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Sample records for significantly reduced growth

  1. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  2. Sucralfate significantly reduces ciprofloxacin concentrations in serum.

    OpenAIRE

    Garrelts, J C; Godley, P J; Peterie, J D; Gerlach, E H; Yakshe, C C

    1990-01-01

    The effect of sucralfate on the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin was evaluated in eight healthy subjects utilizing a randomized, crossover design. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 h was reduced from 8.8 to 1.1 micrograms.h/ml by sucralfate (P less than 0.005). Similarly, the maximum concentration of ciprofloxacin in serum was reduced from 2.0 to 0.2 micrograms/ml (P less than 0.005). We conclude that concurrent ingestion of sucralfate significantly reduces the concentr...

  3. Quilting after mastectomy significantly reduces seroma formation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduce or prevent seroma formation among mastectomy patients ... of this prospective study is to evaluate the effect of surgical quilting ... Seroma was more common in smokers (p=0.003) and was not decreased by the .... explain its aetiology.

  4. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  5. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  6. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Karen L; Veile, Amanda; Otárola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1) as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2) competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3) however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  7. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen L Kramer

    Full Text Available Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger siblings can have on young children's growth. Additionally, inconsistent results might reflect that the biological significance associated with different growth trajectories is poorly understood. This paper addresses these concerns by tracking children's monthly gains in height and weight from weaning to age five in a high fertility Maya community. We predict that: 1 as an aggregate measure family size will not have a major impact on child growth during the post weaning period; 2 competition from young siblings will negatively impact child growth during the post weaning period; 3 however because of their economic value, older siblings will have a negligible effect on young children's growth. Accounting for parental condition, we use linear mixed models to evaluate the effects that family size, younger and older siblings have on children's growth. Congruent with our expectations, it is younger siblings who have the most detrimental effect on children's growth. While we find statistical evidence of a quantity/quality tradeoff effect, the biological significance of these results is negligible in early childhood. Our findings help to resolve why quantity/quality studies have had inconsistent results by showing that sibling competition varies with sibling age composition, not just family size, and that biological significance is distinct from statistical significance.

  8. Reducing longitudinal emittance growth in RFQ accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koscielniak, S.

    1994-08-01

    Bunching and capture of a monochromatic beam into an rf bucket inevitably lead to substantial emittance growth through the mechanisms of filamentation and non-adiabatic variation of parameters. We describe a three step strategy for minimizing this growth, based on a clear understanding of the non-linear beam dynamics, and apply to acceleration of heavy ions with Z/A = 1/60 (and initial kinetic energy 60 keV/u) in a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) operating at 25 MHz. We also describe a scheme, to further reduce the emittance, based upon the use of an external RFQ-type prebuncher before the main accelerator. The external unit permits the bunching voltage to be reduced, to inject into a moving bucket, and to reduce the structure length. (author). 7 refs., 6 figs

  9. The significance of sensory appeal for reduced meat consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corrina A

    2014-10-01

    Reducing meat (over-)consumption as a way to help address environmental deterioration will require a range of strategies, and any such strategies will benefit from understanding how individuals might respond to various meat consumption practices. To investigate how New Zealanders perceive such a range of practices, in this instance in vitro meat, eating nose-to-tail, entomophagy and reducing meat consumption, focus groups involving a total of 69 participants were held around the country. While it is the damaging environmental implications of intensive farming practices and the projected continuation of increasing global consumer demand for meat products that has propelled this research, when asked to consider variations on the conventional meat-centric diet common to many New Zealanders, it was the sensory appeal of the areas considered that was deemed most problematic. While an ecological rationale for considering these 'meat' alternatives was recognised and considered important by most, transforming this value into action looks far less promising given the recurrent sensory objections to consuming different protein-based foods or of reducing meat consumption. This article considers the responses of focus group participants in relation to each of the dietary practices outlined, and offers suggestions on ways to encourage a more environmentally viable diet. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Can Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Reduce the Growth of Agricultural Weeds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Rita S. L.; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel; van der Heijden, Marcel G. A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known for their beneficial effects on plants. However, there is increasing evidence that some ruderal plants, including several agricultural weeds, respond negatively to AMF colonization. Here, we investigated the effect of AMF on the growth of individual weed species and on weed-crop interactions. Methodology/Principal Findings First, under controlled glasshouse conditions, we screened growth responses of nine weed species and three crops to a widespread AMF, Glomus intraradices. None of the weeds screened showed a significant positive mycorrhizal growth response and four weed species were significantly reduced by the AMF (growth responses between −22 and −35%). In a subsequent experiment, we selected three of the negatively responding weed species – Echinochloa crus-galli, Setaria viridis and Solanum nigrum – and analyzed their responses to a combination of three AMF (Glomus intraradices, Glomus mosseae and Glomus claroideum). Finally, we tested whether the presence of a crop (maize) enhanced the suppressive effect of AMF on weeds. We found that the growth of the three selected weed species was also reduced by a combination of AMF and that the presence of maize amplified the negative effect of AMF on the growth of E. crus-galli. Conclusions/Significance Our results show that AMF can negatively influence the growth of some weed species indicating that AMF have the potential to act as determinants of weed community structure. Furthermore, mycorrhizal weed growth reductions can be amplified in the presence of a crop. Previous studies have shown that AMF provide a number of beneficial ecosystem services. Taken together with our current results, the maintenance and promotion of AMF activity may thereby contribute to sustainable management of agroecosystems. However, in order to further the practical and ecological relevance of our findings, additional experiments should be performed under field conditions. PMID

  11. Next-generation nozzle check valve significantly reduces operating costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roorda, O. [SMX International, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    Check valves perform an important function in preventing reverse flow and protecting plant and mechanical equipment. However, the variety of different types of valves and extreme differences in performance even within one type can change maintenance requirements and life cycle costs, amounting to millions of dollars over the typical 15-year design life of piping components. A next-generation non-slam nozzle check valve which prevents return flow has greatly reduced operating costs by protecting the mechanical equipment in a piping system. This article described the check valve varieties such as the swing check valve, a dual-plate check valve, and nozzle check valves. Advancements in optimized design of a non-slam nozzle check valve were also discussed, with particular reference to computer flow modelling such as computational fluid dynamics; computer stress modelling such as finite element analysis; and flow testing (using rapid prototype development and flow loop testing), both to improve dynamic performance and reduce hydraulic losses. The benefits of maximized dynamic performance and minimized pressure loss from the new designed valve were also outlined. It was concluded that this latest non-slam nozzle check valve design has potential applications in natural gas, liquefied natural gas, and oil pipelines, including subsea applications, as well as refineries, and petrochemical plants among others, and is suitable for horizontal and vertical installation. The result of this next-generation nozzle check valve design is not only superior performance, and effective protection of mechanical equipment but also minimized life cycle costs. 1 fig.

  12. Reduced growth due to belowground sink limitation is not fully explained by reduced photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campany, Courtney E; Medlyn, Belinda E; Duursma, Remko A

    2017-08-01

    Sink limitation is known to reduce plant growth, but it is not known how plant carbon (C) balance is affected, limiting our ability to predict growth under sink-limited conditions. We manipulated soil volume to impose sink limitation of growth in Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field in containers of different sizes and planted flush to the soil alongside freely rooted (Free) seedlings. Container volume negatively affected aboveground growth throughout the experiment, and light saturated rates of leaf photosynthesis were consistently lower in seedlings in containers (-26%) compared with Free seedlings. Significant reductions in photosynthetic capacity in containerized seedlings were related to both reduced leaf nitrogen content and starch accumulation, indicating direct effects of sink limitation on photosynthetic downregulation. After 120 days, harvested biomass of Free seedlings was on average 84% higher than seedlings in containers, but biomass distribution in leaves, stems and roots was not different. However, the reduction in net leaf photosynthesis over the growth period was insufficient to explain the reduction in growth, so that we also observed an apparent reduction in whole-plant C-use efficiency (CUE) between Free seedlings and seedlings in containers. Our results show that sink limitation affects plant growth through feedbacks to both photosynthesis and CUE. Mass balance approaches to predicting plant growth under sink-limited conditions need to incorporate both of these feedbacks. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  14. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekis, Nejc; Mc Entee, Mark F.; Stegnar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p ≤ 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p ≤ 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p ≤ 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p ≤ 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p ≤ 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p ≤ 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  15. Mortality and reduced growth hormone secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochholm, Kirstine; Christiansen, Jens; Laursen, Torben

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data regarding the mortality rates of patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), whether or not treated with growth hormone (GH), are limited, but an increased mortality rate among hypopituitary patients compared with the general population has been documented. Cardiovascular dise...

  16. Sibling Competition & Growth Tradeoffs. Biological vs. Statistical Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Karen L.; Veile, Amanda; Ot?rola-Castillo, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood growth has many downstream effects on future health and reproduction and is an important measure of offspring quality. While a tradeoff between family size and child growth outcomes is theoretically predicted in high-fertility societies, empirical evidence is mixed. This is often attributed to phenotypic variation in parental condition. However, inconsistent study results may also arise because family size confounds the potentially differential effects that older and younger s...

  17. Swaziland : Reducing Poverty Through Shared Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    The people of Swaziland are its greatest resource. Yet, social and economic indicators of household welfare converge to confirm fundamental inequalities in access to incomes and assets, and the existence of significant poverty and deprivation. Furthermore, as the regional economic and social climate is transformed, the fragile gains of the past are being fast eroded. At this historic junct...

  18. Areva 2007 results: accelerated growth and significantly improved profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    The AREVA group recorded accelerated growth and increased profitability in 2007, meeting both of its objectives for the year. The group made strategic inroads in fast growing markets. AREVA's integrated model met with record success in China, where GGNPC acquired two EPR nuclear islands in a combined order including both the reactors and the fuel, and the creation of a joint venture in engineering. Its T and D division was awarded the largest contract of its history in Qatar, making it the leader in a region where T and D was not even present a few years ago. For more than three years, AREVA has built up its capacity to meet surging demand in the nuclear power and T and D markets through an active policy of research and development and by capitalizing on the diversity and strength of its partnerships. Areva hired 8,600 people in 2006 and 11,500 people in 2007; this represents an investment in recruitment, training and integration of approximately euro 200 million per year. For 2008, the group foresees a further increase in its backlog, sales revenue and operating income. The Areva Group financial statements for 2007 are summarized below: - Backlog: euro 39.8 billion, up 55%; - Sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up 9.8% (up 10.4% like-for-like); - Operating income: euro 751 million, i.e. 6.3% operating margin, up 2.6 points compared with 2006; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euro 743 million (euro 20.95 per share), up from euro 649 million in 2006 (euro 18.31 per share); - Net debt: euro 1.954 billion, linked to the acquisition of UraMin; - Dividend: euro 6.77, to be proposed to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders convening on April 17, 2008

  19. Phytohormone supplementation significantly increases growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cultivated for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Kun; Yoo, Gursong; Moon, Myounghoon; Kim, Chul Woong; Choi, Yoon-E; Yang, Ji-Won

    2013-11-01

    Cultivation is the most expensive step in the production of biodiesel from microalgae, and substantial research has been devoted to developing more cost-effective cultivation methods. Plant hormones (phytohormones) are chemical messengers that regulate various aspects of growth and development and are typically active at very low concentrations. In this study, we investigated the effect of different phytohormones on microalgal growth and biodiesel production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and their potential to lower the overall cost of commercial biofuel production. The results indicated that all five of the tested phytohormones (indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid, kinetin, 1-triacontanol, and abscisic acid) promoted microalgal growth. In particular, hormone treatment increased biomass production by 54 to 69 % relative to the control growth medium (Tris-acetate-phosphate, TAP). Phytohormone treatments also affected microalgal cell morphology but had no effect on the yields of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) as a percent of biomass. We also tested the effect of these phytohormones on microalgal growth in nitrogen-limited media by supplementation in the early stationary phase. Maximum cell densities after addition of phytohormones were higher than in TAP medium, even when the nitrogen source was reduced to 40 % of that in TAP medium. Taken together, our results indicate that phytohormones significantly increased microalgal growth, particularly in nitrogen-limited media, and have potential for use in the development of efficient microalgal cultivation for biofuel production.

  20. Neonicotinoid pesticide reduces bumble bee colony growth and queen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, Penelope R; O'Connor, Stephanie; Wackers, Felix L; Goulson, Dave

    2012-04-20

    Growing evidence for declines in bee populations has caused great concern because of the valuable ecosystem services they provide. Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in these declines because they occur at trace levels in the nectar and pollen of crop plants. We exposed colonies of the bumble bee Bombus terrestris in the laboratory to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid, then allowed them to develop naturally under field conditions. Treated colonies had a significantly reduced growth rate and suffered an 85% reduction in production of new queens compared with control colonies. Given the scale of use of neonicotinoids, we suggest that they may be having a considerable negative impact on wild bumble bee populations across the developed world.

  1. Do labour market reforms reduce labour productivity growth? A panel data analysis of 20 OECD countries (1960–2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vergeer, R.; Kleinknecht, A.

    2014-01-01

    Based on comprehensive regression analysis, the authors find that weak wage growth and a smaller labour share of national income significantly reduce labour productivity growth. They conclude that supply-side labour market reforms have contributed to reducing labour productivity growth: this cannot

  2. Continuous delivery of propranolol from liposomes-in-microspheres significantly inhibits infantile hemangioma growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo XN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Xiaonan Guo,1,* Xiaoshuang Zhu,1,* Dakan Liu,1 Yubin Gong,1 Jing Sun,2 Changxian Dong1 1Department of Hemangioma and Vascular Malformation, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To reduce the adverse effects and high frequency of administration of propranolol to treat infantile hemangioma, we first utilized propranolol-loaded liposomes-in-microsphere (PLIM as a novel topical release system to realize sustained release of propranolol.Methods: PLIM was developed from encapsulating propranolol-loaded liposomes (PLs in microspheres made of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid-b-poly(ethylene glycol-b-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid copolymers (PLGA-PEG-PLGA. The release profile of propranolol from PLIM was evaluated, and its biological activity was investigated in vitro using proliferation assays on hemangioma stem cells (HemSCs. Tumor inhibition was studied in nude mice bearing human subcutaneous infantile hemangioma.Results: The microspheres were of desired particle size (~77.8 µm and drug encapsulation efficiency (~23.9% and achieved sustained drug release for 40 days. PLIM exerted efficient inhibition of the proliferation of HemSCs and significantly reduced the expression of two angiogenesis factors (vascular endothelial growth factor-A [VEGF-A] and basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF] in HemSCs. Notably, the therapeutic effect of PLIM in hemangioma was superior to that of propranolol and PL in vivo, as reflected by significantly reduced hemangioma volume, weight, and microvessel density. The mean hemangioma weight of the PLIM-treated group was significantly lower than that of other groups (saline =0.28 g, propranolol =0.21 g, PL =0.13 g, PLIM =0.03 g; PLIM vs saline: P<0.001, PLIM vs propranolol: P<0.001, PLIM vs PL: P<0.001. The mean microvessel density of

  3. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, peconomic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, pEconomic growth reduces child undernutrition in Ethiopia. This verifies the fact that the economic growth of the country accompanied with socio-economic development and improvement of the livelihood of the poor. Direct nutrition specific and nutrition sensitive interventions could also be recommended in order to have an impact on the massive reduction of childhood undernutrition in the country.

  4. Manufacturing process to reduce large grain growth in zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosecrans, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described of treating cold worked zirconium alloys to reduce large grain growth during thermal treatment above its recrystallization temperature. The method comprises heating the zirconium alloy at a temperature of about 1300 0 F. to 1350 0 F. for about 1 to 3 hours subsequent to cold working the zirconium alloy and prior to the thermal treatment at a temperature of between 1450 0 -1550 0 F., the thermal treatment temperature being above the recrystallization temperature

  5. Insulin infusion reduces hepatocyte growth factor in lean humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Courten, Barbora; de Courten, Maximilian; Dougherty, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) is significantly elevated in obesity and may contribute to vascular disease, metabolic syndrome or cancer in obese individuals. The current studies were done to determine if hyperinsulinemia increases plasma HGF. MATERIALS/METHODS: Twenty-two parti...

  6. The Evolution of Polymer Composition during PHA Accumulation: The Significance of Reducing Equivalents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Montano-Herrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a systematic investigation into monomer development during mixed culture Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA accumulation involving concurrent active biomass growth and polymer storage. A series of mixed culture PHA accumulation experiments, using several different substrate-feeding strategies, was carried out. The feedstock comprised volatile fatty acids, which were applied as single carbon sources, as mixtures, or in series, using a fed-batch feed-on-demand controlled bioprocess. A dynamic trend in active biomass growth as well as polymer composition was observed. The observations were consistent over replicate accumulations. Metabolic flux analysis (MFA was used to investigate metabolic activity through time. It was concluded that carbon flux, and consequently copolymer composition, could be linked with how reducing equivalents are generated.

  7. Sodium-Reduced Meat and Poultry Products Contain a Significant Amount of Potassium from Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpia, Arti Sharma; Goldstein, Marc B; Arcand, JoAnne; Cho, France; L'Abbé, Mary R; Darling, Pauline B

    2018-05-01

    counterparts (mean difference [95% CI]: 486 [334-638]; Padditives appearing on the product label ingredient list, did not significantly differ between the two groups. Potassium additives are frequently added to sodium-reduced MPPs in amounts that significantly contribute to the potassium load for patients with impaired renal handling of potassium caused by chronic kidney disease and certain medications. Patients requiring potassium restriction should be counseled to be cautious regarding the potassium content of sodium-reduced MPPs and encouraged to make food choices accordingly. Copyright © 2018 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Graphene growth from reduced graphene oxide by chemical vapour deposition: seeded growth accompanied by restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sung-Jin; Hyun, Moon Seop; Myung, Sung; Kang, Min-A.; Yoo, Jung Ho; Lee, Kyoung G.; Choi, Bong Gill; Cho, Youngji; Lee, Gaehang; Park, Tae Jung

    2016-03-01

    Understanding the underlying mechanisms involved in graphene growth via chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is critical for precise control of the characteristics of graphene. Despite much effort, the actual processes behind graphene synthesis still remain to be elucidated in a large number of aspects. Herein, we report the evolution of graphene properties during in-plane growth of graphene from reduced graphene oxide (RGO) on copper (Cu) via methane CVD. While graphene is laterally grown from RGO flakes on Cu foils up to a few hundred nanometres during CVD process, it shows appreciable improvement in structural quality. The monotonous enhancement of the structural quality of the graphene with increasing length of the graphene growth from RGO suggests that seeded CVD growth of graphene from RGO on Cu surface is accompanied by the restoration of graphitic structure. The finding provides insight into graphene growth and defect reconstruction useful for the production of tailored carbon nanostructures with required properties.

  9. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibhatu Biadgilign

    Full Text Available Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia.The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010 from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank.A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7% [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8% [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1% [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI. The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, p<0.0001, wasting (r = -0.0338, p<0.0001 and underweight (r = -0.1035, p<0.0001 from the total children in the household were negatively correlated with the PCI. In the final model adjustment with all the covariates, economic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, p<0.0001], underweight [β = -0.0014, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] and wasting [β = -0.0008, SE = 0.0002, p<0.0001] in Ethiopia over a decade.Economic growth reduces child undernutrition in

  10. Growth of AlGaN under the conditions of significant gallium evaporation: phase separation and enhanced lateral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mayboroda, I. O.; Knizhnik, A. A.; Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Ezubchenko, I. S.; Zanaveskin, Maxim L.; Presniakov, M. Yu.; Potapkin, B. V.; Ilyin, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Growth kinetics of AlGaN in NH3 MBE under significant Ga desorption was studied. It was found that the addition of gallium stimulates 2D growth and provides better morphology of films compared to pure AlN. The effect was experimentally observed at up to 98% desorption of the impinging gallium. We found that, under the conditions of significant thermal desorption, larger amounts of gallium were retained at lateral boundaries of 3D surface features than at flat terraces because of the higher bi...

  11. A pilot weight reduction program over one year significantly reduced DNA strand breaks in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2015-05-01

    Conclusion: A sustainable lifestyle change under supervision including physical activity and diet quality over a period of one year was not only responsible to reduce body weight and BMI but also led to significant reduction in all parameters of the comet assay. These results underline the importance of body weight reduction and highlight the positive changes in DNA stability.

  12. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Skeletal muscle protein accretion rates and hindlimb growth are reduced in late gestation intrauterine growth-restricted fetal sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozance, Paul J; Zastoupil, Laura; Wesolowski, Stephanie R; Goldstrohm, David A; Strahan, Brittany; Cree-Green, Melanie; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda; Meschia, Giacomo; Hay, William W; Wilkening, Randall B; Brown, Laura D

    2018-01-01

    Adults who were affected by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) suffer from reductions in muscle mass, which may contribute to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes. We demonstrate slower hindlimb linear growth and muscle protein synthesis rates that match the reduced hindlimb blood flow and oxygen consumption rates in IUGR fetal sheep. These adaptations resulted in hindlimb blood flow rates in IUGR that were similar to control fetuses on a weight-specific basis. Net hindlimb glucose uptake and lactate output rates were similar between groups, whereas amino acid uptake was significantly lower in IUGR fetal sheep. Among all fetuses, blood O 2 saturation and plasma glucose, insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 were positively associated and norepinephrine was negatively associated with hindlimb weight. These results further our understanding of the metabolic and hormonal adaptations to reduced oxygen and nutrient supply with placental insufficiency that develop to slow hindlimb growth and muscle protein accretion. Reduced skeletal muscle mass in the fetus with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) persists into adulthood and may contribute to increased metabolic disease risk. To determine how placental insufficiency with reduced oxygen and nutrient supply to the fetus affects hindlimb blood flow, substrate uptake and protein accretion rates in skeletal muscle, late gestation control (CON) (n = 8) and IUGR (n = 13) fetal sheep were catheterized with aortic and femoral catheters and a flow transducer around the external iliac artery. Muscle protein kinetic rates were measured using isotopic tracers. Hindlimb weight, linear growth rate, muscle protein accretion rate and fractional synthetic rate were lower in IUGR compared to CON (P fetal norepinephrine and reduced IGF-1 and insulin. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  14. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Elodie A.; Valable, Samuel; Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien; Marteau, Lena; Bernaudin, Jean-Francois; Roussel, Simon; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele; Bernaudin, Myriam; Petit, Edwige

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.

  15. The significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme activities: clinical, biochemical and radiological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordekar, S R; Guthrie, P; Bonham, J R; Olpin, S E; Hargreaves, I; Baxter, P S

    2006-03-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are an important group of neurometabolic disorders in children with varied clinical presentations and diagnosis that can be difficult to confirm. To report the significance of reduced respiratory chain enzyme (RCE) activity in muscle biopsy samples from children. Retrospective odds ratio was used to compare clinical and biochemical features, DNA studies, neuroimaging, and muscle biopsies in 18 children with and 48 without reduced RCE activity. Children with reduced RCE activity were significantly more likely to have consanguineous parents, to present with acute encephalopathy and lactic acidaemia and/or within the first year of life; to have an axonal neuropathy, CSF lactate >4 mmol/l; and/or to have signal change in the basal ganglia. There were positive associations with a maternal family history of possible mitochondrial cytopathy; a presentation with failure to thrive and lactic acidaemia, ragged red fibres, reduced fibroblast fatty acid oxidation and with an abnormal allopurinol loading test. There was no association with ophthalmic abnormalities, deafness, epilepsy or myopathy. The association of these clinical, biochemical and radiological features with reduced RCE activity suggests a possible causative link.

  16. Chlorpyrifos reduces nickel-induced growth retardation of the soil dwelling Collembolan Folsomia candida.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broerse, M.; van Gestel, C.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    For 7 weeks, we studied the effects on body size and growth rate of Folsomia candida exposed to nickel and chlorpyrifos and their mixtures in a natural Lufa 2.2 soil. Nickel significantly reduced the development of body size of the springtails, although no complete dose-response curve was obtained.

  17. The significant relationships between hormonal growth pattern parameters in children with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayad, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to investigate the disturbance in GH. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 axis by evaluating their levels in serum of children with chronic liver disease. twenty-two under normal growth children suffering from cholestasis and chronic viral hepatitis B or C (3-7 years) with mean value (5.05± 1.18 years) compared with twenty healthy children with mean age value (5.07+ 1.37 years) served as control. the malnourished children were classified into 2 groups (l) included 8 cholestatic children and ll: included 14 children with chronic viral hepatitis (HBV or HCV).the biochemical analysis for lover disease as serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (ASTt), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl transferase ( γ-GT), total bilirubin, total protein (P), total albumin (A), and prothrombin concentration were performed by colorimetric technique. serum growth hormone (GH), insulin -like growth factor-l (IGF-l) and insulin -like growth factor binding protein- 3 (IGFBP-3) were estimated by radioisotope technique as marker for growth. the biochemical results showed highly significant increases (P< 0.01) in ALT, AST, ALP, γ-GT and total bilirubin respectively in both malnourished groups with chronic liver disease when matched to that of control . total protein , total albumin and prothrombin concentration recorded highly significant decreases (P<0.001) particularly in GR.ll when compared with healthy children . total protein showed non-significant difference in gr.l when compared to control. GH level showed highly significant increases (P<0.01), while IGF-l and IGFBP-3 reported highly significant reduction (P<0.001) in both manourished groups when compared to the normal growth children . the elevation of GH level and reduction of both IGF-l and IGFBP-3 levels were more prominent in children with chronic viral hepatitis than cholestatic children

  18. Male circumcision significantly reduces prevalence and load of genital anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M; Hungate, Bruce A; Tobian, Aaron A R; Serwadda, David; Ravel, Jacques; Lester, Richard; Kigozi, Godfrey; Aziz, Maliha; Galiwango, Ronald M; Nalugoda, Fred; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L; Wawer, Maria J; Keim, Paul; Gray, Ronald H; Price, Lance B

    2013-04-16

    Male circumcision reduces female-to-male HIV transmission. Hypothesized mechanisms for this protective effect include decreased HIV target cell recruitment and activation due to changes in the penis microbiome. We compared the coronal sulcus microbiota of men from a group of uncircumcised controls (n = 77) and from a circumcised intervention group (n = 79) at enrollment and year 1 follow-up in a randomized circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda. We characterized microbiota using16S rRNA gene-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing, log response ratio (LRR), Bayesian classification, nonmetric multidimensional scaling (nMDS), and permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PerMANOVA). At baseline, men in both study arms had comparable coronal sulcus microbiota; however, by year 1, circumcision decreased the total bacterial load and reduced microbiota biodiversity. Specifically, the prevalence and absolute abundance of 12 anaerobic bacterial taxa decreased significantly in the circumcised men. While aerobic bacterial taxa also increased postcircumcision, these gains were minor. The reduction in anaerobes may partly account for the effects of circumcision on reduced HIV acquisition. The bacterial changes identified in this study may play an important role in the HIV risk reduction conferred by male circumcision. Decreasing the load of specific anaerobes could reduce HIV target cell recruitment to the foreskin. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie the benefits of male circumcision could help to identify new intervention strategies for decreasing HIV transmission, applicable to populations with high HIV prevalence where male circumcision is culturally less acceptable.

  19. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...... physicians were included. All had prior experience in advanced life support. Chest compressions were shorter interrupted using ALT (mean, 6.7 vs 13.0 seconds). Analyzing data for ventricular tachycardia scenarios only, hands-off time was shorter using ALT (mean, 7.1 vs 18.2 seconds). In ERC 2010 vs ALT, 12...... physicians were included. Two physicians had not prior experience in advanced life support. Hands-off time was reduced using ALT (mean, 3.9 vs 5.6 seconds). Looking solely at ventricular tachycardia scenarios, hands-off time was shortened using ALT (mean, 4.5 vs 7.6 seconds). No significant reduction...

  1. Antenatal taurine reduces cerebral cell apoptosis in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Xiaofeng; Liu, Ying; Yang, Na; Xu, Jing; Ren, Xiaotun

    2013-08-15

    From pregnancy to parturition, Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administered a low protein diet to establish a model of intrauterine growth restriction. From the 12(th) day of pregnancy, 300 mg/kg rine was daily added to food until spontaneous delivery occurred. Brain tissues from normal neonatal rats at 6 hours after delivery, neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction undergoing taurine supplement were obtained for further experiments. The terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling assay revealed that the number of apoptotic cells in the brain tissue of neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction significantly increased. Taurine supplement in pregnant rats reduced cell apoptosis in brain tissue from neonatal rats with intrauterine growth restriction. nohistochemical staining revealed that taurine supplement increased glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor expression and decreased caspase-3 expression in the cerebral cortex of intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rats. These results indicate that taurine supplement reduces cell apoptosis through the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor-caspase-3 signaling pathway, resulting in a protective effect on the intrauterine growth-restricted fetal rat brain.

  2. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand; Brault, Christophe; Bruze, Magnus; Eudes, Hervé; Gadras, Catherine; Signoret, Anne-Cécile J; Mose, Kristian F; Müller, Boris P; Toulemonde, Bernard; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2015-02-01

    Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak moss', with reduced contents of the major allergens atranol and chloroatranol. The two preparations were compared in randomized double-blinded repeated open application tests and serial dilution patch tests in 30 oak moss-sensitive volunteers and 30 non-allergic control subjects. In both test models, new oak moss elicited significantly less allergic contact dermatitis in oak moss-sensitive subjects than classic oak moss. The control subjects did not react to either of the preparations. New oak moss is still a fragrance allergen, but elicits less allergic contact dermatitis in previously oak moss-sensitized individuals, suggesting that new oak moss is less allergenic to non-sensitized individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Endothelial Dll4 overexpression reduces vascular response and inhibits tumor growth and metastasization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Alexandre; Djokovic, Dusan; Gigante, Joana; Mendonça, Liliana; Duarte, António

    2017-03-14

    The inhibition of Delta-like 4 (Dll4)/Notch signaling has been shown to result in excessive, nonfunctional vessel proliferation and significant tumor growth suppression. However, safety concerns emerged with the identification of side effects resulting from chronic Dll4/Notch blockade. Alternatively, we explored the endothelial Dll4 overexpression using different mouse tumor models. We used a transgenic mouse model of endothelial-specific Dll4 overexpression, previously produced. Growth kinetics and vascular histopathology of several types of solid tumors was evaluated, namely Lewis Lung Carcinoma xenografts, chemically-induced skin papillomas and RIP1-Tag2 insulinomas. We found that increased Dll4/Notch signaling reduces tumor growth by reducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced endothelial proliferation, tumor vessel density and overall tumor blood supply. In addition, Dll4 overexpression consistently improved tumor vascular maturation and functionality, as indicated by increased vessel calibers, enhanced mural cell recruitment and increased network perfusion. Importantly, the tumor vessel normalization is not more effective than restricted vessel proliferation, but was found to prevent metastasis formation and allow for increased delivery to the tumor of concomitant chemotherapy, improving its efficacy. By reducing endothelial sensitivity to VEGF, these results imply that Dll4/Notch stimulation in tumor microenvironment could be beneficial to solid cancer patient treatment by reducing primary tumor size, improving tumor drug delivery and reducing metastization. Endothelial specific Dll4 overexpression thus appears as a promising anti-angiogenic modality that might improve cancer control.

  4. Four-phonon scattering significantly reduces intrinsic thermal conductivity of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tianli; Lindsay, Lucas; Ruan, Xiulin

    2017-10-01

    For decades, the three-phonon scattering process has been considered to govern thermal transport in solids, while the role of higher-order four-phonon scattering has been persistently unclear and so ignored. However, recent quantitative calculations of three-phonon scattering have often shown a significant overestimation of thermal conductivity as compared to experimental values. In this Rapid Communication we show that four-phonon scattering is generally important in solids and can remedy such discrepancies. For silicon and diamond, the predicted thermal conductivity is reduced by 30% at 1000 K after including four-phonon scattering, bringing predictions in excellent agreement with measurements. For the projected ultrahigh-thermal conductivity material, zinc-blende BAs, a competitor of diamond as a heat sink material, four-phonon scattering is found to be strikingly strong as three-phonon processes have an extremely limited phase space for scattering. The four-phonon scattering reduces the predicted thermal conductivity from 2200 to 1400 W/m K at room temperature. The reduction at 1000 K is 60%. We also find that optical phonon scattering rates are largely affected, being important in applications such as phonon bottlenecks in equilibrating electronic excitations. Recognizing that four-phonon scattering is expensive to calculate, in the end we provide some guidelines on how to quickly assess the significance of four-phonon scattering, based on energy surface anharmonicity and the scattering phase space. Our work clears the decades-long fundamental question of the significance of higher-order scattering, and points out ways to improve thermoelectrics, thermal barrier coatings, nuclear materials, and radiative heat transfer.

  5. Assessing the Significance of Telecommunication Deregulation on the Growth of Japan's Mobile Phone Market

    OpenAIRE

    Yuqing Xing

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the development of Japan's mobile phone market. Specifically, it focuses on the regulatory reforms of Japan's mobile communication sector and their impact on the growth of the market. The analysis based on a monopolistic competition model shows that the deregulation policies perform an essential role in fostering the rapid expansion of Japan's mobile phone market. Using quarterly data from 1991 to 1999, the paper tests the significance of the telecommunication deregulation...

  6. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  7. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  8. Nano-CL-20/HMX Cocrystal Explosive for Significantly Reduced Mechanical Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwei An

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying method was used to prepare cocrystals of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX. Raw materials and cocrystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Impact and friction sensitivity of cocrystals were tested and analyzed. Results show that, after preparation by spray drying method, microparticles were spherical in shape and 0.5–5 µm in size. Particles formed aggregates of numerous tiny plate-like cocrystals, whereas CL-20/HMX cocrystals had thicknesses of below 100 nm. Cocrystals were formed by C–H⋯O bonding between –NO2 (CL-20 and –CH2– (HMX. Nanococrystal explosives exhibited drop height of 47.3 cm, and friction demonstrated explosion probability of 64%. Compared with raw HMX, cocrystals displayed significantly reduced mechanical sensitivity.

  9. Growth retardation and reduced growth hormone secretion in cystic fibrosis. Clinical observations from three CF centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciro, D'Orazio; Padoan, Rita; Blau, Hannah; Marostica, Anna; Fuoti, Maurizio; Volpi, Sonia; Pilotta, Alba; Meyerovitch, Joseph; Sher, Daniel; Assael, Baroukh M

    2013-03-01

    Growth delay in cystic fibrosis is frequent and is usually the result of several interacting causes. It most often derives from severe respiratory impairment and severe malabsorption. There are however patients whose clinical condition is not severe enough to be held accountable for this phenomenon. We aimed at describing patients who showed growth delay, who were not affected by severe pulmonary disease or malabsorption and who, when tested, showed a reduced GH secretion after stimulation with conventional agents. We noticed a disproportionately large prevalence of growth hormone (GH) release deficit (GHRD) in pediatric cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We examined all patients under our care in the period 2006-11, who were older than 5 and younger than 16 years old. We focussed on those who fell below the 3rd height percentile, or whose growth during the previous 18 months faltered by >2SD, and who did not present clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive. These patients were subjected to standard GH provocative tests. Out of 285 who matched the age criterion, 33 patients also matched the height percentile criterion. While 15/33 suffered clinical conditions that could reasonably explain their failure to thrive, 18/33 underwent GH release provocative tests and 12/18 showed a release deficit. We conclude that impaired GH secretion is more frequent among CF patients compared to the prevalence of GH deficiency in the general population and that GH release impairment may be an independent cause of growth delay in CF. Our findings are in agreement with recent studies that have described low GH levels in CF piglets and in neonates with CF [1]. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Implementation of standardized follow-up care significantly reduces peritonitis in children on chronic peritoneal dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Alicia M; Richardson, Troy; Lawlor, John; Stuart, Jayne; Newland, Jason; McAfee, Nancy; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-06-01

    The Standardizing Care to improve Outcomes in Pediatric End stage renal disease (SCOPE) Collaborative aims to reduce peritonitis rates in pediatric chronic peritoneal dialysis patients by increasing implementation of standardized care practices. To assess this, monthly care bundle compliance and annualized monthly peritonitis rates were evaluated from 24 SCOPE centers that were participating at collaborative launch and that provided peritonitis rates for the 13 months prior to launch. Changes in bundle compliance were assessed using either a logistic regression model or a generalized linear mixed model. Changes in average annualized peritonitis rates over time were illustrated using the latter model. In the first 36 months of the collaborative, 644 patients with 7977 follow-up encounters were included. The likelihood of compliance with follow-up care practices increased significantly (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.10, 1.19). Mean monthly peritonitis rates significantly decreased from 0.63 episodes per patient year (95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.92) prelaunch to 0.42 (95% confidence interval 0.31, 0.57) at 36 months postlaunch. A sensitivity analysis confirmed that as mean follow-up compliance increased, peritonitis rates decreased, reaching statistical significance at 80% at which point the prelaunch rate was 42% higher than the rate in the months following achievement of 80% compliance. In its first 3 years, the SCOPE Collaborative has increased the implementation of standardized follow-up care and demonstrated a significant reduction in average monthly peritonitis rates. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy significantly reduces xerostomia compared with conventional radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braam, Petra M.; Terhaard, Chris H.J. M.D.; Roesink, Judith M.; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Xerostomia is a severe complication after radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer, as the salivary glands are in close proximity with the primary tumor. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) offers theoretical advantages for normal tissue sparing. A Phase II study was conducted to determine the value of IMRT for salivary output preservation compared with conventional radiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: A total of 56 patients with oropharyngeal cancer were prospectively evaluated. Of these, 30 patients were treated with IMRT and 26 with CRT. Stimulated parotid salivary flow was measured before, 6 weeks, and 6 months after treatment. A complication was defined as a stimulated parotid flow rate <25% of the preradiotherapy flow rate. Results: The mean dose to the parotid glands was 48.1 Gy (SD 14 Gy) for CRT and 33.7 Gy (SD 10 Gy) for IMRT (p < 0.005). The mean parotid flow ratio 6 weeks and 6 months after treatment was respectively 41% and 64% for IMRT and respectively 11% and 18% for CRT. As a result, 6 weeks after treatment, the number of parotid flow complications was significantly lower after IMRT (55%) than after CRT (87%) (p = 0.002). The number of complications 6 months after treatment was 56% for IMRT and 81% for CRT (p = 0.04). Conclusions: IMRT significantly reduces the number of parotid flow complications for patients with oropharyngeal cancer

  12. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  13. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  14. Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? Evidence from some selected african countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alege P.O.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Is Africa’s current growth reducing inequality? What are the implications of growth on output performances in Africa? Does the effect of Africa’s growth on sectorial output have any implication for inequality in Africa? The study investigates the effect of shocks on a set of macroeconomic variables on inequality (measured by life expectancy and the implication of this on sectors that are perceived to provide economic empowerment in form of employment for people living in the African countries in our sample. Studies already find that growth in many African countries has not been accompanied with significant improvement in employment. Therefore inequality is subject to a counter cyclical trend in production levels when export destination countries experience a recession. The study also provides insight on the effect of growth on sectorial output for three major sectors in the African economy with the intent of analyzing the impact of growth on sectorial development. The method used in this study is Panel Vector Autoregressive (PVAR estimation and the obvious advantage of this method lies in the fact that it allows us to capture both static and dynamic interdependencies and to treat the links across units in an unrestricted fashion. Data is obtained from World Bank (WDI Statistics for the period 1985 to 2012 (28 years for 10 African Countries. Our main findings confirm strong negative relationship between GDP growth and life expectancy and also for GDP and the services and manufacturing sector considering the full sample.

