Karl Stamm, Kerli Retter

  9. Ræde - et skræmmeord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anette

    2008-01-01

    I danske dialekter, både i ømål og jysk, er der optegnet et ord ræde, der bruges i flere betydninger, enten som skældsord til personer, om fugleskræmsel eller om et skræmmevæsen, fx spøgelse mm. Ordet findes i sammensætninger med ræde både som 1-. og 2.- led. Ordet er ikke ukendt for ordbøgerne, ...... historisk perspektiv, og udfra dialektale, synonyme sideformer komme med en mulig tolkning af det gådefulde ordpar rita/rata, runedansk ræti, en maskulin an-stamme i nominativ singularis, som er overleveret i runestenenes forbandelsesformularer....

  10. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    channels initiates spreading depression of brain activity. In contrast, epileptic seizures show modest ion translocation and sustained depolarization below the inactivation threshold for action potential generating channels. Such modest sustained depolarization allows synchronous, highly frequent neuronal...... firing; ictal epileptic field potentials being its electrocorticographic and epileptic seizure its clinical correlate. Nevertheless, Leão in 1944 and Van Harreveld and Stamm in 1953 described in animals that silencing of brain activity induced by spreading depolarization changed during minimal electrical......, monopolar recordings here provided unequivocal evidence of spreading convulsions in patients. Hence, practically all major pathological cortical network events in animals have now been observed in people. Early spreading depolarizations may indicate a risk for late post-haemorrhagic seizures....

  11. Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... locked in the ice caps and glacier, atmosphere, soil and in the deep underground (Paul and Misra, 2004). *Corresponding author. E-mail: tayekeen@yahoo.com. Tel: 08036674134. Abbreviations: LDS, Late dry season; ERS, early rainy season; and LRS, late rainy season. WHO (1967) reported that the ...

  12. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. In the Sudan savannah of Nigeria, sowing date of cowpea is an important production constraint due to erratic rainfall at the beginning and towards the end of the rainy season when temperatures are high. Field trials were conducted during the rainy seasons of 2009 and 2010 at Minjibir (lat 12o. 08'N, long 08o ...

  13. Tom G. ONIJICI-Io1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheltered by coral reefs. As for climatic characteristics, the country is divided into the rainy season and the dry season. The rainy season is ' ... convention facilities; and parks (game and snake). Economic Impact of Tourism. Tourism greatly contributes to the national economy through direct and indirect employment, foreign ...

  14. Assessment of Native Agar Gels Extracted from Gracilaria debilis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Native agar gels extracted from Gracilaria debilis and G. salicornia harvested during the rainy and dry seasons, were assessed for culturing the microorganisms Micrococcus luteus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pleurotus flabellatus. Agars extracted from plants harvested during the rainy season were suitable for culturing ...

  15. Investigation of seasonal variation of groundwater quality in Jimeta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The groundwater is fresh and varied from slightly acidic to alkaline in both the dry and rainy seasons. The mean values of BOD, COD and chloride exceeded the recommended standards of drinking water quality in the rainy season from the shallow and deep aquifers (hand-dug wells and boreholes). Nitrate and ammonium ...

  16. Utilization of Cassava Leaves as a Vegetable in Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prices of leaves at farm gate and retail levels were highly different (p= 0.0016), averaging 32 and 65 Frw by bunch in the rainy season, respectively. Despite the high consumption and trade of cassava leaves, post-harvest losses were high, especially in the rainy season. Cassava leaves were mainly cooked fresh, but 15.4 ...

  17. Markov chain modeling of daily rainfall in Lay Gaint Woreda, South Gonder Zone, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhan Getachew

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Information on seasonal Kiremet and seasonal Belg rainfall amount is important in the rain fed agriculture of Ethiopia since more than 85% of the population is dependent on agriculture particularly on rain fed farming practices. The distribution pattern of rainfall rather than the total amount of rainfall within the entire period of time is more important for studying the pattern of rainfall occurrence. A two-state Markov chain was used to describe the characteristics of rainfall occurrences in this woreda. The states, as considered were; dry (d and rainy (r. The overall chance of rain and the fitted curve tells us that the chance of getting rain in the main rainy season is about twice as compared to the small rainy season. The first order Markov chain model indicates that the probability of getting rain in the small rainy season is significantly dependent on whether the earlier date was dry or wet. While the second order Marko chain indicates that the main rainy season the dependence of the probability of rain on the previous two dates’ conditions is less as compared with the small rainy season. Rainfall amounts are very variable and are usually modeled by a gamma distribution. Therefore, the pattern of rainfall is somewhat unimodial having only one extreme value in August.  Onset, cessation and length of growing season of rainfall for the main rainy season show medium variation compared to the small rainy season.

  18. EJST V9N2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on alternative technologies for the production of tomato during the rainy season in sub- ... Tomato production is not common during main rainy season, especially in sub-humid climatic conditions like ... treatments were laid down in split-plot-design at three replications, where with and without plastic rain-shelter.

  19. 76 FR 45311 - International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    ... International Joint Commission Public Hearings on Binational Management of Lake of the Woods and Rainy River Watershed The International Joint Commission (IJC) will hold public hearings on the final report of its International Lake of the Woods and Rainy River Watershed Task Force (Task Force). The Task Force report to the...

  20. Characteristics of pollutant load from a dam reservoir watershed : Case study on Seomjinkang dam reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yo-Sang; Kang, Boung-Soo [Water Resources Research Institute, Taejeon(Korea)

    2000-12-31

    The investigation of water quality was performed at the upstream of Seomjinkang dam reservoir for the examination of pollutant load characteristics of the reservoir watershed during flood and normal flow periods. The highest water quality concentration was occurred at Yongsan during normal flow period where it has been more polluted by population and livestock than other sites. Pollutant load varied depending on the sampling site, rainfall intensity and antecedent precipitation during the rainy period. Based on the water quality data measured from 1998 to 1999, the average concentration during rainy period was much higher than that of non-rainy period: BOD was 1.2-1.4 times, COD 1.2-1.7 times, SS 2.6-5.4 times, T-N 2.3-3.0 times, and T-P 2.4-7.5 times respectively. When the pollutant load measured during 7 different rainy periods in 1999 was compared with total pollutant load in 1999, the BOD and COD load measured during the 7 different rainy periods were 28% that is about 1.6 times as high as those of 1999. On the other hand, the rainfall amount measured during the 7 different rainy periods was about 17.5% of total rainfall amount in 1999. The total pollutant load of TN and TP measured during the 7 different rainy periods was almost 50% of total TN and TP loads in 1999. In case of SS, it was 72.8%. It was concluded that the inflow of pollutants into the lake during the rainy period held a high portion of total inflow in 1999. It was suggested that long-term water quality monitoring be performed to better quantity pollutant load to the lake especially during rainy periods. (author). 8 refs., 6 tabs., 4 figs.

  1. Bronchiolitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bourke, Thomas; Shields, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants, occurring in a seasonal pattern, with highest incidence in the winter in temperate climates and in the rainy season in warmer countries...

  2. Bronchiolitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2007-01-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants, occurring in a seasonal pattern, with highest incidence in the winter in temperate climates, and in the rainy season in warmer countries...

  3. Synoptic Bi-monthly and Storm Response Water Quality Sampling in Southern Kaneohe Bay, HI November 2007 - April 2009 (NODC Accession 0062644)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic sampling including water column profiles and collected surface water samples was conducted on a bi-monthly basis throughout the rainy season(October-May)...

  4. COMPARATIVE ACUTE TOXICITY OF CHLORPYRIFOS-ETHYL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MR OKEY

    cyhalothrin on Clarias gariepinus was evaluated through changes of selected ... bodies through surface run-off during the rainy seasons. The application of ... availability will reduce employment and animal protein intake of Nigerians especially ...

  5. Associated Fauna to Eichhornia crassipes in a Constructed Wetland for Aquaculture Effluent Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lúcia Helena Sipaúba-Tavares; Bruno Scardoelli Truzzi; Ana Milstein; Aline Marcari Marques

    2017-01-01

    Water, sediment and associated fauna were studied in a water hyacinth ( ) stand of a constructed wetland, used for aquaculture effluent treatment in SE Brazil, in February-April (summer/rainy season...

  6. Synoptic Bi-monthly and Storm Response Water Quality Sampling in Southern Kaneohe Bay, HI 2005-2007 (NODC Accession 0060061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic sampling including water column profiles and collected surface water samples was conducted on a bi-monthly basis throughout the rainy season(October-May)...

  7. Raynaud's Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or refrigerated foods. Avoid rapidly shifting temperatures and damp climates. Rapidly moving from 90 degrees outside to ... room can bring on an attack. So can damp rainy weather. Avoid air conditioning. In warm weather, ...

  8. Relationships between meteorological situations and acid rain in Spanish Basque country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezcurra, A.; Casado, H.; Lacaux, J. P.; Garcia, C.

    With an automatic sequential precipitation collector, 52 rainy events were sampled at Vitoria (Spanish Basque country) in 1986. The chemical composition of each rainy event was studied and classified, using statistical techniques of multivariate data analysis (linear correlation + principal component analysis) and an automatic classification (length χ2) of the rainy events. These techniques enabled us to show, taking into account the influence of the meteorological conditions in which the precipitations formed, the presence, in Spanish Basque country, of acid rain episodes with an anthropogenic origin. These episodes are certainly reinforced by the trans-border transport from Southern France. Moreover, rainy episodes were shown to have a basic character due to a local source of terrigenous particles.

  9. seasonal variation of intestinal parasitic infections among hiv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abrham

    CONCLUSION: Cryptosporidium species and Strongyloides stercoralis were the only parasitic agents that were associated with rainy season. Keywords: Season, Intestinal Parasites, HIV. INTRODUCTION. Despite the worldwide efforts at controlling the menace of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (AIDS), the number ...

  10. MALARIA AMONG CHILDREN (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measure impact of interventions, admitted to pediatric ward of Jimma University Specialized Hospital. METHODS: ..... multifaceted effort made in malaria control and prevention ... second rainy season (spring fall) is not usual in this area. (15).

  11. Changes in the extreme daily rainfall in South Korea

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Jeong‐Soo; Kang, Hyun‐Suk; Lee, Young Saeng; Kim, Maeng‐Ki

    2011-01-01

    ...) distribution in modelling extreme rainfall. We modelled the annual maxima of daily (AMP1) and 2‐day (AMP2) rainfall data observed during the summer rainy season, dating up to 2007 in 28 stations in South Korea...

  12. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage composition and distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four species, Simulium adersi Pomeroy, Baetis harrisoni Barnard, Pseudocloeon sp. and Tricorythus sp., occurred at all site sampling units. Specimen counts increased from the rainy ... for the whole community. Keywords: abundance, benthic macroinvertebrates, correlations, environmental variables, freshwater, richness ...

  13. How to Fund Homeland Security without Federal Dollars: State and Local Funding of Homeland Security Initiatives in Light of Decreased Support by the Federal Government

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emler, Jay S

    2008-01-01

    ..., sales taxes, congestion fees and multi-year budgeting with the addition of a "rainy day" fund, to less conventional options like public/private partnerships and innovative investment strategies...

  14. Hope on the brink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Grandi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available As a rainy spring – the first after years of drought –brings out the blossoms in Afghanistan’s orchards,many questions remain unanswered about the futureof this battered country.

  15. Synoptic bi-monthly and storm response water quality sampling in Southern Kaneohe Bay, HI, 2005-2007 in support of the Coral Reef Instrumented Monitoring Platform (CRIMP) (NODC Accession 0060061)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Synoptic sampling including water column profiles and collected surface water samples was conducted on a bi-monthly basis throughout the rainy season (October-May)...

  16. Strategies for improving productivity of small ruminants in Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Safari, John Godfrey

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents three areas of emphasis, all related to feeds, feeding and performance of small ruminants. The first area (Paper I) focuses on seasonality and its effect on chemical composition of forage species most preferred by SEA goats, grazing behaviour and performance of goats as assessed in the rainy (February-May), mid dry (July-August) and late dry seasons (October-November). Evaluation of these forages showed a marked decline in quality as the season changed from rainy to dry. ...

  17. Relative chlorophyll contents in the evaluation of the nutritional status of nitrogen from xaraes palisade grass and determination of critical nitrogen sufficiency index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao Paulo Ramos Costa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional status of xaraes palisade grass with SPAD chlorophyll meter and the critical nitrogen sufficiency index (cNSI in the dry and rainy seasons were assessed. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with four treatments (50, 100, 200 and 400 kg N ha-1, three replicates and two seasons: dry and rainy. All variables had a high nonlinear relationship with their predictors (p < 0.001. Total nitrogen (TN reached a plateau at doses 262.0 and 514.8 kg of N ha-1 and the concentration of TN in the plant was 1.88 and 1.93% respectively during the rainy and dry season. Relative chlorophyll content (RCC reached a plateau at 46.05 and 53.65 SPAD units in the rainy and dry seasons, respectively. The production of dry matter (DM showed maximum response to nitrogen fertilization at 209.5 and 229.1 kg N ha-1 during the rainy and dry season respectively. The nitrogen sufficiency index (NSI reached the plateau at 0.85 and 0.99 in the rainy and dry season respectively. All variables showed high linear correlation (r = 0.71 to 0.99. The xaraés palisade grass’s cNSI is 0.85 and the chlorophyll meter may be used as a nutritional N management tool for the grass.

  18. Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents and oxidase enzyme activities in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Supatra; Mukherji, S

    2009-07-01

    Season-controlled changes in biochemical constituents viz. carotenoids (carotene and xanthophyll) and pectic substances along with IAA-oxidase and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) enzyme activities were estimated/assayed in leaves of Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. (tomato) in two developmental stages--pre-flowering (35 days after sowing) and post-flowering (75 days after sowing) in three different seasons--summer rainy and winter Carotenoid content along with pectic substances were highest in winter and declined significantly in summer followed by rainy i.e. winter > summer > rainy. Carotenoid content was significantly higher in the pre-flowering as compared to post-flowering in all three seasons while pectic substances increased in the post-flowering as compared to pre-flowering throughout the annual cycle. IAA oxidase and PPO enzyme activities were enhanced in rainy and decreased sharply in summer and winter i.e. rainy > summer > winter. Both the enzymes exhibited higher activity in the post-flowering stage as compared to pre-flowering in all three seasons. These results indicate winter to be the most favourable season for tomato plants while rainy season environmental conditions prove to be unfavourable (stressful) with diminished content of carotenoid and pectic substances and low activities of IAA oxidase and PPO, ultimately leading to poor growth and productivity.

  19. Open gastrostomy by mini-laparotomy: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Gil R; Taveira-Gomes, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Gastrostomy tube feeding is the best option for long lasting nutritional support in patients with dysphagia caused by obstructive tumours of the mouth, pharynx, larynx and ooesophagus or neuromuscular diseases. However, these severely compromised patients often present severe respiratory risks, precluding the use of general anesthesia, sedation or even endoscopy. A simplified open gastrostomy (SOG) under local anesthesia has been in practice in our institution, especially for patients with severe neuromuscular diseases and continuous non-invasive ventilatory support. In this study, we try to compare the surgical outcomes of this technique, with the classical Stamm gastrostomy (SG). This simplified technique uses a minimal vertical midline incision (3 cm), just below the xyphoid process, under local anesthesia. The gastrostomy tube is passed by a left lateral stab wound, inserted in a double purse-string in the gastric wall and pulled to the anterior abdominal wall. No sutures between the stomach and the peritoneum are placed. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical records of 63 consecutive gastrostomies performed upon a 3-year period, 23 of which were by SOG. The SG was performed mainly in oncological patients, and SOG in patients with neuromuscular diseases (p < 0.001). In the SOG group, 95,4% (n = 22) of the patients were ASA IV, compared with 74,4% (n = 29) in SG (p = 0,03). The mean operative time was shorter in the simplified technique (37 vs 60 min; p = 0,01). All the surgeries in the SOG group were performed exclusively with local anesthesia and in the Stamm procedure, 47,5% required invasive ventilatory support (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences regarding in-hospital morbi-mortality (p = 0,18). The patients were able to receive adequate nutritional support, and the overall satisfaction of the patients and family/caregivers is very good. The simplified mini-laparotomy gastrostomy is a safe and effective alternative to other approaches. The

  20. Susceptibility of pine stands to bark stripping by chacma Papio ursinus baboons in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A.T. KATSVANGA, L. JIMU, J.F. MUPANGWA, D. ZINNER

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility, intensity and distribution of pine trees to bark stripping by chacma baboons Papio ursinus in three plantations in the Eastern Highlands of Zimbabwe. The number of plots/ha, stripped trees/plot and stripped trees/ha was recorded during the pre-rainy, rainy and post-rainy seasons from August 2006 to May 2007. During data collection, altitude, aspect, season and other site predictor variables (e.g., roads and fire traces, water points, indigenous vegetation conservation areas, crop fields, human settlements, wattle scrubs, rocky areas, open grasslands, earlier stripped sites and roost sites were recorded for each plot in association with selected predictor variables within plantation estates. Data on the number of stripped plots/ha, stripped trees/plot and stripped trees/ha were analysed as dependent variables using the Generalised Linear Model (GLM through SPSS version 15 (2006 to determine which predictor variables were significantly related to bark stripping. Differences between means were tested using Bonferroni tests with a 5% level of significance. Our findings show that bark stripping of pine trees by baboons occurred at all altitudes and aspects. Overall, the number of bark stripped trees/ha did not significantly vary by season. The number of bark stripped plots/ha was lower during the pre-rainy season than the rainy season, whereas the number of bark stripped trees/plot was higher during the pre-rainy than the rainy season. Bark stripping of pines occurred more often in the vicinities of areas with abundant food and water [Current Zoology 55 (6: 389 –395, 2009].

  1. Lie. katãlyti ir katãryti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simas Karaliūnas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available LIT. katãlyti UND katãrytiZusammenfassungDie lit. Wörter katãlyti und katãryti „schlagen, prügeln, hauen“, deren Etymologie wir im „Litauischen etymologischen Wörterbuch“ von E. Fraenkel nicht finden, scheinen die Überreste des idg. heteroklitischen Stammes zu sein und deswegen gelten als echte lit. Wörter. Sie sind, sowie auch lit. katóti „schwerfällig gehen, fahren; schlagen, prügeln“, katúoti „schnell gehen, heftig arbei­ten, essen usw.; sich schlagen“, mit abg. kotora „Streit, Zwietracht“, mhd. hader „Zank, Streit“, anord. hǫd „Kampf“, air. cath „Kampf; Truppe, Schar“, gr. κότος „Groll, Zorn“ und anderen urver­wandt. Zu dieser Gruppe gehören möglicherweise auch einige lit. Flussnamen (vgl. Katãrė, Katrà und andere und Personennamen (vgl. Katris, Katal-ýnas, Kat-éiva usw.

  2. Compassion satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress in heart and vascular nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jennifer L; Derr, Denise M; Cicchillo, Vikki J; Bressler, Sonya

    2011-01-01

    Objectives for this project were to determine the prevalence of compassion satisfaction (CS), burnout, and secondary traumatic stress (STS) in heart and vascular nurses to confirm whether differences exist between intensive care and intermediate care nurses. The Professional Quality of Life Scale Compassion Satisfaction and Compassion Fatigue: Version 5 developed by Stamm (2009) was used. Results showed that nurses who work in the heart and vascular intermediate care unit had average to high scores of CS, low to average levels of burnout, and low to average levels of STS. Nurses who work in the heart and vascular intensive care unit had average to high levels of CS, low to average levels of burnout, and low to average levels of STS. These findings suggest that leadership should be aware of the prevalence of STS and burnout in heart and vascular nurses. Raising awareness of STS and burnout in intensive care and intermediate care nurses can help in targeting more specific strategies that may prevent the onset of developing these symptoms.

  3. Secondary traumatic stress and burnout in child welfare workers: a comparative analysis of occupational distress across professional groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Ginny; Craig, Carlton; Clark, James

    2011-01-01

    This study describes predictors of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in a national sample of helping professionals, with a specific focus on the unique responses of child welfare (CW) workers. Specific worker and exposure characteristics are examined as possible predictors of these forms of occupational distress in a sample of 669 professionals from across the country who responded to mailed (e-mail and post) invitations to participate in an online survey. E-mail and home mailing addresses were secured from licensure boards and professional membership organizations in six states from across the country that had high rates of child related deaths in 2009. Respondents completed the Professional Quality of Life IV (Stamm, 2005) to ascertain compassion fatigue (CF) and burnout symptoms. Being male, young, Hispanic, holding rural residence, and endorsing a lack of religious participation were significant predictors of secondary traumatic stress. Similarly, being male and young predicted high burnout rates, while actively participating in religious services predicted lower burnout. CW worker job status as a professional was significantly more likely to predict CF and burnout compared to all other types of behavioral healthcare professionals. Based on the findings from this study, this paper proposes strategies for enhancing self-care for CW workers, and describes the essential elements of a trauma-informed CW agency that addresses secondary traumatic stress and burnout.

