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Sample records for significantly reduced performance

  1. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  2. Quilting after mastectomy significantly reduces seroma formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce or prevent seroma formation among mastectomy patients ... of this prospective study is to evaluate the effect of surgical quilting ... Seroma was more common in smokers (p=0.003) and was not decreased by the .... explain its aetiology.

  3. The Real World Significance of Performance Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardos, Zachary A.; Wang, Qing Yang; Trivedi, Shubhendu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the educational data mining and user modeling communities have been aggressively introducing models for predicting student performance on external measures such as standardized tests as well as within-tutor performance. While these models have brought statistically reliable improvement to performance prediction, the real world…

  4. Next-generation nozzle check valve significantly reduces operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roorda, O. [SMX International, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Check valves perform an important function in preventing reverse flow and protecting plant and mechanical equipment. However, the variety of different types of valves and extreme differences in performance even within one type can change maintenance requirements and life cycle costs, amounting to millions of dollars over the typical 15-year design life of piping components. A next-generation non-slam nozzle check valve which prevents return flow has greatly reduced operating costs by protecting the mechanical equipment in a piping system. This article described the check valve varieties such as the swing check valve, a dual-plate check valve, and nozzle check valves. Advancements in optimized design of a non-slam nozzle check valve were also discussed, with particular reference to computer flow modelling such as computational fluid dynamics; computer stress modelling such as finite element analysis; and flow testing (using rapid prototype development and flow loop testing), both to improve dynamic performance and reduce hydraulic losses. The benefits of maximized dynamic performance and minimized pressure loss from the new designed valve were also outlined. It was concluded that this latest non-slam nozzle check valve design has potential applications in natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and oil pipelines, including subsea applications, as well as refineries, and petrochemical plants among others, and is suitable for horizontal and vertical installation. The result of this next-generation nozzle check valve design is not only superior performance, and effective protection of mechanical equipment but also minimized life cycle costs. 1 fig.

  5. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  7. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekis, Nejc; Mc Entee, Mark F.; Stegnar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p ≤ 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p ≤ 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p ≤ 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p ≤ 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p ≤ 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p ≤ 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  8. Cold water recovery reduces anaerobic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, M J; O'Connor, D; Rudd, D

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of cold water immersion on recovery from anaerobic cycling. Seventeen (13 male, 4 female) active subjects underwent a crossover, randomised design involving two testing sessions 2 - 6 d apart. Testing involved two 30-s maximal cycling efforts separated by a one-hour recovery period of 10-min cycling warm-down followed by either passive rest or 15-min cold water immersion (13 - 14 degrees C) with passive rest. Peak power, total work and postexercise blood lactate were significantly reduced following cold water immersion compared to the first exercise test and the control condition. These variables did not differ significantly between the control tests. Peak exercise heart rate was significantly lower after cold water immersion compared to the control. Time to peak power, rating of perceived exertion, and blood pH were not affected by cold water immersion compared to the control. Core temperature rose significantly (0.3 degrees C) during ice bath immersion but a similar increase also occurred in the control condition. Therefore, cold water immersion caused a significant decrease in sprint cycling performance with one-hour recovery between tests.

  9. Yoga reduces performance anxiety in adolescent musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalsa, Sat Bir S; Butzer, Bethany; Shorter, Stephanie M; Reinhardt, Kristen M; Cope, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Professional musicians often experience high levels of stress, music performance anxiety (MPA), and performance-related musculoskeletal disorders (PRMDs). Given the fact that most professional musicians begin their musical training before the age of 12, it is important to identify interventions that will address these issues from an early age. This study intended to replicate and expand upon adult research in this area by evaluating the effects of a yoga intervention on MPA and PRMDs in a population of adolescent musicians. The present study was the first to examine these effects. The research team assigned participants, adolescent musicians, into two groups. The intervention group (n = 84) took part in a 6-wk yoga program, and the control group (n = 51) received no treatment. The team evaluated the effects of the yoga intervention by comparing the scores of the intervention group to those of the control group on a number of questionnaires related to MPA and PRMDs. The study was conducted at the Boston University Tanglewood Institute (BUTI). BUTI is a training academy for advanced adolescent musicians, located in Lenox, Massachusetts. Participants were adolescent, residential music students (mean age = 16 y) in a 6-wk summer program at the BUTI in 2007 and 2008. Participants in the yoga intervention group were requested to attend three, 60-min, Kripalustyle yoga classes each wk for 6 wk. MPA was measured using the Performance Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ) and the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A). PRMDs were measured using the Performance-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire (PRMD-Q). RESULTS • Yoga participants showed statistically significant reductions in MPA from baseline to the end of the program compared to the control group, as measured by several subscales of the PAQ and MPAI-A; however, the results for PRMDs were inconsistent. The findings suggest that yoga may be a promising way for adolescents to reduce MPA and

  10. Human Performance in Simulated Reduced Gravity Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently designing a new space suit capable of working in deep space and on Mars. Designing a suit is very difficult and often requires trade-offs between performance, cost, mass, and system complexity. Our current understanding of human performance in reduced gravity in a planetary environment (the moon or Mars) is limited to lunar observations, studies from the Apollo program, and recent suit tests conducted at JSC using reduced gravity simulators. This study will look at our most recent reduced gravity simulations performed on the new Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) compared to the C-9 reduced gravity plane. Methods: Subjects ambulated in reduced gravity analogs to obtain a baseline for human performance. Subjects were tested in lunar gravity (1.6 m/sq s) and Earth gravity (9.8 m/sq s) in shirt-sleeves. Subjects ambulated over ground at prescribed speeds on the ARGOS, but ambulated at a self-selected speed on the C-9 due to time limitations. Subjects on the ARGOS were given over 3 minutes to acclimate to the different conditions before data was collected. Nine healthy subjects were tested in the ARGOS (6 males, 3 females, 79.5 +/- 15.7 kg), while six subjects were tested on the C-9 (6 males, 78.8 +/- 11.2 kg). Data was collected with an optical motion capture system (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and was analyzed using customized analysis scripts in BodyBuilder (Vicon, Oxford, UK) and MATLAB (MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA). Results: In all offloaded conditions, variation between subjects increased compared to 1-g. Kinematics in the ARGOS at lunar gravity resembled earth gravity ambulation more closely than the C-9 ambulation. Toe-off occurred 10% earlier in both reduced gravity environments compared to earth gravity, shortening the stance phase. Likewise, ankle, knee, and hip angles remained consistently flexed and had reduced peaks compared to earth gravity. Ground reaction forces in lunar gravity (normalized to Earth body weight) were 0.4 +/- 0.2 on

  11. Leukoaraiosis significantly worsens driving performance of ordinary older drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimihiko Nakano

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is defined as extracellular space caused mainly by atherosclerotic or demyelinated changes in the brain tissue and is commonly found in the brains of healthy older people. A significant association between leukoaraiosis and traffic crashes was reported in our previous study; however, the reason for this is still unclear. METHOD: This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of driving performance in ordinary older drivers with leukoaraiosis. First, the degree of leukoaraiosis was examined in 33 participants, who underwent an actual-vehicle driving examination on a standard driving course, and a driver skill rating was also collected while the driver carried out a paced auditory serial addition test, which is a calculating task given verbally. At the same time, a steering entropy method was used to estimate steering operation performance. RESULTS: The experimental results indicated that a normal older driver with leukoaraiosis was readily affected by external disturbances and made more operation errors and steered less smoothly than one without leukoaraiosis during driving; at the same time, their steering skill significantly deteriorated. CONCLUSIONS: Leukoaraiosis worsens the driving performance of older drivers because of their increased vulnerability to distraction.

  12. Metal radomes for reduced RCS performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahid, M.; Morris, S. B.

    A frequency selective surface (FSS) comprising a square grid and a hexagonal array of disks is proposed as a means of reducing the Radar Cross Section (RCS) of a radar bay over a wide (2 GHz to 14.6 GHz) frequency bandwidth. Results are presented in terms of transmission loss for an 'A'-type sandwich radome consisting of two FSS layers for normal and non-normal incidence. A single FSS layer on a GRP flat panel is also considered. Good agreement is found between the predicted and measured results. The proposed FSS shows good performance and is relatively insensitive to angle of incidence between 3.8 GHz and 10.1 GHz. Predicted Insertion Phase Delay (IPD) and cross-polar performances are also given. Parametric studies have indicated the versatility of the proposed structure.

  13. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NREL Research Yields Significant Thermoelectric Performance | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Materials Science and Technology center, said the introduction of SWCNT into fabrics could from an exemplary SWNCT thin film improved thermoelectric properties. The newest paper revealed that that the same SWCNT thin film achieved identical performance when doped with either positive or

  15. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    counterparts (mean difference [95% CI]: 486 [334-638]; Padditives appearing on the product label ingredient list, did not significantly differ between the two groups. Potassium additives are frequently added to sodium-reduced MPPs in amounts that significantly contribute to the potassium load for patients with impaired renal handling of potassium caused by chronic kidney disease and certain medications. Patients requiring potassium restriction should be counseled to be cautious regarding the potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs and encouraged to make food choices accordingly. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reduced Electromyographic Fatigue Threshold after Performing a Cognitive Fatiguing Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Justine R; Tomlinson, Mary A; Ward, Tayler N; Pepin, Marie E; Malek, Moh H

    2018-02-22

    Cognitive fatigue tasks performed prior to exercise may reduce exercise capacity. The electromyographic fatigue threshold (EMGFT) is the highest exercise intensity that can be maintained without significant increase in the EMG amplitude versus time relationship. To date, no studies have examined the effect of cognitive fatigue on the estimation of the EMGFT. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine whether or not cognitive fatigue prior to performing exercise reduces the estimated EMGFT. Eight healthy college-aged men were recruited from a university student population and visited the laboratory on multiple occasions. In a randomized order, subjects performed either the cognitive fatigue task (AX Continuous Performance Test; AX-CPT) for 60 min on one visit (experimental condition) or watched a video on trains for 60 min on the other visit (control condition). After each condition, subjects performed the incremental single-leg knee-extensor ergometry test while the EMG amplitude was recorded from the rectus femoris muscle and heart rate was monitored throughout. Thereafter, the EMGFT was calculated for each participant for each visit and compared using paired samples t-test. For exercise outcomes, there were no significant mean differences for maximal power output between the two conditions (control: 51 ± 5 vs. fatigue: 50 ± 3 W), but a significant decrease in EMGFT between the two conditions (control: 31 ± 3 vs. fatigue: 24 ± 2 W; p = 0.013). Moreover, maximal heart rate was significantly different between the two conditions (control: 151 ± 5 vs. fatigue: 132 ± 6; p = 0.027). These results suggest that performing the cognitive fatiguing task reduces the EMGFT with a corresponding reduction in maximal heart rate response.

  17. Significance of geochemical characterization to performance at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. concept for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste resembles those of other countries in that it relies upon burial in a deep geologic medium. This concept relies upon multiple barriers to retard transport of radionuclides to the accessible environment; those barriers consist of the waste form, waste container, engineered barrier system (including possible backfill) and retardant properties of the host rock. Because mobilization of radionuclides is fundamentally a geochemical problem, an understanding of past, present, and future geochemical processes is a requisite part of site characterization studies conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Geochemical information is needed for evaluating three favorable conditions (the rates of geochemical processes, conditions that promote precipitation or sorption of radionuclides or prohibit formation of colloids, and stable mineral assemblages) and four potentially adverse conditions of the site (groundwater conditions that could increase the chemical reactivity of the engineered barried system or reduce sorption, potential for gaseous radionuclide movement, and oxidizing groundwaters) for key issues of radionuclide release, groundwater quality, and stability of the geochemical environment. Preliminary results of long-term heating experiments indicate that although zeolites can be modified by long-term, low temperature reactions, their beneficial sorptive properties will not be adversely affected. Mineral reactions will be controlled by the aqueous activity of silica in groundwater with which the minerals are in contact. Geochemical barriers alone may satisfy release requirements to the accessible environment for many radionuclides; however, additional site specific geochemical and mineralogical data are needed to test existing and future radionuclide transport models

  18. Vegetation composition and structure significantly influence green roof performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, N.; Nagase, A.; Booth, R.; Grime, P. [Sheffield Univ., Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Landscape Architecture

    2005-07-01

    The majority of published literature on green roofs contains little specific information on the contribution of plants to the various functions and properties of green roofs. This paper reviewed previously published material in an attempt to shed light on the role of vegetation composition in green roof systems, with specific reference to hydrology and biodiversity support. Two ongoing experiments at the University of Sheffield were then considered: (1) a comparison of quality and quantity of runoff from different types of vegetation; and (2) a comparison of flowering seasons and biodiversity support of different vegetation. Results of the studies showed that there was no general pattern of variation in runoff that could be related to vegetation complexity or taxonomic composition of the communities. During the winter months, high precipitation quickly saturated the soil and percolate losses were similar for all treatments. In the summer, throughflow losses differed between treatments in relation to the structure of the plant canopy. Differing mechanisms resulted in variations in the volume of percolate that was collected. Lower volumes of percolate were observed in herb-only monocultures of Leontdon hispidus, a species with a high water content. Tap-rooted species were seen to more effectively absorb soil moisture. The biodiversity support study focused on the study of Sedum species and Labiatae species, which suggested that mixed vegetation containing these species had a far greater likelihood of attracting wild bees to support pollination. Results of the studies indicated that green roof vegetation with greater structural and species diversity may provide different benefits than sedum-dominated roots. Further studies are needed to investigate the trade-offs between vegetation types, and green roof functions and performance in order to justify calls for a wider diversity of green roof types. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  19. A pilot weight reduction program over one year significantly reduced DNA strand breaks in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: A sustainable lifestyle change under supervision including physical activity and diet quality over a period of one year was not only responsible to reduce body weight and BMI but also led to significant reduction in all parameters of the comet assay. These results underline the importance of body weight reduction and highlight the positive changes in DNA stability.

  20. The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: clinical, biochemical and radiological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, S R; Guthrie, P; Bonham, J R; Olpin, S E; Hargreaves, I; Baxter, P S

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme (RCE) activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity. Children with reduced RCE activity were significantly more likely to have consanguineous parents, to present with acute encephalopathy and lactic acidaemia and/or within the first year of life; to have an axonal neuropathy, CSF lactate >4 mmol/l; and/or to have signal change in the basal ganglia. There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy. The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link.

  1. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Performance evaluation examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Based on experimental and analytical considerations, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been incorporated in new recommendations. This document shows outdoor civil structures earthquake resistance and endurance performance evaluation examples based on revised recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  2. Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M; Hungate, Bruce A; Tobian, Aaron A R; Serwadda, David; Ravel, Jacques; Lester, Richard; Kigozi, Godfrey; Aziz, Maliha; Galiwango, Ronald M; Nalugoda, Fred; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L; Wawer, Maria J; Keim, Paul; Gray, Ronald H; Price, Lance B

    2013-04-16

    Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group (n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. We characterized microbiota using16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio (LRR), Bayesian classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA). At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision. Decreasing the load of specific anaerobes could reduce HIV target cell recruitment to the foreskin. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable.

  3. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...... physicians were included. All had prior experience in advanced life support. Chest compressions were shorter interrupted using ALT (mean, 6.7 vs 13.0 seconds). Analyzing data for ventricular tachycardia scenarios only, hands-off time was shorter using ALT (mean, 7.1 vs 18.2 seconds). In ERC 2010 vs ALT, 12...... physicians were included. Two physicians had not prior experience in advanced life support. Hands-off time was reduced using ALT (mean, 3.9 vs 5.6 seconds). Looking solely at ventricular tachycardia scenarios, hands-off time was shortened using ALT (mean, 4.5 vs 7.6 seconds). No significant reduction...

  4. Improving performance and reducing costs of cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartz, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Cooling towers represent a significant capital investment at a steam electric power station. In addition, deficiencies in thermal performance can result in major operating penalties of fuel cost, replacement energy, and capacity addition. This paper summarizes two recent EPRI research projects aimed at reducing thermal performance deficiencies and decreasing installed costs of evaporative cooling towers. First, EPRI Research Project 2113, Cooling Tower Performance Prediction and Improvement, is summarized. This project has resulted in published data sets on the measured thermal performance characteristics of a variety of cooling tower packings, computer codes to predict tower performance, and computer code validation through large-scale tower performance measurements. Principal results are contained in an EPRIGEMS software module, Cooling Tower Advisor. This PC- based software contains a tutorial plus codes to predict tower thermal performance, arranged in a user-friendly format. The second EPRI effort, Research Project 2819-10/11, Fabric Structures for Power Plant Applications, has resulted in designs and costs of large structures with shells constructed of recently-developed fabrics. Primary power plant applications for such structures are the shells of natural draft cooling towers and coal-pile covers. Fabric structures offer low initial cost, acceptable life, and seismic superiority, among other advantages. Detailed conceptual designs and installed cost data are reviewed. 8 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Lindsay, Lucas; Ruan, Xiulin

    2017-10-01

    For decades, the three-phonon scattering process has been considered to govern thermal transport in solids, while the role of higher-order four-phonon scattering has been persistently unclear and so ignored. However, recent quantitative calculations of three-phonon scattering have often shown a significant overestimation of thermal conductivity as compared to experimental values. In this Rapid Communication we show that four-phonon scattering is generally important in solids and can remedy such discrepancies. For silicon and diamond, the predicted thermal conductivity is reduced by 30% at 1000 K after including four-phonon scattering, bringing predictions in excellent agreement with measurements. For the projected ultrahigh-thermal conductivity material, zinc-blende BAs, a competitor of diamond as a heat sink material, four-phonon scattering is found to be strikingly strong as three-phonon processes have an extremely limited phase space for scattering. The four-phonon scattering reduces the predicted thermal conductivity from 2200 to 1400 W/m K at room temperature. The reduction at 1000 K is 60%. We also find that optical phonon scattering rates are largely affected, being important in applications such as phonon bottlenecks in equilibrating electronic excitations. Recognizing that four-phonon scattering is expensive to calculate, in the end we provide some guidelines on how to quickly assess the significance of four-phonon scattering, based on energy surface anharmonicity and the scattering phase space. Our work clears the decades-long fundamental question of the significance of higher-order scattering, and points out ways to improve thermoelectrics, thermal barrier coatings, nuclear materials, and radiative heat transfer.

  7. A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which was significantly reduced in size by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakami, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kouji; Tanikawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization classified gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) into three types: NET grade (G) 1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). NECs are associated with a very poor prognosis. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was initially diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscope with type 3 advanced gastric cancer with stenosis of the gastric cardia. Her overall status and performance status did not allow for operations or intensive chemotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy was performed and resulted in a significant reduction in the size of the tumor as well as the improvement of the obstructive symptoms. She died 9 months after radiotherapy. An autopsy provided a definitive diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was pathologically-confirmed. Palliative radiotherapy may be a useful treatment option for providing symptom relief, especially for old patients with unresectable advanced gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma. (author)

  8. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  9. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX. Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were spherical in shape and 0.5–5 µm in size. Particles formed aggregates of numerous tiny plate-like cocrystals, whereas CL-20/HMX cocrystals had thicknesses of below 100 nm. Cocrystals were formed by C–H⋯O bonding between –NO2 (CL-20 and –CH2– (HMX. Nanococrystal explosives exhibited drop height of 47.3 cm, and friction demonstrated explosion probability of 64%. Compared with raw HMX, cocrystals displayed significantly reduced mechanical sensitivity.

  10. Implementation of standardized follow-up care significantly reduces peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Alicia M; Richardson, Troy; Lawlor, John; Stuart, Jayne; Newland, Jason; McAfee, Nancy; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-06-01

    The Standardizing Care to improve Outcomes in Pediatric End stage renal disease (SCOPE) Collaborative aims to reduce peritonitis rates in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by increasing implementation of standardized care practices. To assess this, monthly care bundle compliance and annualized monthly peritonitis rates were evaluated from 24 SCOPE centers that were participating at collaborative launch and that provided peritonitis rates for the 13 months prior to launch. Changes in bundle compliance were assessed using either a logistic regression model or a generalized linear mixed model. Changes in average annualized peritonitis rates over time were illustrated using the latter model. In the first 36 months of the collaborative, 644 patients with 7977 follow-up encounters were included. The likelihood of compliance with follow-up care practices increased significantly (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.19). Mean monthly peritonitis rates significantly decreased from 0.63 episodes per patient year (95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.92) prelaunch to 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.31, 0.57) at 36 months postlaunch. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that as mean follow-up compliance increased, peritonitis rates decreased, reaching statistical significance at 80% at which point the prelaunch rate was 42% higher than the rate in the months following achievement of 80% compliance. In its first 3 years, the SCOPE Collaborative has increased the implementation of standardized follow-up care and demonstrated a significant reduction in average monthly peritonitis rates. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Petra M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J. M.D.; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a severe complication after radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, as the salivary glands are in close proximity with the primary tumor. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) offers theoretical advantages for normal tissue sparing. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the value of IMRT for salivary output preservation compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 56 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively evaluated. Of these, 30 patients were treated with IMRT and 26 with CRT. Stimulated parotid salivary flow was measured before, 6 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate <25% of the preradiotherapy flow rate. Results: The mean dose to the parotid glands was 48.1 Gy (SD 14 Gy) for CRT and 33.7 Gy (SD 10 Gy) for IMRT (p < 0.005). The mean parotid flow ratio 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment was respectively 41% and 64% for IMRT and respectively 11% and 18% for CRT. As a result, 6 weeks after treatment, the number of parotid flow complications was significantly lower after IMRT (55%) than after CRT (87%) (p = 0.002). The number of complications 6 months after treatment was 56% for IMRT and 81% for CRT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IMRT significantly reduces the number of parotid flow complications for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  12. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  13. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  14. Significantly reduced c-axis thermal diffusivity of graphene-based papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Xie, Yangsu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Owing to their very high thermal conductivity as well as large surface-to-volume ratio, graphene-based films/papers have been proposed as promising candidates of lightweight thermal interface materials and lateral heat spreaders. In this work, we study the cross-plane (c-axis) thermal conductivity (k c ) and diffusivity (α c ) of two typical graphene-based papers, which are partially reduced graphene paper (PRGP) and graphene oxide paper (GOP), and compare their thermal properties with highly-reduced graphene paper and graphite. The determined α c of PRGP varies from (1.02 ± 0.09) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.31 ± 0.18) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12 K. This low α c is mainly attributed to the strong phonon scattering at the grain boundaries and defect centers due to the small grain sizes and high-level defects. For GOP, α c varies from (1.52 ± 0.05) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.28 ± 0.08) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12.5 K. The cross-plane thermal transport of GOP is attributed to the high density of functional groups between carbon layers which provide weak thermal transport tunnels across the layers in the absence of direct energy coupling among layers. This work sheds light on the understanding and optimizing of nanostructure of graphene-based paper-like materials for desired thermal performance.

  15. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Pharmacological kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme inhibition significantly reduces neuropathic pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy......-four patients fulfilled our criteria for thrombolysis, but only the last 35 patients included received thrombolytic therapy. As thrombolysis was not available in our Department at the start of the study, the first 39 patients included were conservatively treated (controls). No significant differences...... in baseline clinical characteristics were found between the two groups. In-hospital atrial fibrillation and digoxin therapy was more prevalent in controls (P less than 0.05). During exercise, thrombolysed patients reached a higher maximal work capacity compared with controls: 160 +/- 41 vs 139 +/- 34 W (P...

  18. Intriguing model significantly reduces boarding of psychiatric patients, need for inpatient hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As new approaches to the care of psychiatric emergencies emerge, one solution is gaining particular traction. Under the Alameda model, which has been put into practice in Alameda County, CA, patients who are brought to regional EDs with emergency psychiatric issues are quickly transferred to a designated emergency psychiatric facility as soon as they are medically stabilized. This alleviates boarding problems in area EDs while also quickly connecting patients with specialized care. With data in hand on the model's effectiveness, developers believe the approach could alleviate boarding problems in other communities as well. The model is funded by through a billing code established by California's Medicaid program for crisis stabilization services. Currently, only 22% of the patients brought to the emergency psychiatric facility ultimately need to be hospitalized; the other 78% are able to go home or to an alternative situation. In a 30-day study of the model, involving five community hospitals in Alameda County, CA, researchers found that ED boarding times were as much as 80% lower than comparable ED averages, and that patients were stabilized at least 75% of the time, significantly reducing the need for inpatient hospitalization.

  19. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m 2 that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. Results: A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Conclusion: Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  20. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Penugonda, Lakshmi C; Speck, Rebecca M; Sinha, Ashish C

    2014-01-01

    Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  1. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  2. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  3. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  4. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional

  5. Six Significant Questions About Performance and Performance Courses in the Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Hal A.; Pugh, D. Lionel

    James Bryant Conant's book, "The Education of America" (1963), triggered a major change in physical education curricula. Formerly a (sports) skills and applied techniques oriented discipline, physical education has expanded to areas such as kinesiology and sports sociology. However, performance and performance courses are still an important aspect…

  6. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  7. Soil nitrate reducing processes drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, M.; Morley, N.; Baggs, E.M.; Daniell, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium\\ud (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for\\ud the loss of nitrate (NO−\\ud 3 ) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O).\\ud A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and\\ud moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms\\ud responsible for the ...

  8. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  9. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  10. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  11. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  12. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  13. In vivo performance of a reduced-modulus bone cement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forehand, Brett Ramsey

    Total joint replacement has become one of the most common procedures in the area of orthopedics and is often the solution in patients with diseased or injured hip joints. Component loosening is a significant problem and is primarily caused by bone resorption at the bone-cement interface in cemented implants. It is our hypothesis that localized shear stresses are responsible for the resorption. It was previously shown analytically that local stresses at the interface could be reduced by using a cement of lower modulus. A new reduced modulus cement, polybutyl methylmethacrylate (PBMMA), was developed to test the hypothesis. PBMMA was formulated to exist as polybutyl methacrylate filler in a polymethyl methacrylate matrix. The success of PBMMA cement is based largely on the fact that the polybutyl component of the cement will be in the rubbery state at body temperature. In vitro characterization of the cement was undertaken previously and demonstrated a modulus of approximately one-eighth that of conventional bone cement, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and increased fracture toughness. The purpose of this experiment was to perform an in vivo comparison of the two cements. A sheep model was selected. Total hip arthroplasty was performed on 50 ewes using either PBMMA or PMMA. Radiographs were taken at 6 month intervals. At one year, the contralateral femur of each sheep was implanted so that each animal served as its own control, and the animals were sacrificed. The stiffness of the bone-cement interface of the femoral component within the femur was assessed by applying a torque to the femoral component and demonstrated a significant difference in loosening between the cements when the specimens were tested in external rotation (p sheep had a greater amount of loosening for each subject, 59% versus 4% for standard PMMA. A radiographic analysis demonstrated more signs of loosening in the PMMA series of subjects. A brief histological examination showed similar bony

  14. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  15. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  16. Optimized distributed systems achieve significant performance improvement on sorted merging of massive VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Gao, Jingjing; Jin, Peng; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen; Wang, Fusheng; Qin, Zhaohui S

    2018-06-01

    Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.

  17. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  18. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Montano-Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated.

  19. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  20. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  1. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  2. Significant enhancement of the thermoelectric figure of merit of polycrystalline Si films by reducing grain size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valalaki, K; Nassiopoulou, A G; Vouroutzis, N

    2016-01-01

    The thermoelectric properties of p-type polycrystalline silicon thin films deposited by low pressure chemical vapour deposition (LPCVD) were accurately determined at room temperature and the thermoelectric figure of merit was deduced as a function of film thickness, ranging from 100 to 500 nm. The effect of film thickness on their thermoelectric performance is discussed. More than threefold increase in the thermoelectric figure of merit of the 100 nm thick polysilicon film was observed compared to the 500 nm thick film, reaching a value as high as 0.033. This enhancement is mainly the result of the smaller grain size in the thinner films. With the decrease in grain size the resistivity of the films is increased twofold and electrical conductivity decreased, however the Seebeck coefficient is increased by 30% and the thermal conductivity is decreased eightfold, being mainly at the origin of the increased figure of merit of the 100 nm film. Our experimental results were compared to known theoretical models and the possible mechanisms involved are presented and discussed. (paper)

  3. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  4. Mammography at reduced doses: present performance and future possibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muntz, E.P.; Wilkinson, E.; George, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    Reduced dose mammography is assessed with the aid of very recent work. It is concluded that there are technical and clinical reasons for believing that the reduced dose systems and their interpreters should perform more effectively than their predecessors. Review of known technologic achievements suggests a possible 6 to 7 reduction factor from present screen-film mammography dose levels without sacficifing image quality. Reasonable estimates of representative doses presently achieved by both xeroradiography and screen-film systems are given. The screen-film value is about 3 times higher than some previous

  5. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  6. Reducing Uncertainty: Implementation of Heisenberg Principle to Measure Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Svirina

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of uncertainty reduction in estimation of future company performance, which is a result of wide range of enterprise's intangible assets probable efficiency. To reduce this problem, the paper suggests to use quantum economy principles, i.e. implementation of Heisenberg principle to measure efficiency and potential of intangible assets of the company. It is proposed that for intangibles it is not possible to estimate both potential and efficiency at a certain time point. To provide a proof for these thesis, the data on resources potential and efficiency from mid-Russian companies was evaluated within deterministic approach, which did not allow to evaluate probability of achieving certain resource efficiency, and quantum approach, which allowed to estimate the central point around which the probable efficiency of resources in concentrated. Visualization of these approaches was performed by means of LabView software. It was proven that for tangible assets performance estimation a deterministic approach should be used; while for intangible assets the quantum approach allows better quality of future performance prediction. On the basis of these findings we proposed the holistic approach towards estimation of company resource efficiency in order to reduce uncertainty in modeling company performance.

  7. Cerebral Embolic Protection During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Significantly Reduces Death and Stroke Compared With Unprotected Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Otto, Markus; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral embolic protection on stroke-free survival in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Imaging data on cerebral embolic protection devices have demonstrated a significant reduction in number and volume of cerebral lesions. A total of 802 consecutive patients were enrolled. The Sentinel cerebral embolic protection device (Claret Medical Inc., Santa Rosa, California) was used in 34.9% (n = 280) of consecutive patients. In 65.1% (n = 522) of patients TAVR was performed in the identical setting except without cerebral embolic protection. Neurological follow-up was done within 7 days post-procedure. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or all-stroke according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria within 7 days. Propensity score matching was performed to account for possible confounders. Both filters of the device were successfully positioned in 280 of 305 (91.8%) consecutive patients. With use of cerebral embolic protection rate of disabling and nondisabling stroke was significantly reduced from 4.6% to 1.4% (p = 0.03; odds ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.93) in the propensity-matched population (n = 560). The primary endpoint occurred significantly less frequently, with 2.1% (n = 6 of 280) in the protected group compared with 6.8% (n = 19 of 280) in the control group (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.77). In multivariable analysis Society of Thoracic Surgeons score for mortality (p = 0.02) and TAVR without protection (p = 0.02) were independent predictors for the primary endpoint. In patients undergoing TAVR use of a cerebral embolic protection device demonstrated a significant higher rate of stroke-free survival compared with unprotected TAVR. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Robust design principles for reducing variation in functional performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Martin Ebro; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability and percei......This paper identifies, describes and classifies a comprehensive collection of variation reduction principles (VRP) that can be used to increase the robustness of a product and reduce its variation in functional performance. Performance variation has a negative effect on the reliability...... and perceived quality of a product and efforts should be made to minimise it. The design principles are identified by a systematic decomposition of the Taguchi Transfer Function in combination with the use of existing literature and the authors’ experience. The paper presents 15 principles and describes...... their advantages and disadvantages along with example cases. Subsequently, the principles are classified based on their applicability in the various development and production stages. The VRP are to be added to existing robust design methodologies, helping the designer to think beyond robust design tool and method...

  9. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  10. Enhancing performance and reducing stress in sports technological advances

    CERN Document Server

    Ivancevic, Tijana; Greenberg, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    This book is designed to help athletes and individuals interested in high sports performance in their journey towards the perfection of human sports abilities and achievements. It has two main goals: accelerating the acquisition of motor skills and preparing and vigilantly reducing the recovery time after training and competition. The Diamond Sports Protocol (DSP) presents state-of-the-art techniques for current sport and health technologies, particularly neuromuscular electrical stimulation (Sports Wave), oxygen infusion (Oxy Sports), infrared (Sports Infrared Dome) and lactic acid cleaning (Turbo Sports). The book suggest DSP as an essential part of every future athlete's training, competition and health maintenance. The book is for everyone interested in superior sports performance, fast and effective rehabilitation from training and competition and sports injury prevention.

  11. Exposure reduces negative bias in self-rated performance in public speaking fearful participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Joyce; Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with public speaking anxiety (PSA) under-rate their performance compared to objective observers. The present study examined whether exposure reduces the discrepancy between self and observer performance ratings and improved observer-rated performance in individuals with PSA. PSA participants gave a speech in front of a small audience and rated their performance using a questionnaire before and after completing repeated exposures to public speaking. Non-anxious control participants gave a speech and completed the questionnaire one time only. Objective observers watched videos of the speeches and rated performance using the same questionnaire. PSA participants underrated their performance to a greater degree than did controls prior to exposure, but also performed significantly more poorly than did controls when rated objectively. Bias significantly decreased and objective-rated performance significantly increased following completion of exposure in PSA participants, and on one performance measure, anxious participants no longer showed a greater discrepancy between self and observer performance ratings compared to controls. The study employed non-clinical student sample, but the results should be replicated in clinical anxiety samples. These findings indicate that exposure alone significantly reduces negative performance bias among PSA individuals, but additional exposure or additional interventions may be necessary to fully correct bias and performance deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strategies for enhanced deammonification performance and reduced nitrous oxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leix, Carmen; Drewes, Jörg E; Ye, Liu; Koch, Konrad

    2017-07-01

    Deammonification's performance and associated nitrous oxide emissions (N 2 O) depend on operational conditions. While studies have investigated factors for high performances and low emissions separately, this study investigated optimizing deammonification performance while simultaneously reducing N 2 O emissions. Using a design of experiment (DoE) method, two models were developed for the prediction of the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions during single-stage deammonification considering three operational factors (i.e., pH value, feeding and aeration strategy). The emission factor varied between 0.7±0.5% and 4.1±1.2% at different DoE-conditions. The nitrogen removal rate was predicted to be maximized at settings of pH 7.46, intermittent feeding and aeration. Conversely, emissions were predicted to be minimized at the design edges at pH 7.80, single feeding, and continuous aeration. Results suggested a weak positive correlation between the nitrogen removal rate and N 2 O emissions, thus, a single optimizing operational set-point for maximized performance and minimized emissions did not exist. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying significant uncertainties in thermally dependent processes for repository performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansemer, J.D.; Lamont, A.

    1994-01-01

    In order to study the performance of the potential Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository, scientific investigations are being conducted to reduce the uncertainty about process models and system parameters. This paper is intended to demonstrate a method for determining a strategy for the cost effective management of these investigations. It is not meant to be a complete study of all processes and interactions, but does outline a method which can be applied to more in-depth investigations

  14. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical lterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550mA (450–600) vs. 650mA (500–711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. There was 27% effective radiation dose reduction in the ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29mSv (2.84–6.02) vs. 5.84mSv (3.88–8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. Although ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93±10.22 vs. 37.63±18.79 (mean ±standard deviation), respectively, P<001), it did not affect the signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio or the diagnostic quality of CCTA. Application of ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality.

  15. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  16. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  17. High-performance mussel-inspired adhesives of reduced complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, B Kollbe; Das, Saurabh; Linstadt, Roscoe; Kaufman, Yair; Martinez-Rodriguez, Nadine R; Mirshafian, Razieh; Kesselman, Ellina; Talmon, Yeshayahu; Lipshutz, Bruce H; Israelachvili, Jacob N; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-10-19

    Despite the recent progress in and demand for wet adhesives, practical underwater adhesion remains limited or non-existent for diverse applications. Translation of mussel-inspired wet adhesion typically entails catechol functionalization of polymers and/or polyelectrolytes, and solution processing of many complex components and steps that require optimization and stabilization. Here we reduced the complexity of a wet adhesive primer to synthetic low-molecular-weight catecholic zwitterionic surfactants that show very strong adhesion (∼50 mJ m(-2)) and retain the ability to coacervate. This catecholic zwitterion adheres to diverse surfaces and self-assembles into a molecularly smooth, thin (adhesive for nanofabrication. This study significantly simplifies bio-inspired themes for wet adhesion by combining catechol with hydrophobic and electrostatic functional groups in a small molecule.

  18. Development and Performance Assessment of the High-Performance Shrinkage Reducing Agent for Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Sub Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To develop a high-performance shrinkage reducing agent, this study investigated several shrinkage reducing materials and supplements for those materials. Fluidity and air content were satisfactory for the various shrinkage reducing materials. The decrease in viscosity was the lowest for glycol-based materials. The decrease in drying shrinkage was most prominent for mixtures containing glycol-based materials. In particular, mixtures containing G2 achieved a 40% decrease in the amount of drying shrinkage. Most shrinkage reducing materials had weaker level of compressive strength than that of the plain mixture. When 3% triethanolamine was used for early strength improvement, the strength was enhanced by 158% compared to that of the plain mixture on day 1; enhancement values were 135% on day 7 and 113% on day 28. To assess the performance of the developed high-performance shrinkage reducing agent and to determine the optimal amount, 2.0% shrinkage reducing agent was set as 40% of the value of the plain mixture. While the effect was more prominent at higher amounts, to prevent deterioration of the compressive strength and the other physical properties, the recommended amount is less than 2.0%.

  19. The baseline serum value of α-amylase is a significant predictor of distance running performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; La Torre, Antonio; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2015-02-01

    This study was planned to investigate whether serum α-amylase concentration may be associated with running performance, physiological characteristics and other clinical chemistry analytes in a large sample of recreational athletes undergoing distance running. Forty-three amateur runners successfully concluded a 21.1 km half-marathon at 75%-85% of their maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). Blood was drawn during warm up and 15 min after conclusion of the run. After correction for body weight change, significant post-run increases were observed for serum values of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, creatine kinase (CK), iron, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), triglycerides, urea and uric acid, whereas the values of body weight, glomerular filtration rate, total and low density lipoprotein-cholesterol were significantly decreased. The concentration of serum α-amylase was unchanged. In univariate analysis, significant associations with running performance were found for gender, VO2max, training regimen and pre-run serum values of α-amylase, CK, glucose, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, LDH, urea and uric acid. In multivariate analysis, only VO2max (p=0.042) and baseline α-amylase (p=0.021) remained significant predictors of running performance. The combination of these two variables predicted 71% of variance in running performance. The baseline concentration of serum α-amylase was positively correlated with variation of serum glucose during the trial (r=0.345; p=0.025) and negatively with capillary blood lactate at the end of the run (r=-0.352; p=0.021). We showed that the baseline serum α-amylase concentration significantly and independently predicts distance running performance in recreational runners.

  20. ClusterSignificance: A bioconductor package facilitating statistical analysis of class cluster separations in dimensionality reduced data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serviss, Jason T.; Gådin, Jesper R.; Eriksson, Per

    2017-01-01

    , e.g. genes in a specific pathway, alone can separate samples into these established classes. Despite this, the evaluation of class separations is often subjective and performed via visualization. Here we present the ClusterSignificance package; a set of tools designed to assess the statistical...... significance of class separations downstream of dimensionality reduction algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate the design and utility of the ClusterSignificance package and utilize it to determine the importance of long non-coding RNA expression in the identity of multiple hematological malignancies....

  1. Compression stockings significantly improve hemodynamic performance in post-thrombotic syndrome irrespective of class or length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Azzam, Mustapha; Kalodiki, Evi; Makris, Gregory C; Geroulakos, George

    2013-07-01

    Graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings have been demonstrated to reduce the morbidity associated with post-thrombotic syndrome. The ideal length or compression strength required to achieve this is speculative and related to physician preference and patient compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of four different stockings and determine the patient's preference. Thirty-four consecutive patients (40 legs, 34 male) with post-thrombotic syndrome were tested with four different stockings (Mediven plus open toe, Bayreuth, Germany) of their size in random order: class 1 (18-21 mm Hg) and class II (23-32 mm Hg), below-knee (BK) and above-knee thigh-length (AK). The median age, Venous Clinical Severity Score, Venous Segmental Disease Score, and Villalta scale were 62 years (range, 31-81 years), 8 (range, 1-21), 5 (range, 2-10), and 10 (range, 2-22), respectively. The C of C0-6EsAs,d,pPr,o was C0 = 2, C2 = 1, C3 = 3, C4a = 12, C4b = 7, C5 = 12, C6 = 3. Obstruction and reflux was observed on duplex in 47.5% legs, with deep venous reflux alone in 45%. Air plethysmography was used to measure the venous filling index (VFI), venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume. Direct pressure measurements were obtained while lying and standing using the PicoPress device (Microlab Elettronica, Nicolò, Italy). The pressure sensor was placed underneath the test stocking 5 cm above and 2 cm posterior to the medial malleolus. At the end of the study session, patients stated their preferred stocking based on comfort. The VFI, venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume improved significantly with all types of stocking versus no compression. In class I, the VFI (mL/s) improved from a median of 4.9 (range, 1.7-16.3) without compression to 3.7 (range, 0-14) BK (24.5%) and 3.6 (range, 0.6-14.5) AK (26.5%). With class II, the corresponding improvement was to 4.0 (range, 0.3-16.2) BK (18.8%) and 3.7 (range, 0.5-14.2) AK (24

  2. Effects of Reducing the Cognitive Load of Mathematics Test Items on Student Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Gillmor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores a new item-writing framework for improving the validity of math assessment items. The authors transfer insights from Cognitive Load Theory (CLT, traditionally used in instructional design, to educational measurement. Fifteen, multiple-choice math assessment items were modified using research-based strategies for reducing extraneous cognitive load. An experimental design with 222 middle-school students tested the effects of the reduced cognitive load items on student performance and anxiety. Significant findings confirm the main research hypothesis that reducing the cognitive load of math assessment items improves student performance. Three load-reducing item modifications are identified as particularly effective for reducing item difficulty: signalling important information, aesthetic item organization, and removing extraneous content. Load reduction was not shown to impact student anxiety. Implications for classroom assessment and future research are discussed.

  3. Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance have been updated in June 2005 by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Based on experimental and analytical considerations on the recommendations of May 2002, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been evaluated and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Technical documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Experimental and analytical considerations on the seismic effects evaluation criteria, such as analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings, were shown in this document and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  5. A Recombinant Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis Significantly Reduces Bacterial Level in Tissues without Interference in Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.

    , PPDj-specific IFN-γ responses or positive PPDa or PPDb skin tests developed in vaccinees. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses were developed against FET11 antigens, however. At necropsy 8 or 12 months of age, relative Map burden was determined in a number of gut tissues by quantitative IS900...... PCR and revealed significantly reduced levels of Map and reduced histopathology. Diagnostic tests for antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, used as surrogates of infection, corroborated the observed vaccine efficacy: Five of seven non‐vaccinated calves seroconverted in ID Screen......-γ assay responses from 40 to 52 weeks compared to non-vaccinated calves. These results indicate the FET11 vaccine can be used to accelerate eradication of paratuberculosis while surveillance or test-and-manage control programs for tuberculosis and Johne’s disease remain in place. Funded by EMIDA ERA...

  6. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  7. Lime and Phosphate Amendment Can Significantly Reduce Uptake of Cd and Pb by Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongbo Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils are suffering from increasing heavy metal pollution, among which, paddy soil polluted by heavy metals is frequently reported and has elicited great public concern. In this study, we carried out field experiments on paddy soil around a Pb-Zn mine to study amelioration effects of four soil amendments on uptake of Cd and Pb by rice, and to make recommendations for paddy soil heavy metal remediation, particularly for combined pollution of Cd and Pb. The results showed that all the four treatments can significantly reduce the Cd and Pb content in the late rice grain compared with the early rice, among which, the combination amendment of lime and phosphate had the best remediation effects where rice grain Cd content was reduced by 85% and 61%, respectively, for the late rice and the early rice, and by 30% in the late rice grain for Pb. The high reduction effects under the Ca + P treatment might be attributed to increase of soil pH from 5.5 to 6.7. We also found that influence of the Ca + P treatment on rice production was insignificant, while the available Cd and Pb content in soil was reduced by 16.5% and 11.7%, respectively.

  8. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    The understanding and mitigation of downhole vibration has been a heavily researched subject in the oil industry as it results in more expensive drilling operations, as vibrations significantly diminish the amount of effective drilling energy available to the bit and generate forces that can push the bit or the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) off its concentric axis of rotation, producing high magnitude impacts with the borehole wall. In order to drill ahead, a sufficient amount of energy must be supplied by the rig to overcome the resistance of the drilling system, including the reactive torque of the system, drag forces, fluid pressure losses and energy dissipated by downhole vibrations, then providing the bit with the energy required to fail the rock. If the drill string enters resonant modes of vibration, not only does it decreases the amount of available energy to drill, but increases the potential for catastrophic downhole equipment and drilling bit failures. In this sense, the mitigation of downhole vibrations will result in faster, smoother, and cheaper drilling operations. A software tool using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been developed to provide better understanding of downhole vibration phenomena in drilling environments. The software tool calculates the response of the drilling system at various input conditions, based on the design of the wellbore along with the geometry of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA) and the drill string. It identifies where undesired levels of resonant vibration will be driven by certain combinations of specific drilling parameters, and also which combinations of drilling parameters will result in lower levels of vibration, so the least shocks, the highest penetration rate and the lowest cost per foot can be achieved. With the growing performance of personal computers, complex software systems modeling the drilling vibrations using FEA has been accessible to a wider audience of field users, further complimenting with real time

  9. Performance monitoring and error significance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Tanja; Schuermann, Beate; Kaufmann, Christan; Spielberg, Rüdiger; Kniesche, Rainer; Kathmann, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Performance monitoring has been consistently found to be overactive in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examines whether performance monitoring in OCD is adjusted with error significance. Therefore, errors in a flanker task were followed by neutral (standard condition) or punishment feedbacks (punishment condition). In the standard condition patients had significantly larger error-related negativity (ERN) and correct-related negativity (CRN) ampliudes than controls. But, in the punishment condition groups did not differ in ERN and CRN amplitudes. While healthy controls showed an amplitude enhancement between standard and punishment condition, OCD patients showed no variation. In contrast, group differences were not found for the error positivity (Pe): both groups had larger Pe amplitudes in the punishment condition. Results confirm earlier findings of overactive error monitoring in OCD. The absence of a variation with error significance might indicate that OCD patients are unable to down-regulate their monitoring activity according to external requirements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  11. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  12. Significantly enhanced robustness and electrochemical performance of flexible carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors by electrodepositing polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanli; Du, Lianhuan; Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Yu, Xiang; Mai, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report robust, flexible CNT-based supercapacitor (SC) electrodes fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole (PPy) on freestanding vacuum-filtered CNT film. These electrodes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical properties (with the ultimate tensile strength of 16 MPa), and greatly enhanced electrochemical performance (5.6 times larger areal capacitance). The major drawback of conductive polymer electrodes is the fast capacitance decay caused by structural breakdown, which decreases cycling stability but this is not observed in our case. All-solid-state SCs assembled with the robust CNT/PPy electrodes exhibit excellent flexibility, long lifetime (95% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles) and high electrochemical performance (a total device volumetric capacitance of 4.9 F/cm3). Moreover, a flexible SC pack is demonstrated to light up 53 LEDs or drive a digital watch, indicating the broad potential application of our SCs for portable/wearable electronics.

  13. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  14. Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

    2010-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  15. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  16. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 2: precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as `field' or `global' significance. The block length for the local resampling tests is precisely determined to adequately account for the time series structure. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Daily precipitation climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. While the downscaled precipitation distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones in most regions in summer, the biases of some distribution characteristics are significant over large areas in winter. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate stationary fine-scale climate features in the daily precipitation field over regions of complex topography in both seasons and appropriate transient fine-scale features almost everywhere in summer. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the clear additional value of dynamical downscaling over global climate simulations. The evaluation methodology has a broad spectrum of applicability as it is

  18. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  19. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy [Department of Anesthesiology Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  20. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: A Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled) should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency, and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  1. Subjective Significance Shapes Arousal Effects on Modified Stroop Task Performance: a Duality of Activation Mechanisms Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Konrad Imbir

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Activation mechanisms such as arousal are known to be responsible for slowdown observed in the Emotional Stroop (EST and modified Stroop tasks. Using the duality of mind perspective, we may conclude that both ways of processing information (automatic or controlled should have their own mechanisms of activation, namely, arousal for an experiential mind, and subjective significance for a rational mind. To investigate the consequences of both, factorial manipulation was prepared. Other factors that influence Stroop task processing such as valence, concreteness, frequency and word length were controlled. Subjective significance was expected to influence arousal effects. In the first study, the task was to name the color of font for activation charged words. In the second study, activation charged words were, at the same time, combined with an incongruent condition of the classical Stroop task around a fixation point. The task was to indicate the font color for color-meaning words. In both studies, subjective significance was found to shape the arousal impact on performance in terms of the slowdown reduction for words charged with subjective significance.