  15. A novel multi-drug metronomic chemotherapy significantly delays tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Napolitano, Maria; Luciano, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Barbieri, Antonio; Arra, Claudio; Maiolino, Piera; Tornesello, Marialina; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-02-24

    The tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment represents a major obstacle to an effective tumor-specific cellular immune response. In the present study, the counterbalance effect of a novel metronomic chemotherapy protocol on such an immunosuppressive microenvironment was evaluated in a mouse model upon sub-cutaneous ectopic implantation of B16 melanoma cells. The chemotherapy consisted of a novel multi-drug cocktail including taxanes and alkylating agents, administered in a daily metronomic fashion. The newly designed strategy was shown to be safe, well tolerated and significantly efficacious. Treated animals showed a remarkable delay in tumor growth and prolonged survival as compared to control group. Such an effect was directly correlated with CD4(+) T cell reduction and CD8(+) T cell increase. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the percentage of both CD25(+)FoxP3(+) and CD25(+)CD127(low) regulatory T cell population was found both in the spleens and in the tumor lesions. Finally, the metronomic chemotherapy induced an intrinsic CD8(+) T cell response specific to B16 naturally expressed Trp2 TAA. The novel multi-drug daily metronomic chemotherapy evaluated in the present study was very effective in counterbalancing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Consequently, the intrinsic anti-tumor T cell immunity could exert its function, targeting specific TAA and significantly containing tumor growth. Overall, the results show that this represents a promising adjuvant approach to significantly enhance efficacy of intrinsic or vaccine-elicited tumor-specific cellular immunity.

  16. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Pharmacological kynurenine 3-monooxygenase enzyme inhibition significantly reduces neuropathic pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewska, Ewelina; Piotrowska, Anna; Makuch, Wioletta; Przewlocka, Barbara; Mika, Joanna

    2016-03-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of the kynurenine pathway in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases, but the role of this system in neuropathic pain requires further extensive research. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the role of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (Kmo), an enzyme that is important in this pathway, in a rat model of neuropathy after chronic constriction injury (CCI) to the sciatic nerve. For the first time, we demonstrated that the injury-induced increase in the Kmo mRNA levels in the spinal cord and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was reduced by chronic administration of the microglial inhibitor minocycline and that this effect paralleled a decrease in the intensity of neuropathy. Further, minocycline administration alleviated the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced upregulation of Kmo mRNA expression in microglial cell cultures. Moreover, we demonstrated that not only indirect inhibition of Kmo using minocycline but also direct inhibition using Kmo inhibitors (Ro61-6048 and JM6) decreased neuropathic pain intensity on the third and the seventh days after CCI. Chronic Ro61-6048 administration diminished the protein levels of IBA-1, IL-6, IL-1beta and NOS2 in the spinal cord and/or the DRG. Both Kmo inhibitors potentiated the analgesic properties of morphine. In summary, our data suggest that in neuropathic pain model, inhibiting Kmo function significantly reduces pain symptoms and enhances the effectiveness of morphine. The results of our studies show that the kynurenine pathway is an important mediator of neuropathic pain pathology and indicate that Kmo represents a novel pharmacological target for the treatment of neuropathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Felipe Elli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú, five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1, and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteristics were evaluated: plant height, SPAD index, leaf area index (LAI, Global Radiation Interception (GRI and grain yield. The Tukey test (p < 0.05 was used for the comparison between the means of cultivar and growth reducer factors, and for a regression analysis to evaluate N levels. Increasing the dose of nitrogen promotes an increase in LAI of plants of wheat crops differently among cultivars, which leads to a greater degree of global radiation interception. At doses higher or equal to 120 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen, there are significant differences in grain yield between treatments with and without the application of the growth reducer. The significant interaction between growth reducer and nitrogen dose, showed that applications of growth reducer increase the GRI at doses above and below 80 Kg ha-1 of nitrogen. Nitrogen rates of 138 and 109 Kg ha-1 are responsible for maximum grain yields of wheat, which is 4235 and 3787 Kg ha-1 with and without the use of growth reducer, respectively.

  19. Intriguing model significantly reduces boarding of psychiatric patients, need for inpatient hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    As new approaches to the care of psychiatric emergencies emerge, one solution is gaining particular traction. Under the Alameda model, which has been put into practice in Alameda County, CA, patients who are brought to regional EDs with emergency psychiatric issues are quickly transferred to a designated emergency psychiatric facility as soon as they are medically stabilized. This alleviates boarding problems in area EDs while also quickly connecting patients with specialized care. With data in hand on the model's effectiveness, developers believe the approach could alleviate boarding problems in other communities as well. The model is funded by through a billing code established by California's Medicaid program for crisis stabilization services. Currently, only 22% of the patients brought to the emergency psychiatric facility ultimately need to be hospitalized; the other 78% are able to go home or to an alternative situation. In a 30-day study of the model, involving five community hospitals in Alameda County, CA, researchers found that ED boarding times were as much as 80% lower than comparable ED averages, and that patients were stabilized at least 75% of the time, significantly reducing the need for inpatient hospitalization.

  20. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavana Gouda Goudra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI >40 kg/m 2 that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. Results: A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Conclusion: Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  1. Significantly reduced hypoxemic events in morbidly obese patients undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy: Predictors and practice effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudra, Basavana Gouda; Singh, Preet Mohinder; Penugonda, Lakshmi C; Speck, Rebecca M; Sinha, Ashish C

    2014-01-01

    Providing anesthesia for gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy procedures in morbidly obese patients is a challenge for a variety of reasons. The negative impact of obesity on the respiratory system combined with a need to share the upper airway and necessity to preserve the spontaneous ventilation, together add to difficulties. This retrospective cohort study included patients with a body mass index (BMI) >40 kg/m(2) that underwent out-patient GI endoscopy between September 2010 and February 2011. Patient data was analyzed for procedure, airway management technique as well as hypoxemic and cardiovascular events. A total of 119 patients met the inclusion criteria. Our innovative airway management technique resulted in a lower rate of intraoperative hypoxemic events compared with any published data available. Frequency of desaturation episodes showed statistically significant relation to previous history of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). These desaturation episodes were found to be statistically independent of increasing BMI of patients. Pre-operative history of OSA irrespective of associated BMI values can be potentially used as a predictor of intra-procedural desaturation. With suitable modification of anesthesia technique, it is possible to reduce the incidence of adverse respiratory events in morbidly obese patients undergoing GI endoscopy procedures, thereby avoiding the need for endotracheal intubation.

  2. Two Novel SNPs of PPARγ Significantly Affect Weaning Growth Traits of Nanyang Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jieping; Chen, Ningbo; Li, Xin; An, Shanshan; Zhao, Minghui; Sun, Taihong; Hao, Ruijie; Ma, Yun

    2018-01-02

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key transcription factor that controls adipocyte differentiation and energy in mammals. Therefore, PPARγ is a potential factor influencing animal growth traits. This study primarily evaluates PPARγ as candidate gene for growth traits of cattle and identifies potential molecular marker for cattle breeding. Per previous studies, PPARγ mRNA was mainly expressed at extremely high levels in adipose tissues as shown by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Three novel SNPs of the bovine PPARγ gene were identified in 514 individuals from six Chinese cattle breeds: SNP1 (AC_000179.1 g.57386668 C > G) in intron 2 and SNP2 (AC_000179.1 g.57431964 C > T) and SNP3 (AC_000179.1 g.57431994 T > C) in exon 7. The present study also investigated genetic characteristics of these SNP loci in six populations. Association analysis showed that SNP1 and SNP3 loci significantly affect weaning growth traits, especially body weight of Nanyang cattle. These results revealed that SNP1 and SNP3 are potential molecular markers for cattle breeding.

  3. Prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over expression in urothelial carcinoma of urinary bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashmi, Atif Ali; Hussain, Zubaida Fida; Irfan, Muhammad; Khan, Erum Yousuf; Faridi, Naveen; Naqvi, Hanna; Khan, Amir; Edhi, Muhammad Muzzammil

    2018-06-07

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been shown to have abnormal expression in many human cancers and is considered as a marker of poor prognosis. Frequency of over expression in bladder cancer has not been studied in our population; therefore we aimed to evaluate the frequency and prognostic significance of EGFR immunohistochemical expression in locoregional population. We performed EGFR immunohistochemistry on 126 cases of bladder cancer and association of EGFR expression with tumor grade, lamina propria invasion, deep muscle invasion and recurrence of disease was evaluated. High EGFR expression was noted in 26.2% (33 cases), 15.1% (19 cases) and 58.7% (74 cases) revealed low and no EGFR expression respectively. Significant association of EGFR expression was noted with tumor grade, lamina propria invasion, deep muscle invasion and recurrence status while no significant association was seen with age, gender and overall survival. Kaplan- Meier curves revealed significant association of EGFR expression with recurrence while no significant association was seen with overall survival. Significant association of EGFR overexpression with tumor grade, muscularis propria invasion and recurrence signifies its prognostic value; therefore EGFR can be used as a prognostic biomarker in Urothelial bladder carcinoma.

  4. Significance of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on phytoextraction of Pband Zn by Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praburaman, Loganathan; Park, Sung-Hee; Cho, Min; Lee, Kui-Jae; Ko, Jeong-Ae; Han, Sang-Sub; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Kamala-Kannan, Seralathan; Oh, Byung-Taek

    2017-01-01

    Microbe-assisted phytoremediation has been considered a promising measure for the remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on growth and lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulation in Zea mays L. The strain GW103 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits such as indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase. Treatment of Z. mays L. plants with GW103 significantly increased 19, 31, and 52% of plant biomass and 10, 50, and 126% of chlorophyll a contents in Pb, Zn, and Pb + Zn-amended soils, respectively. Similarly, the strain GW103 significantly increased Pb and Zn accumulation in shoots and roots of Z. mays L., which were 77 and 25% in Pb-amended soil, 42 and 73% in Zn-amended soil, and 27 and 84% in Pb + Zn-amended soil. Furthermore, addition of GW103 increased 8, 12, and 7% of total protein content, catalase, and superoxide dismutase levels, respectively, in Z. mays L. plants. The results pointed out that isolate GW103 could potentially reduce the phytotoxicity of metals and increase Pb and Zn accumulation in Z. mays L. plant.

  5. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.T.; Forde, R.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  6. Simultaneous bilateral stereotactic procedure for deep brain stimulation implants: a significant step for reducing operation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Azevedo, Angelo; Angelos, Jairo Silva Dos; Martinez, Raquel Chacon Ruiz; Navarro, Jessie; Reis, Paul Rodrigo; Sepulveda, Miguel Ernesto San Martin; Cury, Rubens Gisbert; Ghilardi, Maria Gabriela Dos Santos; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Lopez, William Omar Contreras

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Currently, bilateral procedures involve 2 sequential implants in each of the hemispheres. The present report demonstrates the feasibility of simultaneous bilateral procedures during the implantation of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads. METHODS Fifty-seven patients with movement disorders underwent bilateral DBS implantation in the same study period. The authors compared the time required for the surgical implantation of deep brain electrodes in 2 randomly assigned groups. One group of 28 patients underwent traditional sequential electrode implantation, and the other 29 patients underwent simultaneous bilateral implantation. Clinical outcomes of the patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) who had undergone DBS implantation of the subthalamic nucleus using either of the 2 techniques were compared. RESULTS Overall, a reduction of 38.51% in total operating time for the simultaneous bilateral group (136.4 ± 20.93 minutes) as compared with that for the traditional consecutive approach (220.3 ± 27.58 minutes) was observed. Regarding clinical outcomes in the PD patients who underwent subthalamic nucleus DBS implantation, comparing the preoperative off-medication condition with the off-medication/on-stimulation condition 1 year after the surgery in both procedure groups, there was a mean 47.8% ± 9.5% improvement in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III) score in the simultaneous group, while the sequential group experienced 47.5% ± 15.8% improvement (p = 0.96). Moreover, a marked reduction in the levodopa-equivalent dose from preoperatively to postoperatively was similar in these 2 groups. The simultaneous bilateral procedure presented major advantages over the traditional sequential approach, with a shorter total operating time. CONCLUSIONS A simultaneous stereotactic approach significantly reduces the operation time in bilateral DBS procedures, resulting in decreased microrecording time, contributing to the optimization of functional

  7. Biofouling leads to reduced shell growth and flesh weight in the cultured mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, Michael; Fitridge, Isla; Dempster, Tim; Keough, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Competitive interactions between cultured mussels and fouling organisms may result in growth and weight reductions in mussels, and compromised aquaculture productivity. Mussel ropes were inoculated with Ciona intestinalis, Ectopleura crocea or Styela clava, and growth parameters of fouled and unfouled Mytilus galloprovincialis were compared after two months. Small mussels (≈ 50 mm) fouled by C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.0 and 3.2% shorter in shell length and had 21 and 13% reduced flesh weight, respectively, compared to the controls. Large mussels (≈ 68 mm) fouled by S. clava, C. intestinalis and E. crocea were 4.4, 3.9 and 2.1% shorter than control mussels, respectively, but flesh weights were not significantly reduced. A series of competitive feeding experiments indicated that S. clava and C. intestinalis did not reduce mussels' food consumption, but that E. crocea, through interference competition, did. Fouling by these species at the densities used here reduced mussel growth and flesh weight, likely resulting in economic losses for the industry, and requires consideration when developing biofouling mitigation strategies.

  8. Graphene oxide significantly inhibits cell growth at sublethal concentrations by causing extracellular iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qilin; Zhang, Bing; Li, Jianrong; Du, Tingting; Yi, Xiao; Li, Mingchun; Chen, Wei; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    Graphene oxide (GO)-based materials are increasingly being used in medical materials and consumer products. However, their sublethal effects on biological systems are poorly understood. Here, we report that GO (at 10 to 160 mg/L) induced significant inhibitory effects on the growth of different unicellular organisms, including eukaryotes (i.e. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, and Komagataella pastoris) and prokaryotes (Pseudomonas fluorescens). Growth inhibition could not be explained by commonly reported cytotoxicity mechanisms such as plasma membrane damage or oxidative stress. Based on transcriptomic analysis and measurement of extra- and intracellular iron concentrations, we show that the inhibitory effect of GO was mainly attributable to iron deficiency caused by binding to the O-functional groups of GO, which sequestered iron and disrupted iron-related physiological and metabolic processes. This inhibitory mechanism was corroborated with supplementary experiments, where adding bathophenanthroline disulfonate-an iron chelating agent-to the culture medium exerted similar inhibition, whereas removing surface O-functional groups of GO decreased iron sequestration and significantly alleviated the inhibitory effect. These findings highlight a potential indirect detrimental effect of nanomaterials (i.e. scavenging of critical nutrients), and encourage research on potential biomedical applications of GO-based materials to sequester iron and enhance treatment of iron-dependent diseases such as cancer and some pathogenic infections.

  9. Clinical and biological significance of hepatoma-derived growth factor in Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Shi, Huijuan; Zhen, Tiantian; Dai, Sujuan; Kang, Lili; Liang, Yingjie; Wang, Jin; Han, Anjia

    2013-11-01

    We sought to investigate the clinicopathological significance and biological function of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in Ewing's sarcoma. Our results showed that HDGF expression is up-regulated in Ewing's sarcoma. Nuclear HDGF expression is significantly associated with tumour volume (p Ewing's sarcoma cell growth, proliferation and enhances tumourigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, HDGF knock-down causes cell cycle arrest and enhanced sensitization to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, recombinant HDGF promotes proliferation and colony formation of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Ninety-eight candidate HDGF downstream genes were identified in Ewing's sarcoma cells using cDNA microarray analysis. In addition, we found that HDGF knock-down inhibited FLI1 expression in Ewing's sarcoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that HDGF exhibits oncogenic properties and may be a novel prognostic factor in Ewing's sarcoma. Targeting HDGF might be a potential therapeutic strategy for Ewing's sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Determination of serum insulinlike growth factor II levels in coronary heart disease patient and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Zhao Junfei; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying; Li Jiangao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes and clinical significance of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF II) levels in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients. Methods: The serum IGF II levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in 68 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) and 30 controls with only mild non-cardiac diseases. Results: Compared with the controls, the serum IGF II level in CHD patients were increased significantly (0.66 ± 0.13 μg/L vs 0.51 ± 0.11 μg/L; t = 5.506, p 0.05). Level in patients dies in hospital (n = 9) were much higher than those in patients recovered (n = 59) (t = 2.402, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF II levels seems to be related to the seriousness of CHD; the actual mechanism remains to be defined

  11. Expression and clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 in gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu NQ

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Naiqing Liu,1,2,* Jingyu Zhang,2,* Shuxiang Sun,2 Liguang Yang,2 Zhongjin Zhou,2 Qinli Sun,2 Jun Niu11Department of General Surgery, Qilu Hospital Affiliated to Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of General Surgery, Yishui Central Hospital, Linyi, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: The clinical significance of fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1 has been revealed in several cancers, including ovarian cancer, breast cancer, and bladder cancer. However, the clinical significance of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma has not been explored.Patients and methods: In our experiments, we systematically evaluated FGF1 expression in 178 cases of gastric adenocarcinoma with immunohistochemistry, and subsequently analyzed the correlation between FGF1 expression and clinicopathologic features. Moreover, FGF1 expression in tumor tissue and corresponding adjacent tissue was detected and compared by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The Kaplan–Meier method and the Cox-regression model were used with univariate and multivariate analysis, respectively, to evaluate the prognostic value of FGF1 in gastric adenocarcinoma.Results: Higher FGF1 expression rate is 56.7% (101/178 in gastric adenocarcinoma. FGF1 expression in gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than adjacent tissue (P<0.0001. Expression of FGF1 is significantly associated with lymph node invasion (P<0.001, distant metastasis (P=0.013, and differentiation (P=0.015. Moreover, FGF1 overexpression was closely related to unfavorable overall survival rate (P=0.021, and can be identified to be an independent unfavorable prognostic factor (P=0.004.Conclusion: FGF1 is an independent prognostic factor, indicating that FGF1 could be a potential molecular drug target in gastric adenocarcinoma.Keywords: fibroblast growth factor 1, gastric adenocarcinoma, prognosis, biomarker, lymph node, gene fusion

  12. Significant plant growth stimulation by composted as opposed to untreated Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammann, Claudia; Messerschmidt, Nicole; Müller, Christoph; Steffens, Diedrich; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Koyro, Hans-Werner

    2013-04-01

    The application of production-fresh, untreated biochar does not always result in yield improvements, in particular in temperate or boreal soils. Therefore the use of biochar for soil C sequestration, although desirable from a global change mitigation point of view, may never be implemented without proven and economically feasible pathways for biochar effects in agriculture. To investigate earlier reports of the beneficial effects of composting biochar (e.g. Fischer & Glaser, 2012) we conducted a fully replicated (n=3, +/- biochar) large-scale composting study at the Delinat Institute in Arbaz, Switzerland. The materials were manures (bovine, horse and chicken), straw, stone meal and composting was performed with our without +20 vol.% of a woody biochar (German Charcoal GmbH). Interestingly, the rotting temperature was significantly higher in the biochar-compost while C and N were retained to a certain extent. To investigate the effect of composting ("ageing") on biochar effects, a completely randomized full-factorial pot study was carried out in the greenhouse using the pseudo-cereal Chenopodium quinoa. The three factors used in the study were (I) type of biochar addition ("aged", "fresh", or zero BC), (II) addition of compost and (III) low and high application rates of a full NPK-fertilizer (equivalent to 28 and 140 kg N ha-1, NPK + micronutrients) in several doses. The growth medium was a poor loamy sand. Biochars and compost were all added at a rate of 2% (w/w) to the soil. From the start there was a considerable difference between the growth of Quinoa with the fresh compared to the aged biochar. The fresh biochar produced the well-known reduction in plant growth compared to the unamended control. This reduction was alleviated to a certain extent by the addition of either compost and/or increased fertilization. In contrast the co-composted biochar always resulted in a highly significant stimulation of the Quinoa yield (roots, shoots, inflorescences). This

  13. Qualitative ubiquitome unveils the potential significances of protein lysine ubiquitination in hyphal growth of Aspergillus nidulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xin-Ling; Feng, Ming-Guang; Ying, Sheng-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Protein ubiquitination is an evolutionarily conserved post-translational modification process in eukaryotes, and it plays an important role in many biological processes. Aspergillus nidulans, a model filamentous fungus, contributes to our understanding of cellular physiology, metabolism and genetics, but its ubiquitination is not completely revealed. In this study, the ubiquitination sites in the proteome of A. nidulans were identified using a highly sensitive mass spectrometry combined with immuno-affinity enrichment of the ubiquitinated peptides. The 4816 ubiquitination sites were identified in 1913 ubiquitinated proteins, accounting for 18.1% of total proteins in A. nidulans. Bioinformatic analysis suggested that the ubiquitinated proteins associated with a number of biological functions and displayed various sub-cellular localisations. Meanwhile, seven motifs were revealed from the ubiquitinated peptides, and significantly over-presented in the different pathways. Comparison of the enriched functional catalogues indicated that the ubiquitination functions divergently during growth of A. nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Additionally, the proteins in A. nidulans-specific sub-category (cell growth/morphogenesis) were subjected to the protein interaction analysis which demonstrated that ubiquitination is involved in the comprehensive protein interactions. This study presents a first proteomic view of ubiquitination in the filamentous fungus, and provides an initial framework for exploring the physiological roles of ubiquitination in A. nidulans.

  14. Ant Larval Demand Reduces Aphid Colony Growth Rates in an Ant-Aphid Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Cook

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ants often form mutualistic interactions with aphids, soliciting honeydew in return for protective services. Under certain circumstances, however, ants will prey upon aphids. In addition, in the presence of ants aphids may increase the quantity or quality of honeydew produced, which is costly. Through these mechanisms, ant attendance can reduce aphid colony growth rates. However, it is unknown whether demand from within the ant colony can affect the ant-aphid interaction. In a factorial experiment, we tested whether the presence of larvae in Lasius niger ant colonies affected the growth rate of Aphis fabae colonies. Other explanatory variables tested were the origin of ant colonies (two separate colonies were used and previous diet (sugar only or sugar and protein. We found that the presence of larvae in the ant colony significantly reduced the growth rate of aphid colonies. Previous diet and colony origin did not affect aphid colony growth rates. Our results suggest that ant colonies balance the flow of two separate resources from aphid colonies- renewable sugars or a protein-rich meal, depending on demand from ant larvae within the nest. Aphid payoffs from the ant-aphid interaction may change on a seasonal basis, as the demand from larvae within the ant colony waxes and wanes.

  15. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Waal, D.B.; John, U.; Ziveri, P.; Reichart, G.J.; Hoins, M.; Sluijs, A.; Rost, B.

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate

  16. African economists inspire growth, reduce poverty | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    25 oct. 2010 ... AERC awards research grants on issues such as poverty, trade and finance and manages collaborative Master's and PhD programs in economics with dozens of African universities. “Within the first 10 years of AERC support for economic policy research, many African countries began to see growth rates ...

  17. Significant gender difference in serum levels of fibroblast growth factor 21 in Danish children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Amalie; Sørensen, Kaspar; Johannsen, Trine Holm

    2014-01-01

    children (21%) had levels below detection limit of assay. Baseline levels of FGF21 showed positive correlation with triglycerides, but no significant correlations were found between FGF21-concentration and body mass index (BMI), DXA-derived fat percentage, LDL- HDL- and non-HDL cholesterol, leptin......INTRODUCTION: Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic factor with effect on glucose and lipid metabolism, and shown to be elevated in diseases related to metabolic syndrome. Due to the increasing frequency of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population, and as FGF21 studies...... in children are limited, we investigated baseline serum levels of FGF21 in healthy children during an oral glucose tolerance test. METHODS: A total of 179 children and adolescents from the COPENHAGEN Puberty Study were included. An OGTT with glucose and insulin measurements, a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...

  18. Soil nitrate reducing processes drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, M.; Morley, N.; Baggs, E.M.; Daniell, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium\\ud (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for\\ud the loss of nitrate (NO−\\ud 3 ) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O).\\ud A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and\\ud moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms\\ud responsible for the ...

  19. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  20. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  1. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M.; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3−) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N2O production from soils. PMID:23264770

  2. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  3. Soil nitrate reducing processes - drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N(2)O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O(2) concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub centimeter areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location, and potential for N(2)O production from soils.

  4. Temperature extremes reduce seagrass growth and induce mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, C.J.; Waycott, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Temperature extremes occur during low tide in shallow seagrass meadows. • The effects of temperature extremes were tested experimentally at 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C. • 40 °C was a critical threshold with a large impact on growth and mortality. • At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2–3 days. • Lower light conditions (e.g. poor water quality) led to a greater negative impact. - Abstract: Extreme heating (up to 43 °C measured from five-year temperature records) occurs in shallow coastal seagrass meadows of the Great Barrier Reef at low tide. We measured effective quantum yield (ϕ PSII ), growth, senescence and mortality in four tropical seagrasses to experimental short-duration (2.5 h) spikes in water temperature to 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C, for 6 days followed by one day at ambient temperature. Increasing temperature to 35 °C had positive effects on ϕ PSII (the magnitude varied between days and was highly correlated with PPFD), with no effects on growth or mortality. 40 °C represented a critical threshold as there were strong species differences and there was a large impact on growth and mortality. At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2–3 days. These findings indicate that increasing duration (more days in a row) of thermal events above 40 °C is likely to affect the ecological function of tropical seagrass meadows

  5. Ocean acidification reduces growth and calcification in a marine dinoflagellate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedmer B Van de Waal

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems and may particularly affect calcifying organisms such as corals, foraminifera and coccolithophores. Here we investigate the impact of elevated pCO2 and lowered pH on growth and calcification in the common calcareous dinoflagellate Thoracosphaera heimii. We observe a substantial reduction in growth rate, calcification and cyst stability of T. heimii under elevated pCO2. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses reveal CO2 sensitive regulation of many genes, particularly those being associated to inorganic carbon acquisition and calcification. Stable carbon isotope fractionation for organic carbon production increased with increasing pCO2 whereas it decreased for calcification, which suggests interdependence between both processes. We also found a strong effect of pCO2 on the stable oxygen isotopic composition of calcite, in line with earlier observations concerning another T. heimii strain. The observed changes in stable oxygen and carbon isotope composition of T. heimii cysts may provide an ideal tool for reconstructing past seawater carbonate chemistry, and ultimately past pCO2. Although the function of calcification in T. heimii remains unresolved, this trait likely plays an important role in the ecological and evolutionary success of this species. Acting on calcification as well as growth, ocean acidification may therefore impose a great threat for T. heimii.

  6. Temperature extremes reduce seagrass growth and induce mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, C J; Waycott, M

    2014-06-30

    Extreme heating (up to 43 °C measured from five-year temperature records) occurs in shallow coastal seagrass meadows of the Great Barrier Reef at low tide. We measured effective quantum yield (ϕPSII), growth, senescence and mortality in four tropical seagrasses to experimental short-duration (2.5h) spikes in water temperature to 35 °C, 40 °C and 43 °C, for 6 days followed by one day at ambient temperature. Increasing temperature to 35 °C had positive effects on ϕPSII (the magnitude varied between days and was highly correlated with PPFD), with no effects on growth or mortality. 40 °C represented a critical threshold as there were strong species differences and there was a large impact on growth and mortality. At 43 °C there was complete mortality after 2-3 days. These findings indicate that increasing duration (more days in a row) of thermal events above 40 °C is likely to affect the ecological function of tropical seagrass meadows. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  8. Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in thyroid carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guimin; Zhang, Wei; Meng, Wei; Liu, Jia; Wang, Peisong; Lin, Shan; Xu, Liyan; Li, Enmin; Chen, Guang

    2013-08-01

    To examine expression of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene in human thyroid cancer and establish whether a correlation exists between the presence of CTGF protein and clinicopathological parameters of the disease. CTGF protein expression was investigated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis of CTGF protein levels in thyroid tumour tissue. Associations between immunohistochemical score and several clinicopathological parameters were examined. In total, 131 thyroid tissue specimens were included. High levels of CTGF protein were observed in papillary thyroid carcinoma tissue; benign thyroid tumour tissue scored negatively for CTGF protein. In papillary thyroid carcinoma, there was a significant relationship between high CTGF protein levels and Union for International Cancer Control disease stage III-IV, and presence of lymph node metastasis. In papillary thyroid carcinomas, CTGF protein levels were not significantly associated with sex or age. These findings suggest that the CTGF protein level is increased in papillary thyroid carcinoma cells compared with benign thyroid tumours. CTGF expression might play a role in the development of malignant tumours in the thyroid.

  9. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Laurent-Olivier; Poirier, Marie-Belle; Fortin, David

    2018-04-08

    Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS) and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β₁ and -β₂ expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS). In GBM, TGF-β₁ and -β₂ levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β₁ significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β₁ is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β₂. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β₁ expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β₁ could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  10. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Olivier Roy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β. We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β1 and -β2 expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS. In GBM, TGF-β1 and -β2 levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β1 significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β2. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β1 expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β1 could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  11. Reducing atelectasis attenuates bacterial growth and translocation in experimental pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kaam, Anton H.; Lachmann, Robert A.; Herting, Egbert; de Jaegere, Anne; van Iwaarden, Freek; Noorduyn, L. Arnold; Kok, Joke H.; Haitsma, Jack J.; Lachmann, Burkhard

    2004-01-01

    Besides being one of the mechanisms responsible for ventilator-induced lung injury, atelectasis also seems to aggravate the course of experimental pneumonia. In this study, we examined the effect of reducing the degree of atelectasis by natural modified surfactant and/or open lung ventilation on

  12. Addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk scaffolds improves mammalian cell activity while reducing bacterial growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Chung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Silk possesses many beneficial wound healing properties, and electrospun scaffolds are especially applicable for skin applications, due to their smaller interstices and higher surface areas compared to non-electrospun equivalents. However, purified silk promotes microbial growth. In contrast, selenium nanoparticles have excellent antibacterial properties and are a novel antimicrobial chemistry. Here, electrospun silk scaffolds were doped with selenium nanoparticles to impart antibacterial properties to the silk scaffolds. Results showed significantly improved bacterial inhibition and improvement in human dermal fibroblast metabolic activity. These results suggest that the addition of selenium nanoparticles to electrospun silk is a promising approach to improve wound healing with reduced infection, without relying on antibiotics.

  13. Taking Exception. Reduced mortality leads to population growth: an inconvenient truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, James D

    2014-05-01

    Reduced mortality has been the predominant cause of the marked global population growth over the last 3/4 of a century. While improved child survival increases motivation to reduce fertility, it comes too little and too late to forestall substantial population growth. And, beyond motivation, couples need effective means to control their fertility. It is an inconvenient truth that reducing child mortality contributes considerably to the population growth destined to compromise the quality of life of many, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Vigorous child survival programming is of course imperative. Wide access to voluntary family planning can help mitigate that growth and provide many other benefits.

  14. Significantly reduced c-axis thermal diffusivity of graphene-based papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Meng; Xie, Yangsu; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Jingchao; Wang, Xinwei

    2018-06-01

    Owing to their very high thermal conductivity as well as large surface-to-volume ratio, graphene-based films/papers have been proposed as promising candidates of lightweight thermal interface materials and lateral heat spreaders. In this work, we study the cross-plane (c-axis) thermal conductivity (k c ) and diffusivity (α c ) of two typical graphene-based papers, which are partially reduced graphene paper (PRGP) and graphene oxide paper (GOP), and compare their thermal properties with highly-reduced graphene paper and graphite. The determined α c of PRGP varies from (1.02 ± 0.09) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.31 ± 0.18) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12 K. This low α c is mainly attributed to the strong phonon scattering at the grain boundaries and defect centers due to the small grain sizes and high-level defects. For GOP, α c varies from (1.52 ± 0.05) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 295 K to (2.28 ± 0.08) × 10‑7 m2 s‑1 at 12.5 K. The cross-plane thermal transport of GOP is attributed to the high density of functional groups between carbon layers which provide weak thermal transport tunnels across the layers in the absence of direct energy coupling among layers. This work sheds light on the understanding and optimizing of nanostructure of graphene-based paper-like materials for desired thermal performance.

  15. The Significance Ultrasonography on the Evaluation of Ovarian Follicular Maturity and Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kab Tae; Kim, Ok Keun; Lee, Seok Hong; Kim, Tae Seon; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Ovarian follicular diameter was measured using real time ultrasound in 21 hyperstimulated patients from April to September 1986. And we analyzed the relation between the size measured with ultrasonography and maturity observed under the phased microscopy, the correlation between aspirated dominant follicular volume and the dominant follicular volume calculated by the size measured with ultrasonography. Also we experienced the conditions which showed the ultrasonographic finding similar to that of follicle. The results were as follows: 1. The mean follicular diameter increased in a linear fashion from 7 days after LMP (9.4mm+2.8)to the one day before ovum pick up(18.2+2.8). 2. The mean diameter of the most appropriate dominant follicle was 19.08+1.23mm 3. The correlation between the dominant follicular volume measured with ultrasonography and aspirated follicular volume during ovum pick up was highly significant(r=0.94;0<0.001). 4. during follicular growth and maturity monitoring the conditions which misdiagnosed of follicle were simple ovarian cyst(1 case), hydrosalpinx (1 case), endometriosis(1 case), tubo-ovarian abscess(1 case), Hydatid of Morgagni(1 case)

  16. Light pollution reduces activity, food consumption and growth rates in a sandy beach invertebrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luarte, T; Bonta, C C; Silva-Rodriguez, E A; Quijón, P A; Miranda, C; Farias, A A; Duarte, C

    2016-11-01

    The continued growth of human activity and infrastructure has translated into a widespread increase in light pollution. Natural daylight and moonlight cycles play a fundamental role for many organisms and ecological processes, so an increase in light pollution may have profound effects on communities and ecosystem services. Studies assessing ecological light pollution (ELP) effects on sandy beach organisms have lagged behind the study of other sources of disturbance. Hence, we assessed the influence of this stressor on locomotor activity, foraging behavior, absorption efficiency and growth rate of adults of the talitrid amphipod Orchestoidea tuberculata. In the field, an artificial light system was assembled to assess the local influence of artificial light conditions on the amphipod's locomotor activity and use of food patches in comparison to natural (ambient) conditions. Meanwhile in the laboratory, two experimental chambers were set to assess amphipod locomotor activity, consumption rates, absorption efficiency and growth under artificial light in comparison to natural light-dark cycles. Our results indicate that artificial light have significantly adverse effects on the activity patterns and foraging behavior of the amphipods, resulting on reduced consumption and growth rates. Given the steady increase in artificial light pollution here and elsewhere, sandy beach communities could be negatively affected, with unexpected consequences for the whole ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  18. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. J., E-mail: m.sweet@derby.ac.uk [University of Derby, Environmental Sustainability Research Centre, College of Life and Natural Sciences (United Kingdom); Singleton, I. [Newcastle University, School of Biology (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-15

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP.

  19. Soil contamination with silver nanoparticles reduces Bishop pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity on pine roots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Singleton, I.

    2015-01-01

    Soil contamination by silver nanoparticles (AgNP) is of potential environmental concern but little work has been carried out on the effect of such contamination on ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF). EMF are essential to forest ecosystem functions as they are known to enhance growth of trees by nutrient transfer. In this study, soil was experimentally contaminated with AgNP (0, 350 and 790 mg Ag/kg) and planted with Bishop pine seedlings. The effect of AgNP was subsequently measured, assessing variation in pine growth and ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the root system. After only 1 month, the highest AgNP level had significantly reduced the root length of pine seedlings, which in turn had a small effect on above ground plant biomass. However, after 4 months growth, both AgNP levels utilised had significantly reduced both pine root and shoot biomass. For example, even the lower levels of AgNP (350 mg Ag/kg) soil, reduced fresh root biomass by approximately 57 %. The root systems of the plants grown in AgNP-contaminated soils lacked the lateral and fine root development seen in the control plants (no AgNP). Although, only five different genera of EMF were found on roots of the control plants, only one genus Laccaria was found on roots of plants grown in soil containing 350 mg AgNP/kg. At the higher levels of AgNP contamination, no EMF were observed. Furthermore, extractable silver was found in soils containing AgNP, indicating potential dissolution of silver ions (Ag+) from the solid AgNP

  20. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy......-four patients fulfilled our criteria for thrombolysis, but only the last 35 patients included received thrombolytic therapy. As thrombolysis was not available in our Department at the start of the study, the first 39 patients included were conservatively treated (controls). No significant differences...... in baseline clinical characteristics were found between the two groups. In-hospital atrial fibrillation and digoxin therapy was more prevalent in controls (P less than 0.05). During exercise, thrombolysed patients reached a higher maximal work capacity compared with controls: 160 +/- 41 vs 139 +/- 34 W (P...

  1. Selenium Supplementation Significantly Reduces Thyroid Autoantibody Levels in Patients with Chronic Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichman, Johanna Eva Märta; Winther, Kristian Hillert; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium supplementation may decrease circulating thyroid autoantibodies in patients with chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT), but the available trials are heterogenous. This study expands and critically reappraises the knowledge on this topic. METHODS: A literature search identified...... 3366 records. Controlled trials in adults (≥18 years of age) with AIT, comparing selenium with or without levothyroxine (LT4), versus placebo and/or LT4, were eligible. Assessed outcomes were serum thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) autoantibody levels, and immunomodulatory effects...... and LT4-untreated. Heterogeneity was estimated using I(2), and quality of evidence was assessed per outcome, using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) guidelines. RESULTS: In LT4-treated populations, the selenium group had significantly lower TPOAb levels after...