  4. Self-Reflection as a Means for Personal Transformation: An Analysis of Women's Life Stories Living with a Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Prodinger

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this secondary analysis is to explicate taken-for-granted practices in the health care system in which the life stories of six women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA are embedded. A secondary analysis of life stories of six women with RA, which were assigned to a typology named "rheumatoid arthritis as a source for new challenges" (STAMM et al., 2008 in the primary narrative study, was conducted. The theoretical framework applied for the analysis was informed by feminist standpoint theory and feminist philosophy. In the present analysis, each of the women challenged established health care practices and the cognitive authority of medicine at a certain point in their life story reflections. Becoming more conscious about health care practices enabled the women to acknowledge their own knowledge and to make choices about their health. The findings challenge health care providers to engage in critical reflexivity to become conscious about and to transform taken-for-granted practices as embedded in larger systems and to create health care environments that enable dialogue between clients and health care providers. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs100363

  5. The influence of trait-negative affect and compassion satisfaction on compassion fatigue in Australian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craigie, Mark; Osseiran-Moisson, Rebecca; Hemsworth, David; Aoun, Samar; Francis, Karen; Brown, Janie; Hegney, Desley; Rees, Clare

    2016-01-01

    For this study, we examined the nature of the unique relationships trait-negative affect and compassion satisfaction had with compassion fatigue and its components of secondary traumatic stress and burnout in 273 nurses from 1 metropolitan tertiary acute hospital in Western Australia. Participants completed the Professional Quality of Life Scale (Stamm, 2010), Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 2004), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg, & Jacobs, 1983). Bivariate correlation and hierarchical regression analyses were performed to examine and investigate 4 hypotheses. The results demonstrate a clear differential pattern of relationships with secondary traumatic stress and burnout for both trait-negative affect and compassion satisfaction. Trait-negative affect was clearly the more important factor in terms of its contribution to overall compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress. In contrast, compassion satisfaction's unique protective relationship only related to burnout, and not secondary traumatic stress. The results are therefore consistent with the view that compassion satisfaction may be an important internal resource that protects against burnout, but is not directly influential in protecting against secondary traumatic stress for nurses working in an acute-care hospital environment. With the projected nursing workforce shortages in Australia, it is apparent that a further understanding is warranted of how such personal variables may work as protective and risk factors. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Host response during acute canine distemper virus infections in naive and DNA immunized mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line

    leukocytter fra inficerede og ikke-inficerede mink ved flowcytometri. Vi fandt et tydeligt cytokinrespons (IFN-g, TNF-a og IL-4) i inficerede mink, selv i mink inficeret med den høj-virulente stamme, der udviklede udtalt immunsuppression med drastisk lymfopeni, forsinket eller udebleven virus neutraliserende...... (VN) antistofproduktion og alvorlig klinisk sygdom.  Den danske DK91 vildtype blev isoleret fra en akut dødelig syg hundehvalp under et hundesygeudbrud blandt den Københavnske hundepopulation i 1991. Både CDV og den nært beslægtede sælpest virus (PDV) har overlappende værtspektrum og har begge...... der registeret endnu et udbrud af sælpest og igen startede epidemien på øen Anholt i Kattegat. Vi udførte fylogenetiske analyser af vildtype virus isoleret direkte fra angrebne landlevende rovdyr (mink, grævling, ilder, husmår og mår) mellem 2000 og 2003 og fra spættede sæler (Phoca vitulina) fra 1988...

  7. S1-Leitlinie Lipödem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich-Schupke, Stefanie; Schmeller, Wilfried; Brauer, Wolfgang Justus; Cornely, Manuel E; Faerber, Gabriele; Ludwig, Malte; Lulay, Gerd; Miller, Anya; Rapprich, Stefan; Richter, Dirk Frank; Schacht, Vivien; Schrader, Klaus; Stücker, Markus; Ure, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Die vorliegende überarbeitete Leitlinie zum Lipödem wurde unter der Federführung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Phlebologie (DGP) erstellt und finanziert. Die Inhalte beruhen auf einer systematischen Literaturrecherche und dem Konsens von acht medizinischen Fachgesellschaften und Berufsverbänden. Die Leitlinie beinhaltet Empfehlungen zu Diagnostik und Therapie des Lipödems. Die Diagnose ist dabei auf der Basis von Anamnese und klinischem Befund zu stellen. Charakteristisch ist eine umschriebene, symmetrisch lokalisierte Vermehrung des Unterhautfettgewebes an den Extremitäten mit deutlicher Disproportion zum Stamm. Zusätzlich finden sich Ödeme, Hämatomneigung und eine gesteigerte Schmerzhaftigkeit der betroffenen Körperabschnitte. Weitere apparative Untersuchungen sind bisher besonderen Fragestellungen vorbehalten. Die Erkrankung ist chronisch progredient mit individuell unterschiedlichem und nicht vorhersehbarem Verlauf. Die Therapie besteht aus vier Säulen, die individuell kombiniert und an das aktuelle Beschwerdebild angepasst werden sollten: komplexe physikalische Entstauungstherapie (manuelle Lymphdrainage, Kompressionstherapie, Bewegungstherapie, Hautpflege), Liposuktion und plastisch-chirurgische Interventionen, Ernährung und körperliche Aktivität sowie ggf. additive Psychotherapie. Operative Maßnahmen sind insbesondere dann angezeigt, wenn trotz konsequent durchgeführter konservativer Therapie noch Beschwerden bestehen bzw. eine Progredienz des Befundes und/oder der Beschwerden auftritt. Eine begleitend zum Lipödem bestehende morbide Adipositas sollte vor einer Liposuktion therapeutisch angegangen werden. © 2017 The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  8. Comparison of effectiveness of two different artemisinin-based combination therapies in an area with high seasonal transmission of malaria in Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondo, Paul; Derra, Karim; Nakanabo, Seydou Diallo; Tarnagda, Zekiba; Kazienga, Adama; Valea, Innocent; Sorgho, Herman; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert; Tinto, Halidou

    In Sahelian countries such as Burkina Faso, malaria transmission is seasonal with a high incidence of transmission during the rainy season. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of the two recommended treatments (Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine) for uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso regarding this seasonal variation of malaria transmission. This is part of a randomized open label trial comparing the effectiveness and safety of Artemether-Lumefantrine versus Artesunate-Amodiaquine according to routine practice in Nanoro. Patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were recruited all year round and followed-up for 28 days. To distinguish recrudescences from new infections, dried blood spots from day 0 and day of recurrent parasitaemia were used for nested-PCR genotyping of the polymorphic loci of the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2. Seasonal influence was investigated by assessing the treatment outcomes according to the recruitment period of the patients. Two main groups (dry season versus rainy season) were defined following the seasonal characteristics of the study area. In Artemether-Lumefantrine group, the uncorrected cure rate was 76.5% in dry season versus 37.9% in rainy season. In Artesunate-Amodiaquine group, this was 93.3% and 57.1% during dry and rainy seasons, respectively. After PCR adjustment, the cure rate decreased from 85.9% in dry season to 75.0% in rainy season in Artemether-Lumefantrine group. InA rtesunate-Amodiaquine group, it was 93.3% in dry season and 80.7% during the rainy season. During the rainy season around 50% of patients had a new malaria episode by Day 28. The cure rate of both Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine treatments was higher in dry season compared to rainy season due to high incidence of reinfections during the rainy season. For this reason, in addition to the curative effect, the post-treatment prophylactic effect should be taken into account in the choice of antimalarial

  9. Agrothechnical System for continuous production of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas Lam in Trinidad´s City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Magdaleno Ortiz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In prospective study different types of clones were identified recommended for the conditions edafoclimáticas of this municipality. That is why the objective of this work is to evaluate the productive results regarding to the potentialities of each established clone that facilitates to select an agrothecnical system that guarantees the increment and quality in the production of sweet potato in a continuous way in the municipality of Trinidad. The work was carried out in the Grange: Valle de los Ingenios Company of Agricultural FNTA, On an Alluvial floor of sandy slight texture and lightly flat topography, have being evaluated six sweet potatoes clones coming from the INIVIT, all commercial ones, for it was designed it an experiment in Latin Square with the clones: CEMSA 78-354 as witness, CEMSA 74-228, INIVIT B-98-2, INIVIT B-98-3, cautillo and INVIT 2005. It happens the same in the not very rainy time of November to April and rainy of May to November, The clones INIVIT 98-2 and INIVIT 2005 were the best for the not very rainy time and INIVIT 98-2 and CEMSA 74-228 for the rainy one; superiors to the witness CEMSA 78-354 and there was evidenced that in the planted area in the not very rainy time the losses are bigger for Tetuán in all of the clones.

  10. Potential Threat of Microplastics to Zooplanktivores in the Surface Waters of the Southern Sea of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Youn; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-10-01

    The potential impact of microplastic to zooplanktivores was assessed by measuring a ratio of neustonic microplastics to zooplankton by abundance in the southern sea of Korea. Neustonic microplastics and zooplankton (0.33-2 mm) were collected using a 330-μm mesh Manta trawl in Geoje eastern Bay and Jinhae Bay before and after the rainy season in 2012 and 2013. The mean microplastic to zooplankton ratios were 0.086 (May) and 0.022 (July) in 2012, and 0.016 (June) and 0.004 (July) in 2013, indicating that zooplanktivores could be more likely to feed on microplastics than natural preys before the rainy season in 2012 and 2013. In particular, the relatively high ratio occurred in a semi-enclosed bay characterized by a shipyard and a beach resort in Geoje Bay, and at stations close to a wastewater treatment plant and an aquaculture facility in Jinhae Bay before the rainy season. Among dominant microplastics and zooplankton before the rainy season, meroplankton of macrobenthos could be confused with paint particles in Geoje Bay, 2012, whereas Styrofoam could be mistaken as immature copepods by predators in Jinhae Bay, 2013. These observations suggest that zooplanktivores could be more likely to feed on microplastics than natural preys around Geoje and Jinhae Bays before the rainy season.

  11. Difference planted season and creeper-pole on both growth and yield of the two cultivars of velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC.

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    SUPRIYONO

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to know the effect of different cultivars, planted seasons and creeper poles at velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens (L. DC. growth, yield and their interactions. This research was conducted on litosol soil in Tancep, Ngawen, Gunungkidul on 170 m up sea level and 9-10° elevation. The depth of soil tillage was 5-17 cm. Design utilization was Randomized Completed Block Design (RCBD with factorial 3 factors. The treatment was (i cultivars: rase and putih Gunungkidul (ii planted seasons: dry and rainy seasons and (iii creeper-poles: control, corn 0 weeks old, corn 2 weeks old, corn 4 weeks old and bambu. There is replicated 3 times. The result of this research was the 1st velvet bean growth on rainy season was rapidly but they have long time planted. The 2nd, by splited rase cultivars, rainy season and creeper-pole utilization was yield increased. The 3rd, on the rainy season, the high yield was come by rase cultivar and creeper-pole utilization. The 4th, with the 2 times velvet bean density and without calculated corn yield, rase cultivar planted on rainy season and bamboo creeper-pole coused the highest velvet bean yield but no significant different with 4 weeks corn creeper-pole.

  12. Spatio-temporal trend analysis of projected precipitation data over Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhire, I.; Tesfamichael, S. G.; Ahmed, F.; Minani, E.

    2018-01-01

    This study applied a number of statistical techniques aimed at quantifying the magnitude of projected mean rainfall and number of rainy days over Rwanda on monthly, seasonal, and annual timescales for the period 2015-2050. The datasets for this period were generated by BCM2.0 for the SRES emission scenario SRB1, CO2 concentration for the baseline scenario (2011-2030) using the stochastic weather generator (LARS-WG). It was observed that on average, there will be a steady decline in mean rainfall. Save for the short rainy season, a positive trend in mean rainfall is expected over the south-west, the north-east region, and the northern highlands. The other regions (central, south-east, and western regions) are likely to experience a decline in mean rainfall. The number of rainy days is expected to decrease in the central plateau and the south-eastern lowlands, while the south-west, the north-west, and north-east regions are expected to have a pattern of increased number of rainy days. This decline in mean rainfall and rainy days over a large part of Rwanda is an indicator of just how much the country is bound to experience reduced water supply for various uses (e.g., agriculture, domestic activities, and industrial activities).

  13. Seasonal Variation in Drinking and Domestic Water Sources and Quality in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumpel, Emily; Cock-Esteb, Alicea; Duret, Michel; de Waal, Dominick; Khush, Ranjiv

    2017-02-08

    We compared dry and rainy season water sources and their quality in the urban region of Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Representative sampling indicated that municipal water supplies represent water sources. Residents rely on privately constructed and maintained boreholes that are supplemented by commercially packaged bottled and sachet drinking water. Contamination by thermotolerant coliforms increased from 21% of drinking water sources in the dry season to 42% of drinking water sources in the rainy season (N = 356 and N = 397). The most significant increase was in sachet water, which showed the lowest frequencies of contamination in the dry season compared with other sources (15%, N = 186) but the highest frequencies during the rainy season (59%, N = 76). Only half as many respondents reported drinking sachet water in the rainy season as in the dry season. Respondents primarily used flush or pour-flush toilets connected to septic tanks (85%, N = 399). The remainder relied on pit latrines and hanging (pier) latrines that drained into surface waters. We found significant associations between fecal contamination in boreholes and the nearby presence of hanging latrines. Sanitary surveys of boreholes showed that more than half were well-constructed, and we did not identify associations between structural or site deficiencies and microbial water quality. The deterioration of drinking water quality during the rainy season is a serious public health risk for both untreated groundwater and commercially packaged water, highlighting a need to address gaps in monitoring and quality control. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Yao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05. The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account.

  15. Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Heavy Metals in Two Typical Chinese Rivers: Concentrations, Environmental Risks, and Possible Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Qian, Xin; Gao, Hailong; Wang, Yulei; Xia, Bisheng

    2014-01-01

    Ten metals were analyzed in samples collected in three seasons (the dry season, the early rainy season, and the late rainy season) from two rivers in China. No observed toxic effect concentrations were used to estimate the risks. The possible sources of the metals in each season, and the dominant source(s) at each site, were assessed using principal components analysis. The metal concentrations in the area studied were found, using t-tests, to vary both seasonally and spatially (P = 0.05). The potential risks in different seasons decreased in the order: early rainy season > dry season > late rainy season, and Cd was the dominant contributor to the total risks associated with heavy metal pollution in the two rivers. The high population and industrial site densities in the Taihu basin have had negative influences on the two rivers. The river that is used as a source of drinking water (the Taipu River) had a low average level of risks caused by the metals. Metals accumulated in environmental media were the main possible sources in the dry season, and emissions from mechanical manufacturing enterprises were the main possible sources in the rainy season. The river in the industrial area (the Wusong River) had a moderate level of risk caused by the metals, and the main sources were industrial emissions. The seasonal and spatial distributions of the heavy metals mean that risk prevention and mitigation measures should be targeted taking these variations into account. PMID:25407421

  16. Seasonal variability of planktonic copepods (Copepoda: Crustacea in a tropical estuarine region in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina de Oliveira Dias

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Caravelas River estuary and adjacent coastal region were studied during the rainy and dry seasons of 2003-2004 to assess the copepod community structure. Abiotic and biotic parameters were measured, and the total density, frequency and percentage of copepod taxa were determined for each sampling period. Copepod densities showed significant differences between sampling periods, with higher densities in the rainy seasons (Mean: 90,941.80 ind.m-3; S.D.: 26,364.79. The sampling stations located to the north and south, in the coastal region adjacent to the Caravelas River estuary presented the lowest copepod density values. The copepod assemblage was composed mainly of estuarine and estuarine/coastal copepods. The seasonal variations in temperature and salinity influenced the abundance of species during the rainy and dry seasons, with the following dominant species alternating: Paracalanus quasimodo Bowman, 1971 in the rainy season of 2003, Parvocalanus crassirostris Dahl, 1894 in the dry season of 2003 and Acartia lilljeborgii Giesbrecht, 1892 in the rainy and dry seasons of 2004. Non-parametric multidimensional scaling indicated differences in copepod assemblages between sampling periods, but not between sampling stations.

  17. Evaluation of the Health Status of the Silverside (Odontesthes bonariensis) at a RAMSAR Site in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, M L; Hued, A C; Gonzalez, M; Miglioranza, K S B; Bistoni, M A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the health status of an economic and ecologically important fish species from Mar Chiquita Lake, a RAMSAR site located in Cordoba, Argentina, relative to the levels of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in lake water and fish tissues. Odontesthes bonariensis was used as a model species, and its health was estimated by means of histological indices in gills and liver. Sampling was performed according to rainy and dry seasons (i.e. dry, rainy and post-rainy). Gill and liver histopathology were evaluated by semi-quantitative indices and morphometric analysis. Although epithelial lifting in gills and lipid degeneration in liver were frequently registered, they are considered as reversible if environmental conditions improve. During rainy and post-rainy seasons fish presented significantly higher scores of liver and total indices. These higher index scores were correlated with increased levels of POPs in gill and liver tissue. Therefore, preventive measures are needed to mitigate the entry of these compounds into the lake.

  18. CLIMATIC FEATURES OF THE AUTUMN 2010 IN OLTENIA

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    ION MARINICĂ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Climatic features of the autumn 2010 in Oltenia. The autumn 2010 displayed two distinct parts in Oltenia: the first one was warm and dry, while the second was rainy, but also marked by warm intervals. In November, there were registered exceptional maximum thermal values. It was the 12th rainy autumn and this feature of rainy autumn became quite frequent in Oltenia. In November, the weather was generally warmer than in October and there were registered absolute thermal records at many meteorological stations. The present paper aims at thoroughly analysing the features of this autumn and at rendering a comparison with the last 11 autumns. The paper is useful to researchers, experts in climate field, PhD and master students.

  19. CONCENTRATION OF UREA NITROGEN IN BUFFALO MILK DURING DIFFERENT SEASONS OF THE YEAR IN NORTHEASTERN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANO HENRIQUE DO NASCIMENTO RANGEL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the influence of different seasons of the year (dry and rainy on urea nitrogen (MUN concentration of buffalo milk in a commercial herd from Rio Grande do Norte state. The region is characterized by a rainy tropical climate with a dry and wet season from August to January and February to July, respectively. Samples were collected monthly from the cooling tank between February 2010 and February 2011, in the morning. Next, they were homogenized and packed in 40-mL plastic flasks, containing the preservative Bronopol® and later sent to the laboratory for urea nitrogen analysis. Although March 2010 exhibited greater ureanitrogen concentration (25.4 ± 4.4 mg/dL and November the lowest mean (12 ± 0.4 mg/ dL, there was no significant variation in milk urea nitrogen in samples collected from cooling tanks during the rainy and dry seasons.

  20. Phenology of two Siparuna guianensis Aublet woods of environmental conservation areas in Cuiabá-MT (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Abido Valentini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The negramina (Siparuna guianensis Aublet belonging to the family Siparunaceae, is a species widely used in Mato Grosso, Brazil, as a bath for treatment of flu, headache, rheumatism and "malina", but little is known about their breeding and domestication. The objective of this study was to investigate the phenology of the species to determine the intensities of the fall foliage in the canopy, budding, flowering and fruiting in order to support the best time to collect seeds and cuttings for ex situ breeding. The phenological aspects of S. guianensis were obtained through observation biweekly 40 individuals in two areas of environmental conservation located in Cuiaba-MT, between August 2007 and July 2009. The region presents a clear seasonal climate with two distinct seasons: a dry (autumn-winter and rainy (spring-summer, and 70% of the average annual precipitation from 1250 to 1500 mm occurs between November and March. We analyzed the activity indices, intensity and synchrony to the phenological events in relation to climatic seasonality. It was concluded that in both places the behavior of S. guianensis had similar patterns, being an evergreen species, with greater loss of leaves during the dry season, his shooting occurred throughout the year, with peak activity and intensity at the end of the rainy season, there was intense flowering in the transition between the dry and rainy, and the fruiting period occurred only during the rainy season. For the flowering phenophase there was a high synchrony between individuals from both locations. It is suggested for breeding ex situ collection of cuttings at the end of the rainy season, time of intense vegetative growth, and the seeds during the rainy season.