  2. Reducing the Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Performance Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Cara C.; Baltes, Boris B.

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether a structured free recall intervention could decrease the influence of traditional gender stereotypes on the performance evaluations of women. College students provided performance ratings for vignettes describing the performance of male and female professors. Without the intervention, raters who had traditional stereotypes…

  3. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  4. A Meta-analysis for the Diagnostic Performance of Transient Elastography for Clinically Significant Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Myung-Won; Kim, Kyung Won; Pyo, Junhee; Huh, Jimi; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Lee, So Jung; Park, Seong Ho

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the correlation between liver stiffness measurement using transient elastography (TE-LSM) and hepatic venous pressure gradient and the diagnostic performance of TE-LSM in assessing clinically significant portal hypertension through meta-analysis. Eleven studies were included from thorough literature research and selection processes. The summary correlation coefficient was 0.783 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.737-0.823). Summary sensitivity, specificity and area under the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were 87.5% (95% CI, 75.8-93.9%), 85.3 % (95% CI, 76.9-90.9%) and 0.9, respectively. The subgroup with low cut-off values of 13.6-18 kPa had better summary estimates (sensitivity 91.2%, specificity 81.3% and partial AUC 0.921) than the subgroup with high cut-off values of 21-25 kPa (sensitivity 71.2%, specificity 90.9% and partial AUC 0.769). In summary, TE-LSM correlated well with hepatic venous pressure gradient and represented good diagnostic performance in diagnosing clinically significant portal hypertension. For use as a sensitive screening tool, we propose using low cut-off values of 13.6-18 kPa in TE-LSM. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Performance characteristics of SCC radioimmunoassay and clinical significance serum SCC Ag assay in patients with malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Youn

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the performance characteristics of SCC RIV and the clinical significance of serum SCC Ag assay in patients with malignancy, serum SCC Ag levels were measured by SCC RIV kit in 40 normal controls and 35 percents with various untreated malignancy, who visited Chonju Presbyterian Medical Center. The results were as follows; 1. The SCC RIA was simple to perform and can be completed in two workday. And the standard curve and reproducibility were both good. 2. The mean serum SCC Ag level in normal controls was 1.64 ± 0.93 ng/mL and normal upper limit of serum SCC Ag was defined as 2.6 ng/mL. 3 out of 40 (7.5%) normal controls showed elevated SCC Ag levels above the normal upper limit. 3. In 35 patients with various untreated malignancy, 18 patients (51.4%) showed elevated serum SCC Ag levels, 59.1% of 22 patients with cervical cancer, 80% of 5 patients with lung cancer, 33% of 3 patients with esophageal cancer, 0% of 2 patients with rectal cancer and 0% of 3 patients with breast cancer showed elevated serum SCC Ag levels. Above results represent that SCC RIV is simple method to perform followed by good standard curve and reproducibility, and may be a useful indicator reflecting diagnostic data of patients with cervical cancer and lung cancer

  6. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  7. Walking with a four wheeled walker (rollator) significantly reduces EMG lower-limb muscle activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 1: temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as "field" or "global" significance. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Monthly temperature climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. In winter and in most regions in summer, the downscaled distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones. A systematic cold summer bias occurs in deep river valleys due to overestimated elevations, in coastal areas due probably to enhanced sea breeze circulation, and over large lakes due to the interpolation of water temperatures. Urban areas in concave topography forms have a warm summer bias due to the strong heat islands, not reflected in the observations. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate fine-scale features in the monthly temperature field over regions of complex topography, but over spatially homogeneous areas even small biases can lead to significant deteriorations relative to the driving reanalysis. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the

  9. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  10. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O 2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  11. Using performance indicators to reduce cost uncertainty of China's CO2 mitigation goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Goals on absolute emissions and intensity play key roles in CO 2 mitigation. However, like cap-and-trade policies with price uncertainty, they suffer from significant uncertainty in abatement costs. This article examines whether an indicator could be established to complement CO 2 mitigation goals and help reduce cost uncertainty with a particular focus on China. Performance indicators on CO 2 emissions per unit of energy consumption could satisfy three criteria: compared with the mitigation goals, (i) they are more closely associated with active mitigation efforts and (ii) their baselines have more stable projections from historical trajectories. (iii) Their abatement costs are generally higher than other mitigation methods, particularly energy efficiency and conservation. Performance indicators could be used in the following way: if a CO 2 goal on absolute emissions or intensity is attained, the performance indicator should still reach a lower threshold as a cost floor. If the goal cannot be attained, an upper performance threshold should be achieved as a cost ceiling. The narrower cost uncertainty may encourage wider and greater mitigation efforts. - Highlights: ► CO 2 emissions per unit of energy consumption could act as performance indicators. ► Performance indicators are more closely related to active mitigation activities. ► Performance indicators have more stable historical trajectories. ► Abatement costs are higher for performance indicators than for other activities. ► Performance thresholds could reduce the cost uncertainty of CO 2 mitigation goals.

  12. Examining significant factors in micro and small enterprises performance: case study in Amhara region, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkos, Tomas; Zegeye, Muluken; Tilahun, Shimelis; Avvari, Muralidhar

    2017-07-01

    Furniture manufacturing micro and small enterprises are confronted with several factors that affect their performance. Some enterprises fail to sustain, some others remain for long period of time without transforming, and most are producing similar and non-standard products. The main aim of this manuscript is on improving the performance and contribution of MSEs by analyzing impact of significant internal and external factors. Data was collected via a questionnaire, group discussion with experts and interviewing process. Randomly selected eight representative main cities of Amhara region with 120 furniture manufacturing enterprises are considered. Data analysis and presentation was made using SPSS tools (correlation, proximity, and T test) and impact-effort analysis matrix tool. The correlation analysis shows that politico-legal with infrastructure, leadership with entrepreneurship skills and finance and credit with marketing factors are those factors, which result in high correlation with Pearson correlation values of r = 0.988, 0.983, and 0.939, respectively. The study investigates that the most critical factors faced by MSEs are work premises, access to finance, infrastructure, entrepreneurship and business managerial problems. The impact of these factors is found to be high and is confirmed by the 50% drop-out rate in 2014/2015. Furthermore, more than 25% work time losses due to power interruption daily and around 65% work premises problems challenged MSEs. Further, an impact-effort matrix was developed to help the MSEs to prioritize the affecting factors.

  13. Reducing the occurrence of plant events through improved human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.; Burkhart, A.D.

    1993-01-01

    During a routine control room surveillance, the reactor operator is distracted by an alarming secondary annunciator and a telephone call. When the reactor operator resumes the surveillance, he inadvertently performs the procedural steps out of order. This causes a reportable nuclear event. How can procedure-related human performance problems such as this be prevented? The question is vitally important for the nuclear industry. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Office for Analysis and Evaluation of Operational Data observed, open-quotes With the perceived reduction in the number of events caused by equipment failures, INPO and other industry groups and human performance experts agree that a key to continued improvement in plant performance and safety is improved human performance.close quotes In fact, open-quotes more than 50% of the reportable events occurring at nuclear power plants involve human error.close quotes Prevention (or correction) of a human performance problem is normally based on properly balancing the following three factors: (1) supervisory involvement; (2) personnel training; and (3) procedures. The nuclear industry is implementing a formula known as ACME, which better balances supervisory involvement, personnel training, and procedures. Webster's New World Dictionary defines acme as the highest point, the peak. ACME human performance is the goal: ACME Adherence to and use of procedures; Self-Checking; Management Involvement; and Event Investigations

  14. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A prediction model to identify hospitalised, older adults with reduced physical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Inge H; Maribo, Thomas; Nørgaard, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    of discharge, health systems could offer these patients additional therapy to maintain or improve health and prevent institutionalisation or readmission. The principle aim of this study was to identify predictors for persisting, reduced physical performance in older adults following acute hospitalisation......BACKGROUND: Identifying older adults with reduced physical performance at the time of hospital admission can significantly affect patient management and trajectory. For example, such patients could receive targeted hospital interventions such as routine mobilisation. Furthermore, at the time...... admission, falls, physical activity level, self-rated health, use of a walking aid before admission, number of prescribed medications, 30s-CST, and the De Morton Mobility Index. RESULTS: A total of 78 (67%) patients improved in physical performance in the interval between admission and follow-up assessment...

  16. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greculeasa, S.G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Lungu, G.A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C.P. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Engineering of Eurofer slab properties by hydrogenation treatments. • Hydrogenation modifies significantly the local atomic configurations at the surface. • Hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the very surface. • Approaching binomial atomic distribution by hydrogenation in the next surface 100 nm. - Abstract: Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe{sub 0.9}Cr{sub 0.1} along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  18. Optical trapping of nanoparticles with significantly reduced laser powers by using counter-propagating beams (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.

  19. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  20. Evacuation of performance and significant chemical constituents and by products in drinking water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamrah, I. A.

    1999-01-01

    Drinking water treatment is a task that comprises of several processes that eventually lead to the addition of chemicals to achieve the objectives of treatment. This study was conducted to assess treatment performance, explain the presence of significant chemical species in water, and investigate the interactions and chemical by-products that are formed during the course of treatment. Grab water samples were collected on a regular basis from the influent and effluent of Zai water treatment plant. Chemical analysis were conducted to determine the concentrations of various chemical species of interest. Turbidity, temperature, and pH of the samples were also measured. The study concluded that Zai Water Treatment Plant produces potable drinking water in accordance with Jordanian Standards. The use of treatment chemical resulted in an increase in the concentrations of certain materials, such as manganese, aluminum, and sulfate. The turbidity of the raw water and the TOC of the samples were positively correlated, and the treatment results in approximately 20% TOC reduction, which demonstrates that the measures used for the control of TOC (carbon adsorption and permanganate pre-oxidation), are not very effective. The study also showed that the TOC content of our raw water samples and the concentration of tribalomethanes resulting after disinfection were positively correlated, and that bromoform was the dominant component. Also chloroform was the minor component of tribalomethanes formed during treatment. Positive correlation between the total concentration of tribalomethanes in water and the chlorine dose used for disinfection was also observed, and the total concentration of tribalomethanes increased with temperature. The formation of tribalomethanes was enhanced as the pH of water increased and as the concentration of bromide ion in raw water became significant. (author). 25 refs., 14 figs.1 table

  1. No significant effect of prefrontal tDCS on working memory performance in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna eNilsson

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been put forward as a non-pharmacological alternative for alleviating cognitive decline in old age. Although results have shown some promise, little is known about the optimal stimulation parameters for modulation in the cognitive domain. In this study, the effects of tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC on working memory performance were investigated in thirty older adults. An N-back task assessed working memory before, during and after anodal tDCS at a current strength of 1mA and 2mA, in addition to sham stimulation. The study used a single-blind, cross-over design. The results revealed no significant effect of tDCS on accuracy or response times during or after stimulation, for any of the current strengths. These results suggest that a single session of tDCS over the dlPFC is unlikely to improve working memory, as assessed by an N-back task, in old age.

  2. Roles and significance of water conducting features for transport models in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera, J.; Sanchez-Vila, X.; Medina, A.

    1999-01-01

    The term water conducting features (WCF) refers to zones of high hydraulic conductivity. In the context of waste disposal, it is further implied that they are narrow so that chances of sampling them are low. Yet, they may carry significant amounts of water. Moreover, their relatively small volumetric water content causes solutes to travel fast through them. Water-conducting features are a rather common feature of natural media. The fact that they have become a source of concern in recent years, reflects more the increased level of testing and monitoring than any intrinsic property of low permeability media. Accurate simulations of solute transport require a realistic accounting for water conducting features. Methods are presented to do so and examples are shown to illustrate these methods. Since detailed accounting of WCF's will not be possible in actual performance assessments, efforts should be directed towards typification, so as to identify the essential effects of WCF's on solute transport through different types of rocks. Field evidence suggests that, although individual WCF's may be difficult to characterize, their effects are quite predictable. (author)

  3. Reduced neuromuscular performance in amenorrheic elite endurance athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornberg, Åsa B; Melin, Anna; Manderson Koivula, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    sampling performed on the 3rd-5th day of the menstrual cycle, and 7-day assessment of energy availability. RESULTS: SFHA athletes had lower estrogen (0.12 ±0.03 vs. 0.17 ±0.09 nmol/L, ptriiodothyronine (T3) (1.4 ±0.2 vs. 1.7 ±0.3 nmol/L, p

  4. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. ROLE AND SIGNIFICANCE OF STATEMENT OF OTHER COMPREHENSIVE INCOME– IN RESPECT OF REPORTING COMPANIES’ PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko Orban

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A commonly accepted rule-system, which name was International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS created the framework for represent the financial performace, and other facts related to the company’s health. In the system of IFRS profit is not equal to income less expenses, this deviation led to the other comprehensive income, OCI term. IFRS have created the term of other comprehensive income, but knowledge and using of it is not widespread. In this paper I tend to present the meaning and essence of this income category, and to reveal how it is work in corporate practice. As basis of the research, definitions and formats related to the statement of comprehensive income will be presented in the paper first. In order to get a clear picture about the differences between the income statements, I make a comparison of the IFRS and the Hungarian Accounting Act in the field of performance’s representation. As a result of my comparison I’ve stated that the EU accepted the international financial reporting standards to present the financial performance of publicly traded companies, and as EU member state it is obligatory for the Hungarian companies as well. This is the reason why Hungary’s present task is taking over the IFRS mentality. After the comparative analysis I’ve examined the Statement of other comprehensive income in the practice of 11 listed companies in the Budapest Stock Exchange. The Premium category includes those companies’ series of liquid shares, which has got broader investor base. The aim of this examination was to reveal if the most significant listed companies calculate other comprehensive income and what kind of items do they present in the statement of OCI. As a result of the research we can state that statement of other comprehensive income is part of the statement of total comprehensive income in general, and not an individual statement. Main items of the other comprehensive income of the examined companies are the

  6. Identifying the most significant indicators of the total road safety performance index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tešić, Milan; Hermans, Elke; Lipovac, Krsto; Pešić, Dalibor

    2018-04-01

    The review of the national and international literature dealing with the assessment of the road safety level has shown great efforts of the authors who tried to define the methodology for calculating the composite road safety index on a territory (region, state, etc.). The procedure for obtaining a road safety composite index of an area has been largely harmonized. The question that has not been fully resolved yet concerns the selection of indicators. There is a wide range of road safety indicators used to show a road safety situation on a territory. Road safety performance index (RSPI) obtained on the basis of a larger number of safety performance indicators (SPIs) enable decision makers to more precisely define the earlier goal- oriented actions. However, recording a broader comprehensive set of SPIs helps identify the strengths and weaknesses of a country's road safety system. Providing high quality national and international databases that would include comparable SPIs seems to be difficult since a larger number of countries dispose of a small number of identical indicators available for use. Therefore, there is a need for calculating a road safety performance index with a limited number of indicators (RSPI ln n ) which will provide a comparison of a sufficient quality, of as many countries as possible. The application of the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and correlative analysis has helped to check if the RSPI ln n is likely to be of sufficient quality. A strong correlation between the RSPI ln n and the RSPI has been identified using the proposed methodology. Based on this, the most contributing indicators and methodologies for gradual monitoring of SPIs, have been defined for each country analyzed. The indicator monitoring phases in the analyzed countries have been defined in the following way: Phase 1- the indicators relating to alcohol, speed and protective systems; Phase 2- the indicators relating to roads and Phase 3- the indicators relating to

  7. Using performance-based regulation to reduce childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Stephen D; Sandman, Nirit

    2008-11-18

    Worldwide, the public health community has recognized the growing problem of childhood obesity. But, unlike tobacco control policy, there is little evidence about what public policies would work to substantially reduce childhood obesity. Public health leaders currently tend to support traditional "command and control" schemes that order private enterprises and governments to stop or start doing specific things that, is it hoped, will yield lower childhood obesity rates. These include measures such as 1) taking sweetened beverages out of schools, 2) posting calorie counts on fast-food menu boards, 3) labeling foods with a "red light" if they contain high levels of fat or sugar, 4) limiting the density of fast food restaurants in any neighborhood, 5) requiring chain restaurants to offer "healthy" alternatives, and 6) eliminating junk food ads on television shows aimed at children. Some advocates propose other regulatory interventions such as 1) influencing the relative prices of healthy and unhealthy foods through taxes and/or subsidies and 2) suing private industry for money damages as a way of blaming childhood obesity on certain practices of the food industry (such as its marketing, product composition, or portion size decisions). The food industry generally seeks to deflect blame for childhood obesity onto others, such as parents and schools.

  8. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chakravarty, Sujay [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam, Node, Kokilamedu (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) used for biomedical applications could be encountered by biomolecules in the bloodstream, of which IgG is the most abundant antibody. With a view to mitigate their side effect on encountered proteins, the effect of Au concentration (5–40 μM) and functionalization (CTAB-positive;PSS-negative; PEG-neutral) of AuNRs was investigated on the stability of a model protein, IgG (1 μM). Electron microscopic images and particle size analyses indicated least aggregation behavior for PEG-AuNRs, which can be correlated to their neutral charge (from zeta potential analyses) or stearic hindrance of PEG chains. Variations in tryptophan domain were probed by UV–visible absorption and fluorescence quenching studies. Synchronous fluorescence study helped to provide information regarding variations in the hydrophobic region of IgG. The denaturation studies also indicated the stability of AuNR–IgG complex formation. These studies showed that positively charged IgG (pI: 7.8 ± 1.0) was mostly affected by negatively charged PSS-AuNRs and least affected by PEG-AuNRs. This was verified by secondary structural investigations performed using CD and FTIR spectroscopy. For cytotoxicity studies on human lymphocytes, CTAB-AuNRs are known to show higher toxicity compared to PSS-AuNRs and PEG-AuNRs (least). Though PSS-functionalized AuNRs were shown to affect cells to a lesser degree based on the negative charge of cell membrane, they could hamper with positively charged biomolecules in the bloodstream before they reach the target, which must also be considered for choosing the right AuNR functionalization. Thus, this work indicates the effect of different AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity and stresses the necessity to use neutral particles to mitigate their side effect for theranostic applications. - Highlights: • Comprehensive evaluation of AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity. • Minimizes structural changes in IgG as a

  9. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) used for biomedical applications could be encountered by biomolecules in the bloodstream, of which IgG is the most abundant antibody. With a view to mitigate their side effect on encountered proteins, the effect of Au concentration (5–40 μM) and functionalization (CTAB-positive;PSS-negative; PEG-neutral) of AuNRs was investigated on the stability of a model protein, IgG (1 μM). Electron microscopic images and particle size analyses indicated least aggregation behavior for PEG-AuNRs, which can be correlated to their neutral charge (from zeta potential analyses) or stearic hindrance of PEG chains. Variations in tryptophan domain were probed by UV–visible absorption and fluorescence quenching studies. Synchronous fluorescence study helped to provide information regarding variations in the hydrophobic region of IgG. The denaturation studies also indicated the stability of AuNR–IgG complex formation. These studies showed that positively charged IgG (pI: 7.8 ± 1.0) was mostly affected by negatively charged PSS-AuNRs and least affected by PEG-AuNRs. This was verified by secondary structural investigations performed using CD and FTIR spectroscopy. For cytotoxicity studies on human lymphocytes, CTAB-AuNRs are known to show higher toxicity compared to PSS-AuNRs and PEG-AuNRs (least). Though PSS-functionalized AuNRs were shown to affect cells to a lesser degree based on the negative charge of cell membrane, they could hamper with positively charged biomolecules in the bloodstream before they reach the target, which must also be considered for choosing the right AuNR functionalization. Thus, this work indicates the effect of different AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity and stresses the necessity to use neutral particles to mitigate their side effect for theranostic applications. - Highlights: • Comprehensive evaluation of AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity. • Minimizes structural changes in IgG as a

  10. Postoperative Stiffness Requiring Manipulation Under Anesthesia Is Significantly Reduced After Simultaneous Versus Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John P; Monazzam, Shafagh; Miles, Troy; Danielsen, Beate; White, Richard H

    2017-12-20

    For patients with symptomatic bilateral knee arthritis, it is unknown whether the risk of developing stiffness requiring manipulation under anesthesia postoperatively is higher or lower for those undergoing simultaneous bilateral total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared with those having staged bilateral TKA. Therefore, we undertook this study to evaluate the risk of requiring manipulation under anesthesia in staged versus simultaneous bilateral TKA as well as patients undergoing unilateral TKA. We utilized the California Patient Discharge Database, which is linked with the California Emergency Department, Ambulatory Surgery, and master death file databases. Using a literature-based estimate of the number of patients who failed to undergo the second stage of a staged bilateral TKA, replacement cases were randomly selected from patients who had unilateral TKA and were matched on 8 clinical characteristics of the patients who had staged bilateral TKA. Hierarchical multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk-adjusted odds of manipulation in patients undergoing unilateral TKA, staged bilateral TKA, and simultaneous bilateral TKA using yearly hospital TKA volume as a random effect. Adjustment was made to allow fair comparison of the outcome at 90 and 180 days of follow-up after staged compared with simultaneous bilateral TKA. During the time period from 2005 through 2013, the cumulative incidence of manipulation within 90 days was 2.14% for unilateral TKA (4,398 events per 205,744 patients), 2.11% for staged bilateral TKA (724 events per 34,352 patients), and 1.62% for simultaneous bilateral TKA (195 events per 12,013 patients). At 180 days of complete follow-up, the cumulative incidence of manipulation was 3.07% after unilateral TKA (6,313 events per 205,649 patients), 2.89% after staged bilateral TKAs (957 events per 33,169 patients), and 2.29% after simultaneous bilateral TKA (267 events per 11,653 patients). With multivariate analyses used to

  11. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation potentially impacts the photosynthetic performance of high Arctic plants. We conducted an UV-B exclusion experiment in a dwarf shrub heath in NE Greenland (74°N), with open control, filter control, UV-B filtering and UV-AB filtering, all in combination......, nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  12. Negative affect reduces performance in implicit sequence learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchen Shang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is well documented that positive rather than negative moods encourage integrative processing of conscious information. However, the extent to which implicit or unconscious learning can be influenced by affective states remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A Serial Reaction Time (SRT task with sequence structures requiring integration over past trials was adopted to examine the effect of affective states on implicit learning. Music was used to induce and maintain positive and negative affective states. The present study showed that participants in negative rather than positive states learned less of the regularity. Moreover, the knowledge was shown by a Bayesian analysis to be largely unconscious as participants were poor at recognizing the regularity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results demonstrated that negative rather than positive affect inhibited implicit learning of complex structures. Our findings help to understand the effects of affective states on unconscious or implicit processing.

  13. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  14. Reduced enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors - Fabrication and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J C; Foo, M T; Berthiaume, L C; Herbert, L N; Schaefer, J D; Hawley, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, ON KOJ 1JO (Canada)

    1985-07-01

    Our facilities have been upgraded to manufacture fuel rods comprising dispersions of U{sub 3}Si in aluminum, to complement the dispersions of U{sub 3}Si alloyed with 1.5 and 3.0 wt% Al fabricated and tested previously. Further advances have been made in process optimization particularly in core extrusion where production rate has been doubled while maintaining high quality standards. Our mini-element irradiations of Al-61.5 wt% (U,3.5 wt% Si, 1.5 wt% Al) and Al-62.4 wt% (U,3.2 wt% Si, 30 wt% Al) have been completed successfully up to the terminal burnup of 93 atomic percent. Fuel core swelling remained marginally below 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup over the whole irradiation. Also mini-elements containing Al-72.4 wt% USiAl and Al-73.4 wt% USi*Al have been irradiated to 82 atomic percent burnup, their swelling rate marginally exceeding 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup. Three full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-62.4 wt% USi*Al have been fabricated and installed in the NRU reactor where they have performed normally without problems. The cores for four more full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-61.0 wt% U{sub 3}Si have been manufactured. (author)

  15. Reduced enrichment fuels for Canadian research reactors - Fabrication and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, J.C.; Foo, M.T.; Berthiaume, L.C.; Herbert, L.N.; Schaefer, J.D.; Hawley, D.

    1985-01-01

    Our facilities have been upgraded to manufacture fuel rods comprising dispersions of U 3 Si in aluminum, to complement the dispersions of U 3 Si alloyed with 1.5 and 3.0 wt% Al fabricated and tested previously. Further advances have been made in process optimization particularly in core extrusion where production rate has been doubled while maintaining high quality standards. Our mini-element irradiations of Al-61.5 wt% (U,3.5 wt% Si, 1.5 wt% Al) and Al-62.4 wt% (U,3.2 wt% Si, 30 wt% Al) have been completed successfully up to the terminal burnup of 93 atomic percent. Fuel core swelling remained marginally below 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup over the whole irradiation. Also mini-elements containing Al-72.4 wt% USiAl and Al-73.4 wt% USi*Al have been irradiated to 82 atomic percent burnup, their swelling rate marginally exceeding 1% per 10 atomic percent burnup. Three full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-62.4 wt% USi*Al have been fabricated and installed in the NRU reactor where they have performed normally without problems. The cores for four more full-size 12-element NRU assemblies containing Al-61.0 wt% U 3 Si have been manufactured. (author)

  16. 40 CFR 141.723 - Requirements to respond to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... deficiencies identified in sanitary surveys performed by EPA. 141.723 Section 141.723 Protection of Environment... performed by EPA, systems must respond in writing to significant deficiencies identified in sanitary survey... will address significant deficiencies noted in the survey. (d) Systems must correct significant...

  17. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  18. Oxidation of naturally reduced uranium in aquifer sediments by dissolved oxygen and its potential significance to uranium plume persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Jemison, N.; Xiang, H.; Repert, D. A.; Yuan, X.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. Such reduced zones are usually heterogeneously dispersed in these aquifers and characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon, reduced mineral phases, and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases found in association with these reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Four field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO, wherein groundwater associated with the naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in such field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations decreased to the detection limit, but increases in sulfate could not be detected due to high background concentrations. Changes in nitrogen species concentrations were variable. The results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS), rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table

  19. Economic and environmental performance of alternative policy measures to reduce nutrient surpluses in Finnish agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. LEHTONEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an economic sector level analysis of the effectiveness of different policy measures in decreasing nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P surpluses from agriculture in order to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural fields to watercourses and to improve water quality of surface waters. Assuming no changes in the EU level policies after CAP reform 2003 we focus on national level policy measures such as full or partial de-coupling of national support from production, payments for reduced nutrient surpluses of N and P, and N fertiliser tax. None of the analysed policy measures is superior one with respect to environmental performance, since full decoupling of national support would be the most effective in reducing P surpluses while payment for reduced nutrient surplus performed best with respect to N surpluses. Economic performance (farmers’ compliance cost per %-reduction of N or P surplus of full and partial de-coupling of national support is clearly better than that of specialised agri-environmental policy instruments, because both decoupling scenarios result in the increase of farmers’ income in comparison to base scenario, and thus compliance costs are in fact negative in these two cases. Our analysis confirms the fact that the overall policy package matters a lot for the effectiveness of agrienvironmental policy measures. Environmental performance of agri-environmental policy measures may be significantly reduced, if they are implemented jointly with production coupled income support policies. Thus, in order to increase the effectiveness of agri-environmental policy measures agricultural income support policies should be decoupled from production and this alone would bring substantial reduction in nutrient surpluses.;

  20. Increased iron level in phytase-supplemented diets reduces performance and nutrient utilisation in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Marjina; Iji, P A; Graham, H

    2017-08-01

    1. The effect of different levels of dietary iron on phytase activity and its subsequent effect on broiler performance were investigated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. A total of 360 day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks were distributed to 6 experimental diets, formulated with three levels of Fe (60, 80 and 100 mg/kg) and two levels of phytase (0 and 500 FTU/kg). 2. Phytase supplemented to mid-Fe diets increased feed consumption more than the non-supplemented diet at d 24. From hatch to d 35, Fe × phytase interaction significantly influenced the feed intake (FI), body weight gain (BWG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). The high-Fe diet supplemented with phytase significantly reduced FI and BWG of broilers than those supplemented with low- or mid-Fe diets. The overall FCR was significantly better in birds fed on the mid-Fe diets with phytase supplementation. 3. A significant improvement in ileal digestibility of N, P, Mg and Fe was observed in birds feed diets containing 60 mg Fe/kg, with significant interaction between Fe and phytase. 4. Phytase improved the bone breaking strength when supplemented to low- or mid-Fe diets, compared to the non-supplemented diets. There was a significant Fe × phytase interaction effect. Tibia Fe content was higher in birds fed on phytase-free diets with high Fe but the reverse was the case when phytase was added and their interaction was significant. High dietary Fe significantly increased the accumulation of Fe in liver. 5. Phytase improved Ca-Mg-ATPase, Ca-ATPase and Mg-ATPase activities in jejunum when supplemented to the diet containing 80 mg Fe/kg. 6. This study indicates that high (100 mg/kg) dietary Fe inhibited phytase efficacy and subsequently reduced the overall performance and nutrient utilisation of broilers.

  1. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  2. Millisecond photo-thermal process on significant improvement of supercapacitor’s performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kui; Wang, Jixiao; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Song; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high way for charge transfer is created by a millisecond photo-thermal process which could decrease contact resistance among nanomaterials and improve the electrochemical performances. - Highlights: • Improve conductivity among nanomaterials with a millisecond photo-thermal process. • The specific capacitance can increase about 25% with an photo-thermal process. • The circle stability and rate capability can be improved above 10% with photo-thermal process. • Provide a new way that create electron path to improve electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Supercapacitors fabricated with nanomaterials usually have high specific capacitance and excellent performance. However, the small size of nanomaterials renders a considerable limitation of the contact area among nanomaterials, which is harmful to charge carrier transfer. This fact may hinder the development and application of nanomaterials in electrochemical storage systems. Here, a millisecond photo-thermal process was introduced to create a charge carries transfer path to decrease the contact resistance among nanomaterials, and enhance the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. Polyaniline (PANI) nanowire, as a model nanomaterial, was used to modify electrodes under different photo-thermal process conditions. The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results were analysed by equivalent circuit simulation. These results demonstrate that the photo-thermal process can alter the morphology of PANI nanowires, lower the charge transfer resistances and thus improve the performance of electrodes. The specific capacitance increase of the modified electrodes is about 25%. The improvement of the circle stability and rate capability are above 10%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on research the effect of photo-thermal process on the conductivity

  3. A new algorithm for reducing the workload of experts in performing systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matwin, Stan; Kouznetsov, Alexandre; Inkpen, Diana; Frunza, Oana; O'Blenis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    To determine whether a factorized version of the complement naïve Bayes (FCNB) classifier can reduce the time spent by experts reviewing journal articles for inclusion in systematic reviews of drug class efficacy for disease treatment. The proposed classifier was evaluated on a test collection built from 15 systematic drug class reviews used in previous work. The FCNB classifier was constructed to classify each article as containing high-quality, drug class-specific evidence or not. Weight engineering (WE) techniques were added to reduce underestimation for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)-based and Publication Type (PubType)-based features. Cross-validation experiments were performed to evaluate the classifier's parameters and performance. Work saved over sampling (WSS) at no less than a 95% recall was used as the main measure of performance. The minimum workload reduction for a systematic review for one topic, achieved with a FCNB/WE classifier, was 8.5%; the maximum was 62.2% and the average over the 15 topics was 33.5%. This is 15.0% higher than the average workload reduction obtained using a voting perceptron-based automated citation classification system. The FCNB/WE classifier is simple, easy to implement, and produces significantly better results in reducing the workload than previously achieved. The results support it being a useful algorithm for machine-learning-based automation of systematic reviews of drug class efficacy for disease treatment.

  4. Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Chamine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG task performance and event related potentials (ERP components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime. GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention.

  5. Expectancy of Stress-Reducing Aromatherapy Effect and Performance on a Stress-Sensitive Cognitive Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamine, Irina; Oken, Barry S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Stress-reducing therapies help maintain cognitive performance during stress. Aromatherapy is popular for stress reduction, but its effectiveness and mechanism are unclear. This study examined stress-reducing effects of aromatherapy on cognitive function using the go/no-go (GNG) task performance and event related potentials (ERP) components sensitive to stress. The study also assessed the importance of expectancy in aromatherapy actions. Methods. 81 adults were randomized to 3 aroma groups (active experimental, detectable, and undetectable placebo) and 2 prime subgroups (prime suggesting stress-reducing aroma effects or no-prime). GNG performance, ERPs, subjective expected aroma effects, and stress ratings were assessed at baseline and poststress. Results. No specific aroma effects on stress or cognition were observed. However, regardless of experienced aroma, people receiving a prime displayed faster poststress median reaction times than those receiving no prime. A significant interaction for N200 amplitude indicated divergent ERP patterns between baseline and poststress for go and no-go stimuli depending on the prime subgroup. Furthermore, trends for beneficial prime effects were shown on poststress no-go N200/P300 latencies and N200 amplitude. Conclusion. While there were no aroma-specific effects on stress or cognition, these results highlight the role of expectancy for poststress response inhibition and attention. PMID:25802539

  6. Evidence That Bimanual Motor Timing Performance Is Not a Significant Factor in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard; Smith, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method: As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70…

  7. Student-Led Project Teams: Significance of Regulation Strategies in High- and Low-Performing Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, Judith

    2016-01-01

    We studied group and individual co-regulatory and self-regulatory strategies of self-managed student project teams using data from intragroup peer evaluations and a postproject survey. We found that high team performers shared their research and knowledge with others, collaborated to advise and give constructive criticism, and demonstrated moral…

  8. Labour Mobility and Plant Performance in Denmark: The Significance of Related Inflows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timmermans, Bram; Boschma, Ron

    This paper investigates the impact of different types of labour mobility on plant performance, making use of the IDA-database that provides detailed information on all individuals and plants for the whole of Denmark. Our study shows that the effect of labour mobility can only be assessed when one...... performance. Moreover, intra-regional skilled labour mobility had a negative effect on plant performance in general, while the effect of inter-regional labour mobility depends on the type of skills that flow into the plant. We used a sophisticated indicator of revealed relatedness that measures the degree...... accounts for the type of skills that flow into the plant, and the degree to which these match the existing set of skills at the plant level. We found that the inflow of related skills has a positive impact on plant performance, while inflows of similar and unrelated skills have a negative effect on plant...

  9. Adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple improves the closed loop system performance significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.; Regan, A.; Wang, Y.M.; Rohlev, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    The Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) being constructed at Los Alamos National Laboratory will serve as the prototype for the low energy section of Acceleration Production of Tritium (APT) accelerator. This paper addresses the problem of LLRF control system for LEDA. The authors propose an estimator of the ripple and its time derivative and a control law which is based on PID control and adaptive feedforward of estimated ripple. The control law reduces the effect of the deterministic cathode ripple that is due to high voltage power supply and achieves tracking of desired set points

  10. Significance of size dependent and material structure coupling on the characteristics and performance of nanocrystalline micro/nano gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, K.; Ghommem, M.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2018-05-01

    Capacitive-based sensing microelectromechanical (MEMS) and nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) gyroscopes have significant advantages over conventional gyroscopes, such as low power consumption, batch fabrication, and possible integration with electronic circuits. However, inadequacies in the modeling of these inertial sensors have presented issues of reliability and functionality of micro-/nano-scale gyroscopes. In this work, a micromechanical model is developed to represent the unique microstructure of nanocrystalline materials and simulate the response of micro-/nano-gyroscope comprising an electrostatically-actuated cantilever beam with a tip mass at the free end. Couple stress and surface elasticity theories are integrated into the classical Euler-Bernoulli beam model in order to derive a size-dependent model. This model is then used to investigate the influence of size-dependent effects on the static pull-in instability, the natural frequencies and the performance output of gyroscopes as the scale decreases from micro-to nano-scale. The simulation results show significant changes in the static pull-in voltage and the natural frequency as the scale of the system is decreased. However, the differential frequency between the two vibration modes of the gyroscope is observed to drastically decrease as the size of the gyroscope is reduced. As such, the frequency-based operation mode may not be an efficient strategy for nano-gyroscopes. The results show that a strong coupling between the surface elasticity and material structure takes place when smaller grain sizes and higher void percentages are considered.

  11. Significant Returns in Engagement and Performance with a Free Teaching App

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Pedagogical research shows that teaching methods other than traditional lectures may result in better outcomes. However, lecture remains the dominant method in economics, likely due to high implementation costs of methods shown to be effective in the literature. In this article, the author shows significant benefits of using a teaching app for…

  12. The Proposal of Key Performance Indicators in Facility Management and Determination the Weights of Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbalová, Jarmila; Vilčeková, Silvia

    2013-11-01

    The practice of facilities management is rapidly evolving with the increasing interest in the discourse of sustainable development. The industry and its market are forecasted to develop to include non-core functions, activities traditionally not associated with this profession, but which are increasingly being addressed by facilities managers. The scale of growth in the built environment and the consequential growth of the facility management sector is anticipated to be enormous. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) are measure that provides essential information about performance of facility services delivery. In selecting KPI, it is critical to limit them to those factors that are essential to the organization reaching its goals. It is also important to keep the number of KPI small just to keep everyone's attention focused on achieving the same KPIs. This paper deals with the determination of weights of KPI of FM in terms of the design and use of sustainable buildings.

  13. Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1992-01-01

    As people age, so do their photoreceptors; many photoreceptors in central vision stop functioning when a person reaches their late sixties or early seventies. Low vision observers with losses in central vision, those with age-related maculopathies, were studied. Low vision observers no longer see high spatial frequencies, being unable to resolve fine edge detail. We developed image enhancement filters to compensate for the low vision observer's losses in contrast sensitivity to intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The filters work by boosting the amplitude of the less visible intermediate spatial frequencies. The lower spatial frequencies. These image enhancement filters not only reduce the magnification needed for reading by up to 70 percent, but they also increase the observer's reading speed by 2-4 times. A summary of this research is presented.

  14. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. In surgeons performing cardiothoracic surgery is sleep deprivation significant in its impact on morbidity or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfour, Leila; Asfour, Victoria; McCormack, David; Attia, Rizwan

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is there a difference in cardiothoracic surgery outcomes in terms of morbidity or mortality of patients operated on by a sleep-deprived surgeon compared with those operated by a non-sleep-deprived surgeon? Reported search criteria yielded 77 papers, of which 15 were deemed to represent the best evidence on the topic. Three studies directly related to cardiothoracic surgery and 12 studies related to non-cardiothoracic surgery. Recommendations are based on 18 121 cardiothoracic patients and 214 666 non-cardiothoracic surgical patients. Different definitions of sleep deprivation were used in the studies, either reviewing surgeon's sleeping hours or out-of-hours operating. Surgical outcomes reviewed included: mortality rate, neurological, renal, pulmonary, infectious complications, length of stay, length of intensive care stay, cardiopulmonary bypass times and aortic-cross-clamp times. There were no significant differences in mortality or intraoperative complications in the groups of patients operated on by sleep-deprived versus non-sleep-deprived surgeons in cardiothoracic studies. One study showed a significant increase in the rate of septicaemia in patients operated on by severely sleep-deprived surgeons (3.6%) compared with the moderately sleep-deprived (0.9%) and non-sleep-deprived groups (0.8%) (P = 0.03). In the non-cardiothoracic studies, 7 of the 12 studies demonstrated statistically significant higher reoperation rate in trauma cases (P sleep deprivation in cardiothoracic surgeons on morbidity or mortality. However, overall the non-cardiothoracic studies have demonstrated that operative time and sleep deprivation can have a significant impact on overall morbidity and mortality. It is likely that other confounding factors concomitantly affect outcomes in out-of-hours surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  16. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  17. Postexercise Glycogen Recovery and Exercise Performance is Not Significantly Different Between Fast Food and Sport Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Michael J; Dumke, Charles L; Hailes, Walter S; Cuddy, John S; Ruby, Brent C

    2015-10-01

    A variety of dietary choices are marketed to enhance glycogen recovery after physical activity. Past research informs recommendations regarding the timing, dose, and nutrient compositions to facilitate glycogen recovery. This study examined the effects of isoenergetic sport supplements (SS) vs. fast food (FF) on glycogen recovery and exercise performance. Eleven males completed two experimental trials in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Each trial included a 90-min glycogen depletion ride followed by a 4-hr recovery period. Absolute amounts of macronutrients (1.54 ± 0.27 g·kg-1 carbohydrate, 0.24 ± 0.04 g·kg fat-1, and 0.18 ±0.03g·kg protein-1) as either SS or FF were provided at 0 and 2 hr. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis at 0 and 4 hr post exercise. Blood samples were analyzed at 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180, and 240 min post exercise for insulin and glucose, with blood lipids analyzed at 0 and 240 min. A 20k time-trial (TT) was completed following the final muscle biopsy. There were no differences in the blood glucose and insulin responses. Similarly, rates of glycogen recovery were not different across the diets (6.9 ± 1.7 and 7.9 ± 2.4 mmol·kg wet weight- 1·hr-1 for SS and FF, respectively). There was also no difference across the diets for TT performance (34.1 ± 1.8 and 34.3 ± 1.7 min for SS and FF, respectively. These data indicate that short-term food options to initiate glycogen resynthesis can include dietary options not typically marketed as sports nutrition products such as fast food menu items.

  18. Reduced functional connectivity between V1 and inferior frontal cortex associated with visuomotor performance in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobos, Michele E; Mizuno, Akiko; Dahl, Branelle C; Kemmotsu, Nobuko; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2005-04-15

    Some recent evidence has suggested abnormalities of the dorsal stream and possibly the mirror neuron system in autism, which may be responsible for impairments of joint attention, imitation, and secondarily for language delays. The current study investigates functional connectivity along the dorsal stream in autism, examining interregional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal cross-correlation during visuomotor coordination. Eight high-functioning autistic men and eight handedness and age-matched controls were included. Visually prompted button presses were performed with the preferred hand. For each subject, functional connectivity was computed in terms of BOLD signal correlation with the mean time series in bilateral visual area 17. Our hypothesis of reduced dorsal stream connectivity in autism was only in part confirmed. Functional connectivity with superior parietal areas was not significantly reduced. However, the autism group showed significantly reduced connectivity with bilateral inferior frontal area 44, which is compatible with the hypothesis of mirror neuron defects in autism. More generally, our findings suggest that dorsal stream connectivity in autism may not be fully functional.

  19. Authoring experience: the significance and performance of storytelling in Socratic dialogue with rehabilitating cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect in philosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experience to illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participants is the traditional point of departure for the dialogical exchange. However, narrating is much more than a beginning point or the skeletal framework of events and it deserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impacts the conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article we show how the narrative aspect became a rich resource for the compassionate bond between participants and how their stories cultivated the abstract reflection in the group. In addition, the aim of the article is to reveal the different layers in the performance of storytelling, or of authoring experience. By picking, poking and dissecting an experience through a collaborative effort, most participants had their initial experience existentially refined and the chosen concept of which the experience served as an illustration transformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientation post cancer.

  20. Significant Performance Enhancement in Asymmetric Supercapacitors based on Metal Oxides, Carbon nanotubes and Neutral Aqueous Electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2015-10-01

    Amongst the materials being investigated for supercapacitor electrodes, carbon based materials are most investigated. However, pure carbon materials suffer from inherent physical processes which limit the maximum specific energy and power that can be achieved in an energy storage device. Therefore, use of carbon-based composites with suitable nano-materials is attaining prominence. The synergistic effect between the pseudocapacitive nanomaterials (high specific energy) and carbon (high specific power) is expected to deliver the desired improvements. We report the fabrication of high capacitance asymmetric supercapacitor based on electrodes of composites of SnO2 and V2O5 with multiwall carbon nanotubes and neutral 0.5 M Li2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. The advantages of the fabricated asymmetric supercapacitors are compared with the results published in the literature. The widened operating voltage window is due to the higher over-potential of electrolyte decomposition and a large difference in the work functions of the used metal oxides. The charge balanced device returns the specific capacitance of ~198 F g-1 with corresponding specific energy of ~89 Wh kg-1 at 1 A g-1. The proposed composite systems have shown great potential in fabricating high performance supercapacitors.

  1. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  2. Reduced expression of circRNA hsa_circ_0003159 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengqian; Chen, Ruoyu; Li, Tianwen; Xiao, Bingxiu

    2018-03-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a crucial role in the occurrence of several diseases including cancers. However, little is known about circRNAs' diagnostic values for gastric cancer, one of the worldwide most common diseases of mortality. The hsa_circ_0003159 levels in 108 paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from surgical patients with gastric cancer were first detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were analyzed. Finally, its diagnostic value was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve. Compared with paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues, hsa_circ_0003159 expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. What is more, we found that hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels were significantly negatively associated with gender, distal metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. All of the results suggest that hsa_circ_0003159 may be a potential cancer marker of patients with gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  5. AREVA - 2012 annual results: significant turnaround in performance one year after launching the Action 2016 plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duperray, Julien; Berezowskyj, Katherine; Kempkes, Vincent; Rosso, Jerome; Thebault, Alexandre; Scorbiac, Marie de; Repaire, Philippine du

    2013-01-01

    One year after launching Areva's Action 2016 strategic plan, the first results are in. AREVA is ahead of schedule in executing its recovery plan. While pursuing its efforts in the management of a few difficult projects (such as OL3), Areva group was able to return to a virtuous performance cycle rooted in strong growth in nuclear order intake and good progress on its cost reduction program. Commercially, despite the difficult economic environment, AREVA was able to capitalize on its leadership in the installed base and on its long-term partnerships with strategic customers, beginning with EDF, with which AREVA renewed a confident and constructive working relationship. Areva has secured 80% of its objective of one billion euros of savings by the end of 2015 to improve its competitiveness. The group also continued efforts to optimize working capital requirement and control the capital expenditure trajectory. Together, these results enabled AREVA to exceed the objectives set for 2012 for two key indicators of its strategic plan: EBITDA and free operating cash flow. Nearly 60% of the 2.1 billion euros devoted to capital expenditures for future growth in 2012 were funded by operations, a quasi-doubled share compared to 2011. Areva's floor target for asset disposals was achieved one year ahead of schedule, also helping the Group to control its net debt, which remained below 4 billion euros. In 2013, Areva is continuing to implement the Action 2016 plan to keep its turnaround on track. In summary: - Backlog renewed over the year 2012 to euro 45.4 bn thanks to the increase in nuclear order intake; - Sales revenue growth: euro 9.342 bn (+5.3% vs. 2011), led by nuclear and renewables operations; - Very sharp upturn in EBITDA: euro 1.007 bn (+euro 586 m vs. 2011) - Very net improvement in free operating cash flow: -euro 854 m (+euro 512 m vs. 2011); - Back to positive reported operating income: euro 118 m (+euro 1.984 bn vs. 2011); - 2012-2013 floor target for asset disposals

  6. Can mesophotic reefs replenish shallow reefs? Reduced coral reproductive performance casts a doubt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlesinger, Tom; Grinblat, Mila; Rapuano, Hanna; Amit, Tal; Loya, Yossi

    2018-02-01

    Mesophotic coral ecosystems (i.e., deep coral reefs at 30-120 m depth) appear to be thriving while many shallow reefs in the world are declining. Amid efforts to understand and manage their decline, it was suggested that mesophotic reefs might serve as natural refuges and a possible source of propagules for the shallow reefs. However, our knowledge of how reproductive performance of corals alters with depth is sparse. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the reproductive phenology, fecundity, and abundance of seven reef-building conspecific corals in shallow and mesophotic habitats. Significant differences were found in the synchrony and timing of gametogenesis and spawning between shallow and mesophotic coral populations. Thus, mesophotic populations exhibited delayed or protracted spawning events, which led to spawning of the mesophotic colonies in large proportions at times where the shallow ones had long been depleted of reproductive material. All species investigated demonstrated a substantial reduction in fecundity and/or oocyte sizes at mesophotic depths (40-60 m). Two species (Seriatopora hystrix and Galaxea fascicularis) displayed a reduction in both fecundity and oocyte size at mesophotic depths. Turbinaria reniformis had only reduced fecundity and Acropora squarrosa and Acropora valida only reduced oocyte size. In Montipora verrucosa, reduced fecundity was found during one annual reproductive season while, in the following year, only reduced oocyte size was found. In contrast, reduced oocyte size in mesophotic populations of Acropora squarrosa was consistent along three studied years. One species, Acropora pharaonis, was found to be infertile at mesophotic depths along two studied years. This indicates that reproductive performance decreases with depth; and that although some species are capable of reproducing at mesophotic depths, their contribution to the replenishment of shallow reefs may be inconsequential. Reduced reproductive performance

  7. Weight loss significantly reduces serum lipocalin-2 levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiou, Ekaterini; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsikis, Ilias; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kalaitzakis, Emmanuil; Delkos, Dimitrios; Vosnakis, Christos; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 levels are elevated in obese patients. We assessed serum lipocalin-2 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the effects of weight loss or metformin on these levels. Forty-seven overweight/obese patients with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m(2)] were instructed to follow a low-calorie diet, to exercise and were given orlistat or sibutramine for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight patients with PCOS (BMI weight and 25 overweight/obese healthy female volunteers comprised the control groups. Serum lipocalin-2 levels did not differ between overweight/obese patients with PCOS and overweight/obese controls (p = 0.258), or between normal weight patients with PCOS and normal weight controls (p = 0.878). Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in normal weight patients with PCOS (p weight loss resulted in a fall in lipocalin-2 levels (p weight patients with PCOS, treatment with metformin did not affect lipocalin-2 levels (p = 0.484). In conclusion, PCOS per se is not associated with elevated lipocalin-2 levels. Weight loss induces a significant reduction in lipocalin-2 levels in overweight/obese patients with PCOS.