  2. A case of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma which was significantly reduced in size by radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azakami, Kiyoshi; Nishida, Kouji; Tanikawa, Ken

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization classified gastric neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) into three types: NET grade (G) 1, NET G2 and neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). NECs are associated with a very poor prognosis. The patient was an 84-year-old female who was initially diagnosed by gastrointestinal endoscope with type 3 advanced gastric cancer with stenosis of the gastric cardia. Her overall status and performance status did not allow for operations or intensive chemotherapy. Palliative radiotherapy was performed and resulted in a significant reduction in the size of the tumor as well as the improvement of the obstructive symptoms. She died 9 months after radiotherapy. An autopsy provided a definitive diagnosis of gastric endocrine cell carcinoma, and the effectiveness of radiotherapy was pathologically-confirmed. Palliative radiotherapy may be a useful treatment option for providing symptom relief, especially for old patients with unresectable advanced gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma. (author)

  3. Ad libitum Mediterranean and Low Fat Diets both Significantly Reduce Hepatic Steatosis: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Properzi, Catherine; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Sherriff, Jill L; Ching, Helena L; Jeffrey, Garry P; Buckley, Rachel F; Tibballs, Jonathan; MacQuillan, Gerry C; Garas, George; Adams, Leon A

    2018-05-05

    Although diet induced weight loss is first-line treatment for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term maintenance is difficult. The optimal diet for either improvement in NAFLD or associated cardio-metabolic risk factors regardless of weight loss, is unknown. We examined the effect of two ad libitum isocaloric diets [Mediterranean (MD) or Low Fat (LF)] on hepatic steatosis and cardio-metabolic risk factors. Subjects with NAFLD were randomized to a 12-week blinded dietary intervention (MD vs LF). Hepatic steatosis was determined via magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). From a total of 56 subjects enrolled, 49 subjects completed the intervention and 48 were included for analysis. During the intervention, subjects on the MD had significantly higher total and monounsaturated fat but lower carbohydrate and sodium intakes compared to LF subjects (pfat reduction between the groups (p=0.32), with mean (SD) relative reductions of 25.0% (±25.3%) in LF and 32.4% (±25.5%) in MD. Liver enzymes also improved significantly in both groups. Weight loss was minimal and not different between groups [-1.6 (±2.1)kg in LF vs -2.1 (±2.5)kg in MD, (p=0.52)]. Within-group improvements in the Framingham risk score, total cholesterol, serum triglyceride, and HbA1c were observed in the MD (all pvs. 64%, p=0.048). Ad libitum low fat and Mediterranean diets both improve hepatic steatosis to a similar degree. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  4. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Prognostic Significance of Ultraearly Hematoma Growth in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage Patients Receiving Hematoma Evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jun; Guo, Rui; Ma, Lu; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Lin, Sen; You, Chao; Li, Hao

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the association between ultraearly hematoma growth (uHG) and clinical outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) receiving hematoma evacuation. Supratentorial sICH patients receiving hematoma evacuation within 24 hours after ictus were enrolled in this study. uHG was defined as baseline hematoma volume/onset-to-computed tomography (CT) time (mL/h). The outcome was assessed by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months. Unfavorable outcome was defined as mRS >2. A total of 93 patients were enrolled in this study. The mean uHG was 10.3 ± 5.5 mL/h. In 69 (74.2%) of patients, the outcome was unfavorable at 3 months. The uHG in patients with unfavorable outcome were significantly higher than in those with favorable outcome (11.0 ± 6.1 mL/h vs. 8.3 ± 2.5 mL/h, P = 0.003). The optimal cutoff of uHG for predicting unfavorable outcome was 8.7 mL/h. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of uHG >8.7 mL/h for predicting unfavorable outcome were 56.5%, 75.0%, 86.7%, and 37.5%, respectively. uHG is a helpful predictor of unfavorable outcome in sICH patients treated with hematoma evacuation. The optimal cutoff of uHG to assist in predicting unfavorable outcome in sICH patients receiving hematoma evacuation is 8.7mL/h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Assisted Reproduction Causes Reduced Fetal Growth Associated with Downregulation of Paternally Expressed Imprinted Genes That Enhance Fetal Growth in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Chen, Shuqiang; Tang, Na; Xiao, Xifeng; Huang, Jianlei; Jiang, Feng; Huang, Xiuying; Sun, Fangzhen; Wang, Xiaohong

    2016-02-01

    Alteration of intrauterine growth trajectory is linked to metabolic diseases in adulthood. In mammalian and, specifically, human species, pregnancies through assisted reproductive technology (ART) are associated with changes in intrauterine growth trajectory. However, it is still unclear how ART alters intrauterine growth trajectory, especially reduced fetal growth in early to midgestation. In this study, using a mouse model, it was found that ART procedures reduce fetal and placental growth at Embryonic Day 10.5. Furthermore, ART leads to decreased methylation levels at H19, KvDMR1, and Snrpn imprinting control regions in the placentae, instead of fetuses. Furthermore, in the placenta, ART downregulated a majority of parentally expressed imprinted genes, which enhance fetal growth, whereas it upregulated a majority of maternally expressed genes which repress fetal growth. Additionally, the expression of genes that regulate placental development was also affected by ART. ART also downregulated a majority of placental nutrient transporters. Disruption of genomic imprinting and abnormal expression of developmentally and functionally relevant genes in placenta may influence the placental development and function, which affect fetal growth and reprogramming. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  7. [Placental gene activity of significant angiogenetic factors in the background of intrauterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Péter; Rab, Attila; Szentpéteri, Imre; Joó, József Gábor; Kornya, László

    2017-04-01

    Placental vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) gene and endoglin gene are both overexpressed in placental samples obtained from pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction compared to normal pregnancies. In the background of these changes a mechanism can be supposed, in which the increased endoglin activity in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) leads to impaired placental circulation through an antioangiogenetic effect. This results in the development of placental vascular dysfunction and chronic fetal hypoxia. It is chronic hypoxia that turns on VEGF-A as a compensatory mechanism to improve fetal vascular blood supply by promoting placental blood vessel formation. Although the maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) level is a potential predictor for both IUGR and praeeclampsia, placental PlGF gene activity may be less of an active in the regulation of placental circulation in IUGR pregnancies during the later stages of gestation. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(16), 612-617.

  8. Thyroid function appears to be significantly reduced in Space-borne MDS mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saverio Ambesi-Impiombato, Francesco; Curcio, Francesco; Fontanini, Elisabetta; Perrella, Giuseppina; Spelat, Renza; Zambito, Anna Maria; Damaskopoulou, Eleni; Peverini, Manola; Albi, Elisabetta

    It is known that prolonged space flights induced changes in human cardiovascular, muscu-loskeletal and nervous systems whose function is regulated by the thyroid gland but, until now, no data were reported about thyroid damage during space missions. We have demonstrated in vitro that, during space missions (Italian Soyuz Mission "ENEIDE" in 2005, Shuttle STS-120 "ESPERIA" in 2007), thyroid in vitro cultured cells did not respond to thyroid stimulating hor-mone (TSH) treatment; they appeared healthy and alive, despite their being in a pro-apopotic state characterised by a variation of sphingomyelin metabolism and consequent increase in ce-ramide content. The insensitivity to TSH was largely due to a rearrangement of specific cell membrane microdomains, acting as platforms for TSH-receptor (TEXUS-44 mission in 2008). To study if these effects were present also in vivo, as part of the Mouse Drawer System (MDS) Tissue Sharing Program, we performed experiments in mice maintained onboard the Interna-tional Space Station during the long-duration (90 days) exploration mission STS-129. After return to earth, the thyroids isolated from the 3 animals were in part immediately frozen to study the morphological modification in space and in part immediately used to study the effect of TSH treatment. For this purpose small fragments of tissue were treated with 10-7 or 10-8 M TSH for 1 hour by using untreated fragments as controls. Then the fragments were fixed with absolute ethanol for 10 min at room temperature and centrifuged for 20 min. at 3000 x g. The supernatants were used for cAMP analysis whereas the pellet were used for protein amount determination and for immunoblotting analysis of TSH-receptor, sphingomyelinase and sphingomyelin-synthase. The results showed a modification of the thyroid structure and also the values of cAMP production after treatment with 10-7 M TSH for 1 hour were significantly lower than those obtained in Earth's gravity. The treatment with TSH

  9. Suppression of Peroxiredoxin 4 in Glioblastoma Cells Increases Apoptosis and Reduces Tumor Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Song, Jieun; Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R.; Murnan, Eric; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Yi, Ji-Yeun; Viapiano, Mariano Sebastian; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoon, Sung Ok; Wu, Hong; Parada, Luis F.; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future. PMID:22916164

  10. Suppression of peroxiredoxin 4 in glioblastoma cells increases apoptosis and reduces tumor growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyong Kim

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4 is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future.

  11. New foliage growth is a significant, unaccounted source for volatiles in boreal evergreen forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Hari, P.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Schiestl-Aalto, P.; Aaltonen, H.; Levula, J.; Siivola, E.; Kulmala, M.; Bäck, J.

    2014-03-01

    Estimates of volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from forests are based on the assumption that foliage has a steady emission potential over its lifetime, and that emissions are mainly modified by short-term variations in light and temperature. However, in many field studies this has been challenged, and high emissions and atmospheric concentrations have been measured during periods of low biological activity, such as in springtime. We conducted measurements during three years, using an online gas-exchange monitoring system to observe volatile organic emissions from a mature (1 year-old) and a growing Scots pine shoot. The emission rates of organic vapors from vegetative buds of Scots pine during the dehardening and rapid shoot growth stages were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those from mature foliage; this difference decreased and finally disappeared when the new shoot was maturing in late summer. On average, the springtime monoterpene emission rate of the bud was about 500 times higher than that of the mature needles; during the most intensive needle elongation period, the monoterpene emission rate of the growing needles was 3.5 higher than that of the mature needles, and in September the monoterpene emission rate of the same years' needles was even lower (50%) than that of the previous years' needles. For other measured compounds (methanol, acetone and methylbutenol) the values were of the same order of magnitude, except before bud break in spring, when the emission rates of buds for those compounds were on average about 20-30 times higher than that of mature needles. During spring and early summer the buds and growing shoots are a strong source of several VOCs, and if they are not accounted for in emission modeling a significant proportion of the emissions - from a few percent to even half of the annual cumulative emissions - will remain concealed. The diurnal emission pattern of growing shoots differed from the diurnal cycle in temperature as

  12. Reduced angiogenic factor expression in intrauterine fetal growth restriction using semiquantitative immunohistochemistry and digital image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alahakoon, Thushari I; Zhang, Weiyi; Arbuckle, Susan; Zhang, Kewei; Lee, Vincent

    2018-05-01

    To localize, quantify and compare angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), placental growth factor (PlGF), as well as their receptors fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor (Flt-1) and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR) in the placentas of normal pregnancy and complications of preeclampsia (PE), intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR) and PE + IUGR. In a prospective cross-sectional case-control study, 30 pregnant women between 24-40 weeks of gestation, were recruited into four clinical groups. Representative placental samples were stained for VEGF, PlGF, Flt-1 and KDR. Analysis was performed using semiquantitative methods and digital image analysis. The overall VEGF and Flt-1 were strongly expressed and did not show any conclusive difference in the expression between study groups. PlGF and KDR were significantly reduced in expression in the placentas from pregnancies complicated by IUGR compared with normal and preeclamptic pregnancies. The lack of PlGF and KDR may be a cause for the development of IUGR and may explain the loss of vasculature and villous architecture in IUGR. Automated digital image analysis software is a viable alternative method to the manual reading of placental immunohistochemical staining. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Construction of Zn-incorporated multilayer films to promote osteoblasts growth and reduce bacterial adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Peng, E-mail: liupeng79@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Molecular Engineering of Polymers, Department of Macromolecular Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhao, Yongchun; Yuan, Zhang [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ding, Hongyan [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian, Jiangsu Province 223003 (China); Hu, Yan; Yang, Weihu [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Cai, Kaiyong, E-mail: kaiyong_cai@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-06-01

    To improve the biological performance of titanium substrates, a bioactive multilayered structure of chitosan/gelatin pair, containing zinc ions, was constructed via a layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. The successful preparation of zinc ions incorporated multilayer films was demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements, respectively. The biological behaviors of osteoblasts adhered to modified Ti substrates were investigated in vitro via cytoskeleton observation, cell viability measurement, and alkaline phosphatase activity assay. The cytocompatibility evaluation verified that the present system was capable of promoting the growth of osteoblasts. In addition, Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria were used to evaluate antibacterial property of modified Ti substrates. Bacterial adhesion and viability assay confirmed that Zn-loaded multilayer films were able to inhibit the adhesion and growth of bacteria. The approach presented here affords an alternative to reduce bacterial infection and promote osteoblast growth for titanium-based implants. - Highlights: • Polyelectrolyte multilayer films containing Zn ions were fabricated on Ti substrate. • Modified Ti substrate stimulated the biological responses of osteoblast. • Antibacterial property of Ti substrate was significantly improved. • The resulting material thus has potential application in orthopedic field.

  14. [The significance of vaginal fluid substances as growth media in genital mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, G; Gartzke, J; Böhme, H; Spitzbart, H

    1984-01-01

    By means of thin layer chromatography amino acids, lipids and phospholipids were detected in the vaginal fluids of pregnant and nonpregnant women with and without vaginal yeast colonization. Though pregnancy and/or yeast colonization do not seem to alter qualitatively the spectrum of amino acids and lipids of the vaginal fluid, an influence is supposed of these substances - like that of glucose - on growth and metabolism of the yeasts and on the clinical manifestation of vaginal candidosis.

  15. Exposure of P. gingivalis to noradrenaline reduces bacterial growth and elevates ArgX protease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takayuki; Inagaki, Satoru; Sakurai, Kaoru; Okuda, Katsuji; Ishihara, Kazuyuki

    2011-03-01

    Periodontitis, an infectious disease caused by periodontopathic bacteria, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, is reported to be accelerated by stress, under which noradrenaline levels are increased in the bloodstream. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of noradrenaline on P. gingivalis. P. gingivalis was incubated in the presence of 25μM, 50μM, or 100μM adrenaline or noradrenaline at 37°C for 12, 24 or 36h and growth was evaluated by OD(660). Auto-inducer-2 (AI-2) was measured by luminescence of Vibrio harveyi BB 170. Expression of P. gingivalis genes was evaluated using a microarray and RT-PCR. Rgp activity of arg-gingipainA and B (Rgp) was measured with a synthetic substrate. Growth of P. gingivalis FDC381 was inhibited by noradrenaline at 24 and 36h. Growth inhibition by noradrenaline increased dose-dependently. Inhibition of growth partially recovered with addition of propranolol. AI-2 production from P. gingivalis showed a marked decrease with addition of noradrenaline compared with peak production levels in the control group. Microarray analysis revealed an increase in expression in 18 genes and a decrease in expression in 2 genes. Amongst these genes, expression of the protease arg-gingipainB (RgpB) gene, a major virulence factor of P. gingivalis, was further analysed. Expression of rgpB showed a significant increase with addition of noradrenaline, which was partially reduced by addition of propranolol. Cell-associated Rgp activity also increased with addition of noradrenaline. These results suggest that stressors influence the expression of the virulence factors of P. gingivalis via noradrenaline. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species. PMID:25435025

  17. A novel transgenic mouse model of growth plate dysplasia reveals that decreased chondrocyte proliferation due to chronic ER stress is a key factor in reduced bone growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta Gualeni

    2013-11-01

    Disease mechanisms leading to different forms of chondrodysplasia include extracellular matrix (ECM alterations and intracellular stress resulting in abnormal changes to chondrocyte proliferation and survival. Delineating the relative contribution of these two disease mechanisms is a major challenge in understanding disease pathophysiology in genetic skeletal diseases and a prerequisite for developing effective therapies. To determine the influence of intracellular stress and changes in chondrocyte phenotype to the development of chondrodysplasia, we targeted the expression of the G2320R mutant form of thyroglobulin to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER of resting and proliferating chondrocytes. Previous studies on this mutant protein have shown that it induces intracellular aggregates and causes cell stress and death in the thyroid gland. The expression and retention of this exogenous mutant protein in resting and proliferating chondrocytes resulted in a chronic cell stress response, growth plate dysplasia and reduced bone growth, without inducing any alterations to the architecture and organization of the cartilage ECM. More significantly, the decreased bone growth seemed to be the direct result of reduced chondrocyte proliferation in the proliferative zone of growth plates in transgenic mice, without transcriptional activation of a classical unfolded protein response (UPR or apoptosis. Overall, these data show that mutant protein retention in the ER of resting and proliferative zone chondrocytes is sufficient to cause disrupted bone growth. The specific disease pathways triggered by mutant protein retention do not necessarily involve a prototypic UPR, but all pathways impact upon chondrocyte proliferation in the cartilage growth plate.

  18. Effect of reduced light and low oxygen concentration on germination, growth and establishment of some plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yasin, Muhammad

    Many abiotic factors effect plants germination, growth, and development. This Ph.D. study elucidates the effect of reduced light, low oxygen and seed dormancy on germination and growth of some weed species, field crops and vegetables. One study describes the growth and developmental responses...... of some common, invasive and rare weed species to reduced light levels in greenhouse experiments. The seed germination response of some weed species, field crops, and vegetables to different oxygen concentrations was also quantified in the laboratory experiments. The effect of east-west (EW) and north...

  19. Expression of PML tumor suppressor in A 431 cells reduces cellular growth by inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallian, S.; Chang, K.S.

    2004-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that the promyelocytic leukemia, PML, protein functions as a cellular and growth suppressor. Transient expression of PML was also found to repress the activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene promoter. In this study we have examined the effects of PML on A431 cells, which express a high level of + protein. The PML gene was introduced into the cells using the adenovirus-mediated gene transfer system. Western blot analysis on the extracts from the cells expressing PML showed a significant repression in the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor protein. The cells were examined for growth and DNA synthesis. The data showed a marked reduction in both growth and DNA synthesis rate in the cells expressing PML compared with the control cells. Furthermore, in comparison with the controls, the cells expressing PML were found to be more in G1 phase, fewer in S and about the same number in the G2/M phase. This data clearly demonstrated that the repression of epidermal growth factor receptor expression in A 431 cells by PML was associated with inhibition of cell growth and alteration of the cell cycle distribution, suggesting a novel mechanism for the known growth inhibitory effects of PML

  20. Resveratrol Reduces Prostate Cancer Growth and Metastasis by Inhibiting the Akt/MicroRNA-21 Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Sandeep; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Kaur, Tejbeer; Mukherjea, Debashree; Sheehan, Kelly; Rybak, Leonard P.; Ramkumar, Vickram

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of foods containing resveratrol produces significant health benefits. Resveratrol inhibits cancer by reducing cell proliferation and metastasis and by inducing apoptosis. These actions could be explained by its ability to inhibit (ERK-1/2), Akt and suppressing the levels of estrogen and insulin growth factor -1 (IGF-1) receptor. How these processes are manifested into the antitumor actions of resveratrol is not clear. Using microarray studies, we show that resveratrol reduced the expression of various prostate-tumor associated microRNAs (miRs) including miR-21 in androgen-receptor negative and highly aggressive human prostate cancer cells, PC-3M-MM2. This effect of resveratrol was associated with reduced cell viability, migration and invasiveness. Additionally, resveratrol increased the expression of tumor suppressors, PDCD4 and maspin, which are negatively regulated by miR-21. Short interfering (si) RNA against PDCD4 attenuated resveratrol’s effect on prostate cancer cells, and similar effects were observed following over expression of miR-21 with pre-miR-21 oligonucleotides. PC-3M-MM2 cells also exhibited high levels of phospho-Akt (pAkt), which were reduced by both resveratrol and LY294002 (a PI3-kinase inhibitor). MiR-21 expression in these cells appeared to be dependent on Akt, as LY294002 reduced the levels of miR-21 along with a concurrent increase in PDCD4 expression. These in vitro findings were further corroborated in a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse xenograft model of prostate cancer. Oral administration of resveratrol not only inhibited the tumor growth but also decreased the incidence and number of metastatic lung lesions. These tumor- and metastatic-suppressive effects of resveratrol were associated with reduced miR-21 and pAkt, and elevated PDCD4 levels. Similar anti-tumor effects of resveratrol were observed in DU145 and LNCaP prostate cancer cells which were associated with suppression of Akt and PDCD4, but

  1. Beyond reduced-impact logging: silvicultural treatments to increase growth rates of tropical trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peña-Claros, M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Alarcón, A.; Blate, G.M.; Choque, U.; Leaño, C.; Licona, J.C.; Mostacedo, B.; Pariona, W.; Villegas, Z.; Putz, F.E.

    2008-01-01

    Use of reduced-impact logging (RIL) techniques has repeatedly been shown to reduce damage caused by logging. Unfortunately, these techniques do not necessarily ameliorate the low growth rates of many commercial species or otherwise assure recovery of the initial volume harvested during the next

  2. Morpholino-Mediated Isoform Modulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR2) Reduces Colon Cancer Xenograft Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stagg, Brian C., E-mail: briancstagg@gmail.com; Uehara, Hironori; Lambert, Nathan; Rai, Ruju; Gupta, Isha; Radmall, Bryce; Bates, Taylor; Ambati, Balamurali K. [John A Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 65 Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT 84132 (United States)

    2014-11-26

    Angiogenesis plays a key role in tumor growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a pro-angiogenic that is involved in tumor angiogenesis. When VEGF binds to membrane-bound vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (mVEGFR2), it promotes angiogenesis. Through alternative polyadenylation, VEGFR2 is also expressed in a soluble form (sVEGFR2). sVEGFR2 sequesters VEGF and is therefore anti-angiogenic. The aim of this study was to show that treatment with a previously developed and reported antisense morpholino oligomer that shifts expression from mVEGFR2 to sVEGFR2 would lead to reduced tumor vascularization and growth in a murine colon cancer xenograft model. Xenografts were generated by implanting human HCT-116 colon cancer cells into the flanks of NMRI nu/nu mice. Treatment with the therapeutic morpholino reduced both tumor growth and tumor vascularization. Because the HCT-116 cells used for the experiments did not express VEGFR2 and because the treatment morpholino targeted mouse rather than human VEGFR2, it is likely that treatment morpholino was acting on the mouse endothelial cells rather than directly on the tumor cells.

  3. The significance of secondary organic aerosol formation and growth in buildings: experimental and computational evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, G.; Corsi, R.; Allen, D.

    2003-01-01

    -pinene, and subsequent gas-to-particle partitioning of the products. A new indoor air quality model was used to predict dynamic particle mass concentrations based on detailed homogeneous chemical mechanisms and partitioning of semi-volatile products to particles. Chamber particle mass concentrations were estimated from......Experiments were conducted in an 11 m3 environmental chamber to investigate secondaryparticles resulting from homogeneous reactions between ozone and alpha-pinene. Experimental results indicate that rapid fine particle growth occurs due to homogeneous reactions between ozone and alpha...... measured particle size distributions and were in reasonable agreement with results predicted from the model. Both experimental and model results indicate that secondary particle mass concentrations incfrease substantially with lower air exchange rates. This is an interesting results, given a continuing...

  4. Paternally expressed, imprinted insulin-like growth factor-2 in chorionic villi correlates significantly with birth weight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambos Demetriou

    Full Text Available Fetal growth involves highly complex molecular pathways. IGF2 is a key paternally expressed growth hormone that is critical for in utero growth in mice. Its role in human fetal growth has remained ambiguous, as it has only been studied in term tissues. Conversely the maternally expressed growth suppressor, PHLDA2, has a significant negative correlation between its term placental expression and birth weight.The aim of this study is to address the role in early gestation of expression of IGF1, IGF2, their receptors IGF1R and IGF2R, and PHLDA2 on term birth weight.Real-time quantitative PCR was used to investigate mRNA expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R, IGF2R and PHLDA2 in chorionic villus samples (CVS (n = 260 collected at 11-13 weeks' gestation. Expression was correlated with term birth weight using statistical package R including correction for several confounding factors.Transcript levels of IGF2 and IGF2R revealed a significant positive correlation with birth weight (0.009 and 0.04, respectively. No effect was observed for IGF1, IGF1R or PHLDA2 and birth weight. Critically, small for gestational age (SGA neonates had significantly lower IGF2 levels than appropriate for gestational age neonates (p = 3.6 × 10(-7.Our findings show that IGF2 mRNA levels at 12 weeks gestation could provide a useful predictor of future fetal growth to term, potentially predicting SGA babies. SGA babies are known to be at a higher risk for type 2 diabetes. This research reveals an imprinted, parentally driven rheostat for in utero growth.

  5. Phaleria macrocarpa reduces glomerular growth factor expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Sulistyoningrum

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy (DN is the most serious complication of diabetes, causing end-stage renal disease throughout the world. Recent studies have reported a direct role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and transforming growth factor-â (TGF-â in DN pathogenesis. VEGF and TGF-â are expressed early in glomeruli in response to hyperglycemia. Active substances of Phaleria macrocarpa (PM pericarp are known to have nephroprotective effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff. Boerl pericarp extract on VEGF and TGF-â expression in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods An experimental study was conducted on twenty five male albino (Sprague Dawley rats divided into five groups (of five each: normal control; diabetic; diabetic + metformin 100 mg/kgBW; diabetic + methanolic PM extract 250 mg/kgBW; and diabetic + aqueous PM extract 250 mg/kgBW. Diabetes was induced by alloxan monohydrate 150 mg/BW intraperitoneally. Treatment was given for 3 weeks. VEGF and TGF-â expression analysis was performed by means of immunohistochemical technique. Differences between groups were assessed by one-way ANOVA. Results VEGF expression in the PM extract group was significantly lower than that in the diabetic group and even metformin group (p<0.01. TGF-â expression in methanolic PM extract group was significantly lower than in diabetic and metformin group (p<0.01, but aqueous PM extract group only showed significancy when compared with diabetic group (p< 0.01. Conclusions Phaleria macrocarpa pericarp extract reduces glomerular expression of TGF-â and VEGF in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

  6. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF BREASTFEEDING FOR THE INFANT GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Ursova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the literature, the review shows the real value of breast milk as the most optimal type of postnatal feeding of infants. We describe biological mechanisms that are supposed to mediate  the influence of breastfeeding on maturation of  immune response, regulation of intestinal functions, trophic effect on small and large intestinal  mucosa, its microflora and somatic growth of an  infant. In infancy, the protective properties of  breast milk against intestinal infections are largely related to its prebiotic effect. According to the  results of the studies on the structure of the milk  fat mycella envelope, their protein not only participate in bacterial adhesion, but also exert substantial anti-microbial activity due to presence of  antimicrobial components. We discuss the role  of protective nutrients, such as zinc, iron, iodine,  selenium and vitamin A and review the results of studies performed in various countries and aimed at evaluation of an association between the type of feeding of an infant in the 1  year of life and the risk of development of somatic abnormalities. A strong influence of micronutrient deficiencies in the pregnant and breastfeeding woman on delay of in utero development has been shown, as well as its contribution to formation of congenital ab- st normalities of any organ or system, connective  tissue dysplasia, initiation and development of alimentary-related conditions in infants.

  7. A Novel Ras Inhibitor (MDC-1016 Reduces Human Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo G Mackenzie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer has one of the poorest prognoses among all cancers partly because of its persistent resistance to chemotherapy. The currently limited treatment options for pancreatic cancer underscore the need for more efficient agents. Because activating Kras mutations initiate and maintain pancreatic cancer, inhibition of this pathway should have a major therapeutic impact. We synthesized phospho-farnesylthiosalicylic acid (PFTS; MDC-1016 and evaluated its efficacy, safety, and metabolism in preclinical models of pancreatic cancer. PFTS inhibited the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells in culture in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In an MIA PaCa-2 xenograft mouse model, PFTS at a dose of 50 and 100 mg/kg significantly reduced tumor growth by 62% and 65% (P < .05 vs vehicle control. Furthermore, PFTS prevented pancreatitis-accelerated acinar-to-ductal metaplasia in mice with activated Kras. PFTS appeared to be safe, with the animals showing no signs of toxicity during treatment. Following oral administration, PFTS was rapidly absorbed, metabolized to FTS and FTS glucuronide, and distributed through the blood to body organs. Mechanistically, PFTS inhibited Ras-GTP, the active form of Ras, both in vitro and in vivo, leading to the inhibition of downstream effector pathways c-RAF/mitogen-activated protein-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK kinase (MEK/ERK1/2 kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/AKT. In addition, PFTS proved to be a strong combination partner with phospho-valproic acid, a novel signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 inhibitor, displaying synergy in the inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth. In conclusion, PFTS, a direct Ras inhibitor, is an efficacious agent for the treatment of pancreatic cancer in preclinical models, deserving further evaluation.

  8. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Based on the genotypic/phenotypic data from Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS) and Cox proportional hazard model, the present study demonstrates that interactions between carrying FOXO1A-209 genotypes and tea drinking are significantly associated with lower risk of mortality...... at advanced ages. Such significant association is replicated in two independent Han Chinese CLHLS cohorts (p =0.028-0.048 in the discovery and replication cohorts, and p =0.003-0.016 in the combined dataset). We found the associations between tea drinking and reduced mortality are much stronger among carriers...... of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...

  9. Clinical significance of preoperative serum vascular endothelial growth factor, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein level in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Kyung A; Roh, Mee Sook; Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kwon, Hyuk-Chan; Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Sung Hyun; Oh, Sung Yong; Lee, Suee; Han, Jin-Yeong; Kim, Kyeong Hee; Goh, Ri Young; Choi, Hong Jo; Park, Ki Jae

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a multistep process in which many growth factors and cytokines have an essential role. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic agent that acts as a specific mitogen for vascular endothelial cells through specific cell surface receptors. The interleukin-6 (IL-6) pathway is another mechanism linking angiogenesis to malignancy. C-reactive protein (CRP), a representative marker for inflammation, is known for its association with disease progression in many cancer types. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative serum levels of VEGF, IL-6, and CRP in colorectal carcinoma, and to correlate them with disease status and prognosis. A 132 of 143 patients who underwent curative resection for colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. 11 patients with resection margin positive were excluded. Factors considered in analysis of the relationship between VEGF, IL-6, and CRP and histological findings. Patient prognosis was investigated. Serum levels of VEGF and IL-6 were assessed using Enzyme-Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA), and CRP was measured using immunoturbidimetry. Median follow-up duration was 18.53 months (range 0.73-43.17 months) and median age of the patients was 62 years (range, 26-83 years). Mean and median levels of VEGF and CRP in colorectal cancer were significantly higher than in the normal control group; 608 vs. 334 pg/mL and 528 (range 122-3242) vs. 312 (range 16-1121) (p < 0.001); 1.05 mg/dL vs. 0.43 mg/dL and 0.22 (range 0.00-18.40) vs. 0.07 (range 0.02-6.94) (p = 0.002), respectively. However mean and median level of IL-6 in patients were not significantly higher than in control; 14.33 pg/mL vs. 5.65 pg/mL and 6.00 (range 1.02-139.17) vs. 5.30 (4.50-13.78) (p = 0.327). Although IL-6 and CRP levels were not correlated with other pathological findings, VEGF level was significantly correlated with tumor size (p = 0.012) and CEA (p = 0.038). When we established the cutoff value for VEGF (825 pg/mL), IL-6 (8

  10. Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) elevates mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) associated with reduced tumor growth of liver metastases compared to hepatic resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbert, Christoph; Ritz, Jörg-Peter; Roggan, André; Schuppan, Detlef; Ajubi, Navid; Buhr, Heinz Johannes; Hohenberger, Werner; Germer, Christoph-Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Proliferation and synthesis of hepatocellular tissue after tissue damage are promoted by specific growth factors such as hepatic tissue growth factor (HGF) and connective growth factor (CTGF). Laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) for the treatment of liver metastases is deemed to be a parenchyma-saving procedure compared to hepatic resection. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of LITT and hepatic resection on intrahepatic residual tumor tissue and expression levels of mRNA HGF/CTGF within liver and tumor tissue. Two independent adenocarcinomas (CC531) were implanted into 75 WAG rats, one in the right (untreated tumor) and one in the left liver lobe (treated tumor). The left lobe tumor was treated either by LITT or partial hepatectomy. The control tumor was submitted to in-situ hybridization of HGF and CTGF 24-96 hours and 14 days after intervention. Volumes of the untreated tumors prior to intervention were 38+/-8 mm(3) in group I (laser), 39 +/- 7 mm(3) in group II (resection), and 42 +/- 12 mm(3) in group III (control) and did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). Fourteen days after the intervention the mean tumor+/-SEM volume of untreated tumor in group I (laser) [223 +/- 36] was smaller than in group II (resection) [1233.28 +/- 181.52; P tumor growth in comparison to hepatic resection. Accelerated tumor growth after hepatic resection is associated with higher mRNA level of HGF and reduced tumor growth after LITT with higher mRNA level of CTGF. The increased CTGF-mediated regulation of ECM may cause reduced residual tumor growth after LITT. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Reduced heme levels underlie the exponential growth defect of the Shewanella oneidensis hfq mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Brennan

    Full Text Available The RNA chaperone Hfq fulfills important roles in small regulatory RNA (sRNA function in many bacteria. Loss of Hfq in the dissimilatory metal reducing bacterium Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 results in slow exponential phase growth and a reduced terminal cell density at stationary phase. We have found that the exponential phase growth defect of the hfq mutant in LB is the result of reduced heme levels. Both heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant can be completely restored by supplementing LB medium with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA, the first committed intermediate synthesized during heme synthesis. Increasing expression of gtrA, which encodes the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in heme biosynthesis, also restores heme levels and exponential phase growth of the hfq mutant. Taken together, our data indicate that reduced heme levels are responsible for the exponential growth defect of the S. oneidensis hfq mutant in LB medium and suggest that the S. oneidensis hfq mutant is deficient in heme production at the 5-ALA synthesis step.

  12. Feeding enhances skeletal growth and energetic stores of an Atlantic coral under significantly elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, L.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; dePutron, S.; Zicht, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many corals living under the relatively acidic conditions of naturally high-CO2 reefs are calcifying as fast or faster than their conspecifics on naturally low CO2 reefs. These observations are inconsistent with most experimental work that shows a negative impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification. We investigated the link between coral nutritional (energetic) status and the calcification response to significantly elevated CO2. Juveniles of the Atlantic brooding coral, Favia fragum were reared for three weeks under fully crossed CO2 and feeding conditions: ambient (μar =1.6+-0.2) and high CO2 (μar =3.7+-0.3); fed and unfed. In most measured parameters, the effect of feeding is much stronger than the effect of CO2. Nutritionally enhanced (fed) corals, regardless of CO2 condition, have higher concentrations of total lipid and their skeletons are both significantly larger and more developmentally advanced than those of corals relying solely on autotrophy. In measurements of corallite weight, where the impact of CO2 is most apparent, no statistical difference is observed between unfed corals under ambient CO2 conditions and fed corals reared under 1600 ppm CO2. Our results suggest that coral energetic status, which can be enhanced by heterotrophic feeding but depleted by stressors such as bleaching, will play a key role in the coral response to ocean acidification and thus, in the resilience of reef ecosystems under climate change.

  13. Placental Growth Factor Reduces Blood Pressure in a Uteroplacental Ischemia Model of Preeclampsia in Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Angela; Yeung, Kristen R; Lim, Shirlene M; Sunderland, Neroli; Heffernan, Scott; Thompson, John F; Iliopoulos, Jim; Killingsworth, Murray C; Yong, Jim; Xu, Bei; Ogle, Robert F; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Hennessy, Annemarie

    2016-06-01

    An imbalance in the angiogenesis axis during pregnancy manifests as clinical preeclampsia because of endothelial dysfunction. Circulating soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFLT-1) increases and placental growth factor (PlGF) reduces before and during disease. We investigated the clinical and biochemical effects of replenishing the reduced circulating PlGF with recombinant human PlGF (rhPlGF) and thus restoring the angiogenic balance. Hypertensive proteinuria was induced in a nonhuman primate (Papio hamadryas) by uterine artery ligation at 136 days gestation (of a 182-day pregnancy). Two weeks after uteroplacental ischemia, rhPlGF (rhPlGF, n=3) or normal saline (control, n=4) was administered by subcutaneous injection (100 μg/kg per day) for 5 days. Blood pressure was monitored by intra-arterial radiotelemetry and sFLT-1 and PlGF by ELISA. Uteroplacental ischemia resulted in experimental preeclampsia evidenced by increased blood pressure, proteinuria, and endotheliosis on renal biopsy and elevated sFLT-1. PlGF significantly reduced after uteroplacental ischemia. rhPlGF reduced systolic blood pressure in the treated group (-5.2±0.8 mm Hg; from 132.6±6.6 mm Hg to 124.1±7.6 mm Hg) compared with an increase in systolic blood pressure in controls (6.5±3 mm Hg; from 131.3±1.5 mm Hg to 138.6±1.5 mm Hg). Proteinuria reduced in the treated group (-72.7±55.7 mg/mmol) but increased in the control group. Circulating levels of total sFLT-1 were not affected by the administration of PlGF; however, a reduction in placental sFLT-1 mRNA expression was demonstrated. There was no significant difference between the weights or lengths of the neonates in the rhPlGF or control group; however, this study was not designed to assess fetal safety or outcomes. Increasing circulating PlGF by the administration of rhPlGF improves clinical parameters in a primate animal model of experimental preeclampsia. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. A Recombinant Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis Significantly Reduces Bacterial Level in Tissues without Interference in Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.

    , PPDj-specific IFN-γ responses or positive PPDa or PPDb skin tests developed in vaccinees. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses were developed against FET11 antigens, however. At necropsy 8 or 12 months of age, relative Map burden was determined in a number of gut tissues by quantitative IS900...... PCR and revealed significantly reduced levels of Map and reduced histopathology. Diagnostic tests for antibody responses and cell-mediated immune responses, used as surrogates of infection, corroborated the observed vaccine efficacy: Five of seven non‐vaccinated calves seroconverted in ID Screen......-γ assay responses from 40 to 52 weeks compared to non-vaccinated calves. These results indicate the FET11 vaccine can be used to accelerate eradication of paratuberculosis while surveillance or test-and-manage control programs for tuberculosis and Johne’s disease remain in place. Funded by EMIDA ERA...

  15. Effect of helium on fatigue crack growth and life of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Takahashi, Manabu; Hasegawa, Akira; Yamazaki, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    The effects of helium on the fatigue life, micro-crack growth behavior up to final fatigue failure, and fracture mode under fatigue in the reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H IEA-heat, were investigated by low cycle fatigue tests at room temperature in air at a total strain range of 0.6–1.5%. Significant reduction of the fatigue life due to helium implantation was observed for a total strain range of 1.0–1.5%, which might be attributable to an increase in the micro-crack propagation rate. However, the reduction of fatigue life due to helium implantation was not significant for a total strain range of 0.6–0.8%. A brittle fracture surface (an original point of micro-crack initiation) and a cleavage fracture surface were observed in the helium-implanted region of fracture surface. A striation pattern was observed in the non-implanted region. These fracture modes of the helium-implanted specimen were independent of the strain range

  16. Flow cytometric detection of growth factor receptors in autografts and analysis of growth factor concentrations in autologous stem cell transplantation: possible significance for platelet recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiødt, I; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Kjaersgaard, E

    2000-01-01

    In order to improve prediction of hematopoietic recovery, we conducted a pilot study, analyzing the significance of growth factor receptor expression in autografts as well as endogenous growth factor levels in blood before, during and after stem cell transplantation. Three early acting (stem cell......-CSF receptor positive, CD34+ progenitor cells were measured by flow cytometry in the leukapheresis product used for transplantation in a subgroup of 15 patients (NHL, n = 8, MM, n = 7). Three factors were identified as having a significant impact on platelet recovery. First, the level of Tpo in blood...... at the time of the nadir (day +7). Second, the percentage of re-infused thrombopoietin receptor positive progenitors and finally, the percentage of Flt3 receptor positive progenitors. On the other hand, none of the analyzed factors significantly predicted myeloid or erythroid recovery. These findings need...

  17. Disruption of ATCSLD5 results in reduced growth, reduced xylan and homogalacturonan synthase activity and altered xylan occurrence in Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal Giraldo, Adriana Jimena; Jensen, Jacob Krüger; Harholt, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Members of a large family of cellulose synthase-like genes (CSLs) are predicted to encode glycosyl transferases (GTs) involved in the biosynthesis of plant cell walls. The CSLA and CSLF families are known to contain mannan and glucan synthases, respectively, but the products of other CSLs...... are unknown. Here we report the effects of disrupting ATCSLD5 expression in Arabidopsis. Both stem and root growth were significantly reduced in ATCSLD5 knock-out plants, and these plants also had increased susceptibility to the cellulose synthase inhibitor isoxaben. Antibody and carbohydrate-binding module...