  1. Spatiotemporal variation of the surface water effect on the groundwater recharge in a low-precipitation region: Application of the multi-tracer approach to the Taihang Mountains, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakakibara, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Song, Xianfang; Zhang, Jie

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater recharge variations in time and space are crucial for effective water management, especially in low-precipitation regions. To determine comprehensive groundwater recharge processes in a catchment with large seasonal hydrological variations, intensive field surveys were conducted in the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed located in the Taihang Mountains, North China, during three different times of the year: beginning of the rainy season (June 2011), mid-rainy season (August 2012), and dry season (November 2012). Oxygen and hydrogen isotope and chemical analyses were conducted on the groundwater, spring water, stream water, and reservoir water of the Wangkuai Reservoir watershed. The results were processed using endmember mixing analysis to determine the amount of contribution of the groundwater recharging processes. Similar isotopic and chemical signatures between the surface water and groundwater in the target area indicate that the surface water in the mountain-plain transitional area and the Wangkuai Reservoir are the principal groundwater recharge sources, which result from the highly permeable geological structure of the target area and perennial large-scale surface water, respectively. Additionally, the widespread and significant effect of the diffuse groundwater recharge on the Wangkuai Reservoir was confirmed with the deuterium (d) excess indicator and the high contribution throughout the year, calculated using endmember mixing analysis. Conversely, the contribution of the stream water to the groundwater recharge in the mountain-plain transitional area clearly decreases from the beginning of the rainy season to the mid-rainy season, whereas that of the precipitation increases. This suggests that the main groundwater recharge source shifts from stream water to episodic/continuous heavy precipitation in the mid-rainy season. In other words, the surface water and precipitation commonly affect the groundwater recharge in the rainy season, whereas the

  2. Seasonal variation in child mortality in rural Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Bibi Uhre; Byberg, Stine; Aaby, Peter; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine Stabell; Fisker, Ane Baerent

    2017-07-01

    In many African countries, child mortality is higher in the rainy season than in the dry season. We investigated the effect of season on child mortality by time periods, sex and age in rural Guinea-Bissau. Bandim health project follows children under-five in a health and demographic surveillance system in rural Guinea-Bissau. We compared the mortality in the rainy season (June to November) between 1990 and 2013 with the mortality in the dry season (December to May) in Cox proportional hazards models providing rainy vs. dry season mortality rate ratios (r/d-mrr). Seasonal effects were estimated in strata defined by time periods with different frequency of vaccination campaigns, sex and age (<1 month, 1-11 months, 12-59 months). Verbal autopsies were interpreted using InterVa-4 software. From 1990 to 2013, overall mortality was declined by almost two-thirds among 81 292 children (10 588 deaths). Mortality was 51% (95% ci: 45-58%) higher in the rainy season than in the dry season throughout the study period. The seasonal difference increased significantly with age, the r/d-mrr being 0.94 (0.86-1.03) among neonates, 1.57 (1.46-1.69) in post-neonatal infants and 1.83 (1.72-1.95) in under-five children (P for same effect <0.001). According to the InterVa, malaria deaths were the main reason for the seasonal mortality difference, causing 50% of all deaths in the rainy season, but only if the InterVa included season of death, making the argument self-confirmatory. The mortality declined throughout the study, yet rainy season continued to be associated with 51% higher overall mortality. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Evolution saisonnière des corrélations entre précipitations en Afrique guinéenne et températures de surface de la mer (1945 1994)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicot, Serge; Fontaine, Bernard

    1997-05-01

    West African rainfall south of 10∘ N drastically decreased between the 1950s and 1980s, for all months except July and August. An investigation of correlations between sea surface temperatures and precipitations over the period 1945-1994 indicaes that: 1. The long dry season (November to April) as well as the first rainy season (May-June) are associated with a global pattern of correlations, negative/positive in the Southern/Northern hemisphere; 2. The short dry season (July-August) is associated with positive correlations in the South and equatorial Atlantic; 3. The second rainy season (September-October) is associated with positive correlations in the Northern Atlantic.

  4. [Structure and composition of terrestrial molluscs assemblages on the mogote vegetation complex of Escaleras de Jaruco, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Quinta, Maike; Reyes Tur, Bernardo

    2013-12-01

    Cuba has one of the richest land snail faunas of the world. This important fact has promoted different kind of studies on this group to promote conservation programs, from which many studies have directed their efforts to inventories, and population and community ecology. To contribute with this population knowledge, we studied land snails assemblages in three karstic elevations at the "Escaleras de Jaruco-Tapaste-Cheche" Natural Protected Landscape, Mayabeque, Cuba. We aimed to analyze the variation of the composition and structure of the assemblages between the rainy and little rainy months. The study was conducted from August to November 2009 and from January to April, 2010, in ten permanent square plots (9 m2) separated for over 20 m, on each elevation (Beluca, La Chirigota and La Jaula). In each plot, only live individuals were registered (physiologically active and at rest) to obtain species richness and abundance; besides, temperature (degree C) and relative humidity (%) were also considered in each plot. A total of 4248 individuals were observed which comprised two subclasses, five orders, 11 families, 20 genera and 21 species of terrestrial molluscs. From the total, 19 were Cuban endemics and eight were exclusive from Mayabeque, Matanzas. The Jaula showed the greater riches with 19 species, followed of Beluca with 17, and The Chirigota with 15. In the rainy months, La Jaula, showed individual's greater abundance with 1707, followed of Beluca with 1305 and La Chirigota with 1236. We observed differences in the population density in the three elevations between the rainy and little rainy months, which can be due to the climatic adverse conditions that are shown at the little rainy months. Additionally, during the survey we observed dominance of prosobranch species over the pulmonates. The specific abundance curves showed a steep slope, although was major in the rainy months in relation to the little rain months, which indicates the presence of dominant

  5. Monsoonal loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea from vertical GPS displacement time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birhanu, Yelebe; Bendick, Rebecca

    2015-10-01

    Vertical GPS displacement time series from 16 continuous sites over a period from 2007 to 2014 are compared to time series of monthly averages of liquid water equivalent thickness from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment and precipitation from the Climate Research Unit to investigate hydrologic loading in Ethiopia and Eritrea. The GPS vertical time series record the presence of one or two rainy seasons, the amplitude surface displacements in response to monsoon water load, and phases consistent with a purely elastic response to a water load that accumulates throughout the rainy period. Comparison of observed amplitudes to those calculated for an average Earth model shows no systematic weakness related to the rift.

  6. Nutritional quality and amino acid composition of diets consumed by scavenging hens and cocks across seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncobela, Cyprial Ndumiso; Chimonyo, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of season on nutritional quality and amino acid composition of diets that scavenging hens and cocks consume. Thirty hens and 30 cocks were purchased and slaughtered during each of the rainy, post rainy, cool dry and hot dry seasons. A total of 240 birds were used in the study. Fresh crop content weights were high (P cocks. Hens had a higher (P cocks. Histidine, serine, arginine, threonine, cysteine and lysine contents varied with seasons (P < 0.05). Methionine did not vary with season and sex of the bird. Nutritional supplementation of village chickens should, therefore, vary with seasons.

  7. Preliminary observations on the occurrence of lymphatic filariasis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cases (most farmers, all permanent residents of the village, and all within the age bracket of 28- years, complained of periodic fever, headache and chills particularly in rainy season. They had swollen limbs, usually unilateral with pain, itching, crawling sensation and tenderness. Key informants indicated that the disease ...

  8. Breeding biology of the eastern population of the Short-clawed Lark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean clutch size of 2.27 eggs for the eastern population was significantly smaller than the mean of 2.75 reported for the western population. There was also seasonal variation in clutch size with three-egg clutches restricted to the peak rainy season when invertebrate prey was most abundant. The 14–16-day incubation ...

  9. The reproductive ecology of amphibians of the Transvaal highveld

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the time of writing the area has become closely populated and further observations of ... A summary of my observations concerning the breeding habits of the frogs around. Johannesburg is given in the ..... It has often been noticed that the spawning of a number of frogs follows a spell of rainy weather. In the highveld most ...

  10. Prevalence And Distribution Of Ruminant Trypanosomosis In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in sheep it was 17.9%. Peak infection in animals was during the end of the rainy season and beginning of dry season (September-December). Complementary mice inoculation tests revealed 83 sub patent cases and are recommended as a confirmatory diagnostic technique. Afr. J. Clin. Exper. Microbiol. 2004; 5 (3): 221- ...

  11. Trend of Heavy Metal Concentrations in Lagos Lagoon Ecosystem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    komla

    of Physical and Chemical Oceanography, Bar Beach, Victoria Island, Lagos,. Nigeria. *Corresponding author. Email: bayotitoloju@yahoo.com. Abstract. The distribution and occurrence of heavy metals in the sediment, water and benthic animals of the Lagos lagoon during the dry and rainy seasons were investigated over a ...

  12. Influence of Ear Surface Area on Heat Tolerance of Composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative importance of ear surface area on heat tolerance of composite rabbit population was evaluated. The study was conducted during the dry and rainy seasons, climatic data were recorded to obtain categorical heat stress index. Physiological parameters, growth performance, ear length and ear width of the rabbits ...

  13. An assessment of the fish population of the lower reaches of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 15 fish species belonging to seven families were collected and variations in monthly catches and catch per unit effort and condition were observed. The five most common species exhibited a seasonal breeding pattern, with most breeding occurring in the rainy season. The exotic Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus ...

  14. ECOLOGY OF BABOONS (PAPIO URSINUSj AT CAPE POINT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-17

    Apr 17, 2015 ... North-west winds in winter bring rain. The rainy season (90% of annual precipitation) extends from about the middle of April to September. Highest average. • Present address: School of Environmental &. Life Sciences, Murdoch University, Murdoch, Western Australia 6153. Zo%gica A/Ticana /3(2): 329-350 ...

  15. Soil physical criteria for evaluating irrigation suitability of Okija ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suitability of upland soils of Anigbo Okija for irrigation was assessed using soil physical criteria of texture, depth, pore type, slope percent colour and soil structure for the purpose of estimating season farming and rainy season drought. Soils were classified using Soil Taxonomy and FAO/UNESCO legend. Mapping was ...

  16. Improving the geho dryer efficiency by an adequate geometrical Sizing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profit that one can draw from this renewable energy in the tropics is not yet complete. Indeed, it is not uncommon to witness that sad reality when after arduous field work an important part of the harvest is simply devoted to decay. The case of Benin Republic is striking. Here are two rainy seasons that occupy farmers.

  17. Sex expression and breeding strategy in Commelina benghalensis L.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper describes the results of a series of experiments conducted to unravel the patterns of sex expression and reproductive output in a fascinating species with high variation in sexuality. Commelina benghalensis L., an andromonoecious rainy season weed, bears male and bisexual flowers in axillary spathes of all the ...

  18. Spatio-temporal Variations of Abundance, Biomass, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatio-seasonal variations of Pseudodiaptomus hessei abundance, biomass and reproductive parameters were investigated in the Grand-Lahou lagoon at five stations during the dry and wet (or rainy) seasons from September 2005 to August 2006. In all sampling stations, abundance and biomass of P. hessei in the dry ...

  19. Shrinkage and swelling properties of flocculated mature fine tailings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Y.; Van Tol, A.F.; Van Paassen, L.A.; Vardon, P.J.

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric fines drying technique, mature fine tailings (MFT) are treated with polymers and deposited in thin layers on a sloped surface for sub-aerial drying. During the whole drying period, the tailings deposits can experience rewetting during periods of rainy weather or as result of the

  20. Publications | Page 307 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3061 - 3070 of 6374 ... Global warming is the most clear climate change effect and is occurring faster at higher altitudes where glaciers have been standing for centuries. Tropical glaciers are even more affected by climate change than their temperate counterparts due to larger sun exposure and summer-rainy season.

  1. Magnitude and variation of traffic air pollution as measured by CO in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjørn

    PM10 and. Carbon Monoxide (CO) measurements along the roadsides in developing countries commonly exceeded the local and international guidelines (7-10) ... 18 PM. During the rainy season (July) sampling generally started later in the morning (at approximately 8 am) due to the seasonally delayed opening time of the.

  2. Integration of information on climate, soil and cultivar to increase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tercile probability was computed to characterize rainy seasons into best (April), expected (May) and worst case (June) planting scenarios. Three independent experiments were designed to fit planting scenarios. In each set, one improved and one local maize cultivars (best: BH660 and Bolonde; medium: A511 and Limat; ...

  3. Probabilistic model predicts dynamics of vegetation biomass in a desert ecosystem in NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-ping; Schaffer, Benjamin Eli; Yang, Zhenlei; Rodriguez-Iturbe, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    The temporal dynamics of vegetation biomass are of key importance for evaluating the sustainability of arid and semiarid ecosystems. In these ecosystems, biomass and soil moisture are coupled stochastic variables externally driven, mainly, by the rainfall dynamics. Based on long-term field observations in northwestern (NW) China, we test a recently developed analytical scheme for the description of the leaf biomass dynamics undergoing seasonal cycles with different rainfall characteristics. The probabilistic characterization of such dynamics agrees remarkably well with the field measurements, providing a tool to forecast the changes to be expected in biomass for arid and semiarid ecosystems under climate change conditions. These changes will depend—for each season—on the forecasted rate of rainy days, mean depth of rain in a rainy day, and duration of the season. For the site in NW China, the current scenario of an increase of 10% in rate of rainy days, 10% in mean rain depth in a rainy day, and no change in the season duration leads to forecasted increases in mean leaf biomass near 25% in both seasons. PMID:28584097

  4. Brazilian Cerrado Soil Actinobacteria Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Suela Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry. The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  5. Late Blight demonstrations December 2013-February 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, H.T.A.M.; Gunadi, N.; Putter, de H.; Wustman, R.; Moekasan, T.K.; Laksminiwati, P.; Karjadi, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans is one of the most important diseases worldwide. Also in Indonesia control of late blight is very important in potato and tomato, especially in the rainy season. In order to learn more about the important factors that determine late blight control - such

  6. Trypanosomosis in hunting dogs in kaduna, north central Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A parasitological survey of hunting dogs during the month of August, peak of rainy season, was carried out in Kaduna, North Central Nigeria using the standard trypanosome detection techniques and concentration methods. This was with the view of assessing the socio-economic importance and public health implications ...

  7. Dynamics of limnological features of two man-made lakes in relation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamics of limnological features of two man-made lakes in relation to fish production. AA Ayoade, SO Fagade, AA Adebisi. Abstract. Limnological features of Oyan and Asejire lakes, South-Western Nigeria, were investigated between July 2000 and December 2001. Rainy season (April-October) mean monthly rainfall ...

  8. Phytophthora ramorum does not cause physiologically significant systemic injury to California bay laurel, its primary reservoir host

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. V. DiLeo; R. M. Bostock; D.M. Rizzo

    2009-01-01

    California bay laurel trees (Umbellularia californica) play a crucial role in the reproduction and survival of Phytophthora ramorum in coastal California forests by supporting sporulation during the rainy season and by providing a means for the pathogen to survive the dry, Mediterranean summer. While bay laurel is thus critical to the epidemiology of sudden oak death...

  9. Improving on-farm hatchability of Clarias gariepinus eggs by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to facilitate the reproduction of African catfish Clarias gariepinus by smallholders who cannot afford hatchery buildings, electricity and pipe-borne water, the hatchability of fertilised eggs was assessed under the conditions of a dry and a rainy season, as well as under artificial conditions to protect incubating eggs ...

  10. Improving Rice-Based Cropping Pattern Through Soil Moisture and Integrated Nutrient Management in Mid-Tropical Plain Zone of Tripura, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. SINGH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in three fallow paddy fields situated on the mid-tropical plain zone of a northeastern Indian state (Tripura to provide rice fallow management options using leftover soil moisture and nutrients. The three experimental fields were managed by growing rice under the system of rice intensification as the rainy season crop and then groundnut, lentil, rapeseed and potato as the post-rainy season crops. Fertilization under the integrated nutrient management system and lifesaving irrigation at critical stages of each post-rainy season crop were provided. Results showed that the field water use efficiency values were 5.93, 2.39, 2.37 and 59.76 kg/(hm2·mm and that the yield of these crops increased by approximately 20%, 34%, 40% and 20% after applying two lifesaving irrigations in groundnut, lentil, rapeseed and potato, respectively. Therefore, fallow paddy field can provide possible profitable crops during the post-rainy season by utilizing the residual moisture and minimum supplemental irrigation under improved nutrient management practices.

  11. Management options for a more complete utilization of the biological fish production in Sri Lankan reservoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pet, J.S.; Gevers, G.J.M.; Van Densen, W.L.T.; Vijverberg, J.

    1996-01-01

    Stock dynamics of the introduced tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus and co-occurring indigenous cyprinids were studied in a typical lowland reservoir in Sri Lanka. All species exhibited peaks in reproductive activity during the rainy seasons in November and May. O. mossambicus was estimated to grow to

  12. Study of post-weaning growth of F 1 and F 2 backcrosses of goats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that season of rearing had significant (P<0.05) effect on the post weaning live body weight of the animals. As growth progressed, kids raised in late rainy (July - September) and early dry season (October - December) had the heaviest body weight. The post weaning weight were significantly higher in ...

  13. Department of Environmental Monitor

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-11-25

    Nov 25, 2014 ... water during rainy season most of which go to waste and frequently causes havoc due to lack of .... aims to improve their water supply by harvesting surface water. Methodology. Study Area. Marigat division is one of the fourteen divisions in Baringo County. .... in the planning process and decision making.

  14. Predation of Myrmeleon obscurus (Navas, 1912) (neuroptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... removal of mandibles and abandonment of remains of the prey. Maximizing predation is a strategy for these seasonal insects to store energy that might help them to survive during the unfavourable rainy season. © 2010 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Keywords: Ant lion larvae, Cameroon, mandibles, ...

  15. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alcock J (1991) Mate-locating behaviour of Xylocopa californica arizonensis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). J. Kansas Entomol Soc. 64(4): 349-356. Batra SWT (1994) Anthophora pilipes villosula Sm. (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae), a manageable Japanese bee that visits blueberries and apples during cool, rainy ...

  16. [Castanopsis jianfengensis sap flow and its relationships with environmental factors in tropical montane rainforest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gang-Hua; Chen, Bu-Feng; Nie, Jie-Zhu; Lin, Ming-Xian

    2007-04-01

    By the method of thermal dissipation and using ICT-2000TE apparatus made in Australia, the Castanopsis jianfengensis sap flow and the variations of environmental factors in a mixed tropical montane rainforest at Jianfengling Nature Forest Reserve (18 degrees 36'N, 108 degrees 52'E, 860 m altitude) were measured synchronously during the dry and rainy seasons, 2002. The results showed that the sap flow density of C. jianfengensis exhibited mono-peak pattern in clear days and multi-peak pattern in cloudy or rainy days. Sap flow density had significant positive correlations with solar radiation, air temperature, vapor pressure deficit and wind speed, but negative correlation with air relative humidity. In dry season, sap flow density was positively correlated with soil temperature but less correlated with soil moisture, while it was in adverse in rainy season, indicating that rainfall had a greater influence on the sap flow. The linear regression patterns between sap flow and environmental factors were built, which all met the significance at 0.01 level with F test. The mean transpiration rate of C. jianfengesis was 103.5 kg x d(-1) and 41.3 kg x d(-1) for whole tree, and 1.94 mm x d(-1) and 0.77 mm x d(-1) for the stand in dry and rainy season, respectively.

  17. Scale effects of Hortonian overland flow and rainfall-runoff dynamics in a West African catena landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van de N.C.; Stomph, T.J.; Ridder, de N.

    2000-01-01

    Hortonian runoff was measured from plots with lengths of 1?25 and 12 m, and at watershed level for rainstorms during the 1996 rainy season in cental Côte d'Ivoire, Africa. A clear reduction in runoff coefficients was found with increasing slope lengths, giving order of magnitude differences between

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of summer monsoon rainfall over Orissa ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    central Bay, Jharkhand and Bangladesh, that over the eastern side of the Eastern Ghats is adversely affected due to increase in LPS days over all the regions to the north of Orissa. There are significant decreasing trends in rainfall and number of rainy days over some parts of southwest Orissa during. June and decreasing ...

  19. Wind Speed Pattern in Nigeria (A Case Study of Some Coastal and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    time temperatures drop as low as 11 °C (52 °F). Hail sometimes falls during the rainy season because of the cooler temperatures at high altitudes. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Jos has a Tropical Savanna climate and ...

  20. The Dynamics of Sustained Environmental Resource Crisis in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    states sometimes take to fishing during rainy season when the land for farming is either flooded or inaccessible. It is the same with those who live in other ecozones. The implication of this occupational arrangement is that everybody in traditional communities in the Niger Delta is occupationally engaged throughout the year.

  1. Speciation of Heavy Metals in Sediment of Agbabu Bitumen deposit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Speciation of heavy metals Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cr and Hg was carried out on sediment of Agbabu with a sequential extraction procedure in the dry and rainy seasons of year 2008. Hg was not detected in all the fractions in the two seasons. In the dry season, all the metals were mostly abundant in Fraction-5, however ...

  2. Current-use insecticides, phosphates and suspended solids in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Western Cape orchard areas, the last pesticide application of the growing season in summer takes place at the end of February. Pesticides, total phosphates and total suspended solids (TSS) were measured in the Lourens River at the beginning of April 1999 prior to the first rainfall of the rainy season and in the middle of ...

  3. Seasonality of the mycoflora of the crown disease complex of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    gloeosporioides, Phomopsis sp. and Phoma sp. were the dominant group on lesions of rainy season growth and were detected from the beginning of the rains in May until the close of the rains in October, which corresponded with the prevailing period of anthracnose, tip die back, commencement of canker development and ...