  8. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  9. Visual determinants of reduced performance on the Stroop color-word test in normal aging individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxtel, M P; ten Tusscher, M P; Metsemakers, J F; Willems, B; Jolles, J

    2001-10-01

    It is unknown to what extent the performance on the Stroop color-word test is affected by reduced visual function in older individuals. We tested the impact of common deficiencies in visual function (reduced distant and close acuity, reduced contrast sensitivity, and color weakness) on Stroop performance among 821 normal individuals aged 53 and older. After adjustment for age, sex, and educational level, low contrast sensitivity was associated with more time needed on card I (word naming), red/green color weakness with slower card 2 performance (color naming), and reduced distant acuity with slower performance on card 3 (interference). Half of the age-related variance in speed performance was shared with visual function. The actual impact of reduced visual function may be underestimated in this study when some of this age-related variance in Stroop performance is mediated by visual function decrements. It is suggested that reduced visual function has differential effects on Stroop performance which need to be accounted for when the Stroop test is used both in research and in clinical settings. Stroop performance measured from older individuals with unknown visual status should be interpreted with caution.

  10. A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure--a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Ole; Hvidberg, Martin; Ketzel, Matthias; Storm, Lars; Stausgaard, Lizzi

    2008-01-15

    A proper selection of route through the urban area may significantly reduce the air pollution exposure. This is the main conclusion from the presented study. Air pollution exposure is determined for two selected cohorts along the route going from home to working place, and back from working place to home. Exposure is determined with a street pollution model for three scenarios: bicycling along the shortest possible route, bicycling along the low exposure route along less trafficked streets, and finally taking the shortest trip using public transport. Furthermore, calculations are performed for the cases the trip takes place inside as well as outside the traffic rush hours. The results show that the accumulated air pollution exposure for the low exposure route is between 10% and 30% lower for the primary pollutants (NO(x) and CO). However, the difference is insignificant and in some cases even negative for the secondary pollutants (NO(2) and PM(10)/PM(2.5)). Considering only the contribution from traffic in the travelled streets, the accumulated air pollution exposure is between 54% and 67% lower for the low exposure route. The bus is generally following highly trafficked streets, and the accumulated exposure along the bus route is therefore between 79% and 115% higher than the high exposure bicycle route (the short bicycle route). Travelling outside the rush hour time periods reduces the accumulated exposure between 10% and 30% for the primary pollutants, and between 5% and 20% for the secondary pollutants. The study indicates that a web based route planner for selecting the low exposure route through the city might be a good service for the public. In addition the public may be advised to travel outside rush hour time periods.

  11. The Influence of the Interlayer Distance on the Performance of Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hong Lin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB was employed to prevent the restack of the thermally reduce graphene oxide (TRG sheets. A facile approach was demonstrated to effectively enlarge the interlayer distance of the TRG sheets through the ionic interaction between the intercalated CTAB and ionic liquids (ILs. The morphology of the composites and the interaction between the intercalated ionic species were systematically characterized by SEM, SAXS, XRD, TGA, and FTIR. In addition, the performance of the EDLC cells based on these TRG composites was evaluated. It was found that due to the increased interlayer distance (0.41 nm to 2.51 nm that enlarges the accessible surface area for the IL electrolyte, the energy density of the cell can be significantly improved (23.1 Wh/kg to 62.5 Wh/kg.

  12. Reducing BWR O and M costs through on-line performance monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonas, T.; Gross, R.; Logback, F.; Josyula, R.

    1995-01-01

    Competition in the electric power industry has placed significant emphasis on reducing operating and maintenance (O and M) costs at nuclear facilities. Therefore, on-line performance monitoring to locate power losses for boiling water reactor (BWR) plants is creating tremendous interest. In addition, the ability to automate activities such as data collection, analysis, and reporting increases the efficiency of plant engineers and gives them more time to concentrate on solving plant efficiency problems. This capability is now available with a unique software product called GEBOPS. GE Nuclear Energy, in conjunction with Joint Venture partner Black and Veatch, has undertaken development of the General Electric/Black and Veatch On-line Performance System (GEBOPS), an on-line performance monitoring system for BWR plants. The experience and expertise of GE Nuclear Energy with BWR plants, coupled with the proven on-line monitoring software development experience and capability of Black and Veatch, provide the foundation for a unique product which addresses the needs of today's BWR plants

  13. Repeat Effort Performance is Reduced 24 h following Acute Dehydration in Mixed Martial Arts Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barley, Oliver R; Iredale, Fiona; Chapman, Dale W; Hopper, Amanda; Abbiss, Chris

    2017-09-11

    This study sought to determine the influence of acute dehydration on physical performance and physiology in Mixed Martial Arts (MMA). MMA athletes (n=14; age: 23±4 years), completed in a randomised counterbalanced order a dehydration protocol, (DHY: 3 h cycling at 60 W in 40°C to induce 5% dehydration) or thermoneutral control (25°C: CONT) exercise, followed by ad libitum fluid/food intake. Performance testing (a repeat sled push test, medicine ball chest throw and vertical jump) was completed 3 and 24 h following the intervention, while urine and blood samples were collected before, 20 min, 3 and 24 h following the intervention. Body mass was reduced (4.8±0.8%) following DHY (p<0.001) and remained lower than CONT at 3 and 24 h post (p=0.003 and p=0.024, respectively). Compared to CONT average sled push times were slower 3 and 24 h following DHY (19±15%; p=0.001; g=1.229 and 14±15%; p=0.012; g=0.671, respectively). When compared to the CONT hand grip was weaker 3 h following DHY (53±8 and 51±8 kg; p=0.044, g=0.243 respectively) and medicine ball chest throw distances were shorter 24 h following DHY (474±52 and 449±44 cm; p=0.016, g=0.253 respectively). No significant differences were observed in vertical jump (p=0.467). Urine specific gravity was higher than CONT 20 min (p=0.035) and 24 h (p=0.035) following DHY. Acute dehydration of 4.8% body mass results in reduced physical performance 3 and 24 h following. There is need for caution when athletes use dehydration for weight loss 24 h prior to competition.

  14. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences.

  15. Effects of Shrinkage Reducing Agent and Expansive Admixture on the Volume Deformation of Ultrahigh Performance Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Anshuang, Su; Ling, Qin; Shoujie, Zhang; Jiayang, Zhang; Zhaoyu, Li

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigated the influences of shrinkage reducing agent and expansive admixture on autogenous and drying shrinkage of ultrahigh performance concrete (UHPC) containing antifoaming admixture. The shrinkage reducing agent was used at dosage of 0.5%, 1%, and 2% and the expansive admixture was used at dosage of 2% to 4% by mass of cementitious material. The results show that the air content of UHPC increases with the higher addition of shrinkage reducing agent and expansive admixtures. ...

  16. MaMR: High-performance MapReduce programming model for material cloud applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Weipeng; Tong, Danyu; Wang, Yangang; Wang, Jingyuan; Liu, Yaqiu; Zhao, Peng

    2017-02-01

    With the increasing data size in materials science, existing programming models no longer satisfy the application requirements. MapReduce is a programming model that enables the easy development of scalable parallel applications to process big data on cloud computing systems. However, this model does not directly support the processing of multiple related data, and the processing performance does not reflect the advantages of cloud computing. To enhance the capability of workflow applications in material data processing, we defined a programming model for material cloud applications that supports multiple different Map and Reduce functions running concurrently based on hybrid share-memory BSP called MaMR. An optimized data sharing strategy to supply the shared data to the different Map and Reduce stages was also designed. We added a new merge phase to MapReduce that can efficiently merge data from the map and reduce modules. Experiments showed that the model and framework present effective performance improvements compared to previous work.

  17. Enhanced coagulation for improving coagulation performance and reducing residual aluminum combining polyaluminum chloride with diatomite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wenchao; Wu, Chunde

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of using enhanced coagulation, which combined polyaluminum chloride (PAC) with diatomite for improving coagulation performance and reducing the residual aluminum (Al), was discussed. The effects of PAC and diatomite dosage on the coagulation performance and residual Al were mainly investigated. Results demonstrated that the removal efficiencies of turbidity, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and UV254 were significantly improved by the enhanced coagulation, compared with PAC coagulation alone. Meaningfully, the five forms of residual Al (total Al (TAl), total dissolved Al (TDAl), dissolved organic Al (DOAl), dissolved monomeric Al (DMAl), and dissolved organic monomeric Al (DOMAl)) all had different degrees of reduction in the presence of diatomite and achieved the lowest concentrations (0.185, 0.06, 0.053, 0.014, and 0 mg L(-1), respectively) at a PAC dose of 15 mg L(-1) and diatomite dose of 40 mg L(-1). In addition, when PAC was used as coagulant, the majority of residual Al existed in dissolved form (about 31.14-70.16%), and the content of DOMAl was small in the DMAl.

  18. Acoustic noise induces attention shifts and reduces foraging performance in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Purser

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic noise is known to have a variety of detrimental effects on many animals, including humans, but surprisingly little is known about its impacts on foraging behaviour, despite the obvious potential consequences for survival and reproductive success. We therefore exposed captive three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus to brief and prolonged noise to investigate how foraging performance is affected by the addition of acoustic noise to an otherwise quiet environment. The addition of noise induced only mild fear-related behaviours--there was an increase in startle responses, but no change in the time spent freezing or hiding compared to a silent control--and thus had no significant impact on the total amount of food eaten. However, there was strong evidence that the addition of noise increased food-handling errors and reduced discrimination between food and non-food items, results that are consistent with a shift in attention. Consequently, noise resulted in decreased foraging efficiency, with more attacks needed to consume the same number of prey items. Our results suggest that acoustic noise has the potential to influence a whole host of everyday activities through effects on attention, and that even very brief noise exposure can cause functionally significant impacts, emphasising the threat posed by ever-increasing levels of anthropogenic noise in the environment.

  19. Reduced graphene oxide induces cytotoxicity and inhibits photosynthetic performance of the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shaoting; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Ranran; Lu, Qi; Liu, Lin; Bao, Xiaowei; Liu, Huijun

    2016-12-01

    Increased use of graphene materials might ultimately lead to their release into the environment. However, only a few studies have investigated the impact of graphene-based materials on green plants. In this study, the impact of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on the microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus was evaluated to determine its phytotoxicity. Treatment with RGO suppressed the growth of the microalgae. The 72-h IC 50 values of RGO evaluated using the logistic and Gompertz models were 148 and 151 mg L -1 , respectively. RGO significantly inhibited Chl a and Chl a/b levels in the algal cells. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis showed that RGO significantly down-regulated photosystem II activity. The mechanism of how RGO inhibited algal growth and photosynthetic performance was determined by analyzing the alterations in ultrastructural morphology. RGO adhered to the algal cell surface as a semitranslucent coating. Cell wall damage and membrane integrity loss occurred in the treated cells. Moreover, nuclear chromatin clumping and starch grain number increase were noted. These changes might be attributed to the increase in malondialdehyde and reactive oxygen species levels, which might have exceeded the scavenging ability of antioxidant enzymes (including peroxidase and superoxide dismutase). RGO impaired the extra- and intra-cellular morphology and increased oxidative stress and thus inhibited algal growth and photosynthesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mental training, relaxation techniques and pedagogical instructions to reduce Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) in flute students

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Viejo Llaneza; Ana Laucirica Larrinaga

    2016-01-01

    Music Performance Anxiety (MPA) is, frequently, one of the problems faced by a musical performer in his or her career. This study observes way in which stage fright affects in musicians, which is a possible factor that may later lead to anxiety in public performances and, furthermore, how we can intervene to mitigate or reduce its effects. An initial interview was conducted with four upper division students of transverse flute. This was followed by some training techniques - relaxation techni...

  1. Reducing Communication Overhead by Scheduling TCP Transfers on Mobile Devices using Wireless Network Performance Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard-Hansen, Kim; Madsen, Tatiana Kozlova; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2012-01-01

    The performance of wireless communication networks has been shown to have a strong location dependence. Measuring the performance while having accurate location information available makes it possible to generate performance maps. In this paper we propose a framework for the generation and use...... of such performance maps. We demonstrate how the framework can be used to reduce the retransmissions and to better utilise network resources when performing TCP-based file downloads in vehicular M2M communication scenarios. The approach works on top of a standard TCP stack hence has to map identified transmission...

  2. On the significance of the noise model for the performance of a linear MPC in closed-loop operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagdrup, Morten; Boiroux, Dimitri; Mahmoudi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the noise model for the performance of a Model Predictive Controller when operating in closed-loop. The process model is parametrized as a continuous-time (CT) model and the relevant sampled-data filtering and control algorithms are developed. Using CT...... models typically means less parameters to identify. Systematic tuning of such controllers is discussed. Simulation studies are conducted for linear time-invariant systems showing that choosing a noise model of low order is beneficial for closed-loop performance. (C) 2016, IFAC (International Federation...

  3. [Reducing occupational burnout and enhancing job performance in new nurses: the efficacy of "last mile" programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu-Mei; Liu, Pei-Fen; Ho, Hsueh-Hua; Chen, Ping-Ling; Chao, Hui-Lin; Chen, Hsiao-Lien

    2012-08-01

    -commitment, with associated Cronbach's α ranging from .84-.90. Data was collected at one, three, and six months after employment. Repeated measures ANOVA and an independent t-test were used to analyze data. The average age of the 123 participants surveyed was 23 years, with no differences identified between last-mile and non-last-mile groups in terms of education level, work unit, or other demographic variables. New nurses who participated in the last mile program achieved significantly higher performance scores for job-task support, volunteering for additional duties, and overall task and contextual performance than those who did not. Last-mile-program group participants also had significantly lower client-related burnout than their non-last-mile-program peers. The last mile program facilitates new nurses' contextual performance and reduces incidence of care burnout. The cooperative education model linking universities and hospitals can be a positive component in a new nurse retention strategy for hospital administrators and educators.

  4. Capsaicin Supplementation Reduces Physical Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ju Hsu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Chili pepper is used as a food, seasoning and has been revered for its medicinal and health claims. It is very popular and is the most common spice worldwide. Capsaicin (CAP is a major pungent and bioactive phytochemical in chili peppers. CAP has been shown to improve mitochondrial biogenesis and adenosine triphosphate (ATP production. However, there is limited evidence around the effects of CAP on physical fatigue and exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential beneficial effects of CAP on anti-fatigue and ergogenic functions following physiological challenge. Female Institute of Cancer Research (ICR mice from four groups (n = 8 per group were orally administered CAP for 4 weeks at 0, 205, 410, and 1025 mg/kg/day, which were respectively designated the vehicle, CAP-1X, CAP-2X, and CAP-5X groups. The anti-fatigue activity and exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, BUN (blood urea nitrogen and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The grip strength and exhaustive swimming time of the CAP-5X group were significantly higher than other groups. CAP supplementation dose-dependently reduced serum lactate, ammonia, BUN and CK levels, and increased glucose concentration after the 15-min swimming test. In addition, CAP also increased hepatic glycogen content, an important energy source for exercise. The possible mechanism was relevant to energy homeostasis and the physiological modulations by CAP supplementation. Therefore, our results suggest that CAP supplementation may have a wide spectrum of bioactivities for promoting health, performance improvement and fatigue amelioration.

  5. Significance of uncertainties derived from settling tank model structure and parameters on predicting WWTP performance - A global sensitivity analysis study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramin, Elham; Sin, Gürkan; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2011-01-01

    Uncertainty derived from one of the process models – such as one-dimensional secondary settling tank (SST) models – can impact the output of the other process models, e.g., biokinetic (ASM1), as well as the integrated wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) models. The model structure and parameter...... and from the last aerobic bioreactor upstream to the SST (Garrett/hydraulic method). For model structure uncertainty, two one-dimensional secondary settling tank (1-D SST) models are assessed, including a first-order model (the widely used Takács-model), in which the feasibility of using measured...... uncertainty of settler models can therefore propagate, and add to the uncertainties in prediction of any plant performance criteria. Here we present an assessment of the relative significance of secondary settling model performance in WWTP simulations. We perform a global sensitivity analysis (GSA) based...

  6. Journey to top performance: a multipronged quality improvement approach to reducing cardiac surgery mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinerman, S Jacob; Dlugacz, Yosef D; Hartman, Alan R; Moravick, Donna; Nelson, Karen L; Scanlon, Kerri Anne; Stier, Lori

    2015-02-01

    In 2006, leadership at Long Island Jewish Medical Center (New Hyde Park, New York) noted significantly higher cardiac surgery mortality rates for isolated valve and valve/coronary artery bypass graft procedures compared to the New York State Department of Health's Cardiac Surgery Reporting System statewide average. Long Island Jewish Medical Center, a 583-bed nonprofit, tertiary care teaching hospital, is one of the clinical and academic hubs of North Shore-LIJ Health System. Senior leadership launched an evaluation of the cardiac surgery program to determine why cardiac surgery mortality rates were higher than expected. As a result, the cardiac surgery program was redesigned, and interventions were implemented related to preoperative care, intraoperative monitoring, postoperative care, and the cardiac surgery quality management program. According to the most recent New York State Department of Health reporting period (2009-2011), Long Island Jewish Medical Center had the lowest risk-adjusted mortality rate in New York State for adult patients undergoing surgeries to repair or replace heart valves and for adult patients in need of valve/coronary artery bypass graft surgery. The medical center has sustained significantly lower mortality rates compared to the statewide average for the past three cardiac surgery reporting periods. Cardiac surgery mortality rates can be significantly reduced and sustained below comparative norms when the organization is committed to clinical excellence and quality and is involved in continuously assessing organizational performance. The evaluation launched at Long Island Jewish Medical Center led to the redesign of the cardiac surgery program and prompted widespread improvement efforts and cultural change across the entire organization.

  7. Higher BMI Is Associated with Reduced Cognitive Performance in Division I Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Fedor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT in Division I collegiate athletes. Methods: Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Results: Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R2 change = 0.015, p = 0.026 beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17, visual memory (r = -0.16, and visual motor speed (r = -0.12. Conclusions: These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations.

  8. Reduced graphene oxide/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Jasmeet, E-mail: jasmeet.dayal@gmail.com; Anand, Kanika; Singh, Gurpreet; Hastir, Anita; Virpal,; Singh, Ravi Chand [Laboratory For Sensors and Physics Education, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar-143005 (India); Anand, Kanica [Semiconductors Laboratory, Department of Physics, GND University, Amritsar– 143005 (India)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, reduced graphene oxide /cerium oxide (RGO/CeO{sub 2}) nanocomposite was synthesized by in situ reduction of cerium nitrate Ce(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O in the presence of graphene oxide by hydrazine hydrate (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}.H{sub 2}O). The intrinsic characteristics of as-prepared nanocomposite were studied using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) was employed as a model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of the RGO/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite. The as-obtained RGO/CeO{sub 2} nanocomposite displays a significantly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of MB dye in comparison with bare CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles under sunlight irradiation, which can be attributed to the improved separation of electron-hole pairs and enhanced adsorption performance due to presence of RGO.

  9. Higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive performance in division I athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, Andrew; Gunstad, John

    2013-01-01

    Poor cardiovascular fitness has been implicated as a possible mechanism for obesity-related cognitive decline, though no study has examined whether BMI is associated with poorer cognitive function in persons with excellent fitness levels. The current study examined the relationship between BMI and cognitive function by the Immediate Post Concussion and Cognitive Test (ImPACT) in Division I collegiate athletes. Participants had an average age of 20.14 ± 1.78 years, were 31.3% female, and 53.9% football players. BMI ranged from 19.04 to 41.14 and averaged 26.72 ± 4.62. Regression analyses revealed that BMI incrementally predicted performance on visual memory (R(2) change = 0.015, p = 0.026) beyond control variables. Follow-up partial correlation analyses revealed small but significant negative correlations between BMI and verbal memory (r = -0.17), visual memory (r = -0.16), and visual motor speed (r = -0.12). These results suggest that higher BMI is associated with reduced cognitive function, even in a sample expected to have excellent levels of cardiovascular fitness. Further work is needed to better understand mechanisms for these associations. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Charles J [Rochester, MN; Blocksome, Michael A [Rochester, MN; Peters, Amanda E [Rochester, MN; Ratterman, Joseph D [Rochester, MN; Smith, Brian E [Rochester, MN

    2011-10-18

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while performing collective operations on a plurality of compute nodes that include: receiving, by each compute node, instructions to perform a type of collective operation; selecting, by each compute node from a plurality of collective operations for the collective operation type, a particular collective operation in dependence upon power consumption characteristics for each of the plurality of collective operations; and executing, by each compute node, the selected collective operation.

  11. VALIDITY OF THE DIMENSIONAL CONFIGURATION OF THE REDUCED POTENTIAL PERFORMANCE MODEL IN SKI JUMPING

    OpenAIRE

    Ulaga, Maja; Čoh, Milan; Jošt, Bojan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the validity of the dimensional configuration of the reduced po-tential performance model in ski jumping. Two performance models were prepared (models A and B), dif-fering only in terms of their method of determining the weights (dimensional configuration). Model A in-volves the dependent determination of weights while model B includes the independent determination of weights. The sample consisted of 104 Slovenian ski jumpers from the senior-men’s categor...

  12. Ambient UV-B radiation reduces PSII performance and net photosynthesis in high Arctic Salix arctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2011-01-01

    , nitrogen and UV-B absorbing compounds. Compared to a 60% reduced UV-B irradiance, the ambient solar UV-B reduced net photosynthesis in Salix arctica leaves fixed in the 45° position which exposed leaves to maximum natural irradiance. Also a reduced Calvin Cycle capacity was found, i.e. the maximum rate...... across position in the vegetation. These findings add to the evidence that the ambient solar UV-B currently is a significant stress factor for plants in high Arctic Greenland....

  13. The European Academy laparoscopic “Suturing Training and Testing’’ (SUTT) significantly improves surgeons’ performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Z.; Tanos, V.; Van Belle, Y.; Carvalho, J.L.; Campo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of suturing training and testing (SUTT) model by laparoscopy was evaluated, measuring the suturingskill acquisition of trainee gynecologists at the beginning and at the end of a teaching course. During a workshop organized by the European Academy of Gynecological Surgery (EAGS), 25 participants with three different experience levels in laparoscopy (minor, intermediate and major) performed the 4 exercises of the SUTT model (Ex 1: both hands stitching and continuous suturing, Ex 2: right hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 3: left hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 4: dominant hand stitching, tissue approximation and intracorporeal knotting). The time needed to perform the exercises is recorded for each trainee and group and statistical analysis used to note the differences. Overall, all trainees achieved significant improvement in suturing time (p psychomotor skills, surgery, teaching, training suturing model. PMID:26977264

  14. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Brake response time is significantly impaired after total knee arthroplasty: investigation of performing an emergency stop while driving a car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Maurice; Hofmann, Ulf-Krister; Rondak, Ina; Götze, Marco; Kluba, Torsten; Ipach, Ingmar

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether total knee arthroplasty (TKA) impairs the ability to perform an emergency stop. An automatic transmission brake simulator was developed to evaluate total brake response time. A prospective repeated-measures design was used. Forty patients (20 left/20 right) were measured 8 days and 6, 12, and 52 wks after surgery. Eight days postoperative total brake response time increased significantly by 30% in right TKA and insignificantly by 2% in left TKA. Brake force significantly decreased by 35% in right TKA and by 25% in left TKA during this period. Baseline values were reached at week 12 in right TKA; the impairment of outcome measures, however, was no longer significant at week 6 compared with preoperative values. Total brake response time and brake force in left TKA fell below baseline values at weeks 6 and 12. Brake force in left TKA was the only outcome measure significantly impaired 8 days postoperatively. This study highlights that categorical statements cannot be provided. This study's findings on automatic transmission driving suggest that right TKA patients may resume driving 6 wks postoperatively. Fitness to drive in left TKA is not fully recovered 8 days postoperatively. If testing is not available, patients should refrain from driving until they return from rehabilitation.

  16. Testing whether reduced cognitive performance in burnout can be reversed by a motivational intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, A. van; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Eling, P.A.T.M.; Becker, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that the motivation to spend effort is decreased in burnout patients, resulting in reduced cognitive performance. A question that remains is whether this decreased motivation can be reversed by motivational interventions. We investigated this by examining the effect of a

  17. Financial Indicators of Reduced Impact Logging Performance in Brazil: Case Study Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Frederick Boltz; Douglas R. Carter

    2001-01-01

    Indicators of financial performance are compared for three case studies in the Brazilian Amazon. Each case study presents parameters obtained from monitoring initial harvest entries into primary forests for reduced impact logging (RIL) and conventional logging (CL) operations. Differences in cost definitions and data collection protocols complicate the analysis, and...

  18. The effects of annealing temperature on the permittivity and electromagnetic attenuation performance of reduced graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Zeng, Qiao; Xia, Yilu; Sun, Mengxiao; Xie, Aming

    2018-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been prepared through the thermal reduction method with different annealing temperatures to explore the effects of temperature on the permittivity and electromagnetic attenuation performance. The real and imaginary parts of permittivity increase along with the decrease in the oxygen functional group and the increase in the filler loading ratio. A composite only loaded with 1 wt. % of RGO can possess an effective electromagnetic absorption bandwidth of 7.60 GHz, when graphene oxide was reduced under 300 °C for 2 h. With the annealing temperature increased to 700 °C and the well reduced RGO loaded 7 wt. % in the composite, the electromagnetic interference shielding efficiency can get higher than 35 dB from 2 to 18 GHz. This study shows that controlling the oxygen functional groups on the RGO surface can also obtain an ideal electromagnetic attenuation performance without any other decorated nanomaterials.

  19. High-Performance Signal Detection for Adverse Drug Events using MapReduce Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Kai; Sun, Xingzhi; Tao, Ying; Xu, Linhao; Wang, Chen; Mao, Xianling; Peng, Bo; Pan, Yue

    2010-11-13

    Post-marketing pharmacovigilance is important for public health, as many Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) are unknown when those drugs were approved for marketing. However, due to the large number of reported drugs and drug combinations, detecting ADE signals by mining these reports is becoming a challenging task in terms of computational complexity. Recently, a parallel programming model, MapReduce has been introduced by Google to support large-scale data intensive applications. In this study, we proposed a MapReduce-based algorithm, for common ADE detection approach, Proportional Reporting Ratio (PRR), and tested it in mining spontaneous ADE reports from FDA. The purpose is to investigate the possibility of using MapReduce principle to speed up biomedical data mining tasks using this pharmacovigilance case as one specific example. The results demonstrated that MapReduce programming model could improve the performance of common signal detection algorithm for pharmacovigilance in a distributed computation environment at approximately liner speedup rates.

  20. Evaluation of the performance of the reduced local lymph node assay for skin sensitization testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezendam, Janine; Muller, Andre; Hakkert, Betty C; van Loveren, Henk

    2013-06-01

    The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is the preferred method for classification of sensitizers within REACH. To reduce the number of mice for the identification of sensitizers the reduced LLNA was proposed, which uses only the high dose group of the LLNA. To evaluate the performance of this method for classification, LLNA data from REACH registrations were used and classification based on all dose groups was compared to classification based on the high dose group. We confirmed previous examinations of the reduced LLNA showing that this method is less sensitive compared to the LLNA. The reduced LLNA misclassified 3.3% of the sensitizers identified in the LLNA and misclassification occurred in all potency classes and that there was no clear association with irritant properties. It is therefore not possible to predict beforehand which substances might be misclassified. Another limitation of the reduced LLNA is that skin sensitizing potency cannot be assessed. For these reasons, it is not recommended to use the reduced LLNA as a stand-alone assay for skin sensitization testing within REACH. In the future, the reduced LLNA might be of added value in a weight of evidence approach to confirm negative results obtained with non-animal approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Wang, Xianghao; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei

    2016-01-01

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 104 J/m3 and 10 × 104 J/m3, the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between -330 Oe and 330 Oe to between -650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2-20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.

  2. Performance of duckweed and effective microbes in reducing arsenic in paddy and paddy soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C. A.; Wong, L. Y.; Lo, P. K.; Bashir, M. J. K.; Chin, S. J.; Tan, S. P.; Chong, C. Y.; Yong, L. K.

    2017-04-01

    In this study phytoremediation plant (duckweed) and effective microbes were used to investigate their effectiveness in reducing arsenic concentration in paddy soil and paddy grain. The results show that using duckweed alone is a better choice as it could decrease the arsenic concentration in paddy by 27.697 % and 8.268 % in paddy grain and paddy husk respectively. The study also found out that the concentration of arsenic in soil would affect the performance of duckweed and also delayed the reproduction rate of duckweed. Using the mixture of effective microbes and duckweed together to decrease arsenic in paddy was noticed having the least potential in reducing the arsenic concentration in paddy.

  3. The impact of carbon sp{sup 2} fraction of reduced graphene oxide on the performance of reduced graphene oxide contacted organic transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Narae [Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Suite 400, Orlando, Florida 32826 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Suite 400, Orlando, Florida 32826 (United States); Khondaker, Saiful I., E-mail: saiful@ucf.edu [Nanoscience Technology Center, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Suite 400, Orlando, Florida 32826 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Suite 400, Orlando, Florida 32826 (United States); School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, 12424 Research Parkway, Suite 400, Orlando, Florida 32826 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    One of the major bottlenecks in fabricating high performance organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is a large interfacial contact barrier between metal electrodes and organic semiconductors (OSCs) which makes the charge injection inefficient. Recently, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been suggested as an alternative electrode material for OFETs. RGO has tunable electronic properties and its conductivity can be varied by several orders of magnitude by varying the carbon sp{sup 2} fraction. However, whether the sp{sup 2} fraction of RGO in the electrode affects the performance of the fabricated OFETs is yet to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that the performance of OFETs with pentacene as OSC and RGO as electrode can be continuously improved by increasing the carbon sp{sup 2} fraction of RGO. When compared to control palladium electrodes, the mobility of the OFETs shows an improvement of ∼200% for 61% sp{sup 2} fraction RGO, which further improves to ∼500% for 80% RGO electrode. Similar improvements were also observed in current on-off ratio, on-current, and transconductance. Our study suggests that, in addition to π-π interaction at RGO/pentacene interface, the tunable electronic properties of RGO electrode have a significant role in OFETs performance.

  4. The impact of carbon sp2 fraction of reduced graphene oxide on the performance of reduced graphene oxide contacted organic transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Narae; Khondaker, Saiful I.

    2014-01-01

    One of the major bottlenecks in fabricating high performance organic field effect transistors (OFETs) is a large interfacial contact barrier between metal electrodes and organic semiconductors (OSCs) which makes the charge injection inefficient. Recently, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has been suggested as an alternative electrode material for OFETs. RGO has tunable electronic properties and its conductivity can be varied by several orders of magnitude by varying the carbon sp 2 fraction. However, whether the sp 2 fraction of RGO in the electrode affects the performance of the fabricated OFETs is yet to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrate that the performance of OFETs with pentacene as OSC and RGO as electrode can be continuously improved by increasing the carbon sp 2 fraction of RGO. When compared to control palladium electrodes, the mobility of the OFETs shows an improvement of ∼200% for 61% sp 2 fraction RGO, which further improves to ∼500% for 80% RGO electrode. Similar improvements were also observed in current on-off ratio, on-current, and transconductance. Our study suggests that, in addition to π-π interaction at RGO/pentacene interface, the tunable electronic properties of RGO electrode have a significant role in OFETs performance

  5. Significant performance enhancement in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor by high-κ organic dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze-Gao, Wang; Yuan-Fu, Chen; Cao, Chen; Ben-Lang, Tian; Fu-Tong, Chu; Xing-Zhao, Liu; Yan-Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    The electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with and without high-κ organic dielectrics are investigated. The maximum drain current I D max and the maximum transconductance g m max of the organic dielectric/AlGaN/GaN structure can be enhanced by 74.5%, and 73.7% compared with those of the bare AlGaN/GaN HEMT, respectively. Both the threshold voltage V T and g m max of the dielectric/AlGaN/GaN HEMT are strongly dielectric-constant-dependent. Our results suggest that it is promising to significantly improve the performance of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT by introducing the high-κ organic dielectric. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Functional relationships between plasmids and their significance for metabolism and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiak, Grażyna; Mazur, Andrzej; Wielbo, Jerzy; Marczak, Małgorzata; Zebracki, Kamil; Koper, Piotr; Skorupska, Anna

    2014-11-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii TA1 (RtTA1) is a soil bacterium establishing a highly specific symbiotic relationship with clover, which is based on the exchange of molecular signals between the host plant and the microsymbiont. The RtTA1 genome is large and multipartite, composed of a chromosome and four plasmids, which comprise approximately 65 % and 35 % of the total genome, respectively. Extrachromosomal replicons were previously shown to confer significant metabolic versatility to bacteria, which is important for their adaptation in the soil and nodulation competitiveness. To investigate the contribution of individual RtTA1 plasmids to the overall cell phenotype, metabolic properties and symbiotic performance, a transposon-based elimination strategy was employed. RtTA1 derivatives cured of pRleTA1b or pRleTA1d and deleted in pRleTA1a were obtained. In contrast to the in silico predictions of pRleTA1b and pRleTA1d, which were described as chromid-like replicons, both appeared to be completely curable. On the other hand, for pRleTA1a (symbiotic plasmid) and pRleTA1c, which were proposed to be unessential for RtTA1 viability, it was not possible to eliminate them at all (pRleTA1c) or entirely (pRleTA1a). Analyses of the phenotypic traits of the RtTA1 derivatives obtained revealed the functional significance of individual plasmids and their indispensability for growth, certain metabolic pathways, production of surface polysaccharides, autoaggregation, biofilm formation, motility and symbiotic performance. Moreover, the results allow us to suggest broad functional cooperation among the plasmids in shaping the phenotypic properties and symbiotic capabilities of rhizobia.

  7. Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutiun M. Nalbandian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT. The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity or passive recovery (resting at sitting position. During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01 and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01 compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance.

  8. Predictors of early stable symptomatic remission after an exacerbation of schizophrenia: the significance of symptoms, neuropsychological performance and cognitive biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Christina; Roesch-Ely, Daniela; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Bohn, Francesca; Aghotor, Julia; Köther, Ulf; Pfueller, Ute; Moritz, Steffen

    2013-12-30

    Neuropsychological deficits and severity of initial psychopathology have been repeatedly associated with poor symptomatic outcomes in schizophrenia. The role of higher-order cognitive biases on symptomatic outcomes of the disorder has not yet been investigated. The present study aimed to assess the contribution of cognitive biases, psychopathology and neuropsychological deficits on the probability of achieving early symptomatic remission after a psychotic episode in patients with schizophrenia. Participants were 79 patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder undergoing an acute psychotic episode, and 25 healthy controls. According to psychopathology assessments, patients were split into those who had achieved remission after an average follow-up interval of 7 months, and those who had not (NR). Patients who achieved remission exhibited higher premorbid IQ and better performance on the TMT-B, as well as lower baseline positive, disorganized and distress symptoms than NR patients. TMT-B performance and positive symptoms at baseline were the best predictors of remission. Cognitive biases and negative symptoms were not associated with later remission. The findings highlight the significance of initial symptom severity for at least short-term symptomatic outcomes and, thus, the importance of adequate symptomatic treatment and prevention of psychotic outbreaks in patients. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei, E-mail: hust-yangxiaofei@163.com [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Wang, Xianghao [School of Information Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-01-28

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3} and 10 × 10{sup 4 }J/m{sup 3}, the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between −330 Oe and 330 Oe to between −650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2–20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance.

  10. Significant manipulation of output performance of a bridge-structured spin valve magnetoresistance sensor via an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yue; Yan, Baiqian; Ou-Yang, Jun; Zhu, Benpeng; Chen, Shi; Yang, Xiaofei; Wang, Xianghao

    2016-01-01

    Through principles of spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR) effect and its application in magnetic sensors, we have investigated electric-field control of the output performance of a bridge-structured Co/Cu/NiFe/IrMn SV-GMR sensor on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate using the micro-magnetic simulation. We centered on the influence of the variation of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant (K) of Co on the output of the bridge, and K was manipulated via the stress of Co, which is generated from the strain of a piezoelectric substrate under an electric field. The results indicate that when K varies between 2 × 10 4  J/m 3 and 10 × 10 4  J/m 3 , the output performance can be significantly manipulated: The linear range alters from between −330 Oe and 330 Oe to between −650 Oe and 650 Oe, and the sensitivity is tuned by almost 7 times, making it possible to measure magnetic fields with very different ranges. According to the converse piezoelectric effect, we have found that this variation of K can be realized by applying an electric field with the magnitude of about 2–20 kV/cm on a PZN-PT piezoelectric substrate, which is realistic in application. This result means that electric-control of SV-GMR effect has potential application in developing SV-GMR sensors with improved performance

  11. Reduced swimming performance repeatedly evolves upon loss of migration in landlocked populations of Alewife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotta, Jonathan P.; McCormick, Stephen; Jones, Andrew W.; Schultz, Eric T.

    2018-01-01

    Whole-organism performance tasks are accomplished by the integration of morphological traits and physiological functions. Understanding how evolutionary change in morphology and physiology influences whole-organism performance will yield insight into the factors that shape its own evolution. We demonstrate that nonmigratory populations of alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) have evolved reduced swimming performance in parallel, compared with their migratory ancestor. In contrast to theoretically and empirically based predictions, poor swimming among nonmigratory populations is unrelated to the evolution of osmoregulation and occurs despite the fact that nonmigratory alewives have a more fusiform (torpedo-like) body shape than their ancestor. Our results suggest that elimination of long-distance migration from the life cycle has shaped performance more than changes in body shape and physiological regulatory capacity.

  12. Integrating geophysics and hydrology for reducing the uncertainty of groundwater model predictions and improved prediction performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nikolaj Kruse; Christensen, Steen; Ferre, Ty

    the integration of geophysical data in the construction of a groundwater model increases the prediction performance. We suggest that modelers should perform a hydrogeophysical “test-bench” analysis of the likely value of geophysics data for improving groundwater model prediction performance before actually...... and the resulting predictions can be compared with predictions from the ‘true’ model. By performing this analysis we expect to give the modeler insight into how the uncertainty of model-based prediction can be reduced.......A major purpose of groundwater modeling is to help decision-makers in efforts to manage the natural environment. Increasingly, it is recognized that both the predictions of interest and their associated uncertainties should be quantified to support robust decision making. In particular, decision...

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of MapReduce for High-Performance Climate Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Daniel Q.; Schnase, John L.; Thompson, John H.; Freeman, Shawn M.; Clune, Thomas L.

    2012-01-01

    MapReduce is an approach to high-performance analytics that may be useful to data intensive problems in climate research. It offers an analysis paradigm that uses clusters of computers and combines distributed storage of large data sets with parallel computation. We are particularly interested in the potential of MapReduce to speed up basic operations common to a wide range of analyses. In order to evaluate this potential, we are prototyping a series of canonical MapReduce operations over a test suite of observational and climate simulation datasets. Our initial focus has been on averaging operations over arbitrary spatial and temporal extents within Modern Era Retrospective- Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data. Preliminary results suggest this approach can improve efficiencies within data intensive analytic workflows.

  14. Evolution of increased phenotypic diversity enhances population performance by reducing sexual harassment in damselflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yuma; Kagawa, Kotaro; Svensson, Erik I; Kawata, Masakado

    2014-07-18

    The effect of evolutionary changes in traits and phenotypic/genetic diversity on ecological dynamics has received much theoretical attention; however, the mechanisms and ecological consequences are usually unknown. Female-limited colour polymorphism in damselflies is a counter-adaptation to male mating harassment, and thus, is expected to alter population dynamics through relaxing sexual conflict. Here we show the side effect of the evolution of female morph diversity on population performance (for example, population productivity and sustainability) in damselflies. Our theoretical model incorporating key features of the sexual interaction predicts that the evolution of increased phenotypic diversity will reduce overall fitness costs to females from sexual conflict, which in turn will increase productivity, density and stability of a population. Field data and mesocosm experiments support these model predictions. Our study suggests that increased phenotypic diversity can enhance population performance that can potentially reduce extinction rates and thereby influence macroevolutionary processes.

  15. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of pH-induced chemical modification of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide on supercapacitor performance

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Chen, Wei; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    Three kinds of reduced graphene oxides are prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different pH conditions and their pseudocapacitive performances are evaluated using full-cell supercapacitor devices. The pH values are found to have great influence on the performance of the supercapacitors, achieving the highest specific capacitance value reported for hydrothermal reduced graphene oxide supercapacitors. Acidic and neutral media yield reduced graphene oxides with more oxygen-functional groups and lower surface areas but with broader pore size distributions than those in basic medium. The graphene produced in the basic solution (nitrogen-doped graphene) presents mainly electrochemical double layer (ECDL) behavior with specific capacitance of 185 F g-1, while the graphene produced under neutral or acidic conditions show both ECDL and pseudocapacitive behavior with specific capacitance of 225 F g-1 (acidic) and 230 F g-1 (neutral), respectively, at a constant current density of 1 A g-1. The influence of pH on cycling performance and electrochemical impedance of the supercapacitive devices is also presented. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of pH-induced chemical modification of hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide on supercapacitor performance

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2013-07-01

    Three kinds of reduced graphene oxides are prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different pH conditions and their pseudocapacitive performances are evaluated using full-cell supercapacitor devices. The pH values are found to have great influence on the performance of the supercapacitors, achieving the highest specific capacitance value reported for hydrothermal reduced graphene oxide supercapacitors. Acidic and neutral media yield reduced graphene oxides with more oxygen-functional groups and lower surface areas but with broader pore size distributions than those in basic medium. The graphene produced in the basic solution (nitrogen-doped graphene) presents mainly electrochemical double layer (ECDL) behavior with specific capacitance of 185 F g-1, while the graphene produced under neutral or acidic conditions show both ECDL and pseudocapacitive behavior with specific capacitance of 225 F g-1 (acidic) and 230 F g-1 (neutral), respectively, at a constant current density of 1 A g-1. The influence of pH on cycling performance and electrochemical impedance of the supercapacitive devices is also presented. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing the CP content in broiler feeds: impact on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloir, P; Méda, B; Lambert, W; Corrent, E; Juin, H; Lessire, M; Tesseraud, S

    2017-11-01

    Reducing the dietary CP content is an efficient way to limit nitrogen excretion in broilers but, as reported in the literature, it often reduces performance, probably because of an inadequate provision in amino acids (AA). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of decreasing the CP content in the diet on animal performance, meat quality and nitrogen utilization in growing-finishing broilers using an optimized dietary AA profile based on the ideal protein concept. Two experiments (1 and 2) were performed using 1-day-old PM3 Ross male broilers (1520 and 912 for experiments 1 and 2, respectively) using the minimum AA:Lys ratios proposed by Mack et al. with modifications for Thr and Arg. The digestible Thr (dThr): dLys ratio was increased from 63% to 68% and the dArg:dLys ratio was decreased from 112% to 108%. In experiment 1, the reduction of dietary CP from 19% to 15% (five treatments) did not alter feed intake or BW, but the feed conversion ratio was increased for the 16% and 15% CP diets (+2.4% and +3.6%, respectively), while in experiment 2 (three treatments: 19%, 17.5% and 16% CP) there was no effect of dietary CP on performance. In both experiments, dietary CP content did not affect breast meat yield. However, abdominal fat content (expressed as a percentage of BW) was increased by the decrease in CP content (up to +0.5 and +0.2 percentage point, in experiments 1 and 2, respectively). In experiment 2, meat quality traits responded to dietary CP content with a higher ultimate pH and lower lightness and drip loss values for the low CP diets. Nitrogen retention efficiency increased when reducing CP content in both experiments (+3.5 points/CP percentage point). The main consequence of this higher efficiency was a decrease in nitrogen excretion (-2.5 g N/kg BW gain) and volatilization (expressed as a percentage of excretion: -5 points/CP percentage point). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that with an adapted AA profile, it is possible to reduce

  19. Adaptive Working Memory Training Reduces the Negative Impact of Anxiety on Competitive Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrocq, Emmanuel; Wilson, Mark; Smith, Tim J; Derakshan, Nazanin

    2017-12-01

    Optimum levels of attentional control are essential to prevent athletes from experiencing performance breakdowns under pressure. The current study explored whether training attentional control using the adaptive dual n-back paradigm, designed to directly target processing efficiency of the main executive functions of working memory (WM), would result in transferrable effects on sports performance outcomes. A total of 30 tennis players were allocated to an adaptive WM training or active control group and underwent 10 days of training. Measures of WM capacity as well as performance and objective gaze indices of attentional control in a tennis volley task were assessed in low- and high-pressure posttraining conditions. Results revealed significant benefits of training on WM capacity, quiet eye offset, and tennis performance in the high-pressure condition. Our results confirm and extend previous findings supporting the transfer of cognitive training benefits to objective measures of sports performance under pressure.

  20. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  1. Development, implementation, and evaluation of a mental rehearsal strategy to improve clinical performance and reduce stress: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Jeanette; Dolmans, Diana; Scherpbier, Albert; Rethans, Jan-Joost; Lopez, Violeta; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2016-02-01

    Mental rehearsal is a form of mental training that has been used by physicians and nurses to improve performance of clinical skills, and as a vital component of stress management training. To help novice nurses deal with often stressful clinical events that require the processing of information essential to patient management, a mental rehearsal strategy was developed and implemented in a Year 3 nursing simulation program. Inherent to mental rehearsal is imagery, which facilitates cognitive and affective modification, and reduction of extraneous cognitive load. As such, it was expected that the mental rehearsal strategy would improve students' performance and reduce stress in managing deteriorating patients. The study used a mixed methods design. Eighteen Year 3 nursing students participated in the pre- and post-design study, which consisted of the development and implementation of a mental rehearsal strategy. The Rescuing A Patient In Deteriorating Situations (RAPIDS) tool was used to assess performance. Heart rates and systolic blood pressures were used to measure stress. The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was used as a psychological measure of stress/anxiety. Five participants were involved in a focus group discussion that evaluated the usefulness of the mental rehearsal strategy. There was a significant improvement in performance (Pstrategy. The mental rehearsal strategy for deteriorating patient management can be valuable based on the findings on performance and based on the participants' feedback. Its role in reducing stress, however, needs further evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. WAYS OF REDUCING THE IMPACT OF STRESS ON HUMAN CAPITAL PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Valentina FLOREA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The world is a dangerous place, offering people less safe conditions to live, to develop, to work and to perform. The organizations are also under a lot of pressure and stressor factors. Yet, the employees must work, communicate, interrelate and obtain performance and organizations competitive advantage. The article analyze the main stressor factors which are influencing the individual and the organization activity, the different causes of stress appearance and its negative influence over the normal activity of employees. It also analyze the best practices which may be implemented by the organization in order to reduce the impact of stress and obtain performance This article suggests some ways of minimizing the stress appearance, by implementing efficient measures at strategic level, such as implementing efficient regulation and procedures, developing efficient programs of communication, creating a strong organizational culture and implicating the management function in solving the problems and finding pertinent solutions.