  18. Lime and Phosphate Amendment Can Significantly Reduce Uptake of Cd and Pb by Field-Grown Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongbo Xiao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural soils are suffering from increasing heavy metal pollution, among which, paddy soil polluted by heavy metals is frequently reported and has elicited great public concern. In this study, we carried out field experiments on paddy soil around a Pb-Zn mine to study amelioration effects of four soil amendments on uptake of Cd and Pb by rice, and to make recommendations for paddy soil heavy metal remediation, particularly for combined pollution of Cd and Pb. The results showed that all the four treatments can significantly reduce the Cd and Pb content in the late rice grain compared with the early rice, among which, the combination amendment of lime and phosphate had the best remediation effects where rice grain Cd content was reduced by 85% and 61%, respectively, for the late rice and the early rice, and by 30% in the late rice grain for Pb. The high reduction effects under the Ca + P treatment might be attributed to increase of soil pH from 5.5 to 6.7. We also found that influence of the Ca + P treatment on rice production was insignificant, while the available Cd and Pb content in soil was reduced by 16.5% and 11.7%, respectively.

  19. Biogenic acidification reduces sea urchin gonad growth and increases susceptibility of aquaculture to ocean acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mos, Benjamin; Byrne, Maria; Dworjanyn, Symon A

    2016-02-01

    Decreasing oceanic pH (ocean acidification) has emphasised the influence of carbonate chemistry on growth of calcifying marine organisms. However, calcifiers can also change carbonate chemistry of surrounding seawater through respiration and calcification, a potential limitation for aquaculture. This study examined how seawater exchange rate and stocking density of the sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla that were reproductively mature affected carbonate system parameters of their culture water, which in turn influenced growth, gonad production and gonad condition. Growth, relative spine length, gonad production and consumption rates were reduced by up to 67% by increased density (9-43 individuals.m(-2)) and reduced exchange rates (3.0-0.3 exchanges.hr(-1)), but survival and food conversion efficiency were unaffected. Analysis of the influence of seawater parameters indicated that reduced pH and calcite saturation state (ΩCa) were the primary factors limiting gonad production and growth. Uptake of bicarbonate and release of respiratory CO2 by T. gratilla changed the carbonate chemistry of surrounding water. Importantly total alkalinity (AT) was reduced, likely due to calcification by the urchins. Low AT limits the capacity of culture water to buffer against acidification. Direct management to counter biogenic acidification will be required to maintain productivity and reproductive output of marine calcifiers, especially as the ocean carbonate system is altered by climate driven ocean acidification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Non-square quantum well growth for reduced threshold current in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents calculations demonstrating that non-square quantum well growth (well shaping) can result in reduced threshold current for tensilely strained quantum well bipolar diode lasers operating at 1.52ìm m. Calculations of subband structure, optical matrix elements and laser gain are performed for arbitrarily ...

  1. Immunoneutralization of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-2 reduces adaptive intestinal growth in diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Bolette; Thulesen, Jesper; Hare, Kristine Juul

    2002-01-01

    in the proximal part of the small intestine (10.84+/-0.44 mm(2)). Antibody treatment had no effect on body weight, blood glucose concentrations and food intake. Thus, blocking of endogenous GLP-2 in a model of adaptive intestinal growth reduces the growth response, providing strong evidence for a physiological......Supraphysiological doses of glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) have been shown to induce intestinal growth by increasing villus height and crypt depth and by decreasing apoptosis, but a physiological effect of GLP-2 has not yet been demonstrated. Earlier, we found elevated levels of endogenous GLP-2...... in untreated streptozotocin diabetic rats associated with marked intestinal growth. In the present study, we investigated the role of endogenous GLP-2 for this adaptive response. We included four groups of six rats: (1) diabetic rats treated with saline, (2) diabetic rats treated with non-specific antibodies...

  2. MULCHES AND OTHER COVER MATERIALS TO REDUCE WEED GROWTH IN CONTAINER-GROWN NURSERY STOCK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rys, F; Van Wesemael, D; Van Haecke, D; Mechant, E; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent EU-wide implementation of Integrated Pest Management (IPM), alternative methods to reduce weed growth in container-grown nursery stock are needed to cut back the use of herbicides. Covering the upper layer of the substrate is known as a potential method to prevent or reduce weed growth in plant containers. As a high variety of mulches and other cover materials are on the market, however, it is no longer clear for growers which cover material is most efficient for use in containers. Therefore, we examined the effect on weed growth of different mulches and other cover materials, including Pinus maritima, P. sylvestris, Bio-Top Basic, Bio-Top Excellent, coco chips fine, hemp fibres, straw pellets, coco disk 180LD and jute disk. Cover materials were applied immediately after repotting of Ligustrum ovalifolium or planting of Fagus sylvatica. At regular times, both weed growth and side effects (e.g., plant growth, water status of the substrate, occurrence of mushrooms, foraging of birds, complete cover of the substrate and fixation) were assessed. All examined mulches or other cover materials were able to reduce weed growth on the containers during the whole growing season. Weed suppression was even better than that of a chemical treated control. Although all materials showed some side effects, the impact on plant growth is most important to the grower and depends not only on material characteristics (e.g., biodegradation, nutrient leaching and N-immobilisation) but also on container size and climatic conditions. In conclusion, mulches and other cover materials can be a valuable tool within IPM to lower herbicide use. To enable a deliberate choice of which cover material is best used in a specific situation more research is needed on lifespan and stability as well as on economic characteristics of the materials.

  3. Reduced bone mineral density is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villareal, Dennis T; Kotyk, John J; Armamento-Villareal, Reina C; Kenguva, Venkata; Seaman, Pamela; Shahar, Allon; Wald, Michael J; Kleerekoper, Michael; Fontana, Luigi

    2011-02-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) reduces bone quantity but not bone quality in rodents. Nothing is known regarding the long-term effects of CR with adequate intake of vitamin and minerals on bone quantity and quality in middle-aged lean individuals. In this study, we evaluated body composition, bone mineral density (BMD), and serum markers of bone turnover and inflammation in 32 volunteers who had been eating a CR diet (approximately 35% less calories than controls) for an average of 6.8 ± 5.2 years (mean age 52.7 ± 10.3 years) and 32 age- and sex-matched sedentary controls eating Western diets (WD). In a subgroup of 10 CR and 10 WD volunteers, we also measured trabecular bone (TB) microarchitecture of the distal radius using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. We found that the CR volunteers had significantly lower body mass index than the WD volunteers (18.9 ± 1.2 vs. 26.5 ± 2.2 kg m(-2) ; P = 0.0001). BMD of the lumbar spine (0.870 ± 0.11 vs. 1.138 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) and hip (0.806 ± 0.12 vs. 1.047 ± 0.12 g cm(-2) , P = 0.0001) was also lower in the CR than in the WD group. Serum C-terminal telopeptide and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase concentration were similar between groups, while serum C-reactive protein (0.19 ± 0.26 vs. 1.46 ± 1.56 mg L(-1) , P = 0.0001) was lower in the CR group. Trabecular bone microarchitecture parameters such as the erosion index (0.916 ± 0.087 vs. 0.877 ± 0.088; P = 0.739) and surface-to-curve ratio (10.3 ± 1.4 vs. 12.1 ± 2.1, P = 0.440) were not significantly different between groups. These findings suggest that markedly reduced BMD is not associated with significantly reduced bone quality in middle-aged men and women practicing long-term calorie restriction with adequate nutrition.

  4. Smoking cessation programmes in radon affected areas: can they make a significant contribution to reducing radon-induced lung cancers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denman, A.R.; Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Timson, K.; Shield, G.; Rogers, S.; Phillips, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Domestic radon levels in parts of the UK are sufficiently high to increase the risk of lung cancer in the occupants. Public health campaigns in Northamptonshire, a designated radon affected area with 6.3% of homes having average radon levels over the UK action level of 200 Bq m -3 , have encouraged householders to test for radon and then to carry out remediation in their homes, but have been only partially successful. Only 40% of Northamptonshire houses have been tested, and only 15% of householders finding raised levels proceed to remediate. Of those who did remediate, only 9% smoked, compared to a countywide average of 28.8%. This is unfortunate, since radon and smoking combine to place the individual at higher risk by a factor of around 4, and suggests that current strategies to reduce domestic radon exposure are not reaching those most at risk. During 2004-5, the NHS Stop Smoking Services in Northamptonshire assisted 2,808 smokers to quit to the 4-week stage, with some 30% of 4-week quitters remaining quitters at 1 year. We consider whether smoking cessation campaigns make significant contributions to radon risk reduction on their own, by assessing individual occupants' risk of developing lung cancer from knowledge of their age, gender, and smoking habits, together with he radon level in their house. The results demonstrate that smoking cessation programmes have significant added value in radon affected areas, and contribute a greater health benefit than reducing radon levels in the smokers' homes, whilst they remain smokers. Additionally, results are presented from a questionnaire-based survey of quitters, addressing their reasons for seeking help in quitting smoking, and whether knowledge of radon risks influenced this decision. The impact of these findings on future public health campaigns to reduce the impact of radon and smoking are discussed. (author)

  5. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  6. Significant Association between Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria and Uranium-Reducing Microbial Communities as Revealed by a Combined Massively Parallel Sequencing-Indicator Species Approach▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K.; Jardine, Philip M.; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S.; Marsh, Terence L.; Tiedje, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared. PMID:20729318

  7. Significant association between sulfate-reducing bacteria and uranium-reducing microbial communities as revealed by a combined massively parallel sequencing-indicator species approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, Erick; Wu, Wei-Min; Leigh, Mary Beth; Carley, Jack; Carroll, Sue; Gentry, Terry; Luo, Jian; Watson, David; Gu, Baohua; Ginder-Vogel, Matthew; Kitanidis, Peter K; Jardine, Philip M; Zhou, Jizhong; Criddle, Craig S; Marsh, Terence L; Tiedje, James M

    2010-10-01

    Massively parallel sequencing has provided a more affordable and high-throughput method to study microbial communities, although it has mostly been used in an exploratory fashion. We combined pyrosequencing with a strict indicator species statistical analysis to test if bacteria specifically responded to ethanol injection that successfully promoted dissimilatory uranium(VI) reduction in the subsurface of a uranium contamination plume at the Oak Ridge Field Research Center in Tennessee. Remediation was achieved with a hydraulic flow control consisting of an inner loop, where ethanol was injected, and an outer loop for flow-field protection. This strategy reduced uranium concentrations in groundwater to levels below 0.126 μM and created geochemical gradients in electron donors from the inner-loop injection well toward the outer loop and downgradient flow path. Our analysis with 15 sediment samples from the entire test area found significant indicator species that showed a high degree of adaptation to the three different hydrochemical-created conditions. Castellaniella and Rhodanobacter characterized areas with low pH, heavy metals, and low bioactivity, while sulfate-, Fe(III)-, and U(VI)-reducing bacteria (Desulfovibrio, Anaeromyxobacter, and Desulfosporosinus) were indicators of areas where U(VI) reduction occurred. The abundance of these bacteria, as well as the Fe(III) and U(VI) reducer Geobacter, correlated with the hydraulic connectivity to the substrate injection site, suggesting that the selected populations were a direct response to electron donor addition by the groundwater flow path. A false-discovery-rate approach was implemented to discard false-positive results by chance, given the large amount of data compared.

  8. Reducing Eating Disorder Onset in a Very High Risk Sample with Significant Comorbid Depression: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. Barr; Kass, Andrea E.; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated on-line eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. Method 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or non-clinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or wait-list control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Results ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = 0.28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% versus 42%, p = 0.025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = 0.016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% versus 57%, NNT = 4). Conclusions An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. PMID:26795936

  9. Reducing eating disorder onset in a very high risk sample with significant comorbid depression: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C Barr; Kass, Andrea E; Trockel, Mickey; Cunning, Darby; Weisman, Hannah; Bailey, Jakki; Sinton, Meghan; Aspen, Vandana; Schecthman, Kenneth; Jacobi, Corinna; Wilfley, Denise E

    2016-05-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious problems among college-age women and may be preventable. An indicated online eating disorder (ED) intervention, designed to reduce ED and comorbid pathology, was evaluated. 206 women (M age = 20 ± 1.8 years; 51% White/Caucasian, 11% African American, 10% Hispanic, 21% Asian/Asian American, 7% other) at very high risk for ED onset (i.e., with high weight/shape concerns plus a history of being teased, current or lifetime depression, and/or nonclinical levels of compensatory behaviors) were randomized to a 10-week, Internet-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention or waitlist control. Assessments included the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE, to assess ED onset), EDE-Questionnaire, Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, and Beck Depression Inventory-II. ED attitudes and behaviors improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .02, d = 0.31); although ED onset rate was 27% lower, this difference was not significant (p = .28, NNT = 15). In the subgroup with highest shape concerns, ED onset rate was significantly lower in the intervention than control group (20% vs. 42%, p = .025, NNT = 5). For the 27 individuals with depression at baseline, depressive symptomatology improved more in the intervention than control group (p = .016, d = 0.96); although ED onset rate was lower in the intervention than control group, this difference was not significant (25% vs. 57%, NNT = 4). An inexpensive, easily disseminated intervention might reduce ED onset among those at highest risk. Low adoption rates need to be addressed in future research. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. The significance of fibroblast growth factors 8, 17, and 18 and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 for malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauglhofer, C. L.

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most frequent type of primary liver cancer and is the fifth most common cancer type worldwide. Effective therapeutic options are still limited to early cancer stages, resulting in a high mortality. Etiological factors for this disease are well known and it is widely accepted that most of the HCCs develop on the base of a chronic inflammatory liver disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCC are still incompletely understood. Aberrant fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-mediated signaling plays an important part in growth autonomy and tumor progression in a wide variety of cancer types. Thus far, the role of FGFs in HCC has only been studied in part. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the members of the FGF8-subfamily (FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18) and the FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) to the malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cell lines. In this study one or more FGF8-subfamily members were found to be upregulated in the tissue of the majority (20/34) of human HCC cases studied. Endogenous mRNA levels of FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18 in hepatocarcinoma cell lines were increased further when cells had been subjected to serum withdrawal or hypoxia. Furthermore, addition of recombinant FGF8, FGF17, or FGF18 suppressed the elevated apoptotic activity of starved cells and activated the MAPK pathway. These findings suggest that FGF8-family members may act as survival factors in liver tumors suffering from insufficient blood supply due to rapid growth. Accordingly, knock-down of endogenous FGF18 expression reduced the viability and the clone formation capacity of the cell lines. In addition, FGF8, FGF17, and/or FGF18 enhanced growth in tumor-associated myofibroblasts and induced DNA replication of hepatic endothelial cells. This points towards a role of FGF8-family members in the epithelial-mesenchymal interplay between the various cell types of HCC. FGFR4, which is expressed

  11. Potent corticosteroid cream (mometasone furoate) significantly reduces acute radiation dermatitis: results from a double-blind, randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostroem, Aasa; Lindman, Henrik; Swartling, Carl; Berne, Berit; Bergh, Jonas

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation-induced dermatitis is a very common side effect of radiation therapy, and may necessitate interruption of the therapy. There is a substantial lack of evidence-based treatments for this condition. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of mometasone furoate cream (MMF) on radiation dermatitis in a prospective, double-blind, randomized study. Material and methods: The study comprised 49 patients with node-negative breast cancer. They were operated on with sector resection and scheduled for postoperative radiotherapy using photons with identical radiation qualities and dosage to the breast parenchyma. The patients were randomized to receive either MMF or emollient cream. The cream was applied on the irradiated skin twice a week from the start of radiotherapy until the 12th fraction (24 Gy) and thereafter once daily until 3 weeks after completion of radiation. Both groups additionally received non-blinded emollient cream daily. The intensity of the acute radiation dermatitis was evaluated on a weekly basis regarding erythema and pigmentation, using a reflectance spectrophotometer together with visual scoring of the skin reactions. Results: MMF in combination with emollient cream treatment significantly decreased acute radiation dermatitis (P=0.0033) compared with emollient cream alone. There was no significant difference in pigmentation between the two groups. Conclusions: Adding MMF, a potent topical corticosteroid, to an emollient cream is statistically significantly more effective than emollient cream alone in reducing acute radiation dermatitis

  12. Nerve growth factor reduces apoptotic cell death in rat facial motor neurons after facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Lian; Yuan, Jing; Ren, Zhong; Jiang, Xuejun

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) on motor neurons after induction of a facial nerve lesion, and to compare the effects of different routes of NGF injection on motor neuron survival. This study was carried out in the Department of Otolaryngology Head & Neck Surgery, China Medical University, Liaoning, China from October 2012 to March 2013. Male Wistar rats (n = 65) were randomly assigned into 4 groups: A) healthy controls; B) facial nerve lesion model + normal saline injection; C) facial nerve lesion model + NGF injection through the stylomastoid foramen; D) facial nerve lesion model + intraperitoneal injection of NGF. Apoptotic cell death was detected using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end-labeling assay. Expression of caspase-3 and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) was determined by immunohistochemistry. Injection of NGF significantly reduced cell apoptosis, and also greatly decreased caspase-3 and PUMA expression in injured motor neurons. Group C exhibited better efficacy for preventing cellular apoptosis and decreasing caspase-3 and PUMA expression compared with group D (pfacial nerve injury in rats. The NGF injected through the stylomastoid foramen demonstrated better protective efficacy than when injected intraperitoneally.

  13. Effect of Thiamine, Ascorbic acid and Gibberellic acid (GA3 on Growth Characteristics, Pigment Content and Reduced Sugars of Petunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    moslem salehi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bedding plants, especially petunia is important element for urban landscaping and attracted the attention of landscapers. This is due to some properties such as growth habit and color. The petunia (Petunia hybrida L. belongs to Solanaceae family that has annual and perennial varieties. This plant is originally from Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay. Some plant growth regulators such as gibberellic acid (GA3 and vitamins including thiamine and ascorbic acid affect plant growth and development and may extend flowering period. Vitamin C affects cell division and cell growth in plants and is effective on the feeding cycle activity in higher plants and it has an important role in electron transport system. The concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm of vitamin C and thiamine can increase the plant height, leaf number, leaf area, fresh and dry weight, and chemical compounds of the Syngonium plant. The application of 100 mg/l of GA3 significantly increased plant height and the number of leaves of gladiolus. Material and methods: The experiment was arranged in a factorial based on a completely randomized design with five replications. In this research, growth characteristics (lateral branch number, flower number, flower diameter, stem diameter, root length, and lateral branch length and biochemical characteristics (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll, carotenoids, and reducing sugar were measured. After seeding and transplanting the seedling at 6 leaf stage, plants sprayed at 4 various growth stages with following treatments: 1-\tControl 2-\tVitamin C(100 mg/l 3-\tThiamin (100 mg/l 4-\tGibberellic acid (100 mg/l 5-\tVitamin C and Thiamin (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 6-\tVitamin C and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 7-\tThiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of both 100 mg/l 8-\tVitamin C, Thiamin and Gibberellic acid (The concentration of three 100 mg/l Data obtained from the measured parameters

  14. Macrocyclic peptides decrease c-Myc protein levels and reduce prostate cancer cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Archana; Hanold, Laura E; Thayele Purayil, Hamsa; Gisemba, Solomon A; Senadheera, Sanjeewa N; Aldrich, Jane V

    2017-08-03

    The oncoprotein c-Myc is often overexpressed in cancer cells, and the stability of this protein has major significance in deciding the fate of a cell. Thus, targeting c-Myc levels is an attractive approach for developing therapeutic agents for cancer treatment. In this study, we report the anti-cancer activity of the macrocyclic peptides [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-D-Trp]) and the natural product CJ-15,208 (cyclo[Phe-D-Pro-Phe-Trp]). [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 reduced c-Myc protein levels in prostate cancer cells and decreased cell proliferation with IC 50 values ranging from 2.0 to 16 µM in multiple PC cell lines. [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 induced early and late apoptosis in PC-3 cells following 48 hours treatment, and growth arrest in the G2 cell cycle phase following both 24 and 48 hours treatment. Down regulation of c-Myc in PC-3 cells resulted in loss of sensitivity to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment, while overexpression of c-Myc in HEK-293 cells imparted sensitivity of these cells to [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 treatment. This macrocyclic tetrapeptide also regulated PP2A by reducing the levels of its phosphorylated form which regulates the stability of cellular c-Myc protein. Thus [D-Trp]CJ-15,208 represents a new lead compound for the potential development of an effective treatment of prostate cancer.

  15. Vector-based RNA interference against vascular endothelial growth factor-A significantly limits vascularization and growth of prostate cancer in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannenes, Francesca; Ciafré, Silvia Anna; Niola, Francesco; Frajese, Gaetano; Farace, Maria Giulia

    2005-12-01

    RNA interference technology is emerging as a very potent tool to obtain a cellular knockdown of a desired gene. In this work we used vector-based RNA interference to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrated that transduction with a plasmid carrying a small interfering RNA targeting all isoforms of VEGF, dramatically impairs the expression of this growth factor in the human prostate cancer cell line PC3. As a consequence, PC3 cells loose their ability to induce one of the fundamental steps of angiogenesis, namely the formation of a tube-like network in vitro. Most importantly, our "therapeutic" vector is able to impair tumor growth rate and vascularization in vivo. We show that a single injection of naked plasmid in developing neoplastic mass significantly decreases microvessel density in an androgen-refractory prostate xenograft and is able to sustain a long-term slowing down of tumor growth. In conclusion, our results confirm the basic role of VEGF in the angiogenic development of prostate carcinoma, and suggest that the use of our vector-based RNA interference approach to inhibit angiogenesis could be an effective tool in view of future gene therapy applications for prostate cancer.

  16. Reduced frontal and occipital lobe asymmetry on the CT-scans of schizophrenic patients. Its specificity and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkai, P.; Schneider, T.; Greve, B.; Klieser, E.; Bogerts, B.

    1995-01-01

    Frontal and occipital lobe widths were determined in the computed tomographic (CT) scans of 135 schizophrenic patients, 158 neuro psychiatrically healthy and 102 psychiatric control subjects, including patients with affective psychosis, neurosis and schizoaffective psychosis. Most healthy right-handed subjects demonstrate a relative enlargement of the right frontal as well as left occipital lobe compared to the opposite hemisphere. These normal frontal and occipital lobe asymmetries were selectively reduced in schizophrenics (f.: 5%, p < .0005; o.: 3%, p < .05), irrespective of the pathophysiological subgroup. Schizophrenic neuroleptic non-responders revealed a significant reduction of frontal lobe asymmetry (3%, p < .05), while no correlation between BPRS-sub scores and disturbed cerebral laterality could be detected. In sum the present study demonstrates the disturbed cerebral lateralisation in schizophrenic patients supporting the hypothesis of interrupted early brain development in schizophrenia. (author)

  17. Mycorrhiza reduces adverse effects of dark septate endophytes (DSE) on growth of conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2012-01-01

    Mycorrhizal roots are frequently colonized by fungi of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC). These ascomycetes are common and widespread colonizers of tree roots. Some PAC strains reduce growth increments of their hosts but are beneficial in protecting roots against pathogens. Nothing is known about the effects of PAC on mycorrhizal fungi and the PAC-mycorrhiza association on plant growth, even though these two fungal groups occur closely together in natural habitats. We expect reduced colonization rates and reduced negative effects of PAC on host plants if roots are co-colonized by an ectomycorrhizal fungus (ECM). Depending on the temperature regime interactions among the partners in this tripartite ECM-PAC-plant system might also change. To test our hypotheses, effects of four PAC genotypes (two pathogenic and two non-pathogenic on the Norway spruce), mycorrhization by Laccaria bicolor (strain S238N) and two temperature regimes (19°C and 25°C) on the biomass of the Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and Norway spruce (Picea abies) seedlings were studied. Mycorrhization compensated the adverse effects of PAC on the growth of the Norway spruce at both temperatures. The growth of the Douglas-fir was not influenced either by PAC or mycorrhization at 19°C, but at 25°C mycorrhization had a similar protective effect as in the Norway spruce. The compensatory effects probably rely on the reduction of the PAC-colonization density by mycorrhizae. Temperature and the PAC strain only had a differential effect on the biomass of the Norway spruce but not on the Douglas-fir. Higher temperature reduced mycorrhization of both hosts. We conclude that ectomycorrhizae form physical and/or physiological barriers against PAC leading to reduced PAC-colonization of the roots. Additionally, our results indicate that global warming could cause a general decrease of mycorrhization making primary roots more accessible to other symbionts and pathogens.

  18. Increased classical endoplasmic reticulum stress is sufficient to reduce chondrocyte proliferation rate in the growth plate and decrease bone growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise H W Kung

    Full Text Available Mutations in genes encoding cartilage oligomeric matrix protein and matrilin-3 cause a spectrum of chondrodysplasias called multiple epiphyseal dysplasia (MED and pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH. The majority of these diseases feature classical endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR as a result of misfolding of the mutant protein. However, the importance and the pathological contribution of ER stress in the disease pathogenesis are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the generic role of ER stress and the UPR in the pathogenesis of these diseases. A transgenic mouse line (ColIITgcog was generated using the collagen II promoter to drive expression of an ER stress-inducing protein (Tgcog in chondrocytes. The skeletal and histological phenotypes of these ColIITgcog mice were characterised. The expression and intracellular retention of Tgcog induced ER stress and activated the UPR as characterised by increased BiP expression, phosphorylation of eIF2α and spliced Xbp1. ColIITgcog mice exhibited decreased long bone growth and decreased chondrocyte proliferation rate. However, there was no disruption of chondrocyte morphology or growth plate architecture and perturbations in apoptosis were not apparent. Our data demonstrate that the targeted induction of ER stress in chondrocytes was sufficient to reduce the rate of bone growth, a key clinical feature associated with MED and PSACH, in the absence of any growth plate dysplasia. This study establishes that classical ER stress is a pathogenic factor that contributes to the disease mechanism of MED and PSACH. However, not all the pathological features of MED and PSACH were recapitulated, suggesting that a combination of intra- and extra-cellular factors are likely to be responsible for the disease pathology as a whole.

  19. Walking with a four wheeled walker (rollator) significantly reduces EMG lower-limb muscle activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suica, Zorica; Romkes, Jacqueline; Tal, Amir; Maguire, Clare

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the immediate effect of four-wheeled- walker(rollator)walking on lower-limb muscle activity and trunk-sway in healthy subjects. In this cross-sectional design electromyographic (EMG) data was collected in six lower-limb muscle groups and trunk-sway was measured as peak-to-peak angular displacement of the centre-of-mass (level L2/3) in the sagittal and frontal-planes using the SwayStar balance system. 19 subjects walked at self-selected speed firstly without a rollator then in randomised order 1. with rollator 2. with rollator with increased weight-bearing. Rollator-walking caused statistically significant reductions in EMG activity in lower-limb muscle groups and effect-sizes were medium to large. Increased weight-bearing increased the effect. Trunk-sway in the sagittal and frontal-planes showed no statistically significant difference between conditions. Rollator-walking reduces lower-limb muscle activity but trunk-sway remains unchanged as stability is likely gained through forces generated by the upper-limbs. Short-term stability is gained but the long-term effect is unclear and requires investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  1. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko; Iwanaka, Nobumasa; Higashida, Kazuhiko; Taguchi, Sadayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O 2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  2. Combination treatment with ionising radiation and gefitinib ('Iressa', ZD1839), an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, significantly inhibits bladder cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colquhoun, AJ; Mchugh, LA; Tulchinsky, E.; Kriajevska, M.; Mellon, JK

    2007-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy (EBRT) is the principal bladder-preserving monotherapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Seventy percent of muscle-invasive bladder cancers express epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is associated with poor prognosis. Ionising radiation (IR) stimulates EGFR causing activation of cytoprotective signalling cascades and thus may be an underlying cause of radioresistance in bladder tumours. We assessed the ability of IR to activate EGFR in bladder cancer cells and the effect of the anti-EGFR therapy, gefitinib on potential radiation-induced activation. Subsequently we assessed the effect of IR on signalling pathways downstream of EGFR. Finally we assessed the activity of gefitinib as a monotherapy, and in combination with IR, using clonogenic assay in vitro, and a murine model in vivo. IR activated EGFR and gefitinib partially inhibited this activation. Radiation-induced activation of EGFR activated the MAPK and Akt pathways. Gefitinib partially inhibited activation of the MAPK pathway but not the Akt pathway. Treatment with combined gefitinib and IR significantly inhibited bladder cancer cell colony formation more than treatment with gefitinib alone (p=0.001-0.03). J82 xenograft tumours treated with combined gefitinib and IR showed significantly greater growth inhibition than tumours treated with IR alone (p=0.04). Combining gefitinib and IR results in significantly greater inhibition of invasive bladder cancer cell colony formation in vitro and significantly greater tumour growth inhibition in vivo. Given the high frequency of EGFR expression by bladder tumours and the low toxicity of gefitinib there is justification to translate this work into a clinical trial. (author)

  3. A pilot study: Horticulture-related activities significantly reduce stress levels and salivary cortisol concentration of maladjusted elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Jung; Oh, Wook; Jang, Ja Soon; Lee, Ju Young

    2018-04-01

    The effects of three horticulture-related activities (HRAs), including floral arranging, planting, and flower pressing were compared to see if they influenced changes on a stress scale and on salivary cortisol concentrations (SCC) in maladjusted elementary school children. Twenty maladjusted elementary school children were randomly assigned either to an experimental or control group. The control group carried out individual favorite indoor activities under the supervision of a teacher. Simultaneously, the ten children in the experimental group participated in a HRA program consisting of flower arrangement (FA), planting (P), and flower pressing (PF) activities, in which the other ten children in the control group did not take part. During nine sessions, the activities were completed as follows: FA-FA-FA, P-P-P, and PF-PF-PF; each session lasted 40 min and took place once a week. For the quantitative analysis of salivary cortisol, saliva was collected from the experimental group one week before the HRAs and immediately after the activities for 9 consecutive weeks at the same time each session. In the experimental group, stress scores of interpersonal relationship, school life, personal problems, and home life decreased after the HRAs by 1.3, 1.8, 4.2, and 1.3 points, respectively. In particular, the stress score of school life was significantly reduced (P < 0.01). In addition, from the investigation of the SCCs for the children before and after repeating HRAs three times, it was found that flower arrangement, planting, and flower pressing activities reduced the SCCs by ≥37% compared to the SCCs prior to taking part in the HRAs. These results indicate that HRAs are associated with a reduction in the stress levels of maladjusted elementary school children. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Metabonomics-based analysis of Brachyspira pilosicoli's response to tiamulin reveals metabolic activity despite significant growth inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roy, Caroline Ivanne; Passey, Jade Louise; Woodward, Martin John; La Ragione, Roberto Marcello; Claus, Sandrine Paule

    2017-06-01

    Pathogenic anaerobes Brachyspira spp. are responsible for an increasing number of Intestinal Spirochaetosis (IS) cases in livestock against which few approved treatments are available. Tiamulin is used to treat swine dysentery caused by Brachyspira spp. and recently has been used to handle avian intestinal spirochaetosis (AIS). The therapeutic dose used in chickens requires further evaluation since cases of bacterial resistance to tiamulin have been reported. In this study, we evaluated the impact of tiamulin at varying concentrations on the metabolism of B. pilosicoli using a 1 H-NMR-based metabonomics approach allowing the capture of the overall bacterial metabolic response to antibiotic treatment. Based on growth curve studies, tiamulin impacted bacterial growth even at very low concentration (0.008 μg/mL) although its metabolic activity was barely affected 72 h post exposure to antibiotic treatment. Only the highest dose of tiamulin tested (0.250 μg/mL) caused a major metabolic shift. Results showed that below this concentration, bacteria could maintain a normal metabolic trajectory despite significant growth inhibition by the antibiotic, which may contribute to disease reemergence post antibiotic treatment. Indeed, we confirmed that B. pilosicoli remained viable even after exposition to the highest antibiotic dose. This paper stresses the need to ensure new evaluation of bacterial viability post bacteriostatic exposure such as tiamulin to guarantee treatment efficacy and decrease antibiotic resistance development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasmid Transfer of Plasminogen K1-5 Reduces Subcutaneous Hepatoma Growth by Affecting Inflammatory Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea A. Koch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence that plasminogen K1-5 (PlgK1-5 directly affects tumour cells and inflammation. Therefore, we analysed if PlgK1-5 has immediate effects on hepatoma cells and inflammatory factors in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, effects of plasmid encoding PlgK1-5 (pK1-5 on Hepa129, Hepa1-6, and HuH7 cell viability, apoptosis, and proliferation as well as VEGF and TNF-alpha expression and STAT3-phosphorylation were investigated. In vivo, tumour growth, proliferation, vessel density, and effects on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha expression were examined following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, pK1-5 halved cell viability; cell death was increased by up to 15% compared to the corresponding controls. Proliferation was not affected. VEGF, TNF-alpha, and STAT3-phosphorylation were affected following treatment with pK1-5. In vivo, ten days after treatment initiation, pK1-5 reduced subcutaneous tumour growth by 32% and mitosis by up to 77% compared to the controls. Vessel density was reduced by 50%. TNF-alpha levels in tumour and liver tissue were increased, whereas VEGF levels in tumours and livers were reduced after pK1-5 treatment. Taken together, plasmid gene transfer of PlgK1-5 inhibits hepatoma (cell growth not only by reducing vessel density but also by inducing apoptosis, inhibiting proliferation, and triggering inflammation.

  6. Cerebral Embolic Protection During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Significantly Reduces Death and Stroke Compared With Unprotected Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Julia; Gonska, Birgid; Otto, Markus; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Wöhrle, Jochen

    2017-11-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of cerebral embolic protection on stroke-free survival in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Imaging data on cerebral embolic protection devices have demonstrated a significant reduction in number and volume of cerebral lesions. A total of 802 consecutive patients were enrolled. The Sentinel cerebral embolic protection device (Claret Medical Inc., Santa Rosa, California) was used in 34.9% (n = 280) of consecutive patients. In 65.1% (n = 522) of patients TAVR was performed in the identical setting except without cerebral embolic protection. Neurological follow-up was done within 7 days post-procedure. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality or all-stroke according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria within 7 days. Propensity score matching was performed to account for possible confounders. Both filters of the device were successfully positioned in 280 of 305 (91.8%) consecutive patients. With use of cerebral embolic protection rate of disabling and nondisabling stroke was significantly reduced from 4.6% to 1.4% (p = 0.03; odds ratio: 0.29, 95% confidence interval: 0.10 to 0.93) in the propensity-matched population (n = 560). The primary endpoint occurred significantly less frequently, with 2.1% (n = 6 of 280) in the protected group compared with 6.8% (n = 19 of 280) in the control group (p = 0.01; odds ratio: 0.30; 95% confidence interval: 0.12 to 0.77). In multivariable analysis Society of Thoracic Surgeons score for mortality (p = 0.02) and TAVR without protection (p = 0.02) were independent predictors for the primary endpoint. In patients undergoing TAVR use of a cerebral embolic protection device demonstrated a significant higher rate of stroke-free survival compared with unprotected TAVR. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dermal application of nitric oxide releasing acidified nitrite-containing liniments significantly reduces blood pressure in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opländer, Christian; Volkmar, Christine M; Paunel-Görgülü, Adnana; Fritsch, Thomas; van Faassen, Ernst E; Mürtz, Manfred; Grieb, Gerrit; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Hemmrich, Karsten; Windolf, Joachim; Suschek, Christoph V

    2012-02-15

    Vascular ischemic diseases, hypertension, and other systemic hemodynamic and vascular disorders may be the result of impaired bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO). NO but also its active derivates like nitrite or nitroso compounds are important effector and signal molecules with vasodilating properties. Our previous findings point to a therapeutical potential of cutaneous administration of NO in the treatment of systemic hemodynamic disorders. Unfortunately, no reliable data are available on the mechanisms, kinetics and biological responses of dermal application of nitric oxide in humans in vivo. The aim of the study was to close this gap and to explore the therapeutical potential of dermal nitric oxide application. We characterized with human skin in vitro and in vivo the capacity of NO, applied in a NO-releasing acidified form of nitrite-containing liniments, to penetrate the epidermis and to influence local as well as systemic hemodynamic parameters. We found that dermal application of NO led to a very rapid and significant transepidermal translocation of NO into the underlying tissue. Depending on the size of treated skin area, this translocation manifests itself through a significant systemic increase of the NO derivates nitrite and nitroso compounds, respectively. In parallel, this translocation was accompanied by an increased systemic vasodilatation and blood flow as well as reduced blood pressure. We here give evidence that in humans dermal application of NO has a therapeutic potential for systemic hemodynamic disorders that might arise from local or systemic insufficient availability of NO or its bio-active NO derivates, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Significant change of local atomic configurations at surface of reduced activation Eurofer steels induced by hydrogenation treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greculeasa, S.G.; Palade, P.; Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, A.; Stanciu, A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); University of Bucharest, Faculty of Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Lungu, G.A. [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Porosnicu, C.; Lungu, C.P. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V., E-mail: kuncser@infim.ro [National Institute for Materials Physics, P.O. Box MG-7, 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2017-04-30

    Highlights: • Engineering of Eurofer slab properties by hydrogenation treatments. • Hydrogenation modifies significantly the local atomic configurations at the surface. • Hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the very surface. • Approaching binomial atomic distribution by hydrogenation in the next surface 100 nm. - Abstract: Reduced-activation steels such as Eurofer alloys are candidates for supporting plasma facing components in tokamak-like nuclear fusion reactors. In order to investigate the impact of hydrogen/deuterium insertion in their crystalline lattice, annealing treatments in hydrogen atmosphere have been applied on Eurofer slabs. The resulting samples have been analyzed with respect to local structure and atomic configuration both before and after successive annealing treatments, by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS). The corroborated data point out for a bcc type structure of the non-hydrogenated alloy, with an average alloy composition approaching Fe{sub 0.9}Cr{sub 0.1} along a depth of about 100 nm. EDS elemental maps do not indicate surface inhomogeneities in concentration whereas the Mössbauer spectra prove significant deviations from a homogeneous alloying. The hydrogenation increases the expulsion of the Cr atoms toward the surface layer and decreases their oxidation, with considerable influence on the surface properties of the steel. The hydrogenation treatment is therefore proposed as a potential alternative for a convenient engineering of the surface of different Fe-Cr based alloys.

  9. Optical trapping of nanoparticles with significantly reduced laser powers by using counter-propagating beams (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.

  10. Prognostic Significance of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) and Her-2 Protein in the Genesis of Cervical Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Arshad H; Babiker, Ali Yousif; Alsahli, Mohammed A; Almatroodi, Saleh A; Husain, Nazik Elmalaika O S

    2018-02-15

    Angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in the progression of tumours through the formation of new blood vessels. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a chief factor responsible for inducing and regulating angiogenesis. Additionally, the human epidermal growth factor receptor family of receptors also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tumours. This study aimed to examine the association between VEGF and Her-2 protein expression and its correlation with clinic-pathological characteristics; in particular, prognosis. A total of 65 cases of cervical carcinoma and 10 samples of inflammatory lesions were evaluated for VEGF and Her-2 protein expression. Expression of VEGF and Her-2 was detected in 63.07% and 43.07% in cervical carcinoma cases respectively whereas control cases did not show any expression. The difference in the expression pattern of both markers comparing cancer and control cases was statistically significant (p 0.05). Comparing different grades of a tumour, expression of Her-2 was detected in 31.8% of well-differentiated tumours, 36.0 % in moderately differentiated tumours and 66.66 % in poorly differentiated cancers. The expression of Her-2 was increased in high-grade tumours, and the difference of expression level between tumour grades was statistically significant (p 0.05). The present study supports earlier findings that over-expression / up-regulation of VEGF and Her - 2 is linked with poor prognosis and may play a vital role in the development and progression of cervical cancer.