  4. Reproductive biology and breeding of Barbus paludinosus and B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the rainy season, Barbus migrate to the marshes, marginal swamps and the Mnembo River mouth to breed. Fishery management recommendations to ensure successful breeding and recruitment of Barbus into the fishery include: (1) a closed season for active fishing gears targeting Barbus spp. and juvenile tilapias ...

  5. Screening of inorganic and organic contaminants in floodwater in paddy fields of Hue and Thanh Hoa in Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh Thu, Ha; Marcussen, Helle; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    In the rainy season, rice growing areas in Vietnam often become flooded by up to 1.5 m water. The floodwater brings contaminants from cultivated areas, farms and villages to the rice fields resulting in widespread contamination. In 2012 and 2013, the inorganic and organic contaminants in floodwater...

  6. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bacteria may also vary with season. This is particularly the case with NTS bacteraemia, more frequent during the rainy season in adults and childrenf“5 This seasonal pattern with NTS is also evi- dent from our data (see Figure 5). A hospital e based prevalence survey of bloodstream infections in adults showed the common-.

  7. Solar UVR exposure research environment in South Africa: Past, present and future

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wright, CY

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available On average, places in South Africa experience between 6 and 12 hours of sunshine per day. Of course, on heavily cloudy and rainy days, less sunshine reaches us, but generally we enjoy a frequent supply of blue skies and bright sun. So, what does...

  8. Caractérisation agro-morphologique et moléculaire de cultivars ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mixtures are more frequent when the cultivars have the same color. From 122 cultivars collected, averaging 1.4 components has been detected. The field assessments were made during dry and rainy season have shown that cultivars called Beng-yaanga or Beng-maasga has late maturing period and sensitive to the ...

  9. Application of a crop growth model (SUCROS-87) to assess the effect of moisture on yield potential of durum wheat in Ethiopia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simane, B.; Keulen, van H.; Stol, W.; Struik, P.C.

    1994-01-01

    A spring wheat growth model (SUCROS-87) was used to identify moisture stress periods during the growing seasons and simulate yield potentials of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum) in six durum wheat growing regions of Ethiopia. The start of the rainy season and distribution of rainfall were

  10. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial ...

  11. 2305-IJBCS-Article-prof Gueye Moustapha

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    2015-07-08

    Jul 8, 2015 ... A field experiment was carried out during the rainy cropping seasons of 2010 and 2011 in Southeastern. Senegal. The study aimed at investigating the effects of sowing dates on plant growth and grain yield of fonio millet (Digitaria exilis Stapf). Seven planting times (from early July to mid August with 7-day ...

  12. Susceptibility Of Grain Amaranth Lines To Hemipteran Bug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In trials conducted during the first rainy season of two conscutive years (1999 and 2000) to evaluate the relative susceptibility of 28 grain Amaranth lines to shield bug (Hemiptera) attack, three species namely Aspervia armigera F., Nezara viridula L. and Cletus ochraceus Herich-Schaffer were identified to be most important.

  13. Grower perceptions of biotic and abiotic risks of potato production in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waals, van der J.E.; Steyn, J.M.; Franke, A.C.; Haverkort, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Growers' surveys took place in all sixteen potato growing regions of South Africa in 2013 and 2014. The agro-ecological climate of these regions is diverse and potato is produced in rainy or dry seasons, in winter or summer seasons, or year round. Growers were asked how often in ten years crops

  14. Effect of Inorganic Fertilizer Application on Growth and Yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth and yield parameters of Thevetia peruviana (Pers) Schum. were evaluated under in-organic fertilizer in 2009, 2010 and 2011 rainy seasons at the Research farms of the Biofuel and Alternate Renewable Energy Ltd, Edidi, Kwara State in the southern Guinea savannah of Nigeria. The objective of the study was to ...

  15. Narrowing Maize Yield Gaps Under Rain-fed conditions in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the rainy season experiment, the plot size was 18.9 m2 (5.25 x 3.6 m) with 5 rows and 10 plants per row. 57. Narrowing Maize Yield Gaps Under Rain-fed conditions in Tanzania. Figure 1: Cumulative water application in three irrigation treatments (IF = water supply as per crop requirement;. I1 = water stress between crop.

  16. An Epidemic of Oroya Fever in the Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Marafion River in regions with elevations of 600-2,450 m in Co- the Department of Ancash. Pomabamba Prov- 6 lumbia. Ecuador. Peru. Chile , Bolivia...lipopolysaccharide T’he epidemic began during the rainy season. (Difco laboratories. Detroit. M11) and Brucella November to May. Many of the lPrsi cases re

  17. Impact of climate change on extreme rainfall events and flood risk in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The analysis of the frequency of rainy days, rain days and heavy rainfall days as well as one-day extreme rainfall and return period has been carried out in this study to observe the impact of climate change on extreme rainfall events and flood risk in India. The frequency of heavy rainfall events are decreasing in major parts ...

  18. Triumph in Tough Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The downturn in the economy of the author's state, North Carolina, so far is less severe than that of much of the rest of the nation, due to their diversified economy, financial discipline, constitutional mandate for a balanced budget, "rainy day" fund, and many years of consistent investment in higher education. In the University of…

  19. seasonal variation in chromium hexavalent and copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    that chromium hexavalent and copper enrichment occurred in the rainy season in the order of Cr+6

  20. Effects of Land Use Change and Seasonality of Precipitation on Soil Nitrogen in a Dry Tropical Forest Area in the Western Llanos of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pedraza, Ana Francisca; Dezzeo, Nelda

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated changes of different soil nitrogen forms (total N, available ammonium and nitrate, total N in microbial biomass, and soil N mineralization) after conversion of semideciduous dry tropical forest in 5- and 18-year-old pastures (YP and OP, resp.) in the western Llanos of Venezuela. This evaluation was made at early rainy season, at end rainy season, and during dry season. With few exceptions, no significant differences were detected in the total N in the three study sites. Compared to forest soils, YP showed ammonium losses from 4.2 to 62.9% and nitrate losses from 20.0 to 77.8%, depending on the season of the year. In OP, the ammonium content increased from 50.0 to 69.0% at the end of the rainy season and decreased during the dry season between 25.0 and 55.5%, whereas the nitrate content increased significantly at early rainy season. The net mineralization and the potentially mineralizable N were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in OP than in forest and YP, which would indicate a better quality of the substrate in OP for mineralization. The mineralization rate constant was higher in YP than in forest and OP. This could be associated with a reduced capacity of these soils to preserve the available nitrogen. PMID:25610907

  1. The Effect Of Urban Runoff Water And Human Activities On Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chloride, sulphate, phosphate, nitrate and ammonia levels were found to be higher during the rainy season than the dry season, suggesting that runoff water contributed to their levels in the creek. It was also observed that the levels of TDS, alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, potassium, sodium, conductivity, chloride, ...

  2. Socio-economic contribution of African breadfruit ( Treculia africana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The product was best harvested during rainy season (68.00%) when fruits are most abundant (48.90%). Majority of respondents (57.80%) sold Treculia africana kernel in cigarette cup ranging from ₦110−₦160 while the weekly income was between ₦2500−₦4500. The major problem affecting price rate of Traculia fruits and ...

  3. Dragonflies (odonata) of Rufiji district, Tanzania with new records for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dragonfly fauna of the Rufiji District was studied during several field trips in 2001–2003 covering the rainy and the dry season. A total of 73 species were recorded by capture with net and visual identification of imagos. Ceriagrion mourae was seen for the first time since its description from Mozambique in 1969.

  4. Talunik Ruusamäe : riik peab abistama Rapla Dairy pankroti ohvreid / Jaak Juske

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Juske, Jaak, 1976-

    2003-01-01

    Võrumaa talunik ja Riigikogu Mõõdukate fraktsiooni liige Rainis Ruusamäe nõuab põllumajandusministrilt, et riik ostaks kokku väikepiimatootjate võlanõuded pankrotis Rapla Dairy vastu, makstes välja võlguoleva raha

  5. ADDITION POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS IN THE DIET INCREASES THE NUMBER AND SIZE OF FOLLICLES IN COWS FED UNDER TROPICAL GRAZING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cansino-Arroyo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was determined the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAS on the number and follicular size in cows fed under tropical grazing during the dry season and rainy season. Using a group of cows PUFAS (GA, dry: n=9 and rain: n=13 maintained under grazing continuo, which received a nutritional supplement, with the addition of 5 % of PUFAS in the supplement. A second control group (GT; dry: n=13 and rain: n=9, kept in the same conditions as the previous group, without PUFAS. The number of follicles was greater during the rainy season than during dry (P=0.0001. Cows GT nutritional supplement did not improve the number of follicles between 2 times (P ≥ 0.7. However, the addition of PUFAS to supplement increases the number of follicles during the rainy season (P=0.002. Otherwise, when the cows were ovulation hormonally stimulated are not noted an increase in the number of follicles in cows with or without PUFAS in the supplement. With these results, we can conclude that the number of follicles is affected by perceived conditions, besides that addition of PUFAS increases the number of follicles during the rainy season in tropical grazing cows.

  6. 1973-IJBCS-Article-Monronkola D O

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    ,. 2008). It is typically found growing at altitudes of 450 to 1900 m, and do grow on a range of soil types including compact clay soils (Vertisols) (Moctar and Sidi, 2007). A. leiocarpus flowers in the rainy season, from June to October, its winged.

  7. INTERACTION EFFECT OF SEASON Senna occid. CORRECTED. L.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. K.J. Umar

    micro Kjeldahl method, and difference (NFE) methods. Data was subjected to ANOVA and LSD at 0.05% for means separation. The results for interaction effect were all statistically significant (P<0.05) in the leaves of the two Senna species and were influenced variedly by the treatment factors. Specifically, rainy subseason ...

  8. Comparative study ohn the somatic chromosome number, growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two Lycopersicon species consisting of one local and two exotic varieties of L. esculentum Mill and one wild variety of L. pimpinellifolium Jusl, were evaluated for chromosome number, growth, flowering and fruiting pattern, yield and susceptibility to tomato disease complex in the rainy seasons (May - September) of 1998 ...

  9. Numerical Taxonomy and Morphological Variation of Cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A numerical taxonomic study was conducted to investigate the patterns of morphological and phenological variations in 45 okra accessions from different agroecological zones of Ghana dur-ing the rainy season of 2005. The results of the study showed that there were two main phenetic groupings of okra accessions in ...

  10. Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of rainwater in Egbema ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical and bacteriological quality of rainwater in Egbema was determined with samples harvested directly, from zinc roof, thatched roof and asbestos roof, at different periods of the rainy season namely, Early, peak and late rains. The values of the physico-chemical parameters were on the higher side at the early ...

  11. Shop Local—and Fresh—at the Summer Farmers' Market | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The summer farmers’ market at NCI at Frederick is under way right on schedule, undeterred by a cool and rainy May. Shoppers can find fresh produce, starter plants, local meats and cheeses, coffee, crafts, and more in the front parking lot of Building 549 every Tuesday from 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. The market will run through Oct. 25.

  12. Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and Agricultural Management. Climate change poses a significant threat to agrarian societies in tropical regions. In Punjab, which produces more than half of India's annual food grain production, there is rising uncertainty in the timing of the rainy season.

  13. Traditional methods of fish smoking and drying in reducing loss to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    day per boat, producing an income of between N6,000.00 to N15,000 per day. The preference of the consumers of these catches tilted towards preferring a properly-smoked product in all seasons especially during the rainy season. Two drying ...

  14. Influence of Cultivar and Sokoto Phosphate Rock Levels on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Locally and easily available rock phosphate could be a sustainable source of phosphorus for legumes production in this region, where, phosphorus deficiency is one of the major problems to crop production. As such, field experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Dry land Teaching and ...

  15. Dengue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengue is an infection caused by a virus. You can get it if an infected mosquito bites you. Dengue does not spread from person to person. It ... the world. Outbreaks occur in the rainy season. Dengue is rare in the United States. Symptoms include ...

  16. Growth and Nutrients Content and Uptake of Garlic ( Allium sativum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers strive to produce high yield and good quality garlic both for consumption and economic value but soil fertility depletion is among the major impediments ... for two consecutive (dry and main rainy) seasons to assess the effect of various rates of compound fertilizers on growth, and nutrient content and uptake of garlic.

  17. Seasonal variations of metals and other mineral constituents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal variations of metals and other mineral constituents of River Yobe. AA Audu, SM Rabi'u. Abstract. Water samples were collected from River Yobe during the rainy and dry seasons at Nguru, Gashua,Azbak, Dumsai and Wachakal. The samples were analyzed for their mineral constituents including Zn, Pb, Fe, Mn ...

  18. Farmers' perceptions of erosion by wind and water in northern Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, S.M.; Leenders, J.K.; Leeuwis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Wind and water erosion are widespread phenomena throughout the Sahel, especially in the early rainy season, when high-intensity rainstorms are often preceded by severe windstorms. This paper describes the results of a survey on the farmers' perceptions of wind and water erosion processes and control

  19. Don't Let the Bulls Wreck the China Shop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Roger W.

    1996-01-01

    Despite a trend in successful endowment investment, college governing boards must carefully monitor the institution's endowment spending rate and not treat the endowment as a rainy-day fund. Shrinking endowments leave institutions financially vulnerable; administrators must be required to demonstrate how short-term excess draws on endowment will…

  20. Déterminisme des Coassements des Anoures de la ferme piscicole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, most of the species have a strong calling activity during the rainy season. Our results should permit to elaborate a standard method for amphibians survey in the Park. Keywords: Calling activity, Temporal variation, Amphibian, Banco National Park, West Africa. Sciences & Nature Vol. 5 (1) 2008: pp. 71-79 ...

  1. Irrigation and climate information in Burkina Faso (AARC) | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Since the 1970s, the Sahel has experienced a marked decline in rainfall and a high variability in the timing of the rainy season (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2007). As a result, farmers have struggled to plan their crops and manage irrigation for food production. In Burkina Faso, many farmers have resorting ...

  2. Body weight, scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...

  3. Seasonal Variation in Fat Quality and Conjugated Linoleic Acid Content of Dairy Products from the Tropics: Evidence of Potential Impact on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Juliana Côrtes; Silva, Monalisa Nilza Lole Ramalho da; Perrone, Daniel; Torres, Alexandre Guedes

    2017-08-01

    Seasonal variation in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content and atherogenicity index (AI) of retail dairy products (whole milk, butter, and prato, a soft yellow cheese) from Brazil was investigated. CLA content of dairy products ranged from 0.55 to 1.53 g CLA/100 g fatty acids and was on average 25% higher during the rainy season compared to the dry season. Dairy products from the rainy season also had lower AI levels, indicating a lower risk of causing cardiovascular disease in consumers. This seasonality led to estimated seasonal variations of milk fat quality consumed by the population of southeastern Brazil, meaning 15% and 19% variation in daily intake of CLA and AI values, respectively. Dietary consumption of CLA (g/day) was greater in the rainy season, despite higher intake of dairy products during the dry season. We show that dairy products produced during the rainy season in Brazil are expected to be more beneficial to human health than are those produced during the dry season.

  4. Response of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) to Farmyard Manure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    ABSTRACT: Field experiments were conducted during 1998 and 1999 rainy seasons at the Dry. Land Teaching and Research Farm of Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, to study the response of roselle to farmyard manure, nitrogen and their interaction on the growth and yield of roselle. Treatment consisted of factorial ...

  5. Water quality studies of TV station reservoir at Davangere City, Karnataka (India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Nafeesa; Purushothama, R; Narayana, J; Kumar, K P Ravindra

    2006-10-01

    Studies were carried out to assess the water quality of TV station reservoir at Davangere City, Karnataka (India). The study revealed that there were variations in physico-chemical concentrations during the rainy season. Except turbidity, all the other physico-chemical characteristics were found within the permissible limits. The results were compared with the standards given by ISI for water quality.

  6. Soil macrofaunal-mediated organic resource disappearance in semi-arid West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Mando, A.; Brussaard, L.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment to investigate the interaction of soil fauna and organic resource quality in the applied organic material mass loss was conducted on a Eutric Cambisol in southern Burkina Faso during the 2000 rainy season. Plots were treated with the pesticides Dursban and Endosulfan or left

  7. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology, 7 (1998) 27-36 27. HEAVY METALS OF IKPOBA RIVER, BENINCITY, ... Nigerian freshwater bodies. Ajayi & Mombeshora (1989) studied the. Sedimentary ... influx of metal-rich water high in Suspended and dissolved materials during the rainy season. In the dry season, there is very little flow of ...

  8. arinta waterfall, ekiti state, nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    communities in order to change their value system into imbibing biodiversity conservation and ecotourism development. The supervising ministry on ... The study area enjoys a tropical climate with two distinct seasons - rainy season ... respectively. This is followed closely by. Theobroma cacao which occurred eleven (11).

  9. Improving Food Production by Understanding the Effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper quantifies the effects of population density and intercropping on the development and growth of nitrogen fixing attributes of soybean and explains how these attributes influence food through yielding process. Information for this study was obtained from a field study conducted over two rainy seasons comprising of ...

  10. Heavy metal contamination of Clarias gariepinus from a lake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult Clarias gariepinus (African Catfish) were purchased from Eleiyele Lake and Zartech fish farm in Ibadan. Water samples were also collected in February (dry season) and June (rainy season), 2002. Gill, bone, intestine, muscle and water samples were analyzed for five metals: manganese, copper, zinc, iron, and ...

  11. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moeletsi, ME. Vol 38, No 5 (2012) - Articles Rainy season characteristics of the Free State Province of South Africa with reference to rain-fed maize production. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 0378-4738. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...

  12. The Concentration of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se in Fiber Fractions of Legumes in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitayani

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate concentration of micro minerals (Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and Se of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction (neutral detergent fiber/NDF and acid detergent fiber/ADF in West Sumatra during dry and rainy seasons. Four species of common legume namely Leucaena leucocephala, Centrocema pubescens, Calopogonium mucunoides and Acacia mangium were collected at native pasture during rainy and dry seasons. The results showed that micro minerals concentration of forages and their distribution in fiber fraction varied among species and season. In general, concentration of micro minerals was slightly higher in rainy season compared to dry season either in legumes forages. Data on legume forages showed that 75% of legumes were deficient in Zn and Mn, 62.5 % deficient in Cu and 50 % deficient in Se. There was no species of legume deficient in Fe. Distribution of micro minerals in NDF and ADF were also significantly affected by species and season and depends on the kinds of element measured. Generally, micro minerals were associated in fiber fractions and it yield much higher during dry season compared to rainy season. Iron (Fe and selenium (Se in forages were the highest elements associated in NDF and ADF, while the lowest was found in Copper (Cu. (Animal Production 12(2: 105-110 (2010Keywords: Seasons, forages, micro mineral distribution, fiber fraction

  13. Prevalence of aflatoxin in feeds and cow milk from five counties in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study of aflatoxin contamination of milk and dairy feeds was carried out in five counties in Kenya representing different agro-ecological zones: Kwale, Isiolo, Tharaka-Nithi, Kisii and Bungoma. Dairy feed concentrates and cattle milk were collected twice (dry season and rainy season) from 285 dairy farmers ...

  14. Water quality assessment of selected domestic water sources in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Five (5) categories of water sources (well, tap water vendors, dam, and borehole) were sampled, in which two samples from each of the water sources were collected in clean sterilized plastic bottles in the rainy ... Copper concentration is within tolerable limits with the lowest being 0.27mg/l for both dam and tap sources.

  15. Rainfall characteristics and their implications for rain-fed agriculture : a case study in the Upper Zambezi River Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, M.; Wallner, M.; Bahlmann, L.; Thiemig, V.; Dietrich, J.; Billib, M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates rainfall characteristics in the Upper Zambezi River Basin and implications for rain-fed agriculture. Seventeen indices describing the character of each rainy season were calculated using a bias-corrected version of TRMM-B42 v6 rainfall estimate for 1998–2010. These were

  16. Effect of manure type and season of harvest on the forage yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A two year study was carried out to evaluate the effect of manure type and season on forage yield, quality and macro elements of two Panicum maximum varieties. The manures used are those of cattle, swine and poultry, the two P. maximum varieties are Local and Ntchisi whereas the seasons are the rainy and dry seasons ...

  17. Forage Potential of Photoperiod-Sensitive millet ( Pennisetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, millet, an important cereal of the dry tropics, could be grown for forage in the low land forest zone where it is not normally cultivated and where the rainy season lasts eight or more months. To determine its potential as an annual forage, 'Maiwa', which is a short-day photoperiod-sensitive millet (Pennisetum ...

  18. effect of the liming materials and rates on plant growth and nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mrs Ify Greg Onwuka

    Keywords: Feed type, egg production, egg quality, Shaver brown hens, tropical environment. INTRODUCTION. One of the major hindrances to commercial egg production is the poor quality of feed for layers. Afolayan et al. (2009) states that the type of feed used ... rainy season is between April – October and dry season.

  19. Horn fly population dynamics as prediction tool for the fixation of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research project was conducted to establish the population dynamics of the horn fly. Two cattle herds were monitored to establish if contrasting climatic regional conditions, in addition to temperature and precipitation, related to the number of rainy days as a factor influencing horn fly infes...