  3. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating fingers-transmitted vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Fingers-transmitted vibration can cause vibration-induced white finger. The effectiveness of vibration-reducing (VR) gloves for reducing hand transmitted vibration to the fingers has not been sufficiently examined. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study is to examine tool-specific performance of VR gloves for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions (3D) from powered hand tools. METHODS A transfer function method was used to estimate the tool-specific effectiveness of four typical VR gloves. The transfer functions of the VR glove fingers in three directions were either measured in this study or during a previous study using a 3D laser vibrometer. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were used in the estimations. RESULTS When assessed based on frequency-weighted acceleration, the gloves provided little vibration reduction. In some cases, the gloves amplified the vibration by more than 10%, especially the neoprene glove. However, the neoprene glove did the best when the assessment was based on unweighted acceleration. The neoprene glove was able to reduce the vibration by 10% or more of the unweighted vibration for 27 out of the 79 tools. If the dominant vibration of a tool handle or workpiece was in the shear direction relative to the fingers, as observed in the operation of needle scalers, hammer chisels, and bucking bars, the gloves did not reduce the vibration but increased it. CONCLUSIONS This study confirmed that the effectiveness for reducing vibration varied with the gloves and the vibration reduction of each glove depended on tool, vibration direction to the fingers, and finger location. VR gloves, including certified anti-vibration gloves do not provide much vibration reduction when judged based on frequency-weighted acceleration. However, some of the VR gloves can provide more than 10% reduction of the unweighted vibration for some tools or workpieces. Tools and gloves can be matched for

  4. Evaluation of Heliostat Standby Aiming Strategies to Reduce Avian Flux Hazards and Impacts on Operational Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelin, Timothy J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Clifford K. [Sandia National Laboratories; Horstman, Luke [Sandia National Laboratories

    2017-06-03

    This paper presents a study of alternative heliostat standby aiming strategies and their impact on avian flux hazards and operational performance of a concentrating solar power plant. A mathematical model was developed that predicts the bird-feather temperature as a function of solar irradiance, thermal emittance, convection, and thermal properties of the feather. The irradiance distribution in the airspace above the Ivanpah Unit 2 heliostat field was simulated using a ray-trace model for two different times of the day, four days of the year, and nine different standby aiming strategies. The impact of the alternative aiming strategies on operational performance was assessed by comparing the heliostat slew times from standby position to the receiver for the different aiming strategies. Increased slew times increased a proxy start-up time that reduced the simulated annual energy production. Results showed that spreading the radial aim points around the receiver to a distance of ~150 m or greater reduced the hazardous exposure times that the feather temperature exceeded the hazard metric of 160 degrees C. The hazardous exposure times were reduced by ~23% and 90% at a radial spread of aim points extending to 150 m and 250 m, respectively, but the simulated annual energy production decreased as a result of increased slew times. Single point-focus aiming strategies were also evaluated, but these strategies increased the exposure hazard relative to other aiming strategies.

  5. Competitor presence reduces internal attentional focus and improves 16.1km cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Andy Sparks, S; Marchant, David C; Midgley, Adrian W; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2015-07-01

    Whilst the presence of a competitor has been found to improve performance, the mechanisms influencing the change in selected work rates during direct competition have been suggested but not specifically assessed. The aim was to investigate the physiological and psychological influences of a visual avatar competitor during a 16.1-km cycling time trial performance, using trained, competitive cyclists. Randomised cross-over design. Fifteen male cyclists completed four 16.1km cycling time trials on a cycle ergometer, performing two with a visual display of themselves as a simulated avatar (FAM and SELF), one with no visual display (DO), and one with themselves and an opponent as simulated avatars (COMP). Participants were informed the competitive avatar was a similar ability cyclist but it was actually a representation of their fastest previous performance. Increased performance times were evident during COMP (27.8±2.0min) compared to SELF (28.7±1.9min) and DO (28.4±2.3min). Greater power output, speed and heart rate were apparent during COMP trial than SELF (pperformance. Competitive cyclists performed significantly faster during a 16.1-km competitive trial than when performing maximally, without a competitor. The improvement in performance was elicited due to a greater external distraction, deterring perceived exertion. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reduced anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with primary ciliary dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Senem; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Cakmak, Aslihan; Emiralioglu, Nagehan; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Ozcelik, Hayriye Ugur; Sonbahar-Ulu, Hazal; Bozdemir-Ozel, Cemile; Kiper, Nural; Arikan, Hulya

    2018-05-01

    Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) restricts lifestyle and increases morbidity. The aim of the study was to investigate anaerobic and aerobic performance in children with PCD and their healthy counterparts. Thirty-one children with PCD and 29 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were studied. Pulmonary function, hand grip strength (HGS), quadriceps strength (QMS), physical activity, anaerobic capacity (muscle power sprint test), and aerobic performance (modified shuttle walk test (MSWT)) were determined. Pulmonary function, HGS, QMS, mean anaerobic power (MAP), and MSWT distance in PCD were significantly lower than those of healthy subjects (p aerobic performance is impaired in PCD from the early stages. Age determines anaerobic performance. Gender is the determinant of aerobic performance. Whether skeletal muscle characteristics and sex-related changes in body composition affect anaerobic and aerobic capacity in PCD children warrants further study. What is Known: • Exercise performance is determined by anaerobic and aerobic power. • Few studies have shown that PCD patients have lower aerobic performance which is associated with impaired lung function. What is New: • The present research indicated that both anaerobic and aerobic exercise capacity determined using field testing is impaired in PCD from the early stages. • Anaerobic capacity was found to be independently associated with age in PCD. Higher aerobic performance is independently associated with male gender.

  7. Performance of a reduced-order FSI model for flow-induced vocal fold vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Haoxiang; Chang, Siyuan; Chen, Ye; Rousseau, Bernard; PhonoSim Team

    2017-11-01

    Vocal fold vibration during speech production involves a three-dimensional unsteady glottal jet flow and three-dimensional nonlinear tissue mechanics. A full 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) model is computationally expensive even though it provides most accurate information about the system. On the other hand, an efficient reduced-order FSI model is useful for fast simulation and analysis of the vocal fold dynamics, which can be applied in procedures such as optimization and parameter estimation. In this work, we study performance of a reduced-order model as compared with the corresponding full 3D model in terms of its accuracy in predicting the vibration frequency and deformation mode. In the reduced-order model, we use a 1D flow model coupled with a 3D tissue model that is the same as in the full 3D model. Two different hyperelastic tissue behaviors are assumed. In addition, the vocal fold thickness and subglottal pressure are varied for systematic comparison. The result shows that the reduced-order model provides consistent predictions as the full 3D model across different tissue material assumptions and subglottal pressures. However, the vocal fold thickness has most effect on the model accuracy, especially when the vocal fold is thin.

  8. Caffeine Reduces Reaction Time and Improves Performance in Simulated-Contest of Taekwondo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Victor G. F.; Santos, Vander R. F.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Almeida, Jose W.; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Kiss, Maria A. P. D. M.; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed two combats (spaced apart by 20 min). The reaction-time test (five kicks “Bandal Tchagui”) was performed immediately prior to the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. Caffeine improved reaction time (from 0.42 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.07 s) only prior to the first combat (P = 0.004). During the first combat, break times during the first two rounds were shorter in caffeine ingestion, followed by higher plasma lactate concentrations compared with placebo (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). During the second combat, skipping-time was reduced, and relative attack times and attack/skipping ratio was increased following ingestion of caffeine during the first two rounds (all P Caffeine resulted in no change in combat intensity parameters between the first and second combat (all P > 0.05), but combat intensity was decreased following placebo (all P caffeine reduced reaction time in non-fatigued conditions and delayed fatigue during successive taekwondo combats. PMID:24518826

  9. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  10. Reduced mismatch negativity in mild cognitive impairment: associations with neuropsychological performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowszowski, Loren; Hermens, Daniel F; Diamond, Keri; Norrie, Louisa; Hickie, Ian B; Lewis, Simon J G; Naismith, Sharon L

    2012-01-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) refers to a transitory state between healthy aging and dementia. Biomarkers are needed to facilitate early identification of MCI and predict progression to dementia. One potential neurophysiological biomarker, mismatch negativity (MMN), is an event-related potential reflecting fundamental, pre-attentive cognitive processes. MMN is reduced in normal aging and dementia and in neuropsychiatric samples and is associated with verbal memory deficits and poor executive functioning. This study aimed to investigate auditory MMN and its relationship to neuropsychological performance in MCI. Twenty-eight MCI participants and fourteen controls, aged ≥50 years, underwent neurophysiological and neuropsychological assessment, and completed questionnaires pertaining to disability. Relative to controls, the MCI group demonstrated reduced temporal MMN amplitude (p patients with MCI exhibit altered pre-attentive information processing, which in turn is associated with memory and psychosocial deficits. These findings overall suggest that MMN may be a viable neurophysiological biomarker of underlying disease in this 'at risk' group.

  11. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  12. Performance-based regulation: enterprise responsibility for reducing death, injury, and disease caused by consumer products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarman, Stephen D

    2009-12-01

    This article offers a bold new idea for confronting the staggering level of death, injury, and disease caused by five consumer products: cigarettes, alcohol, guns, junk food, and motor vehicles. Business leaders try to frame these negative outcomes as "collateral damage" that is someone else's problem. That framing not only is morally objectionable but also overlooks the possibility that, with proper prodding, industry could substantially lessen these public health disasters. I seek to reframe the public perception of who is responsible and propose to deploy a promising approach called "performance-based regulation" to combat the problem. Performance-based regulation would impose on manufacturers a legal obligation to reduce the negative social costs of their products. Rather than involving them in litigation or forcing them to operate differently (as "command-and-control" regimes do), performance-based regulation allows the firms to determine how best to decrease bad public health consequences. Like other public health strategies, performance-based regulation focuses on those who are far more likely than individual consumers to achieve real gains. Analogous to a tax on causing harm that exceeds a threshold level, performance-based regulation seeks to harness private initiative in pursuit of the public good.

  13. High-Speed, High-Performance DQPSK Optical Links with Reduced Complexity VDFE Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maki Nanou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Optical transmission technologies optimized for optical network segments sensitive to power consumption and cost, comprise modulation formats with direct detection technologies. Specifically, non-return to zero differential quaternary phase shift keying (NRZ-DQPSK in deployed fiber plants, combined with high-performance, low-complexity electronic equalizers to compensate residual impairments at the receiver end, can be proved as a viable solution for high-performance, high-capacity optical links. Joint processing of the constructive and the destructive signals at the single-ended DQPSK receiver provides improved performance compared to the balanced configuration, however, at the expense of higher hardware requirements, a fact that may not be neglected especially in the case of high-speed optical links. To overcome this bottleneck, the use of partially joint constructive/destructive DQPSK equalization is investigated in this paper. Symbol-by-symbol equalization is performed by means of Volterra decision feedback-type equalizers, driven by a reduced subset of signals selected from the constructive and the destructive ports of the optical detectors. The proposed approach offers a low-complexity alternative for electronic equalization, without sacrificing much of the performance compared to the fully-deployed counterpart. The efficiency of the proposed equalizers is demonstrated by means of computer simulation in a typical optical transmission scenario.

  14. Results and Lessons Learned from Performance Testing of Humans in Spacesuits in Simulated Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Steven P.; Norcross, Jason R.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program has plans to return to the Moon within the next 10 years. Although reaching the Moon during the Apollo Program was a remarkable human engineering achievement, fewer than 20 extravehicular activities (EVAs) were performed. Current projections indicate that the next lunar exploration program will require thousands of EVAs, which will require spacesuits that are better optimized for human performance. Limited mobility and dexterity, and the position of the center of gravity (CG) are a few of many features of the Apollo suit that required significant crew compensation to accomplish the objectives. Development of a new EVA suit system will ideally result in performance close to or better than that in shirtsleeves at 1 G, i.e., in "a suit that is a pleasure to work in, one that you would want to go out and explore in on your day off." Unlike the Shuttle program, in which only a fraction of the crew perform EVA, the Constellation program will require that all crewmembers be able to perform EVA. As a result, suits must be built to accommodate and optimize performance for a larger range of crew anthropometry, strength, and endurance. To address these concerns, NASA has begun a series of tests to better understand the factors affecting human performance and how to utilize various lunar gravity simulation environments available for testing.

  15. A Rosa canina - Urtica dioica - Harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri Combination Significantly Reduces Gonarthritis Symptoms in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret; Gruenwald, Joerg; Pohl, Ute; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip ( Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw ( Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis.A 3D-HPLC-fingerprint (3-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprint) of MA212 demonstrated the presence of its herbal ingredients. Ninety-two randomized patients consumed 40 mL of MA212 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 44) daily. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), quality-of-life scores at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, and analgesic consumption were documented. Statistically, the initial WOMAC subscores/scores did not differ between groups. During the study, their means significantly improved in both groups. The mean pre-post change of the WOMAC pain score (primary endpoint) was 29.87 in the MA212 group and 10.23 in the placebo group. The group difference demonstrated a significant superiority in favor of MA212 (p U  < 0.001; p t  < 0.001). Group comparisons of all WOMAC subscores/scores at 6 and 12 weeks reached same significances. Compared to placebo, both physical and mental quality of life significantly improved with MA212. There was a trend towards reduced analgesics consumption with MA212, compared to placebo. In the final efficacy evaluation, physicians (p Chi  < 0.001) and patients (p Chi  < 0.001) rated MA212 superior to placebo. MA212 was well tolerated.This study demonstrates excellent efficacy for MA212 in gonarthritis patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Dynamics of animal movement in an ecological context: dragonfly wing damage reduces flight performance and predation success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, S A; Crall, J D; Mukherjee, S

    2010-06-23

    Much of our understanding of the control and dynamics of animal movement derives from controlled laboratory experiments. While many aspects of animal movement can be probed only in these settings, a more complete understanding of animal locomotion may be gained by linking experiments on relatively simple motions in the laboratory to studies of more complex behaviours in natural settings. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we examined the effects of wing damage on dragonfly flight performance in both a laboratory drop-escape response and the more natural context of aerial predation. The laboratory experiment shows that hindwing area loss reduces vertical acceleration and average flight velocity, and the predation experiment demonstrates that this type of wing damage results in a significant decline in capture success. Taken together, these results suggest that wing damage may take a serious toll on wild dragonflies, potentially reducing both reproductive success and survival.

  17. Reducing Anxiety and Improving Academic Performance Through a Biofeedback Relaxation Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aritzeta, Aitor; Soroa, Goretti; Balluerka, Nekane; Muela, Alexander; Gorostiaga, Arantxa; Aliri, Jone

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of a biofeedback relaxation training program on anxiety and academic performance. The program consisted of five biofeedback sessions coupled with three training activities focused on deep breathing, guided imagery, and muscle relaxation. The participants were second-year psychology undergraduates from the University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU, northern Spain). The experimental group comprised 152 students (M age  = 19.6, SD = 0.74; 74% women) and the control group 81 students (M age   = 19.4, SD = 0.92; 71% women). Results showed that after participating in the program, students in the experimental group had lower levels of anxiety and increased academic performance. Furthermore, they scored lower on anxiety and higher on academic performance in comparison with the control subjects. This suggests that the inclusion of biofeedback training programs in educational contexts could be a way of reducing anxiety and improving academic performance. It may also deepen our understanding of the dynamic interplay between psychophysiological, cognitive, and emotional processes.

  18. Myocardial fatty acid imaging with 123I-BMIPP in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload. Clinical significance of reduced uptake in interventricular septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Yoshiro; Ishida, Yoshio; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Hayashida, Kouhei; Takamiya, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Regionally reduced 123 I-beta-methyliodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) uptake in the interventricular septum (SEP) is observed in some patients with chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overload. We studied the significance of this finding by comparing it with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging was carried out in 21 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH; 51+-14 years; 11 men and 10 women; 7 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 11 with pulmonary thromboembolism, and 3 with atrial septal defect). mPAP ranged from 25 to 81 mmHg (49±16 mmHg). Using a midventricular horizontal long-axis plane, regional BMIPP distributions in the RV free wall and SEP were estimated by referring to those in the LV free wall. Count ratios of the RV free wall and SEP to the LV free wall (RV/LV, SEP/LV) were determined by ROI analysis. RV/LV showed a linear correlation with mPAP (r=0.42). However, SEP/LV was inversely correlated with mPAP (r=-0.49). When SEP/RV was compared among three regions of SEP in each patient, basal SEP/RV was most sensitively decreased in response to increased mPAP (r=-0.70). These results suggest that the assessment of septal tracer uptake in 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluating the severity of RV pressure overload in patients with PH. (author)

  19. Performance Comparison of OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce in Practical Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Ji Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With problem size and complexity increasing, several parallel and distributed programming models and frameworks have been developed to efficiently handle such problems. This paper briefly reviews the parallel computing models and describes three widely recognized parallel programming frameworks: OpenMP, MPI, and MapReduce. OpenMP is the de facto standard for parallel programming on shared memory systems. MPI is the de facto industry standard for distributed memory systems. MapReduce framework has become the de facto standard for large scale data-intensive applications. Qualitative pros and cons of each framework are known, but quantitative performance indexes help get a good picture of which framework to use for the applications. As benchmark problems to compare those frameworks, two problems are chosen: all-pairs-shortest-path problem and data join problem. This paper presents the parallel programs for the problems implemented on the three frameworks, respectively. It shows the experiment results on a cluster of computers. It also discusses which is the right tool for the jobs by analyzing the characteristics and performance of the paradigms.

  20. Fabrication and characterization of stable superhydrophobic surface with good friction-reducing performance on Al foil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Peipei [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Chen, Xinhua, E-mail: xuc0374@hotmail.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Zhang, Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Graphical abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure was successfully created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. As-obtained etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface contains interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets that endow the surface with excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA: 164.2°; WSA: below 5°). Besides, the as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA superhydrophobic surface on Al foil exhibits good friction-reducing ability and stable superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • A stable superhydrophobic surface was created on aluminum foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. • A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets has been constructed on the aluminum surface. • The superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum substrate showing effective friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability. - Abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure with superhydrophobicity was created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method involving etching in hydrochloric acid solution and immersing in hot water as well as surface-modification by stearic acid (denoted as STA). As-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the water contact angles and water sliding angles of as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface were measured, and the friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability of the as-prepared surface were also evaluated. Results indicate that the etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets. Besides, it exhibits stable superhydrophobicity and good friction-reducing ability. Namely, it has a contact angle of water as high as 164.2° and a water sliding

  1. Fabrication and characterization of stable superhydrophobic surface with good friction-reducing performance on Al foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peipei; Chen, Xinhua; Yang, Guangbin; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Pingyu

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure was successfully created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. As-obtained etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface contains interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets that endow the surface with excellent superhydrophobicity (WCA: 164.2°; WSA: below 5°). Besides, the as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA superhydrophobic surface on Al foil exhibits good friction-reducing ability and stable superhydrophobicity. - Highlights: • A stable superhydrophobic surface was created on aluminum foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method. • A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets has been constructed on the aluminum surface. • The superhydrophobic surfaces on aluminum substrate showing effective friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability. - Abstract: A lotus-leaf-like hierarchical structure with superhydrophobicity was created on Al foil by a facile three-step solution–immersion method involving etching in hydrochloric acid solution and immersing in hot water as well as surface-modification by stearic acid (denoted as STA). As-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface was characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Moreover, the water contact angles and water sliding angles of as-prepared etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface were measured, and the friction-reducing performance and self-cleaning ability of the as-prepared surface were also evaluated. Results indicate that the etched-immersed Al/STA rough surface consists of interconnected convex–concave micro-structure and uniformly distributed nano-sheets. Besides, it exhibits stable superhydrophobicity and good friction-reducing ability. Namely, it has a contact angle of water as high as 164.2° and a water sliding

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of Co3O4/reduced graphene oxide nanosheet composites for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Yujuan; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Song; Liu, Guichang; Chen, Huiying; Qiu, Jieshan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Co 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide sheet-on-sheet nanocomposites are synthesized. • Co 3 O 4 nanosheets consist of homogeneously assembled nanoparticles. • Co 3 O 4 /rGONS shows a specific capacitance of 402 F g −1 at 2.0 A g −1 . • Co 3 O 4 /rGONS shows enhanced capacitive performance compared with Co 3 O 4 . • The improved properties are mainly attributed to the porous composite structure. - Abstract: The composites of Co 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide nanosheets (Co 3 O 4 /rGONS) are prepared via a facile hydrothermal route followed by calcination, of which the morphology and microstructure are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that the as-obtained Co 3 O 4 nanosheets on which many fine nanoparticles are homogeneously assembled aggregate in a flower shape on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide. Electrochemical properties are investigated using cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge in 1 M KOH aqueous solution. In comparison with pure Co 3 O 4 , the specific capacity and redox performance of the as-made Co 3 O 4 /rGONS composites have been significantly improved, which are mainly attributed to the composite structure with high porosity formed due to the interaction of Co 3 O 4 and reduced graphene oxide nanosheets during the fabrication process of the Co 3 O 4 /rGONS nanocomposites. The Co 3 O 4 /rGONS-II shows good cyclic performance and coulomb efficiency with a specific capacitance over 400 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5–2.0 A g −1

  3. Investigation of the capacitive performance of tobacco solution reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Milan [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research (AcSIR), Anusandhan Bhawan, 2 Rafi Marg, New Delhi 110001 (India); Saha, Sanjit; Samanta, Pranab; Murmu, Naresh Chandra [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India); Lee, Joong Hee, E-mail: jhl@jbnu.ac.kr [Advanced Materials Research Institute for BIN Fusion Technology (BK Plus Global, Program), Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kuila, Tapas, E-mail: tkuila@gmail.com [Surface Engineering and Tribology Division, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research – Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur 713209 (India)

    2015-02-01

    A facile and green approach for the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) using tobacco leaves solution was reported. The benefits of this approach were the use of green and cheap reducing agent as compared to the commercially available toxic and hazardous chemicals. Moreover, the purification of reduced GO (rGO) sheets can be avoided by using naturally occurring reducing agents. The obtained rGO sheets were characterised by Ultra violet visible, Fourier transform infrared, Raman and X-ray photo electron spectroscopy analysis. The morphologies were recorded by transmission electron and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis and these showed the formation of a few layer rGO sheets. The electrical conductivity of rGO was found to be ∼410 S m{sup −1} at room temperature. Electrochemical performances were characterised by cyclic voltammetry, charge–discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis. A two electrode symmetric supercapacitor device was designed using nickel foam as current collector. The specific capacitance of the two-electrode device reached to 206 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.16 A g{sup −1}. The retention in specific capacitance was found to be ∼112% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles. - Highlights: • Reduced graphene has been prepared by bio-reduction of graphene oxide. • Few layers of graphene has been synthesised as observed by Raman spectra. • Two electrode based supercapacitors are fabricated. • Highest specific capacitance is found to be 206 F g{sup −1}. • Retention in specific capacitance is 112% after 1000 charge–discharge cycles.

  4. Amplified photoacoustic performance and enhanced photothermal stability of reduced graphene oxide coated gold nanorods for sensitive photoacoustic imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyungwon; Kumar, Dinesh; Kim, Haemin; Sim, Changbeom; Chang, Jin-Ho; Kim, Jung-Mu; Kim, Hyuncheol; Lim, Dong-Kwon

    2015-03-24

    We report a strongly amplified photoacoustic (PA) performance of the new functional hybrid material composed of reduced graphene oxide and gold nanorods. Due to the excellent NIR light absorption properties of the reduced graphene oxide coated gold nanorods (r-GO-AuNRs) and highly efficient heat transfer process through the reduced graphene oxide layer, r-GO-AuNRs exhibit excellent photothermal stability and significantly higher photoacoustic amplitudes than those of bare-AuNRs, nonreduced graphene oxide coated AuNRs (GO-AuNRs), or silica-coated AuNR, as demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo systems. The linear response of PA amplitude from reduced state controlled GO on AuNR indicates the critical role of GO for a strong photothermal effect of r-GO-AuNRs. Theoretical studies with finite-element-method lab-based simulation reveal that a 4 times higher magnitude of the enhanced electromagnetic field around r-GO-AuNRs can be generated compared with bare AuNRs or GO-AuNRs. Furthermore, the r-GO-AuNRs are expected to be a promising deep-tissue imaging probe because of extraordinarily high PA amplitudes in the 4-11 MHz operating frequency of an ultrasound transducer. Therefore, the r-GO-AuNRs can be a useful imaging probe for highly sensitive photoacoustic images and NIR sensitive therapeutics based on a strong photothermal effect.

  5. Hadoop-GIS: A High Performance Spatial Data Warehousing System over MapReduce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, Ablimit; Wang, Fusheng; Vo, Hoang; Lee, Rubao; Liu, Qiaoling; Zhang, Xiaodong; Saltz, Joel

    2013-08-01

    Support of high performance queries on large volumes of spatial data becomes increasingly important in many application domains, including geospatial problems in numerous fields, location based services, and emerging scientific applications that are increasingly data- and compute-intensive. The emergence of massive scale spatial data is due to the proliferation of cost effective and ubiquitous positioning technologies, development of high resolution imaging technologies, and contribution from a large number of community users. There are two major challenges for managing and querying massive spatial data to support spatial queries: the explosion of spatial data, and the high computational complexity of spatial queries. In this paper, we present Hadoop-GIS - a scalable and high performance spatial data warehousing system for running large scale spatial queries on Hadoop. Hadoop-GIS supports multiple types of spatial queries on MapReduce through spatial partitioning, customizable spatial query engine RESQUE, implicit parallel spatial query execution on MapReduce, and effective methods for amending query results through handling boundary objects. Hadoop-GIS utilizes global partition indexing and customizable on demand local spatial indexing to achieve efficient query processing. Hadoop-GIS is integrated into Hive to support declarative spatial queries with an integrated architecture. Our experiments have demonstrated the high efficiency of Hadoop-GIS on query response and high scalability to run on commodity clusters. Our comparative experiments have showed that performance of Hadoop-GIS is on par with parallel SDBMS and outperforms SDBMS for compute-intensive queries. Hadoop-GIS is available as a set of library for processing spatial queries, and as an integrated software package in Hive.

  6. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  7. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  8. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  10. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  11. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  12. Significant performance enhancement of InGaN/GaN nanorod LEDs with multi-layer graphene transparent electrodes by alumina surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzel, M; Büttner, P; Sarau, G; Höflich, K; Heilmann, M; Chen, W; Wen, X; Conibeer, G; Christiansen, S H

    2017-02-03

    Nanotextured surfaces provide an ideal platform for efficiently capturing and emitting light. However, the increased surface area in combination with surface defects induced by nanostructuring e.g. using reactive ion etching (RIE) negatively affects the device's active region and, thus, drastically decreases device performance. In this work, the influence of structural defects and surface states on the optical and electrical performance of InGaN/GaN nanorod (NR) light emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated by top-down RIE of c-plane GaN with InGaN quantum wells was investigated. After proper surface treatment a significantly improved device performance could be shown. Therefore, wet chemical removal of damaged material in KOH solution followed by atomic layer deposition of only 10 [Formula: see text] alumina as wide bandgap oxide for passivation were successfully applied. Raman spectroscopy revealed that the initially compressively strained InGaN/GaN LED layer stack turned into a virtually completely relaxed GaN and partially relaxed InGaN combination after RIE etching of NRs. Time-correlated single photon counting provides evidence that both treatments-chemical etching and alumina deposition-reduce the number of pathways for non-radiative recombination. Steady-state photoluminescence revealed that the luminescent performance of the NR LEDs is increased by about 50% after KOH and 80% after additional alumina passivation. Finally, complete NR LED devices with a suspended graphene contact were fabricated, for which the effectiveness of the alumina passivation was successfully demonstrated by electroluminescence measurements.

  13. Reducing gender differences in performance in introductory college physics through values affirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost-Smith, Lauren

    2011-04-01

    Despite males and females being equally represented at the college level in several STEM disciplines (including biology, chemistry and mathematics), females continue to be under-represented in physics. Our research documents and addresses this participation gender gap in the introductory, calculus-based physics courses at the University of Colorado. We characterize gender differences in performance, psychological factors (including attitudes and beliefs) and retention that exist in Physics 1 and 2 [L. E. Kost, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 5, 010101 (2009); L. E. Kost-Smith, et al., Phys. Rev. ST Phys. Educ. Res. 6, 020112 (2010)]. We find that the gender differences in performance can largely be accounted for by measurable differences in the physics and mathematics backgrounds and incoming attitudes and beliefs of males and females. But these background factors do not completely account for the gender gaps. We hypothesize, based on gender differences in responses to survey questions about students' sense of physics identity and confidence levels, that identity threat (the fear of confirming a negative characterization about one's identity) is playing a role in our courses. Working with researchers in psychology, we implemented an intervention where students either wrote about their most important values or not, twice at the beginning of the course [A. Miyake, et al., Science, 330, 1234 (2010)]. This ``values affirmation'' activity reduced the male-female performance difference substantially and elevated women's modal grades from the C to B range. Benefits were strongest for women who tended to endorse the stereotype that men do better than women in physics. This brief psychological intervention may be a promising way to address the gender gap in science performance.

  14. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxide/MnO Composite and Its Electromagnetic Wave Absorption Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangtao; Li, Kunzhen; Liu, Zhongfei; Jin, Shaowei; Li, Shikuo; Zhang, Hui

    2018-02-01

    The composite containing reduced graphene oxide and MnO nanoparticles (RGO/MnO) has been prepared via a one step pyrolysis method. The MnO nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed on the surface of RGO nanosheets forming MnO/RGO composite. The composite displays a maximum absorption of ‒38.9 dB at 13.5 GHz and the bandwidth of reflection loss corresponding to -10 dB can reach 4.9 GHz (from 11.5 to 16.4 GHz) with a coating layer thickness of only 2 mm. Therefore, the obtained RGO/MnO composite a perfect lightweight and high-performance electromagnetic wave absorbent.

  15. Thermoelectric properties and performance of flexible reduced graphene oxide films up to 3,000 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Pickel, Andrea D.; Yao, Yonggang; Chen, Yanan; Zeng, Yuqiang; Lacey, Steven D.; Li, Yiju; Wang, Yilin; Dai, Jiaqi; Wang, Yanbin; Yang, Bao; Fuhrer, Michael S.; Marconnet, Amy; Dames, Chris; Drew, Dennis H.; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-02-01

    The development of ultrahigh-temperature thermoelectric materials could enable thermoelectric topping of combustion power cycles as well as extending the range of direct thermoelectric power generation in concentrated solar power. However, thermoelectric operation temperatures have been restricted to under 1,500 K due to the lack of suitable materials. Here, we demonstrate a thermoelectric conversion material based on high-temperature reduced graphene oxide nanosheets that can perform reliably up to 3,000 K. After a reduction treatment at 3,300 K, the nanosheet film exhibits an increased conductivity to 4,000 S cm-1 at 3,000 K and a high power factor S2σ = 54.5 µW cm-1 K-2. We report measurements characterizing the film's thermoelectric properties up to 3,000 K. The reduced graphene oxide film also exhibits a high broadband radiation absorbance and can act as both a radiative receiver and a thermoelectric generator. The printable, lightweight and flexible film is attractive for system integration and scalable manufacturing.

  16. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  17. Fine motor movements while drawing during the encoding phase of a serial verbal recall task reduce working memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindle, Richard; Longstaff, Mitchell G

    2016-02-01

    The time-based resource-sharing (TBRS) model of working memory indicates that secondary tasks that capture attention for relatively long periods can result in the interference of working memory processing and maintenance. The current study investigates if discrete and continuous movements have differing effects on a concurrent, verbal serial recall task. In the listening condition, participants were asked to recall spoken words presented in lists of six. In the drawing conditions, participants performed the same task while producing discrete (star) or continuous (circle) movements. As hypothesised, participants recalled more words overall in the listening condition compared to the combined drawing conditions. The prediction that the continuous movement condition would reduce recall compared to listening was also supported. Fine-grained analysis at each serial position revealed significantly more words were recalled at mid serial positions in the listening condition, with worst recall for the continuous condition at position 5 compared to the listening and discrete conditions. Kinematic analysis showed that participants increased the size and speed of the continuous movements resulting in a similar duration and number of strokes for each condition. The duration of brief pauses in the discrete condition was associated with the number of words recalled. The results indicate that fine motor movements reduced working memory performance; however, it was not merely performing a movement but the type of the movement that determined how resources were diverted. In the context of the TBRS, continuous movements could be capturing attention for longer periods relative to discrete movements, reducing verbal serial recall. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reducing job insecurity and increasing performance ratings: does impression management matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-hua; Zhao, Helen Hailin; Niu, Xiong-ying; Ashford, Susan J; Lee, Cynthia

    2013-09-01

    Prior research on job insecurity has demonstrated its detrimental effects on both employees and the organization, yet no research has detailed how people actively deal with it. Drawing from proactivity research, this article argues that job insecurity prompts a proactive use of impression management tactics in the workplace. The effectiveness of these tactics depends on the level of supervisory liking for the employee and the attributions supervisors make regarding the employee's motives for the impression management behaviors (i.e., for the good of the organization or for self-interest). A 3-wave survey study of 271 Chinese employees and their supervisors showed that employees experiencing job insecurity in Time 1 reported using a variety of tactics to impress their supervisors at Time 2 and that these tactics curbed the affect associated with job insecurity and enhanced supervisor rated performance, through supervisor's liking and attributed motives. The relationship between impression management and increased supervisor-rated performance was moderated by supervisor attributions; the relationship between impression management and reduced affective job insecurity depended on supervisor liking. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  19. Reduced graphene oxide aerogel with high-rate supercapacitive performance in aqueous electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Weijiang; Wu, Xiaozhong; Zhou, Jin; Guo, Feifei; Zhuo, Shuping; Cui, Hongyou; Xing, Wei

    2013-05-01

    Reduced graphene oxide aerogel (RGOA) is synthesized successfully through a simultaneous self-assembly and reduction process using hypophosphorous acid and I2 as reductant. Nitrogen sorption analysis shows that the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of RGOA could reach as high as 830 m2 g-1, which is the largest value ever reported for graphene-based aerogels obtained through the simultaneous self-assembly and reduction strategy. The as-prepared RGOA is characterized by a variety of means such as scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Electrochemical tests show that RGOA exhibits a high-rate supercapacitive performance in aqueous electrolytes. The specific capacitance of RGOA is calculated to be 211.8 and 278.6 F g-1 in KOH and H2SO4 electrolytes, respectively. The perfect supercapacitive performance of RGOA is ascribed to its three-dimensional structure and the existence of oxygen-containing groups.

  20. A performance improvement prescribing guideline reduces opioid prescriptions for emergency department dental pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Timothy R; Li, James; Stevens, Sandra; Tippie, Tracy

    2013-09-01

    In an effort to reduce prescription opioid abuse originating from our institution, we implement and measure the effect of a prescribing guideline on the rate of emergency department (ED) opioid prescriptions written for patients presenting with dental pain, a complaint previously associated with drug-seeking behavior. After implementing a departmental guideline on controlled substance prescriptions, we performed a structured before-and-after chart review of dental pain patients aged 16 and older. Before the guideline, the rate of opioid prescription was 59% (302/515). After implementation, the rate was 42% (65/153). The absolute decrease in rates was 17% (95% confidence interval 7% to 25%). Additionally, in comparing the 12-month period before and after implementation, the dental pain visit rate decreased from 26 to 21 per 1,000 ED visits (95% confidence interval of decrease 2 to 9 visits/1,000). A performance improvement program involving a departmental prescribing guideline was associated with a reduction in the rate of opioid prescriptions and visits for ED patients presenting with dental pain. Copyright © 2013 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An Integrated Signaling-Encryption Mechanism to Reduce Error Propagation in Wireless Communications: Performance Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL; Matalgah, Mustafa M [ORNL; Bobrek, Miljko [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Traditional encryption techniques require packet overhead, produce processing time delay, and suffer from severe quality of service deterioration due to fades and interference in wireless channels. These issues reduce the effective transmission data rate (throughput) considerably in wireless communications, where data rate with limited bandwidth is the main constraint. In this paper, performance evaluation analyses are conducted for an integrated signaling-encryption mechanism that is secure and enables improved throughput and probability of bit-error in wireless channels. This mechanism eliminates the drawbacks stated herein by encrypting only a small portion of an entire transmitted frame, while the rest is not subject to traditional encryption but goes through a signaling process (designed transformation) with the plaintext of the portion selected for encryption. We also propose to incorporate error correction coding solely on the small encrypted portion of the data to drastically improve the overall bit-error rate performance while not noticeably increasing the required bit-rate. We focus on validating the signaling-encryption mechanism utilizing Hamming and convolutional error correction coding by conducting an end-to-end system-level simulation-based study. The average probability of bit-error and throughput of the encryption mechanism are evaluated over standard Gaussian and Rayleigh fading-type channels and compared to the ones of the conventional advanced encryption standard (AES).

  2. Reducing health impacts of biomass burning for cooking. The need for cookstove performance testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeliotis, K. [Department of Home Economics and Ecology, Harokopio University, Athens (Greece); Pakula, C. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, Section Household and Appliance Technology, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms University, Bonn (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Biomass is a renewable energy source that is routinely used for cooking in the developing world, especially in rural areas. The World Health Organization estimates that about 2.5 billion people globally rely on biomass, such as wood, agricultural waste and animal dung to meet their energy needs for cooking utilising traditional low-efficiency cookstoves. However, certain human health risks are associated with the inhalation of off-gases resulting from the indoor use of biomass for cooking, especially for women and children who spend more of their time at home. On the other hand, use of energy-efficient cookstoves is considered to reduce those risks. Thus, qualitative and quantitative measurements of cookstove performance are necessary in order to make different stoves and different cooking processes comparable. The aim of this paper is the presentation of the current situation regarding biomass use for cooking with emphasis placed on the developing world, the brief of the adverse health impacts of biomass burning based on the review of literature, the presentation of the merits of improved efficiency cookstoves and to highlight the need for stove performance tests. The demand of different types of biomass is not likely to change in the near future in the developing world since biomass is readily available and cheap. Thus, the efforts to improve household air quality must concentrate on improving cookstoves efficiency and ventilation of the flue gases outdoors. Programmes for the improvement of the cookstoves efficiency in the developing world should be part of the development agenda.

  3. Performance of an Active Micro Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Using Reduced Catalyst Loading MEAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Falcão

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The micro direct methanol fuel cell (MicroDMFC is an emergent technology due to its special interest for portable applications. This work presents the results of a set of experiments conducted at room temperature using an active metallic MicroDMFC with an active area of 2.25 cm2. The MicroDMFC uses available commercial materials with low platinum content in order to reduce the overall fuel cell cost. The main goal of this work is to provide useful information to easily design an active MicroDMFC with a good performance recurring to cheaper commercial Membrane Electrode Assemblies MEAs. A performance/cost analysis for each MEA tested is provided. The maximum power output obtained was 18.1 mW/cm2 for a hot-pressed MEA with materials purchased from Quintech with very low catalyst loading (3 mg/cm2 Pt–Ru at anode side and 0.5 mg/cm2 PtB at the cathode side costing around 15 euros. Similar power values are reported in literature for the same type of micro fuel cells working at higher operating temperatures and substantially higher cathode catalyst loadings. Experimental studies using metallic active micro direct methanol fuel cells operating at room temperature are very scarce. The results presented in this work are, therefore, very useful for the scientific community.

  4. Experimental results of the SMART ECC injection performance with reduced scale of test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Young Il; Cho, Seok; Ko, Yung Joo; Shin, Yong Cheol; Kwon, Tae Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    SMART pressurized water reactor type is different from the existing integral NSSS commercial pressurized water reactor system which is equipped with the main features. In addition, RCS piping is removed and the feature of the SBLOCA is a major design break accident. SWAT (SMART ECC Water Asymmetric Two-phase choking test facility) test facility is to simulate the 2 inch SBLOCA of the SMART using with reduced scale. The Test was performed to produce experimental data for the validation of the TASS/SMR-S thermal hydraulic analysis code, and to investigate the related thermal hydraulic phenomena in the down-comer region during the 2 inch SBLOCA of the safety inject line. The particular phenomena for the observation are ECC bypass and multi-dimensional flow characteristics to verify the effectiveness and performance of the safety injection system. In this paper, the corresponding steady state test conditions, including initial and boundary conditions along with major measuring parameters, and related experimental results were described

  5. Rational design of reduced graphene oxide for superior performance of supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid

    2016-10-24

    Strategies to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) abound but, in most studies, research teams select one particular oxidation-reduction method without providing a methodic reasoning for doing so. Herein, it is analyzed how diverse oxidation-reduction strategies commonly used can result in considerable performance differences of rGO for supercapacitor applications. Depending on the graphite oxidation method followed, the surface chemistry analysis of the products confirms that there is a marked disparity in the degree of oxidation and the nature of the oxygen functional groups present. Subsequent reduction of the oxidized graphite (using three different methods) showed that the maximum specific capacitance of rGOs produced from the classical Hummers\\' method was 128 F g−1 whereas an analogous material obtained from an improved Hummers\\' method reached ∼274 F g−1 (both via an hydrothermal reduction route). Besides showing that the improved oxidation method results in superior capacitance performance, explained by the higher number of structural defects allied to a surface chemistry where residual hydroxyl and epoxy functional groups predominate, this study highlights the need to rationalize the oxidation-reduction strategies followed when investigating applications of rGO materials.

  6. Mesoporous cobalt monoxide nanorods grown on reduced graphene oxide nanosheets with high lithium storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wenjun; Huang, Hui; Gan, Yongping; Tao, Xinyong; Xia, Yang; Zhang, Wenkui

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Facile synthesis of mesoporous CoO NRs/rGO composite by a hydrothermal method. • The composite has an unique 1D porous nanorods/2D sheets hybrid nanostructure. • The CoO NRs/rGO composite shows excellent electrochemical performance as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. - Abstract: Graphene-based hybrid nanostructures could offer many opportunities for improved lithium storage performance. Herein, we report a facile synthesis of mesoporous CoO nanorods (CoO NRs) on a reduced graphene oxide (rGO) substrate by hydrothermal and calcination treatment. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigation reveals that the CoO NRs with a diameter of 20–60 nm are tightly anchored on the surface of rGO sheets. Compared to pure CoO NRs, the CoO NRs/rGO composite shows higher lithium storage capacity and superior rate capability as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The CoO NRs/rGO composite delivers an initial discharge capacity of 1452 mAh g −1 , and it can still remains 960 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at 0.1 A g −1 . After each 10 cycles at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 A g −1 , the specific capacities of the composite are about 1096, 1049, 934 and 513 mAh g −1 , respectively. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the composite is closely related to its unique structure, such as 1D mesoporous morphology of CoO NRs and its tightly-contacting with rGO nanosheets, which could shorten the transport pathway for both electrons and ions, enhance the electrical conductivity and accommodate the volume expansion during prolonged cycling

  7. Shifting the Paradigm for Long Term Monitoring at Legacy Sites to Improve Performance while Reducing Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy-Dilek, Carol A.; Looney, Brian B.; Seaman, John; Kmetz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A major issue facing many government and private industry sites that were previously contaminated with radioactive and chemical wastes is that often the sites cannot be cleaned up enough to permit unrestricted human access. These sites will require long-term management, in some cases indefinitely, leaving site owners with the challenge of protecting human health and environmental quality in a cost effective manner. Long-term monitoring of groundwater contamination is one of the largest projected costs in the life cycle of environmental management at the Savannah River Site (SRS), the larger DOE complex, and many large federal and private sites. Currently, most monitoring strategies are focused on laboratory measurements of contaminants measured in groundwater samples collected from wells. This approach is expensive, and provides limited and lagging information about the effectiveness of cleanup activities and the behavior of the residual contamination. Over the last twenty years, DOE and other federal agencies have made significant investments in the development of various types of sensors and strategies that would allow for remote analysis of contaminants in groundwater, but these approaches do not promise significant reductions in risk or cost. Scientists at SRS have developed a new paradigm to simultaneously improve the performance of long term monitoring systems while lowering the overall cost of monitoring. This alternative approach incorporates traditional point measurements of contaminant concentration with measurements of controlling variables including boundary conditions, master variables, and traditional plume/contaminant variables. Boundary conditions are the overall driving forces that control plume movement and therefore provide leading indication to changes in plume stability. These variables include metrics associated with meteorology, hydrology, hydrogeology, and land use. Master variables are the key variables that control the chemistry of the

  8. Psychological intervention reduces self-reported performance anxiety in high school music students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M Braden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance anxiety (MPA can be distressing for many young people studying music, and may negatively impact upon their ability to cope with the demands and stressors of music education. It can also lead young people to give up music or to develop unhealthy coping habits in their adult music careers. Minimal research has examined the effectiveness of psychological programs to address MPA in young musicians. Sixty-two adolescents were pseudo-randomised to a cognitive behavioural (CB group-delivered intervention or a waitlist condition. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, cognitive restructuring and relaxation techniques, identification of strengths, goal-setting, imagery and visualisation techniques to support three solo performances in front of judges. Significant reductions in self-rated MPA were found in both groups following the intervention and compared to their baseline MPA. This reduction was maintained at two-months follow-up. There appeared to be inconsistent effects of the intervention upon judge-rated MPA, however the presence of floor effects precluded meaningful reductions in MPA. There appeared to be no effect of the intervention upon judge-rated performance quality. This study highlights the potential for group-based CB programs to be delivered within school music curricula to help young musicians develop skills to overcome the often debilitating effects of MPA.

  9. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Rommey B.; Saull, John W.

    2002-01-01

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved. We show the importance of accumulated experience in correctly measuring and tracking the decreasing event and error rates speculating a finite minimum rate. We show that the rate of improvement constitutes a measurable 'learning curve', and the attainment of the goals and targets can be affected by the adopted measures. We examine some of the available data on significant events, reportable occurrences, and loss of

  10. Effect of reducing agent strength on the growth and thermoelectric performance of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Asmaa; Hassan, Nazly; Refaat, Heba M.; Soliman, Hesham M. A.; El-Dissouky, A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel combination of Trizma, as an environmentally friendly chelating agent, with either weak or strong reducing agent was used to produce n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanocrystals via water-based chemical route. The synthesized powders were consolidated into pellets utilizing spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintered n-type pellets exhibited potentially high electrical conductivities (5.29 × 105 and 5.23 × 105 S.m‑1) and low lattice thermal conductivities (0.12 and 0.25 Wm‑1K‑1) respectively. These thermoelectric (TE) properties suggested that the partially coherent boundaries permitted significant phonons scattering and electrons transfer. These led to an enhanced figure-of-merit (ZT) values (0.52 and 0.97), which are considered to be significant among the reported ZT values at room-temperature for the undoped synthesized n-type Bi2Te3 nanoparticles. Therefore, the current investigation displayed an efficient method to improve ZT of TE materials via nanostructure orchestrating, resulting in a worthy candidate n-type nanostructured Bi2Te3 for room-temperature TE applications.

  11. Ascorbic acid and melatonin reduce heat-induced performance inhibition and oxidative stress in Japanese quails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, N; Onderci, M; Sahin, K; Gursu, M F; Smith, M O

    2004-02-01

    1. The effects of ascorbic acid (L-ascorbic acid) and melatonin supplementation on performance, carcase characteristics, malondialdehyde (MDA) as lipid peroxidation indicator, ascorbic acid, retinol, tocopherol and mineral status in the Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) exposed to high ambient temperature were evaluated. 2. Two hundred and forty Japanese quails (10 d old) were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups consisting of 10 replicates of three birds each. The birds were kept in a temperature-controlled room at 22 degrees C (Thermoneutral, TN groups) or 34 degrees C (for 8 h/d; 09:00 to 17:00 h; Heat stress, HS groups). Birds in both TN and HS were fed either a basal (control) diet or the basal diet supplemented with 250 mg of L-ascorbic acid/kg of diet (Ascorbic acid group), 40 mg of melatonin/kg of diet (Melatonin group) or both (Ascorbic acid + Melatonin group). 3. Supplementing heat-stressed quails with ascorbic acid and melatonin improved performance compared with the control group. Effects generally were greatest in quails supplemented with both ascorbic acid and melatonin. 4. Although supplementation did not consistently restore the concentrations of serum ascorbic acid, retinol and tocopherol to those of TN groups, these concentrations increased significantly with supplementation. Furthermore, serum and liver MDA and serum cholesterol and glucose concentrations were lower in the supplemented groups than in the heat-stressed controls. 5. Within each environment, excretion of Ca, P, Mg, Zn, Fe and Cr were lowest in the combination group and, in all cases, highest in the HS group. Interactions between diet and temperature were detected for live weight gain, cold carcase weight, MDA, ascorbic acid, tocopherol concentrations and excretion of zinc. 6. The results of the study indicate that ascorbic acid and melatonin supplementation attenuate the decline in performance and antioxidant and mineral status caused by heat stress and such

  12. Evaluating the Performance of a Surface Barrier on Reducing Soil-Water Flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Field, Jim G.; Parker, Danny L.; Clayton, Ray E.

    2012-08-31

    One of the most common effective techniques for contaminant remediation in the vadose zone is to use a surface barrier to reduce or eliminate soil-water flow to reduce the contaminant flux to the underlying groundwater. Confirming the reduction of the soil-water flux rate is challenging because of the difficulty of determining the very low soil-water flux beneath the barrier. We propose a hydraulic-conductivity factor, fK, as a conservative indicator for quantifying the reduction of soil-water flow. The factor can be calculated using the measured soil-water content or pressure but does not require the knowledge of the saturated hydraulic conductivity or the hydraulic gradient. The formulas were tested by comparing with changes in hydraulic conductivity, K, from a drainage experiment. The pressure-based formula was further applied to evaluate the performance of the interim surface barrier at T Tank Farm on Hanford Site. Three years after barrier emplacement, the hydraulic conductivity decreased by a factor between 3.8 and 13.0 at the 1-, 2- and 5-m depths. The difference between the conductivity-reduction factor and the flux-rate-reduction factor, fq, was quantified with a numerical simulation. With the calculated fK, the numerically determined fK/fq ratio, and the assumed pre-barrier soil-water flux rate of 100 mm yr-1, the estimated soil-water flux rate 3 years after barrier emplacement was no more than 8.5 mm yr-1 at or above the 5-m depth.