  11. Flame retardants in UK furniture increase smoke toxicity more than they reduce fire growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Sean T; Birtles, Robert; Dickens, Kathryn; Walker, Richard G; Spearpoint, Michael J; Stec, Anna A; Hull, T Richard

    2018-04-01

    This paper uses fire statistics to show the importance of fire toxicity on fire deaths and injuries, and the importance of upholstered furniture and bedding on fatalities from unwanted fires. The aim was to compare the fire hazards (fire growth and smoke toxicity) using different upholstery materials. Four compositions of sofa-bed were compared: three meeting UK Furniture Flammability Regulations (FFR), and one using materials without flame retardants intended for the mainland European market. Two of the UK sofa-beds relied on chemical flame retardants to meet the FFR, the third used natural materials and a technical weave in order to pass the test. Each composition was tested in the bench-scale cone calorimeter (ISO 5660) and burnt as a whole sofa-bed in a sofa configuration in a 3.4 × 2.25 × 2.4 m 3 test room. All of the sofas were ignited with a No. 7 wood crib; the temperatures and yields of toxic products are reported. The sofa-beds containing flame retardants burnt somewhat more slowly than the non-flame retarded EU sofa-bed, but in doing so produced significantly greater quantities of the main fire toxicants, carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide. Assessment of the effluents' potential to incapacitate and kill is provided showing the two UK flame retardant sofa-beds to be the most dangerous, followed by the sofa-bed made with European materials. The UK sofa-bed made only from natural materials (Cottonsafe ® ) burnt very slowly and produced very low concentrations of toxic gases. Including fire toxicity in the FFR would reduce the chemical flame retardants and improve fire safety. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Chronic water stress reduces tree growth and the carbon sink of deciduous hardwood forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzostek, Edward R; Dragoni, Danilo; Schmid, Hans Peter; Rahman, Abdullah F; Sims, Daniel; Wayson, Craig A; Johnson, Daniel J; Phillips, Richard P

    2014-08-01

    Predicted decreases in water availability across the temperate forest biome have the potential to offset gains in carbon (C) uptake from phenology trends, rising atmospheric CO2 , and nitrogen deposition. While it is well established that severe droughts reduce the C sink of forests by inducing tree mortality, the impacts of mild but chronic water stress on forest phenology and physiology are largely unknown. We quantified the C consequences of chronic water stress using a 13-year record of tree growth (n = 200 trees), soil moisture, and ecosystem C balance at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (MMSF) in Indiana, and a regional 11-year record of tree growth (n > 300 000 trees) and water availability for the 20 most dominant deciduous broadleaf tree species across the eastern and midwestern USA. We show that despite ~26 more days of C assimilation by trees at the MMSF, increasing water stress decreased the number of days of wood production by ~42 days over the same period, reducing the annual accrual of C in woody biomass by 41%. Across the deciduous forest region, water stress induced similar declines in tree growth, particularly for water-demanding 'mesophytic' tree species. Given the current replacement of water-stress adapted 'xerophytic' tree species by mesophytic tree species, we estimate that chronic water stress has the potential to decrease the C sink of deciduous forests by up to 17% (0.04 Pg C yr(-1) ) in the coming decades. This reduction in the C sink due to mesophication and chronic water stress is equivalent to an additional 1-3 days of global C emissions from fossil fuel burning each year. Collectively, our results indicate that regional declines in water availability may offset the growth-enhancing effects of other global changes and reduce the extent to which forests ameliorate climate warming. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. MutY-Homolog (MYH) inhibition reduces pancreatic cancer cell growth and increases chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbeen, George; Youkhana, Janet; Mawson, Amanda; McCarroll, Joshua; Nunez, Andrea; Biankin, Andrew; Johns, Amber; Goldstein, David; Phillips, Phoebe

    2017-02-07

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PC) have a poor prognosis due to metastases and chemoresistance. PC is characterized by extensive fibrosis, which creates a hypoxic microenvironment, and leads to increased chemoresistance and intracellular oxidative stress. Thus, proteins that protect against oxidative stress are potential therapeutic targets for PC. A key protein that maintains genomic integrity against oxidative damage is MutY-Homolog (MYH). No prior studies have investigated the function of MYH in PC cells. Using siRNA, we showed that knockdown of MYH in PC cells 1) reduced PC cell proliferation and increased apoptosis; 2) further decreased PC cell growth in the presence of oxidative stress and chemotherapy agents (gemcitabine, paclitaxel and vincristine); 3) reduced PC cell metastatic potential; and 4) decreased PC tumor growth in a subcutaneous mouse model in vivo. The results from this study suggest MYH may be a novel therapeutic target for PC that could potentially improve patient outcome by reducing PC cell survival, increasing the efficacy of existing drugs and reducing metastatic spread.

  14. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggins Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3 function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. Methods The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP. We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. Results We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Conclusions Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized.

  15. Single-provenance mature conifers show higher non-structural carbohydrate storage and reduced growth in a drier location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Frida I; Fajardo, Alex; Hoch, Günter

    2017-08-01

    Since growth is more sensitive to drought than photosynthesis, trees inhabiting dry regions are expected to exhibit higher carbohydrate storage and less growth than their conspecifics from more humid regions. However, the same pattern can be the result of different genotypes inhabiting contrasting humidity conditions. To test if reduced growth and high carbohydrate storage are environmentally driven by drought, we examined the growth and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentrations in single-provenance stands of mature trees of Pinus contorta Douglas and Pinus ponderosa Douglas ex C. Lawson planted at contrasting humidity conditions (900 versus 300 mm of annual precipitation) in Patagonia, Chile. Individual tree growth was measured for each species and at each location as mean basal area increment of the last 10 years (BAI10), annual shoot elongation for the period 2011-14, and needle length for 2013 and 2014 cohorts. Additionally, needle, branch, stem sapwood and roots were collected from each sampled tree to determine soluble sugars, starch and total NSC concentrations. The two species showed lower mean BAI10 and 2013 needle length in the dry site; P. ponderosa also had lower annual shoot extension for 2011 and 2014, and lower 2014 needle length, in the dry than in the mesic site. By contrast, NSC concentrations of all woody tissues for both species were either similar or higher in the dry site when compared with the mesic site. Patterns of starch and sugars were substantially different: starch concentrations were similar between sites except for roots of P. ponderosa, which were higher in the dry site, while sugar concentrations of all woody tissues in both species were higher in the dry site. Overall, our study provides evidence that reduced growth along with carbon (C) accumulation is an environmentally driven response to drought. Furthermore, the significant accumulation of low-molecular weight sugars in the dry site is compatible with a prioritized C

  16. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical lterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550mA (450–600) vs. 650mA (500–711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. There was 27% effective radiation dose reduction in the ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29mSv (2.84–6.02) vs. 5.84mSv (3.88–8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P<0.001. Although ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93±10.22 vs. 37.63±18.79 (mean ±standard deviation), respectively, P<001), it did not affect the signal intensity, signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio or the diagnostic quality of CCTA. Application of ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality.

  17. New scanning technique using Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) significantly reduced the radiation dose of cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumur, Odgerel; Soon, Kean; Brown, Fraser; Mykytowycz, Marcus

    2013-06-01

    The aims of our study were to evaluate the effect of application of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm on the radiation dose of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and its effects on image quality of CCTA and to evaluate the effects of various patient and CT scanning factors on the radiation dose of CCTA. This was a retrospective study that included 347 consecutive patients who underwent CCTA at a tertiary university teaching hospital between 1 July 2009 and 20 September 2011. Analysis was performed comparing patient demographics, scan characteristics, radiation dose and image quality in two groups of patients in whom conventional Filtered Back Projection (FBP) or ASIR was used for image reconstruction. There were 238 patients in the FBP group and 109 patients in the ASIR group. There was no difference between the groups in the use of prospective gating, scan length or tube voltage. In ASIR group, significantly lower tube current was used compared with FBP group, 550 mA (450-600) vs. 650 mA (500-711.25) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR group compared with FBP group, 4.29 mSv (2.84-6.02) vs. 5.84 mSv (3.88-8.39) (median (interquartile range)), respectively, P ASIR was associated with increased image noise compared with FBP (39.93 ± 10.22 vs. 37.63 ± 18.79 (mean ± standard deviation), respectively, P ASIR reduces the radiation dose of CCTA without affecting the image quality. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  18. Secukinumab Significantly Reduces Psoriasis-Related Work Impairment and Indirect Costs Compared With Ustekinumab and Etanercept in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, R B; Halliday, A; Graham, C N; Gilloteau, I; Miles, L; McBride, D

    2018-05-30

    Psoriasis causes work productivity impairment that increases with disease severity. Whether differential treatment efficacy translates into differential indirect cost savings is unknown. To assess work hours lost and indirect costs associated with secukinumab versus ustekinumab and etanercept in the United Kingdom (UK). This was a post hoc analysis of work impairment data collected in the CLEAR study (secukinumab vs. ustekinumab) and applied to the FIXTURE study (secukinumab vs. etanercept). Weighted weekly and annual average indirect costs per patient per treatment were calculated from (1) overall work impairment derived from Work Productivity and Activity Impairment data collected in CLEAR at 16 and 52 weeks by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) response level; (2) weekly/annual work productivity loss by PASI response level; (3) weekly and annual indirect costs by PASI response level, based on hours of work productivity loss; and (4) weighted average indirect costs for each treatment. In the primary analysis, work impairment data for employed patients in CLEAR at Week 16 were used to compare secukinumab and ustekinumab. Secondary analyses were conducted at different timepoints and with patient cohorts, including FIXTURE. In CLEAR, 452 patients (67%) were employed at baseline. At Week 16, percentages of weekly work impairment/mean hours lost decreased with higher PASI: PASI hours; PASI 50-74: 13.3%/4.45 hours; PASI 75-89: 6.4%/2.14 hours; PASI ≥90: 4.9%/1.65 hours. Weighted mean weekly/annual work hours lost were significantly lower for secukinumab than ustekinumab (1.96/102.51 vs. 2.40/125.12; P=0.0006). Results were consistent for secukinumab versus etanercept (2.29/119.67 vs. 3.59/187.17; Ρreduced work impairment and associated indirect costs of psoriasis compared with ustekinumab and etanercept at Week 16 through 52 in the UK. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of Interleukin-6 Signaling in the Resistance of Pharyngeal Cancer to Irradiation and the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-C.; Chen, W.-C.; Lu, C.-H.; Wang, W.-H.; Lin, P.-Y.; Lee, K.-D.; Chen, M.-F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor eradication by chemoradiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer has not been particularly successful. Targeting epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) could be a potential treatment strategy providing additional benefits, but only a subset of these tumors gives a clinically significant response to EGFR inhibitors. The aim has been to identify the role of interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling and its predictive power in the treatment response of pharyngeal cancer. Methods and Materials: Human pharyngeal cancer cell lines, including the hypopharyngeal cancer cell line FaDu and its derived cell line FaDu-C225-R, were selected. Changes in tumor growth, response to treatment, and responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro. Furthermore, 95 pharyngeal cancer tissue specimens were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining, and correlations were made between levels of IL-6, IL-6 receptor (IL-6R), p-AKT, and p-STAT3 expression and the clinical outcome of patients. Results: In vitro, either extrinsic IL-6 stimulation of cancer cells or intrinsically activated IL-6 signaling detected in FADu-C225-R cells results in resistance to irradiation and EGFR inhibitor. Blocking IL-6 signaling attenuated aggressive tumor behavior and sensitized the cells to treatments. The responsible mechanisms included decreased p-STAT3, less nuclear translocation of EGFR, and subsequently attenuated epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Regarding clinical data, staining of p-STAT3 and IL-6 was significantly linked with lower response rates to treatments and shorter survival in pharyngeal cancer patients. Conclusions: IL-6 and p-STAT3 may be significant predictors of pharyngeal carcinoma, and regulating IL-6 signaling can be considered a promising therapeutic approach.

  20. Diagnostic Significance of Measuring Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for the Differentiation between Malignant and Tuberculous Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Ryul; Kim, Byoung-Ryun; Park, Rae-Kil; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Hwang, Ki-Eun

    2017-06-01

    Malignancy and tuberculosis are common causes of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion. However, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate malignant pleural effusion from tuberculous pleural effusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical cytokine in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion. Endocan is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is secreted by endothelial cells. Importantly, endocan mediates the vascular growth-promoting action of VEGF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of VEGF and endocan in pleural effusion. We thus measured the levels of VEGF and endocan in the pleural effusion and serum samples of patients with lung cancer (n = 59) and those with tuberculosis (n = 32) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lung cancer included 40 cases of adenocarcinoma, 13 of squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 of small cell carcinoma. Pleural effusion VEGF levels were significantly higher in the malignant group than in the tuberculosis group (2,091.47 ± 1,624.80 pg/mL vs. 1,291.05 ± 1,100.53 pg/mL, P pleural effusion endocan levels were similar between the two groups (1.22 ± 0.74 ng/mL vs. 0.87 ± 0.53 ng/mL). The areas under the curve of VEGF and endocan were 0.73 and 0.52, respectively. Notably, the VEGF levels were similar in malignant pleural effusion, irrespective of the histological type of lung cancer. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the serum VEGF and endocan levels between patients with lung cancer and those with tuberculosis. In conclusion, high VEGF levels in pleural effusion are suggestive of malignant pleural effusion.

  1. Ecto-5'-Nucleotidase Overexpression Reduces Tumor Growth in a Xenograph Medulloblastoma Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica R Cappellari

    Full Text Available Ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 (ecto-5'-NT participates in extracellular ATP catabolism by converting adenosine monophosphate (AMP into adenosine. This enzyme affects the progression and invasiveness of different tumors. Furthermore, the expression of ecto-5'-NT has also been suggested as a favorable prognostic marker, attributing to this enzyme contradictory functions in cancer. Medulloblastoma (MB is the most common brain tumor of the cerebellum and affects mainly children.The effects of ecto-5'-NT overexpression on human MB tumor growth were studied in an in vivo model. Balb/c immunodeficient (nude 6 to 14-week-old mice were used for dorsal subcutaneous xenograph tumor implant. Tumor development was evaluated by pathophysiological analysis. In addition, the expression patterns of adenosine receptors were verified.The human MB cell line D283, transfected with ecto-5'-NT (D283hCD73, revealed reduced tumor growth compared to the original cell line transfected with an empty vector. D283hCD73 generated tumors with a reduced proliferative index, lower vascularization, the presence of differentiated cells and increased active caspase-3 expression. Prominent A1 adenosine receptor expression rates were detected in MB cells overexpressing ecto-5'-NT.This work suggests that ecto-5'-NT promotes reduced tumor growth to reduce cell proliferation and vascularization, promote higher differentiation rates and initiate apoptosis, supposedly by accumulating adenosine, which then acts through A1 adenosine receptors. Therefore, ecto-5'-NT might be considered an important prognostic marker, being associated with good prognosis and used as a potential target for therapy.

  2. Clinical significance of measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor II and adrenomedulion levels in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Chen Donghai; Li Fuyuan; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) and adrenomedullin (ADM) in patients with essential hypertension. Methods: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were measured in 62 cases of hypertension and 40 controls with RIA. Results: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were significantly bigger in hypertensive patients than those in the controls (t = 4.454, p < 0.01; t = 3.992, p < 0.01). The serum IGF II level was significantly positively correlated to the serum ADM levels (r = 0.379, p < 0.05) and both were significantly positively correlated to the mean arterial pressure (r = 0.346, r = 0.353, p < 0.05) but not with BMI. Serum ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressed from stage I to stage III (p < 0.05) with levels in stage III markedly higher than those in stage I (p < 0.01). In EH patients with heart and/or brain and/or renal complications the serum ADM levels were significantly higher than those in EH patients without complications (t = 2.050, p < 0.05). Such differences did not exist in the case of IGF II. Conclusion: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were increased markedly in hypertensive patients. These two factors were mutually positively correlated and both were positively correlated to mean arterial pressure. ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressing but IGF II levels remained stable

  3. Reduced interaction layer growth of U-Mo dispersion in Al-Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeon Soo, E-mail: yskim@anl.gov [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jung, Yang Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Hofman, G.L. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Development of high U-density U-Mo fuel particle dispersion in Al is needed to convert high power research and test reactors from HEU to LEU. Interaction layer growth between U-Mo and Al poses a challenge to this goal. The KOMO-4 test was designed at KAERI and irradiated in the HANARO reactor to {approx}50% burnup of initial 19.75% U-235 enrichment at {approx}200 Degree-Sign C. The main objective of the test was to examine the effect of the Si content in the matrix up to 8 wt.%. U-Mo/Al-Si dispersion samples with a Si addition in the range 0-8 wt.% in the matrix were tested. A sample with pre-irradiation Si-containing interaction layers (ILs) was also tested. As the Si content in the matrix increases, the IL growth was progressively reduced. Contrary to the thermodynamics prediction and out-of-pile observations, however, Si accumulation in the ILs occurred near the IL-matrix interface with only a slight increase in concentration. The effect of the pre-formed ILs was insignificant in reducing IL growth.

  4. Reduced interaction layer growth of U–Mo dispersion in Al–Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Jung, Yang Hong; Hofman, G.L.

    2012-01-01

    Development of high U-density U–Mo fuel particle dispersion in Al is needed to convert high power research and test reactors from HEU to LEU. Interaction layer growth between U–Mo and Al poses a challenge to this goal. The KOMO-4 test was designed at KAERI and irradiated in the HANARO reactor to ∼50% burnup of initial 19.75% U-235 enrichment at ∼200 °C. The main objective of the test was to examine the effect of the Si content in the matrix up to 8 wt.%. U–Mo/Al–Si dispersion samples with a Si addition in the range 0–8 wt.% in the matrix were tested. A sample with pre-irradiation Si-containing interaction layers (ILs) was also tested. As the Si content in the matrix increases, the IL growth was progressively reduced. Contrary to the thermodynamics prediction and out-of-pile observations, however, Si accumulation in the ILs occurred near the IL–matrix interface with only a slight increase in concentration. The effect of the pre-formed ILs was insignificant in reducing IL growth.

  5. Pressurized Martian-Like Pure CO2 Atmosphere Supports Strong Growth of Cyanobacteria, and Causes Significant Changes in their Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukesan, Gayathri; Leino, Hannu; Mäenpää, Pirkko; Ståhle, Kurt; Raksajit, Wuttinun; Lehto, Harry J.; Allahverdiyeva-Rinne, Yagut; Lehto, Kirsi

    2016-03-01

    Surviving of crews during future missions to Mars will depend on reliable and adequate supplies of essential life support materials, i.e. oxygen, food, clean water, and fuel. The most economical and sustainable (and in long term, the only viable) way to provide these supplies on Martian bases is via bio-regenerative systems, by using local resources to drive oxygenic photosynthesis. Selected cyanobacteria, grown in adequately protective containment could serve as pioneer species to produce life sustaining substrates for higher organisms. The very high (95.3 %) CO2 content in Martian atmosphere would provide an abundant carbon source for photo-assimilation, but nitrogen would be a strongly limiting substrate for bio-assimilation in this environment, and would need to be supplemented by nitrogen fertilizing. The very high supply of carbon, with rate-limiting supply of nitrogen strongly affects the growth and the metabolic pathways of the photosynthetic organisms. Here we show that modified, Martian-like atmospheric composition (nearly 100 % CO2) under various low pressure conditions (starting from 50 mbar to maintain liquid water, up to 200 mbars) supports strong cellular growth. Under high CO2 / low N2 ratio the filamentous cyanobacteria produce significant amount of H2 during light due to differentiation of high amount of heterocysts.

  6. Clinical significance of changes of serum vascular endothelial growth factor level before and after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jingping; Sun Zhiqiang; Ni Xinchu; Wang Jian; Li Yi; Hu Lijun; Li Dongqing; Sun Suping

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes and clinical value of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level before, during and after radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Methods: The sera of 67 esophageal carcinoma patients and 30 healthy control cases were collected. The VEGF level in serum samples were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The relations among VEGF level changes,clinical stages and radiotherapy effect were analyzed. Results: The VEGF levels of patients with esophagus cancer before, during and after radiotherapy were significantly higher than those in control group (F=11.65, P<0.01). The VEGF level after radiotherapy was significant lower than that before radiotherapy (F=10.72, P<0.01). The average VEGF level of patients with T 3 and T 4 was significantly higher than that of control group (F=14.10, P<0.01). The average VEGF level of patients with N 1 and N 2 was significantly higher than that of control group (F=8.64, P<0.01). In 62 patients,the serum VEGF level increased in 21 cases but decreased in 41 cases after radiotherapy. With difference in radiotherapy efficiency of 61.90% and 90.24%, respectively (χ 2 =6.08, P<0.05). The average VEGF level during and after radiotherapy for 50 cases of CR + PR were significantly lower than that before radiotherapy (F=7.98, P<0.01). Conclusions: Monitoring the serum VEGF level of patients with esophagus cancer can help evaluate the radiosensitivity, which has a significance in predicting the prognosis of radiotherapy. (authors)

  7. [The clinical significance of the measurement of plasma transferrin as a growth factor. II. The changes in various endocrine status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M; Odagaki, E; Morioka, T; Nakagawa, K

    1987-05-20

    The clinical significance of the measurement of plasma transferrin (Tf) in patients with hypophysial disorders was reported in our previous papers. In the present study, we determined plasma Tf levels in 55 patients with various endocrine states and considered their clinical significance compared with plasma somatomedin-C (SM-C) levels. Plasma Tf levels decreased significantly in patients with anorexia nervosa (p less than 0.02), hyperthyroidism (p less than 0.05), primary hypothyroidism (p less than 0.05) and Cushing's syndrome (p less than 0.05), while they were elevated significantly in pregnancy (p less than 0.01) or females using estrogens (p less than 0.05). The former two declines were considered a reflection of the malnutritional state of the patients since a significant negative correlation was observed between plasma Tf levels and the percentile deficit from the ideal body weight in patients with anorexia nervosa (p less than 0.01), or between plasma Tf levels and elevated T3 levels which induce hypermetabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism (p less than 0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the SM-C and Tf levels in these subjects (including normal controls and patients with hypophysial disorders) as a whole (r = 0.79, p less than 0.001). These data indicate that plasma Tf is changeable according to the endocrinological and nutritional conditions with good correlation to the SM-C, and it is suggested that Tf also operates as a growth factor in vivo.

  8. Gender differences in scalp hair growth rates are maintained but reduced in pattern hair loss compared to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, D J J; Rushton, D H

    2016-08-01

    Hair loss is related to follicular density, programmed regrowth and hair productivity. The dissatisfaction with hair growth in patients experiencing hair loss might be due to slower linear hair growth rate (LHGR). LHGR and hair diameter was evaluated in Caucasian controls and patients with patterned hair loss employing the validated non-invasive, contrast-enhanced-phototrichogram with exogen collection. We evaluated 59,765 anagen hairs (controls 24,609, patients 35,156) and found thinner hairs grew slower than thicker hairs. LHGR in normal women was generally higher than in normal men. LHGR correlates with hair diameter (P hair of equal thickness in controls, subjects affected with patterned hair loss showed reduced hair growth rates, an observation found in both male and female patients. Males with pattern hair loss showed further reduction in growth rates as clinical severity worsened. However, sample size limitations prevented statistical evaluation of LHGR in severely affected females. Caucasian ethnicity. In pattern hair loss, LHGR significantly contributes to the apparent decrease in hair volume in affected areas. In early onset, LHRG might have a prognostic value in females but not in males. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Prenatal exposure to traffic pollution: associations with reduced fetal growth and rapid infant weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel D; Kloog, Itai; Melly, Steven; Coull, Brent A; Zanobetti, Antonella; Gillman, Matthew W; Gold, Diane R; Oken, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure inhibits fetal growth, but implications for postnatal growth are unknown. We assessed weights and lengths of US infants in the Project Viva cohort at birth and 6 months. We estimated 3rd-trimester residential air pollution exposures using spatiotemporal models. We estimated neighborhood traffic density and roadway proximity at birth address using geographic information systems. We performed linear and logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables, fetal growth, and gestational age at birth. Mean birth weight-for-gestational age z-score (fetal growth) was 0.17 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.97; n = 2,114), 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain was 0.23 z-units (SD = 1.11; n = 689), and 17% had weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months of age. Infants exposed to the highest (vs. lowest) quartile of neighborhood traffic density had lower fetal growth (-0.13 units [95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.25 to -0.01]), more rapid 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (0.25 units [95% CI = 0.01 to 0.49]), and higher odds of weight-for-length ≥95th percentile at 6 months (1.84 [95% CI = 1.11 to 3.05]). Neighborhood traffic density was additionally associated with an infant being in both the lowest quartile of fetal growth and the highest quartile of 0- to 6-month weight-for-length gain (Q4 vs. Q1, odds ratio = 3.01 [95% CI = 1.08 to 8.44]). Roadway proximity and 3rd-trimester black carbon exposure were similarly associated with growth outcomes. For 3rd-trimester particulate matter (PM2.5), effect estimates were in the same direction, but smaller and imprecise. Infants exposed to higher traffic-related pollution in early life may exhibit more rapid postnatal weight gain in addition to reduced fetal growth.

  10. Growth and chemosensory behavior of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oxygen-sulfide gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sass, Andrea M.; Wieland, Andrea Eschemann; Kühl, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Growth and chemotactic behavior in oxic–anoxic gradients were studied with two freshwater and four marine strains of sulfate-reducing bacteria related to the genera Desulfovibrio, Desulfomicrobium or Desulfobulbus. Cells were grown in oxygen–sulfide counter-gradients within tubes filled with agar...... chemotactically to lactate, nitrate, sulfate and thiosulfate, and even sulfide functioned as an attractant. In oxic–anoxic gradients the bacteria moved away from high oxygen concentrations and formed bands at the outer edge of the oxic zone at low oxygen concentration (... to actively change the extension and slope of the gradients by oxygen reduction with lactate or even sulfide as electron donor. Generally, the chemotactic behavior was in agreement with a defense strategy that re-establishes anoxic conditions, thus promoting anaerobic growth and, in a natural community...

  11. The importance of high injection velocity to reduce plasma armature growth and drag in hypervelocity railguns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.; Dixon, W.R.; Kang, S.W.; McCallen, R.C.; Susoeff, A.R.; Asay, J.R.; Shaninpoor, M.

    1987-01-01

    Plasmas are required to serve as armature in hypervelocity railguns. Typically, the plasmas are at temperatures of about 20-30,000 K and result in a high heat flux on the barrel wall. Slow moving plasmas radiate heat and melt the launcher wall causing it to ablate and resulting in a growth of the armature mass and length. As the velocity increases, the more massive and longer armature will result in greater viscous drag and ultimately limit the maximum achievable velocity. Several possible means of reducing the armature growth are possible. This paper discusses two of them, use of heat resistant barrel materials, and reduction of wall heating by reduction of exposure time through use of a high initial velocity. A summary of experimentally based, material ablation resistance calculations is presented. Second, the benefit of high injection velocity is evaluated. Finally, a joint SNLA and LLNL railgun research project based on the above considerations are described

  12. Impedance Changes and Fibrous Tissue Growth after Cochlear Implantation Are Correlated and Can Be Reduced Using a Dexamethasone Eluting Electrode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Wilk

    Full Text Available The efficiency of cochlear implants (CIs is affected by postoperative connective tissue growth around the electrode array. This tissue formation is thought to be the cause behind post-operative increases in impedance. Dexamethasone (DEX eluting CIs may reduce fibrous tissue growth around the electrode array subsequently moderating elevations in impedance of the electrode contacts.For this study, DEX was incorporated into the silicone of the CI electrode arrays at 1% and 10% (w/w concentration. Electrodes prepared by the same process but without dexamethasone served as controls. All electrodes were implanted into guinea pig cochleae though the round window membrane approach. Potential additive or synergistic effects of electrical stimulation (60 minutes were investigated by measuring impedances before and after stimulation (days 0, 7, 28, 56 and 91. Acoustically evoked auditory brainstem responses were recorded before and after CI insertion as well as on experimental days 7, 28, 56, and 91. Additionally, histology performed on epoxy embedded samples enabled measurement of the area of scala tympani occupied with fibrous tissue.In all experimental groups, the highest levels of fibrous tissue were detected in the basal region of the cochlea in vicinity to the round window niche. Both DEX concentrations, 10% and 1% (w/w, significantly reduced fibrosis around the electrode array of the CI. Following 3 months of implantation impedance levels in both DEX-eluting groups were significantly lower compared to the control group, the 10% group producing a greater effect. The same effects were observed before and after electrical stimulation.To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a correlation between the extent of new tissue growth around the electrode and impedance changes after cochlear implantation. We conclude that DEX-eluting CIs are a means to reduce this tissue reaction and improve the functional benefits of the implant by attenuating

  13. Expression and clinical significance of connective tissue growth factor in advanced head and neck squamous cell cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Ryoko; Kikuchi, Yoshihiro; Tsuda, Hitoshi; Maekawa, Hitoshi; Kozaki, Ken-Ichi; Imoto, Issei; Tamai, Seiichi; Shiotani, Akihiro; Iwaya, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Masaru; Sekiya, Takao; Matsubara, Osamu

    2014-07-01

    Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has been reported to play critical roles in the tumorigenesis of several human malignancies. This study was performed to evaluate CTGF protein expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Surgical specimens from 76 primary HNSCC were obtained with written informed consents and the expression level of CTGF was immunohistochemically evaluated. The cytoplasmic immunoreactivity of CTGF in cancer cells was semiquantitatively classified into low and high expression. Among all 76 cases with or without neoadjuvant therapy, low CTGF showed significantly longer (P = 0.0282) overall survival (OS), but not disease-free survival (DFS) than high CTGF. Although low CTGF in patients with stage I, II and III did not result in any significant difference of the OS and DFS, stage IV HNSCC patients with low CTGF showed significantly longer OS (P = 0.032) and DFS (P = 0.0107) than those with high CTGF. These differences in stage IV cases were also confirmed using multivariate analyses. These results suggest that low CTGF in stage IV HNSCC is an independent prognostic factor, despite with or without neoadjuvant therapy.

  14. Oxidation of naturally reduced uranium in aquifer sediments by dissolved oxygen and its potential significance to uranium plume persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. A.; Smith, R. L.; Bohlke, J. K.; Jemison, N.; Xiang, H.; Repert, D. A.; Yuan, X.; Williams, K. H.

    2015-12-01

    The occurrence of naturally reduced zones is common in alluvial aquifers in the western U.S.A. due to the burial of woody debris in flood plains. Such reduced zones are usually heterogeneously dispersed in these aquifers and characterized by high concentrations of organic carbon, reduced mineral phases, and reduced forms of metals, including uranium(IV). The persistence of high concentrations of dissolved uranium(VI) at uranium-contaminated aquifers on the Colorado Plateau has been attributed to slow oxidation of insoluble uranium(IV) mineral phases found in association with these reducing zones, although there is little understanding of the relative importance of various potential oxidants. Four field experiments were conducted within an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO, wherein groundwater associated with the naturally reduced zones was pumped into a gas-impermeable tank, mixed with a conservative tracer (Br-), bubbled with a gas phase composed of 97% O2 and 3% CO2, and then returned to the subsurface in the same well from which it was withdrawn. Within minutes of re-injection of the oxygenated groundwater, dissolved uranium(VI) concentrations increased from less than 1 μM to greater than 2.5 μM, demonstrating that oxygen can be an important oxidant for uranium in such field systems if supplied to the naturally reduced zones. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations decreased to the detection limit, but increases in sulfate could not be detected due to high background concentrations. Changes in nitrogen species concentrations were variable. The results contrast with other laboratory and field results in which oxygen was introduced to systems containing high concentrations of mackinawite (FeS), rather than the more crystalline iron sulfides found in aged, naturally reduced zones. The flux of oxygen to the naturally reduced zones in the alluvial aquifers occurs mainly through interactions between groundwater and gas phases at the water table

  15. Growth/differentiation factor-5 significantly enhances periodontal wound healing/regeneration compared with platelet-derived growth factor-BB in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Rak; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Young-Taek; Bastone, Patrizia; Pippig, Susanne D; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2010-08-01

    Recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5) in a particulate beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) carrier is being evaluated to support periodontal regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate periodontal wound healing/regeneration following an established clinical (benchmark) protocol including surgical implantation of rhGDF-5/beta-TCP in comparison with that following implantation of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF) combined with a particulate beta-TCP biomaterial using an established canine defect model. Bilateral, 4 x 5 mm (width x depth), one-wall, critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mandibular second and fourth pre-molar teeth in five adult Beagle dogs. Defect sites were randomized to receive rhGDF-5/beta-TCP or the rhPDGF construct followed by wound closure for primary intention healing. The animals were sacrificed following an 8-week healing interval for histological and histometric examination. Clinical healing was generally uneventful. Sites receiving rhGDF-5/beta-TCP exhibited a significantly enhanced cementum formation compared with sites receiving the rhPDGF construct, averaging (+/-SD) 4.49+/-0.48 versus 2.72+/-0.91 mm (palveolar bone. Both protocols displayed beta-TCP residues apparently undergoing resorption. Application of both materials appears safe, as they were associated with limited, if any, adverse events. rhGDF-5/beta-TCP shows a significant potential to support/accelerate periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Application of rhGDF-5/beta-TCP appears safe and should be further evaluated in human clinical trials.

  16. The significance of fibroblast growth factors 8, 17, and 18 and the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 for malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglhofer, C L

    2010-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most frequent type of primary liver cancer and is the fifth most common cancer type worldwide. Effective therapeutic options are still limited to early cancer stages, resulting in a high mortality. Etiological factors for this disease are well known and it is widely accepted that most of the HCCs develop on the base of a chronic inflammatory liver disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of HCC are still incompletely understood. Aberrant fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-mediated signaling plays an important part in growth autonomy and tumor progression in a wide variety of cancer types. Thus far, the role of FGFs in HCC has only been studied in part. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of the members of the FGF8-subfamily (FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18) and the FGF receptor 4 (FGFR4) to the malignant behaviour of hepatocarcinoma cell lines. In this study one or more FGF8-subfamily members were found to be upregulated in the tissue of the majority (20/34) of human HCC cases studied. Endogenous mRNA levels of FGF8, FGF17, and FGF18 in hepatocarcinoma cell lines were increased further when cells had been subjected to serum withdrawal or hypoxia. Furthermore, addition of recombinant FGF8, FGF17, or FGF18 suppressed the elevated apoptotic activity of starved cells and activated the MAPK pathway. These findings suggest that FGF8-family members may act as survival factors in liver tumors suffering from insufficient blood supply due to rapid growth. Accordingly, knock-down of endogenous FGF18 expression reduced the viability and the clone formation capacity of the cell lines. In addition, FGF8, FGF17, and/or FGF18 enhanced growth in tumor-associated myofibroblasts and induced DNA replication of hepatic endothelial cells. This points towards a role of FGF8-family members in the epithelial-mesenchymal interplay between the various cell types of HCC. FGFR4, which is expressed

  17. Extensive cardinal parameter model to predict growth of pseudomonads in salt-reduced lightly preserved seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez Rios, Veronica; Dalgaard, Paw

    Interest in and demand for preserved seafood with reduced salt/sodium content is increasing. As a consequence of the reduced salt content potential growth of psychrotolerant pseudomonads to unacceptable high concentration where they cause product spoilage is an increasing challenge. Innovation...... include the effect of temperatures and salt. However, these simple secondary models do not include the effect of a broader range of product characteristics and therefore they cannot be used to predict how the inhibiting effect of salt can be replaced by changes in other environmental factors The objective...... and including terms for temperature, pH, aw/NaCl, lactic- and sorbic acids (Martinez-Rios et al., Int. J. Food Microbiol. 216. 110-120, 2016). MIC-values for acetic-, benzoic- and citric acids were determined in broth and terms modelling their antimicrobial effect were added to the model. The new and expanded...

  18. Posttraumatic growth and reduced suicidal ideation among adolescents at month 1 after the Sichuan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-nan; Lau, Joseph T F; Zhang, Jianxin; Mak, Winnie W S; Choi, Kai Chow; Lui, Wacy W S; Zhang, Jianxin; Chan, Emily Y Y

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated posttraumatic growth (PTG) and reduced suicidal ideation among Chinese adolescents at one month after the occurrence of the Sichuan Earthquake. A cross-sectional survey was administered to 3324 high school students in Chengdu, Sichuan. The revised Posttraumatic Growth Inventory for Children and the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale assessed PTG and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that being in junior high grade 2, having probable PTSD, visiting affected areas, possessing a perceived sense of security from teachers, and being exposed to touching news reports and encouraging news reports were associated with probable PTG; the reverse was true for students in senior high grade 1 or senior high grade 2 who had experienced prior adversities. Among the 623 students (19.3% of all students) who had suicidal ideation prior to the earthquake, 57.4% self-reported reduced suicidal ideation when the pre-earthquake and post-earthquake situations were compared. Among these 623 students, the multivariate results showed that being females, perceived sense of security obtained from teachers and exposure to encouraging news reports were factors associated with reduced suicidal ideation; the reverse was true for experience of pre-earthquake corporal punishment and worry about severe earthquakes in the future. The study population was not directly hit by the earthquake. This study is cross-sectional and no baseline data were collected prior to the occurrence of the earthquake. The earthquake resulted in PTG and reduced suicidal ideation among adolescents. PTSD was associated with PTG. Special attention should be paid to teachers' support, contents of media reports, and students' experience of prior adversities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical significance of transforming growth factor β1 in the diagnosis of the severity of acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Викторович Клименко

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Determine the clinical-diagnostic and prognostic value of transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1 at different degrees of severity of acute pancreatitis (AP on the basis of studying the characteristics of content of anti-inflammatory cytokine in serum to create a diagnostic algorithm severity and course of AP.Methods. It is analyzed the data for the study of nature of the transforming growth factor ß1 (TGF-ß1 content in the serum of 94 patients with AP varying severity (mild case of AP-20 patients, average case - 12, severe case -62 in the first 24-48 hours and 7-10 days of hospitalization.Results. Analysis of the data can reliably assert that the value of TGF-ß1 in the first 48 hours of admission to correlate with AP severity. It is proposed the use of TGF-ß1 level in clinical and diagnostic complex of diagnostic of AP severity in the first 48 hours of hospitalization. If the patient has TGF-β1≤70.0 ng / ml it is mild AP. If the level of cytokine ≥70.1 ng / ml produce differentiation between moderate and severe AP. At the level of cytokine ≥120.1 ng / ml it is severe AP and diagnosis is completed. In the case of the definition of TGF-β1 in the range of> 80.1 - <120.0 ng / ml AP degree uncertain and requires further observation and examination.Conclusions. Diagnostic thresholds of AP severity are determined. It is allowed use of TGF-β1 in a modern complex AP diagnostics. It is proven a diagnostic and prognostic significance level of anti-inflammatory cytokine TGF-ß1

  20. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  1. Kinetics of U(VI) reduction by a dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium under non-growth conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truex, M.J.; Peyton, B.M.; Valentine, N.B.; Gorby, Y.A.