  20. Tants - üks viis edastada kehalist kogemist / Evelin Lagle

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lagle, Evelin, 1986-

    2008-01-01

    Helsingi teatriakadeemia tantsukompanii TADaC Kumus 25. III 2008: Ervi Siren "Seize the Moment - Snatch, Catch, Enjoy", Jyrki Karttunen "Dramatic Miniatures", Maria Saivosalmi ja Andrius Katinas "Farewell Anna Karenina", Jenni Kivelä "Scrapbook for Rainy Days", Ari Tenhula videomäng/installatsioon "Entr'acte"

  1. tourists' preferences for ecotourism planning and development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implemented at NNP by tourism entrepreneurs as one the ways of differentiating the product to meet the tourist's preferences especially during the rainy season. ..... Livelihoods and Conserving Ecosystems; Report to United States Agency for International. Development; March 2013. Crawford, A., 2012, Conflict-Sensitive ...

  2. Managing cover crops on strawberry furrow bottoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bare furrows in strawberry fields with plastic mulch covered beds can lead to lots of soil erosion and runoff during winter rainy periods. This article describes how growers can plant and manage cover crops in these furrows to minimize runoff and soil erosion. This is based on on-going research at...

  3. solar dryer with biomass backup heater for drying fruits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most solar dryers rely on only solar energy as the heat source. This condition limits its use in off -sunny periods such as cloudy, rainy seasons and after sunset. The objectives of this study were to: develop a solar dryer with biomass backup heater for drying fruits; analyze its performance; and carry out comparative analysis ...

  4. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The plankton of a polluted river in Ibadan city, Nigeria was studied during the early rainy season to assess spatial variation in taxa composition, abundance, distribution and diversity. Five sampling stations were established along the course of the river spanning a distance of about 10 kilometers. Forty-eight genera of.

  5. Tree establishment along an ENSO experimental gradient in the Atacama desert

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squeo, F.A.; Holmgren, M.; Jimenez, L.; Alban, L.; Reyes, J.; Gutierrez, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    Questions: (1) What are the roles of regional climate and plant growth rate for seedling establishment during ENSO rainy pulses along the western coast of South America? (2) What is the water threshold for tree seedling establishment in these arid ecosystems? Location: Atacama Desert, western South

  6. Oral treatment of Eimeria tenella -infected broilers using aqueous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Nigeria, wild Ganoderma species of mushroom grows in abundance during the rainy season. Studies were conducted to evaluate the haematological parameters and the histopathology lesions in organs of broilers treated with aqueous extract of wild Ganoderma sp. Blood and organs were collected for haematology and ...

  7. lower oluwa river and adjacent floodplains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-02-23

    Feb 23, 2005 ... Abstract. The ecology of sympatric African bony tongue fish, Heterotis niloticus and the catfish, Clarias gariepinus were compared during the dry and rainy conditions in the lower Oluwa River and its adjacent floodplains. Both ..... trade amounting to over N15 million in the coastal detritus materials for growth.

  8. seasonal variation of biomass and secondary production of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Laboratory duration times were close to biomass turnover rates calculated from field data for both species. Laboratory results and ... Cyclopoid production was highest during the post-rainy month of. November enhanced by a month lag .... done on fish biology in Lake Kuriftu; as a result we did not consider predation factors ...

  9. Phytobenthic Communities in Earthen Ponds {at Makoba

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zanzibar. Among the zooplankton, rotifer abundance peaked during the rainy period (salinity .... time for all the ponds, thus, the monthly averages ..... ponds and the role of plankton in their survival and growth. Indian J. Fish. 2: 257-313. Bryceson, I. (1977) An ecological study of phytoplankton of the coastal waters of Dar es.

  10. The Effects of Some External Management Factors on the Nitrogen Composition of Cattle Manure on Smallholder Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Markewich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder farmers in Kenya collect manure from confined cattle housing termed zero-grazing units. Zero-grazing designs may include urine collection, though the effectiveness of these designs in improving manure N content has not been established. The manure-urine mixtures produced in these units were simulated to determine urine effects on manure N composition. Manure and manure-urine mixtures were stored for 120 days during dry and rainy seasons in Kenya. Manure-urine mixtures leached 26% of their mineral N content during the dry season, but only 12% during the rainy season. After storage, manure-urine mixtures had less organic-N and fiber-N than manure alone during the dry season (<0.01, but not during the rainy season. Results suggest that the effect of cattle urine on manure N composition is greater during dry seasons than rainy. Manure should not be stored more than 30 days to minimize N loss to leaching. Farmers may take steps to reduce N loss by controlling leaching and protecting manure from rainfall.

  11. Seasonal influence on microbial quality of water sources in some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work examined fifteen (15) different water sources in some rural communities of Zaria, Nigeria for microbial index of water quality in relation to seasonal influence from June, 2005 to May, 2006. The microbiological quality indices indicated widespread fecal contamination with the on-set of rainy season Escherichia coli ...

  12. Is the future blue-green or brown? The effects of extreme events on phytoplankton dynamics in a semi-arid man-made lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meideiros, L.D.C.; Mattos, A.; Lurling, M.F.L.L.W.; Becker, V.

    2015-01-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions, a hydrological regime characterized by an annual cycle of drought and rainy seasons changes the volume and retention time of reservoirs. Such changes affect the limnological characteristics and lead to changes on phytoplankton community. Phytoplankton seasonal

  13. Hydrochemistry of a Tropical harbor: Influence of Industrial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composite samples were collected monthly from the Harbour at seven locations from June to November, 2009 (covering parts of the rainy and dry seasons) and analyzed for some pollution parameters and trace elements [(Temperature, pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, Salinity, Total Dissolved Solids, Dissolved Oxygen, ...

  14. Prevalence and seasonality of common health problems in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notable among the conditions that showed remarkable seasonality in prevalence are streptothricosis, footrot, pinkeye, heartwater, helminthosis and trypanosomosis which occurred during the rainy season, while cases of gastroenteritis, foot and mouth disease, pneumonia, abscesses and recumbency occurred during the ...

  15. Nigerian Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 4 (2011)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Outbreak of Peste Des Petits Ruminants in West African Dwarf Goats in Eruwa, Southwestern Nigeria · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ... Diurnal Effects on Serum Testosterone and Spermiogram of the West African Dwarf (WAD) Sheep During the Early Rainy Season · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL ...

  16. Predictors of under-five childhood diarrhea: Mecha District, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    regression analyses were undertaken to identify predictors of childhood diarrhea. Results: The ... Maternal education (AOR=5.6, 95% CI: 1.5 - 19.4), maternal history of recent diarrhea (AOR, 5.5; 95% CI, 2.9 - 9.8), ..... compared to early rainy season, and a limitation to the ... health in Mexico Demographic and Health Survey.

  17. The feeding ecology of mochokid species in River Ase, Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... dry and rainy seasons. All the fish species fed on various food items with detritus being the most prominent food item by consumed by many species. The feeding ecology of mochokid species has been discussed. Keywords: feeding ecology, mochokid species, Niger Delta Tropical Freshwater Biology Vol. 14 2005: 71-93 ...

  18. The effect of Abattoir effluent waste water on soils of Gandu area of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of abattoir wastewater on the microbiological and physicochemical properties of soils and neighboring residential wells in Gandu area of Sokoto State. The study was conducted during rainy and the dry season months. The mean count of bacteria in the waste water was ...

  19. Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polluted Alamuyo River: Impacts on surrounding wells, microbial attributes and toxic effects on Allium cepa root cells. ... High microbial load was observed in river water samples compared to the well water samples throughout the sampling periods with overall highest value observed at Late Rainy Season upstream water ...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-12-02

    Dec 2, 1993 ... Research Institute, Kabanyoio. Significant (P .<. 0.05) cultivar differences were recorded in borer ... (Bhosale and Nawale, 1983), while Yadava et al. (1988) reported that in Uttar Pradesh it was second ... short rainy (SR) seasons of 1991. The station is located about 19 km north-east of Kampa1a, at.

  1. Community satisfaction with indoor residue spraying for Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    minimal adverse effects of the chemical on people after spraying, killing ... District Health Office needs to involve the community in the process of ... reduce mosquito life-span and density resulting introduction ... are the most reliable primary prevention tools for malaria .... during rainy season”-FDG males 25-45 years old.

  2. Modulatory Effect of Ascorbic Acid Supplementation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out with the aim of investigating the modulatory effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on the physiological and behavioural parameters in confined West African dwarf goats during the rainy season. A total of fourteen adult West Africa Dwarf goats, male and non-pregnant, non-nursing female were used for the ...

  3. 5 MS 124-06 Bridge

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-11-01

    Nov 1, 2006 ... A. Bridge, RN, MSc, W. Kipp, MD, MPH, PhD, Professor, Department of Public Health Sciences, K. Raine, PhD, RD,. Director and .... avocados and green vegetables. The lack of yellow fruits in the diets of the children could be attributed to the rainy season (September-November), when fruits such as ...

  4. weaver, Ploceus velatus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes a series of observations relating to the building and destruction of nests by a Single masked weaver,. Ploceus velatus, over a period of six consecutive years. (1975 -1980 inclusive). Contrary to previous published accounts the period of most intensive activity preceded the rainy season, and nest ...

  5. 358 water budget position and its implications on basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    J = Annual Radiation index. = Sum of monthly j. Though calculating potential evaporation using this formula may yield a slightly higher values in rainy season as the formula is based on temperature readings (Garnier, 1968), the formular according to Olaniran (1983) still retain its validity. Water budget graph for the city was.

  6. 1808-IJBCS-Article-Augustine Ogogo

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Six sample plots (240×5 km each, totaling 7.2 km2) were selected and used simultaneously in the northern and southern parts of the sanctuary in the rainy season and repeated in the dry season in 2006 and 2007. Data collected included the number of sites of gorilla nests, number of nests per site and plant species utilized ...

  7. Habitat utilization and conservation of the Cross River gorilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six sample plots (240×5 km each, totaling 7.2 km2) were selected and used simultaneously in the northern and southern parts of the sanctuary in the rainy season and repeated in the dry season in 2006 and 2007. Data collected included the number of sites of gorilla nests, number of nests per site and plant species utilized ...

  8. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Devika

    region, but few known in Côte d'Ivoire, appears to be the appropriate solution to save milk produced by farmers, especially in rainy period (Kees et al., 1996). The cheese making process that, essentially consists in a coagulation of raw milk by sap or leaf extract of a tropical green plant (Calotropis procera), gives a coagulum ...

  9. The impact of fish and drought on frog breeding in temporary waters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding of frogs in four ponds near Harare, Zimbabwe, was investigated during a wet rainy season (2000/01) and a dry one (2001/02). During 2000/01 eight and nine species bred in two ponds in abandoned gravel pits that never contained fish, but only four species bred in these in 2001/02 and the relative abundance ...

  10. A Model for Phenological Development of Vietnamese Rice Influenced by Transplanting Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kotera, Akihiko; Nawata, Eiji; Chuong, Pham Van; Giao, Nguyen Ngoc; Sakuratani, Tetsuo

    2004-01-01

    ... for estimating heading times of a non-photosensitive cultivar CR203 in the Red River Delta. Days from seedling emergence to heading varied from 73 to 106 d, the rainy season crops having a shorter duration than the winter-spring season crops...

  11. Brazilian Cerrado soil Actinobacteria ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suela Silva, Monique; Naves Sales, Alenir; Teixeira Magalhães-Guedes, Karina; Ribeiro Dias, Disney; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2013-01-01

    A total of 2152 Actinobacteria strains were isolated from native Cerrado (Brazilian Savannah) soils located in Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos municipalities (Minas Gerais State, Brazil). The soils were characterised for chemical and microbiological analysis. The microbial analysis led to the identification of nine genera (Streptomyces, Arthrobacter, Rhodococcus, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium, Frankia, Leifsonia, Nakamurella, and Kitasatospora) and 92 distinct species in both seasons studied (rainy and dry). The rainy season produced a high microbial population of all the aforementioned genera. The pH values of the soil samples from the Passos, Luminárias, and Arcos regions varied from 4.1 to 5.5. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of phosphorus, magnesium, and organic matter in the soils among the studied areas. Samples from the Arcos area contained large amounts of aluminium in the rainy season and both hydrogen and aluminium in the rainy and dry seasons. The Actinobacteria population seemed to be unaffected by the high levels of aluminium in the soil. Studies are being conducted to produce bioactive compounds from Actinobacteria fermentations on different substrates. The present data suggest that the number and diversity of Actinobacteria spp. in tropical soils represent a vast unexplored resource for the biotechnology of bioactives production.

  12. IN VITRO PRODUCTION OF VIRUS FREE SWEET POTATO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    preferred customer

    ABSTRACT: The area between Gohatsion town and the Abay River in Central Ethiopia is witnessing severe problems of landslides during rainy seasons. These landslides in the area affect the safe functioning of the road, which is an essential link between Addis Ababa and the northwestern part of the country. In the present ...

  13. CAPÍTULO I

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFRPE

    Abstract. The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from ...

  14. The role of climate and environmental variables in structuring bird assemblages in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriela Silva Ribeiro; Cerqueira, Pablo Vieira; Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments.

  15. Prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren, and climate in west European countries: an ecologic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnedo-Pena, Alberto; García-Marcos, Luis; Bercedo-Sanz, Alberto; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Inés; González-Díaz, Carlos; García-Merino, Águeda; Busquets-Monge, Rosa; Suárez-Varela, Maria Morales; Batlles-Garrido, Juan; Blanco-Quirós, Alfredo A.; López-Silvarrey, Angel; García-Hernández, Gloria; Fuertes, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the associations between the prevalence of asthma symptoms in schoolchildren and meteorological variables in west European countries that participated in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Children (ISAAC), Phase III 1997-2003. An ecologic study was carried out. The prevalence of asthma was obtained from this study from 48 centers in 14 countries, and meteorological variables from those stations closest to ISAAC centers, together with other socioeconomic and health care variables. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models were used. For schoolchildren aged 6-7 years, the prevalence rate of asthma decreased with an increase in mean annual sunshine hours, showed a positive association with rainy weather, and warm temperature, and a negative one with relative humidity and physician density (PD). Current wheeze prevalence was stronger in autumn/winter seasons and decreased with increasing PD. Severe current wheeze decreased with PD. For schoolchildren aged 13-14 years, the prevalence rates of asthma and current wheeze increased with rainy weather, and these rates decreased with increased PD. Current wheeze, as measured by a video questionnaire, was inversely associated with sunny weather, and nurse density. Severe current wheeze prevalence was stronger during autumn/winter seasons, decreased with PD, and indoor chlorinated public swimming pool density, and increased with rainy weather. Meteorological factors, including sunny and rainy weather, and PD may have some effect on the prevalence rates of asthma symptoms in children from west European countries.

  16. THE CONTRIBUTION OF CLIMATIC FACTORS ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected during 1996 and 1997 rainy seasons at the meteorological station of Institute for Agricultural Research, at Samaru, Nigeria, were analysed to assess the effect of climatic factors, relative humidity, wind speed, solar radiation, sunshine hours, air and solar temperatures on microlysimetric PET and pan ...

  17. The four new species of Myxomycetes of South-East Maharashtra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    size were prepared to get it fit inside the box tray.[4]. The natural substrates were cut into suitable sizes and glued to the centre of the paper tray.[3-5] Each box was ... boxes provided with naphthalene ball to prevent insect entry after the registration.[4]. In rainy seasons, the collected specimens were dried in the incubator or ...

  18. The Concept of Leadership Programmed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    University by B. F. Skinner while experimenting with learning theory on animals through reinforcement techniques. Learning is most effective when small units... influencia : and aircctin); m~an in SUch a way as to raini ’Iis confi- dence and respect. A~RT i8. You have learned the three elements of the 1eaderuhip

  19. Forest fire weather in western Oregon and western Washington in 1958.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1958-01-01

    In terms of general weather, the 1958 fire season will be classed as one of the hottest on record and as having unusually frequent spring and summer lightning storms. It was also unusual in that spring and most of the summer were less rainy in western Washington than in normally dry southwestern Oregon. Thus, until late August, cumulative fire-season rainfall ranged...

  20. 1955 forest fire weather in western Oregon and Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen P. Cramer

    1955-01-01

    While fire-weather severity remained low for the third successive year in western Washington, 1955 brought near normal fire weather to western Oregon for the first time since 1952. Temperatures were cooler than normal throughout the season in both half States, with record or near record lows for April, May, and July. April, July, and October were unusually rainy while...

  1. Chemical Composition, in situ Degradability and in vitro Gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the quality profile of tagasaste forage harvested at different re-growth stages by measuring the chemical composition, in situ degradability and in vitro gas production. Tagasaste re-growths after one year of establishment was harvested and the re-growths starting from the main rainy season (July) was ...

  2. Prevalence of Concomitant Onchocerciasis-Malaria Infection in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mosquitoes, the insect vectors of onchocerciasis and malaria respec vely. There are two different clima c seasons in the area, the rainy season from March to October and dry season from November to February. Year round, rainfall of approximately 2,900-3,400 mm occurs, with maximum precipita on occurring from June ...

  3. Effect of discharges from re-channeled rivers and municipal runoff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The parameters determined revealed considerable temporal variations with the rainy season averaged concentration of COD, TOC, OM, TSS, TS, turbidity, apparent colour, true colour, sodium, and phosphate significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the dry season. Spatially, DO, TSS,TS, organic matter and TOC ...

  4. Economic feasibility and climate benefits of using struvite from the Netherlands as a phosphate (P) fertilizer in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Sander; Postma, Romke; Scholl, van Laura; Blom-Zandstra, Greet; Verhagen, Jan; Harms, Imke

    2016-01-01

    Not everyone dealing with agricultural issues in Malawi appreciates the fact that smallholders in this country face challenges which are unique in Africa. No other country in Sub-Saharan Africa has population densities of up to 250 to the square km combined with a single rainy season of five months.

  5. Nitrogen inputs by precipitation in the Nigerian Savanna | Adeniyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inorganic nitrogen input via direct bulk precipitation was measured, and the relation between the different nitrogen species and rainfall characteristics determined over three rainy seasons at Shagunu, a remote, sparsely populated, non-industrialized site in the northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. Nitrogen concentration per ...

  6. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    harvestable plants and animals, travel and transportation routes, renewable energy supplies, and a wide ... rainy season: a deplorable state of affairs associated with the spread of desertification which in turn is ..... diseases and aquatic weeds (Fernando, 1981) dams, unless carefully designed, affect most migratory fishes ...

  7. Aspect of ethnobotany of traditional leafy vegetables utilized as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aspect of ethnobotany of traditional leafy vegetables utilized as human food in rural tropical communities. ... dry season while 68 % were rainy season species. The need for conservation and sustainability of these bioresources are stressed, in order to safeguard them for future generatons and avoid their genetic erosion.

  8. Department of Chemistry, University of Ilorin, Nigeria Depart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2014-10-06

    Oct 6, 2014 ... Abstract. This study was carried out to investigate the portability of drinking water sources available to people in parts of Osun State, Nigeria, especially with respect to trace metal levels. The trace metal contents were determined over a period of six months covering both the rainy and dry seasons. Tap, well ...

  9. INFLUENCE OF LEGUME RESIDUE AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    (11o38'N and 10o31'E) both in Bauchi state, during the rainy seasons of. 2011 and 2012 to determine the influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The treatments consist of two legumes (cowpea and soybean), nitrogen fertilizer applied at the rate ...

  10. The influence of Maloprim chemoprophylaxis on cellular and humoral immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood stage antigens in schoolchildren living in a malaria endemic area of Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hogh, B; Thompson, R; Lobo, V

    1994-01-01

    chemoprophylaxis successfully reduced the parasite rate during the rainy season from 43% to 4%, and during the dry season from 18% to 0%. Chemoprophylaxis may therefore have a useful role in combination with another partially effective malaria control measure such as insecticide-impregnated bed nets or a malaria...

  11. yield and yield componemts of extra early maize (zea mays l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHARIFAI

    ABSTRACT. Field trials were conducted during the rainy seasons of 2006, 2007 and 2008 at the Institute for. Agricultural Research (I.A.R.) Farm, Samaru to determine the performance of extra early maize. (Zea mays L.) as affected by intra-row spacing, nitrogen and poultry manure rates. The treatments consisted of factorial ...

  12. Soil fauna and organic amendment interactions affect soil carbon and crop performance in semi-arid West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouédraogo, E.; Brussaard, L.; Stroosnijder, L.

    2007-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at Kaibo in southern Burkina Faso on an Eutric Cambisol during the 2000 rainy season to assess the interaction of organic amendment quality and soil fauna, affecting soil organic carbon and sorghum ( Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) performance. Plots were treated with the

  13. Variability in boundary layer structure during HAPEX-Sahel wet-dry season transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wai, M.M.K.; Smith, E.A.; Bessemoulin, P.; Culf, A.D.; Dolman, A.J.; Lebel, T.