  13. Performances of Different Fragment Sizes for Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing in Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Zhe; Pan, Rong-Yang; Gao, Ning; Deng, Xi; Li, Bin; Zhang, Hao; Sangild, Per Torp; Li, Jia-Qi

    2017-01-01

    Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) has been widely used to profile genome-scale DNA methylation in mammalian genomes. However, the applications and technical performances of RRBS with different fragment sizes have not been systematically reported in pigs, which serve as one of the important biomedical models for humans. The aims of this study were to evaluate capacities of RRBS libraries with different fragment sizes to characterize the porcine genome. We found that the Msp I-digested segments between 40 and 220 bp harbored a high distribution peak at 74 bp, which were highly overlapped with the repetitive elements and might reduce the unique mapping alignment. The RRBS library of 110-220 bp fragment size had the highest unique mapping alignment and the lowest multiple alignment. The cost-effectiveness of the 40-110 bp, 110-220 bp and 40-220 bp fragment sizes might decrease when the dataset size was more than 70, 50 and 110 million reads for these three fragment sizes, respectively. Given a 50-million dataset size, the average sequencing depth of the detected CpG sites in the 110-220 bp fragment size appeared to be deeper than in the 40-110 bp and 40-220 bp fragment sizes, and these detected CpG sties differently located in gene- and CpG island-related regions. In this study, our results demonstrated that selections of fragment sizes could affect the numbers and sequencing depth of detected CpG sites as well as the cost-efficiency. No single solution of RRBS is optimal in all circumstances for investigating genome-scale DNA methylation. This work provides the useful knowledge on designing and executing RRBS for investigating the genome-wide DNA methylation in tissues from pigs.

  14. Performance and durability tests of smart icephobic coatings to reduce ice adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara [Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Choy, Kwang-Leong; Pandis, Christos [Institute for Materials Discovery, University College London (UCL) (United Kingdom); Liu, Junpeng; Hou, Xianghui; Choi, Kwing-So [Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Repeated ice adhesion and removal occurs on nanocoatings. • Icephobicity of nanocoatings reduces with each test cycle. • Adhesion strength linked to contact angle hysteresis in Gaussian fit. • Icephobicity not linked to hydrophobicity. - Abstract: The accretion of ice can cause damage in applications ranging from power lines and shipping decks, to wind turbines and rail infrastructure. In particular on aircraft, it can change aerodynamic characteristics, greatly affecting the flight safety. Commercial aircraft are therefore required to be equipped with de-icing devices, such as heating mats over the wings. The application of icephobic coatings near the leading edge of a wing can in theory reduce the high power requirements of heating mats, which melt ice that forms there. Such coatings are effective in preventing the accretion of runback ice, formed from airborne supercooled droplets, or the water that the heating mats generate as it is sheared back over the wing's upper surface. However, the durability and the practicality of applying them over a large wing surface have been prohibitive factors in deploying this technology so far. Here, we evaluated the ice adhesion strength of four non-conductive coatings and seven thermally conductive coatings by shearing ice samples from coated plates by spinning them in a centrifuge device. The durability of the coating performance was also assessed by repeating the tests, each time regrowing ice samples on the previously-used coatings. Contact angle parameters of each coating were tested for each test to determine influence on ice adhesion strength. The results indicate that contact angle hysteresis is a crucial parameter in determining icephobicity of a coating and hydrophobicity is not necessarily linked to icephobicity.

  15. Pt-decorated GaN nanowires with significant improvement in H2 gas-sensing performance at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Q N; Yam, F K; Hassan, Z; Bououdina, M

    2015-12-15

    Superior sensitivity towards H2 gas was successfully achieved with Pt-decorated GaN nanowires (NWs) gas sensor. GaN NWs were fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Morphology (field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and crystal structure (high resolution X-ray diffraction) characterizations of the as-synthesized nanostructures demonstrated the formation of GaN NWs having a wurtzite structure, zigzaged shape and an average diameter of 30-166nm. The Pt-decorated GaN NWs sensor shows a high response of 250-2650% upon exposure to H2 gas concentration from 7 to 1000ppm respectively at room temperature (RT), and then increases to about 650-4100% when increasing the operating temperature up to 75°C. The gas-sensing measurements indicated that the Pt-decorated GaN NWs based sensor exhibited efficient detection of H2 at low concentration with excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and free hysteresis phenomena over a period of time of 100min. The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN NWs and the catalytic activity of Pt metal are the most influential factors leading to the enhancement of H2 gas-sensing performances through the improvement of the interaction between the target molecules (H2) and the sensing NWs surface. The attractive low-cost, low power consumption and high-performance of the resultant decorated GaN NWs gas sensor assure their uppermost potential for H2 gas sensor working at low operating temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection t...

  17. Nitrate removal performance of Diaphorobacter nitroreducens using biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, S. T. [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580, Japan and Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); Nagao, Y. [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan); Hiraishi, A., E-mail: hiraishi@ens.tut.ac.jp [Department of Environmental and Life Sciences, Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580, Japan and Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS), Toyohashi University of Technology, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)

    2015-02-27

    Strain NA10B{sup T} and other two strains of the denitrifying betaproteobacterium Diaphorobacter nitroreducens were studied for the performance of solid-phase denitrification (SPD) using poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and some other biodegradable plastics as the source of reducing power in wastewater treatment. Sequencing-batch SPD reactors with these organisms and PHBV granules or flakes as the substrate exhibited good nitrate removal performance. Vial tests using cultures from these parent reactors showed higher nitrate removal rates with PHBV granules (ca. 20 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N g{sup −1} [dry wt cells] h{sup −1}) than with PHBV pellets and flakes. In continuous-flow SPD reactors using strain NA10B{sup T} and PHBV flakes, nitrate was not detected even at a loading rate of 21 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N L{sup −1} h{sup −1}. This corresponded to a nitrate removal rate of 47 mg-NO{sub 3}{sup −}‐N g{sup −1} (dry wt cells) h{sup −1}. In the continuous-flow reactor, the transcription level of the phaZ gene, coding for PHB depolymerase, decreased with time, while that of the nosZ gene, involved in denitrificaiton, was relatively constant. These results suggest that the bioavailability of soluble metabolites as electron donor and carbon sources increases with time in the continuous-flow SPD process, thereby having much higher nitrate removal rates than the process with fresh PHBV as the substrate.

  18. Motion and emotion: depression reduces psychomotor performance and alters affective movements in caregiving interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine S Young

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Impaired social functioning is a well-established feature of depression. Evidence to date suggests that disrupted processing of emotional cues may constitute part of this impairment. Beyond processing of emotional cues, fluent social interactions require that people physically move in synchronised, contingent ways. Disruptions to physical movements are a diagnostic feature of depression (psychomotor disturbance but have not previously been assessed in the context of social functioning. Here we investigated the impact of psychomotor disturbance in depression on physical responsive behaviour in both an experimental and observational setting.Methods: In Experiment 1, we examined motor disturbance in depression in response to salient emotional sounds, using a laboratory-based effortful motor task. In Experiment 2, we explored whether psychomotor disturbance was apparent in real-life social interactions. Using mother-infant interactions as a model affective social situation, we compared physical behaviours of mothers with and without postnatal depression (PND.Results: We found impairments in precise, controlled psychomotor performance in adults with depression relative to healthy adults (Experiment 1. Despite this disruption, all adults showed enhanced performance following exposure to highly salient emotional cues (infant cries. Examining real-life interactions, we found differences in physical movements, namely reduced affective touching, in mothers with PND responding to their infants, compared to healthy mothers (Experiment 2.Conclusions: Together, these findings suggest that psychomotor disturbance may be an important feature of depression that can impair social functioning. Future work investigating whether improvements in physical movement in depression could have a positive impact on social interactions would be of much interest.

  19. Depth-dependent variations in Achilles tendon deformations with age are associated with reduced plantarflexor performance during walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelen, Darryl G.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomical arrangement of the Achilles tendon (AT), with distinct fascicle bundles arising from the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, may facilitate relatively independent behavior of the triceps surae muscles. A reduced capacity for sliding between adjacent tendon fascicles with age may couple gastrocnemius and soleus muscle behavior, thereby potentially contributing to diminished plantarflexor performance commonly observed in old adults. Nine healthy young (mean age, 23.9 yr) and eight healthy old (69.9 yr) adults walked at three speeds (0.75, 1.00, and 1.25 m/s) on a force-sensing treadmill. We coupled dynamic ultrasound imaging of the free AT with motion capture and inverse dynamic analyses to compute, in part: 1) depth-dependent variations in AT tissue displacements and elongations and 2) net ankle joint kinetics during push-off. The difference in displacements between superficial and deep AT regions, and in their corresponding elongations, did not differ between old and young adults at the slower two walking speeds (P > 0.61). However, old adults walked with 41% smaller depth-dependent variations in free AT displacements and elongations at 1.25 m/s (P = 0.02). These more uniform tendon deformations in old adults most strongly correlated with reduced peak ankle moment (R2 = 0.40), but also significantly correlated with reduced peak power generation (R2 = 0.15) and positive ankle work during push-off (R2 = 0.19) (P > 0.01). Our findings: 1) demonstrate a potential role for nonuniform AT deformations in governing gastrocnemius and soleus muscle-tendon function and 2) allude to altered tendon behavior that may contribute to the age-related reduction in plantarflexor performance during walking. PMID:26023223

  20. Single doses of Panax ginseng (G115) reduce blood glucose levels and improve cognitive performance during sustained mental activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reay, Jonathon L; Kennedy, David O; Scholey, Andrew B

    2005-07-01

    Single doses of the traditional herbal treatment Panax ginseng have recently been shown to elicit cognitive improvements in healthy young volunteers. The mechanisms by which ginseng improves cognitive performance are not known. However, they may be related to the glycaemic properties of some Panax species. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover design, 30 healthy young adults completed a 10 min test battery at baseline, and then six times in immediate succession commencing 60 min after the day's treatment (placebo, 200mg G115 or 400mg G115). The 10 min battery comprised a Serial Threes subtraction task (2 min); a Serial Sevens task (2 min); a Rapid Visual Information Processing task (5 min); then a 'mental fatigue' visual analogue scale. Blood glucose was measured prior to each day's treatment, and before, during and after the post-dose completions of the battery. Both the 200mg and 400mg treatments led to significant reductions in blood glucose levels at all three post-treatment measurements (p 0.005 in all cases). The most notable behavioural effects were associated with 200mg of ginseng and included significantly improved Serial Sevens subtraction task performance and significantly reduced subjective mental fatigue throughout all (with the exception of one time point in each case) of the post-dose completions of the 10 min battery (p 0.05). Overall these data suggest that Panax ginseng can improve performance and subjective feelings of mental fatigue during sustained mental activity. This effect may be related to the acute gluco-regulatory properties of the extract.

  1. Drift algae, an invasive snail and elevated temperature reduce ecological performance of a warm-temperate seagrass, through additive effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffle, H.; Wernberg, T.; Thomsen, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    Seagrasses are under pressure from multiple concurrent threats, including rising temperatures, invasive species and nutrient-driven algal accumulations. We quantified the abundance of drift algae and the invasive snail Batillaria australis in 3 Halophila ovalis seagrass beds in the Swan River....... The survey showed that drift algae varied considerably between sites and sampling times, and sites experienced average loads of 0.4 to 0.8 kg fresh wt m(-2) and extreme loads up to 2.5 kg fresh wt m(-2). In contrast, invasive snails were constantly abundant at all sites at all collection times (mean...... reduced the length of the 2nd inter node. We found relatively few significant higher-order interactions, suggesting a dominance of additive effects of stress. We conclude that temperature, drift algae and invasive snails are already affecting the ecological performance of H. ovalis in Swan River...

  2. Eye movement during recall reduces objective memory performance: An extended replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leer, Arne; Engelhard, Iris M; Lenaert, Bert; Struyf, Dieter; Vervliet, Bram; Hermans, Dirk

    2017-05-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder involves making eye movements (EMs) during recall of a traumatic image. Experimental studies have shown that the dual task decreases self-reported memory vividness and emotionality. However valuable, these data are prone to demand effects and little can be inferred about the mechanism(s) underlying the observed effects. The current research aimed to fill this lacuna by providing two objective tests of memory performance. Experiment I involved a stimulus discrimination task. Findings were that EM during stimulus recall not only reduces self-reported memory vividness, but also slows down reaction time in a task that requires participants to discriminate the stimulus from perceptually similar stimuli. Experiment II involved a fear conditioning paradigm. It was shown that EM during recall of a threatening stimulus intensifies fearful responding to a perceptually similar yet non-threat-related stimulus, as evidenced by increases in danger expectancies and skin conductance responses. The latter result was not corroborated by startle EMG data. Together, the findings suggest that the EM manipulation renders stimulus attributes less accessible for future recall. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. French experience to reduce radiation field build-up and improve nuclear fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomazet, J.; Beslu, P.; Noe, M.; Stora, J.P.

    1983-01-01

    Over these last years, considerable information has been obtained on primary coolant chemistry, activity build-up and nuclear fuel behavior. As of December 1982, twenty three 900 MWe type reactors were in operation in France and about 1.3 millions of rods had been loaded in power reactors among which six regions of 17x17 fuel assemblies had completed successfully their third cycle of irradiation with a lead assembly burn-up of 37,000 MWd/MtU. Visual examination shows that crud deposited on fuel clads is mostly thin or inexistent. This result is due to the appropriate B/Li coolant concentration control which is currently applied in French reactors since several years. Correlatively, radiation field build-up is minimized and excessive external corrosion has never been observed. Nevertheless for higher coolant temperature plants, where occurrence of nucleate boiling could increase crud deposition, and for load follow and high burn-up operation, an extensive programme is performed jointly by Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Electricite de France, FRAMATOME and FRAGEMA to reduce even more the radiation field. This programme, described in the paper, includes: loop tests; on site chemical and radiochemical surveys; radiation field measurements; on site fuel examination crud-scrapping, crud analysis and oxide thickness measurements; hot cells examination. Some key results are presented and discussed in this paper. (author)

  4. Reducing the Cost and Time to Perform a Human Factors Engineering Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geary, L.C. Dr.

    2003-01-01

    The Westinghouse Savannah River Company, a contractor to the Department of Energy, has developed a new software tool for automating the Human Factors Engineering design review, analysis, and evaluation processes. The set of design guidelines, used in the tool, was obtained from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Regulatory Guide, NUREG- 0700 - Human System Interface Design Review Guideline. This tool has been described at a previous IEEE Conference on Human Factors and Power Plants. The original software tool in NUREG- 0700 was used to evaluate a facility and a separate independent evaluation was performed using the new tool for the same facility. A comparison was made between the two different tools; both in results obtained and cost and time to complete the evaluation. The results demonstrate a five to ten fold reduction in time and cost to complete the evaluation using the newly developed tool while maintaining consistent evaluation results. The time to per form the review was measured in weeks using the new software tool rather than months using the existing NUREG-0700 tool. The new tool has been so successful that it was applied to two additional facilities with the same reduced time and cost savings. Plans have been made to use the new tool at other facilities in order to provide the same savings

  5. Performances of low-dose dual-energy CT in reducing artifacts from implanted metallic orthopedic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); De Waure, Chiara; Calabro, Giovanna Elisa [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Research Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Section of Hygiene, Rome (Italy); Finkenstaedt, Tim [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the performances of dose-reduced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in decreasing metallic artifacts from orthopedic devices compared with dose-neutral DECT, dose-neutral single-energy computed tomography (SECT), and dose-reduced SECT. Thirty implants in 20 consecutive cadavers underwent both SECT and DECT at three fixed CT dose indexes (CTDI): 20.0, 10.0, and 5.0 mGy. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV, and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. In each group, the image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visually rating and by measuring the maximum streak artifact respectively. The comparison between SECT and OPTkeV evaluated overall within all groups showed a significant difference (p <0.001), with OPTkeV images providing better images. Comparing OPTkeV with the other DECT images, a significant difference was shown (p <0.001), with OPTkeV and 130-keV images providing the qualitatively best results. The OPTkeV images of 5.0-mGy acquisitions provided percentages of images with scores 1 and 2 of 36 % and 30 % respectively, compared with 0 % and 33.3 % of the corresponding SECT images of 10- and 20-mGy acquisitions. Moreover, DECT reconstructions at the OPTkeV of the low-dose group showed higher CT numbers than the SECT images of dose groups 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that low-dose DECT permits a reduction of artifacts due to metallic implants to be obtained in a similar manner to neutral-dose DECT and better than reduced or neutral-dose SECT. (orig.)

  6. The effect of surface characteristics of reduced graphene oxide on the performance of a pseudocapacitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, M S; Kim, T; Kang, J H; Park, J; Park, C R

    2015-01-01

    In this research, we have analyzed the electrochemical characteristics of the different rGO/Co 3 O 4 composites prepared by controlling the rGO surface characteristics and its relationship between the growth of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles and the performance of the pseudocapacitor. Reduced graphene oxide/cobalt oxide (rGO/Co 3 O 4 ) nanocomposites of different morphologies were prepared through the simple hydrothermal method. First, different kinds of graphite precursors, crumpled and planar with different properties, were used to determine the most suitable substrate to grow Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles. As a result, rGO/Co 3 O 4 composite synthesized from planar graphite shows a higher specific capacitance of 207.2, 170.1, and 141.5 Fg −1 at 1, 2, and 5 Ag −1 than the one prepared from crumpled graphite. In the second part, planar graphite, confirmed to be the most suitable substrate from the previous part, was oxidized under various oxidation conditions to increase the oxygen functional groups attached on the GO surfaces and observed to see how it affects the growth of Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles and its influence on the electrochemical performance of the rGO/Co 3 O 4 pseudocapacitor. As a result, the one with the largest amount of functional groups had the Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles well dispersed and grown on the rGO substrate in small nanoparticle sizes, as small as 5.9 nm, leading to an improved electrochemical performance. Thus, the specific capacitance with the least amount of oxygen functional groups are 207.2, 170.1, and 141.5 Fg −1 and for the largest amount of functional groups are 411.5, 371.4, and 292.7 Fg −1 , at 1, 2, and 5 Ag −1 respectively. This approach could become a guideline for the ideal fabrication of rGO/metal oxide composite for further research involving rGO based pseudocapacitors. (paper)

  7. Can virtual reality reduce reality distortion? Impact of performance feedback on symptom change in schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Voigt, Miriam; Köther, Ulf; Leighton, Lucy; Kjahili, Besiane; Babur, Zehra; Jungclaussen, David; Veckenstedt, Ruth; Grzella, Karsten

    2014-06-01

    There is emerging evidence that the induction of doubt can reduce positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Based on prior investigations indicating that brief psychological interventions may attenuate core aspects of delusions, we set up a proof of concept study using a virtual reality experiment. We explored whether feedback for false judgments positively influences delusion severity. A total of 33 patients with schizophrenia participated in the experiment. Following a short practice trial, patients were instructed to navigate through a virtual street on two occasions (noise versus no noise), where they met six different pedestrians in each condition. Subsequently, patients were asked to recollect the pedestrians and their corresponding facial affect in a recognition task graded for confidence. Before and after the experiment, the Paranoia Checklist (frequency subscale) was administered. The Paranoia Checklist score declined significantly from pre to post at a medium effect size. We split the sample into those with some improvement versus those that either showed no improvement, or worsened. Improvement was associated with lower confidence ratings (both during the experiment, particularly for incorrect responses, and according to retrospect assessment). No control condition, unclear if improvement is sustained. The study tentatively suggests that a brief virtual reality experiment involving error feedback may ameliorate delusional ideas. Randomized controlled trials and dismantling studies are now needed to substantiate the findings and to pinpoint the underlying therapeutic mechanisms, for example error feedback or fostering attenuation of confidence judgments in the face of incomplete evidence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Anchoring samarium oxide nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dezfuli, Amin Shiralizadeh [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganjali, Mohammad Reza, E-mail: ganjali@khayam.ut.ac.ir [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Biosensor Research Center, Endocrinology & Metabolism Molecular-Cellular Sciences Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naderi, Hamid Reza [Center of Excellence in Electrochemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Samarium oxide nanoparticles have been anchored on the surface of reduced graphene oxide for the first time. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite show high capacitance, good rate and cycling performance. • Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3}/RGO nanocomposite can serve as efficient electrode material for energy storage. • The best composite electrode exhibits specific capacitance of 321 F g{sup −1} in 2 mV s{sup −1}. - Abstract: We have synthesized Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (SmNs) and anchored them onto the surface of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through a self-assembly thereof by utilizing a facile sonochemical procedure. The nanomaterials were characterized by means of powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the next step, the supercapacitive behavior of the resulting nanocomposites were investigated when used as electrode material, through with cyclic voltammetric (CV), galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. The SmNs decorated RGO (SmN-RGO) nanocomposites were found to possess a specific capacitance (SC) of 321 F g{sup −1} when used in a 0.5 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} solution as an electrolyte, in a scan rate of 2 mV s{sup −1}. The SC of the SmN-RGO based electrodes were also found to be 268 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 2 A g{sup −1} through galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The outstanding properties of the SmN-RGOs were attributed to synergy of the high charge mobility of SmNs and the flexibility of the sheets of RGOs. Additionally, the nano-composite revealed a unique cycling durability (maintaining 99% of its SC even after 4000 cycles).

  9. Effect of feeding a reduced-starch diet with or without amylase addition on lactation performance in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gencoglu, H.; Shaver, R.D.; Steinberg, W.; Ensink, J.; Ferraretto, L.F.; Bertics, S.J.; Lopes, J.C.; Akins, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine lactation performance responses of high-producing dairy cows to a reduced-starch diet compared with a normal-starch diet and to the addition of exogenous amylase to the reduced-starch diet. Thirty-six multiparous Holstein cows (51 +/- 22 DIM and 643 +/-

  10. Reducing dietary protein in pond production of hybrid striped bass - study shows a significant reduction is possible in digestible protein level in commercial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    In previous work, we demonstrated that diets containing 40% digestible protein (DP) (45% crude protein) and 18 %lipid supplemented with Met and Lys resulted in superior performance and nutrient retentions in hybrid striped bass compared to less energy-dense diets when rearing hybrid striped bass at ...

  11. Performance limits of coated particle fuel. Part I. The significance of empirical performance diagrams and mathematical models in fuel development and power reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, L. W.; Hick, H.

    1973-06-15

    This report introduces a general survey of our present knowledge and understanding of coated particle fuel performance. It defines first the reference power reactor conditions and the reference coated particle design on which the survey is centred. It describes then the typical strategy which has been followed in coated particle fuel development by the Dragon Project R & D Branch. Finally it shows the priorities which have governed the time scale and scope of fuel development and of the present review.

  12. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  13. Fingers' vibration transmission and grip strength preservation performance of vibration reducing gloves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, K; Rakheja, S; Dewangan, K N; Marcotte, P

    2018-01-01

    The vibration isolation performances of vibration reducing (VR) gloves are invariably assessed in terms of power tools' handle vibration transmission to the palm of the hand using the method described in ISO 10819 (2013), while the nature of vibration transmitted to the fingers is ignored. Moreover, the VR gloves with relatively low stiffness viscoelastic materials affect the grip strength in an adverse manner. This study is aimed at performance assessments of 12 different VR gloves on the basis of handle vibration transmission to the palm and the fingers of the gloved hand, together with reduction in the grip strength. The gloves included 3 different air bladder, 3 gel, 3 hybrid, and 2 gel-foam gloves in addition to a leather glove. Two Velcro finger adapters, each instrumented with a three-axis accelerometer, were used to measure vibration responses of the index and middle fingers near the mid-phalanges. Vibration transmitted to the palm was measured using the standardized palm adapter. The vibration transmissibility responses of the VR gloves were measured in the laboratory using the instrumented cylindrical handle, also described in the standard, mounted on a vibration exciter. A total of 12 healthy male subjects participated in the study. The instrumented handle was also used to measure grip strength of the subjects with and without the VR gloves. The results of the study showed that the VR gloves, with only a few exceptions, attenuate handle vibration transmitted to the fingers only in the 10-200 Hz and amplify middle finger vibration at frequencies exceeding 200 Hz. Many of the gloves, however, provided considerable reduction in vibration transmitted to the palm, especially at higher frequencies. These suggest that the characteristics of vibration transmitted to fingers differ considerably from those at the palm. Four of the test gloves satisfied the screening criteria of the ISO 10819 (2013) based on the palm vibration alone, even though these caused

  14. Reducing spontaneous recovery and reinstatement of operant performance through extinction-cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal-Gamboa, Rodolfo; Gámez, A Matías; Nieto, Javier

    2017-02-01

    It has been argued that the response recovery effects share a common mechanism. A possible way to test it is evaluating whether the techniques that impaired renewal would impair the other recovery effects as well. Two experiments with rats used a free operant procedure to explore whether an extinction-cue could prevent the spontaneous recovery and reinstatement of an extinguished lever-pressing. Both experiments consisted of four phases: Acquisition, Extinction and Test 1 and Test 2. First, all rats were trained to perform one instrumental response (R1) for food in context A, and a different instrumental response (R2) for food in context B. Then, responses were extinguished within the same context: R1 in context A and R2 in context B. Throughout this phase all rats received brief presentations of a tone (extinction-cue). In both experiments animals were tested twice. The first test was conducted immediately after the last extinction session. In this test, rats received the extinction-cue for both responses. During the second test, rats experienced the tone only for R1. In Experiment 1 rats were tested after 5days, while for Experiment 2 test 2 took place after a single session of re-exposure to the food. Both experiments showed a recovery effect (spontaneous recovery in Experiment 1 and reinstatement in Experiment 2) for both responses. However, a cue featured in extinction attenuated recovery of R1 in both experiments when presented on the test. The findings suggest that spontaneous recovery, reinstatement and renewal might share a common mechanism. In addition, the present data shows that using an extinction-cue could help to reduces relapsing of voluntary behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Performance of Disk Mill Type Mechanical Grinder for Size Reducing Process of Robusta Roasted Beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulato

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available One of improtant steps in secondary coffee processing that influence on final product quality such as consistency and uniformity is milling process. Usually, Indonesian smallholder used "lumpang" for milling coffee roasted beans to coffee powder product which caused the final product not uniformed and consistent, and low productivity. Milling process of coffee roasted beans can be done by disk mill type mechanical grinder which is used by smallholder for milling several cereals. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute have developed disk mill type grinding machine for milling coffee roasted beans. Objective of this research is to find performance of disk mill type grinding machine for size reducing process of Robusta roasted beans from several size dried beans and roasting level treatments. Robusta dried beans which are taken from dry processing method have 13—14% moisture content (wet basis, 680—685 kg/m3 density, and classified in 3 sizes level. The result showed that the disk mill type of grinding machine could be used for milling Robusta roasted beans. Machine hascapacity 31—54 kg/h on 5,310—5,610 rpm axle rotation and depend on roasting level. Other technical parameters were 91—98% process efficientcy, 19—31 ml/ kg fuel consumption, 0.3—1% slips, 50—55% particles had diameter less than 230 mesh and 38—44% particles had diameter bigger than 100 mesh, 32—38% lightness was increased, 0.6—12.6% density was decreased, and solubility of coffee powder between 28—30%. Cost milling process per kilogram of Robusta roasted beans which light roast on capacity 30 kg/hour was Rp362.9. Key words : Coffee roasted, Robusta, disk mill, mechanical grinder, size reduction.

  16. A binder-free sulfur/reduced graphene oxide aerogel as high performance electrode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Florian; Agostini, Marco; Lundin, Filippa; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.; Matic, Aleksandar

    2016-12-01

    Societies’ increasing need for energy storage makes it necessary to explore new concepts beyond the traditional lithium ion battery. A promising candidate is the lithium-sulfur technology with the potential to increase the energy density of the battery by a factor of 3-5. However, so far the many problems with the lithium-sulfur system have not been solved satisfactory. Here we report on a new approach utilizing a self-standing reduced graphene oxide based aerogel directly as electrodes, i.e. without further processing and without the addition of binder or conducting agents. We can thereby disrupt the common paradigm of “no battery without binder” and can pave the way to a lithium-sulfur battery with a high practical energy density. The aerogels are synthesized via a one-pot method and consist of more than 2/3 sulfur, contained inside a porous few-layered reduced graphene oxide matrix. By combining the graphene-based aerogel cathode with an electrolyte and a lithium metal anode, we demonstrate a lithium-sulfur cell with high areal capacity (more than 3 mAh/cm2 after 75 cycles), excellent capacity retention over 200 cycles and good sulfur utilization. Based on this performance we estimate that the energy density of this concept-cell can significantly exceed the Department of Energy (DEO) 2020-target set for transport applications.

  17. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A.; Plat, G.; Vial, J.

    2009-01-01

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  18. De-icing salt contamination reduces urban tree performance in structural soil cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordóñez-Barona, Camilo; Sabetski, Vadim; Millward, Andrew A; Steenberg, James

    2018-03-01

    Salts used for de-icing roads and sidewalks in northern climates can have a significant impact on water quality and vegetation. Sub-surface engineering systems, such as structural soil cells, can regulate water runoff and pollutants, and provide the necessary soil volume and irrigation to grow trees. However, the ability of such systems to manage de-icing salt contamination, and the impact of this contamination on the trees growing in them, have not been evaluated. We report on an field investigation of de-icing salt contamination in structural cells in two street-revitalization projects in Toronto, Canada, and the impact of this contamination on tree performance. We analyzed soil chemistry and collected tree attributes; these data were examined together to understand the effect of salinity on tree mortality rates and foliar condition. Data collected from continuous soil salinity loggers from April to June for one of the two sites were used to determine whether there was a long-term accumulation of salts in the soils. Results for both sites indicate that both sites displayed high salinity and alkalinity, with levels elevated beyond those suggested before those reported to cause negative tree effects. For one site, trees that were alive and trees that had a better foliar condition had significantly lower levels of soil salinity and alkalinity than other trees. High salinity and alkalinity in the soil were also associated with lower nutrient levels for both sites. Although tests for salinity accumulation in the soils of one site were negative, a longer monitoring of the soil conditions within the soil cells is warranted. Despite structural cells being increasingly utilized for their dual role in storm-water management and tree establishment, there may be a considerable trade-off between storm-water management and urban-forest function in northern climates where de-icing salt application continues to be commonplace. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A persistent mitochondrial deletion reduces fitness and sperm performance in heteroplasmic populations of C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Kara

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations are of increasing interest due to their involvement in aging, disease, fertility, and their role in the evolution of the mitochondrial genome. The presence of reactive oxygen species and the near lack of repair mechanisms cause mtDNA to mutate at a faster rate than nuclear DNA, and mtDNA deletions are not uncommon in the tissues of individuals, although germ-line mtDNA is largely lesion-free. Large-scale deletions in mtDNA may disrupt multiple genes, and curiously, some large-scale deletions persist over many generations in a heteroplasmic state. Here we examine the phenotypic effects of one such deletion, uaDf5, in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans. Our study investigates the phenotypic effects of this 3 kbp deletion. Results The proportion of uaDf5 chromosomes in worms was highly heritable, although uaDf5 content varied from worm to worm and within tissues of individual worms. We also found an impact of the uaDf5 deletion on metabolism. The deletion significantly reduced egg laying rate, defecation rate, and lifespan. Examination of sperm bearing the uaDf5 deletion revealed that sperm crawled more slowly, both in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion Worms harboring uaDf5 are at a selective disadvantage compared to worms with wild-type mtDNA. These effects should lead to the rapid extinction of the deleted chromosome, but it persists indefinitely. We discuss both the implications of this phenomenon and the possible causes of a shortened lifespan for uaDf5 mutant worms.

  20. Herd-specific interventions to reduce antimicrobial usage in pig production without jeopardising technical and economic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collineau, L; Rojo-Gimeno, C; Léger, A; Backhans, A; Loesken, S; Nielsen, E Okholm; Postma, M; Emanuelson, U; Beilage, E Grosse; Sjölund, M; Wauters, E; Stärk, K D C; Dewulf, J; Belloc, C; Krebs, S

    2017-09-01

    Pig farmers are strongly encouraged to reduce their antimicrobial usage in order to reduce the risk of antimicrobial resistance. Herd-level intervention is needed to achieve national and European reduction targets. Alternative, especially preventive measures, have to be implemented to reduce the need for antimicrobial treatments. However, little is known about the feasibility, effectiveness and return on investment of such measures. The objective of this study was to assess, across four countries, the technical and economic impact of herd-specific interventions aiming at reducing antimicrobial usage in pig production while implementing alternative measures. An intervention study was conducted between February 2014 and August 2015 in 70 farrow-to-finish pig farms located in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. Herd-specific interventions were defined together with the farmer and the herd veterinarian. Farms were followed over one year and their antimicrobial usage and technical performance were compared with values from the year before intervention. Compliance with the intervention plan was also monitored. Changes in margin over feed cost and net farm profit were estimated in a subset of 33 Belgian and French farms with sufficient data, using deterministic and stochastic modeling. Following interventions, a substantial reduction in antimicrobial use was achieved without negative impact the overall farm technical performance. A median reduction of 47.0% of antimicrobial usage was achieved across four countries when expressed in terms of treatment incidence from birth to slaughter, corresponding to a 30.5% median reduction of antimicrobial expenditures. Farm compliance with intervention plans was high (median: 93%; min-max: 20; 100) and farms with higher compliance tended to achieve bigger reduction (ρ=-0.18, p=0.162). No association was found between achieved reduction and type or number of alternative measures implemented. Mortality in suckling piglets, weaners and

  1. Antagonism between elevated CO2, nighttime warming, and summer drought reduces the robustness of PSII performance to freezing events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    2013-01-01

    yield in light, Fv′/Fm′, using the pulse amplitude methodology, and the total performance index, PItotal, which integrate changes of the chlorophyll-a fluorescence transient including the maximal quantum yield in darkness, Fv/Fm.Decreasing temperature during autumn linearly reduced PItotal, both...... in the wavy hair-grass, Deschampsia flexuosa, and in the evergreen dwarf shrub common heather, Calluna vulgaris, and following freezing events the PItotal and Fv′/Fm′ were reduced even more. Contrary to expected, indirect effects of the previous summer drought reduced PSII performance before freezing events...

  2. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the relation between soluble CD36 (sCD36), risk markers of atherosclerosis and body composition, and glucose and lipid metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Research Design and Methods: Thirty PCOS patients were randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day or placebo...... units), oxLDL (44.9 (26.9 - 75.1) vs. 36.1 (23.4 - 55.5) U/l), and hsCRP (0.26 (0.03 - 2.41) vs. 0.12 (0.02 - 0.81) mg/dl) were significantly increased in PCOS patients vs. controls (geometric mean (+/- 2SD)). In PCOS, positive correlations were found between central fat mass and sCD36 (r=0.43), hs......CRP (r=0.43), and IL-6 (r=0.42), all pPCOS patients and controls (n=44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant...

  3. Financial and ecological indicators of reduced impact logging performance in the eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Geoffrey M. Blate; Johan C. Zweede; Rodrigo Pereira; Paulo Barreto; Frederick Boltz; Roberto Bauch

    2002-01-01

    Reduced impact logging (RIL) systems are currently being promoted in Brazil and other tropical countries in response to domestic and international concern over the ecological and economic sustainability of harvesting natural tropical forests. RIL systems are necessary, but not sufficient, for sustainable forest management because they reduce damage to the forest...

  4. Does Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel) Significantly Reduce Postoperative Pain/Numbness in Symptomatic Teeth with a Diagnosis of Necrosis? A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Brandon; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Fowler, Sara; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Medical studies have shown some potential for infiltrations of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA), a slow-release bupivacaine solution, to extend postoperative benefits of numbness/pain relief for up to several days. Because the Food and Drug Administration has approved Exparel only for infiltrations, we wanted to evaluate if it would be effective as an infiltration to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to compare an infiltration of bupivacaine with liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative numbness and pain in symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain. One hundred patients randomly received a 4.0-mL buccal infiltration of either bupivacaine or liposomal bupivacaine after endodontic debridement. For postoperative pain, patients were given ibuprofen/acetaminophen, and they could receive narcotic pain medication as an escape. Patients recorded their level of numbness, pain, and medication use the night of the appointment and over the next 5 days. Success was defined as no or mild postoperative pain and no narcotic use. The success rate was 29% for the liposomal group and 22% for the bupivacaine group, with no significant difference (P = .4684) between the groups. Liposomal bupivacaine had some effect on soft tissue numbness, pain, and use of non-narcotic medications, but it was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in the need for escape medication. For symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain, a 4.0-mL infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine did not result in a statistically significant increase in postoperative success compared with an infiltration of 4.0 mL bupivacaine. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of drag-reducing polymers on Tubing Performance Curve (TPC) in vertical gas-liquid flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shoeibi Omrani, P.; Veltin, J.; Turkenburg, D.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effect of drag reducing polymers on the Tubing Performance Curve (TPC) of vertical air-water flows at near atmospheric conditions. The effect of polymer concentration, liquid and gas flow rates on the pressure drop curve (Tubing Performance Curve) was investigated

  6. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 73 m2 ) at first transurethral resection of bladder tumour is a significant predictor of subsequent recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Kucherov, Victor; Rushmer, Timothy J; Damodaran, Shivashankar; Shi, Fangfang; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Richards, Kyle A; Messing, Edward M; Downs, Tracy M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate if moderate chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 73 m 2 ] is associated with high rates of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence or progression. A multi-institutional database identified patients with serum creatinine values prior to first transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). The CKD-epidemiology collaboration formula calculated patient eGFR. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In all, 727 patients were identified with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age of 69.8 (60.1-77.6) years. Data for eGFR were available for 632 patients. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 3.7 (1.5-6.5) years, 400 (55%) patients had recurrence and 145 (19.9%) patients had progression of tumour stage or grade. Moderate or severe CKD was identified in 183 patients according to eGFR. Multivariable analysis identified an eGFR of 73 m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9; P = 0.002) as a predictor of tumour recurrence. The 5-year RFS rate was 46% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 27% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P 73 m 2 (HR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.75-7.94; P = 0.001) was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease. The 5-year PFS rate was 83% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 71% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P = 0.01). Moderate CKD at first TURBT is associated with reduced RFS and PFS. Patients with reduced renal function should be considered for increased surveillance. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Reduced Graphene Oxide Decorated Na3V2(PO43 Microspheres as Cathode Material With Advanced Sodium Storage Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezhang Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (rGO sheet decorated Na3V2(PO43 (NVP microspheres were successfully synthesized by spray-drying method. The NVP microspheres were embedded by rGO sheets, and the surface of the particles were coated by rGO sheets and amorphous carbon. Thus, the carbon conductive network consisted of rGO sheets and amorphous carbon generated in the cathode material. NVP microspheres decorated with different content of rGO (about 0, 4, 8, and 12 wt% were investigated in this study. The electrochemical performance of NVP exhibited a significant enhancement after rGO introduction. The electrode containing about 8 wt% rGO (NVP/G8 showed the best rate and cycle performance. NVP/G8 electrode exhibited the discharge capacity of 64.0 mAh g−1 at 70°C, and achieved high capacity retention of 95.5% after cycling at 10°C for 100 cycles. The polarization of the electrode was inhibited by the introduction of rGO sheets. Meanwhile, compared with the pristine NVP electrode, NVP/G8 electrode exhibited small resistance and high diffusion coefficient of sodium ions.

  8. In-Class Cycling to Augment College Student Academic Performance and Reduce Physical Inactivity: Results from an RCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanae Joubert

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most college students sit 14 hours per week on average, excluding sedentary study time. Researchers observing workplace and elementary school settings with active workstations to combat sedentary behavior have shown enhanced cognition without distraction. Until now, incorporating active workstations in college classroom settings remained relatively unexplored. This study’s purpose was to assess academic performance using in-class stationary cycle desks during a semester-long lecture course. Twenty-one college students (19–24 years enrolled in a lecture course volunteered and were split into traditional sit (SIT and stationary cycle (CYC groups randomly, matched on a calculated factor equal to a physical activity (PA score (0–680 multiplied by grade point average (GPA; 4.0 scale. CYC pedaled a prescribed rate of perceived exertion (RPE of less than 2 out of 10 during a 50-min lecture, 3 × week for 12 weeks. CYC averaged 42 min, 7.9 miles, and 1.7 RPE during class throughout the semester. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were observed between CYC and SIT on in-class test scores or overall course grades. Although statistically insignificant, CYC had higher mean test scores and overall course grades vs. SIT (i.e., B+ vs. B, respectively. Low intensity cycling during a college lecture course maintained student academic performance and possibly reduced weekly sedentary behavior time.

  9. Intra-articular laser treatment plus Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.

  10. Performance-Based Acquisition: A tool to reduce costs and improve performance at US Army environmental remediation sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosko, Nancy; Gilman, Janet; White, Debbie

    2007-01-01

    The US Army, like most US federal and state environmental organizations, is faced with limited resources to conduct environmental work, an increasing workload, and challenges in achieving closeout of its environmental cleanup programs. In 2001, in an effort to incorporate proven private sector tools into federal cleanup programs, the Department of Defense (DoD) Business Initiative Council (BIC), initiated the use of Performance-Based Acquisition (PBA) for environmental cleanup. Since fiscal year 2000, the US Army Environmental Command (USAEC) has successfully awarded more than 55 performance-based contracts for environmental remediation. These contracts range in size from $500,000 to $52.4 million, and include closing properties (Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC)) and some of the US Army's most complex active installations. The contracts address a range of activities including investigation through monitoring and site completion, as well as various technical challenges including dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in ground water, karst systems, munitions and explosives of concern, and biological agents. The contracts are most often firm-fixed price, and 50 percent of the contracts required contractors to purchase environmental insurance in the form of remediation stop loss insurance (also known as cleanup cost cap insurance). The USAEC has conducted continuous process improvement since inception of the initiative. This paper presents results of two studies that were conducted in 2005-2006 to determine what lessons learned can be applied to future activities and to measure performance of contractors currently executing work under the performance based contracts. (authors)

  11. Does Reducing the Concentration of Bupivacaine When Performing Therapeutic Shoulder Joint Injections Impact the Clinical Outcome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Michael G; Patrie, James T

    2016-04-01

    Mixtures of local anesthetics and steroids are routinely injected intraarticularly to temporarily relieve joint pain, even though local anesthetics have been reported to cause chondrocyte death in a dose- and time-dependent manner. This study aimed to determine if intraarticular injections of bupivacaine 0.5% and bupivacaine 0.25% would provide similar pain relief. All fluoroscopically guided glenohumeral joint injections performed using 2.5 mL of bupivacaine and 0.5 mL (20 mg) of triamcinolone acetonide over a 42-month period were included if a pain score was recorded before, 5-10 minutes after, and 1 week after injection. Pain reduction of more than 2 points was considered much improved clinically with pain reduction of more than 1 point considered the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold. Statistically significant and much improved pain reduction was achieved using both bupivacaine 0.5% and 0.25% 5-10 minutes (-3.7 points; 95% CI, -3.4 to -4.0 points; p ≤ 0.001; and -3.3 points; 95% CI, -3.0 to -3.5 points; p ≤ 0.001) and 1 week (-2.5 points; 95% CI, -2.2 to -2.9 points; p ≤ 0.001; and -2.1 points; 95% CI, -1.8 to -2.3 points; p ≤ 0.001) after injection, respectively. Adjusting for age, sex, pain score before injection, and indication, the mean decrease in pain was greater in the bupivacaine 0.5% group by 0.30 points 5-10 minutes after injection (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.63 points; p = 0.08) and 0.46 points 1 week after injection (95% CI, 0.13-0.77 points; p = 0.01). Both bupivacaine 0.5% and bupivacaine 0.25% provide statistically significant and much improved pain relief 5-10 minutes and 1 week after intraarticular glenohumeral injections. Bupivacaine 0.5% provided greater pain relief than bupivacaine 0.25%, but the difference was less than 0.5 points and therefore did not meet the MCID threshold.

  12. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  13. On the Performance of the Measure for Diagnosing Multiple High Leverage Collinearity-Reducing Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Bagheri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is strong evidence indicating that the existing measures which are designed to detect a single high leverage collinearity-reducing observation are not effective in the presence of multiple high leverage collinearity-reducing observations. In this paper, we propose a cutoff point for a newly developed high leverage collinearity-influential measure and two existing measures ( and to identify high leverage collinearity-reducing observations, the high leverage points which hide multicollinearity in a data set. It is important to detect these observations as they are responsible for the misleading inferences about the fitting of the regression model. The merit of our proposed measure and cutoff point in detecting high leverage collinearity-reducing observations is investigated by using engineering data and Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. A high-performance flexible fibre-shaped electrochemical capacitor based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingru; Sheng, Kaixuan; Yuan, Wenjing; Shi, Gaoquan

    2013-01-11

    A fibre-shaped solid electrochemical capacitor based on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide has been fabricated, exhibiting high specific capacitance and rate capability, long cycling life and attractive flexibility.

  15. Rational design of reduced graphene oxide for superior performance of supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Rasul, Shahid; Alazmi, Amira; Jaouen, K.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Da Costa, Pedro M. F. J.

    2016-01-01

    Strategies to synthesize reduced graphene oxide (rGO) abound but, in most studies, research teams select one particular oxidation-reduction method without providing a methodic reasoning for doing so. Herein, it is analyzed how diverse oxidation

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging-detected extramural venous invasion in rectal cancer before and after preoperative chemoradiotherapy. Diagnostic performance and prognostic significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min Ju; Hur, Bo Yun [National Cancer Centre, Department of Radiology, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sung Chan; Hyun, Jong Hee; Chang, Hee Jin; Baek, Ji Yeon; Kim, Dae Yong; Oh, Jae Hwan [National Cancer Centre, Centre for Colorectal Cancer, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sun Young [National Cancer Centre, Centre for Colorectal Cancer, Goyang, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Oncology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    We evaluated the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in terms of identifying extramural venous invasion (EMVI) in rectal cancer patients with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and its prognostic significance. During 2008-2010, 200 patients underwent surgery following preoperative CRT for rectal cancer. Two radiologists independently reviewed all pre- and post-CRT MRI retrospectively. We investigated diagnostic performance of pre-CRT MR-EMVI (MR-EMVI) and post-CRT MR-EMVI (yMR-EMVI), based on pathological EMVI as the standard of reference. We assessed correlation between MRI findings and patients' prognosis, such as disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Additionally, subgroup analysis in MR- or yMR-EMVI-positive patients was performed to confirm the significance of the severity of EMVI in MRI on patient's prognosis. The sensitivity and specificity of yMR-EMVI were 76.19% and 79.75% (area under the curve: 0.830), respectively. In univariate analysis, yMR-EMVI was the only significant MRI factor in DFS (P = 0.027). The mean DFS for yMR-EMVI (+) patients was significantly less than for yMR-EMVI (-) patients: 57.56 months versus 72.46 months. yMR-EMVI demonstrated good diagnostic performance. yMR-EMVI was the only significant EMVI-related MRI factor that correlated with patients' DFS in univariate analysis; however, it was not significant in multivariate analysis. (orig.)

  17. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  18. Reduced Dual-Task Performance in MS Patients Is Further Decreased by Muscle Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkorte, Ria; Heersema, Dorothea J; Zijdewind, Inge

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) can be accompanied by motor, cognitive, and sensory impairments. Additionally, MS patients often report fatigue as one of their most debilitating symptoms. It is, therefore, expected that MS patients will have difficulties in performing cognitive-motor dual tasks (DTs), especially in a fatiguing condition. To determine whether MS patients are more challenged by a DT than controls in a fatiguing and less-fatiguing condition and whether DT performance is associated with perceived fatigue. A group of 19 MS patients and 19 age-, sex-, and education-matched controls performed a cognitive task (2-choice reaction time task) separately or concurrent with a low-force or a high-force motor task (index finger abduction at 10% or 30% maximal voluntary contraction). MS patients performed less well on a cognitive task than controls. Cognitive task performance under DT conditions decreased more for MS patients. Moreover, under high-force DT conditions, cognitive performance declined in both groups but to a larger degree for MS patients. Besides a decline in cognitive task performance, MS patients also showed a stronger decrease in motor performance under high-force DT conditions. DT costs were positively related to perceived fatigue as measured by questionnaires. Compared with controls, MS patients performed less well on DTs as demonstrated by a reduction in both cognitive and motor performances. This performance decrease was stronger under fatiguing conditions and was related to the sense of fatigue of MS patients. These data illustrate problems that MS patients may encounter in daily life because of their fatigue. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Lack of significant associations with early career performance suggest no link between the DMRT3 "Gait Keeper" mutation and precocity in Coldblooded trotters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus

    Full Text Available The Swedish-Norwegian Coldblooded trotter (CBT is a local breed in Sweden and Norway mainly used for harness racing. Previous studies have shown that a mutation from cytosine (C to adenine (A in the doublesex and mab-3 related transcription factor 3 (DMRT3 gene has a major impact on harness racing performance of different breeds. An association of the DMRT3 mutation with early career performance has also been suggested. The aim of the current study was to investigate this proposed association in a randomly selected group of CBTs. 769 CBTs (485 raced, 284 unraced were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. The association with racing performance was investigated for 13 performance traits and three different age intervals: 3 years, 3 to 6 years, and 7 to 10 years of age, using the statistical software R. Each performance trait was analyzed for association with DMRT3 using linear models. The results suggest no association of the DMRT3 mutation with precocity (i.e. performance at 3 years of age. Only two traits (race time and number of disqualifications were significantly different between the genotypes, with AA horses having the fastest times and CC horses having the highest number of disqualifications at 3 years of age. The frequency of the AA genotype was significantly lower in the raced CBT sample compared with the unraced sample and less than 50% of the AA horses participated in a race. For the age intervals 3 to 6 and 7 to 10 years the AA horses also failed to demonstrate significantly better performance than the other genotypes. Although suggested as the most favorable genotype for racing performance in Standardbreds and Finnhorses across all ages, the AA genotype does not appear to be associated with superior performance, early or late, in the racing career of CBTs.