    1997-01-01

    Dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms may be useful in processes designed for selective removal of uranium from aqueous streams. These bacteria can use U(VI) as an electron acceptor and thereby reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV). While significant research has been devoted to demonstrating and describing the mechanism of dissimilatory metal reduction, the reaction kinetics necessary to apply this for remediation processes have not been adequately defined. In this study, pure culture Shewanella alga strain BrY reduced U(VI) under non-growth conditions in the presence of excess lactate as the electron donor. Initial U(VI) concentrations ranged from 13 to 1,680microM. A maximum specific U(VI) reduction rate of 2.37 micromole-U(VI)/(mg-biomass h) and Monod half-saturation coefficient of 132 microM-U(VI) were calculated from measured U(VI) reduction rates. U(VI) reduction activity was sustained at 60% of this rate for at least 80 h. The initial presence of oxygen at a concentration equal to atmospheric saturation at 22 C delays but does not prevent U(VI) reduction. The rate of U(VI) reduction by BrY is comparable or better than rates reported for other metal reducing species. BrY reduces U(VI) at a rate that is 30% of its Fe(III) reduction rate

  2. Fatigue life assessment based on crack growth behavior in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Sato, Yuki; Hasegawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Crack growth behavior under low cycle fatigue in reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel, F82H IEA-heat (Fe-8Cr-2W-0.2V-0.02Ta), was investigated to improve the fatigue life assessment method of fusion reactor structural material. Low cycle fatigue test was carried out at room temperature in air at a total strain range of 0.4-1.5% using an hourglass-type miniature fatigue specimen. The relationship between the surface crack length and life fraction was described using one equation independent of the total strain range. Therefore, the fatigue life and residual life could be estimated using the surface crack length. Moreover, the microcrack initiation life could be estimated using the total strain range if there was a one-to-one correspondence between the total strain range and number of cycles to failure. The crack growth rate could be estimated using the total strain range and surface crack length by introducing the concept of the normalized crack growth rate. (author)

  3. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria reduce aphid population and enhance the productivity of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Khaliq, Abdul; Ahmed, Jam Nazir; Nawaz, Ahmad; Hussain, Mubshar

    2018-04-24

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1tiller -1 ), and highest plant height (85.8cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320m -2 ), straw yield (8.6Mgha -1 ), and grain yield (4.8Mgha -1 ) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6+Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity. Copyright © 2018 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Glufosinate-ammonium reduces growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubajikat, K M; Damann, K E

    2002-09-01

    The herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (GA) [butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)-ammonium salt] was tested at concentrations from 2 to 2,000 g GA per ml for activity against growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB) production by the mycotoxigenic fungus Aspergillus flavus Link:Fr. The highest concentration (2,000 microg GA per ml) reduced colony diameter of A. flavus strain AF13 by 80%. AFB1 production was inhibited by 90% at this concentration. Reduction in mycelial dry weight and AFB1 production in response to GA application ranged from 17.2 to 97.1% and from 39.1 to 90.1%, respectively. Of four concentrations tested, 2 microg GA per ml was weakly inhibitory. In the kernel screening assay, AFB1 production was inhibited 60 to 91% when kernels were preimmersed or immersed 5 days after incubation in 200 microg GA per ml. Both concentrations (2 and 200 microg GA per ml) reduced seed germination by 25 to 50%. Results indicate that GA has an inhibitory effect on growth and AFB1 production by A. flavus.

  5. Ribavirin and boceprevir are able to reduce Canine distemper virus growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanave, Gianvito; Cavalli, Alessandra; Martella, Vito; Fontana, Tommaso; Losappio, Ruggero; Tempesta, Maria; Decaro, Nicola; Buonavoglia, Domenico; Camero, Michele

    2017-10-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major infectious disease of dogs. Although vaccines were successful to control CDV spread in canine population, the disease is still common and may pose a threat to unvaccinated dogs. In the attempt to develop specific anti-viral therapeutic tools, the efficacy of several molecules against CDV has been investigated in vitro. In this study the antiviral efficacy in vitro against CDV of ribavirin and boceprevir alone or in combination was evaluated. CDV growth in VERO cells was inhibited by ribavirin, by boceprevir and by a combination of the two molecules at non-cytotoxic concentrations, as evaluated by end-point viral titration in cell monolayers and by quantification of viral RNA using quantitative RT-PCR. By end-point titration, a statistically significant reduction in CDV replication was observed only using ribavirin and boceprevir in combination. By quantitative RT-PCR, a significant reduction of viral growth was observed either in cells treated with ribavirin or boceprevir or with both the two molecules. The association of ribavirin or boceprevir was able to decrease CDV growth by up to 3.4458 logs with respect to untreated infected cells, chiefly at the highest virus dilutions. The results obtained in this study may constitute an important basis for the development of CDV therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Expression and Prognostic Significance of Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors 1, 2 and 3 in Periampullary Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Elebro

    Full Text Available Periampullary adenocarcinoma, including pancreatic cancer, is a heterogeneous group of tumours with dismal prognosis, for which there is an urgent need to identify novel treatment strategies. The human epithelial growth factor receptors EGFR, HER2 and HER3 have been studied in several tumour types, and HER-targeting drugs have a beneficial effect on survival in selected types of cancer. However, these effects have not been evident in pancreatic cancer, and remain unexplored in other types of periampullary cancer. The prognostic impact of HER-expression in these cancers also remains unclear. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the expression and prognostic value of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 in periampullary cancer, with particular reference to histological subtype. To this end, protein expression of EGFR, HER2 and HER3, and HER2 gene amplification was assessed by immunohistochemistry and silver in situ hybridization, respectively, on tissue microarrays with tumours from 175 periampullary adenocarcinomas, with follow-up data on recurrence-free survival (RFS and overall survival (OS for up to 5 years. EGFR expression was similar in pancreatobiliary (PB and intestinal (I type tumours, but high HER2 and HER3 expression was significantly more common in I-type tumours. In PB-type cases receiving adjuvant gemcitabine, but not in untreated cases, high EGFR expression was significantly associated with a shorter OS and RFS, with a significant treatment interaction in relation to OS (pinteraction = 0.042. In I-type cases, high EGFR expression was associated with a shorter OS and RFS in univariable, but not in multivariable, analysis. High HER3 expression was associated with a prolonged RFS in univariable, but not in multivariable, analysis. Neither HER2 protein expression nor gene amplification was prognostic. The finding of a potential interaction between the expression of EGFR and response to adjuvant chemotherapy in PB-type tumours needs validation

  7. Clinical significance of serum circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) mRNA in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabulut, S; Duranyıldız, D; Tas, F; Gezer, U; Akyüz, F; Serilmez, M; Ozgür, E; Yasasever, C T; Vatansever, S; Aykan, N F

    2014-03-01

    The principal aim of our study was to investigate the usefulness of serum protein and circulating mRNA of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifty-four HCC patients and age- and sex-matched 20 healthy controls were enrolled into this study. Pretreatment serum IGF-1 and IGF-1 mRNA were determined by the solid-phase sandwich ELISA and quantitative RT-PCR method, respectively. The median age at diagnosis was 60 years, range 36-77 years; where majority of group were male (n = 48, 88.8%). All patients had cirrhotic history. Forty-six percent (n = 25) of patients had Child-Pugh score A, 30% (n = 16) had score B or C. All of the patients were treated with local therapies and none of them received sorafenib. The baseline serum IGF-1 mRNA levels were significantly higher in HCC patients than in the control group (p = 0.04), whereas no significant difference was observed for IGF-1 protein levels between the two group (p = 0.18). Patients with history of HBV infection, who were not treated, and who received multiple palliative treatment for HCC had higher serum IGF-1 mRNA levels (p = 0.03, 0.03, and 0.05, respectively). Poor performance status (p IGF-1 nor serum IGF-1 mRNA had significantly adverse effect on survival (p = 0.53 and 0.42, respectively).

  8. Planning for Economic Growth with Reduced CO2 Emissions in Provincial China: The Case of Jiangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lin Tsou

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Since the Industrial Revolution, the concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2, has put increasing pressure on the atmosphere's ability to absorb them. China is the fastest growing major economy in the world, and is following a process of rapid industrialization. This process, however, contributes dramatically to global warming through major CO2 emissions. The widespread provision of electricity through coal-fired power plants is just one contributor, but industrial structures, transportation systems, and the construction of large superblock residential towers also play major roles. The large cities and industrialized provinces of China emit the most CO2, a fact that requires serious attention. However, stemming this trend elsewhere in China would provide a greater opportunity for success in reducing overall CO2 emissions in the country. Consequently, the question this paper addresses is what policies can be adopted to reduce CO2 emissions in provinces in China where development is still in its early stages, while maintaining economic growth. Jiangxi is a province that has historically been a major agricultural area. In recent years, however, because of the economic development policies of the Chinese central government, the province's rich mineral deposits, favorable location, and convenient transportation system are attracting more investments and projects for development (Statistical Bureau of Jiangxi, 2010. Jiangxi, then, provides an excellent case study because the province, although developing quickly, might still produce less CO2 if proper growth policies and actions are implemented. According to the results of this research, CO2 emissions would indeed decline in Jiangxi if the province would adopt new technology for electricity generation and increase the GDP role of the service sector. KEYWORDS: Provincial Chinese development, economic growth and global warming, CO2 emissions in China, Chinese

  9. [The changes of ghrelin, growth hormone, growth hormone releasing hormone and their clinical significances in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhi-song; Bao, Zi-yu; Wang, Zhi-ying; Yang, Guo-jun; Zhu, Dong-fang; Zhang, Li; Tan, Rong-mei

    2012-07-01

    To investigate the changes of plasma ghrelin, growth hormone (GH) and growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) and gastric ghrelin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and to explore their clinical significances. Plasma ghrelin, GH, GHRH, TNFα, IL-6 and C reactive protein (CRP) were measured in 40 COPD patients and 20 controls with chronic bronchitis. Correlated factors of plasma ghrelin, TNFα, IL-6, CRP were analyzed. Body composition was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. The expression of gastric ghrelin in patients with COPD was detected. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(1.78 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.39 ± 0.46) ng/L, (1.36 ± 0.39) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma GH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(4.12 ± 0.83) µg/L, (5.17 ± 0.72)µg/L, (6.49 ± 1.13) µg/L, respectively]. Plasma GHRH was lower in the underweight patients than in the normal weight patients and in the controls [(20.43 ± 4.41) ng/L, (23.47 ± 3.97) ng/L, (27.48 ± 10.06) ng/L, respectively]. Plasma ghrelin was higher in the underweight patients than in the controls (P 0.05). Plasma ghrelin was positively correlated with TNFα and IL-6 in the underweight patients. The gastric expression of ghrelin showed no evident difference between the patients with COPD and the controls. The plasma GH in COPD patients may not be correlated with ghrelin. The plasma ghrelin level may be a useful indicator for malnutrition in COPD patients. Plasma ghrelin might be involved in the pathogenesis of CODP by affecting the body energy metabolism.

  10. Effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on rove beetle (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echegaray, Erik R; Cloyd, Raymond A

    2012-12-01

    In many regions, pest management of greenhouse crops relies on the use of biological control agents; however, pesticides are also widely used, especially when dealing with multiple arthropod pests and attempting to maintain high esthetic standards. As such, there is interest in using biological control agents in conjunction with chemical control. However, the prospects of combining natural enemies and pesticides are not well known in many systems. The rove beetle, Atheta coriaria (Kraatz), is a biological control agent mainly used against fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.). This study evaluated the effects of reduced-risk pesticides and plant growth regulators on A. coriaria adult survival, development, and prey consumption under laboratory conditions. Rove beetle survival was consistently higher when adults were released 24 h after rather than before applying pesticides. The pesticides acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin were harmful to rove beetle adults, whereas Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, azadirachtin, and organic oils (cinnamon oils, rosemary oil, thyme oil, and clove oil) were nontoxic to A. coriaria adults. Similarly, the plant growth regulators acymidol, paclobutrazol, and uniconazole were not harmful to rove beetle adults. In addition, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, kinoprene, organic oils, and the plant growth regulators did not negatively affect A. coriaria development. However, B. bassiana did negatively affect adult prey consumption. This study demonstrated that A. coriaria may not be used when applying the pesticides, acetamiprid, lambda-cyhalothrin, and cyfluthrin, whereas organic oils, B. bassiana, azadirachtin, and the plant growth regulators evaluated may be used in conjunction with A. coriaria adults. As such, these compounds may be used in combination with A. coriaria in greenhouse production systems.

  11. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Reduces Free Cholesterol-Mediated Lipotoxicity in Primary Hepatocytes by Countering Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Domínguez-Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol overload in the liver has shown toxic effects by inducing the aggravation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to steatohepatitis and sensitizing to damage. Although the mechanism of damage is complex, it has been demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a prominent role in the process. In addition, we have proved that hepatocyte growth factor induces an antioxidant response in hepatic cells; in the present work we aimed to figure out the protective effect of this growth factor in hepatocytes overloaded with free cholesterol. Hepatocytes from mice fed with a high-cholesterol diet were treated or not with HGF, reactive oxygen species present in cholesterol overloaded hepatocytes significantly decreased, and this effect was particularly associated with the increase in glutathione and related enzymes, such as γ-gamma glutamyl cysteine synthetase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH-S-transferase. Our data clearly indicate that HGF displays an antioxidant response by inducing the glutathione-related protection system.

  12. ClusterSignificance: A bioconductor package facilitating statistical analysis of class cluster separations in dimensionality reduced data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serviss, Jason T.; Gådin, Jesper R.; Eriksson, Per

    2017-01-01

    , e.g. genes in a specific pathway, alone can separate samples into these established classes. Despite this, the evaluation of class separations is often subjective and performed via visualization. Here we present the ClusterSignificance package; a set of tools designed to assess the statistical...... significance of class separations downstream of dimensionality reduction algorithms. In addition, we demonstrate the design and utility of the ClusterSignificance package and utilize it to determine the importance of long non-coding RNA expression in the identity of multiple hematological malignancies....

  13. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields...... at in site conditions....

  14. Phytotoxic grass residues reduce germination and initial root growth of ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. J. Rietveld

    1975-01-01

    Extracts of green foliage of Arizona fescue and mountain muhly significantly reduced germination of ponderosa pine seeds, and retarded speed of elongation and mean radicle length. Three possible routes of release of the inhibitor were investigated: (1) leaching from live foliage, (2) root exudation, and (3) overwinter leaching from dead residues. The principal route...

  15. Chemical defense in Elodea nuttallii reduces feeding and growth of aquatic herbivorous Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhard, Daniela; Pohnert, Georg; Gross, Elisabeth M

    2007-08-01

    The submersed macrophyte Elodea nuttallii (Hydrocharitaceae) is invasive in Europe and frequently found in aquatic plant communities. Many invertebrate herbivores, such as larvae of the generalist aquatic moth, Acentria ephemerella (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae), avoid feeding on E. nuttallii and preferably consume native species. First instar larvae exhibited a high mortality on E. nuttallii compared to the native macrophyte Potamogeton perfoliatus. Mortality of older larvae was also high when fed E. nuttallii exposed to high light intensities. Growth of older larvae was strongly reduced on E. nuttallii compared to pondweeds (Potamogeton lucens). Neither differences in nitrogen nor phosphorus content explained the different performance on these submerged macrophytes, but plants differed in their flavonoid content. To investigate whether plant-derived allelochemicals from E. nuttallii affect larval performance in the same way as live plants, we developed a functional bioassay, in which Acentria larvae were reared on artificial diets. We offered larvae Potamogeton leaf disks coated with crude Elodea extracts and partially purified flavonoids. Elodea extracts deterred larvae from feeding on otherwise preferred Potamogeton leaves, and yet, unknown compounds in the extracts reduced growth and survival of Acentria. The flavonoid fraction containing luteolin-7-O-diglucuronide, apigenin-7-O-diglucuronide, and chrysoeriol-7-O-diglucuronide strongly reduced feeding of larvae, but did not increase mortality. The concentrations of these compounds in our assays were 0.01-0.09% of plant dry mass, which is in the lower range of concentrations found in the field (0.02-1.2%). Chemical defense in E. nuttallii thus plays an ecologically relevant role in this aquatic plant-herbivore system.

  16. Biological role, clinical significance, and therapeutic possibilities of the recently discovered metabolic hormone fibroblastic growth factor 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Pedro; Selgas, Rafael; Romero, Sara; Díez, Juan J

    2012-09-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), a 181 amino acid circulating protein, is a member of the FGF superfamily, with relevant metabolic actions. It acts through the interaction with specific FGF receptors and a cofactor called β-Klotho, whose expression is predominantly detected in metabolically active organs. FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes via the induction of glucose transporter-1. This action is additive and independent of insulin. β-Cell function and survival are preserved, and glucagon secretion is reduced by this protein, thus decreasing hepatic glucose production and improving insulin sensitivity. Lipid profile has been shown to be improved by FGF21 in several animal models. FGF21 increases energy expenditure in rodents and induces weight loss in diabetic nonhuman primates. It also exerts favorable effects on hepatic steatosis and reduces tissue lipid content in rodents. Adaptive metabolic responses to fasting, including stimulation of ketogenesis and fatty acid oxidation, seem to be partially mediated by FGF21. In humans, serum FGF21 concentrations have been found elevated in insulin-resistant states, such as impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes. FGF21 levels are correlated with hepatic insulin resistance index, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and blood glucose after an oral glucose tolerance test. A relationship between FGF21 levels and long-term diabetic complications, such as nephropathy and carotid atheromatosis, has been reported. FGF21 levels decreased in diabetic patients after starting therapy with insulin or oral agents. Increased FGF21 serum levels have also been found to be associated with obesity. In children, it is correlated with BMI and leptin levels, whereas in adults, FGF21 levels are mainly related to several components of the metabolic syndrome. Serum FGF21 levels have been found to be elevated in patients with ischemic heart disease. In patients with renal disease, FGF21 levels exhibited a progressive increase as

  17. beta-TrCP inhibition reduces prostate cancer cell growth via upregulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udi Gluschnaider

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is a common and heterogeneous disease, where androgen receptor (AR signaling plays a pivotal role in development and progression. The initial treatment for advanced prostate cancer is suppression of androgen signaling. Later on, essentially all patients develop an androgen independent stage which does not respond to anti hormonal treatment. Thus, alternative strategies targeting novel molecular mechanisms are required. beta-TrCP is an E3 ligase that targets various substrates essential for many aspects of tumorigenesis.Here we show that beta-TrCP depletion suppresses prostate cancer and identify a relevant growth control mechanism. shRNA targeted against beta-TrCP reduced prostate cancer cell growth and cooperated with androgen ablation in vitro and in vivo. We found that beta-TrCP inhibition leads to upregulation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR mediating the therapeutic effect. This phenomenon could be ligand independent, as the AhR ligand 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD did not alter prostate cancer cell growth. We detected high AhR expression and activation in basal cells and atrophic epithelial cells of human cancer bearing prostates. AhR expression and activation is also significantly higher in tumor cells compared to benign glandular epithelium.Together these observations suggest that AhR activation may be a cancer counteracting mechanism in the prostate. We maintain that combining beta-TrCP inhibition with androgen ablation could benefit advanced prostate cancer patients.

  18. Inhibition of peripubertal sheep mammary gland development by cysteamine through reducing progesterone and growth factor production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Feng, Yanni; Zhang, Hongfu; Kou, Xin; Li, Lan; Liu, Xinqi; Zhang, Pengfei; Cui, Liantao; Chu, Meiqiang; Shen, Wei; Min, Lingjiang

    2017-02-01

    Cysteamine has been used for treating cystinosis for many years, and furthermore it has also been used as a therapeutic agent for different diseases including Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, malaria, cancer, and others. Although cysteamine has many potential applications, its use may also be problematic. The effects of low doses of cysteamine on the reproductive system, especially the mammary glands are currently unknown. In the current investigation, low dose (10 mg/kg BW/day) of cysteamine did not affect sheep body weight gain or organ index of the liver, spleen, or heart; it did, however, increase the levels of blood lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets. Most interestingly, it inhibited mammary gland development after 2 or 5 months of treatment by reducing the organ index and the number of mammary gland ducts. Plasma growth hormone and estradiol remained unchanged; however, plasma progesterone levels and the protein level of HSD3β1 in sheep ovaries were decreased by cysteamine. In addition to steroid hormones, growth factors produced in the mammary glands also play crucial roles in mammary gland development. Results showed that protein levels of HGF, GHR, and IGF1R were decreased after 5 months of cysteamine treatment. These findings together suggest that progesterone and local growth factors in mammary glands might be involved in cysteamine initiated inhibition of pubertal ovine mammary gland development. Furthermore, it may lead to a reduction in fertility. Therefore, cysteamine should be used with great caution until its actions have been further investigated and its limitations overcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Competition from native hydrophytes reduces establishment and growth of invasive dense-flowered cordgrass (Spartina densiflora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies to determine the nature of ecological interactions between invasive and native species are necessary for conserving and restoring native species in impacted habitats. Theory predicts that species boundaries along environmental gradients are determined by physical factors in stressful environments and by competitive ability in benign environments, but little is known about the mechanisms by which hydrophytes exclude halophytes and the life history stage at which these mechanisms are able to operate. The ongoing invasion of the South American Spartina densiflora in European marshes is causing concern about potential impacts to native plants along the marsh salinity gradient, offering an opportunity to evaluate the mechanisms by which native hydrophytes may limit, or even prevent, the expansion of invasive halophytes. Our study compared S. densiflora seedling establishment with and without competition with Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, two hydrophytes differing in clonal architecture. We hypothesized that seedlings of the stress tolerant S. densiflora would be out-competed by stands of P. australis and T. domingensis. Growth, survivorship, biomass patterns and foliar nutrient content were recorded in a common garden experiment to determine the effect of mature P. australis and T. domingensis on the growth and colonization of S. densiflora under fresh water conditions where invasion events are likely to occur. Mature P. australis stands prevented establishment of S. densiflora seedlings and T. domingensis reduced S. densiflora establishment by 38%. Seedlings grown with P. australis produced fewer than five short shoots and all plants died after ca. 2 yrs. Our results showed that direct competition, most likely for subterranean resources, was responsible for decreased growth rate and survivorship of S. densiflora. The presence of healthy stands of P. australis, and to some extent T. domingensis, along river channels

  20. Protective ventilation reduces Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue in a porcine pneumonia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, Jesper; Nyberg, Axel; Lipcsey, Miklos; Melhus, Åsa; Larsson, Anders; Sjölin, Jan; Castegren, Markus

    2017-08-31

    Mechanical ventilation with positive end expiratory pressure and low tidal volume, i.e. protective ventilation, is recommended in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, the effect of protective ventilation on bacterial growth during early pneumonia in non-injured lungs is not extensively studied. The main objectives were to compare two different ventilator settings on Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in lung tissue and the development of lung injury. A porcine model of severe pneumonia was used. The protective group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 10 cm H 2 O and a tidal volume of 6 ml x kg -1 . The control group (n = 10) had an end expiratory pressure of 5 cm H 2 O and a tidal volume of 10 ml x kg -1 . 10 11 colony forming units of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were inoculated intra-tracheally at baseline, after which the experiment continued for 6 h. Two animals from each group received only saline, and served as sham animals. Lung tissue samples from each animal were used for bacterial cultures and wet-to-dry weight ratio measurements. The protective group displayed lower numbers of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p protective group was unchanged (p protective ventilation with lower tidal volume and higher end expiratory pressure has the potential to reduce the pulmonary bacterial burden and the development of lung injury.

  1. Human papilloma virus DNAs immortalize normal human mammary epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, V.; Zajchowski, D.; Kulesa, V.; Sager, R.

    1990-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are most commonly associated with cervical carcinoma in patients and induce immortalization of human keratinocytes in culture. HPV has not been associated with breast cancer. This report describes the immortalization of normal human mammary epithelial cells (76N) by plasmid pHPV18 or pHPV16, each containing the linearized viral genome. Transfectants were grown continuously for more than 60 passages, whereas 76N cells senesce after 18-20 passages. The transfectants also differ from 76N cells in cloning in a completely defined medium called D2 and growing a minimally supplemented defined medium (D3) containing epidermal growth factor. All transfectant tested contain integrated HPV DNA, express HPV RNA, and produce HPV E7 protein. HPV transfectants do not form tumors in a nude mouse assay. It is concluded that products of the HPV genome induce immortalization of human breast epithelial cells and reduce their growth factor requirements. This result raises the possibility that HPV might be involved in breast cancer. Furthermore, other tissue-specific primary epithelial cells that are presently difficult to grown and investigate may also be immortalized by HPV

  2. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    Effective control of paratuberculosis is hindered by lack of a vaccine preventing infection, transmission and without diagnostic interference with tuberculosis. We have developed a novel multi-stage recombinant subunit vaccine in which a fusion of four early expressed MAP antigens is combined...... characterized by a significant containment of bacterial burden in gut tissues compared to non-vaccinated animals. There was no cross-reaction with bovine tuberculosis in vaccinated animals. This novel multi-stage vaccine has the potential to become a marker vaccine for paratuberculosis....

  3. Inhibiting Vimentin or beta 1-integrin Reverts Prostate Tumor Cells in IrECM and Reduces Tumor Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V.; Ware, Joy L.; Bissell, Mina J.; Zehner, Zendra E.

    2009-07-27

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphological changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional (3D) lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the parental prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin or {alpha}6-, {beta}4- and {beta}1-integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via siRNA interference or {beta}1-integrin expression by the addition of the blocking antibody, AIIB2, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by subcutaneous injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in 3D lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1-integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acini in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis.

  4. Reduced expression of circRNA hsa_circ_0003159 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengqian; Chen, Ruoyu; Li, Tianwen; Xiao, Bingxiu

    2018-03-01

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) play a crucial role in the occurrence of several diseases including cancers. However, little is known about circRNAs' diagnostic values for gastric cancer, one of the worldwide most common diseases of mortality. The hsa_circ_0003159 levels in 108 paired gastric cancer tissues and adjacent non-tumorous tissues from surgical patients with gastric cancer were first detected by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Then, the relationships between hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues and the clinicopathological factors of patients with gastric cancer were analyzed. Finally, its diagnostic value was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic curve. Compared with paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues, hsa_circ_0003159 expression was significantly down-regulated in gastric cancer tissues. What is more, we found that hsa_circ_0003159 expression levels were significantly negatively associated with gender, distal metastasis, and tumor-node-metastasis stage. All of the results suggest that hsa_circ_0003159 may be a potential cancer marker of patients with gastric cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation and resistance exercise significantly reduce abdominal adiposity in healthy elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stout, Jeffrey R; Fukuda, David H; Kendall, Kristina L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Moon, Jordan R; Hoffman, Jay R

    2015-04-01

    The effects of 12-weeks of HMB ingestion and resistance training (RT) on abdominal adiposity were examined in 48 men (66-78 yrs). All participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: no-training placebo (NT-PL), HMB only (NT-HMB), RT with PL (RT-PL), or HMB with RT (RT-HMB). DXA was used to estimate abdominal fat mass (AFM) by placing the region of interest over the L1-L4 region of the spine. Outcomes were assessed by ANCOVA, with Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons. Baseline AFM values were used as the covariate. The ANCOVA indicated a significant difference (p = 0.013) between group means for the adjusted posttest AFM values (mean (kg) ± SE: NT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.06; NT-HMB = 2.59 ± 0.61; RT-PL = 2.59 ± 0.62; RT-HMB = 2.34 ± 0.61). The pairwise comparisons indicated that AFM following the intervention period in the RT-HMB group was significantly less than NT-PL (p = 0.013), NT-HMB (p = 0.011), and RT-PL (p = 0.010). These data suggested that HMB in combination with 12 weeks of RT decreased AFM in elderly men. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Wind Erosion Caused by Land Use Changes Significantly Reduces Ecosystem Carbon Storage and Carbon Sequestration Potentials in Grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P.; Chi, Y. G.; Wang, J.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Wind erosion exerts a fundamental influence on the biotic and abiotic processes associated with ecosystem carbon (C) cycle. However, how wind erosion under different land use scenarios will affect ecosystem C balance and its capacity for future C sequestration are poorly quantified. Here, we established an experiment in a temperate steppe in Inner Mongolia, and simulated different intensity of land uses: control, 50% of aboveground vegetation removal (50R), 100% vegetation removal (100R) and tillage (TI). We monitored lateral and vertical carbon flux components and soil characteristics from 2013 to 2016. Our study reveals three key findings relating to the driving factors, the magnitude and consequence of wind erosion on ecosystem C balance: (1) Frequency of heavy wind exerts a fundamental control over the severity of soil erosion, and its interaction with precipitation and vegetation characteristics explained 69% variation in erosion intensity. (2) With increases in land use intensity, the lateral C flux induced by wind erosion increased rapidly, equivalent to 33%, 86%, 111% and 183% of the net ecosystem exchange of the control site under control, 50R, 100R and TI sites, respectively. (3) After three years' treatment, erosion induced decrease in fine fractions led to 31%, 43%, 85% of permanent loss of C sequestration potential in the surface 5cm soil for 50R, 100R and TI sites. Overall, our study demonstrates that lateral C flux associated with wind erosion is too large to be ignored. The loss of C-enriched fine particles not only reduces current ecosystem C content, but also results in irreversible loss of future soil C sequestration potential. The dynamic soil characteristics need be considered when projecting future ecosystem C balance in aeolian landscape. We also propose that to maintain the sustainability of grassland ecosystems, land managers should focus on implementing appropriate land use rather than rely on subsequent managements on degraded soils.

  7. Sulfate-reducing bacteria influence the nucleation and growth of mackinawite and greigite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Aude; Gartman, Amy; Clarke, David R.; Girguis, Peter R.

    2018-01-01

    Sedimentary iron sulfide minerals play a key role in maintaining the oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere over geological timescales; they also record critical geochemical information that can be used to reconstruct paleo-environments. On modern Earth, sedimentary iron sulfide mineral formation takes places in low-temperature environments and requires the production of free sulfide by sulfate-reducing microorganisms (SRM) under anoxic conditions. Yet, most of our knowledge on the properties and formation pathways of iron sulfide minerals, including pyrite, derives from experimental studies performed in abiotic conditions, and as such the role of biotic processes in the formation of sedimentary iron sulfide minerals is poorly understood. Here we investigate the role of SRM in the nucleation and growth of iron sulfide minerals in laboratory experiments. We set out to test the hypothesis that SRM can influence Fe-S mineralization in ways other than providing sulfide through the comparison of the physical properties of iron sulfide minerals precipitated in the presence and in the absence of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio hydrothermalis AM13 under well-controlled conditions. X-ray diffraction and microscopy analyses reveal that iron sulfide minerals produced in the presence of SRM exhibit unique morphology and aggregate differently than abiotic minerals formed in media without cells. Specifically, mackinawite growth is favored in the presence of both live and dead SRM, when compared to the abiotic treatments tested. The cell surface of live and dead SRM, and the extracellular polymers produced by live cells, provide templates for the nucleation of mackinawite and favor mineral growth. The morphology of minerals is however different when live and dead cells are provided. The transformation of greigite from mackinawite occurred after several months of incubation only in the presence of live SRM, suggesting that SRM might accelerate the kinetics of greigite

  8. Inhibition of nuclear factor kappa-B signaling reduces growth in medulloblastoma in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deckard Lindsey A

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant pediatric brain tumor that requires surgery, whole brain and spine irradiation, and intense chemotherapy for treatment. A more sophisticated understanding of the pathophysiology of medulloblastoma is needed to successfully reduce the intensity of treatment and improve outcomes. Nuclear factor kappa-B (NFκB is a signaling pathway that controls transcriptional activation of genes important for tight regulation of many cellular processes and is aberrantly expressed in many types of cancer. Methods To test the importance of NFκB to medulloblastoma cell growth, the effects of multiple drugs that inhibit NFκB, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, diethyldithiocarbamate, sulfasalazine, curcumin and bortezomib, were studied in medulloblastoma cell lines compared to a malignant glioma cell line and normal neurons. Expression of endogenous NFκB was investigated in cultured cells, xenograft flank tumors, and primary human tumor samples. A dominant negative construct for the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, IκB, was prepared from medulloblastoma cell lines and flank tumors were established to allow specific pathway inhibition. Results We report high constitutive activity of the canonical NFκB pathway, as seen by Western analysis of the NFκB subunit p65, in medulloblastoma tumors compared to normal brain. The p65 subunit of NFκB is extremely highly expressed in xenograft tumors from human medulloblastoma cell lines; though, conversely, the same cells in culture have minimal expression without specific stimulation. We demonstrate that pharmacological inhibition of NFκB in cell lines halts proliferation and leads to apoptosis. We show by immunohistochemical stain that phosphorylated p65 is found in the majority of primary tumor cells examined. Finally, expression of a dominant negative form of the endogenous inhibitor of NFκB, dnIκB, resulted in poor xenograft tumor growth, with average tumor volumes

  9. Postoperative Stiffness Requiring Manipulation Under Anesthesia Is Significantly Reduced After Simultaneous Versus Staged Bilateral Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, John P; Monazzam, Shafagh; Miles, Troy; Danielsen, Beate; White, Richard H

    2017-12-20

    adjust for relevant risk factors, the 90-day odds ratio (OR) of undergoing manipulation after simultaneous bilateral TKA was significantly lower than that for unilateral TKA (OR = 0.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.86) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.90). Similarly, at 180 days, the odds of undergoing manipulation were significantly lower after simultaneous bilateral TKA than after both unilateral TKA (OR = 0.71; 95% CI, 0.59 to 0.84) and staged bilateral TKA (OR = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.93). The frequency of manipulation was significantly associated with younger age, fewer comorbidities, black race, and the absence of obesity. Although the ORs were small (close to 1), simultaneous bilateral TKA had a significantly decreased rate of stiffness requiring manipulation under anesthesia at 90 days and 180 days after knee replacement compared with that after staged bilateral TKA and unilateral TKA. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  10. Copper (II) lead (II), and zinc (II) reduce growth and zoospore release in four zoosporic true fungi from soils of NSW, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Linda; Pilgaard, Bo; Gleason, Frank H; Lilje, Osu

    2015-07-01

    This study examined the responses of a group of four zoosporic true fungi isolated from soils in NSW Australia, to concentrations of toxic metals in the laboratory that may be found in polluted soils. All isolates showed greatest sensitivity to Cu and least sensitivity to Pb. All isolates showed significant reduction in growth at 60 ppm (0.94 mmol m(-3)) for Cu, while three declined significantly at 60 ppm (0.92 mmol m(-3)) Zn. The growth of two isolates declined significantly at 100 ppm (0.48 mmol m(-3)) Pb and one at 200 ppm (0.96 mmol m(-3)) Pb. The rate of production of zoospores for all isolates was reduced when sporangia were grown in solid PYG media with 60 ppm Cu. Three isolates significantly declined in production at 60 ppm Zn and three at 100 ppm Pb. All isolates recovered growth after incubation in solid media with 60 ppm Zn or 100 ppm Pb. Two isolates did not recover growth after incubation in 60 ppm Cu. If these metals cause similar effects in the field, Cu, Pb, and Zn contamination of NSW soils is likely to reduce biomass of zoosporic true fungi. Loss of the fungi may reduce the rate of mineralisation of soil organic matter. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chakravarty, Sujay [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam, Node, Kokilamedu (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2017-02-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  12. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    side effect of AuNRs by modifying capping. • Polymer-coated AuNRs safe for in vitro assays, but hamper protein functioning. • PEG-AuNRs reduced toxicity to lymphocyte cells and lesser effect on IgG. • Highlights importance of neutral PEGylated particles for theranostic applications.

  13. [Intra-Articular Application of Tranexamic Acid Significantly Reduces Blood Loss and Transfusion Requirement in Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lošťák, J; Gallo, J; Špička, J; Langová, K

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the effect of topical application of tranexamic acid (TXA, Exacyl) on the amount of post-operative blood loss, and blood transfusion requirement in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Attention was paid to early complications potentially associated with TXA administration, such as haematoma, wound exudate, or knee swelling. In addition, the economic benefit of TXA treatment was also taken into account. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 238 patients (85 men and 153 women) who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) at our department between January 2013 and November 2015. A group of 119 patients (41 men and 78 women) received intraarticular TXA injections according to the treatment protocol (TXA group). A control group matched in basic characteristics to the TXA group also consisted of 119 patients. The average age in the TXA group was 69.8 years, and the most frequent indication for TKA surgery was primary knee osteoarthritis (81.5%). In each patient, post-operative volume of blood lost from drains and total blood loss including hidden blood loss were recorded, as well as post-operative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels. On discharge of each patient from hospital, the size and site of a haematoma; wound exudate, if present after post-operative day 4; joint swelling; range of motion and early revision surgery, if performed, were evaluated. Requirements of analgesic drugs after surgery were also recorded. RESULTS In the TXA group, blood losses from drains were significantly lower than in the control group (456.7 ± 270.8 vs 640.5 ±448.2; p = 0.004). The median value for blood losses from drains was lower by 22% and the average value for total blood loss, including hidden losses, was also lower than in the control group (762.4 ± 345.2 ml vs 995.5 ± 457.3 ml). The difference in the total amount of blood loss between the two groups was significant (p = 0

  14. Solar energy system reduces time taken to inhibit microbial growth in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phitthayarachasak, Thanathep; Thepa, Sirichai; Kongkiattikajorn, Jirasak [Energy Technology Division, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Prachauthid Road, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-11-15

    This research studied how to reduce the time consumption and to increase and improve the efficiency of the solarization process. The asymmetry compound parabolic concentrator (ACPC) was developed to produce boiling water to be utilized while the solarization process was in operation. This could decrease the time consumed in the solarization process from 4 to 6 weeks to 4 h, with a temperature of approximately 41.25 C at the various depth levels, not exceeding 50 cm. The test to inhibit the growth of Ralstonia solanacearum, the causative agent of wilt in crops leaves, indicated that R. solanacearum was reduced from the total bacterial population of 10.9 x 10{sup 8} colony forming unit/g soil (cfu g{sup -1}) at soil surface to 9.0 x 10{sup 7}, 7.5 x 10{sup 4} and 4.1 x 10{sup 3} cfu g{sup -1} within 1, 2 and 4 h, respectively. (author)

  15. Chronic exercise reduces hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β1 in middle-aged obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vagner R R; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Silva, Carla G B; Morari, Joseane; Camargo, Rafael L; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario A; da Silva, Adelino S R; Pauli, Jose Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-08-28

    Obesity and aging are associated with hypothalamic inflammation, hyperphagia and abnormalities in the thermogenesis control. It has been demonstrated that the association between aging and obesity induces hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disorders, at least in part, through the atypical hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1). Physical exercise has been used to modulate several metabolic parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise on TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged mice submitted to a one year of high-fat diet (HFD) treatment. We observed that long-term of HFD-feeding induced hypothalamic TGF-β1 accumulation, potentiated the hypothalamic inflammation, body weight gain and defective thermogenesis of Middle-Aged mice when compared to Middle-Aged animals fed on chow diet. As expected, chronic exercise induced negative energy balance, reduced food consumption and increasing the energy expenditure, which promotes body weight loss. Interestingly, exercise training reduced the TGF-β1 expression and IkB-α ser32 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged obese mice. Taken together our study demonstrated that chronic exercise suppressed the TGF-β1/IkB-α axis in the hypothalamus and improved the energy homeostasis in an animal model of obesity-associated to aging.