    1997-01-01

    The variability of the Sahelian boundary layer has been studied with streamline analyses, rainfall measurements, and upper air soundings during its transition from wet to dry season. The 1992 rainy season ended prematurely because of the early arrival of westerly troughs over West Africa. The change

  14. Influence of Cultivar and Sokoto Phosphate Rock Levels on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Locally and easily available rock phosphate could be a sustainable source of phosphorus for legumes production in this region, where, phosphorus deficiency is one of the major problems to crop production. As such, field experiments were conducted during 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Dry land.

  15. SAR-sensing of vegetation wetness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, JJM; Klaassen, W

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study is to measure rain induced forest canopy wetness. The approach used is ERS tandem mission C-band SAR backscatter change detection between successive dry and rainy days. The observed backscatter change is positively related with modelled canopy wetness change. It is therefore

  16. Survey Of Ketosis And Hypoproteinaemia In Slaughtered Cattle In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serum ketone and total protein concentrations of 966 cattle slaughtered at the metropolitan abattoir, Maiduguri, Nigera, were estimated durng the dry and rainy months of the year. None of the sera had a titrable ketone concentration. Serum total protein (STP) concentration of <60.0 g/L,considered as hypoproteinaemia, was ...

  17. Detection of Anomalies and Changes of Rainfall in the Yellow River Basin, China, through Two Graphical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal rainfall anomalies and changes over the Yellow River Basin due to the fragile ecosystem and rainfall-related disasters. Common trend analyses relate to overall trends in mean values. Therefore, we used two graphical methods: the quantile perturbation method (QPM was used to investigate anomalies over time in extreme rainfall, and the partial trend method (PTM was used to analyze rainfall changes at different intensities. A nonparametric bootstrap procedure is proposed in order to identify significant PTM indices. The QPM indicated prevailing positive anomalies in extreme daily rainfall 50 years ago and in the middle reaches during the 1970s and 1980s. The PTM detected significant decreases in annual rainfall mainly in the latter half of the middle reaches, two-thirds of which occurred in high and heavy rainfall. Most stations in the middle and lower reaches showed significant decreases in rainy days. Daily rainfall intensity had a significant increase at 13 stations, where rainy days were generally decreasing. The combined effect of these opposing changes explains the prevailing absence of change in annual rainfall, and the observed decreases in annual rainfall can be attributed to the decreasing number of rainy days. The changes in rainy days and rainfall intensity were dominated by the wet season and dry season, respectively.

  18. Evaporation of intercepted rainfall from isolated evergreen oak trees: Do the crowns behave as wet bulbs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, F.L.; Gash, J.H.C.; David, J.S.; Valente, F,

    2009-01-01

    A new approach is suggested for estimating evaporation of intercepted rainfall from single trees in sparse forests. It is shown that, theoretically, the surface temperature of a wet tree crown will depend on the available energy and windspeed. But for a fully saturated canopy under rainy conditions,

  19. Surviving on half a hectare of land : an introduction to the Issues surrounding smallholder farming in Malawi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carr, Stephen; Kool, Hanna; Giller, K.E.

    2017-01-01

    Not everyone dealing with agricultural issues in Malawi appreciates the fact that smallholders in this country face challenges which are unique in Africa. No other country in Sub-Saharan Africa has population densities of up to 250 to the square km combined with a single rainy season of five months.

  20. MusicMood - Machine Learning in Automatic Music Mood Prediction Based on Song Lyrics

    OpenAIRE

    Raschka, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This project is about building a music recommendation system for users who want to listen to happysongs. Such a system can not only be used to brighten up one's mood on a rainy weekend; especially in hospitals, other medical clinics, or public locations such as restaurants, the MusicMood classifier could be used to spread positive mood among people.

  1. Human health risk of dietary intake of organochlorine pesticide residues in bovine meat and tissues from Veracruz, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardío, Violeta; Martínez, David; Flores, Argel; Romero, Dora; Suárez, Víctor; López, Karla; Uscanga, Roxana

    2012-12-01

    Tissue distribution patterns of organochlorine pesticides in bovine carcasses varied significantly among seasons, geographic locations and tissues. The highest concentrations of Σ-DDT during the dry season were detected in lungs from Paso de Ovejas (2,834.90μg/kg lipid) and, during the rainy season, Lindane and Σ-HCH in muscle and lung samples from Paso de Ovejas (995.80 and 1,690.10μg/kg lipid). Estimated daily intakes of γ-HCH and Σ-DDT (3.35 and 1.22μg/kg bw/day) through consumption of muscle tissues from Paso de Ovejas and Puente Nacional during the rainy season showed the highest contribution. During the rainy season the highest non-cancer Hazard Ratios estimated corresponded to γ-HCH (3.97) and Σ-DDT (4.39) detected in muscle samples from Puente Nacional. The highest Hazard Ratios of cancer risk to the 95th centile daily consumption through meat corresponded to p,p'-DDT from Alvarado (7.76E+06) and from Paso de Ovejas for γ-HCH (1.50E+05) during rainy season. The results indicate potential non- and carcinogenic risks to consumer health through meat consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of seasonality on host-bat fly ecological networks in a temperate mountain cave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-García, Karina D; Sandoval-Ruiz, César A; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Schondube, Jorge E

    2017-04-01

    Changes in the specialization of parasite-host interactions will be influenced by variations in host species composition. We evaluated this hypothesis by comparing the composition of bats and bat flies within a roost cave over one annual. Five bat and five bat fly species occupied the cave over the course of the study. Bat species composition was 40% different in the rainy season compared with the dry-cold and dry-warm seasons. Despite the incorporation of three new bat species into the cave during the rainy season, bat fly species composition was not affected by seasonality, since the bats that arrived in the rainy season only contributed one new bat fly species at a low prevalence. Bat-bat fly ecological networks were less specialized in the rainy season compared with the dry-cold and dry-warm seasons because of the increase of host overlap among bat fly species during this season. This study suggests that seasonality promote: (1) differences in host species composition, and (2) a reduction in the specialization of host-parasite ecological networks.

  3. Performance Stability Analysis of Potato Varieties under Rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Ethiopia, farmers cultivate potato both in the rainy season under rainfed condition and the dry season using irrigation. Despite the variation in climatic condition and production constraints between the two systems, farmers grow the same variety both in rainfed and irrigated potato production systems. Moreover ...

  4. Effects of different concentarions of auxins on rooting and root ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of different concentarions of auxins on rooting and root characters of air and ground layers of jojoba ( Simmondsia chinensis (Link.) C.K. Schneider. ... The experiment was conducted during the rainy season from June to August in a randomised complete block design with three replications. Both air and ground ...

  5. PRESENCE OF HYDROCARBONS AND HEAVY METALS IN SOME ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was undertaken to determine the total hydrocarbon (THC) and heavy metal contents of fish (finfish and shellfish) in the Cross River, Nigeria. Fish Samples were collected in the dry (March) and rainy (October) seasons between 2000-2002. The finfish species identified in the study were Synodontis clarias, ...

  6. Influence of bag materials on the moisture loss and final aflatoxin content of in-shell peanuts stored moist. First studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, H; Calori-Domingues, M A; Glória, E M; Luiz Neto, M; Zambello, I V

    1995-01-01

    In the present work the influence of bag materials on the moisture loss and final aflatoxin content of stored moist in-shell peanuts (MIP) was studied in the rainy season of 1990, in Marília, São Paulo, and in the rainy season of 1991, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo. In each season, MIP were ventilated, as they arrived from the field, to get rid of extraneous materials and then put into 120 bags of jute and into 120 bags of polypropylene, and stored in stacks (12 bags base x 10 bags high). In the rainy season of 1990 (February-April) moisture and aflatoxin were determined at the beginning (average moisture = 14.31%; aflatoxin not detected). Subsequently, moisture was determined twice a week in samples taken from the external part of the stacks for 80 days, when the stacks were dismantled and moisture and aflatoxin were determined in six samples of each stack. In the rainy season of 1991 (February-March), because of operational difficulties, closed mesh jute bags were used (green coffee type) and the experiment lasted only 30 days. Moisture and aflatoxin were determined only at the beginning (average moisture = 15%; aflatoxin not detected). At the end of the storage period three samples were taken from each lot, for moisture and aflatoxin analyses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Invest in women to reduce post-harvest losses | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-05-25

    May 25, 2017 ... Most of the people who do this in Malawi and other places across Africa are women, and they rely on the sun to dry fish. But in Malawi, the main fishing season coincides with the rainy season, so women have to constantly keep a watch on the fish, removing it from the beds when it rains and returning it ...

  8. Flood pulse alterations of some river basins in Ghana | Logah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This means that rainfall amount is not necessarily the major cause of recent high streamflows (or flood), though there are evidences of direct runoff during rainy season in Ghana. It is, therefore, recommended that as a country, there is the need to improve the drainage systems in the cities, and also provide adequate storage ...

  9. Development and evaluation of a new digital photography visiometer system for automated visibility observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingli; Liu, Xulin; Yang, Xihua; Lei, Ming; Ruan, Shunxian; Nie, Kai; Miao, Yupeng; Liu, Jincheng

    2014-04-01

    Visibility information is fundamental in aviation, navigation, land transportation, air quality and dust storm monitoring, and military activities which often require frequent and accurate real-time observation of visibility. The traditional manual observation, the primary means to obtain visibility information by human eyes, is subjective, inconsistent and costly. Instrumental observation (or traditional optical instrument) has overcome some of these limitations, but it is difficult to obtain correct visibility information in a complicated atmospheric (e.g. rainy and foggy) environment. We developed a new visibility instrument, digital photography visiometer system (DPVS), equipped with advanced digital photographic technology including high-resolution charge-coupled-device camera and computer. The new DPVS imitates the human eye observation and accurately calculates the visibility based on its definition and observational principles. We compared the results of the new DPVS with those from a forward scattering visibility instrument (FD12) and manual visibility observations in various (rainy, non-rainy, foggy) weather conditions. The comparative results show that the new DPVS, FD12, and manual observation have the same trend of change, but the observation from the new DPVS is closer to that from the manual observations in rainy days or complicated weather conditions. Our study demonstrates that the new DVPS is superior to the optical visibility instrument and can be used for automated visibility observations under all weather conditions.

  10. Parasitism of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out at the Weija Irrigation Company site at Weija, in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana, to determine the seasonal abundance of the major parasitoid of Plutella xylostella (L.) populations on cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (L.) during the rainy and the dry seasons. The results indicated that ...

  11. jfewr ©2017 - jfewr Publications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMERJI

    This study was carried out to determine the seasonal morphological and parasitological variations of. African Lung fish (Protopterus annectens) from Upper River Benue, Nigeria. Twenty specimens each ..... 1 MARCH, 2017. Fig. 3: Relationship between sex and parasite infestation in P. annectens in dry and rainy seasons.

  12. Narrowing Maize Yield Gaps Under Rain-fed conditions in Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potential land degradation (Cassman et al., 2002;. Narrowing .... and hence bridge the yield gap in Western Kenya. ..... Table 3: Effects of nitrogen levels on above ground biomass, tissue nitrogen content and grain yield of maize grown duringthe rainy season in Morogoro region, Tanzania. Biomass (Kg ha-1). Treatment.

  13. Interaction Effect of Season, Habitat and Leaf Age on Proximate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was subjected to ANOVA and LSD at 0.05% for means separation. The results for interaction effect were all statistically significant (P<0.05) in the leaves of the two Senna species and were influenced variedly by the treatment factors. Specifically, rainy subseason, fadama and upland habitats, young and matured ...

  14. Growth and yield response to plant density of water leaf ( Talinum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of different planting spaces (15cm x 15cm, 20cm x 20cm, 25cm x 25cm and 30cm x 30cm) on the growth and yield of Talinum triangulare (Water leaf) were investigated in two cropping seasons from 2012 to 2013 (rainy and dry seasons) at University of Port Harcourt Teaching and Research farm, Port Harcourt, ...

  15. seasonal variation and prevalence of tuberculosis among health

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damary

    2006-11-11

    Nov 11, 2006 ... changes in the epidemiology of the disease and to identify the localities in our study area which show high prevalence. The significantly high prevalence of TB in the rainy season compared with the dry season as recorded in this study corroborates the findings in other countries (7-10). Although we did.

  16. Grain iron density variability among new farmer-preferred ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain micronutrient content assessment is important in breeding pearl millet, in order to maintain or improve its high nutritional quality. Grain samples of 12 farmer-preferred pearl millet varieties produced in four representative environments in Niger during the 2013 rainy season were assessed for Fe, Zn, Al and P grain ...

  17. Influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (11o38'N and 10o31'E) both in Bauchi state, during the rainy seasons of 2011 and 2012 to determine the influence of legume residue and nitrogen fertilizer on the growth and yield of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench). The treatments consist of two legumes (cowpea and soybean), nitrogen fertilizer applied at the rate ...

  18. Ecology of rodents at an old quarry in Zambia | Chidumayo | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonal fluctuations characterized the P. natalensis population while L. griselda was absent from the site during the latter part of the rainy season and early in the dry season. Pre-weaning survival of P. natalensis was very low, particularly early in the breeding season. The survival of the trappable population was good but ...

  19. Finfish Species distribution and seasonality in Odi River, Niger Delta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Finfish Species distribution and seasonality in Odi River, Niger Delta, Nigeria. ... absent in rainy season and Aplocheilichthys kingii, Barbus aboinensis absent in the dry season. Fish caught and its seasonality in number did not show any significant difference. Key Words: Fish population, Distribution, Seasonality, Odi River ...

  20. Dispersion factors in the arboreal snail Sitala jenynsi (Gastropoda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sitala jenynsi snails from the University and Wazo populations of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were released on grass, and on forest terrain, in both regions during the dry (February, March) and the rainy seasons (April). Snail dispersion was assessed as weekly quadratic means and as the overall Diffusion Coefficient 0.423 ...

  1. Germination Response of Gum Arabic (Acacia senegal L.) Seeds to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted during the rainy season of the year 2000 from July to October at the premises of the Faculty of Agriculture University of Maiduguri under tree shade, to study the effect of hot water pre-treatment duration. The experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design which consisted of ...

  2. Proximate and nutrient composition of three types of indigenous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Tanzania wild edible mushrooms collected during the rainy season have broad cultural acceptance and constitute a traditionally very important nutritious food. However, their assessment as food, which is based on their chemical analysis, has not been adequately studied and documented. The objective of the study was ...

  3. The pollution status of Lake Nakuru, Kenya: heavy metals and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out from April 1999 to May 2000 to investigate the extent of pollution of Lake Nakuru. Water, sediment, fish and algae collected from the lake and its feeder rivers during the dry and rainy seasons were analysed for heavy metals and organochlorine pesticide residues to identify possible sources of ...

  4. Distribution of Nile perch Lates niloticus in southern Lake Victoria is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although Nile perch Lates niloticus is assumed to be sensitive to low oxygen concentrations, it was found in deep water in Lake Victoria, where oxygen depletion is common during the rainy season. Since factors determining Nile perch distribution are not well understood its spatial distribution in the Mwanza Gulf of Lake ...

  5. The effect of body condition on ovarian activity of free ranging tropical jennies (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, A; Bekana, M; Schwartz, H J; Hildebrandt, T

    2006-02-01

    Serial ultrasonography was performed on seven jennies to study the effect of seasonally fluctuating body condition on ovarian activity during the dry, short rainy and long rainy seasons. Kendall Tau correlations and differences of least square mean values were compared. A distinct seasonal pattern was observed both in body condition and ovarian activity. The mean (+/-SD) Body Condition Score (BCS) was lowest during the dry season 2.6 +/- 0.45 when compared with 3.5 +/- 0.52 and 3.9 +/- 0.58 during the short and long rainy seasons, respectively. The mean (+/-SD) number of total follicles was also proportionally low 7.3 +/- 1.6 during the dry season compared with 9.6 +/- 2.4 and 11.3 +/- 3.3 found during the short and the long rainy seasons, respectively. The BCS was positively correlated to the total number of follicles and the diameter of the largest follicle during all seasons. Periods of increasing BCS and transition between seasons with both increasing and decreasing body conditions were strongly correlated to the number and size of ovarian follicles. Seasonal fluctuation in the body condition was found to be the result of variation in feed resource and ovarian activity was also closely following this seasonal pattern. The improvement in body condition has generally, a positive impact on emergence of small growing follicles there by having influence on the total count of ovarian follicles.

  6. Parameters, Journal of the U.S. Army War College. Volume 17, Number 1, Spring 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    replace the tough thinking and hard choices involved. Barbara Tuchman lamented the fact that nothing so comforts the military mind as the maxim of a...military service isn’t glamorous: "Our gayness (is) besmirched with rainy marching in the painful field." No, it isn’t pretty: "(The tired horses droop

  7. Zooplankton composition and community structure in Lake Tiga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 54 species of zooplankton was recorded, comprising two species of Protozoa, 26 species of Rotifera, eight species of Copepoda, 11 species of Cladocera, four species of Ostracoda and three species of insect larvae. Species occurrence and abundance were both higher in the dry season than in the rainy season.

  8. To Save a City: The Berlin Airlift, 1948-1949

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Hospital beds had been reduced from 33,000 to 8,500. None of Berlin’s eighty-seven sewer systems functioned, so diseases like typhus and dysentery spread... Lykins , the pilot who had made the most flights into Berlin to that point. Tunner’s Skymaster took off from Wiesbaden under black clouds and rainy

  9. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-01

    Sep 1, 2017 ... quantitative conservation of water resources of Algerian dams. In this perspective and since. 1980s ..... [4] Guizani M, Fujii T, Hijikata N and Funamizu N. Salt removal from soil during rainy season of semi-arid climate following an assumed salt accumulation from previous cultivations fertilized with urine.

  10. Effect of Time and Level of Pruning on Vegetative Growth, Flowering, Yield, and Quality of Guava

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Shiva; Kandel, Tanka Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Poor quality fruit production in the rainy season and failure to manipulate production periods are common problems for guava production in India and Nepal. As a possible management to overcome these problems, a field experiment was conducted to understand the effect of time and level of pruning o...

  11. Determination of some total and bioavailable heavy metals in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work assessed the distribution of Cd, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the farmland soils around Rivers Niger and Benue and beyond the confluence in Lokoja, Nigeria. The samples were collected in the dry and rainy seasons of 2013 and 2014, digested with aqua regia and analysed for heavy metals using atomic absorption ...

  12. Effect of weed control treatments and cutting frequency on weed dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted during the rainy seasons of 2012 and 2013 at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Department of Crop Science, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, to evaluate the growth and leaf yield of Telfairia occidentials Hook F. as influenced by weed control treatments and cutting frequencies.

  13. Forest degradation and its impact on anuran diversity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean totals of 27.69 and 6.53 anurans belonging to 26 species were recorded in 96 hours of combined VES and AES sampling during this study prior to the cutting of vegetation and after its cutting respectively. The highest number of species (26) was recorded during the rainy season prior to the cutting of vegetation, ...

  14. Seasonal and habitat dependence of fleas parasitic on small mammals in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laudisoit, Anne; Leirs, Herwig; Makundi, Rhodes

    2009-01-01

    We investigated host and flea species composition across different habitats during dry and rainy seasons in the Western Usambara Mountains in Tanzania. During both seasons, similarity in flea species composition increased with an increase in the similarity in host species composition. Nevertheles...

  15. Vitamin A-related potential of wild edible plants in a school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explored the potential of promoting edible wild plants as source of vitamin A in a resource-limited rural, South African middle-school (grades 7-9) garden, using a mixed method approach of four parallel sub-studies in the rainy season of 2007. Gardening practices in the surrounding community were determined ...

  16. Demonstration of anaerobic stabilization of black water in accumulation systems under tropical conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaggu, E.J.; Sanders, W.; Lettinga, G.

    2007-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of "human waste" was studied at Mlalakuwa residential settlement in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania at ambient tropical temperatures (24-31 degrees C). This settlement experiences a high water table with flooding during the rainy season, resulting in a very costly emptying of the

  17. Seasonality and structure of the arthropod community in a forested ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eight groups (Araneae, Hymenoptera, Heteroptera, Homoptera, Diptera, Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Lepidoptera) made up over 95 % of all the arthropod individuals caught. There were seasonal peaks in the abundances. The highest numbers of arthropods per sample were found during the late rainy season and early dry ...

  18. Assessment of the Growing Season over the Unimodal Rainfall ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Most part of Tanzania experiences unimodal rainfall. The characteristics of rainfall such as its onset and cessation dates, dry and wet spell lengths, frequency and number of rainy days can be, used to determine the nature of growing season length of growing season end of season and its geographical variation both ...

  19. Rainfastness of Prothioconazole+Tebuconazole for Fusarium head blight and Deoxynivalenol management in soft red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fungicides are most warranted for control of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a disease of wheat caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum, when wet, rainy conditions occurs during anthesis. However, it is unclear whether rainfall directly following application affects fungicide efficacy against...