  20. Reducing the Impact of Stereotype Threat on Women's Math Performance: Are Two Strategies Better than One?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Two studies examined whether stereotype threat impairs women's math performance and whether concurrent threat reduction strategies can be used to offset this effect. Method: In Study 1, collegiate men and women (N = 100) watched a video purporting that males and females performed equally well ("gender-fair") or males outperformed…

  1. A better state-of-mind: deep breathing reduces state anxiety and enhances test performance through regulating test cognitions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khng, Kiat Hui

    2017-11-01

    A pre-test/post-test, intervention-versus-control experimental design was used to examine the effects, mechanisms and moderators of deep breathing on state anxiety and test performance in 122 Primary 5 students. Taking deep breaths before a timed math test significantly reduced self-reported feelings of anxiety and improved test performance. There was a statistical trend towards greater effectiveness in reducing state anxiety for boys compared to girls, and in enhancing test performance for students with higher autonomic reactivity in test-like situations. The latter moderation was significant when comparing high-versus-low autonomic reactivity groups. Mediation analyses suggest that deep breathing reduces state anxiety in test-like situations, creating a better state-of-mind by enhancing the regulation of adaptive-maladaptive thoughts during the test, allowing for better performance. The quick and simple technique can be easily learnt and effectively applied by most children to immediately alleviate some of the adverse effects of test anxiety on psychological well-being and academic performance.

  2. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Akimoto, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    Several investigators have reported the effects of reduced training and interrupted training on athletic performance, but few reports are available for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine, using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YoYoIR2) test and sprint performance, the effects on soccer players of a reduced training program consisting of either moderate running training, plyometric training. After the completion of a competitive season, 29 male soccer players were divided into 3 groups: the running group (n = 13), the plyometric group (n = 11), and the control group (n = 5). Both training groups completed either running or plyometric training sessions 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was not allowed to perform any training. The subjects performed YoYoIR2 and 20-m sprint tests before (pre) and after (post) the experimental period. Neither training group showed any significant training effects on the YoYoIR2 performance or 20-m sprint times compared with the control group. This study suggests that neither endurance running nor plyometric training 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks has a significant effect on high-intensity performance compared with a nontraining regimen. However, our results do not support complete inactivity. These results may have important implications for the management of training cessation for a few weeks.

  3. Novel needle guide reduces time to perform ultrasound-guided femoral nerve catheter placement: A randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turan, Alparslan; Babazade, Rovnat; Elsharkawy, Hesham; Esa, Wael Ali Sakr; Maheshwari, Kamal; Farag, Ehab; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Soliman, Loran Mounir; Sessler, Daniel I

    2017-03-01

    Ultrasound-guided nerve blocks have become the standard when performing regional nerve blocks in anaesthesia. Infiniti Plus (CIVCO Medical Solutions, Kalona, Iowa, USA) is a needle guide that has been recently developed to help clinicians in performing ultrasound-guided nerve blocks. We tested the hypothesis that femoral nerve catheter placement carried out with the Infiniti Plus needle guide will be quicker to perform than without the Infiniti Plus. Secondary aims were to assess whether the Infiniti Plus needle guide decreased the number of block attempts and also whether it improved needle visibility. A randomised, controlled trial. Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. We enrolled adult patients having elective total knee arthroplasty with a femoral nerve block and femoral nerve catheter. Patients, who were pregnant or those who had preexisting neuropathy involving the surgical limb, coagulopathy, infection at the block site or allergy to local anaesthetics were excluded. Patients were randomised into two groups to receive the ultrasound-guided femoral nerve catheter placement with or without the Infiniti Plus needle guide. The time taken to place the femoral nerve catheter, the number of attempts, the success rate and needle visibility were recorded. We used an overall α of 0.05 for both the primary and secondary analyses; the secondary analyses were Bonferroni corrected to control for multiple comparisons. The median (interquartile range Q1 to Q3) time to perform the femoral nerve catheter placement was 118 (100 to 150) s with Infiniti Plus and 177 (130 to 236) s without Infiniti Plus. Infiniti Plus significantly reduced the time spent performing femoral nerve catheterisation, with estimated ratio of means [(95% confidence interval), P value] of 0.67 [(0.60 to 0.75), P Infiniti Plus compared with no Infiniti Plus. However, Infiniti Plus had no effect on the odds of a successful femoral nerve catheter placement, number of attempts or percentage of perfect

  4. Controllable synthesis of palladium nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide composites and their enhanced electrocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuting; Huang, Qiwei; Chang, Gang; Zhang, Zaoli; Xia, Tiantian; Shu, Honghui; He, Yunbin

    2015-04-01

    Homogeneous distribution of cube-shaped Pd nanocrystals on the surface of reduced graphene oxide is obtained via a facile one-step method by employing AA and KBr as the reductant and capping agent, respectively. The experimental factors affecting the morphology and structure of Pd nanoparticles have been systematically investigated to explore the formation mechanism of Pd nanocubes (PdNCs). It is revealed that PdNCs enclosed by active {100} facets with an average side length of 15 nm were successfully synthesized on the surface of reduced graphene oxide. KBr plays the role for facet selection by surface passivation and AA controls the reduction speed of Pd precursors, both of which govern the morphology changes of palladium nanoparticles. In the further electrochemical evaluations, the Pd nanocubes/reduced graphene oxide composites show better electrocatalytic activity and stability towards the electro-oxidation of ethanol than both reduced graphene oxide supported Pd nanoparticles and free-standing PdNCs. It could be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of the dominated active {100} crystal facets of Pd nanocubes and the enhanced electron transfer of graphene. The developed approach provide a versatile way for shape-controlled preparation of noble metal nanoparticles, which can work as novel electrocatalysts in the application of direct alcohols fuel cells.

  5. Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Network on Copper Foam as High-performance Supercapacitor Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dey, Ramendra Sundar; Chi, Qijin

    E lectrochemically generated copper foam (Cuf) could serve as an effective template for fabrication of three - dimensional (3D) reduced graphe n e oxide (rGO) network s. Here we present a facile approach to preparation of 3D rGO network supported by Cuf a s binder - free and current collector - i...

  6. Applying Service Performance Guarantees to Reduce Risk Perception in the Purchase and Consumption of Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooraini Mohamad Sheriff

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The intangible nature of education is one contributor to consumers’ perception of risk prior to their purchase and consumption. This risk includes: functional risk, financial risk, temporal risk, physical risk, psychological risk and social risk. The presence of these risks often makes consumer evaluation prior to purchase and consumption difficult. Invoking a service guarantee is a platform available to enable higher educational institutions to minimize such risk perception so as to induce purchase. Specifically, service guarantee for higher education entails the application of teaching performance guarantee. This form of guarantee focuses on two important customer groups of higher educational institutions namely, students and faculty members, and focuses only on a specific performance aspect such as instructor’s performance. Thus, if students are dissatisfied with an instructor’s performance they are entitled to receive their money back. The imposition of such a teaching performance guarantee would implicate instructor’s accountability for certain aspects of their performance. It also establishes a mechanism to solicit feedback to better understand why and how instructors fail. Consequently, service performance guarantee creates a high level of customer focus and signals instructors’ care towards students

  7. Nitrate limitation and ocean acidification interact with UV-B to reduce photosynthetic performance in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W.; Gao, K.; Beardall, J.

    2015-04-01

    It has been proposed that ocean acidification (OA) will interact with other environmental factors to influence the overall impact of global change on biological systems. Accordingly we investigated the influence of nitrogen limitation and OA on the physiology of diatoms by growing the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin under elevated (1000 μatm; high CO2 - HC) or ambient (390 μatm; low CO2 - LC) levels of CO2 with replete (110 μmol L-1; high nitrate - HN) or reduced (10 μmol L-1; low nitrate - LN) levels of NO3- and subjecting the cells to solar radiation with or without UV irradiance to determine their susceptibility to UV radiation (UVR, 280-400 nm). Our results indicate that OA and UVB induced significantly higher inhibition of both the photosynthetic rate and quantum yield under LN than under HN conditions. UVA or/and UVB increased the cells' non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) regardless of the CO2 levels. Under LN and OA conditions, activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were enhanced, along with the highest sensitivity to UVB and the lowest ratio of repair to damage of PSII. HC-grown cells showed a faster recovery rate of yield under HN but not under LN conditions. We conclude therefore that nutrient limitation makes cells more prone to the deleterious effects of UV radiation and that HC conditions (ocean acidification) exacerbate this effect. The finding that nitrate limitation and ocean acidification interact with UV-B to reduce photosynthetic performance of the diatom P. tricornutum implies that ocean primary production and the marine biological C pump will be affected by OA under multiple stressors.

  8. Growth Hormone Receptor Antagonist Treatment Reduces Exercise Performance in Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, K.; Doessing, S.; Nielsen, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    between the groups in terms of changes in serum free fatty acids, glycerol, (V) over dotO(2), or relative fat oxidation. Conclusion: GH might be an important determinant of exercise capacity during prolonged exercise, but GHR antagonist did not alter fat metabolism during exercise. (J Clin Endocrinol......Context: The effects of GH on exercise performance remain unclear. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the effects of GH receptor (GHR) antagonist treatment on exercise performance. Design: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist pegvisomant or placebo for 16 d. After the treatment...... period, they exercised to determine exercise performance and hormonal and metabolic responses. Participants: Twenty healthy males participated in the study. Intervention: Subjects were treated with the GHR antagonist (n = 10; 10 mg/d) or placebo (n = 10). After the treatment period, they performed...

  9. Effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter rim on free-throw performance and kinematics in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlifa, Riadh; Aouadi, Ridha; Shephard, Roy; Chelly, Mohamed Souhaiel; Hermassi, Souhail; Gabbett, Tim J

    2013-01-01

    The present paper investigated the effects of a shoot training programme with a reduced hoop diameter (0.35 m) rim on kinematics and performance of basketball free-throws. Eighteen young male basketball players were divided into control (CG, n = 9) and experimental (EG, n = 9) groups. Both groups undertook a 10-week training programme comprising two training sessions per week. Under fatigued conditions, each participant shot 150 free-throws in each training session, with the CG using a standard rim, and the EG a smaller rim. All other training was identical between groups. Ball release parameters, player's kinematics and mean of successful free-throws (out of 150 attempts) were determined for each participant, before and after completion of the training programme. Following training, a significant increase (P training with a reduced rim significantly improves free-throw performance in young basketball players.

  10. Daily online testing in large classes: boosting college performance while reducing achievement gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James W Pennebaker

    Full Text Available An in-class computer-based system, that included daily online testing, was introduced to two large university classes. We examined subsequent improvements in academic performance and reductions in the achievement gaps between lower- and upper-middle class students in academic performance. Students (N = 901 brought laptop computers to classes and took daily quizzes that provided immediate and personalized feedback. Student performance was compared with the same data for traditional classes taught previously by the same instructors (N = 935. Exam performance was approximately half a letter grade above previous semesters, based on comparisons of identical questions asked from earlier years. Students in the experimental classes performed better in other classes, both in the semester they took the course and in subsequent semester classes. The new system resulted in a 50% reduction in the achievement gap as measured by grades among students of different social classes. These findings suggest that frequent consequential quizzing should be used routinely in large lecture courses to improve performance in class and in other concurrent and subsequent courses.

  11. Significant determinants of academic performance by new students enrolled in the higher distance education system of Ecuador. The case of the Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Moncada Mora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present the significant determiners of academic performance of new students enrolled in the higher distance education system of Ecuador. A description and correlation of the variables were undertaken to formalize the probabilistic model that confirms the positive, negative, individual and global effects.

  12. Covalent functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with porphyrin by means of diazonium chemistry for nonlinear optical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aijian; Yu, Wang; Huang, Zhipeng; Zhou, Feng; Song, Jingbao; Song, Yinglin; Long, Lingliang; Cifuentes, Marie P.; Humphrey, Mark G.; Zhang, Long; Shao, Jianda; Zhang, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-porphyrin (TPP) nanohybrids (RGO-TPP 1 and RGO-TPP 2) were prepared by two synthetic routes that involve functionalization of the RGO using diazonium salts. The microscopic structures, morphology, photophysical properties and nonlinear optical performance of the resultant RGO-TPP nanohybrids were investigated. The covalent bonding of the porphyrin-functionalized-RGO nanohybrid materials was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. Attachment of the porphyrin units to the surface of the RGO by diazotization significantly improves the solubility and ease of processing of these RGO-based nanohybrid materials. Ultraviolet/visible absorption and steady-state fluorescence studies indicate considerable π-π interactions and effective photo-induced electron and/or energy transfer between the porphyrin moieties and the extended π-system of RGO. The nonlinear optical properties of RGO-TPP 1 and RGO-TPP 2 were investigated by open-aperture Z-scan measurements at 532 nm with both 4 ns and 21 ps laser pulses, the results showing that the chemical nanohybrids exhibit improved nonlinear optical properties compared to those of the benchmark material C60, and the constituent RGO or porphyrins.

  13. Phenobarbital reduces EEG amplitude and propagation of neonatal seizures but does not alter performance of automated seizure detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Sean R; Livingstone, Vicki; Low, Evonne; Pressler, Ronit; Rennie, Janet M; Boylan, Geraldine B

    2016-10-01

    Phenobarbital increases electroclinical uncoupling and our preliminary observations suggest it may also affect electrographic seizure morphology. This may alter the performance of a novel seizure detection algorithm (SDA) developed by our group. The objectives of this study were to compare the morphology of seizures before and after phenobarbital administration in neonates and to determine the effect of any changes on automated seizure detection rates. The EEGs of 18 term neonates with seizures both pre- and post-phenobarbital (524 seizures) administration were studied. Ten features of seizures were manually quantified and summary measures for each neonate were statistically compared between pre- and post-phenobarbital seizures. SDA seizure detection rates were also compared. Post-phenobarbital seizures showed significantly lower amplitude (pphenobarbital reduces both the amplitude and propagation of seizures which may help to explain electroclinical uncoupling of seizures. The seizure detection rate of the algorithm was unaffected by these changes. The results suggest that users should not need to adjust the SDA sensitivity threshold after phenobarbital administration. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Performance evaluation on air pollution reducing facilities and mechanism research on the third-party governance on environmental pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsheng, Xu; Ling, Lin; Jin, Huang; Geng, Wang; Jianhua, Chen; Shuo, Yang; Huiting, Guo

    2017-11-01

    The paper focuses on developing the operational efficiency of air pollution reducing facilities and the treatment effect of the third-party governance on environmental pollution. Comprehensive analysis method and influence factor analysis are employed to build an evaluation index system by means of discussing major pollution control factors derived from the performance of pollution control equipment operation, environmental protection, technological economy, recourse consumption and manufacturing management. Based on the pattern of environmental pollution control offered by the third-party company, the static games model is further established between the government and the pollution emission firm by considering the whole process of the pollution abatement including investment, construction and operation of the treatment project, which focuses on establishing the policy condition and consequence by discussing the cost and benefit in a short and a long time, respectively. The research results can improve the market access requests of the pollution control equipment and normalize the environmental protection service offered by the third-party company. Moreover, the establishment of the evaluation index system for pollution control equipment and the evaluation mechanism for the third-party governance on environmental pollution has guiding significance on leading environmental protection industry and promoting market-oriented development

  15. Anti-solvent derived non-stacked reduced graphene oxide for high performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeoheung; Lee, Keunsik; Baik, Chul; Yoo, Heejoun; Min, Misook; Park, Younghun; Lee, Sae Mi; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-08-27

    An anti-solvent for graphene oxide (GO), hexane, is introduced to increase the surface area and the pore volume of the non-stacked GO/reduced GO 3D structure and allows the formation of a highly crumpled non-stacked GO powder, which clearly shows ideal supercapacitor behavior. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. A holoparasitic plant severely reduces the vegetative and reproductive performance of its host plant in the Caatinga, a Brazilian seasonally dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Cruz Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Host-parasite interactions between plants may reduce the vegetative and reproductive performance of the host plant. Although it is well established that parasitic plants may negatively affect the metabolism and the number of vegetative/reproductive structures of their hosts, the effects of this interaction on the reproductive characteristics of the host plant are poorly understood. Here we document the interaction between Cuscuta partita (Convolvulaceae and its main host, Zornia diphylla (Fabaceae, in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. We measured diverse reproductive/vegetative attributes of Z. diphylla in 60 plots randomly distributed in patches that were parasitized and not parasitized by C. partita. Both vegetative and reproductive attributes, such as the number of branches, leaves and flowers, and the individual biomass of Z. diphylla were significantly reduced by the parasitism. The number of pollen grains and ovules per flower were not affected by the parasitism, but since the parasitism reduced flower production, the total number of pollen and ovules per individual and population may also be reduced. Additionally, pollen viability was significantly reduced in the flowers of parasitized individuals. We conclude that C. partita may negatively impact the vegetative and reproductive performance of its main host, Z. diphylla in distinct ways in the Caatinga.

  17. Diagnostic performance of reduced-dose CT with a hybrid iterative reconstruction algorithm for the detection of hypervascular liver lesions: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Atsushi; Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Juri, Hiroshi; Nakai, Go; Narumi, Yoshifumi [Osaka Medical College, Department of Radiology, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan); Yoshikawa, Shushi [Osaka Medical College Hospital, Central Radiology Department, Takatsuki, Osaka (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    To investigate the diagnostic performance of reduced-dose CT with a hybrid iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm for the detection of hypervascular liver lesions. Thirty liver phantoms with or without simulated hypervascular lesions were scanned with a 320-slice CT scanner with control-dose (40 mAs) and reduced-dose (30 and 20 mAs) settings. Control-dose images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), and reduced-dose images were reconstructed with FBP and a hybrid IR algorithm. Objective image noise and the lesion to liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were evaluated quantitatively. Images were interpreted independently by 2 blinded radiologists, and jackknife alternative free-response receiver-operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis was performed. Hybrid IR images with reduced-dose settings (both 30 and 20 mAs) yielded significantly lower objective image noise and higher CNR than control-dose FBP images (P <.05). However, hybrid IR images with reduced-dose settings had lower JAFROC1 figure of merit than control-dose FBP images, although only the difference between 20 mAs images and control-dose FBP images was significant for both readers (P <.01). An aggressive reduction of the radiation dose would impair the detectability of hypervascular liver lesions, although objective image noise and CNR would be preserved by a hybrid IR algorithm. (orig.)

  18. Combining multiple FDG-PET radiotherapy target segmentation methods to reduce the effect of variable performance of individual segmentation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGurk, Ross J. [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Bowsher, James; Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Lee, John A [Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Universite Catholique de Louvain, 1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2013-04-15

    Purpose: Many approaches have been proposed to segment high uptake objects in 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose positron emission tomography images but none provides consistent performance across the large variety of imaging situations. This study investigates the use of two methods of combining individual segmentation methods to reduce the impact of inconsistent performance of the individual methods: simple majority voting and probabilistic estimation. Methods: The National Electrical Manufacturers Association image quality phantom containing five glass spheres with diameters 13-37 mm and two irregularly shaped volumes (16 and 32 cc) formed by deforming high-density polyethylene bottles in a hot water bath were filled with 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose and iodine contrast agent. Repeated 5-min positron emission tomography (PET) images were acquired at 4:1 and 8:1 object-to-background contrasts for spherical objects and 4.5:1 and 9:1 for irregular objects. Five individual methods were used to segment each object: 40% thresholding, adaptive thresholding, k-means clustering, seeded region-growing, and a gradient based method. Volumes were combined using a majority vote (MJV) or Simultaneous Truth And Performance Level Estimate (STAPLE) method. Accuracy of segmentations relative to CT ground truth volumes were assessed using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and the symmetric mean absolute surface distances (SMASDs). Results: MJV had median DSC values of 0.886 and 0.875; and SMASD of 0.52 and 0.71 mm for spheres and irregular shapes, respectively. STAPLE provided similar results with median DSC of 0.886 and 0.871; and median SMASD of 0.50 and 0.72 mm for spheres and irregular shapes, respectively. STAPLE had significantly higher DSC and lower SMASD values than MJV for spheres (DSC, p < 0.0001; SMASD, p= 0.0101) but MJV had significantly higher DSC and lower SMASD values compared to STAPLE for irregular shapes (DSC, p < 0.0001; SMASD, p= 0.0027). DSC was not significantly

  19. Reduced work/academic performance and quality of life in patients with allergic rhinitis and impact of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, A; Arcalá Campillo, E; Torres, M C; Millan, C; Jáuregui, I; Mohedano, E; Liñan, S; Verdu, P; Rubira, N; Santaolalla, M; González, P; Orovitg, A; Villarrubia, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is characterised by burdensome nasal and/or ocular symptoms. This inflammatory disease can be debilitating and thus result in considerable health-related and economic consequences. In a cross-sectional study, adult subjects with AR (N = 683) completed three allergy-specific questionnaires that assessed the impact of AR on the work/academic performance, daily activities, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and satisfaction with allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Regression analyses were used to examine the associations between several clinical variables and the patient-reported outcomes. Total loss of productivity was 21.0 and 21.2 % for employed and student patients, respectively, whereas the impairment of daily activities was 22.0 %. The mean overall HRQOL score was 1.94 ± 1.29 (on the scale of 0-6 points). Global score for satisfaction with AIT was 65.5 ± 24.8 (on a 0-100 scale). Simple regression analysis found statistically significant associations between loss of work and academic productivity, impairment of daily activities and the type and severity of AR. AIT was a protective factor. The persistent and more severe types of AR and lack of AIT contributed to the worsening of HRQOL. AR (the persistent and more severe form of the disease) has an impact on functional characteristics of adult patients in Spain. AIT might reduce the effect of this disease on the work/academic performance and HRQOL. Trial registration Retrospectively registered.

  20. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  1. Caffeine intake improves intense intermittent exercise performance and reduces muscle interstitial potassium accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Bangsbo, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The effect of oral caffeine ingestion on intense intermittent exercise performance and muscle interstitial ion concentrations was examined. The study consists of two studies (S1 and S2). In S1 twelve subjects completed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) test with prior caffeine (6...... mg/kg b.w.; CAF) or placebo (PLA) intake. In S2 six subjects performed one low intense (20 W) and three intense (50 W) 3-min (separated by 5 min) one-legged knee-extension exercise bouts with (CAF) and without (CON) prior caffeine supplementation for determination of muscle interstitial K(+) and Na...

  2. Peak performance & reducing stage fright : implementation research HeartMath training programme with students of the Prince Claus Conservatoire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mak, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Stage fright among musicians and music students is a severe problem, and a problem moreover that is not easily talked about. This researchreport is a reflection of the project Peak Performance & Reducing Stage Fright, in which six students of the Prince Claus Conservatoire got the opportunity to

  3. Realistic Job Previews: Can a Procedure to Reduce Turnover Also Influence the Relationship between Abilities and Performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanous, John P.

    1978-01-01

    The current state of theory, research, and practice in realistic job previews (RJP) for recruitment is still immature. RJPs have been used to reduce employee turnover, but not necessarily to influence the job performance of newcomers. This research looks at the background, research results, and unanswered issues. (Author/RK)

  4. Neither elevated nor reduced CO2 affects the photophysiological performance of the marine Antarctic diatom Chaetoceros brevis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Peter; de Poll, Willem H. van; van der Strate, Han J.; Neven, Ika A.; Beardall, John; Buma, Anita G. J.

    2011-01-01

    Enhanced or reduced pCO(2) (partial pressure of CO2) may affect the photosynthetic performance of marine microalgae since changes in pCO(2) can influence the activity of carbon concentrating mechanisms, modulate cellular RuBisCO levels or alter carbon uptake efficiency. In the present study we

  5. Evaluation of a performance-based standards approach to heavy vehicle design to reduce pavement wear

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nordengen, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available As a result of successful initiatives in Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the introduction of a performance-based standards (PBS) approach in the heavy vehicle sector in South Africa was identified by the Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  6. A Quick and Easy Strategy to Reduce Test Anxiety and Enhance Test Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mavilidi, Myrto-Foteini; Hoogerheide, Vincent; Paas, Fred

    2014-01-01

    The negative thoughts that anxious children experience while sitting for an exam consume working memory resources at the cost of resources for performing on the exam. In a randomized field experiment (N=117) with primary school students, we investigated the hypothesis that stimulating students to

  7. Using Brief Guided Imagery to Reduce Math Anxiety and Improve Math Performance: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henslee, Amber M.; Klein, Brandi A.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether brief guided imagery could provide a short-term reduction in math anxiety and improve math performance. Undergraduates (N = 581) were screened for math anxiety, and the highest and lowest quartiles were recruited to participate in a lab-based study. Participants were assigned to a brief guided…

  8. Performance evaluation of mobile downflow booths for reducing airborne particles in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Li-Ming; Hocker, Braden; Steltz, Austin E; Kremer, John; Feng, H Amy

    2017-11-01

    Compared to other common control measures, the downflow booth is a costly engineering control used to contain airborne dust or particles. The downflow booth provides unidirectional filtered airflow from the ceiling, entraining released particles away from the workers' breathing zone, and delivers contained airflow to a lower level exhaust for removing particulates by filtering media. In this study, we designed and built a mobile downflow booth that is capable of quick assembly and easy size change to provide greater flexibility and particle control for various manufacturing processes or tasks. An experimental study was conducted to thoroughly evaluate the control performance of downflow booths used for removing airborne particles generated by the transfer of powdered lactose between two containers. Statistical analysis compared particle reduction ratios obtained from various test conditions including booth size (short, regular, or extended), supply air velocity (0.41 and 0.51 m/s or 80 and 100 feet per minute, fpm), powder transfer location (near or far from the booth exhaust), and inclusion or exclusion of curtains at the booth entrance. Our study results show that only short-depth downflow booths failed to protect the worker performing powder transfer far from the booth exhausts. Statistical analysis shows that better control performance can be obtained with supply air velocity of 0.51 m/s (100 fpm) than with 0.41 m/s (80 fpm) and that use of curtains for downflow booths did not improve their control performance.

  9. Does corporate social performance reduce greenhouse gas emissions at the macro level?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, Johan; Hudson, Paul; Werner, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Corporate social performance (CSP) is assumed to have a positive impact on macroeconomic sustainability, but empirical evidence of this impact is absent in the literature. The objective of this paper is to investigate the macro impacts of CSP. We first establish a conceptual framework on the

  10. Digital Devices, Distraction, and Student Performance: Does In-Class Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, Angel R.; Wilcox, Bethany R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads, and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use on student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight…

  11. The use of synthetic blended fibers to reduce cracking risk in high performance concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this project was to investigate a relatively new technique to control early-age cracking; the : use of blended size polypropylene fibers in high performance concrete mixtures. The key findings : from this work were that the use of drying s...

  12. In situ reduced graphene oxide interlayer for improving electrode performance in ZnO nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, A.; Ramesha, C. K.; Kannan, E. S.

    2016-06-01

    The effect of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) thin film on the transport characteristics of vertically aligned zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO NRs) grown on ITO substrate was studied. GO was uniformly drop casted on ZnO NRs as a passivation layer and then converted into RGO by heating it at 60 °C prior to metal electrode deposition. This low temperature reduction is facilitated by the thermally excited electrons from ZnI interstitial sites (~30 meV). Successful reduction of GO was ascertained from the increased disorder band (D) intensity in the Raman spectra. Temperature (298 K-10 K) dependent transport measurements of RGO-ZnO NRs indicate that the RGO layer not only acts as a short circuiting inhibitor but also reduces the height of the potential barrier for electron tunneling. This is confirmed from the temperature dependent electrical characteristics which revealed a transition of carrier transport from thermionic emission at high temperature (T  >  100 K) to tunneling at low temperature (T  <  100 K) across the interface. Our technique is the most promising approach for making reliable electrical contacts on vertically aligned ZnO NRs and improving the reproducibility of device characteristics.

  13. Room-temperature synthesis and enhanced catalytic performance of silver-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thu, Tran Viet; Ko, Pil Ju; Phuc, Nguyen Huu Huy; Sandhu, Adarsh

    2013-01-01

    The synthesis of supported, ultrasmall metallic nanoparticles (NPs) is of great importance for catalytic applications. In this study, silver-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids (Ag–rGO NHs) were prepared by reducing Ag ions and graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature using sodium borohydride (NaBH 4 ) and trisodium citrate. The resulting products were characterized using UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rich chemistry of GO surface provided many sites for the nucleation of Ag ions and efficiently limited their growth. Ag NPs were uniformly grown on basal planes of rGO with a high density (∼1,700 NPs μm −2 ) and well-defined size (3.6 ± 0.6 nm) as evidenced in SEM and HRTEM studies. The resulting Ag–rGO NHs were readily dispersed in water and exhibited enhanced catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH 4 in comparison to unsupported Ag NPs. The role of rGO as an excellent support for Ag catalyst is discussed

  14. Room-temperature synthesis and enhanced catalytic performance of silver-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thu, Tran Viet, E-mail: thu@eiiris.tut.ac.jp; Ko, Pil Ju, E-mail: ko@eiiris.tut.ac.jp [Toyohashi University of Technology, Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (Japan); Phuc, Nguyen Huu Huy [Toyohashi University of Technology, Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering (Japan); Sandhu, Adarsh [Toyohashi University of Technology, Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    The synthesis of supported, ultrasmall metallic nanoparticles (NPs) is of great importance for catalytic applications. In this study, silver-reduced graphene oxide nanohybrids (Ag-rGO NHs) were prepared by reducing Ag ions and graphene oxide (GO) at room temperature using sodium borohydride (NaBH{sub 4}) and trisodium citrate. The resulting products were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The rich chemistry of GO surface provided many sites for the nucleation of Ag ions and efficiently limited their growth. Ag NPs were uniformly grown on basal planes of rGO with a high density ({approx}1,700 NPs {mu}m{sup -2}) and well-defined size (3.6 {+-} 0.6 nm) as evidenced in SEM and HRTEM studies. The resulting Ag-rGO NHs were readily dispersed in water and exhibited enhanced catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol by NaBH{sub 4} in comparison to unsupported Ag NPs. The role of rGO as an excellent support for Ag catalyst is discussed.

  15. NAVFAC Safety performance and the use of best practices to reduce lost workhours and accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, James Treacy.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document This thesis analyzes the safety performance of several U.S. Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) projects as they compare to the construction industry as a whole and to the Construction Industry Institute (CII) Member companies. Safety success on a construction project is measured by examining the Lost Workday Case Incident Rate (LWCIR), Recordable Incident Rate (RIR), and the Fatality Incident Rate (FIR). This thesis will endeavor to...

  16. The impact of bullying on educational performance in Ghana: A Bias-reducing Matching Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kibriya, Shahriar; Xu, Zhicheng P.; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem in academic settings all over the world. Using data from Ghana through the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study we show that bullying has a negative effect on academic performance. We also find evidence that female students are more affected by bullying. However, our analysis of the data reveals a female teacher in the classroom diminishes the negative effect of bullying on female students. The analysis uses a quasi-experimental propensity...

  17. Reducing Energy Use in Existing Homes by 30%: Learning From Home Performance with ENERGY STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, C. [Building America Research Alliance (BARA), Kent, WA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The improvement of existing homes in the United States can have a much greater impact on overall residential energy use than the construction of highly efficient new homes. There are over 130 million existing housing units in the U.S., while annually new construction represents less than two percent of the total supply (U.S. Census Bureau, 2013). Therefore, the existing housing stock presents a clear opportunity and responsibility for Building America (BA) to guide the remodeling and retrofit market toward higher performance existing homes. There are active programs designed to improve the energy performance of existing homes. Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (HPwES) is a market-rate program among them. BARA's research in this project verified that the New Jersey HPwES program is achieving savings in existing homes that meet or exceed BA's goal of 30%. Among the 17 HPwES projects with utility data included in this report, 15 have actual energy savings ranging from 24% to 46%. Further, two of the homes achieved that level of energy savings without the costly replacement of heating and cooling equipment, which indicates that less costly envelope packages could be offered to consumers unable to invest in more costly mechanical packages, potentially creating broader market impact.

  18. Self-Control Strength Depletion Reduces Self-Efficacy and Impairs Exercise Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jeffrey D; Bray, Steven R

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of task self-efficacy as a psychological factor involved in the relationship between self-control depletion and physical endurance. Participants (N = 37) completed two isometric handgrip endurance trials, separated by a Stroop task, which was either congruent (control) or incongruent (causing depletion). Task self-efficacy for the second endurance trial was measured following the Stroop task. Participants in the depletion condition reported lower task self-efficacy and showed a greater reduction in performance on the second endurance trial when compared with controls. Task self-efficacy also mediated the relationship between self-control depletion and endurance performance. The results of this study provide evidence that task self-efficacy is negatively affected following self-control depletion. We recommend that task self-efficacy be further investigated as a psychological factor accounting for the negative change in self-control performance of physical endurance and sport tasks following self-control strength depletion.

  19. Massage and Storytelling Reduce Aggression and Improve Academic Performance in Children Attending Elementary School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Lia Lopes; Voos, Mariana Callil; de Almeida, Maria Helena Morgani; Caromano, Fátima Aparecida

    2017-01-01

    Aggressive behaviors must be addressed in elementary schools. Massage and storytelling can be strategies to deal with aggression because both involve experience exchange and social interaction. Both can decrease stress and anxiety and increase self-esteem. To evaluate the effect of two interventions (massage and storytelling) on aggressive behaviors and academic performance of elementary school children. Three groups ( n = 35 children in each group) of the second grade participated (aged 6.5-8.1 years). One group received ten extra classes of massage (MG), another group received extra classes of storytelling (SG), and the control group received extra classes of random subjects (CG). Extra classes lasted for 50 minutes, once a week. Aggressive behaviors were recorded on diaries, by the teachers and the coordinator. The frequency of aggressive behaviors and the academic performance of MG, SG, and CG were observed for six months and the groups were compared. ANOVAs evidenced that MG and SG, but not CG, showed a reduction in aggressive behaviors registered by the teachers and coordinator, after the intervention. Academic performance of MG and SC improved after the intervention ( p < 0.05).

  20. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Institute of Radiation Medicine, Bundang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Joong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna [Seoul National University, School of Computer Science and Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yanof, Jeffrey H. [Philips Healthcare, CT Clinical Science, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hwang, Seung-sik [Inha University School of Medicine, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI{sub vol} and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI{sub vol} varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI{sub vol} and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI{sub vol} (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI{sub vol} (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  1. Does the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affect the radiation exposure in low-dose CT colonography performed with an automatic exposure control?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Hyun Kyong; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Young Hoon; Kim, Kil Joong; Kim, Bohyoung; Lee, Hyunna; Park, Seong Ho; Yanof, Jeffrey H.; Hwang, Seung-sik

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether the amount of tagged stool and fluid significantly affects the radiation exposure in low-dose screening CT colonography performed with an automatic tube-current modulation technique. The study included 311 patients. The tagging agent was barium (n = 271) or iodine (n = 40). Correlation was measured between mean volume CT dose index (CTDI vol ) and the estimated x-ray attenuation of the tagged stool and fluid (ATT). Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to determine the effect of ATT on CTDI vol and the effect of ATT on image noise while adjusting for other variables including abdominal circumference. CTDI vol varied from 0.88 to 2.54 mGy. There was no significant correlation between CTDI vol and ATT (p = 0.61). ATT did not significantly affect CTDI vol (p = 0.93), while abdominal circumference was the only factor significantly affecting CTDI vol (p < 0.001). Image noise ranged from 59.5 to 64.1 HU. The p value for the regression model explaining the noise was 0.38. The amount of stool and fluid tagging does not significantly affect radiation exposure. (orig.)

  2. Basic investigation of particle swarm optimization performance in a reduced scale PWR passive safety system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, Joao J. da; Lapa, Celso Marcelo F.; Alvim, Antonio Carlos M.; Lima, Carlos A. Souza; Pereira, Claudio Marcio do N.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a methodology to investigate the viability of using particle swarm optimization technique to obtain the best combination of physical and operational parameters that lead to the best adjusted dimensionless groups, calculated by similarity laws, that are able to simulate the most relevant physical phenomena in single-phase flow under natural circulation and to offer an appropriate alternative reduced scale design for reactor primary loops with this flow characteristics. A PWR reactor core, under natural circulation, based on LOFT test facility, was used as the case study. The particle swarm optimization technique was applied to a problem with these thermo-hydraulics conditions and results demonstrated the viability and adequacy of the method to design similar systems with these characteristics.

  3. Basic investigation of particle swarm optimization performance in a reduced scale PWR passive safety system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, Joao J. da [Eletronuclear Eletrobras Termonuclear, Gerencia de Analise de Seguranca Nuclear, Rua da Candelaria, 65, 7o andar. Centro, Rio de Janeiro 20091-906 (Brazil); Lapa, Celso Marcelo F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.b [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil); Alvim, Antonio Carlos M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, COPPE/Nuclear, P.O. Box 68509, Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao s/n, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil); Lima, Carlos A. Souza [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Politecnico, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Pos-Graduacao em Modelagem Computacional, Rua Alberto Rangel, s/n, Vila Nova, Nova Friburgo 28630-050 (Brazil); Pereira, Claudio Marcio do N.A. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear, Divisao de Reatores/PPGIEN, P.O. Box 68550, Rua Helio de Almeida 75 Cidade Universitaria, Ilha do Fundao, Rio de Janeiro 21941-972 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Reatores Nucleares Inovadores (Brazil)

    2010-03-15

    This work presents a methodology to investigate the viability of using particle swarm optimization technique to obtain the best combination of physical and operational parameters that lead to the best adjusted dimensionless groups, calculated by similarity laws, that are able to simulate the most relevant physical phenomena in single-phase flow under natural circulation and to offer an appropriate alternative reduced scale design for reactor primary loops with this flow characteristics. A PWR reactor core, under natural circulation, based on LOFT test facility, was used as the case study. The particle swarm optimization technique was applied to a problem with these thermo-hydraulics conditions and results demonstrated the viability and adequacy of the method to design similar systems with these characteristics.

  4. Flow-Boiling Critical Heat Flux Experiments Performed in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammad M.; Mudawar, Issam

    2005-01-01

    Poor understanding of flow boiling in microgravity has recently emerged as a key obstacle to the development of many types of power generation and advanced life support systems intended for space exploration. The critical heat flux (CHF) is perhaps the most important thermal design parameter for boiling systems involving both heatflux-controlled devices and intense heat removal. Exceeding the CHF limit can lead to permanent damage, including physical burnout of the heat-dissipating device. The importance of the CHF limit creates an urgent need to develop predictive design tools to ensure both the safe and reliable operation of a two-phase thermal management system under the reduced-gravity (like that on the Moon and Mars) and microgravity environments of space. At present, very limited information is available on flow-boiling heat transfer and the CHF under these conditions.

  5. Reduced Zeta potential through use of cationic adhesion promoter for improved resist process performance and minimizing material consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Lorna; Thompson, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the results of a non-HMDS (non-silane) adhesion promoter that was used to reduce the zeta potential for very thin (proprietary) polymer on silicon. By reducing the zeta potential, as measured by the minimum sample required to fully coat a wafer, the amount of polymer required to coat silicon substrates was significantly reduced in the manufacture of X-ray windows used for high transmission of low-energy X-rays. Moreover, this approach used aqueous based adhesion promoter described as a cationic surface active agent that has been shown to improve adhesion of photoresists (positive, negative, epoxy [SU8], e-beam and dry film). As well as reducing the amount of polymer required to coat substrates, this aqueous adhesion promoter is nonhazardous, and contains non-volatile solvents.

  6. Short-term feed and light deprivation reduces voluntary activity but improves swimming performance in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Javed Rafiq; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang; Methling, Caroline

    2018-01-01

    compared to a 12:12-h light–dark (LD) photoperiod. Weight loss during this period was also significantly reduced in total darkness (3.33% compared to 4.98% total body weight over 12 days). Immunological assays did not reveal any consistent up- or downregulation of antipathogenic and antioxidant enzymes...

  7. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-13

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC 71 BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  8. Significantly improved photovoltaic performance in polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells with graphene oxide /PEDOT:PSS double decked hole transport layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafique, Saqib; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Shahid, Muhammad Mehmood; Ansari, Mohammad Omaish; Sulaiman, Khaulah

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates the high performance graphene oxide (GO)/PEDOT:PSS doubled decked hole transport layer (HTL) in the PCDTBT:PC71BM based bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic device. The devices were tested on merits of their power conversion efficiency (PCE), reproducibility, stability and further compared with the devices with individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs. Solar cells employing GO/PEDOT:PSS HTL yielded a PCE of 4.28% as compared to either of individual GO or PEDOT:PSS HTLs where they demonstrated PCEs of 2.77 and 3.57%, respectively. In case of single GO HTL, an inhomogeneous coating of ITO caused the poor performance whereas PEDOT:PSS is known to be hygroscopic and acidic which upon direct contact with ITO reduced the device performance. The improvement in the photovoltaic performance is mainly ascribed to the increased charge carriers mobility, short circuit current, open circuit voltage, fill factor, and decreased series resistance. The well matched work function of GO and PEDOT:PSS is likely to facilitate the charge transportation and an overall reduction in the series resistance. Moreover, GO could effectively block the electrons due to its large band-gap of ~3.6 eV, leading to an increased shunt resistance. In addition, we also observed the improvement in the reproducibility and stability.

  9. Thermoelectric performance of tellurium-reduced quaternary p-type lead–chalcogenide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminorroaya Yamini, Sima; Wang, Heng; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Pei, Yanzhong; Mitchell, David R.G.; Dou, Shi Xue; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Abstract: A long-standing technological challenge to the widespread application of thermoelectric generators is obtaining high-performance thermoelectric materials from abundant elements. Intensive study on PbTe alloys has resulted in a high figure of merit for the single-phase ternary PbTe–PbSe system through band structure engineering, and the low thermal conductivity achieved due to nanostructuring leads to high thermoelectric performance for ternary PbTe–PbS compounds. Recently, the single-phase p-type quaternary PbTe–PbSe–PbS alloys have been shown to provide thermoelectric performance superior to the binary and ternary lead chalcogenides. This occurs via tuning of the band structure and from an extraordinary low thermal conductivity resulting from high-contrast atomic mass solute atoms. Here, we present the thermoelectric efficiency of nanostructured p-type quaternary PbTe–PbSe–PbS composites and compare the results with corresponding single-phase quaternary lead chalcogenide alloys. We demonstrate that the very low lattice thermal conductivity achieved is attributed to phonon scattering at high-contrast atomic mass solute atoms rather than from the contribution of secondary phases. This results in a thermoelectric efficiency of ∼1.4 over a wide temperature range (650–850 K) in a p-type quaternary (PbTe) 0.65 (PbSe) 0.1 (PbS) 0.25 composite that is lower than that of single-phase (PbTe) 0.85 (PbSe) 0.1 (PbS) 0.05 alloy without secondary phases

  10. Performance characteristics of CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay and clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 assay in patients with malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.E.; Shong, Y.K.; Cho, B.Y.; Kim, N.K.; Koh, C.S.; Lee, M.H.; Hong, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the performance characteristics of CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay and the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 assay in patients with malignancy, serum CA 19-9 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay using monoclonal antibody in 135 normal controls, 81 patients with various untreated malignancy, 9 patients of postoperative colon cancer without recurrence and 20 patients with benign gastrointestinal diseases, who visited Seoul National University Hospital from June, 1984 to March, 1985. (Author)

  11. Denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography mutation analysis in patients with reduced Protein S levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bathum, Lise; Münster, Anna-Marie; Nybo, Mads

    2008-01-01

    diagnosis and risk estimation. The aim was to design a high-throughput genetic analysis based on denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography to identify sequence variations in the gene coding for Protein S. PATIENTS: In total, 55 patients referred to the Section of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, Odense......BACKGROUND: Patients with congenital Protein S deficiency have increased risk of venous thromboembolism. However, Protein S levels show large intra-individual variation and the biochemical assays have low accuracy and a high interlaboratory variability. Genetic analysis might aid in a more precise......, giving a precise diagnosis and subsequently a better risk estimation....

  12. There are lots of big fish in this pond: The role of peer overqualification on task significance, perceived fit, and performance for overqualified employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jia; Erdogan, Berrin; Bauer, Talya N; Jiang, Kaifeng; Liu, Songbo; Li, Yuhui

    2015-07-01

    Research has uncovered mixed results regarding the influence of overqualification on employee performance outcomes, suggesting the existence of boundary conditions for such an influence. Using relative deprivation theory (Crosby, 1976) as the primary theoretical basis, in the current research, we examine the moderating role of peer overqualification and provide insights to the questions regarding whether, when, and how overqualification relates to employee performance. We tested the theoretical model with data gathered across three phases over 6 months from 351 individuals and their supervisors in 72 groups. Results showed that when working with peers whose average overqualification level was high, as opposed to low, employees who felt overqualified for their jobs perceived greater task significance and person-group fit, and demonstrated higher levels of in-role and extra-role performance. We discuss theoretical and managerial implications for overqualification at the individual level and within the larger group context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Profiting from negawatts: Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberger, Julia K.; Niel, Johan van; Bourg, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required

  14. Profiting from negawatts. Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Schottenfeldg. 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria); van Niel, Johan [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); CREIDD, University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Bourg, Dominique [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required. (author)

  15. Profiting from negawatts: Reducing absolute consumption and emissions through a performance-based energy economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberger, Julia K. [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); Institute of Social Ecology, Klagenfurt University, Schottenfeldg. 29, A-1070 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail: julia.steinberger@uni-klu.ac.at; Niel, Johan van [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland); CREIDD, University of Technology of Troyes, 12 rue Marie Curie, BP 2060, 10010 Troyes Cedex (France); Bourg, Dominique [IPTEH, Quartier Sorge-Bat. Amphipole, University of Lausanne, CH-1015-Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2009-01-15

    Current energy and GHG emissions policies either focus directly on emissions or promote renewable production and the implementation of specific efficiency measures. Meanwhile, the fundamental structure of the energy market based on profits through energy throughput remains largely unchallenged. This policy oversight prevents the transition to an energy economy in which profits are based on energy services delivered at the lowest energy cost: a performance-based energy economy (PBEE). The PBEE applies the combined concepts of the performance economy and energy services to the energy sector. Energy Service Companies (ESCOs) are discussed as an example of PBEE practices. The implications for energy suppliers and consumers as well as the conditions for PBEE diffusion and consequences for technological change are also explored. The expected environmental, social and economic benefits are described. However, absolute consumption and emissions reductions may prove elusive due to the rebound effect. In order to forestall rebound-led increases, complementary policy measures likely to lead to absolute reductions are required.

  16. Significant Effect of a Pre-Exercise High-Fat Meal after a 3-Day High-Carbohydrate Diet on Endurance Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuma Murakami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on endurance performance. Subjects consumed a high-carbohydrate diet at each meal for 3 days, followed by a high-fat meal (HFM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 30% CHO, 55% F and 15% P or high-carbohydrate meal (HCM; 1007 ± 21 kcal, 71% CHO, 20% F and 9% P 4 h before exercise. Furthermore, just prior to the test, subjects in the HFM group ingested either maltodextrin jelly (M or a placebo jelly (P, while subjects in the HCM ingested a placebo jelly. Endurance performance was measured as running time until exhaustion at a speed between lactate threshold and the onset of blood lactate accumulation. All subjects participated in each trial, randomly assigned at weekly intervals. We observed that the time until exhaustion was significantly longer in the HFM + M (p < 0.05 than in HFM + P and HCM + P conditions. Furthermore, the total amount of fat oxidation during exercise was significantly higher in HFM + M and HFM + P than in HCM + P (p < 0.05. These results suggest that ingestion of a HFM prior to exercise is more favorable for endurance performance than HCM. In addition, HFM and maltodextrin ingestion following 3 days of carbohydrate loading enhances endurance running performance.