  16. Amending reduced fish-meal feeds with marine lecithin, but not soy lecithin, improves the growth of juvenile cobia and may attenuate heightened responses to stress challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushenski, J; Schwarz, M; Pessoa, W V N; Mulligan, B; Crouse, C; Gause, B; Yamamoto, F; Delbos, B

    2013-02-01

    Sparing of marine resources in aquafeeds can be environmentally and economically advantageous; however, fish meal (FM) replacement can affect the production performance and physiological competence. Phospholipids are increasingly understood to be involved in maintaining growth and vigour in fish and may be deficient in reduced FM formulations. Accordingly, we evaluated the growth and stress tolerance of juvenile cobia fed typical (50% FM) or reduced FM feeds (12% FM) with or without phospholipid amendment [1% marine lecithin (12% FM + Marine PL) or soy lecithin (12% FM + Soy PL)] for 6 weeks in triplicate tanks (N = 3) in a recirculation aquaculture system. The 50% FM feed yielded significantly superior growth and growth efficiency in comparison with the 12% FM and 12% FM+ Soy PL feeds, but the 12% FM+ Marine PL feed yielded comparable results to 50% FM feed. A low-water stress challenge induced elevated plasma glucose, cortisol and lactate levels in all treatments. However, a significant interaction (diet × stress) effect suggested a lesser cortisol response among fish fed the 12% FM+ Marine PL and 50% FM diets. These findings demonstrate that growth performance and, perhaps, resilience of cobia raised on reduced FM feeds may be improved by the addition of marine-origin phospholipid to the diet. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Weight loss significantly reduces serum lipocalin-2 levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koiou, Ekaterini; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsikis, Ilias; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kalaitzakis, Emmanuil; Delkos, Dimitrios; Vosnakis, Christos; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 levels are elevated in obese patients. We assessed serum lipocalin-2 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the effects of weight loss or metformin on these levels. Forty-seven overweight/obese patients with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m(2)] were instructed to follow a low-calorie diet, to exercise and were given orlistat or sibutramine for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight patients with PCOS (BMI weight and 25 overweight/obese healthy female volunteers comprised the control groups. Serum lipocalin-2 levels did not differ between overweight/obese patients with PCOS and overweight/obese controls (p = 0.258), or between normal weight patients with PCOS and normal weight controls (p = 0.878). Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in normal weight patients with PCOS (p weight loss resulted in a fall in lipocalin-2 levels (p weight patients with PCOS, treatment with metformin did not affect lipocalin-2 levels (p = 0.484). In conclusion, PCOS per se is not associated with elevated lipocalin-2 levels. Weight loss induces a significant reduction in lipocalin-2 levels in overweight/obese patients with PCOS.

  18. Trade-off between increased survival and reduced growth for blue mussels living on Pacific oyster reefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eschweiler, Nina; Christensen, Helle Torp

    2011-01-01

    Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea, Germany) in the mid of the 1980s and have invaded native blue mussel Mytilus edulis (L.) beds. The latter turned into oyster reefs where mussels seem to be relegated to the bottom in between...... the much larger oysters. By combining field and laboratory experiments, we reveal how mussels react to cohabitation with the invasive oysters. Mussels subjected to direct contact with crabs Carcinus maenas migrate from top to bottom positions between oysters in both field and laboratory experiments within...... 22days. Shell growth was significantly reduced for mussels placed on the bottom compared to mussels at the top of an oyster reef. Condition index was lower for mussels on the bottom of the reef irrespective of whether placed between dead or living oysters. We conclude that mussels experience a trade...

  19. Schistosoma mansoni infection suppresses the growth of Plasmodium yoelii parasites in the liver and reduces gametocyte infectivity to mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taeko Moriyasu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and schistosomiasis are major parasitic diseases causing morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Epidemiological surveys have revealed coinfection rates of up to 30% among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. To investigate the impact of coinfection of these two parasites on disease epidemiology and pathology, we carried out coinfection studies using Plasmodium yoelii and Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Malaria parasite growth in the liver following sporozoite inoculation is significantly inhibited in mice infected with S. mansoni, so that when low numbers of sporozoites are inoculated, there is a large reduction in the percentage of mice that go on to develop blood stage malaria. Furthermore, gametocyte infectivity is much reduced in mice with S. mansoni infections. These results have profound implications for understanding the interactions between Plasmodium and Schistosoma species, and have implications for the control of malaria in schistosome endemic areas.

  20. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A combination of sorafenib and nilotinib reduces the growth of castrate-resistant prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archibald M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Monica Archibald,1 Tara Pritchard,1 Hayley Nehoff,1 Rhonda J Rosengren,1 Khaled Greish,1,2 Sebastien Taurin1 1Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; 2Aljawhara Centre for Molecular Medicine, Arabian Gulf University, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain Abstract: Castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC remains incurable due to the lack of effective therapies. Several tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and growth of CRPC, as such targeting these kinases may offer an alternative therapeutic strategy. We established the combination of two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs, sorafenib and nilotinib, as the most cytotoxic. In addtion, to improve their bioavailability and reduce their metabolism, we encapsulated sorafenib and nilotinib into styrene-co-maleic acid micelles. The micelles’ charge, size, and release rate were characterized. We assessed the effect of the combination on the cytotoxicity, cell cycle, apoptosis, protein expression, tumor spheroid integrity, migration, and invasion. The micelles exhibited a mean diameter of 100 nm, a neutral charge, and appeared highly stable. The micellar TKIs promoted greater cytotoxicity, decreased cell proliferation, and increased apoptosis relative to the free TKIs. In addition, the combination reduced the expression and activity of several tyrosine kinases and reduced tumor spheroid integrity and metastatic potential of CRPC cell lines more efficiently than the single treatments. The combination increased the therapeutic potential and demonstrated the relevance of a targeted combination therapy for the treatment of CRPC. In addition, the efficacy of the encapsulated drugs provides the basis for an in vivo preclinical testing. Keywords: sorafenib, nilotinib, castrate-resistant prostate cancer, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nanomedicine

  2. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddoudi, I.; Sendi, Y.; Batnini, M.; Romdhane, S.B.; Mhadhbi, H.; Mrabet, M.

    2017-07-01

    A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW) by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51%) and root DW (up to 60%) for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110%) and root DWs (29% and 67%), in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  3. Combination of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide, and sulforaphane, reduces the viability and growth of bronchial carcinoid cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokhtari, Reza Bayat; Kumar, Sushil; Islam, Syed S; Yazdanpanah, Mehrdad; Adeli, Khosrow; Cutz, Ernest; Yeger, Herman

    2013-01-01

    Bronchial carcinoids are pulmonary neuroendocrine cell-derived tumors comprising typical (TC) and atypical (AC) malignant phenotypes. The 5-year survival rate in metastatic carcinoid, despite multiple current therapies, is 14-25%. Hence, we are testing novel therapies that can affect the proliferation and survival of bronchial carcinoids. In vitro studies were used for the dose–response (AlamarBlue) effects of acetazolamide (AZ) and sulforaphane (SFN) on clonogenicity, serotonin-induced growth effect and serotonin content (LC-MS) on H-727 (TC) and H-720 (AC) bronchial carcinoid cell lines and their derived NOD/SCID mice subcutaneous xenografts. Tumor ultra structure was studied by electron microscopy. Invasive fraction of the tumors was determined by matrigel invasion assay. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to study the effect of treatment(s) on proliferation (Ki67, phospho histone-H3) and neuroendocrine phenotype (chromogranin-A, tryptophan hydroxylase). Both compounds significantly reduced cell viability and colony formation in a dose-dependent manner (0–80 μM, 48 hours and 7 days) in H-727 and H-720 cell lines. Treatment of H-727 and H-720 subcutaneous xenografts in NOD/SCID mice with the combination of AZ + SFN for two weeks demonstrated highly significant growth inhibition and reduction of 5-HT content and reduced the invasive capacity of H-727 tumor cells. In terms of the tumor ultra structure, a marked reduction in secretory vesicles correlated with the decrease in 5-HT content. The combination of AZ and SFN was more effective than either single agent. Since the effective doses are well within clinical range and bioavailability, our results suggest a potential new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of bronchial carcinoids

  4. The bean rhizosphere Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain RZ9 strongly reduces Fusarium culmorum growth and infectiveness of plant roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imen Haddoudi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A faba bean rhizospheric Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolate RZ9 was used for studying its antifungal activity and protecting effects of faba bean and common bean against the root pathogen Fusarium culmorum strain MZB47. The dual culture tests showed that RZ9 inhibits MZB47 in vitro growth by 56%. When mixing RZ9 cell suspension with MZB47 macroconidia at equal proportion, the macroconidia viability was reduced with 70%. Pathogenicity tests conducted in sterile conditions showed that MZB47 caused an intense root rotting in faba bean ‘Aquadulce’ plantlets and a slight level in common bean ‘Coco blanc’. This was associated to significant decreases in plant growth only in ‘Aquadulce’, reducing shoot dry weight (DW by 82% and root DW by 70%. In soil samples, MZB47 caused severe root rotting and induced significant decreases in shoot DW (up to 51% and root DW (up to 60% for both beans. It was associated to a decrease in nodule number by 73% and 52% for faba bean and common bean, respectively. Biocontrol assays revealed that the inoculation of RZ9 to MZB47-treated plantlets enhanced shoot DWs (25% and 110% and root DWs (29% and 67%, in faba bean and common bean, respectively. Moreover, root rotting levels decreased and nodule number increased in treated compared to untreated plantlets. Collected data highlighted the disease severity of F. culmorum and demonstrated the potential of using RZ9 in controlling Fusaria root diseases in beans. Thereby, the current study represents the first report on the biocontrol effectiveness of P. aeruginosa against F. culmorum in beans.

  5. Multivariate Analysis of Variance: Finding significant growth in mice with craniofacial dysmorphology caused by the Crouzon mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann; Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2010-01-01

    Crouzon syndrome is characterized by growth disturbances caused by premature fusion of the cranial growth zones. A mouse model with mutation Fgfr2C342Y, equivalent to the most common Crouzon syndrome mutation (henceforth called the Crouzon mouse model), has a phenotype showing many parallels to t...... used micro-CT scans of 4-week-old mice (N=5) and 6-week-old mice (N=10) with Crouzon syndrome (Fgfr2 C342Y/+) were compared to control groups of 4-week-old wild-type mice (N=5) and 6-week-old wild-type mice (N=10), respectively....

  6. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup, Casper; Schramm, Andreas; Findlay, Alyssa J; Finster, Kai W; Schreiber, Lars

    2017-07-18

    This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR). Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase. IMPORTANCE Sulfide oxidation and sulfate reduction, the two major branches of the sulfur cycle, are usually ascribed to distinct sets of microbes with distinct diagnostic genes. Here we show a more complex picture, as D. alkaliphilus , with the genomic setup of a sulfate reducer, grows by sulfide oxidation. The high expression of genes typically involved in the sulfate reduction pathway suggests that these genes, including the reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductases, are also involved in as-yet-unresolved sulfide oxidation pathways. Finally, D. alkaliphilus is closely related to cable bacteria, which grow by electrogenic sulfide oxidation. Since there are no pure cultures of cable bacteria, D. alkaliphilus may represent an

  7. Iron-reducing bacteria accumulate ferric oxyhydroxide nanoparticle aggregates that may support planktonic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luef, Birgit; Fakra, Sirine C; Csencsits, Roseann; Wrighton, Kelly C; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Downing, Kenneth H; Long, Philip E; Comolli, Luis R; Banfield, Jillian F

    2013-02-01

    Iron-reducing bacteria (FeRB) play key roles in anaerobic metal and carbon cycling and carry out biogeochemical transformations that can be harnessed for environmental bioremediation. A subset of FeRB require direct contact with Fe(III)-bearing minerals for dissimilatory growth, yet these bacteria must move between mineral particles. Furthermore, they proliferate in planktonic consortia during biostimulation experiments. Thus, a key question is how such organisms can sustain growth under these conditions. Here we characterized planktonic microbial communities sampled from an aquifer in Rifle, Colorado, USA, close to the peak of iron reduction following in situ acetate amendment. Samples were cryo-plunged on site and subsequently examined using correlated two- and three-dimensional cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The outer membranes of most cells were decorated with aggregates up to 150 nm in diameter composed of ∼3 nm wide amorphous, Fe-rich nanoparticles. Fluorescent in situ hybridization of lineage-specific probes applied to rRNA of cells subsequently imaged via cryo-TEM identified Geobacter spp., a well-studied group of FeRB. STXM results at the Fe L(2,3) absorption edges indicate that nanoparticle aggregates contain a variable mixture of Fe(II)-Fe(III), and are generally enriched in Fe(III). Geobacter bemidjiensis cultivated anaerobically in the laboratory on acetate and hydrous ferric oxyhydroxides also accumulated mixed-valence nanoparticle aggregates. In field-collected samples, FeRB with a wide variety of morphologies were associated with nano-aggregates, indicating that cell surface Fe(III) accumulation may be a general mechanism by which FeRB can grow while in planktonic suspension.

  8. Additional Common Bean in the Diet of Malawian Children Does Not Affect Linear Growth, but Reduces Intestinal Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapova, Sophia E; Stephenson, Kevin B; Divala, Oscar; Kaimila, Yankho; Maleta, Kenneth M; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M Isabel; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J

    2018-02-01

    Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi. This was a double-blind clinical trial in which children 12-23 mo of age were randomly assigned to receive complementary feeding with 1 of 3 foods: roasted cowpea or common bean flour, or an isoenergetic amount of corn-soy blend as a control food for 48 wk. Children aged 12-23 mo received 155 kcal/d and thereafter until 35 mo received 200 kcal/d. The primary outcomes were change in length-for-age z score (LAZ) and improvements in a biomarker of EED, the percentage of lactulose (%L) excreted as part of the lactulose:mannitol dual-sugar absorption test. Anthropometric measurements and urinary %L excretion were compared between the 2 intervention groups and the control group separately with the use of linear mixed model analyses for repeated measures. A total of 331 children completed the clinical trial. Compliance with the study interventions was excellent, with >90% of the intervention flour consumed as intended. No significant effects on LAZ, change in LAZ, or weight-for-length z score were observed due to either intervention legume, compared to the control. %L was reduced with common bean consumption (effect estimate was -0.07 percentage points of lactulose, P = 0.0007). The lactulose:mannitol test was not affected by the legume intervention. The addition of common bean to complementary feeding of rural Malawian children during the second year of life led to an improvement in a biomarker of gut health, although this did not directly translate into improved linear growth. This trial was registered at

  9. Assessment of Tools for Marker-Assisted Selection in a Marine Commercial Species: Significant Association between MSTN-1 Gene Polymorphism and Growth Traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Sánchez-Ramos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection in complex traits as growth. Polymorphisms have been studied in five candidate genes influencing growth in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata: the growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, myostatin (MSTN-1, prolactin (PRL, and somatolactin (SL genes. Specimens evaluated were from a commercial broodstock comprising 131 breeders (from which 36 males and 44 females contributed to the progeny. In all samples eleven gene fragments, covering more than 13,000 bp, generated by PCR-RFLP, were analyzed; tests were made for significant associations between these markers and growth traits. ANOVA results showed a significant association between MSTN-1 gene polymorphism and growth traits. Pairwise tests revealed several RFLPs in the MSTN-1 gene with significant heterogeneity of genotypes among size groups. PRL and MSTN-1 genes presented linkage disequilibrium. The MSTN-1 gene was mapped in the centromeric region of a medium-size acrocentric chromosome pair.

  10. Muscle growth is reduced in 15-month-old children with cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herskind, Anna; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Willerslev-Olsen, Maria

    2016-01-01

    AimLack of muscle growth relative to bone growth may be responsible for development of contractures in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Here, we used ultrasonography to compare growth of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in children with and without CP.MethodTwenty-six children with spastic CP (15...

  11. Selenized milk casein in the diet of BALB/c nude mice reduces growth of intramammary MCF-7 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrington, Jenny M; Kim, Julie JM; Stahel, Priska; Cieslar, Scott RL; Moorehead, Roger A; Coomber, Brenda L; Corredig, Milena; Cant, John P

    2013-01-01

    Dietary selenium has the potential to reduce growth of mammary tumors. Increasing the Se content of cows’ milk proteins is a potentially effective means to increase Se intake in humans. We investigate the effects of selenized milk protein on human mammary tumor progression in immunodeficient BALB/c nude mice. Four isonitrogenous diets with selenium levels of 0.16, 0.51, 0.85 and 1.15 ppm were formulated by mixing low- and high-selenium milk casein isolates with a rodent premix. MCF-7 cells were inoculated into the mammary fat pad of female BALB/c nude mice implanted with slow-release 17 β-estradiol pellets. Mice with palpable tumors were randomly assigned to one of the four diets for 10 weeks, during which time weekly tumor caliper measurements were conducted. Individual growth curves were fit with the Gompertz equation. Apoptotic cells and Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were determined. There was a linear decrease in mean tumor volume at 70 days with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05), where final tumor volume decreased 35% between 0.16 and 1.15 ppm Se. There was a linear decrease in mean predicted tumor volume at 56, 63 and 70 days, and the number of tumors with a final volume above 500 mm 3 , with increasing Se intake (P < 0.05). This tumor volume effect was associated with a decrease in the proportion of tumors with a maximum growth rate above 0.03 day -1 . The predicted maximum volume of tumors (V max ) and the number of tumors with a large V max , were not affected by Se-casein. Final tumor mass, Bcl-2, Bax, and Cyclin D1 protein levels in tumors were not significantly affected by Se-casein. There was a significantly higher number of apoptotic cells in high-Se tumors as compared to low-Se tumors. Taken together, these results suggest that turnover of cells in the tumor, but not its nutrient supply, were affected by dairy Se. We have shown that 1.1 ppm dietary Se from selenized casein can effectively reduce tumor progression in an MCF-7

  12. Growth characteristics of thermophile sulfate-reducing bacteria and its effect on carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, T.; Liu, H.; Hu, Y.; Zhou, L.; Zheng, B. [Department of Chemistry and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China)

    2009-03-15

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) have been identified as the main corrosive microorganisms causing unpredictable failure of materials. In this present work, a strain of thermophile SRB isolated from Bohai oilfield of China has been characterized and preliminarily identified. Furthermore, its effects on carbon steel at 60 C in SRB culture media were studied by electrochemical methods such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and weight loss measurements. The results show that the bacteria belong to Desulfotomaculum. The optimum growth temperature and pH of the bacteria were 60 C and 7.0, respectively. Weight loss measurements suggested that the corrosion rate of carbon steel in the culture media inoculated with thermophile SRB at 60 C was 2.2 times less than that at 37 C. At 60 C, SRB shifted the freely corroding potential of carbon steel toward a more positive value in the first 10 days, which later change to a negative value. Results obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS were in good agreement. The changes in biofilm structure with increase in bacteria supply offers some kind of protection to the base material in the early culture days at 60 C. Subsequently, it accelerated corrosion. Energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods indicate that corrosion products such as iron sulfides (FeS{sub x}) in biofilm play an important role in the biocorrosion process. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybin, Jacqueline A; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J; Duncan, William C; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2017-04-01

    Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB >80 mL/cycle; normal menstrual bleeding (NMB) endometrial TGF-β1 ligand, receptors, and downstream SMADs in women with NMB and HMB. The function and regulation of TGF-β1 were examined using cell culture. TGFB1 mRNA was maximal immediately prior to menses, but no differences detected between women with NMB and HMB at any cycle stage. Histoscoring of TGFB1 revealed reduced staining in the stroma during menses in women with HMB (P endometrial stromal cells (HES; P Endometrial SMAD2 and SMAD3 were lower in women with HMB during menstruation (P scratch assays revealed increased repair in HES cells treated with TGF-β1 versus control (P endometrial stromal cell repair. Decreased TGF-β1 activity may hinder repair of the denuded menstrual endometrium, resulting in HMB. Copyright © 2017 by the Endocrine Society

  14. Significance of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling for acquisition of meiotic and developmental competence in mammalian oocytes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházka, Radek; Blaha, Milan; Němcová, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 4 (2017), s. 537-549 ISSN 0006-3363 R&D Projects: GA MZe(CZ) QJ1510138; GA MŠk EF15_003/0000460 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : amphiregulin * cumulus cells * epidermal growth factor receptor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Reproductive biology (medical aspects to be 3) Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2016

  15. Growth regulators in reducing the size of orchid Fire-of-Star for commercialization in vase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Reiners Carvalho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire-of-star (Epidendrum radicans Pav. ex Lindl. is a terrestrial orchid, native to Brazil, tussocks with leafy stems, always with many adventitious roots, releasing its long inflorescence with about 1.0 m from the apex of the stem, showing great potential in floriculture, but long flowering stem complicates their marketing vase. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of paclobutrazol (PBZ and mepiquat chloride (CLM the reduction of the size of the orchid E. radicans. Plants with an average height of 15 cm were cultivated in a greenhouse with 50% shading. The growth regulators used were PBZ at doses of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20 mg L-1, and the CLM at doses of 0; 1; 2; 3; 4 and 5 mg L-1. The frequency of application was fortnightly, totaling ten applications. The experiment was installed on a randomized complete blocks, one block to the PBZ with 5 treatments and 10 replications and another block to the CLM, with 6 treatments and 10 replications. Data were submitted to analysis of variance at 5% probability and significance when seen performed regression analysis. The variables evaluated were number shoots, plant height (cm, number of flower stems and leaf area. The results indicated that E. radicans treated with 5 mg L-1 PBZ were 50% lower in height than the control plants. When CLM treated with a dose of 1 mg L-1 plants were 25% lower in height than the control plants, maintaining its aesthetic characteristics suitable for marketing in vases. Growth regulators in the applied doses did not affect the number of shoots and flower stems. PBZ treated plants had 50% of their leaf area compared to control while those treated with CLM doses remained with the same average leaf area of control.

  16. Significant differences in gene expression and key genetic components associated with high growth vigor in populus section tacamahaca as revealed by comparative transcriptome analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.; Chen, M.; Li, Y.; Wang, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, J.

    2017-01-01

    To identify genetic components involved in high growth vigor in F1 Populus section Tacamahaca hybrid plants, high and low vigor plants showing significant differences in apical dominance during a rapid growth period were selected. Apical bud transcriptomes of high and low-growth-vigor hybrids and their parents were analyzed using high-throughput RNA sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 5,542 genes were differently expressed between high growth vigor hybrid and its parents, the genes were significantly enriched in pathways related to processes such as photosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthetic processes and nucleoside metabolic processes. There were 1410 differentially expressed genes between high and low growth vigor hybrid, the genes were mainly involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthetic process, carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms, porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism and nitrogen metabolism. Moreover, a k-core of a gene co-expression network analysis was performed to identify the potential functions of genes related to high growth vigor. The functions of 8 selected candidate genes were associated mainly with circadian rhythm, water transport, cellulose catabolic processes, sucrose biosynthesis, pyrimidine ribonucleotide biosynthesis, purine nucleotide biosynthesis, meristem maintenance, and carbohydrate metabolism. Our results may contribute to a better understanding of the molecular basis of high growth vigor in hybrids and its regulation. (author)

  17. From meatless Mondays to meatless Sundays: motivations for meat reduction among vegetarians and semi-vegetarians who mildly or significantly reduce their meat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S; Hudders, Liselot

    2014-01-01

    This study explores vegetarians' and semi-vegetarians' motives for reducing their meat intake. Participants are categorized as vegetarians (remove all meat from their diet); semi-vegetarians (significantly reduce meat intake: at least three days a week); or light semi-vegetarians (mildly reduce meat intake: once or twice a week). Most differences appear between vegetarians and both groups of semi-vegetarians. Animal-rights and ecological concerns, together with taste preferences, predict vegetarianism, while an increase in health motives increases the odds of being semi-vegetarian. Even within each group, subgroups with different motives appear, and it is recommended that future researchers pay more attention to these differences.

  18. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact.

  19. Understanding the performance of sulfate reducing bacteria based packed bed reactor by growth kinetics study and microbial profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Subhabrata; Roy, Shantonu; Bhattacharya, Jayanta

    2016-07-15

    A novel marine waste extract (MWE) as alternative nitrogen source was explored for the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Variation of sulfate and nitrogen (MWE) showed that SRB growth follows an uncompetitive inhibition model. The maximum specific growth rates (μmax) of 0.085 and 0.124 h(-1) and inhibition constants (Ki) of 56 and 4.6 g/L were observed under optimized sulfate and MWE concentrations, respectively. The kinetic data shows that MWE improves the microbial growth by 27%. The packed bed bioreactor (PBR) under optimized sulfate and MWE regime showed sulfate removal efficiency of 62-66% and metals removal efficiency of 66-75% on using mine wastewater. The microbial community analysis using DGGE showed dominance of SRB (87-89%). The study indicated the optimum dosing of sulfate and cheap organic nitrogen to promote the growth of SRB over other bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth and production kinetics of human x mouse and mouse hybridoma cells at reduced temperature and serum content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borth, N; Heider, R; Assadian, A; Katinger, H

    1992-09-01

    The growth and production kinetics of a mouse hybridoma cell line and a human-mouse heterohybridoma were analyzed under conditions of reduced temperature and serum content. The mouse hybridoma P24 had a constant cell specific production rate and RNA content, while the heterohybridoma 3D6-LC4 showed growth associated production kinetics and an increased RNA content at higher growth rates. This behaviour of 3D6-LC4 cells can be explained by the unusual cell cycle kinetics of this line, which can be arrested in any phase under growth limiting conditions, so that a low growth rate does not result in a greater portion of high producing G1-phase cells. Substrate limitation changes the cell cycle distribution of this cell line to a greater extent than low temperature or serum content, which indicates that this stress factor exerts a greater physiological control than assumed.

  1. Dystrophin-deficient dogs with reduced myostatin have unequal muscle growth and greater joint contractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornegay, Joe N; Bogan, Daniel J; Bogan, Janet R; Dow, Jennifer L; Wang, Jiahui; Fan, Zheng; Liu, Naili; Warsing, Leigh C; Grange, Robert W; Ahn, Mihye; Balog-Alvarez, Cynthia J; Cotten, Steven W; Willis, Monte S; Brinkmeyer-Langford, Candice; Zhu, Hongtu; Palandra, Joe; Morris, Carl A; Styner, Martin A; Wagner, Kathryn R

    2016-01-01

    Myostatin (Mstn) is a negative regulator of muscle growth whose inhibition promotes muscle growth and regeneration. Dystrophin-deficient mdx mice in which myostatin is knocked out or inhibited postnatally have a less severe phenotype with greater total mass and strength and less fibrosis and fatty replacement of muscles than mdx mice with wild-type myostatin expression. Dogs with golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) have previously been noted to have increased muscle mass and reduced fibrosis after systemic postnatal myostatin inhibition. Based partly on these results, myostatin inhibitors are in development for use in human muscular dystrophies. However, persisting concerns regarding the effects of long-term and profound myostatin inhibition will not be easily or imminently answered in clinical trials. To address these concerns, we developed a canine (GRippet) model by crossbreeding dystrophin-deficient GRMD dogs with Mstn-heterozygous (Mstn (+/-)) whippets. A total of four GRippets (dystrophic and Mstn (+/-)), three GRMD (dystrophic and Mstn wild-type) dogs, and three non-dystrophic controls from two litters were evaluated. Myostatin messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels were downregulated in both GRMD and GRippet dogs. GRippets had more severe postural changes and larger (more restricted) maximal joint flexion angles, apparently due to further exaggeration of disproportionate effects on muscle size. Flexors such as the cranial sartorius were more hypertrophied on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the GRippets, while extensors, including the quadriceps femoris, underwent greater atrophy. Myostatin protein levels negatively correlated with relative cranial sartorius muscle cross-sectional area on MRI, supporting a role in disproportionate muscle size. Activin receptor type IIB (ActRIIB) expression was higher in dystrophic versus control dogs, consistent with physiologic feedback between myostatin and ActRIIB. However, there was no

  2. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei

    2014-01-01

    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  3. Bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count might be a significant predictor for the treatment outcomes of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Sun; Gang, Ga Won; Lee, Se Ryun; Sung, Hwa Jung; Park, Young; Kim, Dae Sik; Choi, Chul Won; Kim, Byung Soo

    2015-10-01

    Developing a parameter to predict bone marrow invasion by non-Hodgkin's lymphoma is an important unmet medical need for treatment decisions. This study aimed to confirm the validity of the hypothesis that bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level might be correlated with the risk of bone marrow involvement and the prognosis of patients with diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Forty-nine diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone regimen were enrolled. Vascular endothelial growth factor level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The validity of bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level and bone marrow vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count for predicting treatment response and survival after initial rituximab, cyclophosphamide, daunorubicin, vincristine and prednisolone combined chemotherapy was assessed. Bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count was significantly associated with old age (≥ 65 years), poor performance score (≥ 2), high International prognosis index (≥ 3) and bone marrow invasion. The patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) showed a significantly lower complete response rate than the others. On Kaplan-Meier survival curves, the patients with high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor levels (≥ 655 pg/ml) or high bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count (≥ 3.01) demonstrated a significantly shorter overall survival and progression-free survival than the others. In the patients without bone marrow involvement, bone marrow plasma vascular endothelial growth factor level per platelet count had a significant relationship with overall survival and progression-free survival. Multivariate analysis revealed that the patients without

  4. Evaluation of free-stall mattress bedding treatments to reduce mastitis bacterial growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristula, M A; Dou, Z; Toth, J D; Smith, B I; Harvey, N; Sabo, M [University of Penn, Kennett Square, PA (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Bacterial counts were compared in free-stall mattresses and teat ends exposed to 5 treatments in a factorial study design on 1 dairy farm. Mattresses in five 30-cow groups were subjected to 1 of 5 bedding treatments every other day: 0.5 kg of hydrated limestone, 120 mL of commercial acidic conditioner, 1 kg of coal fly ash, 1 kg of kiln-dried wood shavings, and control (no bedding). Counts of coliforms, Klebsiella spp., Escherichia coli, and Streptococcus spp. were lowest on mattresses bedded with lime. Mattresses bedded with the commercial acidic conditioner had the next lowest counts for coliforms, Klebsiella spp., and Streptococcus spp. Wood shavings and the no-bedding control had the highest counts for coliform and Klebsiella spp. Compared with wood shavings or control, fly ash reduced the counts of coliforms, whereas for the other 3 bacterial groups, the reduction was not always significant. Streptococcus spp. counts were greatest in the control group and did not differ among the shavings and fly ash groups. Teat swab results indicated that hydrated lime was the only bedding treatment that significantly decreased the counts of both coliforms and Klebsiella spp. There were no differences in Streptococcus spp. numbers on the teats between any of the bedding treatments. Bacterial populations grew steadily on mattresses and were generally higher at 36 to 48 h than at 12 to 24 h, whereas bacterial populations on teats grew rapidly by 12 h and then remained constant. Hydrated lime was the only treatment that significantly reduced bacterial counts on both mattresses and teat ends, but it caused some skin irritation.

  5. Regional growth management policies: Toward reducing global warming at state and local levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdie, J.

    1995-01-01

    State and local governments in the United States are accepting mandates to coordinate legislated land use and growth management planning with vigorous environmental protection and resource conservation. These mandates, implemented or planned in states with populations totaling over 100 million, will directly impact growth patterns and ultimately affect the level of atmospheric gases and particulates generated within their borders. This paper addresses the issues of growth management and land use planning at the local, state and regional levels and identifies areas impacting global warming. A review of existing systems will be presented, and recommendations will be made to improve monitoring of growth management mechanisms and organizational structures with the goal of global atmospheric improvement. The issues discussed include urban sprawl, transportation, and growth patterns as managed by policies also designed to protect environments and provide for sustainable growth. Areas for improved coordination between jurisdictions to ease global warming will also be examined

  6. Effects of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, interception of radiation and productivity of wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis Felipe Elli; Braulio Otomar Caron; Sandro Luis Petter Medeiros; Elder Eloy; Gean Charles Monteiro; Denise Schmidt

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of growth reducer and nitrogen fertilization on morphological variables, SPAD index, radiation interception, and grain yield of three cultivars of wheat. The experimental design was a randomized block in factorial scheme 3x5x2, with three cultivars (Mestre, Iguaçú and Itaipú), five nitrogen doses (0, 40, 80, 120, 160 Kg ha-1), and application or no application of a growth reducer, with three replications. The following characteri...

  7. Growth-differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8 in the uterus: its identification and functional significance in the golden hamster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Wai Sum

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transforming growth factor-beta superfamily regulates many aspects of reproduction in the female. We identified a novel member of this family, growth-differentiation factor 8 (GDF-8 in the 72 h post coital uterine fluid of the golden hamster by proteomic techniques. Uterine GDF-8 mRNA decreased as pregnancy progressed while its active protein peaked at 72 h post coitus (hpc and thereafter stayed at a lower level. At 72 hpc, the GDF-8 transcript was localized to the endometrial epithelium while its protein accumulated in the stroma. Exogenous GDF-8 slowed down proliferation of primary cultures of uterine smooth muscle cells (SMC and endometrial epithelial cells (EEC. In addition, GDF-8 attenuated the release of LIF (leukaemia inhibiting factor by EEC. As for the embryo in culture, GDF-8 promoted proliferation of the trophotoderm (TM and hatching but discouraged attachment. Our study suggests that GDF-8 could regulate the behavior of preimplantation embryos and fine-tune the physiology of uterine environment during pregnancy.

  8. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-01-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  9. The significance of the interconnection of second-level cooperatives and their peer-associated cooperatives for productivity growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez-Victoria, M.; Maté-Sánchez-Val, M.L.; Arcas-Lario, N.

    2017-09-01

    Cooperatives are especially important in current agri-food markets. These companies have responded to the current demand requirements with greater market orientation strategies to attract and satisfy customers. To do so, cooperatives have adopted different collaboration alternatives. In Spain, the most common alliance between cooperatives is materialised in second-level cooperatives, which are cooperatives integrated by at least two first-level cooperatives. The aim of this study was to analyse the interaction effects between first- and second level agri-food cooperatives on their productive growth and its components. To get this purpose, a Cobb-Douglas specification with spatial econometrics techniques was applied to evaluate this relationship. We included a spatial connectivity matrix to establish the interconnection among cooperatives of first- and second-level. Our results show a positive interaction effect highlighting the importance of these alliances on the productivity growth in the agri-food sector. The scarce amount of empirical papers explaining how second-level cooperatives influence the performance of first-level cooperatives shows the relevance of our study.

  10. Effect of temperature on sulphate reduction, growth rate and growth yield in five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria from Arctic sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoblauch, C.; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    and T(opt). For strains LSv21 and LSv514, however, growth yields were highest at the lowest temperatures, around 0 degrees C. The results indicate that psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria are specially adapted to permanently low temperatures by high relative growth rates and high growth yields......Five psychrophilic sulphate-reducing bacteria (strains ASv26, LSv21, PSv29, LSv54 and LSv514) isolated from Arctic sediments were examined for their adaptation to permanently low temperatures, All strains grew at -1.8 degrees C, the freezing point of sea water, but their optimum temperature...... for growth (T(opt)) were 7 degrees C (PSv29), 10 degrees C (ASv26, LSv54) and 18 degrees C (LSv21, LSv514), Although T(opt) was considerably above the in situ temperatures of their habitats (-1.7 degrees C and 2.6 degrees C), relative growth rates were still high at 0 degrees C, accounting for 25...

  11. Reduced exercise capacity in untreated adults with primary growth hormone resistance (Laron syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Dov, Issahar; Gaides, Mark; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Wagner, Rivka; Laron, Zvi

    2003-12-01

    Primary IGF-I deficiency (Laron syndrome, LS) may decrease exercise capacity as a result of a lack of an IGF-I effect on heart, peripheral muscle or lung structure and/or function. Eight patients (six females) who had never received treatment with IGF-I, with mean age of 36 +/- 10 (SD) years (range 21-48), weight 47 +/- 9 kg (31-61), height 126 +/- 12 cm (112-140) and body mass index of 29 +/- 4 kg/m2 (24-34), and 12 age-matched controls, underwent lung function tests and incremental cycling to the limit of tolerance (CPX, MedGraphics). Predicted values for the patients were derived from adult equations based on height. In LS patients, lung function was near normal; vital capacity was 84 +/- 11% of expected (66-103). Peak exercise O2-uptake and the anaerobic threshold were reduced, 57 +/- 20% of predicted and 33 +/- 9% of predicted peak (P = 0.005 vs. controls), despite normal mean exercise breathing reserve. All parameters were normal in the controls. Exercise capacity in untreated adults with LS is significantly reduced. The limitation for most patients was not ventilatory but resulted either from low cardiac output and/or from dysfunction of the peripheral muscles. However, the relative contribution of each of these elements and/or the role of poor fitness needs further study.

  12. A ketogenic diet reduces metabolic syndrome-induced allodynia and promotes peripheral nerve growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael A; Menta, Blaise W; Perez-Sanchez, Consuelo; Jack, Megan M; Khan, Zair W; Ryals, Janelle M; Winter, Michelle; Wright, Douglas E

    2018-08-01

    Current experiments investigated whether a ketogenic diet impacts neuropathy associated with obesity and prediabetes. Mice challenged with a ketogenic diet were compared to mice fed a high-fat diet or a high-fat diet plus exercise. Additionally, an intervention switching to a ketogenic diet following 8 weeks of high-fat diet was performed to compare how a control diet, exercise, or a ketogenic diet affects metabolic syndrome-induced neural complications. When challenged with a ketogenic diet, mice had reduced bodyweight and fat mass compared to high-fat-fed mice, and were similar to exercised, high-fat-fed mice. High-fat-fed, exercised and ketogenic-fed mice had mildly elevated blood glucose; conversely, ketogenic diet-fed mice were unique in having reduced serum insulin levels. Ketogenic diet-fed mice never developed mechanical allodynia contrary to mice fed a high-fat diet. Ketogenic diet fed mice also had increased epidermal axon density compared all other groups. When a ketogenic diet was used as an intervention, a ketogenic diet was unable to reverse high-fat fed-induced metabolic changes but was able to significantly reverse a high-fat diet-induced mechanical allodynia. As an intervention, a ketogenic diet also increased epidermal axon density. In vitro studies revealed increased neurite outgrowth in sensory neurons from mice fed a ketogenic diet and in neurons from normal diet-fed mice given ketone bodies in the culture medium. These results suggest a ketogenic diet can prevent certain complications of prediabetes and provides significant benefits to peripheral axons and sensory dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. In utero glucocorticoid (GLC) exposure reduces fetal skeletal muscle growth in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maternal undernutrition and stress expose the fetus to above normal levels of GLC and predispose to intrauterine growth restriction. The aim of this study was to determine if fetal GLC exposure impairs skeletal muscle growth independently of maternal undernutrition. Three groups (n=7/group) of timed...