  20. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    2014-05-07

    May 7, 2014 ... as it has about eight months of rainy season and a relatively deep weathered regolith. .... 1,219metres above sea level in the northern part around Igbeti. .... In addition, agro-forestry and gemstone mining are also important ...

  1. Publications | Page 312 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Results 3111 - 3120 of 6374 ... The benefits of irrigation have been questioned with regard to the increase in malaria incidences. Are mosquito breeding grounds possibly being created by implementation of irrigation programs? This study compared malaria trends from archived malaria records in the rainy season and the dry.

  2. Parkia biglobosa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    was harvested after the commencement of the rainy season. The fruit pulp was separated from the seeds with the aid of mortar and pestle. Powder was obtained using an Imm test sieve (Endocott, London). Depending on the food component to be determined, different quantities of the samples were used in the analysis.

  3. 147__Sale_Cassava1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    plywood, confectionery, feed and pharmaceutical sectors (Moyo, et al. 2004; Kaaya and Eboku, 2010). However, poor drying during processing or storage, especially during the rainy season, often results in contamination by fungi such as Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium that produce mycotoxins. Aflatoxins are among ...

  4. Levels of Trace Metals in surface Sediments from Kalabari Creeks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surface sediments of about 0-2cm depth were collected from June 2009 to April 2010 at two months interval to cover the rainy and dry seasons. Bulk scientific atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) model 200A was used to analyze the samples. The results obtained revealed that the mean levels of the metal occurred ...

  5. Simulated Impacts of Climate Change on Current Farming Locations of Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus; Sauvage) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, L.A.; Dang, V.H.; Bosma, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Leemans, R.; Silva, De S.S.

    2014-01-01

    In Vietnam, culturing striped catfish makes an important contribution to the Mekong Delta's economy. Water level rise during rainy season and salt intrusion during dry season affect the water exchange and quality for this culture. Sea level rise as a consequence of climate change will worsen these

  6. Length-weight Relationships and Condition Factor of Tilapia zillii ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The condition factor (K) ranged between 1.6 and 4.2 with no obvious variation between males and females. The condition factor however, showed seasonal variation with higher values in the dry than rainy season. The general trend in the condition of T. zillii is that relatively lower condition factor was recorded for larger size ...

  7. Participatory comparison of three pig fattening methods in the provinces of Sanguié and Boulkiemdé, Burkina Faso = Comparaison participatoire de trois méthodes d'engraissement des porcs dans les provinces du Sanguié et du Boulkiemdé au Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, R.H.; Zongo, L.C.; Sané, A.; Zoungrana, C.; Soudré, A.

    2004-01-01

    Development programs recommend fattening of pigs aged between 1 and 2 years by supplementing their local diet with industrial cereal bran, to improve womens' income. At the best moment to start this activity, just after the rainy season, high demand for these pigs induced higher prices and low

  8. Association of haptoglobin levels with age, parasite density, and haptoglobin genotype in a malaria-endemic area of Gabon.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fowkes, F.J.; Imrie, H.; Migot-Nabias, F.; Michon, P.; Justice, A.; Deloron, P.; Luty, A.J.F.; Day, K.P.

    2006-01-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) levels were investigated in relation to host genotype in a malaria-endemic area in Gabon. A cross-sectional study of 1-12-year-old children was conducted in the rainy season, a period of high malaria transmission, to examine this relationship. Variables that influenced Hp levels

  9. Phenology and pollen studies of some species of Annonaceae in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phenology and pollen studies were investigated in some species of Annonaceae in Nigeria to help in providing pollen data and record of flowering patterns of the species studied. Phenological data for flowering and fruiting were tracked once a week for both rainy and dry seasons. Pollen grains from fresh anthers of the ...

  10. 859 IJBCS-Article-Gadzama I M K

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    A comparative survey of molluscs was carried out in two major man-made lakes, Bomo and Kubanni, in Zaria during the rainy and dry seasons of 2007 and 2008. This was done to determine the molluscan compositions as well as to assess the physicochemical factors that may influence the malacofauna of the two lakes.

  11. Evaporation, sensible heat and canopy conductance of fallow savannah and patterned woodland in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabat, P.; Dolman, A.J.; Elbers, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of evaporation, sensible heat and canopy conductance of fallow savannah and patterned woodland in the Sahel is studied for the HAPEX-Sahel Intensive Observation Period. Both fallow savannah and patterned woodland reach evaporation rates of 4–5 mm day−1 during the rainy part of the IOP

  12. On-station verification of the use of soybean trap-crop for the control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted at Samaru, Nigeria for a two year-period (1997 and 1998 rainy seasons) to verify the use of two soybean varieties (TGX 1019-2EB and TGX 1440-1E) as trap-crops for the control of Striga hermonthica in maize. Results showed that sole hybrid maize variety, Oba super 1, supported significantly ...

  13. TEMPORAL AND SPATIAL PHYSICOCHEMICAL WATER QUALITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids (SS), pH, oil and grease, and electroconductivity. (EC). The samples were collected in both dry and rainy seasons of 2006 and analysed using standard methods. Results showed that the impairment of water quality in a stream depended on the type of industry in its ...

  14. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Classical statistics and geostatistics were adopted in analysis of data. Among the nine ... spatial covariance structures of multivariate soil properties (Nielson et al., 1995). Geostatistics is a valuable tool for analyzing spatial variability, interpolating between ... Mean annual rainfall is about 1200mm within the rainy season ...

  15. The recruitment patterns of two palaemon shrimps and some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Peak spawning activity occurred in September for N. hastatus, while that of P. maculatus was August and September. The largest carapace length recorded was 14 mm for N. hastatus, while that of P. maculatus was 12 mm. More spawners were caught during the rainy season than dry season (Tcas = 3.04; Ttab = 0.025(5) ...

  16. Suspended sediment concentration–discharge relationships in the (sub- humid Ethiopian highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Guzman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Loss of top soil and subsequent filling up of reservoirs in much of the lands with variable relief in developing countries degrades environmental resources necessary for subsistence. In the Ethiopia highlands, sediment mobilization from rain-fed agricultural fields is one of the leading factors causing land degradation. Sediment rating curves, produced from long-term sediment concentration and discharge data, attempt to predict suspended sediment concentration variations, which exhibit a distinct shift with the progression of the rainy season. In this paper, we calculate sediment rating curves and examine this shift in concentration for three watersheds in which rain-fed agriculture is practiced to differing extents. High sediment concentrations with low flows are found at the beginning of the rainy season of the semi-monsoonal climate, while high flows and low sediment concentrations occur at the end of the rainy season. Results show that a reasonably unique set of rating curves were obtained by separating biweekly data into early, mid, and late rainfall periods and by making adjustments for the ratio of plowed cropland. The shift from high to low concentrations suggests that diminishing sediment supply and dilution from greater base flow during the end of the rainfall period play important roles in characterizing changing sediment concentrations during the rainy season.

  17. Assessment of Soil erodibility Indices and Soil wash in a miniature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil erodibility indices show mean values of 2.29% for critical level of soil organic matter content, 2.26 for clay ratio, 2.10 for modified clay ratio and 78.79% for dispersion ratio. These results imply that there was a great loss of soil structure and high susceptibility of the soils to erosion during a single rainy season.

  18. Favourable uranium–phosphate exploration trends guided by the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    usually filled with the water only during the rainy seasons, where the surface water flow is very rapid and enough to carry the clastic sediments into the depressions in which many wadis ... extends towards north Jordan and southern Syria. The northern slope of this broad uplift is bounded by dome-like anticlines, which is ...

  19. Design of the Muong Chuoi Barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vliegen, K.; Van Oorschot, N.; Meinen, N.; Van Dijk, S.; Reimert, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Ho Chi Minh City has to deal with severe flooding in the rainy season. To prevent the city from this flooding, MARD set up plan 1547. The main idea of the plan is to build a ring dike around HCMC in combination with several movable tidal barriers. One of these barriers is the Muong Chuoi Barrier.

  20. A case report of Gastrothylax crumenifer incidence in sheep in Kashmir Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ahmad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 655 sheep were examined during 2008 to establish seasonal infection caused by Gastrothylax Crumenifer. The sheep were chosen from different areas of Kashmir valley, but the parasite G. Crumenifer was found throughout the year with prevalence 49%. Prevalence increased in the rainy and post-monsoon seasons and decreased slightly in winter and summer.

  1. A case report of Gastrothylax crumenifer incidence in sheep in Kashmir Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, T; M.L. Reshi; M.Z. Chesti; Tanveer, S.; Shah, Z A

    2013-01-01

    A total of 655 sheep were examined during 2008 to establish seasonal infection caused by Gastrothylax Crumenifer. The sheep were chosen from different areas of Kashmir valley, but the parasite G. Crumenifer was found throughout the year with prevalence 49%. Prevalence increased in the rainy and post-monsoon seasons and decreased slightly in winter and summer.

  2. Changing C and N Levels of miombo woodland litter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Litterfall was collected fortnightly from four-25 m2 cleared miombo woodland plots for five years. The litter was fractionated and compared for quantity, monthly distribution and concentrations of total C and N. Annual litterfall, starting at the beginning of the dry season (May) to the end of the rainy season (April), ranged from ...

  3. Pollutant levels in effluent samples from tanneries and textiles of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effluent samples from tanneries and textile industries from Kano industrial area of Challawa, Bompai and Sharada industrial area were collected on quarterly basis from June to September, 2007 (Rainy season), November, 2007 – February, 2008 (Harmattan season) and March – May, 2008 (Dry season) to reflect the ...

  4. Providing Some Pharmacopoeial Standards for Nigerian Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The essence of standardization of medicinal plants is to produce herbal medicines with acceptable safety, efficacy, quality and reproducibility. Allium cepa var. cepa L. (Amaryllidaceae) bulbs purchased from Sasha Market, Ibadan, Nigeria during the rainy season was subjected to organoleptic, morphological and ...

  5. Activite Photosynthetique Du Phytoplancton Dans Le Barrage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3m) of the lake. Results show changes in photosynthetic activity with time in the two stations. Maximum concentrations of carbon assimilation were observed during the begining of the rainy season (0.35 and 0.81 mg.C.m-2.j-1 ) and minimum ...

  6. Assessment of the Growing Season Regime Region of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cessation dates, dry and wet spell lengths, frequency and number of rainy days can be, used to determine the nature of growing season; length of ... Key words: Agrometeorology, dry spells: growing season, Tanzania, unimodal rainfall. Introduction ..... most statistical' text books and in Okoola and. Salano (2002). Positive ...

  7. Seasonal Population changes of Amblyomma Lepidum (Acari ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tick burden, stage and sex ratio were recorded. The results indicated marked seasonal variations on the infestation rate of cattle by the different stages of the tick Amblyomma lepidum. The tick infestation started to increase during the first shower and reached a peak towards or shortly after the end of the rainy season.

  8. A Statistical Model for Seasonal Rainfall Forecasting over the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A deterministic model was developed to investigate how global rainfall predictors relate to the two main rainy months in the highlands of Eritrea. The main aim of looking at these relationships is to develop a simple statistical model for forecasting rainfall amount. In a preliminary step, in order to identify the most influential ...

  9. heavy metal contamination of clarias gariepinus from a lake and fish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adult Clarias gariepinus (African Catfish) were purchased from Eleiyele Lake and Zartech fish farm in Ibadan. Water samples were also collected in February (dry season) and. June (rainy season), 2002. Gill, bone, intestine, muscle and water samples were analyzed for five metals: manganese, copper, zinc, iron, and ...

  10. Influence de la saison sur l'ecodistribution des glossines, tabanides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the aim to develop the baï of Momba for ecotourism purposes, seasonal distribution of Glossina, Tabanids and Stomoxys from that area has been assessed during the rainy and dry seasons. Ten Vavoua traps were used for seven days consecutively, for a trapping effort of 70 traps/day. Thus, a total of 2 641 Stomoxys (57 ...

  11. Page 1 Agro Scie CO) Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth, flowering and fruiting pattern, yield and susceptibility to tomato disease complex in the rainy seasons (May ... drop and highest fruit set as measurable inellees of adaptation to high humidity conditions, The two ... vironment for proliferation of insect pests and both been widely used in the establishment of diseases of ...

  12. Growth and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Preschooler Music and Your School-Age Child Music and Your Toddler Rainy Day Fun Reading Books to Babies Safe Exploring for Preschoolers Safe Exploring for Toddlers School-Age Readers Should Your Preschooler Play Sports? Smart Toys for Every Age Story Time for ...

  13. Effect of Periods of Field Establishment and Irrigation on Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two irrigation regimes on the growth and yield performance of Thevetia peruviana (Pers) Schum were evaluated during the 2010 and 2011 rainy seasons. The study was carried out at the Research Farms of the Bio-fuel and Alternate Renewable Energy Ltd, Edidi, Kwara State in the southern Guinea savannah of Nigeria.

  14. Influence of weed control methods, poultry manure and planting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the rainy seasons (2012 and 2013) at the Research Farm of Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru Zaria and College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Mando Kaduna, in the Northern Guinea Savannah Zone of Nigeria, to determine the Influence of weed control methods, poultry ...

  15. Effects of Weed Control and Cow Dung Manure on Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for. Agricultural Research Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of Quality Protein Maize. The trial consisted of factorial.

  16. The Effects of Different Weed Control Methods on Weed Infestation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted during the 2012 and 2013 rainy season at the Kwara State University Teaching and Research Farm located in Malete. The aim was to determine the effect(s) of different weed control methods on Weed infestation, growth and yield of soybeans (variety TGX 1448 – 2E). The experiment ...

  17. Effects of weed control and cow dung manure on growth indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trials were conducted during the 2006, 2007 and 2008 rainy seasons at the Institute for Agricultural Research farm Samaru, in the Northern guinea savanna zone of Nigeria to evaluate the effects of weed control and cow dung manure treatments on growth of quality protein maize. The trials consisted of factorial ...

  18. The Schenectady Virtual Community: Exploring the Ecology of Political Discourse in a Local Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Andrea B.

    2010-01-01

    From Facebook to Twitter, ordinary citizens' use of social media to discuss, organize, and participate in the political process continues to grow in popularity (Davis, 2005; Rainie, 2005; Kohut, Keeter, Doherty, & Dimock, 2008). Researchers interested in this area have explored the demographics, patterns of behavior and motives of participants…

  19. What Work of Literature Do You Recommend for Its Use of a Strong Oral Tradition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Cindy S.; Lujan, Alfredo Celedon; Schulze, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Presents three teachers' recommendations for works of literature that use a strong oral tradition. Discusses each of the teacher selections: "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (J.K. Rowling); "Cuentos: Tales from the Hispanic Southwest" (compiled by Juan B. Rael); and "The Way to Rainy Mountain" (N. Scott Momaday). (SG)

  20. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Philippe; Lalire, Maxime

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM) in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ) and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC). This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile survival as the

  1. Unusual subcutaneous metastatic spreading pattern of malignant melanoma; Ungewoehnliches subkutanes Metastasierungsmuster eines malignen Melanoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorenbeck, U.; Feuerbach, S. [Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Universitaetsklinik Regensburg (Germany); Abels, C. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Dermatologie, Universitaetsklink Regensburg (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The contribution is a case report on massive, subcutaneous metastatic spreading of a malignant melanoma. Ten months after excision of a malignant melanoma, the truncus of the 51 year-old male patient showed multiple hematomas sized from 1-3 cm{sup 2}, located above cutaneous/subcutaneous lumps of which some were painful and non-displaceable. The examinations for detection of meatastes as well had shon an unusual picture in that there was no spreading to the lungs. CT scans revealed subcutaneous filiae to an extent unseen before. This final diagnosis is all the more of high interest as an initial diagnosis falsely interpreted this metastatic spreading pattern to be a hemorrhagic diathesis. Together with the unusual non-spreading to the lungs, this case of subcutaneous formation of metastases indicates that in staging examinations of melanoma patients, such rare patterns of metastatic spreading should be taken into account. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber den Fall einer massiven subkutanen Metastasierung eines malignen Melanoms berichtet. Zehn Monate nach der Exzision eines malignen Melanoms zeigten sich bei dem 51jaehrigen maennlichen Patienten am Stamm multiple 1-3 cm{sup 2} grosse flaechige Haematome ueber kutanen/subkutanen, teils schmerzhaften und nicht verschieblichen Knoten. Auffallend war, dass auch im Verlauf keine intrapulmonalen Absiedlungen gefunden wurden. Interessant ist die Darstellung der subkutanen Filiae im Computertomogramm, die wir so massiv noch nicht gesehen haben. Da die Metastasierung zuerst als haemorrhagische Diathese fehldiagnostiziert wurde, scheint die Diagnose einer subkutanen Aussaat eines malignen Melanoms um so interessanter. Der zusaetzlich zur subkutanen Metastasierung fehlende Lungenbefall zeigt, dass bei Staginguntersuchungen von Melanompatienten ein Metastasierungstyp vorliegen kann, welcher erheblich von gaengigen Metastasierungsmodellen abweichen kann. (orig.)

  2. Bioreactor systems for tissue engineering II. Strategies for the expansion and directed differentiation of stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Cornelia [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Griensven, Martijn van [Ludwig Boltzmann Institut fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Traumatologie, Wien (Austria); Poertner, Ralf (eds.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. Biotechnologie und Verfahrenstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane, by S. Wolbank, M. van Griensven, R. Grillari-Voglauer, and A. Peterbauer-Scherb; - Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications, by P. Moretti, T. Hatlapatka, D. Marten, A. Lavrentieva, I. Majore, R. Hass and C. Kasper; - Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation, and Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, by J. W. Kuhbier, B. Weyand, C. Radtke, P. M. Vogt, C. Kasper and K. Reimers; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Characteristics and Perspectives, by T. Cantz and U. Martin; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology, by D. Pei, J. Xu, Q. Zhuang, H.-F. Tse and M. A. Esteban; - Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells, by C. Weber, S. Pohl, R. Poertner, P. Pino-Grace, D. Freimark, C. Wallrapp, P. Geigle and P. Czermak; - Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells, by C. Goepfert, A. Slobodianski, A.F. Schilling, P. Adamietz and R. Poertner; - Outgrowth Endothelial Cells: Sources, Characteristics and Potential Applications in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, by S. Fuchs, E. Dohle, M. Kolbe, C. J. Kirkpatrick; - Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine, by I. Ribitsch, J. Burk, U. Delling, C. Geissler, C. Gittel, H. Juelke, W. Brehm; - Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Clinical Application: Harnessing Paracrine Roles and Niche Mechanisms, by R. M. El Backly, R. Cancedda; - Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System, C. Stamm, K. Klose, Y.-H. Choi. (orig.)

  3. A model for simulating the active dispersal of juvenile sea turtles with a case study on western Pacific leatherback turtles.

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    Philippe Gaspar

    Full Text Available Oceanic currents are known to broadly shape the dispersal of juvenile sea turtles during their pelagic stage. Accordingly, simple passive drift models are widely used to investigate the distribution at sea of various juvenile sea turtle populations. However, evidence is growing that juveniles do not drift purely passively but also display some swimming activity likely directed towards favorable habitats. We therefore present here a novel Sea Turtle Active Movement Model (STAMM in which juvenile sea turtles actively disperse under the combined effects of oceanic currents and habitat-driven movements. This model applies to all sea turtle species but is calibrated here for leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea. It is first tested in a simulation of the active dispersal of juveniles originating from Jamursba-Medi, a main nesting beach of the western Pacific leatherback population. Dispersal into the North Pacific Ocean is specifically investigated. Simulation results demonstrate that, while oceanic currents broadly shape the dispersal area, modeled habitat-driven movements strongly structure the spatial and temporal distribution of juveniles within this area. In particular, these movements lead juveniles to gather in the North Pacific Transition Zone (NPTZ and to undertake seasonal north-south migrations. More surprisingly, juveniles in the NPTZ are simulated to swim mostly towards west which considerably slows down their progression towards the American west coast. This increases their residence time, and hence the risk of interactions with fisheries, in the central and eastern part of the North Pacific basin. Simulated habitat-driven movements also strongly reduce the risk of cold-induced mortality. This risk appears to be larger among the juveniles that rapidly circulate into the Kuroshio than among those that first drift into the North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC. This mechanism might induce marked interannual variability in juvenile

  4. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

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    Cichocki M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Martin Cichocki,1 Viktoria Quehenberger,1 Michael Zeiler,1 Tanja Adamcik,1 Matthias Manousek,1 Tanja Stamm,2 Karl Krajic1 1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Promotion Research, 2Medical University of Vienna & University of Applied Sciences FH Campus, Wien, Vienna, Austria Purpose: Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs and participants (health status, discipline rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL.Participants and methods: The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female.Results: Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36 improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied.Conclusion: Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. Keywords: physical activity, intervention, residential aged care, effectiveness, aged

  5. Preservation of native esophagus in infants with pure esophageal atresia has good long-term outcomes despite significant postoperative morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zani, Augusto; Cobellis, Giovanni; Wolinska, Justyna; Chiu, Priscilla P L; Pierro, Agostino

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate long-term outcomes of pure esophageal atresia (EA) repair with preservation of native esophagus. Infants with pure EA treated at our institution (2000-2010) and with minimum 5-year follow-up were reviewed (REB:1000046653). Data analysed included demographics, management and outcomes and are reported as mean ± SD/median (range). Of 185 infants with EA, 12 (7 %) had pure EA (gestational age: 36 ± 2.4 weeks, birth weight: 2353 ± 675 g). Ten had associated anomalies, including trisomy-21 (n = 2) and duodenal atresia (n = 1). 1 patient (short gap) underwent primary thoracoscopic anastomosis, 11 had gastrostomy (Stamm, n = 5; image-guided, n = 6) as initial procedure. At definitive repair (age: 128 ± 91 days; weight 5.5 ± 2.3 kg): ten had primary anastomosis and 1 had Collis gastroplasty. No patient had esophageal replacement surgery. three patients had gastrostomy dehiscence requiring re-operation. At post-operative esophagram, seven had anastomotic leak successfully treated conservatively. Seven patients developed strictures requiring balloon dilatations (median two dilatations, range 1-10), six received antireflux surgery. At 7-year follow-up (range 5-15 years), all patients had the gastrostomy closed and were on full oral feeds. The management of pure EA continues to be challenging. The preservation of native esophagus is possible with significant morbidity. The long-term outcomes are favourable.