  17. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  18. Research on the Preparation and Performance of Binary Modified Maltodextrin Water-Reducing Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingzhi Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Using maltodextrin (MD of different dextrose equivalent (DE values, 1,3-propanesultone, and maleic anhydride as raw materials, a novel binary modified maltodextrin (BMMD was synthesized and further applied as a water-reducing agent. Its structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR and UV. The rheological behavior of the sample solution and strengths for concrete were also determined and the adsorption was tested by TOC. The influence of the process parameters to degree of substitution (DS and the dosage on the fluidity of cement paste were investigated. The results show that the optimal conditions of sulfonation were the MD of DE 15, m (sulfonated agent/m (MD of 1.4, the catalyst amount of 1% by mass MD, and the reaction time of 12 h; the optimal conditions of esterification were m (esterified agent/m (SMD of 0.6, the reaction temperature of 90°C, and the reaction time of 4 h. The optimal dosages of sulfonated maltodextrin (SMD and BMMD were 0.475% and 0.45%, respectively. In this dosage, the main dispersion capacity of BMMD attributes to two kinds of anchoring groups (SO3-  &  COO- and the appropriate molecular weight of MD.

  19. Efficient electrocatalytic performance of thermally exfoliated reduced graphene oxide-Pt hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, Rajini P., E-mail: raji.anna@gmail.com; Preethi, L.K.; Gupta, Bhavana; Mathews, Tom, E-mail: tom@igcar.gov.in; Dash, S.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis of Pt–RGO nanohybrids of very high electrochemically active surface area. • Electrocatalytic activity-cum-stability: ∼10 times that of commercial Pt-C catalyst. • TEM confirms narrow size distribution and excellent dispersion of Pt nanoparticles. • SAED and XRD indicate (1 1 1) orientation of Pt nanoparticles. • Methanol oxidation EIS reveal decrease in charge transfer resistance with potential - Abstract: High quality thermally exfoliated reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets decorated with platinum nanocrystals have been synthesized using a simple environmentally benign process. The electrocatalytic behaviour of the Pt–RGO nanohybrid for methanol oxidation was studied using cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy shows uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles of ∼2–4 nm size. X-ray diffraction and selected area diffraction studies reveal (1 1 1) orientation of the platinum nanoparticles. The cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry results indicate higher catalytic activity and stability for Pt–RGO compared to commercial Pt-C. The electrochemical active surface area of Pt–RGO (52.16 m{sup 2}/g) is found to be 1.5 times that of commercial Pt-C. Impedance spectroscopy shows different impedance behaviour at different potential regions, indicating change in methanol oxidation reaction mechanism with potential. The reversal of impedance pattern to the second quadrant, at potentials higher than ∼0.40 V, indicates change in the rate determining reaction.

  20. Nanocellulose-assisted low-temperature synthesis and supercapacitor performance of reduced graphene oxide aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Ran, Ran; Sunarso, Jaka; Yin, Chao; Zou, Honggang; Feng, Yi; Li, Xiaobao; Zheng, Xu; Yao, Jianfeng

    2017-04-01

    Here, we have synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) aerogels using a nanocellulose-assisted low temperature (less than 500 °C) thermal treatment route where nanocelluloses promote the gelation of graphene oxide (GO) solution that benefits the fabrication of GO aerogels from low concentration dispersion (2.85 mg mL-1), and after their thermal decomposition the residual nanofibers act as spacer both prevent the re-stacking of graphene sheets and integrate with rGO sheets to give a particular kind of carbon-based aerogel along with numerous defects (holes). Thermal decomposition of nanocellulose appears to be complete beyond 350 °C thus its presence in form of amorphous carbon nanofibers in rGO sheets. The rGO aerogels synthesized at 350 °C provide the best balance in terms of wide interlayer spacing, high content of CO-type functional groups, and high defects content. This translates into a high discharge capacitance of 270 F g-1 at a current rate of 1 A g-1 for compressed rGO aerogels without any binder or conductive additive. Detailed electrochemical tests using 6 M KOH electrolyte establish the fact that pseudocapacitance component has substantial contribution towards the overall capacitance; closely approaching the contribution of the double layer capacitance that is the most dominant capacitance component.

  1. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Hinton

    Full Text Available The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674 of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  2. A large-scale examination of the effectiveness of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences in higher education assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Daniel P; Higson, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The present research aims to more fully explore the issues of performance differences in higher education assessment, particularly in the context of a common measure taken to address them. The rationale for the study is that, while performance differences in written examinations are relatively well researched, few studies have examined the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing these performance differences, particularly in modern student populations. By examining a large archive (N = 30674) of assessment data spanning a twelve-year period, the relationship between assessment marks and factors such as ethnic group, gender and socio-environmental background was investigated. In particular, analysis focused on the impact that the implementation of anonymous marking for assessment of written examinations and coursework has had on the magnitude of mean score differences between demographic groups of students. While group differences were found to be pervasive in higher education assessment, these differences were observed to be relatively small in practical terms. Further, it appears that the introduction of anonymous marking has had a negligible effect in reducing them. The implications of these results are discussed, focusing on two issues, firstly a defence of examinations as a fair and legitimate form of assessment in Higher Education, and, secondly, a call for the re-examination of the efficacy of anonymous marking in reducing group performance differences.

  3. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  4. Performance of the latest MPPCs with reduced dark counts and improved photon detection efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, T.; Funamoto, H.; Kataoka, J.; Fujita, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Kurei, Y.; Sato, K.; Yamamura, K.; Nakamura, S.

    2014-01-01

    We have tested the performance of two types of the latest Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs; measuring 3×3 mm 2 in size) developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The new S12572-050C is a successor to the S10362-33-050C (i.e., conventional 3×3-mm 2 pixel MPPC of 50 μm pitch), comprises 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and also features high gain (up to 1.25×10 6 ), a low dark count (up to 10 6 cps), and improved photon detection efficiency (PDE) by up to 30%. The S12572-015C is a new type of fine-pitch (15 μm) MPPC featuring a wide dynamic range and fast timing response. This paper first presents the detailed performance of these latest MPPCs as photon counting devices. It then describes our fabrication of a prototype detector consisting of a MPPC optically coupled with a Ce:GAGG scintillator. We obtained average FWHM energy resolutions of 7.3% (15 μm) and 6.7% (new-50 μm), as compared to 6.9% (old-50 μm) for 662-keV gamma rays from the 137 Cs source, as measured at 20 °C. Moreover, the number of fired pixels for 662-keV gamma rays increased by 30% for the new-50 μm (as compared to the old-50 μm). We confirmed that the low energy threshold improved from 10 keV to 4 keV, when using the latest MPPC device (new-50 μm). We also confirmed that the timing resolution of the new MPPC is 50 ps or even better, as compared to 89 ps of the old MPPC. The results thus confirm that these new types of MPPCs are promising for various applications as scintillation detectors. - Highlights: • We tested the performance of the latest MPPC. • We confirmed that the new MPPC is superior to the old MPPC. • We plan to apply the new MPPC for a next-generation PET and a handy Compton camera

  5. Performance of the latest MPPCs with reduced dark counts and improved photon detection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujikawa, T., E-mail: takayuki-t.w@asagi.waseda.jp [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Funamoto, H.; Kataoka, J.; Fujita, T.; Nishiyama, T.; Kurei, Y. [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Sato, K.; Yamamura, K.; Nakamura, S. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K. K., 1126-1, Ichino-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2014-11-21

    We have tested the performance of two types of the latest Multi-Pixel Photon Counters (MPPCs; measuring 3×3 mm{sup 2} in size) developed by Hamamatsu Photonics K.K. The new S12572-050C is a successor to the S10362-33-050C (i.e., conventional 3×3-mm{sup 2} pixel MPPC of 50 μm pitch), comprises 3600 Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes (APDs), and also features high gain (up to 1.25×10{sup 6}), a low dark count (up to 10{sup 6} cps), and improved photon detection efficiency (PDE) by up to 30%. The S12572-015C is a new type of fine-pitch (15 μm) MPPC featuring a wide dynamic range and fast timing response. This paper first presents the detailed performance of these latest MPPCs as photon counting devices. It then describes our fabrication of a prototype detector consisting of a MPPC optically coupled with a Ce:GAGG scintillator. We obtained average FWHM energy resolutions of 7.3% (15 μm) and 6.7% (new-50 μm), as compared to 6.9% (old-50 μm) for 662-keV gamma rays from the {sup 137}Cs source, as measured at 20 °C. Moreover, the number of fired pixels for 662-keV gamma rays increased by 30% for the new-50 μm (as compared to the old-50 μm). We confirmed that the low energy threshold improved from 10 keV to 4 keV, when using the latest MPPC device (new-50 μm). We also confirmed that the timing resolution of the new MPPC is 50 ps or even better, as compared to 89 ps of the old MPPC. The results thus confirm that these new types of MPPCs are promising for various applications as scintillation detectors. - Highlights: • We tested the performance of the latest MPPC. • We confirmed that the new MPPC is superior to the old MPPC. • We plan to apply the new MPPC for a next-generation PET and a handy Compton camera.

  6. Drag-reducing performance of obliquely aligned superhydrophobic surface in turbulent channel flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Sho; Fukagata, Koji [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Keio University, Hiyoshi 3-14-1, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Mamori, Hiroya, E-mail: fukagata@mech.keio.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo University of Science, Niijuku 6-3-1, Katsushika-ku, Tokyo 125-8585 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Friction drag reduction effect by superhydrophobic surfaces in a turbulent channel flow is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. The simulations are performed under a constant pressure gradient at the friction Reynolds number of 180. A special focus is laid upon the influence of the angle of microridge structure to flow direction, while the gas area fraction on the surface is kept at 50% and the groove width is kept constant at 33.75 wall units. Larger drag reduction effect is observed for a smaller angle: the bulk-mean velocity is increased about 15% when the microridge is parallel to the flow. The drag reduction effect is found to deteriorate rapidly with the microridge angle due to a decrease in the slip velocity. The Reynolds stress budgets show that the modification in each physical effect is qualitatively similar but more pronounced when the microridge is aligned with the stream. (paper)

  7. Water table lowering to improve excavation performance and to reduce acid mine drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppe, J.C.; Costa, J.F.; Laurent, O. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This paper analyses the water table level fluctuations using wells located adjacent to the stripping cuts at the Butia-Leste coal mine, southernmost of Brazil. Piezometers monitored the water table fluctuations. Geological mapping provided additional information aiding the interpretation of the results. A contouring software was also used as tool to aid the interpretation of the data and the results visualisation. The parameters necessary in selecting the location of the wells and pumping volumes were calculated from the data obtained in the water table lowering tests. The results were used to minimise two main problems: the generation of acid mine drainage and the reduction of the excavation performance of the fleet used in overburden removal. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Laboratory selection for increased longevity in Drosophila melanogaster reduces field performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wit, Janneke; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Sarup, Pernille

    2013-01-01

    , environmental temperature and longevity selection on performance in the fieldwas tested. Flies fromlongevity selected and control lines of different ages (2, 5, 10 and 15 days) were released in an environment free of natural food sources. Control flies were tested at low, intermediate and high temperatures......Drosophilamelanogaster is frequently used in ageing studies to elucidate whichmechanisms determine the onset and progress of senescence. Lines selected for increased longevity have often been shown to performaswell as or superior to control lines in life history, stress resistance and behavioural......,while longevity selected flieswere tested at the intermediate temperature only. The ability of flies to locate and reach a food sourcewas tested. Flies of intermediate agewere generally better at locating resources than both younger and older flies, where hot and cold environments accelerate the senescent decline...

  9. High-performance flexible supercapacitors based on electrochemically tailored three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkait, Taniya; Singh, Guneet; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Mandeep; Dey, Ramendra Sundar

    2018-01-12

    A simple approach for growing porous electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (pErGO) networks on copper wire, modified with galvanostatically deposited copper foam is demonstrated. The as-prepared pErGO networks on the copper wire are directly used to fabricate solid-state supercapacitor. The pErGO-based supercapacitor can deliver a specific capacitance (C sp ) as high as 81±3 F g -1 at 0.5 A g -1 with polyvinyl alcohol/H 3 PO 4 gel electrolyte. The C sp per unit length and area are calculated as 40.5 mF cm -1 and 283.5 mF cm -2 , respectively. The shape of the voltammogram retained up to high scan rate of 100 V s -1 . The pErGO-based supercapacitor device exhibits noticeably high charge-discharge cycling stability, with 94.5% C sp retained even after 5000 cycles at 5 A g -1 . Nominal change in the specific capacitance, as well as the shape of the voltammogram, is observed at different bending angles of the device even after 5000 cycles. The highest energy density of 11.25 W h kg -1 and the highest power density of 5 kW kg -1 are also achieved with this device. The wire-based supercapacitor is scalable and highly flexible, which can be assembled with/without a flexible substrate in different geometries and bending angles for illustrating promising use in smart textile and wearable device.

  10. ESBWR passive heat exchanger design and performance - reducing plant development costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumini, E.; Upton, H.A.; Billig, P.F.; Masoni, P.

    1996-01-01

    The EUROPEAN Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) is a nuclear plant that builds on the solid technological foundation of the Simplified Boiling Reactor (SBWR) design. The major objective of the ESBWR program is to develop a plant design that utilizes the basic simplicity of the SBWR design that utilizes the basic simplicity of the SBWR design features to improve overall economics and to meet the specific requirements found in the European Utility Requirements Documents (EUR). The design is being developed by an international team of utilities, designers and researchers with the objective of meeting European utility and regulatory requirements. The overall approach to improve the commercial attractiveness of the ESBWR compared to the SBWR was to take advantage of the modular design of the passive safety system, the economy of scale, as well as the advantage of simpler systems of the passive plant to reduce overall material quantities and improve plant economics. To take advantage of the economy of scale, the power level of ESBWR was increased to 1190 MWe. Because of the modular nature of the passive safety systems in SBWR, in increase in thermal power of ESBWR to 3613 MWt only requires that the number of Passive Containment Condensers to maintain the passive safety features of ESBWR to four 33 MWt units for ESBWR. This paper reviews the Passive Containment Cooling (PCC) and Isolation Condenser (IC) unit design and addresses their use in the passive safety systems of the 3613 MWt ESBWR. The specific design differences and the applicability of the test completed at the SIET PANTHERS test facility in Piacenza, Italy are addressed as well as outlining additional qualification tests that must be completed on the PCC and IC unit design if they are to used in the passive safety systems of the ESBWR. This paper outlines the test results obtained from the prototype PCC and IC PANTHERS tests facility in Piacenza, Italy which have been used to design the ESBWR PCC/1C

  11. Significant improvement of olfactory performance in sleep apnea patients after three months of nasal CPAP therapy - Observational study and randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Boerner

    Full Text Available The olfactory function highly impacts quality of life (QoL. Continuous positive airway pressure is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and is often applied by nasal masks (nCPAP. The influence of nCPAP on the olfactory performance of OSA patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the sense of smell before initiation of nCPAP and after three months treatment, in moderate and severe OSA patients.The sense of smell was assessed in 35 patients suffering from daytime sleepiness and moderate to severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 15/h, with the aid of a validated test battery (Sniffin' Sticks before initiation of nCPAP therapy and after three months of treatment. Additionally, adherent subjects were included in a double-blind randomized three weeks CPAP-withdrawal trial (sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.Twenty five of the 35 patients used the nCPAP therapy for more than four hours per night, and for more than 70% of nights (adherent group. The olfactory performance of these patients improved significantly (p = 0.007 after three months of nCPAP therapy. When considering the entire group of patients, olfaction also improved significantly (p = 0.001. In the randomized phase the sense of smell of six patients deteriorated under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure (p = 0.046 whereas five patients in the maintenance CPAP group showed no significant difference (p = 0.501.Olfactory performance improved significantly after three months of nCPAP therapy in patients suffering from moderate and severe OSA. It seems that this effect of nCPAP is reversible under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.ISRCTN11128866.

  12. Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, reduces post-peak age-related regression of rooster reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Emad Abdulgabbar; Zhandi, Mahdi; Towhidi, Armin; Zaghari, Mojtaba; Ansari, Mahdi; Najafi, Mojtaba; Deldar, Hamid

    2017-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate orally administrated Letrozole (Lz) on reproductive performance, plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations and relative abundance of mRNA of GnRH, FSH and LH in roosters. Ross 308 roosters (n=32) that were 40-weeks of age were individually housed and received a basal standard diet supplemented different amounts of capsulated Lz [0 (Lz-0), 0.5 (Lz-0.5), 1 (Lz-1) or 1.5 (Lz-1.5), mg Lz/bird/day] for 12 weeks. Sperm quality variables and plasma testosterone and estradiol concentrations were assessed from the first to the tenth week of the treatment period. Semen samples from the 11th to 12th week were used for artificial insemination and eggs were collected and allotted to assess fertility and hatchability rates. Relative abundance of hypothalamic and pituitary GnRH, LH and FSH mRNA was evaluated at the end of 12th week. The results indicated that total and forward sperm motility as well as egg hatchability rate were greater in the Lz-0.5 group. Greater sperm concentrations, ejaculate volume, sperm plasma membrane integrity, testis index and fertility rates were recorded for both Lz-0.5 and Lz-1 groups compared with the Lz-0 group (Proosters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Performance of core modifications to reduce the reactor pressure vessel fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehlmann, H.D.; Lisdat, R.; Sommer, D.

    1997-01-01

    It's often discussed that nuclear power plants (NPP) are designed for an operation of 40 years equivalent to 32 full power years (FPY) assuming a load factor of 0.8. Such fixed plant life times are subjects of US operating licenses but not, as in most other countries, in the Federal Republic of Germany. Here the operating licenses are issued for an indefinite period. However, the German utilities are continuously upgrading their plants to attain a safety level that meets all current requirements. These upgrading measures also include the replacement of bigger components like e.g. the steam generator. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV), however, has a special status. Unlike most other components of a NPP which most likely will be exchanged during its service life a replacement or annealing treatment of the RPV certainly require more efforts to be economically justified. Thus the embrittlement of the RPV has an essential impact on the life time of a NPP. The end-of-life (EOL) RPV material toughness in essential depends on the steel quality and the accumulated neutron fluence. For a given NPP the reduction of the neutron flux at the inner surface of the RPV is the only way to limit its embrittlement. The resulting modifications for the core loadings in combination with the insertion of additional core components like steel elements are described and the impact on core performance and RPV fluence considered. (UK)

  14. Improving the Performance of CPU Architectures by Reducing the Operating System Overhead (Extended Version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zagan Ionel

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The predictable CPU architectures that run hard real-time tasks must be executed with isolation in order to provide a timing-analyzable execution for real-time systems. The major problems for real-time operating systems are determined by an excessive jitter, introduced mainly through task switching. This can alter deadline requirements, and, consequently, the predictability of hard real-time tasks. New requirements also arise for a real-time operating system used in mixed-criticality systems, when the executions of hard real-time applications require timing predictability. The present article discusses several solutions to improve the performance of CPU architectures and eventually overcome the Operating Systems overhead inconveniences. This paper focuses on the innovative CPU implementation named nMPRA-MT, designed for small real-time applications. This implementation uses the replication and remapping techniques for the program counter, general purpose registers and pipeline registers, enabling multiple threads to share a single pipeline assembly line. In order to increase predictability, the proposed architecture partially removes the hazard situation at the expense of larger execution latency per one instruction.

  15. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 deg. C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized.

  16. Reducing the viscosity of Jojoba Methyl Ester diesel fuel and effects on diesel engine performance and roughness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selim, Mohamed Y.E. [Mech. Eng. Dept., UAE University, Al-Ain, Abu Dhabi 17555 (United Arab Emirates)

    2009-07-15

    An experimental investigation has been carried out to test two approaches to reduce the viscosity of the Jojoba Methyl Ester (JME) diesel fuel. The first approach is the heating of the fuel to two temperatures of 50 and 70 C as compared to the base ambient temperature and to diesel fuel too. The second approach is adding one chemical which is considered by its own as alternative and renewable fuel which is Diethyl Ether (DEE). The viscosity has been reduced by both methods to close to diesel values. The performance of a diesel engine using those fuels has been tested in a variable compression research engine Ricardo E6 with the engine speed constant at 1200 rpm. The measured parameters included the exhaust gas temperature, the ignition delay period, the maximum pressure rise rate, maximum pressure, and indicated mean effective pressure and maximum heat release rate. The engine performance is presented and the effects of both approaches are scrutinized. (author)

  17. Independent from muscle power and balance performance, a creatinine clearance below 65 ml/min is a significant and independent risk factor for falls and fall-related fractures in elderly men and women diagnosed with osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukas, L; Schacht, E; Runge, M

    2010-07-01

    We assessed in a cross-sectional study in elderly men and women with osteoporosis, the association between the creatinine clearance (CrCl) and the performance in different balance and muscle power and function tests and found that a decreasing creatinine clearance was significantly associated with lower balance and muscle power. To determine if a creatinine clearance of balance and an increased risk for falls and fractures. We assessed in a cross-sectional-study in 1781 German osteoporotic patients, the association between the CrCl, the physical performance, and the number of falls and fractures. Controlling for age, gender, BMI, and osteoporosis treatment (fracture analysis only), a decreasing CrCl was associated with lower physical performance in the timed-up-and-go test (corr -0.2337, P risk for falls (47.7% vs. 36.2%, P = 0.0008) and fall-related fractures (33.1% vs. 22.9%, P = 0.0003) compared with a CrCl of >or=65 ml/min. In this study, we found a significant gender-independent correlation between decreasing CrCl and lower performance in balance and muscle power tests. Reduced muscle power and balance may therefore be involved in the low creatinine clearance associated increased risk for falls and fall-related fractures. Furthermore, we found that a CrCl balance tests, is a significant risk factor for falls and fractures.

  18. Effect of static mixer on the performance of compact plate heat exchanger with zwitterionic type of drag-reducing additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blais, C.; Wollerstrand, J.

    1997-06-01

    The main task of the project was to investigate the influence of drag-reducing additives (DRA) dissolved in circulating hot water on heat transfer in compact plate heat exchangers (PHE). Furthermore the result of flow disturbance (static mixing) immediately before the PHE on pressure drop and heat transfer was clarified. The project used a new type of DRA (surfactants of zwitterionic type) for two different temperature ranges. A dedicated test rig, `Ansgar`, was built for the purpose. Good thermal and mechanical stability also outside the operating range was observed except some sensitivity for water hardness at high temperatures for DRA2. Similarly to known investigations, the heat transfer coefficient was significantly reduced by DRA in heat exchangers. In PHE used however, the heat transfer reduction was considerably lower in the high flow region. A static mixer placed in front of the PHE was found to significantly improve heat transfer, especially at high flow rates. On the other hand, an additional pressure drop was introduced. Therefore the optimal choice of static mixer needs further investigation. Specially designed PHE combining mixing and heat transfer functions could be beneficial to reducing the effects of additives in thermal systems. The relaxation time (RT) of drag-reducing additives in water solutions flowing through test pipes with known geometries was estimated by monitoring specific pressure drop variation along the pipe. These preliminary experiments in respect to relaxation time showed that RT depends on the flow rate and on the temperature 12 refs, 11 figs, 1 tab

  19. Electrolysed reduced water decreases reactive oxygen species-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improves performance in broiler chickens exposed to medium-term chronic heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M A K; Kikusato, M; Zulkifli, I; Toyomizu, M

    2013-01-01

    1. The present study was designed to achieve a reduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and to improve the performance of broiler chickens exposed to chronic heat stress. 2. Chickens were given a control diet with normal drinking water, or diets supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) or grape seed extract (GSE), or a control diet with electrolysed reduced water (ERW) for 19 d after hatch. Thereafter, chickens were exposed to a temperature of either 34°C continuously for a period of 5 d, or maintained at 24°C, on the same diets. 3. The control broilers exposed to 34°C showed decreased weight gain and feed consumption and slightly increased ROS production and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in skeletal muscle. The chickens exposed to 34°C and supplemented with ERW showed significantly improved growth performance and lower ROS production and MDA contents in tissues than control broilers exposed to 34°C. Following heat exposure, CNSL chickens performed better with respect to weight gain and feed consumption, but still showed elevated ROS production and skeletal muscle oxidative damage. GSE chickens did not exhibit improved performance or reduced skeletal muscle oxidative damage. 4. In conclusion, this study suggests that ERW could partially inhibit ROS-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle and improve growth performance in broiler chickens under medium-term chronic heat treatment.

  20. Low vitamin D status is associated with reduced muscle mass and impaired physical performance in frail elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieland, M; Brouwer-Brolsma, E M; Nienaber-Rousseau, C; van Loon, L J C; De Groot, L C P G M

    2013-10-01

    Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status has been associated with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in healthy elderly people. Yet, in pre-frail and frail elderly people this association has not been studied. The objective of this study was to explore the association between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D status with muscle mass, strength and physical performance in a pre-frail and frail elderly population. This cross-sectional study included 127 pre-frail and frail elderly people in The Netherlands. Whole body and appendicular lean mass (ALM) (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), leg strength (one repetition maximum), handgrip strength and physical performance (short physical performance battery) were measured, and blood samples were collected for the assessment of serum 25(OH)D status (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry). In addition, habitual dietary intake (3-day food records) and physical activity data (accelerometers) were collected. In total, 53% of the participants had a serum 25(OH)D level below 50  nmol/l. After adjustment for confounding factors, 25(OH)D status was associated with ALM (β=0.012, P=0.05) and with physical performance (β=0.020, PVitamin D intake was associated with physical performance (β=0.18, P0.05). In this frail elderly population, 25(OH)D status is low and suggests a modest association with reduced ALM and impaired physical performance. In addition, vitamin D intake tended to be associated with impaired physical performance. Our findings highlight the need for well-designed intervention trials to assess the impact of vitamin D supplementation on 25(OH)D status, muscle mass and physical performance in pre-frail and frail elderly people.

  1. Using passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in U.A.E. buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Taleb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive design responds to local climate and site conditions in order to maximise the comfort and health of building users while minimising energy use. The key to designing a passive building is to take best advantage of the local climate. Passive cooling refers to any technologies or design features adopted to reduce the temperature of buildings without the need for power consumption. Consequently, the aim of this study is to test the usefulness of applying selected passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and to reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in hot arid climate settings, namely Dubai, United Arab Emirates. One case building was selected and eight passive cooling strategies were applied. Energy simulation software – namely IES – was used to assess the performance of the building. Solar shading performance was also assessed using Sun Cast Analysis, as a part of the IES software. Energy reduction was achieved due to both the harnessing of natural ventilation and the minimising of heat gain in line with applying good shading devices alongside the use of double glazing. Additionally, green roofing proved its potential by acting as an effective roof insulation. The study revealed several significant findings including that the total annual energy consumption of a residential building in Dubai may be reduced by up to 23.6% when a building uses passive cooling strategies.

  2. Strategy for reduced calibration sets to develop quantitative structure-retention relationships in high-performance liquid chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andries, Jan P.M. [University of Professional Education, Department of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 90116, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Claessens, Henk A. [University of Professional Education, Department of Life Sciences, P.O. Box 90116, 4800 RA Breda (Netherlands); Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Laboratory of Polymer Chemistry, P.O. Box 513 (Helix, STW 1.35), 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Heyden, Yvan Vander [Department of Analytical Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel-VUB, Laarbeeklaan 103, B-1090 Brussels (Belgium); Buydens, Lutgarde M.C., E-mail: L.Buydens@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University Nijmegen, Toernooiveld 1, 6525 ED Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2009-10-12

    In high-performance liquid chromatography, quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRRs) are applied to model the relation between chromatographic retention and quantities derived from molecular structure of analytes. Classically a substantial number of test analytes is used to build QSRR models. This makes their application laborious and time consuming. In this work a strategy is presented to build QSRR models based on selected reduced calibration sets. The analytes in the reduced calibration sets are selected from larger sets of analytes by applying the algorithm of Kennard and Stone on the molecular descriptors used in the QSRR concerned. The strategy was applied on three QSRR models of different complexity, relating logk{sub w} or log k with either: (i) log P, the n-octanol-water partition coefficient, (ii) calculated quantum chemical indices (QCI), or (iii) descriptors from the linear solvation energy relationship (LSER). Models were developed and validated for 76 reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography systems. From the results we can conclude that it is possible to develop log P models suitable for the future prediction of retentions with as few as seven analytes. For the QCI and LSER models we derived the rule that three selected analytes per descriptor are sufficient. Both the dependent variable space, formed by the retention values, and the independent variable space, formed by the descriptors, are covered well by the reduced calibration sets. Finally guidelines to construct small calibration sets are formulated.

  3. Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, E R; Tucker, H A; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Mooney, C S; Lock, A L; Yagi, K; Grant, R J

    2014-09-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of feeding a lower starch diet (21% of dry matter) with different amounts of forage (52, 47, 43, and 39% of dry matter) on lactational performance, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and turnover, microbial N yield, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Dietary forage consisted of a mixture of corn and haycrop silages, and as dietary forage content was reduced, chopped wheat straw (0-10% of dry matter) was added in an effort to maintain chewing activity. Dietary concentrate was adjusted (corn meal, nonforage fiber sources, and protein sources) to maintain similar amounts of starch and other carbohydrate and protein fractions among the diets. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Dry matter intake increased while physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF1.18) intake was reduced as forage content decreased from 52 to 39%. However, reducing dietary forage did not influence milk yield or composition, although we observed changes in dry matter intake. Time spent chewing, eating, and ruminating (expressed as minutes per day or as minutes per kilogram of NDF intake) were not affected by reducing dietary forage. However, addition of chopped wheat straw to the diets resulted in greater time spent chewing and eating per kilogram of peNDF1.18 consumed. Reducing dietary forage from 52 to 39% did not affect ruminal pH, ruminal digesta volume and mass, ruminal pool size of NDF or starch, ruminal digesta mat consistency, or microbial N yield. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was reduced, ruminal turnover rates of NDF and starch were greater, and total-tract digestibility of fiber diminished as dietary forage content decreased. Reducing the dietary forage content from 52 to 39% of dry matter, while increasing wheat straw inclusion to maintain chewing and rumen function, resulted in similar milk yield and composition although feed intake increased. With the lower starch

  4. Pre-Treatment Deep Curettage Can Significantly Reduce Tumour Thickness in Thick Basal Cell Carcinoma While Maintaining a Favourable Cosmetic Outcome When Used in Combination with Topical Photodynamic Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.; Mork, C.; Foss, O. A.

    2011-01-01

    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) has limitations in the treatment of thick skin tumours. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of pre-PDT deep curettage on tumour thickness in thick (≥2 mm) basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Additionally, 3-month treatment outcome and change of tumour thickness from diagnosis to treatment were investigated. At diagnosis, mean tumour thickness was 2.3 mm (range 2.0-4.0). Pre- and post-curettage biopsies were taken from each tumour prior to PDT. Of 32 verified BCCs, tumour thickness was reduced by 50% after deep curettage (ρ≤0.001) . Mean tumour thickness was also reduced from diagnosis to treatment. At 3-month followup, complete tumour response was found in 93% and the cosmetic outcome was rated excellent or good in 100% of cases. In conclusion, deep curettage significantly reduces BCC thickness and may with topical PDT provide a favourable clinical and cosmetic short-term outcome.

  5. Feeding broiler breeders a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period impairs reproductive performance but enhances broiler offspring performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Li, C; Schallier, S; Leblois, J; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-09-01

    Mammalian studies have shown that nutritional constraints during the perinatal period are able to program the progeny (metabolism, performance). The presented research aimed to investigate if broiler breeders and their offspring performance could be influenced by reducing the dietary crude protein (CP) level with 25%. A total of 160 day-old pure line A breeder females were randomly divided over 2 dietary treatments. The control group was fed commercial diets, whereas the reduced balanced protein (RP) breeders received an isoenergetic diet that was decreased with 25% in dietary CP and amino acid during their entire lifespan. The RP birds required an increased feed allowance, varying between 3 and 15%, to meet the same BW goals as their control fed counterparts. The difference in feed allocations and reduction of the dietary CP level resulted in a net protein reduction varying between 14 and 23%. At wk 27 and 40, the body composition of the breeders was changed as a result of the dietary treatment. At both ages, the proportional abdominal fat pad weight of the RP breeders was increased (P < 0.001), whereas the proportional breast muscle weight was only higher at wk 27 in the control group compared to the RP group (P < 0.001). Egg weight (P < 0.001) and egg production (P < 0.001) was decreased for the RP fed birds. The lower dietary CP level reduced the proportional albumen weight of the RP eggs (P = 0.006). Male offspring from RP breeders were characterized by an increase in BW from 28 d until 35 d of age (P = 0.015). Moreover, female progeny of RP breeders showed a reduced FCR (P = 0.025), whereas male progeny showed a tendency (P = 0.052) towards a lower FCR at 5 wk of age. In conclusion, lowering dietary CP levels in rearing and laying phase of breeders had a negative effect on breeder performance but enhanced live performance of the offspring. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Construction of reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides composite electrode as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Minghua; Zhang, Jiawei [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Chen, Qingguo, E-mail: qgchen@263.net [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Qi, Meili [Key Laboratory of Engineering Dielectric and Applications (Ministry of Education), and School of Applied Science, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Xia, Xinhui, E-mail: helloxxh@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials and Applications for Batteries of Zhejiang Province, and School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • Reduced graphene oxide supported molybdenum carbides are prepared by two-step strategy. • A unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. • The integrated electrode shows excellent Li ion storage performance. - Abstract: Metal carbides are emerging as promising anodes for advanced lithium ion batteries (LIBs). Herein we report reduced graphene oxide (RGO) supported molybdenum carbides (Mo{sub 2}C) integrated electrode by the combination of solution and carbothermal methods. In the designed integrated electrode, Mo{sub 2}C nanoparticles are uniformly dispersed among graphene nanosheets, forming a unique sheet-on-sheet integrated nanostructure. As anode of LIBs, the as-prepared Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode exhibits noticeable electrochemical performances with a high reversible capacity of 850 mAh g{sup −1} at 100 mA g{sup −1}, and 456 mAh g{sup −1} at 1000 mA g{sup −1}, respectively. Moreover, the Mo{sub 2}C-RGO integrated electrode shows excellent cycling life with a capacity of ∼98.6 % at 1000 mA g{sup −1} after 400 cycles. Our research may pave the way for construction of high-performance metal carbides anodes of LIBs.

  7. Facile synthesis of NiWO4/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite with excellent capacitive performance for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaowei; Pei, Liyuan; Yang, Yang; Shen, Jianfeng; Ye, Mingxin

    2016-01-01

    NiWO 4 /reduced graphene oxide (NWG) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot solvothermal method for the first time. The resulting nanocomposite is composed of NiWO 4 nanoparticles that are uniformly attached on graphene sheets by in situ reducing. The as-prepared NWG composite has been systematically characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, Raman spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis. The capacitive performances of the as-prepared NWG composite as electrode material are investigated. It is found that the NWG composite exhibits a high specific capacitance up to 1031.3 F g −1 at a current density of 0.5 A g −1 . The greatly enhanced capacitive performance of the NWG electrode can be attributed to the synergetic effect of NiWO 4 nanoparticles and RGO, which provides conducting channels and active sites. The cyclic stability tests demonstrated no decreases of its initial values after 5000 cycles, suggesting that such hybrid electrode possesses a great potential application in energy-storage devices. - Highlights: • NiWO 4 /RGO composite was successfully prepared through a facile solvothermal method. • The NiWO 4 /RGO composite shows a high specific capacitance of 1031.3 F g −1 . • Enhanced electrical conductivity leads to superior electrochemical performance.

  8. Effects of theory of mind performance training on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng-Jung; Ma, Le-Yin; Chou, Wen-Jiun; Chen, Yu-Min; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hsiao, Ray C; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT) on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26) and social skills training (SST; n = 23) programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. The paired t test was used to evaluate changes in bullying victimization and perpetration between the pretraining and posttraining assessments. Furthermore, the linear mixed-effect model was used to examine the difference in the training effect between the ToMPT and SST groups. The paired t test indicated that in the ToMPT group, the severities of both self-reported (p = .039) and mother-reported (p = .003) bullying victimization significantly decreased from the pretraining to posttraining assessments, whereas in the SST group, only self-reported bullying victimization significantly decreased (p = .027). The linear mixed-effect model indicated that compared with the SST program, the ToMPT program significantly reduced the severity of mother-reported bullying victimization (p = .041). The present study supports the effects of ToMPT on reducing mother-reported bullying victimization in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD.

  9. Effects of theory of mind performance training on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Jung Liu

    Full Text Available Bullying involvement is prevalent among children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. This study examined the effects of theory of mind performance training (ToMPT on reducing bullying involvement in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD. Children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD completed ToMPT (n = 26 and social skills training (SST; n = 23 programs. Participants in both groups and their mothers rated the pretraining and posttraining bullying involvement of participants on the Chinese version of the School Bullying Experience Questionnaire. The paired t test was used to evaluate changes in bullying victimization and perpetration between the pretraining and posttraining assessments. Furthermore, the linear mixed-effect model was used to examine the difference in the training effect between the ToMPT and SST groups. The paired t test indicated that in the ToMPT group, the severities of both self-reported (p = .039 and mother-reported (p = .003 bullying victimization significantly decreased from the pretraining to posttraining assessments, whereas in the SST group, only self-reported bullying victimization significantly decreased (p = .027. The linear mixed-effect model indicated that compared with the SST program, the ToMPT program significantly reduced the severity of mother-reported bullying victimization (p = .041. The present study supports the effects of ToMPT on reducing mother-reported bullying victimization in children and adolescents with high-functioning ASD.

  10. Significantly enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium titanate anode for lithium ion battery by the hybrid of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiyi, Li; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Xiaoyan, Zhou; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    at 2C. The battery performance is significantly better than that of pure LTO electrode and LTO/graphene electrode.

  11. Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced neuropsychological performance in patients with recurrent depression and a history of trauma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frewen, Paul A.; Oremus, Carolina; Lanius, Ruth A.; McKinnon, Margaret C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) and a history of trauma exposure. Method Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26927902

  12. Dissociative symptoms are associated with reduced neuropsychological performance in patients with recurrent depression and a history of trauma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Parlar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although preliminary work suggests that dissociative symptoms may impact neuropsychological performance in trauma-exposed populations, the relation between dissociation and cognitive performance has not been explored in patients with depression. Objective: The present study examined dissociative symptoms in relation to neuropsychological performance in participants with a primary diagnosis of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD and a history of trauma exposure. Method: Twenty-three participants with MDD and 20 healthy controls who did not differ in age, sex, education, or IQ were assessed. In addition to a standardized neuropsychological battery assessing frontotemporally mediated cognitive processes, participants completed clinical measures assessing dissociative symptoms, illness severity, and past history of trauma exposure. Results: Among participants with MDD, greater severity of derealization was associated with reduced performance on measures of delayed visuospatial recall and recognition on a task of verbal memory recognition. In addition, more severe depersonalization was associated with slower processing speed and a response style lending itself toward better performance in a less active environment. Conclusions: These findings point toward dissociative symptoms as a transdiagnostic factor associated with neuropsychological dysfunction in patients with depression and a history of trauma. Limitations and recommendations for future research are discussed.

  13. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  15. Reduced-scale experimental investigation on ventilation performance of a local exhaust hood in an industrial plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Yanqiu; Wang, Yi; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    stratification in the working areas of industrial plants. Investigated factors were confined airflow boundaries, flow rates of the exhaust hoods, source strengths, airflow obstacles and distances between sources and exhaust hoods. Reduced-scale experiments were conducted with a geometric scale of 1...... efficiency. Hood performance was also evaluated by thermal stratification heights in the plants. This study could help improve the capture efficiency of local ventilation systems used in industrial plants. Safe operation heights are recommended in the upper space of industrial plants based on the thermal...

  16. High Performance Reduced Order Models for Wind Turbines with Full-Scale Converters Applied on Grid Interconnection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Heverton A.; F. Cupertino, Allan; Teodorescu, Remus

    2014-01-01

    Wind power has achieved technological evolution, and Grid Code (GC) requirements forced wind industry consolidation in the last three decades. However, more studies are necessary to understand how the dynamics inherent in this energy source interact with the power system. Traditional energy...... of Absolute Error (NIAE). Models are analyzed during wind speed variations and balanced voltage dip. During faults, WPPs must be able to supply reactive power to the grid, and this characteristic is analyzed. Using the proposed performance index, it is possible to conclude if a reduced order model is suitable...

  17. In situ one-pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Nali; Ren, Yapeng; Kong, Peipei; Tan, Lin; Feng, Huixia; Luo, Yongchun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method to prepare reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite is developed. • Aniline serves as a reduction for graphene oxide under weak alkali condition. • Different characterizations confirm that GO can be effectively reduced by aniline. • A high specific capacitance of 524.4 F·g"−"1 is obtained at 0.5 A·g"−"1. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline (rGO/PANI) composites are prepared through an effective in situ one-pot synthesis route that includes the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by aniline under weak alkali condition via hydrothermal method and then followed by in situ polymerization of aniline. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope are employed to reveal that GO is successfully reduced by aniline under weak alkali condition and PANI can be deposited on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The effect of rGO is optimized by tuning the mass ratios of aniline to GO to improve the electrochemical performance of rGO/PANI composites. The maximum specific capacitance of rGO/PANI composites achieves 524.4 F/g with a mass ratio of aniline to GO 10:1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g, in comparison to the specific capacitance of 397 F/g at the same current density of pure PANI. Particularly, the specific capacity retention rate is 81.1% after 2000 cycles at 100 mv/s scan rate, which is an improvement over that of pure PANI (55.5%).

  18. In situ one-pot preparation of reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite for high-performance electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Nali [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China); Ren, Yapeng; Kong, Peipei; Tan, Lin [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China); Feng, Huixia, E-mail: fenghx@lut.cn [College of Petrochemical Technology, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China); Luo, Yongchun, E-mail: luoyc@lut.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Processing and Recycling of Nonferrous Metals, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou 730050, Gansu (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new method to prepare reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline composite is developed. • Aniline serves as a reduction for graphene oxide under weak alkali condition. • Different characterizations confirm that GO can be effectively reduced by aniline. • A high specific capacitance of 524.4 F·g{sup −1} is obtained at 0.5 A·g{sup −1}. - Abstract: Reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline (rGO/PANI) composites are prepared through an effective in situ one-pot synthesis route that includes the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) by aniline under weak alkali condition via hydrothermal method and then followed by in situ polymerization of aniline. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope are employed to reveal that GO is successfully reduced by aniline under weak alkali condition and PANI can be deposited on the surfaces of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheets. The effect of rGO is optimized by tuning the mass ratios of aniline to GO to improve the electrochemical performance of rGO/PANI composites. The maximum specific capacitance of rGO/PANI composites achieves 524.4 F/g with a mass ratio of aniline to GO 10:1 at a current density of 0.5 A/g, in comparison to the specific capacitance of 397 F/g at the same current density of pure PANI. Particularly, the specific capacity retention rate is 81.1% after 2000 cycles at 100 mv/s scan rate, which is an improvement over that of pure PANI (55.5%).

  19. Large bandgap reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based n-p + heterojunction photodetector with improved NIR performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manjri; Kumar, Gaurav; Prakash, Nisha; Khanna, Suraj P.; Pal, Prabir; Singh, Surinder P.

    2018-04-01

    Integration of two-dimensional reduced graphene oxide (rGO) with conventional Si semiconductor offers novel strategies for realizing broadband photodiode with enhanced device performance. In this quest, we have synthesized large bandgap rGO and fabricated metal-free broadband (300–1100 nm) back-to-back connected np-pn hybrid photodetector utilizing drop casted n-rGO/p +-Si heterojunctions with high performance in NIR region (830 nm). With controlled illumination, the device exhibited a peak responsivity of 16.7 A W‑1 and peak detectivity of 2.56 × 1012 Jones under 830 nm illumination (11 μW cm‑2) at 1 V applied bias with fast response (∼460 μs) and recovery time (∼446 μs). The fabricated device demonstrated excellent repeatability, durability and photoswitching behavior with high external quantum efficiency (∼2.5 × 103%), along with ultrasensitive behavior at low light conditions.

  20. Short-course radiotherapy, with elective delay prior to surgery, in patients with unresectable rectal cancer who have poor performance status or significant co-morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, Paul; Hingorani, Mohan; Radhakrishna, Ganesh; Cooper, Rachel; Melcher, Alan; Crellin, Adrian; Kwok-Williams, Michelle; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Standard treatment for rectal cancer which threatens the expected plane of resection on MRI imaging is long-course, pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (1.8-2 Gy, 25-28 fractions). Not all patients are suitable for this because of age, poor performance status or co-morbidities. We describe our experience of short-course (5 x 5 Gy) pre-operative radiotherapy with planned, delayed surgery (SCPRT-delay) in this patient group. Materials and methods: Between April 2001 and October 2007, 43 patients were selected for SCPRT-delay. The clinical records were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 82 (range 58-87). Forty-one patients had radiotherapy of which 26 (61%) were subsequently able to have surgery. Of these, R0, R1 and R2 resections were performed in 22, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, although two patients required hospital admission for management of diarrhoea and one developed significant late small bowel toxicity, attributable to radiotherapy. In those undergoing R0 or R1 resection there have been no local recurrences (median follow-up 18 months). Median survival for the whole group was 23 months, although this was 44 months in those undergoing surgery. Conclusions: SCPRT-delay appears to be a useful alternative to long-course pre-operative chemoradiotherapy in this high-risk group of patients.

  1. Imparting improvements in electrochemical sensors: evaluation of different carbon blacks that give rise to significant improvement in the performance of electroanalytical sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Ravanini, Amanda E.; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C.S.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Three different carbon black materials have been evaluated as a potential modifier, however, only one demonstrated an improvement in the electrochemical properties. The carbon black structures were characterised with SEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy and found to be very similar to that of amorphous graphitic materials. The modifications utilised were constructed by three different strategies (using ultrapure water, chitosan and dihexadecylphosphate). The fabricated sensors are electrochemically characterised using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamine and both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II) and hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AP). Comparisons are made with an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite and glassy-carbon electrode and the benefits of carbon black implemented as a modifier for sensors within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal significant improvements in the electrochemical performance (excellent sensitivity, faster heterogeneous electron transfer rate (HET)) over that of a bare glassy-carbon and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus suggest that there are substantial advantages of using carbon black as modifier in the fabrication of electrochemical based sensors. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials

  2. Facile synthesis of reduced graphene oxide/CoWO4 nanocomposites with enhanced electrochemical performances for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaowei; Shen, Jianfeng; Li, Na; Ye, Mingxin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • RGO/CoWO 4 composites were successfully prepared through a facile hydrothermal method. • RGO/CoWO 4 composites show much higher specific capacitances than pure CoWO 4 . • Enhanced electrical conductivity leads to superior electrochemical performance. - Abstract: A facile one-pot hydrothermal method was provided for synthesis of the reduced graphene oxide-cobalt tungstate (RGO/CoWO 4 ) nanocomposites with the enhanced electrochemical performances for supercapacitors for the first time. The resulting nanocomposites are comprised of CoWO 4 nanospheres that are well-anchored on graphene sheets by in situ reducing. The prepared RGO/CoWO 4 nanocomposites have been thoroughly characterized by Fourier–transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis, Scanning electron microscopy, Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and N 2 adsorption–desorption. Importantly, the prepared nanocomposites exhibit superior electrochemical performance to CoWO 4 as electrodes for supercapacitors. As a result, RGO/CoWO 4 nanocomposites with 91.6 wt% CoWO 4 content achieved a specific capacitance about 159.9 F g −1 calculated from the CV curves at 5 mV s −1 , which was higher than that of CoWO 4 (60.6 F g −1 ). The good electrochemical performance can be attributed to the increased electrical conductivity and the creation of new active sites due to the synergetic effect of RGO and CoWO 4 nanospheres. The cyclic stability tests demonstrated capacitance retention of about 94.7% after 1000 cycles, suggesting the potential application of RGO/CoWO 4 nanocomposites in energy-storage devices

  3. Does improved functional performance help to reduce urinary incontinence in institutionalized older women? a multicenter randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Erwin CPM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary incontinence (UI is a major problem in older women. Management is usually restricted to dealing with the consequences instead of treating underlying causes such as bladder dysfunction or reduced mobility. The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled trial was to compare a group-based behavioral exercise program to prevent or reduce UI, with usual care. The exercise program aimed to improve functional performance of pelvic floor muscle (PFM, bladder and physical performance of women living in homes for the elderly. Methods Twenty participating Dutch homes were matched and randomized into intervention or control homes using a random number generator. Homes recruited 6–10 older women, with or without UI, with sufficient cognitive and physical function to participate in the program comprising behavioral aspects of continence and physical exercises to improve PFM, bladder and physical performance. The program consisted of a weekly group training session and homework exercises and ran for 6 months during which time the control group participants received care as usual. Primary outcome measures after 6 months were presence or absence of UI, frequency of episodes (measured by participants and caregivers (not blinded using a 3-day bladder diary and the Physical Performance Test (blinded. Linear and logistic regression analysis based on the Intention to Treat (ITT principle using an imputed data set and per protocol analysis including all participants who completed the study and intervention (minimal attendance of 14 sessions. Results 102 participants were allocated to the program and 90 to care as usual. ITT analysis (n = 85 intervention, n = 70 control showed improvement of physical performance (intervention +8%; control −7% and no differences on other primary and secondary outcome measures. Per protocol analysis (n = 51 intervention, n = 60 control showed a reduction of participants with UI

  4. Performance Characteristics of CA 19-9 Radioimmunoassay and Clinical Significance of Serum CA 19-9 Assay in Patients with Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Eun; Shong, Young Kee; Cho, Bo Youn; Kim, Noe Kyeong; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Hong, Seong Woon; Hong, Kee Suk

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the performance characteristics of CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay and the clinical significance of serum CA 19-9 assay in patients with malignancy, serum. CA 19-9 levels were measured by radioimmunoassay using monoclonal antibody in 135 normal controls, 81 patients with various untreated malignancy, 9 patients of postoperative colon cancer without recurrence and 20 patients with benign gastrointestinal diseases, who visited Seoul National University Hospital from June, 1984 to March, 1985. The results were as follows; 1) The CA 19-9 radioimmunoassay was simple to perform and can be completed in one work day. And the between-assay reproducibility and the assay recovery were both excellent. 2) The mean serum CA 19-9 level in 135 normal controls was 8.4±4.2 U/mL. Normal upper limit of serum CA 19-9 was defined as 21.0 U/mL. 4 out of 135 (3.0%) normal controls showed elevated CA 19-9 levels above the normal upper limit. 3) One out of 20 (5.0%) patients with benign gastrointestinal diseases showed elevated serum CA 19-9 level above the normal upper limit. 4) In 81 patients with various untreated malignancy, 41 patients (50.6%) showed elevated serum CA 19-9 levels. 66.7% of 18 patients with colorectal cancer, 100% of 2 patients with pancreatic cancer, 100% of 3 patients with common bile duct cancer, 47.1% of 17 patients with stomach cancer, 28.6% of 28 patients with hepatoma and 60.0% of 5 gastrointestinal tract cancers showed elevated serum CA 19-9 levels. 5) The sensitivities of serum CA 19-9 related to respectability in colorectal and stomach cancer were 33.3% in resectable colorectal cancer, 83.3% in unresectable colorectal cancer, 41.7% in resectable stomach cancer, 60.0% in unresectable stomach cancer respectively. 6) The sensitivity of serum CA 19-9 in 9 patients of postoperative colorectal cancer without recurrence were 33.3% and significantly decreased compared with that of untreated colorectal cancer, 66.7% (p<0.05). 7) In Patients with colorectal cancer

  5. IMPLEMENTATION OF DIOXANE AND DIESEL FUEL BLENDS TO REDUCE EMISSION AND TO IMPROVE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SENDILVELAN S.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Performance of a compression ignition engine fuelled with 1, 4 Dioxane- diesel blends is evaluated. A single-cylinder, air-cooled, direct injection diesel engine developing a power output of 5.2 kW at 1500 rev/min is used. Base data is generated with standard diesel fuel subsequently; five fuel blends namely 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 percentages by volume of diesel and dioxane were prepared and tested in the diesel engine. Engine performance and emission data were used to optimize the blends for reducing emission and improving performance. Results show improved performance with B10 blends compared to neat fuel for all conditions of the engine. Other blends recorded marginal decrease in brake thermal efficiency. The maximum efficiency for B30, B50 blends at peak load are 26.3%, 25.2% respectively against 29.1% for sole fuel. NOx emissions were found to be high or the blends. Peak pressure and rate of pressure rise are increased with increase in dioxane ratio due to improved combustion rate. Heat release pattern shows higher premixed combustion rate with the blends. Higher ignition delay and lower combustion duration are found with all blends than neat diesel fuel.