  6. Seasonal Variation of Unattached fraction and Equilibrium factor of 222Rn and 220Rn using DRPS/DTPS and Pin -hole cup dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangotra, P.; Mehra, R.; Jakhu, R.

    2015-12-01

    222Rn (Radon), 220Rn (Thoron) and their progenies are naturally occurring radionuclides in environment and responsible for the radiological dose to population. The 222Rn, 220Rn concentration and their separate attached and unattached progeny concentration (season-wise) in units of EEC have been measured in the dwellings of Muktsar and Mansa districts of Punjab (India), using Pin- hole cup dosimeters and deposition based progeny sensors (DTPS/DRPS). The indoor 222Rn concentration was maximum in the rainy season (60 Bqm-3) while 220Rn concentration was maximum in winter season (57 Bqm-3). However EEC of 222Rn and 220Rn has distinct seasonal demeanour than their parent nuclides. The unattached EEC for both 222Rn and 220Rn (EERCU and EETCU) were higher in summer and rainy season as compared to winter season. The equilibrium factor ( for 222Rn and for 220Rn) and unattached fraction ( for 222Rn and for 220Rn) has been calculated separately. The (0.44 ± 0.04) in the studied area was similar to 0.4 that proposed by UNSCEAR and for (0.05 ± 0.01) it was greater than specified value 0.02 by UNSCEAR. The was higher in summer season as compared to rainy and winter season. Due to very smaller value of , a proper relation has not been observed seasonally. The unattached fraction in environment may increase the risk of radiological exposure and absorbed at faster rate into blood then the attached 222Rn and 220Rn progeny. The overall arithmetic mean (rainy, winter and summer seasons) of and were 0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.10 ± 0.03 respectively. The and were lower in winter season as compared to rainy and summer seasons due to higher value of attached EEC present in winter season. A positive and significant correlation (0.56) has been observed between the and aerosol concentration (Z (cm-3)).

  7. Tropical tree water use under seasonal waterlogging and drought in central Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Tateishi, Makiko; Komatsu, Hikaru; Ma, Vuthy; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Sokh, Heng; Mizoue, Nobuya; Kumagai, Tomo'omi

    2014-07-01

    In central Cambodia, rapid growing non-endemic species are planted for future timber production. However, less is understood about the impact of the introduction of non-endemic species on the transpiration characteristics of the forest, which has been composed of native species that adapted to the highly seasonal environments. Sap flux of two native and one non-endemic tree species in central Cambodia was measured to reveal its seasonal trends and variability in the Monsoon Asia region. Measurements were carried out in a 10- to 15-year-old forest in the dry and rainy seasons that were defined by differing rainfall patterns. The seasonal trend in depth to water table differed from that of rainfall; groundwater table depth reached zero late in the rainy season and increased gradually after the onset of the dry season. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation condition of the native species, Popel (Shorea roxburghii), showed a sharp decline at the end of the dry season, whereas that of a non-endemic species, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), decreased in the mid rainy season while Tbeng (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius) did not show a clear trend. The ratio of sap flux to an equilibrium evaporation was negatively correlated with the depth to water table in Popel, but was positively correlated in eucalyptus, possibly because of the negative effects of flooding. In addition to the large seasonal variation, intra-species variation in sap flux was also large and was a major controlling factor for tree-level water uptake at this young forest site in both dry and rainy seasons. In conclusion, the transpiration characteristics of this forest were species-specific and were controlled more by the fluctuating depths to groundwater rather than the onset of the rainy/dry seasons defined by rainfall events.

  8. Blood Feeding Status, Gonotrophic Cycle and Survivorship of Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) Caught in Churches from Merida, Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baak-Baak, C M; Ulloa-Garcia, A; Cigarroa-Toledo, N; Tzuc Dzul, J C; Machain-Williams, C; Torres-Chable, O M; Navarro, J C; Garcia-Rejon, J E

    2017-03-03

    Blood-feeding status, gonotrophic cycle, and survival rates of Aedes (Stegmyia) aegypti (L.) was investigated in catholic churches from Merida, Yucatan. Female Ae. aegypti were caught using backpack aspirator during 25 consecutive days in rainy (2015) and dry season (2016). Blood-feeding status was determined by external examination of the abdomen and classified as unfed, fed, and gravid. Daily changes in the parous-nulliparous ratio were recorded, and the gonotrophic cycle length was estimated by a time series analysis. Also, was observed the vitellogenesis to monitoring egg maturity. In total, 408 females Ae. aegypti were caught, and there was a significant difference in the number of females collected per season (Z = -6.729, P ≤ 0.05). A great number was caught in the rainy season (n = 329). In the dry season, 79 females were caught, which the fed females were twice greatest than the unfed. The length of gonotrophic cycle was estimated on the base of a high correlation coefficient value appearing every 4 days in rainy at 26.7 ± 1.22°C, and 3 days in dry season at 29.8 ± 1.47°C. The daily survival rate of the Ae. aegypti population was higher in both seasons, 0.94 and 0.93 for the rainy and dry season, respectively. The minimum time estimated for developing mature eggs after blood feeding was similar in both seasons (3.5 days in rainy versus 3.25 days in dry). The measurement of the vectorial capacity of Ae. aegypti in catholic churches could help to understand the dynamics of transmission of arboviruses in sites with high human aggregation.

  9. Carbon and carbon dioxide accumulation by marandu grass under nitrogen fertilization and irrigation

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    Elisângela Dupas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Nitrogen (N is the most limiting nutrient for growth of forage grasses, especially in conditions of low water availability. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the effect of N fertilization and irrigation on the accumulation of carbon (C and carbon dioxide (CO2 by marandu grass in the Cerrado Paulista, in the rainy and dry seasons. Experiments were conducted to evaluate N fertilization in each season, with and without irrigation. Five N rates were used (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg ha-1 per cutting, using urea as N source, totaling 0, 300, 600, 900 and 1200 kg ha-1 in the rainy season and 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kg ha-1 in the dry season. The experiments were arranged in a split-plot randomized block design. There was no significant interaction (p > 0.05 between N and time of fertilization in the irrigated experiment. However, N promoted a quadratic effect in organic matter production (OMP, accumulation of C and CO2 by marandu grass, while there was no influence of the seasons. In the non-irrigated experiment, the interaction between N rates and seasons was significant (p < 0.05 only for the rainy season. Organic matter production and C and CO2 accumulation was greater in the rainy season than in the dry season. Irrigation provided increases of approximately 20% in C and CO2 accumulation. The use of N and irrigation increases the accumulation of C and CO2 by marandu grass, and this increase is higher during the rainy season.

  10. Response of Thalassia Testudinum Morphometry and Distribution to Environmental Drivers in a Pristine Tropical Lagoon.

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    Israel Medina-Gómez

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine the relationships between the biomass, morphometry, and density of short shoots (SS of the tropical seagrass Thalassia testudinum and the physical-environmental forcing in the region. Seasonal sampling surveys were undertaken four times in Bahia de la Ascension, a shallow estuary in the western Mexican Caribbean, to measure plant morphology and environmental variables. The estuary has a fresh water-influenced inner bay, a large central basin and a marine zone featuring a barrier reef at the seaward margin. Leaf size was positively correlated with increasing salinity, but total biomass was not, being similar across most of the sites. Aboveground biomass exhibited seasonal differences in dry and rainy seasons along the bay, most markedly in the brackish inner bay where an abrupt decline in biomass coincided with the rainy season. The relationship between nutrients and biomass indicates that the aboveground/belowground biomass ratio increases as nutrient availability increases. Areal cover was inversely correlated with SS density during both dry and rainy seasons. Maximum SS recruitment coincided with the rainy season. Peaks in SS density were recorded in the freshwater-influenced inner bay during an ENSO cold phase in 2007 ("La Niña" which is associated with a wetter dry season and following a strong storm (Hurricane Dean. The onset of the rainy season influences both shoot density and T. testudinum biomass by controlling the freshwater input to the bay and thus, the system's salinity gradient and external nutrients supply from the coastal wetland.

  11. Transpiration by trees under seasonal water logging and drought in monsoon central Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazawa, Y.; Tateishi, M.; Kajisa, T.; Ma, V.; Heng, S.; Kumagai, T.; Mizoue, N.

    2012-04-01

    Cambodia is situated in the center of Indochina Peninsula and experiences severe drought for 5 months of dry season and subsequent rainy season. Around the Tonlesap Lake where both natural and secondary forests exist without intensive destruction by human activity, forest hydrology is characterized by seasonal water logging in mid rainy season. Tree- and stand-scale transpiration is thought to be influenced by the changing soil water conditions and trees' site-specific adaptation to the environment, but less is measured about transpiration and leaf ecophysiological traits in this region. The objectives of this study is to reveal the ecophysiology of the two native (Dipterocarpus obtusifolius and Shorea roxburghii) and two exotic species (Acacia auriculiformis and Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and to detect the effects of soil water conditions on day to week scale transpiration in mid rainy and dry season. Seasonal leaf-level photosynthesis measurements suggested that photosynthetic capacity (Vcmax25) showed no clear seasonal change in each species without clear interspecific variation. Two native species had stomatal control in response to the environment different from previous studies and showed stomatal conductance higher than most woody species in other seasonal tropical forests, suggesting the species- and site-specific adaptation to the easy access to the ground water. Sap flow rate per leaf area was expressed in two parameters: measured transpiration rate based on the continuous sap flow measurements (Esap) and modeled transpiration rate (Emod) using a multilayer model based on the measured data of atmospheric environments, radiation and the leaf ecophysiological traits. Esap was lower in rainy season than those in dry season, with short but pronounced drop near the end of the dry season, although Emod was higher in rainy season than in dry season. In dry season, Emod well fit the diurnal and day to day trend of Esap, suggesting that soil drought did not limit

  12. Anthelminthic activity of methanol extracts of Diospyros anisandra and Petiveria alliacea on cyathostomin (Nematoda: Cyathostominae) larval development and egg hatching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flota-Burgos, G J; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Rodríguez-Vivas, R I; Arjona-Cambranes, K A

    2017-12-15

    Methanol extracts of plant structures are promising alternatives to traditional pharmaceutical anthelminthic treatments. An in vitro evaluation was done of how methanol extracts of Diospyros anisandra bark and leaves, and Petiveria alliacea stems and leaves, collected during the rainy and dry seasons, effected cyathostomin larval development and egg hatching. Seven concentrations (600, 300, 150, 75, 37.5, 18.7 and 9.3μg/ml) were tested using the egg hatch assay. An ANOVA was applied to identify differences between the concentrations and the controls. Fifty percent lethal concentration (LC50) and the 95% confidence interval were calculated with a probit analysis. At and above 37.5μg/ml, the D. anisandra bark extracts from both seasons exhibited ≥95% egg hatch inhibition (EHI), while the D. anisandra leaf extracts had >90% EHI at and above 75μg/ml. For P. alliacea, the extracts from leaves and stems from either season exhibited >97% EHI at and above 300μg/ml, although similar efficacy was also observed at lower concentrations with the rainy season stems (75μg/ml) and leaves (150μg/ml). Values for LC50 were lowest for the rainy season D. anisandra bark (10.2μg/ml) and leaf extracts (18.4μg/ml), followed by the rainy season P. alliacea stems extract (28.2μg/ml). In the D. anisandra extracts, EHI was largely due to its ovicidal activity (≥96% beginning at 37.5μg/ml), whereas in the P. alliacea extracts it was due to L1 larval hatch failure (≥90% beginning at 75μg/ml). Overall, the rainy season D. anisandra bark extracts had a strong in vitro anthelminthic effect against cyathostomins by inhibiting larval development, and the rainy season P. alliacea stem extracts had a strong effect by preventing egg hatching. Both are possible control alternatives for these nematodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Food partitioning between sympatric species of Serrapinnus (Osteichthyes, Cheirodontinae in a tropical stream - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.7593 Food partitioning between sympatric species of Serrapinnus (Osteichthyes, Cheirodontinae in a tropical stream - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i2.7593

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Segatti Hahn

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feeding habits of Serrapinnus microdon and S. calliurus and possible seasonal differences (rainy and dry seasons in the utilization of food. The fish were collected monthly in Cancela stream, in the basin of the Manso/Cuiabá rivers in the State of Mato Grosso, from March 2003 to February 2004. Both species preferentially consumed resources of autochthonous origin, independently of the season. The diet of S. microdon was basically composed by immature forms of aquatic insects, with Chironomidae and Ephemeroptera predominating during the entire study period, thus showing a restricted diet (Ba = 0.27 in the rainy season, and 0.29 in the dry season. For S. calliurus, aquatic insects (especially Ephemeroptera were equally important, but algae and detritus were also prominent depending on the season, showing a less specialized diet (Ba = 0.44 in the rainy season, and Ba = 0.48 in the dry season. Both fish species presented a benthivorous feeding habit; however, everything indicates that they live together without competition, because the food on which they depend is widely available. Serrapinnus calliurus was susceptible to seasonal changes in the availability of food resources.This study investigated the feeding habits of Serrapinnus microdon and S. calliurus and possible seasonal differences (rainy and dry seasons in the utilization of food. The fish were collected monthly in Cancela stream, in the basin of the Manso/Cuiabá rivers in the State of Mato Grosso, from March 2003 to February 2004. Both species preferentially consumed resources of autochthonous origin, independently of the season. The diet of S. microdon was basically composed by immature forms of aquatic insects, with Chironomidae and Ephemeroptera predominating during the entire study period, thus showing a restricted diet (Ba = 0.27 in the rainy season, and 0.29 in the dry season. For S. calliurus, aquatic insects (especially Ephemeroptera were equally

  14. Epigeal Fauna and Soil Chemical Attributes in Grazing and Regeneration Areas

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    Leandro Ribeiro Nogueira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of natural pasture and spontaneous regeneration on soil chemical properties and epigeal fauna community using a secondary Atlantic Forest as reference. The study areas were located in Passa Vinte, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In each study area, pitfall traps were used to sample epigeal fauna in the dry and rainy seasons. Earth samples were collected at a depth of 0-5 cm in the dry and rainy seasons for analysis of chemical attributes. The pasture and regeneration areas showed an overall activity of epigeal fauna and functional groups similar to the forest area. However, the diversity evaluated by the Shannon and Pielou evenness indices and the total richness were lower than the observed in the forest. The best fertility attributes were observed in the forest and pasture areas.

  15. Subtidal inner shelf currents off Cartagena de Indias, Caribbean coast of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maza, Mauro; Voulgaris, George; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu

    2006-11-01

    Seasonal trends in inner shelf subtidal circulation off the coast of Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, are examined through the analysis of current profiles, hydrographic, meteorological and satellite data collected from 1999 to 2002. During the dry season (December-April) the water column is well-mixed and along-shelf currents flow southwestward following the steady trade winds. In the rainy season (May-November) the water column experiences continuous events of stratification and the along-shelf currents flow northeastward, opposing the weak southwestward winds. In the dry season the along-shelf circulation is mostly driven by wind forcing, while in the rainy season, the circulation is set by an alongshore baroclinic pressure gradient. In the cross-shelf direction upwelling conditions are observed most of the year and geostrophic balance conditions are found.

  16. First occurrence of Quadrigyrus nickoli (Acanthocephala) in the ornamental fish Hyphessobrycon eques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Rodrigo Yudi; Almeida, Edilene Santos; Diniz, Daniel Guerreiro; Eiras, Jorge Costa; Martins, Mauricio Laterça

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to report the first seasonal occurrence of the acanthocephalan Quadrigyrus nickoli Schmidt & Hugghins, 1973 (Quadrigyridae), in the "Mato Grosso" Hyphessobrycon eques (Characidae) (Steindachner, 1882), collected from the Chumucuí River, state of Pará, Brazil. The fish were collected between July 2006 (rainy season) and June 2007 (dry season) and were examined for parasites using pattern techniques. A total of 75 parasites were found in the stomach and intestine. Among 83 fish examined (50 in the dry season and 33 in the rainy season), 22 were parasitized by cystacanths of Q. nickoli. The importance of H. eques as a paratenic host for Q. nickoli is discussed. This is the first study on the biology of and infection by Q. nickoli occurring in the eastern Amazon region.

  17. Seasonal Transmission of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato and a Lecithodendriid Trematode Species in Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos Snails in Northeast Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namsanor, Jutamas; Sithithaworn, Paiboon; Kopolrat, Kulthida; Kiatsopit, Nadda; Pitaksakulrat, Opal; Tesana, Smarn; Andrews, Ross H.; Petney, Trevor N.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal changes play roles in the transmission success of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes (FZT). This study examined the seasonal transmission patterns of Opisthorchis viverrini sensu lato (s.l.) and a virgulate cercaria (family Lecithodendriidae) in the snail intermediate host, Bithynia siamensis goniomphalos in northeast Thailand. Snail samples were collected monthly during the rainy, cool, and hot seasons during 2012–2013 to determine the prevalence and intensity of larval trematode infections. The prevalence of O. viverrini s.l. varied significantly with season, being 0.31%, 1.05%, and 0.37% in the rainy, cool, and hot seasons, respectively (P snails infected with O. viverrini s.l. were significantly smaller (P snails. Seasonal variation and the different sizes of B. s. goniomphalos parasitized by O. viverrini s.l. and virgulate trematodes indicate complex host–parasite interactions with important implications for the epidemiology of O. viverrini s.l. PMID:25918210

  18. Seasonality of pathogenic fungi in mites of rubber tree plantations adjacent to fragments of Cerrado

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    PR. Demite

    Full Text Available Fungi are the most frequently observed pathogens of mite populations, helping to control them on different crops. Twenty-five samples of leaves were collected from rubber tree plantations adjacent to two fragments of Cerrado vegetation. Each rubber tree plantation had 25 plants selected for sampling and seven leaves from around each tree top were collected up to seven to eight meters above ground. Approximately 250 individuals of Calacarus heveae Feres, Phyllocoptruta seringueirae Feres, and Tenuipalpus heveae Baker, collected randomly, were mounted from each plantation. Hirsutella thompsoni Fisher was observed on all three mites and T. heveae was the most infected species. The highest infestation levels occurred from November to February (rainy season. In the dry season, infestation levels were below 5%. Hirsutella thompsonii has potential to be used as mycoacaricide during the rainy season.

  19. Pollution Load Estimation Based on Characteristic Section Load Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Song, JinXi; Liu, WanQing

    2017-12-01

    Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section is taken as the research objective in this paper and COD is chosen as the water quality parameter. According to the discharge characteristics of point source pollutions and non-point source pollutions, a new method to estimate pollution loads-Characteristic Section Load Method(CSLM) is proposed and point source pollution and non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are calculated in the rainy, normal and dry season in the year 2007. The results show that the monthly point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section are discharged stably, the monthly non-point source pollution loads of Weihe River Watershed above Linjiacun Section change greatly, the non-point source pollution load proportions of total pollution load of COD are gradually decreased in the rainy, normal and wet periods.

  20. Species composition and seasonal variation of butterflies in Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary, Jharkhand, India

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    S.K. Verma

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary is located 10km from Jamshedpur in Jharkhand, India. The species composition and seasonal variation of butterflies was analyzed in this sanctuary over the course of 2 years. A total of 39 species belonging to 31 genera and 4 families were identified. Of these, Nymphalidae and Pieridae were found to be the dominant families, in comparison to Lycaenidae and Papilionidae. The monthly diversity was calculated by using the Shannon-Weiner diversity index. The highest diversity was found during late winter and spring while a comparatively low diversity was observed during the rainy season and summer. Nymphalidae showed the greatest variation with respect to distribution of species richness throughout the year. Nymphalidae and Lycaenidae showed greatest species richness and relative abundance during the rainy season. Little seasonal variation in species richness was observed in case of families Pieridae and Papilionidae