  6. On the computational assessment of white matter hyperintensity progression: difficulties in method selection and bias field correction performance on images with significant white matter pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdes Hernandez, Maria del C.; Gonzalez-Castro, Victor; Wang, Xin; Doubal, Fergus; Munoz Maniega, Susana; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [Centre for Clinical Brian Sciences, Department of Neuroimaging Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Ghandour, Dina T. [University of Edinburgh, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Armitage, Paul A. [University of Sheffield, Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    Subtle inhomogeneities in the scanner's magnetic fields (B{sub 0} and B{sub 1}) alter the intensity levels of the structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affecting the volumetric assessment of WMH changes. Here, we investigate the influence that (1) correcting the images for the B{sub 1} inhomogeneities (i.e. bias field correction (BFC)) and (2) selection of the WMH change assessment method can have on longitudinal analyses of WMH progression and discuss possible solutions. We used brain structural MRI from 46 mild stroke patients scanned at stroke onset and 3 years later. We tested three BFC approaches: FSL-FAST, N4 and exponentially entropy-driven homomorphic unsharp masking (E{sup 2}D-HUM) and analysed their effect on the measured WMH change. Separately, we tested two methods to assess WMH changes: measuring WMH volumes independently at both time points semi-automatically (MCMxxxVI) and subtracting intensity-normalised FLAIR images at both time points following image gamma correction. We then combined the BFC with the computational method that performed best across the whole sample to assess WMH changes. Analysis of the difference in the variance-to-mean intensity ratio in normal tissue between BFC and uncorrected images and visual inspection showed that all BFC methods altered the WMH appearance and distribution, but FSL-FAST in general performed more consistently across the sample and MRI modalities. The WMH volume change over 3 years obtained with MCMxxxVI with vs. without FSL-FAST BFC did not significantly differ (medians(IQR)(with BFC) = 3.2(6.3) vs. 2.9(7.4)ml (without BFC), p = 0.5), but both differed significantly from the WMH volume change obtained from subtracting post-processed FLAIR images (without BFC)(7.6(8.2)ml, p < 0.001). This latter method considerably inflated the WMH volume change as subtle WMH at baseline that became more intense at follow-up were counted as increase in the volumetric change. Measurement of WMH volume change remains

  7. Facile fabrication of graphene/nickel oxide composite with superior supercapacitance performance by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Peng; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Yiming; Li, Zhenghui; Huang, Zhikun; Xu, Xingfa; Li, Yunyong; Shi, Zhicong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • G/NiO was synthesized by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. • G/NiO presents a globule-on-sheet structure and reveals a synergistic effect. • G/NiO displays high specific capacitance and superior cycling stability. - Abstract: Graphene/nickel oxide composite (G/NiO) was synthesized through a facile hydrothermal method and subsequently microwave thermal treatment by using alcohols-reduced graphene as substrate. The as-prepared G/NiO was characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. The results indicate that the graphene oxide has been successfully reduced to graphene, and NiO nanoparticles are homogeneous anchored on the surface of graphene, forming a globule-on-sheet structure. The loading content of NiO nanoparticles anchoring on the surface of graphene nanosheets can be controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal temperature. The G/NiO displays superior electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 530 F g −1 at 1 A g −1 in 2 M of NaOH. After 5000 cycles, the supercapacitor still maintains a specific capacitance of 490 F g −1 (92% retention of the initial capacity), exhibiting excellent cycling stability

  8. Effect of nitrogen precursors on the electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide towards oxygen reduction reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soo, Li Ting, E-mail: nicolesoo90@gmail.com [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Loh, Kee Shyuan, E-mail: ksloh@ukm.edu.my [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Mohamad, Abu Bakar, E-mail: drab@ukm.edu.my [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Daud, Wan Ramli Wan, E-mail: wramli@ukm.edu.my [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); Wong, Wai Yin, E-mail: waiyin.wwy@gmail.com [Fuel Cell Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi UKM, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Engineering, Taylor' s University' s Lakeside Campus, No. 1, Jalan Taylor' s, 46500 Subang Jaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-08-25

    A series of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides (NGs) with different ratios are synthesized by thermal annealing of graphene oxide with melamine or urea. The total nitrogen content in NG is high, with values of up to 5.88 at.%. The NG samples prepared by melamine exhibited thin transparent graphene sheets structure, with consist of higher nitrogen doping level and quaternary N content compared to those NG samples prepared from urea. Electrochemical characterizations show that NG is a promising metal-free electrocatalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Incorporation of nitrogen atoms into graphene basal plane can enhances its electrocatalytic activity toward ORR in alkaline media. The onset potential and mean number of electron transfers on NG 1 are −0.10 V and 3.80 respectively, which is higher than that of reduced graphene oxide (−0.15 V, 3.52). This study suggests that quaternary-N of the NG samples is the active site which determines the ORR activity Moreover, the NG samples with the transparent layer of graphene-like structure have better ORR performances than that of bulk graphite-like NG samples. - Highlights: • Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) via thermal annealing. • The effects of the nitrogen precursors on the synthesized NG are discussed. • Electrochemical performances of the NG are correlated to N doping and EASA. • Graphitic-N is proposed to be the active site for ORR.

  9. Feasibility study on thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, A.; Kureta, M.; Liu, W.; Tamai, H.; Akimoto, H.

    2004-01-01

    Research and development project for investigating thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) in 2002. The RMWR can attain the favorable characteristics such as effective utilization of uranium resources, multiple recycling of plutonium, high burn-up and long operation cycle, based on matured light-water reactor technologies. MOX fuel assemblies with tight lattice arrangement are used to increase the conversion ratio by reducing the moderation of neutron. Increasing the in-core void fraction also contributes to the reduction of neutron moderation. The confirmation of thermal-hydraulic feasibility is one of the most important issues for the RMWR because of the tight-lattice configuration. The project has mainly consisted of a large-scale thermal-hydraulic test and development of analytical methods named modeling engineering. In the large-scale test, 37-rod bundle experiments can be performed. Steady-state critical power experiments have been achieved in the test facility and the experimental data reveal the feasibility of RMWR

  10. Advances of study on thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for reduced-moderation water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akira Ohnuki; Kazuyuki Takase; Masatoshi Kureta; Hiroyuki Yoshida; Hidesada Tamai; Wei Liu; Toru Nakatsuka; Hajime Akimoto

    2005-01-01

    R and D project to investigate thermal-hydraulic performance in tight-lattice rod bundles for Reduced-Moderation Water Reactor (RMWR) is started at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute in collaboration with power company, reactor vendors, universities since 2002. The RMWR can attain the favorable characteristics such as effective utilization of uranium resources, multiple recycling of plutonium, high burn-up and long operation cycle, based on matured LWR technologies. MOX fuel assemblies with tight lattice arrangement are used to increase the conversion ratio by reducing the moderation of neutron. Increasing the in-core void fraction also contributes to the reduction of neutron moderation. The confirmation of thermal-hydraulic feasibility is one of the most important R and D items for the RMWR because of the tight-lattice configuration. In this paper, we will show the R and D plan and describe some advances on experimental and analytical studies. The experimental study is performed mainly using large-scale (37-rod bundle) test facility and the analytical one aims to develop a predictable technology for geometry effects such as gap between rods, grid spacer configuration etc. using advanced 3-D two-phase flow simulation methods. Steady-state and transient critical power experiments are conducted with the test facility (Gap width between rods: 1.0 mm) and the experimental data reveal the feasibility of RMWR. (authors)

  11. Effect of nitrogen precursors on the electrochemical performance of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide towards oxygen reduction reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soo, Li Ting; Loh, Kee Shyuan; Mohamad, Abu Bakar; Daud, Wan Ramli Wan; Wong, Wai Yin

    2016-01-01

    A series of nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxides (NGs) with different ratios are synthesized by thermal annealing of graphene oxide with melamine or urea. The total nitrogen content in NG is high, with values of up to 5.88 at.%. The NG samples prepared by melamine exhibited thin transparent graphene sheets structure, with consist of higher nitrogen doping level and quaternary N content compared to those NG samples prepared from urea. Electrochemical characterizations show that NG is a promising metal-free electrocatalyst for an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Incorporation of nitrogen atoms into graphene basal plane can enhances its electrocatalytic activity toward ORR in alkaline media. The onset potential and mean number of electron transfers on NG 1 are −0.10 V and 3.80 respectively, which is higher than that of reduced graphene oxide (−0.15 V, 3.52). This study suggests that quaternary-N of the NG samples is the active site which determines the ORR activity Moreover, the NG samples with the transparent layer of graphene-like structure have better ORR performances than that of bulk graphite-like NG samples. - Highlights: • Synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) via thermal annealing. • The effects of the nitrogen precursors on the synthesized NG are discussed. • Electrochemical performances of the NG are correlated to N doping and EASA. • Graphitic-N is proposed to be the active site for ORR.

  12. Multigenerational effects of a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period of broiler breeders. 1. Performance of the F1 breeder generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Li, C; Schallier, S; Clímaco, W L S; Bautil, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2018-05-01

    Studies on mammals and poultry showed that maternal dietary treatments can alter the offspring performance. However, in contrast to rodent studies, little is known about multigenerational dietary manipulations in broiler breeders. The presented research aimed to investigate the effects of a reduction of 25% in the dietary crude protein (CP) level in the F0 generation on the body composition and reproductive performance of F1 broiler breeders. In the F0 generation, breeders were fed either a control (C) or reduced balanced protein (RP) diet, 25% reduction in crude protein and amino acids. Female F0-progeny of each treatment were fed a C or RP diet, resulting in 4 treatments in the F1 breeder generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C, and RP/RP. The reproductive performance of breeders fed RP diets was negatively influenced by the dietary CP reduction in the F1 generation (P diets in the F0 generation showed a significantly reduced reproductive capacity compared to their control fed counterparts (P diets in the F1 generation were characterized by higher plasma T3 concentrations (P diets in the F0 generation needed lower feed allocations in the laying phase to maintain a similar body weight. Egg weight was reduced for the C/RP and RP/RP breeders. At 34 wk of age, eggs from C/RP and RP/RP breeders showed a reduced proportional albumen weight, whereas no effects on egg composition were found at 42 wk of age. It was concluded that prenatal protein undernutrition triggered hens to relocate more energy towards growth and maintenance and less towards reproductive capacity.

  13. But you should be the specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners.Reduced performance level in aviation security with no gender effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Kathinka Krüger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.

  14. You Should Be the Specialist! Weak Mental Rotation Performance in Aviation Security Screeners - Reduced Performance Level in Aviation Security with No Gender Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Jenny K; Suchan, Boris

    2016-01-01

    Aviation security screeners analyze a large number of X-ray images per day and seem to be experts in mentally rotating diverse kinds of visual objects. A robust gender-effect that men outperform women in the Vandenberg & Kuse mental rotation task has been well documented over the last years. In addition it has been shown that training can positively influence the overall task-performance. Considering this, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether security screeners show better performance in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) independently of gender. Forty-seven security screeners of both sexes from two German airports were examined with a computer based MRT. Their performance was compared to a large sample of control subjects. The well-known gender-effect favoring men on mental rotation was significant within the control group. However, the security screeners did not show any sex differences suggesting an effect of training and professional performance. Surprisingly this specialized group showed a lower level of overall MRT performance than the control participants. Possible aviation related influences such as secondary effects of work-shift or expertise which can cumulatively cause this result are discussed.

  15. High performance silicon–organic hybrid solar cells via improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with reduced graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Zilei; Han, Wenhui; Liu, Qiming; Lu, Shuqi; Wen, Yuxiang; Hou, Juan; Huang, Fei; Peng, Shanglong; He, Deyan; Cao, Guozhong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The fabricated Si–organic hybrid solar cells with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.95% with a J_s_c of 31.94 mA cm"−"2, a V_o_c of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648, about 27.8% increase from 9.35% in pristine hybrid solar cells. • The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when appropriate amount rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, the electron recombination at the junction interface of the device was suppressed by the appropriate amount rGO flakes addition. • The rGO flakes also serve as an antireflection coating to further reduce the reflectance in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm, leading to further enhanced performances of hybrid solar cells. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS organic layer play a very important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Si–organic hybrid solar cells (HSCs). In the present study, properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their impacts on the performances of the resultant Si–organic HSCs have been systematically investigated. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, and the fabricated HSCs with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded an PCE of 11.95% with a J_s_c of 31.94 mA cm"−"2, a V_o_c of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648. However, excess rGO would deteriorate the solar cells performances and it might create additional defects and prevent carriers being collected. The Raman spectroscopy, sheet resistance and EQE analyses with rGO suggested that the interaction between the conductive rGO flakes and the aromatic PEDOT most probably not only provide additional charge transport pathways in hole transport layer to improve carrier mobility leading to a higher carrier collection efficiency, but also suppress the electron recombination at the junction interface. In addition, the rGO serve as an antireflection coating to reduce the reflectance of PEDOT:PSS thin film

  16. High performance silicon–organic hybrid solar cells via improving conductivity of PEDOT:PSS with reduced graphene oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Xinyu; Wang, Zilei; Han, Wenhui; Liu, Qiming; Lu, Shuqi; Wen, Yuxiang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Hou, Juan [School of Science, Key Laboratory of Ecophysics, Shihezi University, Xinjiang 832003 (China); Huang, Fei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States); Peng, Shanglong, E-mail: pengshl@lzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); He, Deyan [School of Physical Science and Technology, Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Cao, Guozhong, E-mail: gzcao@u.washington.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-2120 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • The fabricated Si–organic hybrid solar cells with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.95% with a J{sub sc} of 31.94 mA cm{sup −2}, a V{sub oc} of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648, about 27.8% increase from 9.35% in pristine hybrid solar cells. • The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when appropriate amount rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, the electron recombination at the junction interface of the device was suppressed by the appropriate amount rGO flakes addition. • The rGO flakes also serve as an antireflection coating to further reduce the reflectance in the wavelength range of 300–550 nm, leading to further enhanced performances of hybrid solar cells. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of PEDOT:PSS organic layer play a very important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of Si–organic hybrid solar cells (HSCs). In the present study, properties of PEDOT:PSS thin films with reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and their impacts on the performances of the resultant Si–organic HSCs have been systematically investigated. The electrical conductivity of PEDOT:PSS improved 35% when rGO was added to PEDOT:PSS, and the fabricated HSCs with 2 mg/ml rGO addition yielded an PCE of 11.95% with a J{sub sc} of 31.94 mA cm{sup −2}, a V{sub oc} of 579 mV and a FF of 0.648. However, excess rGO would deteriorate the solar cells performances and it might create additional defects and prevent carriers being collected. The Raman spectroscopy, sheet resistance and EQE analyses with rGO suggested that the interaction between the conductive rGO flakes and the aromatic PEDOT most probably not only provide additional charge transport pathways in hole transport layer to improve carrier mobility leading to a higher carrier collection efficiency, but also suppress the electron recombination at the junction interface. In addition, the rGO serve as an antireflection coating to reduce the reflectance of

  17. Buoyancy under control: underwater locomotor performance in a deep diving seabird suggests respiratory strategies for reducing foraging effort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothée R Cook

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.

  18. Performance of sulphate- and selenium-reducing biochemical reactors using different ratios of labile to recalcitrant organic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjafari, Parissa; Baldwin, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    Successful operation of sulphate-reducing bioreactors using complex organic materials depends on providing a balance between more easily degrading material that achieves reasonable kinetics and low hydraulic retention times, and more slowly decomposing material that sustains performance in the long term. In this study, two organic mixtures containing the same ingredients typical of bioreactors used at mine sites (woodchips, hay and cow manure) but with different ratios of wood (recalcitrant) to hay (labile) were tested in six continuous flow bioreactors treating synthetic mine-affected water containing 600 mg/L of sulphate and 15 μg/L of selenium. The reactors were operated for short (5-6 months) and long (435-450 days) periods of time at the same hydraulic retention time of 15 days. There were no differences in the performance of the bioreactors in terms of sulphate-reduction over the short term, but the wood-rich bioreactors experienced variable and sometimes unreliable sulphate-reduction over the long term. Presence of more hay in the organic mixture was able to better sustain reliable performance. Production of dissolved organic compounds due to biodegradation within the bioreactors was detected for the first 175-230 days, after which their depletion coincided with a crash phase observed in the wood-rich bioreactors only.

  19. Enhanced electrochemical performance of in situ reduced graphene oxide-polyaniline nanotubes hybrid nanocomposites using redox-additive aqueous electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Madhabi; Kumar, A.

    2018-02-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-polyaniline nanotubes (PAniNTs) nanocomposites have been synthesized by in situ reduction of GO. The morphology and structure of the nanocomposites are characterized by HRTEM, XRD and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The electrical and electrochemical performances of the nanocomposites are investigated for different RGO concentrations by conductivity measurements, cyclic voltammetry, charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 448.71 F g-1 is obtained for 40 wt.% of RGO-PAniNTs nanocomposite as compared to 194.92 F g-1 for pure PAniNTs in 1 M KCl electrolyte. To further improve the electrochemical performance of the nanocomposite electrode, KI is used as redox-additive with 1 M KCl electrolyte. Highest gravimetric specific capacitance of 876.43 F g-1 and an improved cyclic stability of 91% as compared to 79% without KI after 5000 cycles is achieved for an optimized 0.1 M KI concentration. This is attributed to the presence of different ionic species of I- ions that give rise to a number of possible redox reactions improving the pseudocapacitance of the electrode. This improved capacitive performance is compared with that of catechol redox-additive in 1 M KCl electrolyte, and that of KI and catechol redox-additives added to 1 M H2SO4 electrolyte.

  20. NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by reduced graphene oxide for lithium ion battery with enhanced electrochemical performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jing; Sun, Qi; Wang, Zhijie; Xiang, Junxiang; Zhao, Benliang [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, CAS Key Lab of Materials for Energy Conversion, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qu, Yan [The Sixth Element Materials Technology Co. Ltd, Changzhou, Jiangsu, 213145 (China); Xiang, Bin, E-mail: binxiang@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, CAS Key Lab of Materials for Energy Conversion, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • A core-shell structure of NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by rGO is synthesized by a PDDA assisted method. • Cushion effect of the rGO coating enhances the structure integrity. • Performance of the composites during cycling are improved remarkably compared to the pure nanobelts. - Abstract: Recently, layered transition metal chalcogenides (LTMCs) have attracted great attention as anode materials for lithium ion batteries (LIBs). However, the volume expansion and structure instability of LTMCs during the lithiation and delithiation process still remains challenging. Herein, we report NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts wrapped by reduced-graphene oxide (NbSe{sub 3}@rGO) utilized as buffer layers with enhanced electrochemical performance. The X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to probe features of the NbSe{sub 3}@rGO. The NbSe{sub 3}@rGO nanobelts as anode exhibit a discharge capacity of 300 mAh/g at the current density of 100 mAh/g after 250 cycles, several times higher than pure NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts. The improved electrochemical performance of NbSe{sub 3}@rGO is attributed to a buffer effect from the rGO, cushioning the volume-change-induced strain effect on the structure of NbSe{sub 3} nanobelts during cycling.

  1. Performance studies of GooFit on GPUs vs RooFit on CPUs while estimating the statistical significance of a new physical signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Florio, Adriano

    2017-10-01

    In order to test the computing capabilities of GPUs with respect to traditional CPU cores a high-statistics toy Monte Carlo technique has been implemented both in ROOT/RooFit and GooFit frameworks with the purpose to estimate the statistical significance of the structure observed by CMS close to the kinematical boundary of the J/ψϕ invariant mass in the three-body decay B + → J/ψϕK +. GooFit is a data analysis open tool under development that interfaces ROOT/RooFit to CUDA platform on nVidia GPU. The optimized GooFit application running on GPUs hosted by servers in the Bari Tier2 provides striking speed-up performances with respect to the RooFit application parallelised on multiple CPUs by means of PROOF-Lite tool. The considerable resulting speed-up, evident when comparing concurrent GooFit processes allowed by CUDA Multi Process Service and a RooFit/PROOF-Lite process with multiple CPU workers, is presented and discussed in detail. By means of GooFit it has also been possible to explore the behaviour of a likelihood ratio test statistic in different situations in which the Wilks Theorem may or may not apply because its regularity conditions are not satisfied.

  2. Review of Studies of Clay Minerals as Significant Component of Potential Host Rocks or Engineering Barriers for Radioactive Waste Disposals Performed at Comenius University in Bratislava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Uhlik; Vladimir, Sucha; Maria, Caplovicova; Igor, Stricek

    2013-01-01

    About 50 % of electric power is produced by nuclear power plants in Slovakia. In spite of the significant production of nuclear waste, Slovakia has not defined basic strategy of radioactive-waste isolation. However, some pilot projects and studies have been carried out. Five areas were determined as prospective sites for construction of deep geological repository (DGR). Two of them are situated in the south of Slovakia. Szecseny schlier (mixture of siltstones and Clay-stones) of Lucenec Formation (Egerian) is one of the most prospective host rocks from lithological, structural and spatial perspective. Besides the investigation of potential host rock for DGR the studies of bentonite properties as important part of engineering barriers for radioactive waste disposals were performed. Detailed mineral and structural analyses of smectites from the bentonitic material exposed to laboratory Mock-Up test were realised. Particular interest has been focused on interaction between Fe and smectites. Other field of interest is investigation of sorption of Cs and Sr on natural and modified bentonites, including irradiation. Purpose of this work is to present a short review of other studies done by our group with partial focusing to interaction of organic dye (Rhoda-mine 6G) with smectite that is connected with changes of layer charge after treatment; possibilities to measure preferential orientation of clays after compaction by TEM and to effort to use X-ray micro-tomography for inner structure of sediments. (authors)

  3. Heterostructured TiO2/NiTiO3 Nanorod Arrays for Inorganic Sensitized Solar Cells with Significantly Enhanced Photovoltaic Performance and Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue-Ying; Wang, Jian-Gan; Sun, Huan-Huan; Wei, Bingqing

    2018-04-11

    Organic dyes used in the conventional dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) suffer from poor light stability and high cost. In this work, we demonstrate a new inorganic sensitized solar cell based on ordered one-dimensional semiconductor nanorod arrays of TiO 2 /NiTiO 3 (NTO) heterostructures prepared via a facile two-step hydrothermal approach. The semiconductor heterostructure arrays are highly desirable and promising for DSSCs because of their direct charge transport capability and slow charge recombination rate. The low-cost NTO inorganic semiconductor possesses an appropriate band gap that matches well with TiO 2 , which behaves like a "dye" to enable efficient light harvesting and fast electron-hole separation. The solar cells constructed by the ordered TiO 2 /NTO heterostructure photoanodes show a significantly improved power conversion efficiency, high fill factor, and more promising, outstanding life stability. The present work will open up an avenue to design heterostructured inorganics for high-performance solar cells.

  4. Utilizing Commercial Hardware and Open Source Computer Vision Software to Perform Motion Capture for Reduced Gravity Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Brad; Bellisario, Brian; Gallo, Christopher; Thompson, William K.; Lewandowski, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Long duration space travel to Mars or to an asteroid will expose astronauts to extended periods of reduced gravity. Since gravity is not present to aid loading, astronauts will use resistive and aerobic exercise regimes for the duration of the space flight to minimize the loss of bone density, muscle mass and aerobic capacity that occurs during exposure to a reduced gravity environment. Unlike the International Space Station (ISS), the area available for an exercise device in the next generation of spacecraft is limited. Therefore, compact resistance exercise device prototypes are being developed. The NASA Digital Astronaut Project (DAP) is supporting the Advanced Exercise Concepts (AEC) Project, Exercise Physiology and Countermeasures (ExPC) project and the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) funded researchers by developing computational models of exercising with these new advanced exercise device concepts. To perform validation of these models and to support the Advanced Exercise Concepts Project, several candidate devices have been flown onboard NASAs Reduced Gravity Aircraft. In terrestrial laboratories, researchers typically have available to them motion capture systems for the measurement of subject kinematics. Onboard the parabolic flight aircraft it is not practical to utilize the traditional motion capture systems due to the large working volume they require and their relatively high replacement cost if damaged. To support measuring kinematics on board parabolic aircraft, a motion capture system is being developed utilizing open source computer vision code with commercial off the shelf (COTS) video camera hardware. While the systems accuracy is lower than lab setups, it provides a means to produce quantitative comparison motion capture kinematic data. Additionally, data such as required exercise volume for small spaces such as the Orion capsule can be determined. METHODS: OpenCV is an open source computer vision library that provides the

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of reduced graphene sheets/Fe2O3 nanorods composites and their enhanced electrochemical performance for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wanlu; Gao, Zan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Bin; Liu, Lianhe

    2013-06-01

    Reduced graphene nanosheets/Fe2O3 nanorods (GNS/Fe2O3) composite has been fabricated by a hydrothermal route for supercapacitor electrode materials. The obtained GNS/Fe2O3 composite formed a uniform structure with the Fe2O3 nanorods grew on the graphene surface and/or filled between the graphene sheets. The electrochemical performances of the GNS/Fe2O3 hybrid supercapacitor were tested by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic charge-discharge tests in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Comparing with the pure Fe2O3 electrode, GNS/Fe2O3 composite electrode exhibits an enhanced specific capacitance of 320 F g-1 at 10 mA cm-2 and an excellent cycle-ability with capacity retention of about 97% after 500 cycles. The simple and cost-effective preparation technique of this composite with good capacitive behavior encourages its potential commercial application.

  6. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material.

  7. Micro-supercapacitors based on interdigital electrodes of reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube composites with ultrahigh power handling performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beidaghi, Majid; Wang, Chunlei [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler St., EC 3463, FL 33174 (United States)

    2012-11-07

    A novel method for fabricating micro-patterned interdigitated electrodes based on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and carbon nanotube (CNT) composites for ultra-high power handling micro-supercapacitor application is reported. The binder-free microelectrodes were developed by combining electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) and photolithography lift-off methods. Without typically used thermal or chemical reduction, GO sheets are readily reduced to rGO during the ESD deposition. Electrochemical measurements show that the in-plane interdigital design of the microelectrodes is effective in increasing accessibility of electrolyte ions in-between stacked rGO sheets through an electro-activation process. Addition of CNTs results in reduced restacking of rGO sheets and improved energy and power density. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements show that the specific capacitance of the micro-supercapacitor based on rGO-CNT composites is 6.1 mF cm{sup -2} at 0.01 V s{sup -1}. At a very high scan rate of 50 V s{sup -1}, a specific capacitance of 2.8 mF cm{sup -2} (stack capacitance of 3.1 F cm{sup -3}) is recorded, which is an unprecedented performance for supercapacitors. The addition of CNT, electrolyte-accessible and binder-free microelectrodes, as well as an interdigitated in-plane design result in a high-frequency response of the micro-supercapacitors with resistive-capacitive time constants as low as 4.8 ms. These characteristics suggest that interdigitated rGO-CNT composite electrodes are promising for on-chip energy storage application with high power demands. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. A fast chemical route for the synthesis of TBHQ functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its electrochemical performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Subhasis; Sen, Pintu, E-mail: psen@vecc.gov.in; Bandyopadhyay, S.K.

    2016-02-01

    A fast chemical route for the synthesis of tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) functionalized reduced graphene oxide (FRGO) and their application as high performance electrode materials for supercapacitors have been reported. Reductions of chemically exfoliated graphene oxides (GO) in the presence of small amount of TBHQ (1–2 wt % with respect to GO) at various time periods were investigated through XRD, FTIR and Raman studies. Reappearance of broad diffraction peak close to graphite peak (002) reveals an efficient method of reduction of different oxygen containing functional groups present in GO/FGO resulting in a decrease of interlayer d-spacing (∼3.5 Å). Absence of the absorption peaks in FTIR for –C=O, t-O–H, epoxide and alkoxy groups supports the complete reduction of GO to FRGO by hydrazine hydrate within a short time period of 4 h reduction under reflux condition. A large red shift in UV spectrum of FRGO – 4 h (270 nm) reveals the complete reduction of graphene oxide. The average crystallite sp{sup 2} domains sizes have been estimated through Raman spectroscopy. Plausible mechanism of TBHQ assisted fast chemical reduction of FGO has been enumerated. 1.5 wt % TBHQ in FRGO shows the best electrochemical performance where TBHQ not only acts as a reducing agent during functionalization, but also plays as an active redox molecule for enhanced capacitance of 200 F/g. - Highlights: • A fast chemical route has been adopted for the synthesis of TBHQ functionalized RGO. • The kinetics of chemical reduction becomes faster in the presence of TBHQ. • The FTIR spectrum of functionalized RGO supports the complete reduction process. • TBHQ also plays a vital role for enhancing capacitance of functionalized RGO.

  9. Ventricular performance and Na+-K+ ATPase activity are reduced early and late after myocardial infarction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Stefanon

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction leads to compensatory ventricular remodeling. Disturbances in myocardial contractility depend on the active transport of Ca2+ and Na+, which are regulated by Na+-K+ ATPase. Inappropriate regulation of Na+-K+ ATPase activity leads to excessive loss of K+ and gain of Na+ by the cell. We determined the participation of Na+-K+ ATPase in ventricular performance early and late after myocardial infarction. Wistar rats (8-10 per group underwent left coronary artery ligation (infarcted, Inf or sham-operation (Sham. Ventricular performance was measured at 3 and 30 days after surgery using the Langendorff technique. Left ventricular systolic pressure was obtained under different ventricular diastolic pressures and increased extracellular Ca2+ concentrations (Ca2+e and after low and high ouabain concentrations. The baseline coronary perfusion pressure increased 3 days after myocardial infarction and normalized by 30 days (Sham 3 = 88 ± 6; Inf 3 = 130 ± 9; Inf 30 = 92 ± 7 mmHg; P < 0.05. The inotropic response to Ca2+e and ouabain was reduced at 3 and 30 days after myocardial infarction (Ca2+ = 1.25 mM; Sham 3 = 70 ± 3; Inf 3 = 45 ± 2; Inf 30 = 29 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.05, while the Frank-Starling mechanism was preserved. At 3 and 30 days after myocardial infarction, ventricular Na+-K+ ATPase activity and contractility were reduced. This Na+-K+ ATPase hypoactivity may modify the Na+, K+ and Ca2+ transport across the sarcolemma resulting in ventricular dysfunction.

  10. Controlling the formation of rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on reduced graphene oxide for high-performance supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meili; Sun, Guoying; Yin, Pingping; Ruan, Changping; Ai, Kelong

    2013-11-13

    Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) has attracted much attention for energy storage application because of its high Faradaic activity and stable crystal structure, which make it a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. However, the low electronic conductivity and small lithium-ion diffusion coefficient of V2O5 limit its practical applications. To overcome these limitations, a facile and efficient method is here demonstrated for the fabrication of V2O5/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposites as electrode materials for supercapacitors. With this method, the reduction of graphene oxide can be achieved in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly solvent, without the addition of any other toxic reducing agent. Importantly, this solvent can control the formation of the uniform rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals on the surface of rGO. Compared to pure V2O5 microspheres, the V2O5/rGO nanocomposites exhibited a higher specific capacitance of 537 F g(-1) at a current density of 1 A g(-1) in neutral aqueous electrolytes, a higher energy density of 74.58 Wh kg(-1) at a power density of 500 W kg(-1), and better stability even after 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Their excellent performances can be attributed to the synergistic effect of rGO and rodlike V2O5 nanocrystals. Such impressive results may promote new opportunities for these electrode materials in high-energy-density storage systems.

  11. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark R; Eastman, Charmane I

    2012-01-01

    There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1) circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2) chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3) melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect), along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift) the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan. PMID:23620685

  12. Shift work: health, performance and safety problems, traditional countermeasures, and innovative management strategies to reduce circadian misalignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith MR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mark R Smith, Charmane I EastmanBiological Rhythms Research Laboratory, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USAAbstract: There are three mechanisms that may contribute to the health, performance, and safety problems associated with night-shift work: (1 circadian misalignment between the internal circadian clock and activities such as work, sleep, and eating, (2 chronic, partial sleep deprivation, and (3 melatonin suppression by light at night. The typical countermeasures, such as caffeine, naps, and melatonin (for its sleep-promoting effect, along with education about sleep and circadian rhythms, are the components of most fatigue risk-management plans. We contend that these, while better than nothing, are not enough because they do not address the underlying cause of the problems, which is circadian misalignment. We explain how to reset (phase-shift the circadian clock to partially align with the night-work, day-sleep schedule, and thus reduce circadian misalignment while preserving sleep and functioning on days off. This involves controlling light and dark using outdoor light exposure, sunglasses, sleep in the dark, and a little bright light during night work. We present a diagram of a sleep-and-light schedule to reduce circadian misalignment in permanent night work, or a rotation between evenings and nights, and give practical advice on how to implement this type of plan.Keywords: circadian rhythms, night work, bright light, phase-shifting, sleep, melatonin

  13. Feasibility of Reducing the Fiber Content in Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete under Flexure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Jun; Yoo, Doo-Yeol; Park, Gi-Joon; Kim, Sung-Wook

    2017-01-28

    In this study, the flexural behavior of ultra-high-performance fiber-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) is examined as a function of fiber length and volume fraction. Straight steel fiber with three different lengths ( l f ) of 13, 19.5, and 30 mm and four different volume fractions ( v f ) of 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, and 2.0% are considered. Test results show that post-cracking flexural properties of UHPFRC, such as flexural strength, deflection capacity, toughness, and cracking behavior, improve with increasing fiber length and volume fraction, while first-cracking properties are not significantly influenced by fiber length and volume fraction. A 0.5 vol % reduction of steel fiber content relative to commercial UHPFRC can be achieved without deterioration of flexural performance by replacing short fibers ( l f of 13 mm) with longer fibers ( l f of 19.5 mm and 30 mm).

  14. Dramatically improve the Safety Performance of Li ion Battery Separators and Reduce the Manufacturing Cost Using Ultraviolet Curing and High Precision Coating Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Gary [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States); Arnold, John [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States)

    2017-06-30

    The objective of this project was to improve the safety of operation of Lithium ion batteries (LIB)and at the same time significantly reduce the manufacturing cost of LIB separators. The project was very successful in demonstrating the improved performance and reduced cost attributed to using UV curable binder and high speed printing technology to place a very thin and precisely controlled ceramic layer on the surface of base separators made of polyolefins such as Polyethylene, Polypropylene and combinations of the two as well as cellulosic base separators. The underlying need for this new technology is the recently identified potential of fire in large format Lithium ion batteries used in hybrid, plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles. The primary potential cause of battery fire is thermal runaway caused by several different electrical or mechanical mechanisms; such as, overcharge, puncture, overheating, compaction, and internal short circuit. During thermal runaway, the ideal separator prevents ion flow and continues to physically separate the anode from the cathode. If the temperature of the battery gets higher, the separator may melt and partially clog the pores and help prevent ion flows but it also can shrink which can result in physical contact of the electrodes and accelerate thermal run-away even further. Ceramic coated separators eliminate many of the problems related to the usage of traditional separators. The ceramic coating provides an electrically insulating layer that retains its physical integrity at high temperature, allows for more efficient thermal heat transfer, helps reduce thermal shrinkage, and inhibits dendrite growth that could create a potential short circuit. The use of Ultraviolet (UV) chemistry to bind fine ceramic particles on separators is a unique and innovative approach primarily because of the instant curing of the UV curable binder upon exposure to UV light. This significant reduction in drying/curing time significantly reduces the

  15. Improving performance of HVAC systems to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings; recommendations to reduce risks posed by biological attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Penny J; Mair, Michael; Inglesby, Thomas V; Gross, Jonathan; Henderson, D A; O'Toole, Tara; Ahern-Seronde, Joa; Bahnfleth, William P; Brennan, Terry; Burroughs, H E Barney; Davidson, Cliff; Delp, William; Ensor, David S; Gomory, Ralph; Olsiewski, Paula; Samet, Jonathan M; Smith, William M; Streifel, Andrew J; White, Ronald H; Woods, James E

    2006-01-01

    The prospect of biological attacks is a growing strategic threat. Covert aerosol attacks inside a building are of particular concern. In the summer of 2005, the Center for Biosecurity of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center convened a Working Group to determine what steps could be taken to reduce the risk of exposure of building occupants after an aerosol release of a biological weapon. The Working Group was composed of subject matter experts in air filtration, building ventilation and pressurization, air conditioning and air distribution, biosecurity, building design and operation, building decontamination and restoration, economics, medicine, public health, and public policy. The group focused on functions of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems in commercial or public buildings that could reduce the risk of exposure to deleterious aerosols following biological attacks. The Working Group's recommendations for building owners are based on the use of currently available, off-the-shelf technologies. These recommendations are modest in expense and could be implemented immediately. It is also the Working Group's judgment that the commitment and stewardship of a lead government agency is essential to secure the necessary financial and human resources and to plan and build a comprehensive, effective program to reduce exposure to aerosolized infectious agents in buildings.

  16. Serotonin and Histamine Therapy Increases Tetanic Forces of Myoblasts, Reduces Muscle Injury, and Improves Grip Strength Performance of Dmdmdx Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Gurel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a recessive X-linked fatal disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Although several therapeutic approaches have been studied, none has led to substantial long-term effects in patients. The aim of this study was to test a serotonin and histamine (S&H combination on human skeletal myoblasts and Dmdmdx mice for its effects on muscle strength and injury. Normal human bioartificial muscles (BAMs were treated, and muscle tetanic forces and muscle injury tests were performed using the MyoForce Analysis System. Dmdmdx mice, the murine model of DMD, were administered serotonin, histamine, or S&H combination twice daily for 6 weeks, and functional performance tests were conducted once a week. The S&H combination treatment caused significant increases in tetanic forces at all time points and concentrations tested as compared to the saline controls. Dose response of the BAMs to the treatment demonstrated a significant increase in force generation at all concentrations compared to the controls after 3 to 4 days of drug treatment. The highest 3 concentrations had a significant effect on lowering contractile-induced injury as measured by a reduction in the release of adenylate kinase. Histamine-only and S&H treatments improved grip strength of Dmdmdx mice, whereas serotonin-only treatment resulted in no significant improvement in muscle strength. The results of this study indicate that S&H therapy might be a promising new strategy for muscular dystrophies and that the mechanism should be further investigated.

  17. Laser irradiation of Mg-Al-Zn alloy: Reduced electrochemical kinetics and enhanced performance in simulated body fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florian, David C; Melia, Michael A; Steuer, Fritz W; Briglia, Bruce F; Purzycki, Michael K; Scully, John R; Fitz-Gerald, James M

    2017-05-11

    As a lightweight metal with mechanical properties similar to natural bone, Mg and its alloys are great prospects for biodegradable, load bearing implants. However, rapid degradation and H 2 gas production in physiological media has prevented widespread use of Mg alloys. Surface heterogeneities in the form of intermetallic particles dominate the corrosion response. This research shows that surface homogenization significantly improved the biological corrosion response observed during immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). The laser processed Mg alloy exhibited a 50% reduction in mass loss and H 2 evolution after 24 h of immersion in SBF when compared to the wrought, cast alloy. The laser processed samples exhibited increased wettability as evident from wetting angle studies, further suggesting improved biocompatibility. Electrochemical analysis by potentiodynamic polarization measurements showed that the anodic and cathodic kinetics were reduced following laser processing and are attributed to the surface chemical homogeneity.

  18. When should fractional flow reserve be performed to assess the significance of borderline coronary artery lesions: Derivation of a simplified scoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, Fadi A; Falasiri, Shayan; Glover, Charles B; Khaliq, Asma; Leung, Calvin C; Mroue, Jad; Ebra, George

    2016-11-01

    To derive a simplified scoring system (SSS) that can assist in selecting patients who would benefit from the application of fractional flow reserve (FFR). Angiographers base decisions to perform FFR on their interpretation of % diameter stenosis (DS), which is subject to variability. Recent studies have shown that the amount of myocardium at jeopardy is an important factor in determining the degree of hemodynamic compromise. We conducted a retrospective multivariable analysis to identify independent predictors of hemodynamic compromise in 289 patients with 317 coronary vessels undergoing FFR. A SSS was derived using the odds ratios as a weighted factor. The receiver operator characteristics curve was used to identify the optimal cutoff (≥3) to discern a functionally significant lesion (FFR≤0.8). Male gender, left anterior descending artery apical wrap, disease proximal to lesion, minimal lumen diameter and % DS predicted abnormal FFR (≤0.8) and lesion location in the left circumflex predicted a normal FFR. Using a cutoff score of ≥3 on the SSS, a specificity of 90.4% (95% CI: 83.0-95.3) and a sensitivity of 38.0% (95% CI: 31.5-44.9) was generated with a positive predictive value of 89.0% (95% CI: 80.7%-94.6%) and negative predictive value of 41.6% (95% CI: 35.1%-48.3%). The decision to use FFR should be based not only on the % DS but also the size of the myocardial mass jeopardized. A score of ≥3 on the SSS should prompt further investigation with a pressure wire. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Intelligent Optimization Method for Vortex-Induced Vibration Reducing and Performance Improving in a Large Francis Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanlin Peng

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new methodology is proposed to reduce the vortex-induced vibration (VIV and improve the performance of the stay vane in a 200-MW Francis turbine. The process can be divided into two parts. Firstly, a diagnosis method for stay vane vibration based on field experiments and a finite element method (FEM is presented. It is found that the resonance between the Kármán vortex and the stay vane is the main cause for the undesired vibration. Then, we focus on establishing an intelligent optimization model of the stay vane’s trailing edge profile. To this end, an approach combining factorial experiments, extreme learning machine (ELM and particle swarm optimization (PSO is implemented. Three kinds of improved profiles of the stay vane are proposed and compared. Finally, the profile with a Donaldson trailing edge is adopted as the best solution for the stay vane, and verifications such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations, structural analysis and fatigue analysis are performed to validate the optimized geometry.

  20. Reduced Graphene Oxide-Wrapped FeS2 Composite as Anode for High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qinghong; Guo, Can; Zhu, Yuxuan; He, Jiapeng; Wang, Hongqiang

    2018-06-01

    Iron disulfide is considered to be a potential anode material for sodium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. However, its applications are seriously limited by the weak conductivity and large volume change, which results in low reversible capacity and poor cycling stability. Herein, reduced graphene oxide-wrapped FeS2 (FeS2/rGO) composite was fabricated to achieve excellent electrochemical performance via a facile two-step method. The introduction of rGO effectively improved the conductivity, BET surface area, and structural stability of the FeS2 active material, thus endowing it with high specific capacity, good rate capability, as well as excellent cycling stability. Electrochemical measurements show that the FeS2/rGO composite had a high initial discharge capacity of 1263.2 mAh g-1 at 100 mA g-1 and a high discharge capacity of 344 mAh g-1 at 10 A g-1, demonstrating superior rate performance. After 100 cycles at 100 mA g-1, the discharge capacity remained at 609.5 mAh g-1, indicating the excellent cycling stability of the FeS2/rGO electrode.

  1. Natural antioxidant ice cream acutely reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguigni, Valerio; Manco, Melania; Sorge, Roberto; Gnessi, Lucio; Francomano, Davide

    2017-01-01

    The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of several diseases. Polyphenols have been shown to be beneficial against ROS. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a natural antioxidant ice cream on oxidative stress, vascular function, and physical performance. In this controlled, single-blind, crossover study, 14 healthy individuals were randomized to consume 100 g of either antioxidant ice cream containing dark cocoa powder and hazelnut and green tea extracts or milk chocolate ice cream (control ice cream). Participants were studied at baseline and 2 h after ingesting ice cream. Serum polyphenols, antioxidant status (ferric-reducing ability of plasma [FRAP]), nitric oxide (NOx) bioavailability, markers of oxidative stress (determination of reactive oxygen metabolites [d-ROMs] and hydrogen peroxide [H 2 O 2 ]), endothelium function (flow-mediated dilation [FMD] and reactive hyperemia index [RHI]), and exercise tolerance (stress test) were assessed, and the double product was measured. Serum polyphenols (P ice cream ingestion. No changes were found after control ice cream ingestion. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that a natural ice cream rich in polyphenols acutely improved vascular function and physical performance in healthy individuals through a reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hollow reduced graphene oxide microspheres as a high-performance anode material for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mei, Riguo; Song, Xiaorui; Hu, Yan; Yang, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jingjie

    2015-01-01

    Hollow reduced graphene oxide (RGO) microspheres are successfully synthesized in large quantities through spray-drying suspension of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets and subsequent carbothermal reduction. With this new procedure, blighted-microspherical GO precursor is synthesized through the process of spray drying, afterwards the GO precursor is subsequently calcined at 800 °C for 5 h to obtain hollow RGO microspheres. A series of analyses, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are performed to characterize the structure and morphology of intermediates and as-obtained product. The as-obtained hollow RGO microspheres provide a high specific surface area (175.5 m 2 g −1 ) and excellent electronic conductivity (6.3 S cm −1 ), and facilitated high electrochemical performance as anode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Compared with the RGO nanosheets, the as-obtained hollow RGO microspheres exhibit superior specific capacity and outstanding cyclability. In addition, this spray drying and carbothermal reduction (SDCTR) method provided a facile route to prepare hollow RGO microspheres in large quantities

  3. Self-supporting activated carbon/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide flexible electrode for high performance supercapacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Yao; Song, Junhua; Yang, Wei; Wang, Mingshan; Zhu, Chengzhou; Zhao, Wengao; Zheng, Jianming; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-04-30

    A self-supporting and flexible activated carbon/carbon nanotube/reduced graphene oxide (AC/CNT/RGO) film has been rationally designed for constructing high- performance supercapacitor. The AC/CNT/RGO film is prepared by anchoring the AC particles with a 3D and porous framework built by hierarchically weaving the 1 D CNT and 2D RGO using their intrinsic van der Waals force. The CNT network is beneficial for improving th