  14. Reduced streamflow lowers dry-season growth of rainbow trout in a small stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bret C. Harvey; Rodney J. Nakamoto; Jason L. White

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of resource management activities can affect surface discharge in small streams. Often, the effects of variation in streamflow on fish survival and growth can be difficult to estimate because of possible confounding with the effects of other variables, such as water temperature and fish density. We measured the effect of streamflow on survival and growth...

  15. Green tea, red wine and lemon extracts reduce experimental tumor growth and cancer drug toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaletok, S P; Gulua, L; Wicker, L; Shlyakhovenko, V A; Gogol, S; Orlovsky, O; Karnaushenko, O V; Verbinenko, A; Milinevska, V; Samoylenko, O; Todor, I; Turmanidze, T

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate antitumor effect of plant polyphenol extracts from green tea, red wine lees and/or lemon peel alone and in combination with antitumor drugs on the growth of different transplanted tumors in experimental animals. Green tea extract (GTE) was prepared from green tea infusion. GTE-based composites of red wine (GTRW), lemon peel (GTRWL) and/or NanoGTE as well as corresponding nanocomposites were prepared. The total polyphenolics of the different GTE-based extracts ranged from 18.0% to 21.3%. The effects of GTE-based extracts were studied in sarcoma 180, Ehrlich carcinoma, B16 melanoma, Ca755 mammary carcinoma, P388 leukemia, L1210 leukemia, and Guerin carcinoma (original, cisplatin-resistant and doxorubicin-resistant variants). The extracts were administered as 0.1% solution in drinking water (0.6-1.0 mg by total polyphenolics per mouse per day and 4.0-6.3 mg per rat per day). Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in mice treated with NanoGTE, cisplatin or cisplatin + NanoGTE was 27%, 55% and 78%, respectively, in Sarcoma 180%, 21%, 45% and 59%, respectively, in Ehrlich carcinoma; and 8%, 13% and 38%, respectively in B16 melanoma. Composites of NanoGTE, red wine, and lemon peel (NanoGTRWL) enhanced the antitumor effects of cyclophosphamide in mice with Ca755 mammary carcinoma. The treatment with combination of NanoGTE and inhibitors of polyamines (PA) synthesis (DFMO + MGBG) resulted in significant TGI of P388 leukemia (up to 71%) and L1210 leukemia. In rats transplanted with Guerin carcinoma (parental strain), treatment with GTRW or GTE alone resulted in 25-28% TGI vs. 55-68% TGI in cisplatin-treated animals. The inhibition observed in the case of combination of GTE or GTRW with cisplatin was additive giving 81-88% TGI. Similar effects were observed when combinations of the cytostatics with GTE (or NanoGTE) were tested against cisplatin- or doxorubicin-resistant Guerin carcinoma. Moreover, the plant extracts lowered side toxicity of the drugs. Treatment with GTE

  16. A MapReduce-Based Parallel Frequent Pattern Growth Algorithm for Spatiotemporal Association Analysis of Mobile Trajectory Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawen Xia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent pattern mining is an effective approach for spatiotemporal association analysis of mobile trajectory big data in data-driven intelligent transportation systems. While existing parallel algorithms have been successfully applied to frequent pattern mining of large-scale trajectory data, two major challenges are how to overcome the inherent defects of Hadoop to cope with taxi trajectory big data including massive small files and how to discover the implicitly spatiotemporal frequent patterns with MapReduce. To conquer these challenges, this paper presents a MapReduce-based Parallel Frequent Pattern growth (MR-PFP algorithm to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of taxi operating using large-scale taxi trajectories with massive small file processing strategies on a Hadoop platform. More specifically, we first implement three methods, that is, Hadoop Archives (HAR, CombineFileInputFormat (CFIF, and Sequence Files (SF, to overcome the existing defects of Hadoop and then propose two strategies based on their performance evaluations. Next, we incorporate SF into Frequent Pattern growth (FP-growth algorithm and then implement the optimized FP-growth algorithm on a MapReduce framework. Finally, we analyze the characteristics of taxi operating in both spatial and temporal dimensions by MR-PFP in parallel. The results demonstrate that MR-PFP is superior to existing Parallel FP-growth (PFP algorithm in efficiency and scalability.

  17. Effect of reducing agent strength on the growth and thermoelectric performance of nanocrystalline bismuth telluride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Asmaa; Hassan, Nazly; Refaat, Heba M.; Soliman, Hesham M. A.; El-Dissouky, A.

    2018-03-01

    A novel combination of Trizma, as an environmentally friendly chelating agent, with either weak or strong reducing agent was used to produce n-type bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) nanocrystals via water-based chemical route. The synthesized powders were consolidated into pellets utilizing spark plasma sintering (SPS). The sintered n-type pellets exhibited potentially high electrical conductivities (5.29 × 105 and 5.23 × 105 S.m‑1) and low lattice thermal conductivities (0.12 and 0.25 Wm‑1K‑1) respectively. These thermoelectric (TE) properties suggested that the partially coherent boundaries permitted significant phonons scattering and electrons transfer. These led to an enhanced figure-of-merit (ZT) values (0.52 and 0.97), which are considered to be significant among the reported ZT values at room-temperature for the undoped synthesized n-type Bi2Te3 nanoparticles. Therefore, the current investigation displayed an efficient method to improve ZT of TE materials via nanostructure orchestrating, resulting in a worthy candidate n-type nanostructured Bi2Te3 for room-temperature TE applications.

  18. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L. F.; Ye, W. H.; Wu, J. F.; Liu, Jie; Zhang, W. Y.; He, X. T.

    2016-05-01

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  19. A scheme for reducing deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor growth in inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L. F., E-mail: wang-lifeng@iapcm.ac.cn; Ye, W. H.; Liu, Jie [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Wu, J. F. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); Center for Fusion Energy Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, Beijing 100088 (China); Zhang, W. Y. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); He, X. T. [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China); HEDPS, Center for Applied Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-05-15

    It is demonstrated that the growth of acceleration-phase instabilities in inertial confinement fusion implosions can be controlled, especially in the high-foot implosions [O. A. Hurricane et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 056314 (2014)] on the National Ignition Facility. However, the excessive growth of the deceleration-phase instabilities can still destroy the hot spot ignition. A scheme is proposed to retard the deceleration-phase Rayleigh–Taylor instability growth by shock collision near the waist of the inner shell surface. Two-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic simulations confirm the improved deceleration-phase hot spot stability properties without sacrificing the fuel compression.

  20. PDE7B is a novel, prognostically significant mediator of glioblastoma growth whose expression is regulated by endothelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Brooks

    Full Text Available Cell-cell interactions between tumor cells and constituents of their microenvironment are critical determinants of tumor tissue biology and therapeutic responses. Interactions between glioblastoma (GBM cells and endothelial cells (ECs establish a purported cancer stem cell niche. We hypothesized that genes regulated by these interactions would be important, particularly as therapeutic targets. Using a computational approach, we deconvoluted expression data from a mixed physical co-culture of GBM cells and ECs and identified a previously undescribed upregulation of the cAMP specific phosphodiesterase PDE7B in GBM cells in response to direct contact with ECs. We further found that elevated PDE7B expression occurs in most GBM cases and has a negative effect on survival. PDE7B overexpression resulted in the expansion of a stem-like cell subpopulation in vitro and increased tumor growth and aggressiveness in an in vivo intracranial GBM model. Collectively these studies illustrate a novel approach for studying cell-cell interactions and identifying new therapeutic targets like PDE7B in GBM.

  1. [Expression and clinical significance of kisspeptin-1, matrix metalloproteinase-2 and vascular endothelial growth factor in tissue of colon cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhui; Qi, Yuanling; Xu, Qian; Ren, Haipeng

    2016-03-01

    To detect the expression of kisspeptin-1 (KISS-1), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tissue of colon cancer, and analyze the relativity between KISS-1, MMP-2, VEGF and pathological characteristics of colon cancer. A total of 60 colon cancer patients and 60 patients with benign colorectal disease who received surgical treatment in our hospital from January 2009 to June 2010 were selected as observation group and control group respectively. The cancer tissue samples and excision samples collected from them were used to detect KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF with immunohistochemistry. The positive rates of KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF were 31.7%, 58.3% and 78.3% in observation group, and 73.3%, 16.7% and 33.3% in control group. The positive rate of KISS-1 in observation group was lower than that in control group (χ(2)=23.489, Pcolon cancer (χ(2)=8.997, P=0.011; χ(2)=6.163, P=0.013; χ(2)=8.519, P=0.014; χ(2)=9.160, P=0.002; χ(2)=16.577, Pclinical stage of colon cancer and provide evidence for clinical diagnosis and prognosis prediction by detecting KISS-1, MMP-2 and VEGF.

  2. Docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles suppress breast cancer cells growth with reduced myelosuppression toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Q

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Qing Yuan,1 Jing Han,1,2 Wenshu Cong,1 Ying Ge,3 Dandan Ma,1,3,4 Zhaoxia Dai,3,4 Yaping Li,5 Xiaolin Bi1,3,4 1CAS Key Laboratory for Biological Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafety, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 2School of Life Sciences, Anhui University, Hefei, 3Cancer Center, Institute of Cancer Stem Cell, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 4Graduate School, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, 5Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Docetaxel is an adjuvant chemotherapy drug widely used to treat multiple solid tumors; however, its toxicity and side effects limit its clinical efficacy. Herein, docetaxel-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (DSNs were developed to reduce systemic toxicity of docetaxel while still keeping its anticancer activity. To evaluate its anticancer activity and toxicity, and to understand the molecular mechanisms of DSNs, different cellular, molecular, and whole genome transcription analysis approaches were utilized. The DSNs showed lower cytotoxicity compared with the commercial formulation of docetaxel (Taxotere® and induced more apoptosis at 24 hours after treatment in vitro. DSNs can cause the treated cancer cells to arrest in the G2/M phase in a dose-dependent manner similar to Taxotere. They can also suppress tumor growth very effectively in a mice model with human xenograft breast cancer. Systemic analysis of gene expression profiles by microarray and subsequent verification experiments suggested that both DSNs and Taxotere regulate gene expression and gene function, including DNA replication, DNA damage response, cell proliferation, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. Some of these genes expressed differentially at the protein level although their messenger RNA expression level was similar under Taxotere and DSN treatment. Moreover, DSNs improved the main side effect of Taxotere by greatly

  3. Study of graphene growth on copper foil by pulsed laser deposition at reduced temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Elhamid, Abd Elhamid M.; Hafez, Mohamed A.; Aboulfotouh, Abdelnaser M.; Azzouz, Iftitan M.

    2017-01-01

    Graphene has been successfully grown on commercial copper foil at low temperature of 500 °C by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). X-ray diffraction patterns showed that films have been grown in the presence of Cu(111) and Cu(200) facets. Raman spectroscopy was utilized to study the effects of temperature, surface structure, and cooling rate on the graphene growth. Raman spectra indicate that the synthesis of graphene layers rely on the surface quality of the Cu substrate together with the proper cooling profile coupled with graphene growth temperature. PLD-grown graphene film on Cu has been verified by transmission electron microscopy. Surface mediated growth of graphene on Cu foil substrate revealed to have a favorable catalytic effect. High growth rate of graphene and less defects can be derived using fast cooling rate.

  4. Significance of measurement of serum somatostatin (SS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and some related cytokines levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible roles of the related hormones and cytokines in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Methods: Serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were measured with RIA in 1) 36 patients with Graves' disease before any treatment 2) another 30 patients with Graves' disease after successful anti-thyroid drug therapy and 3) 35 controls. Results: In the untreated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly higher but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.01). In the successfully treated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the untreated group. Conclusion: These parameters played significant roles in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease; however, the precise mechanism remained to be speculative and further studies required. (authors)

  5. Clinical significance of changes of serum insulin-like growth factors contents in patients with cirrhosis of liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Haiqiang; Lei Qiufang; Ye Peihong; Li Xiaohong; Gao Wenjin; Wang Mingtao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the serum contents of IGF-I, IGF-II and liver dysfunction (as classified with Child-Pugh grades). Methods: Liver function test profiles as well as serum IGF-I, IGF-II contents ( with IRMA) were studied in 46 patients with liver cirrhosis and 32 controls. Results: According to the degree of liver dysfunction, these 46 patients with cirrhosis could be classified as: Child Grade A, n=17; Child B, n=20; and Child C, n=9. The serum IGF-I and IGF-II contents in the cirrhotic patients were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.001). The levels dropped along with the progression of child classification grades. Changes of IGF-II were more sensitive than those of IGF-I. Conclusion: Serum IGF-I and IGF-II contents were closely associated with degree of liver dysfunction and might be of prognostic significance. (authors)

  6. Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) stimulates corneal wound healing and reduces haze formation after PRK surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Muruzabal, F; Alcalde, I; Merayo-Lloves, J; Orive, G

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of Plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) on the corneal wound healing process after Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK). To address this, blood from three healthy donors was collected, centrifuged and, the whole plasma column (WP) and the plasma fraction with the highest platelet concentration (F3) were collected. The effects of F3 and WP on the proliferation and migration of human corneal epithelial cells (HCE) were analyzed. PRK was performed on C57BL/6 mice. Animals were divided in three treatment groups: Control, F3, and WP. Corneal wound healing and haze formation were evaluated macroscopically. Eyes were collected at 1, 2, 3, and 7 days after surgery, and were processed for histological studies. Immunofluorescence was used to assess cellular proliferation, apoptosis and myofibroblast transformation in the mouse cornea. Results showed a significant increased on proliferation and wound healing after F3 and WP treatment when compared with control group. In vivo studies showed significant reduction on haze formation in mice treated with both PRGF-Endoret formulations (F3 and WP). Histological studies showed an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in corneas of control group, promoting an epithelial hyperplasia. The number of SMA-positive cells (corresponding to myofibroblast differentiation) was significantly lower in the PRGF-Endoret group than in the control group, correlating with the higher transparence results observed macroscopically in both PRGF-Endoret groups. According to this, it can be concluded that PRGF-Endoret accelerates corneal tissue regeneration after PRK, reducing haze formation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reducing Escherichia coli growth on a composite biomaterial by a surface immobilized antimicrobial peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckholtz, Gavin A.; Reger, Nina A. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Anderton, William D.; Schimoler, Patrick J. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States); Roudebush, Shana L.; Meng, Wilson S. [Division of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); Miller, Mark C. [Orthopaedic Biomechanics Research Laboratory, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA 15212 (United States); Gawalt, Ellen S., E-mail: gawalte@duq.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA 15282 (United States); McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A new composite bioceramic consisting of calcium aluminum oxide (CaAlO) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was functionalized with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide Inverso-CysHHC10. CaAlO is a bioceramic that can be mold cast easily and quickly at room temperature. Improved functionality was previously achieved through surface reactions. Here, composites containing 0–5% HA (by mass) were prepared and the elastic modulus and modulus of rupture were mechanically similar to non-load bearing bone. The addition of hydroxyapatite resulted in increased osteoblast attachment (> 180%) and proliferation (> 140%) on all composites compared to 100% CaAlO. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) immobilization was achieved using an interfacial alkene-thiol click reaction. The linked AMP persisted on the composite (> 99.6% after 24 h) and retained its activity against Escherichia coli based on N-phenylnaphthylamine uptake and bacterial turbidity tests. Overall, this simple scaffold system improves osteoblast activity and reduces bacterial activity. - Highlights: • Calcium aluminum oxide and hydroxyapatite were cast into a composite material. • Osteoblast attachment and proliferation were significantly increased on composites. • An active antimicrobial peptide was linked to and remained stable on the composite. • Bacterial turbidity and NPN uptake tests showed modified composites had an effect equal to a 10 μM Inverso-CysHHC10 solution. • Antimicrobial peptide linkage did not affect the increased osteoblast performance.

  8. Reducing Escherichia coli growth on a composite biomaterial by a surface immobilized antimicrobial peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckholtz, Gavin A.; Reger, Nina A.; Anderton, William D.; Schimoler, Patrick J.; Roudebush, Shana L.; Meng, Wilson S.; Miller, Mark C.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2016-01-01

    A new composite bioceramic consisting of calcium aluminum oxide (CaAlO) and hydroxyapatite (HA) was functionalized with the synthetic antimicrobial peptide Inverso-CysHHC10. CaAlO is a bioceramic that can be mold cast easily and quickly at room temperature. Improved functionality was previously achieved through surface reactions. Here, composites containing 0–5% HA (by mass) were prepared and the elastic modulus and modulus of rupture were mechanically similar to non-load bearing bone. The addition of hydroxyapatite resulted in increased osteoblast attachment (> 180%) and proliferation (> 140%) on all composites compared to 100% CaAlO. Antimicrobial peptide (AMP) immobilization was achieved using an interfacial alkene-thiol click reaction. The linked AMP persisted on the composite (> 99.6% after 24 h) and retained its activity against Escherichia coli based on N-phenylnaphthylamine uptake and bacterial turbidity tests. Overall, this simple scaffold system improves osteoblast activity and reduces bacterial activity. - Highlights: • Calcium aluminum oxide and hydroxyapatite were cast into a composite material. • Osteoblast attachment and proliferation were significantly increased on composites. • An active antimicrobial peptide was linked to and remained stable on the composite. • Bacterial turbidity and NPN uptake tests showed modified composites had an effect equal to a 10 μM Inverso-CysHHC10 solution. • Antimicrobial peptide linkage did not affect the increased osteoblast performance.

  9. Primary study on the clinical significance of measurement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and NPY concentrations in human semen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiyun; Ning Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference between the semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in fertile and non-fertile males with the relevant sperm count and motility. Methods: Semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY were determined with RIA in 110 non-fertile males. Simultaneous semen analysis revealed (1) Group A, n=45, with normal sperm count, (2) Group B, n=34 low sperm count (0-20) x 10 6 /ml and (3) Group C n=31, with aspermia. White blood cell/HPF was examined in all the semen specimens and sperm motile rate and motility were examined in Group A specimens. Results: The semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in non-fertile males were significantly higher than those in fertile males (P 1 x 10 6 /ml) were significantly lower than those in specimens with more white blood cells (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY might exert toxic effect on the sperms, contributing to the development of infertility. (authors)

  10. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Poudel

    Full Text Available Intracellular Chlamydia (C. bacteria cause in cattle some acute but rare diseases such as abortion, sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis, kerato-conjunctivitis, pneumonia, enteritis and polyarthritis. More frequent, essentially ubiquitous worldwide, are low-level, asymptomatic chlamydial infections in cattle. We investigated the impact of these naturally acquired infections in a cohort of 51 female Holstein and Jersey calves from birth to 15 weeks of age. In biweekly sampling, we measured blood/plasma markers of health and infection and analyzed their association with clinical appearance and growth in dependence of chlamydial infection intensity as determined by mucosal chlamydial burden or contemporaneous anti-chlamydial plasma IgM. Chlamydia 23S rRNA gene PCR and ompA genotyping identified only C. pecorum (strains 1710S, Maeda, and novel strain Smith3v8 in conjunctival and vaginal swabs. All calves acquired the infection but remained clinically asymptomatic. High chlamydial infection associated with reduction of body weight gains by up to 48% and increased conjunctival reddening (P<10(-4. Simultaneously decreased plasma albumin and increased globulin (P<10(-4 suggested liver injury by inflammatory mediators as mechanisms for the growth inhibition. This was confirmed by the reduction of plasma insulin like growth factor-1 at high chlamydial infection intensity (P<10(-4. High anti-C. pecorum IgM associated eight weeks later with 66% increased growth (P = 0.027, indicating a potential for immune protection from C. pecorum-mediated growth depression. The worldwide prevalence of chlamydiae in livestock and their high susceptibility to common feed-additive antibiotics suggests the possibility that suppression of chlamydial infections may be a major contributor to the growth promoting effect of feed-additive antibiotics.

  11. Growth hormone-induced insulin resistance in human subjects involves reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nellemann, B.; Vendelbo, M.H.; Nielsen, Thomas Svava

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by growth hormone (GH) is linked to promotion of lipolysis by unknown mechanisms. We hypothesized that suppression of the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase in the active form (PDHa) underlies GH-induced insulin resistance similar to what is observed during fasting....

  12. Aquatic grazers reduce the establishment and growth of riparian plants along an environmental gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, G.F.; Sarneel, J.M.; Ravensbergen, Lone; Huig, N.; van Paassen, José; Rip, W.; Bakker, E.S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary The establishment of riparian plants is determined by abiotic conditions and grazing, although it is usually presumed that the former are most important. We tested the impact of aquatic grazers on the survival and growth of establishing riparian plants and whether the impact of grazing

  13. Long-term resource limitation reduces insect detritivore growth in a headwater stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent R. Johnson; Wyatt F. Cross; J. Bruce Wallace

    2003-01-01

    We measured larval growth rates of 2 dominant stream detritivore groups to assess the mechanism underlying declines in invertebrate production following exclusion of terrestrial litter inputs to a forested headwater stream. Larval Tallaperla spp. (P1ecoptera:Peltoperlidae) were chosen as representative shredders and non-Tanypodinae Chironomidae (...

  14. Grass or fern competition reduce growth and survival of planted tree seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry H. McCormick; Todd W. Bowersox

    1997-01-01

    Bareroot seedlings of northern red oak, white ash, yellow-poplar and white pine were planted into herbaceous communities at three forested sites in central Pennsylvania that were clearcut 0 to 1 year earlier. Seedlings were grown 4 years in the presence and absence of either an established grass or hay-scented fern community. Survival and height growth were measured...

  15. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate-fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg:SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg-NOM to growing cultures 24h before sampling (late addition) resulted in {approx}2x greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid- and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to {approx}3x more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  16. Bacterial Growth Phase Influences Methylmercury Production by the Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Abir [ORNL; Brooks, Scott C [ORNL; Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Yin, Xiangping Lisa [ORNL; Drake, Meghan M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bacterial growth phase is an aspect of mercury (Hg) methylation that previous studies have not investigated in detail. Here we consider the effect of growth phase (mid-log, late-log and late stationary phase) on Hg methylation by the known methylator Desulfovibrio desulfuricans ND132. We tested the addition of Hg alone (chloride-complex), Hg with Suwannee River natural organic matter (SRNOM) (unequilibrated), and Hg equilibrated with SRNOM on monomethylmercury (MMHg) production by ND132 over a growth curve in pyruvate fumarate media. This NOM did not affect MMHg production even under very low Hg: SRNOM ratios, where Hg binding is predicted to be dominated by high energy sites. Adding Hg or Hg NOM to growing cultures 24 h before sampling (late addition) resulted in ~2 greater net fraction of Hg methylated than for comparably aged cultures exposed to Hg from the initial culture inoculation (early addition). Mid-and late-log phase cultures produced similar amounts of MMHg, but late stationary phase cultures (both under early and late Hg addition conditions) produced up to ~3 more MMHg, indicating the potential importance of growth phase in studies of MMHg production.

  17. Reduced aboveground tree growth associated with higher arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holste, Ellen K; Holl, Karen D; Zahawi, Rakan A; Kobe, Richard K

    2016-10-01

    Establishing diverse mycorrhizal fungal communities is considered important for forest recovery, yet mycorrhizae may have complex effects on tree growth depending on the composition of fungal species present. In an effort to understand the role of mycorrhizal fungi community in forest restoration in southern Costa Rica, we sampled the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community across eight sites that were planted with the same species ( Inga edulis, Erythrina poeppigiana, Terminalia amazonia, and Vochysia guatemalensis ) but varied twofold to fourfold in overall tree growth rates. The AMF community was measured in multiple ways: as percent colonization of host tree roots, by DNA isolation of the fungal species associated with the roots, and through spore density, volume, and identity in both the wet and dry seasons. Consistent with prior tropical restoration research, the majority of fungal species belonged to the genus Glomus and genus Acaulospora , accounting for more than half of the species and relative abundance found on trees roots and over 95% of spore density across all sites. Greater AMF diversity correlated with lower soil organic matter, carbon, and nitrogen concentrations and longer durations of prior pasture use across sites. Contrary to previous literature findings, AMF species diversity and spore densities were inversely related to tree growth, which may have arisen from trees facultatively increasing their associations with AMF in lower soil fertility sites. Changes to AMF community composition also may have led to variation in disturbance susceptibility, host tree nutrient acquisition, and tree growth. These results highlight the potential importance of fungal-tree-soil interactions in forest recovery and suggest that fungal community dynamics could have important implications for tree growth in disturbed soils.

  18. Silencing of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) Fus3 and Slt2 in Pseudocercospora fijiensis Reduces Growth and Virulence on Host Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyilo, Francis; Tusiime, Geoffrey; Tripathi, Jaindra N; Chen, Li-Hung; Falk, Bryce; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Tushemereirwe, Wilberforce; Kubiriba, Jerome; Tripathi, Leena

    2018-01-01

    Pseudocercospora fijiensis , causal agent of the black Sigatoka disease (BSD) of Musa spp., has spread globally since its discovery in Fiji 1963 to all the banana and plantain growing areas across the globe. It is becoming the most damaging and economically important disease of this crop. The identification and characterization of genes that regulate infection processes and pathogenicity in P. fijiensis will provide important knowledge for the development of disease-resistant cultivars. In many fungal plant pathogens, the Fus3 and Slt2 are reported to be essential for pathogenicity. Fus3 regulates filamentous-invasion pathways including the formation of infection structures, sporulation, virulence, and invasive and filamentous growth, whereas Slt2 is involved in the cell-wall integrity pathway, virulence, invasive growth, and colonization in host tissues. Here, we used RNAi-mediated gene silencing to investigate the role of the Slt2 and Fus3 homologs in P. fijiensis in pathogen invasiveness, growth and pathogenicity. The PfSlt2 and PfFus3 silenced P. fijiensis transformants showed significantly lower gene expression and reduced virulence, invasive growth, and lower biomass in infected leaf tissues of East African Highland Banana (EAHB). This study suggests that Slt2 and Fus3 MAPK signaling pathways play important roles in plant infection and pathogenic growth of fungal pathogens. The silencing of these vital fungal genes through host-induced gene silencing (HIG) could be an alternative strategy for developing transgenic banana and plantain resistant to BSD.

  19. Silencing of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK Fus3 and Slt2 in Pseudocercospora fijiensis Reduces Growth and Virulence on Host Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Onyilo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudocercospora fijiensis, causal agent of the black Sigatoka disease (BSD of Musa spp., has spread globally since its discovery in Fiji 1963 to all the banana and plantain growing areas across the globe. It is becoming the most damaging and economically important disease of this crop. The identification and characterization of genes that regulate infection processes and pathogenicity in P. fijiensis will provide important knowledge for the development of disease-resistant cultivars. In many fungal plant pathogens, the Fus3 and Slt2 are reported to be essential for pathogenicity. Fus3 regulates filamentous-invasion pathways including the formation of infection structures, sporulation, virulence, and invasive and filamentous growth, whereas Slt2 is involved in the cell-wall integrity pathway, virulence, invasive growth, and colonization in host tissues. Here, we used RNAi-mediated gene silencing to investigate the role of the Slt2 and Fus3 homologs in P. fijiensis in pathogen invasiveness, growth and pathogenicity. The PfSlt2 and PfFus3 silenced P. fijiensis transformants showed significantly lower gene expression and reduced virulence, invasive growth, and lower biomass in infected leaf tissues of East African Highland Banana (EAHB. This study suggests that Slt2 and Fus3 MAPK signaling pathways play important roles in plant infection and pathogenic growth of fungal pathogens. The silencing of these vital fungal genes through host-induced gene silencing (HIG could be an alternative strategy for developing transgenic banana and plantain resistant to BSD.

  20. Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    John R. Jones; George A. Schier

    1985-01-01

    This chapter considers aspen growth as a process, and discusses some characteristics of the growth and development of trees and stands. For the most part, factors affecting growth are discussed elsewhere, particularly in the GENETICS AND VARIATION chapter and in chapters in PART 11. ECOLOGY. Aspen growth as it relates to wood production is examined in the WOOD RESOURCE...

  1. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Maybin, Jacqueline A.; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J.; Duncan, William C.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Participants/Setting: Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB ...

  2. Pequi leaves incorporated into the soil reduce the initial growth of cultivated, invasive and native species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allem, Laísa N; Gomes, Anabele S; Borghetti, Fabian

    2014-12-01

    Studies have identified the phytotoxicity of many native species of the Cerrado; however, most of them were conducted either in inert substrates, or using exaggerate proportions of plant material. We investigated the phytotoxicity of pequi leaves added to substrate soil in quantities compatible with the litter produced by this species. Pequi leaves were triturated and added to red latosol in concentrations of 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%; the control was constituted of leafless soil. These mixtures were added to pots and irrigated daily to keep them moist. Germinated seeds of the cultivated sorghum and sesame, of the invasive brachiaria and of the native purple ipê, were disposed in the pots to grow for five to seven days at 30°C within a photoperiod of 12 h. Seedlings of all the species presented a reduction in their initial growth in a dose-dependent way. In general, the root growth was more affected by the treatments than the shoot growth; moreover, signs of necrosis were observed in the roots of the sorghum, sesame and brachiaria. The phytotoxic effects generated by relatively small quantities of leaves, in a reasonable range of species within a soil substrate, suggest potential allelopathy of pequi leaves under natural conditions.

  3. Pequi leaves incorporated into the soil reduce the initial growth of cultivated, invasive and native species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAÍSA N. ALLEM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have identified the phytotoxicity of many native species of the Cerrado; however, most of them were conducted either in inert substrates, or using exaggerate proportions of plant material. We investigated the phytotoxicity of pequi leaves added to substrate soil in quantities compatible with the litter produced by this species. Pequi leaves were triturated and added to red latosol in concentrations of 0.75%, 1.5% and 3%; the control was constituted of leafless soil. These mixtures were added to pots and irrigated daily to keep them moist. Germinated seeds of the cultivated sorghum and sesame, of the invasive brachiaria and of the native purple ipê, were disposed in the pots to grow for five to seven days at 30°C within a photoperiod of 12 h. Seedlings of all the species presented a reduction in their initial growth in a dose-dependent way. In general, the root growth was more affected by the treatments than the shoot growth; moreover, signs of necrosis were observed in the roots of the sorghum, sesame and brachiaria. The phytotoxic effects generated by relatively small quantities of leaves, in a reasonable range of species within a soil substrate, suggest potential allelopathy of pequi leaves under natural conditions.

  4. Fetoscopic laser coagulation of intertwin anastomoses reduces discordant placental autophagic activities in discordant twin growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Lung Chang

    2015-10-01

    Conclusion: The discordance of placenta autophagic activity in the monochorionic twin with sIUGR was reduced after laser coagulation of the intertwin anastomoses, which may result from the effect of correction of the discordant intertwin placenta perfusion.

  5. Combination of U.V.-B and ozone reduces pollen tube growth more than either stress alone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, W.A.; Shrier, R.

    1990-01-01

    The rate of in vitro Nicotiana tabacum L. “Bel-W3” pollen tube growth was reduced 62 and 44%, respectively, when pollen tubes were exposed to 120 ppb ozone (O 3 ) for 3 hr or 300 μW/cm 2 ultraviolet-B (u.v.-B) radiation for 30 min. Petunia hybrida Vilm. “White Cascade” pollen tube growth was reduced 34 and 59%, respectively, upon exposure to O 3 or u.v.-B at the above doses. The combination of u.v.-B at 300 μW/cm 2 for 30 min, followed by O 3 at 120 ppb for 3 hr, reduced pollen tube growth by 79% for “Bel-W3” and 75% for “White Cascade”. The effect appeared to be additive, implying that different target areas may be affected by the two stressors. In the Northeast, plants are exposed to both u.v.-B and O 3 during the normal growing season. This may result in an unexpectedly higher stress on the reproductive system than had been previously suspected based on these two stressors acting individually. (author)

  6. Clinical significance of determination of serum insulin-like growth factor II levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Changming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of the changes of serum insulinlike growth factor II (IGF-II) levels in patients with chronic obstruive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Methods: The serum IGF-II levels was determined with radioimmunoassay in 60 patients with COPD and 30 controls. Results: The serum IGF-II levels in patients with COPD were significantly higher than those in controls (0.65 ± 0.22μg/L vs 0.51±0.18μg/L, P<0.01). There were no significant differences among the levels in patients of different stages (stages I, II, III). Levels of IGF-II were significantly higher in patients succumbed to the dis- ease than those in patients recoverd (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II levels were significantly increased in patients with COPD, especially in those succumbed. (authors)

  7. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  8. Historical harvests reduce neighboring old-growth basal area across a forest landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, David M; Spies, Thomas A; Pabst, Robert

    2017-07-01

    While advances in remote sensing have made stand, landscape, and regional assessments of the direct impacts of disturbance on forests quite common, the edge influence of timber harvesting on the structure of neighboring unharvested forests has not been examined extensively. In this study, we examine the impact of historical timber harvests on basal area patterns of neighboring old-growth forests to assess the magnitude and scale of harvest edge influence in a forest landscape of western Oregon, USA. We used lidar data and forest plot measurements to construct 30-m resolution live tree basal area maps in lower and middle elevation mature and old-growth forests. We assessed how edge influence on total, upper canopy, and lower canopy basal area varied across this forest landscape as a function of harvest characteristics (i.e., harvest size and age) and topographic conditions in the unharvested area. Upper canopy, lower canopy, and total basal area increased with distance from harvest edge and elevation. Forests within 75 m of harvest edges (20% of unharvested forests) had 4% to 6% less live tree basal area compared with forest interiors. An interaction between distance from harvest edge and elevation indicated that elevation altered edge influence in this landscape. We observed a positive edge influence at low elevations (800 m). Surprisingly, we found no or weak effects of harvest age (13-60 yr) and harvest area (0.2-110 ha) on surrounding unharvested forest basal area, implying that edge influence was relatively insensitive to the scale of disturbance and multi-decadal recovery processes. Our study indicates that the edge influence of past clearcutting on the structure of neighboring uncut old-growth forests is widespread and persistent. These indirect and diffuse legacies of historical timber harvests complicate forest management decision-making in old-growth forest landscapes by broadening the traditional view of stand boundaries. Furthermore, the consequences

  9. BAG3 down-modulation reduces anaplastic thyroid tumor growth by enhancing proteasome-mediated degradation of BRAF protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappetta, Gennaro; Basile, Anna; Arra, Claudio; Califano, Daniela; Pasquinelli, Rosa; Barbieri, Antonio; De Simone, Veronica; Rea, Domenica; Giudice, Aldo; Pezzullo, Luciano; De Laurenzi, Vincenzo; Botti, Gerardo; Losito, Simona; Conforti, Daniela; Turco, Maria Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid tumors (ATC) express high levels of BAG3, a member of the BAG family of cochaperone proteins that is involved in regulating cell apoptosis through multiple mechanisms. The objective of the study was the investigation of the influence of B-cell lymphoma-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) on ATC growth. We investigated the effects of BAG3 down-modulation, obtained by using a specific small interfering RNA, on in vitro and in vivo growth of the human ATC cell line 8505C. Because BRAF protein plays an important role in ATC cell growth, we analyzed the effects of BAG3 down-modulation on BRAF protein levels. Furthermore, by using a proteasome inhibitor, we verified whether BAG3-mediated regulation of BRAF levels involved a proteasome-dependent mechanism. BAG3 down-modulation significantly inhibits ATC growth in vitro and in vivo. BAG3 coimmunoprecipitates with BRAF protein, and its down-modulation results in a significant reduction of BRAF protein levels, which can be reverted by incubation with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. BAG3 protein sustains ATC growth in vitro and in vivo. The underlying molecular mechanism appears to rely on BAG3 binding to BRAF, thus protecting it from proteasome-dependent degradation. These results are in line with the reported ability of BAG3 to interfere with the proteasomal delivery of a number of other client proteins.

  10. Placental restriction of fetal growth reduces cutaneous responses to antigen after sensitization in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooldridge, Amy L; Bischof, Robert J; Meeusen, Els N; Liu, Hong; Heinemann, Gary K; Hunter, Damien S; Giles, Lynne C; Kind, Karen L; Owens, Julie A; Clifton, Vicki L; Gatford, Kathryn L

    2014-04-01

    Prenatal and early childhood exposures are implicated as causes of allergy, but the effects of intrauterine growth restriction on immune function and allergy are poorly defined. We therefore evaluated effects of experimental restriction of fetal growth on immune function and allergic sensitization in adolescent sheep. Immune function (circulating total red and white blood cells, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils, and the antibody response to Clostridial vaccination) and responses to house dust mite (HDM) allergen and ovalbumin (OVA) antigen sensitization (specific total Ig, IgG1, and IgE antibodies, and cutaneous hypersensitivity) were investigated in adolescent sheep from placentally restricted (PR, n = 23) and control (n = 40) pregnancies. Increases in circulating HDM-specific IgE (P = 0.007) and OVA-specific IgE (P = 0.038) were greater in PR than control progeny. PR did not alter total Ig, IgG1, or IgM responses to either antigen. PR increased OVA-specific but not HDM-specific IgA responses in females only (P = 0.023). Multiple birth increased Ig responses to OVA in a sex-specific manner. PR decreased the proportion of positive cutaneous hypersensitivity responders to OVA at 24 h (P = 0.030) but had no effect on cutaneous responses to HDM. Acute wheal responses to intradermal histamine correlated positively with birth weight in singletons (P = 0.023). Intrauterine growth restriction may suppress inflammatory responses in skin downstream of IgE induction, without impairment in antibody responses to a nonpolysaccharide vaccine. Discord between cutaneous and IgE responses following sensitization suggests new mechanisms for prenatal allergy programming.

  11. Effect of Planting Date on Reducing Growth Period of Spring Safflower Cultivars in Tabriz Cold and Semi-arid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Pasban Eslam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Safflower is a plant adaptable to areas with limited rainfall during winter and spring and dry air at flowering, seed filling and maturity stages, and tolerant to water deficit. The positive correlation coefficient observed between safflower seed yield with precipitation and low air temperature during seed germination to flowering and flowering to seed maturity. Furthermore, precipitation and low temperature during flowering to seed maturity significantly increased seed oil percentage. Therefore, it seems that, by adjusting the planting time can be adapted phenological stages of plant with appropriate weather conditions. The aims of this research were study the possibility reducing the growth period of safflower spring varieties with maintaining performance through delay in planting time, evaluate seed and oil yields at different planting times, and identify the best varieties for cold and semi-arid areas. Materials and Methods The experiment was conducted at the East Azarbaijan Agriculture and Natural Resources Research Center (46°2¢E, 37°58¢N, 1347 m a.s.l. during 2014-2015 growing season. According to Koppen climatic classification system, the area climate is semi-arid and cold. This study was carried out as factorial experiment based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were four planting dates (30 March, 9, 19 and 29 April and three safflower spring cultivars (Sina, Soffeh and Goldasht. Plant spacing between rows was 24 cm and final plant density was 70 plant per m2. Each plot consisted of 6 rows in 5 meters. Plants were harvested on the 11th and 14th of August in the first and second years of experiment, respectively. At the harvest time, in order to control boarder effects, plants from the sides of each plot were removed. Measured traits were plant height, capitulum diameter, seed yield, capitula number per plant, seed number per capitulum and 1000-seed weight. Ten plants in each plot

  12. Silencing a sugar transporter gene reduces growth and fecundity in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lin-Quan; Jiang, Yi-Ping; Xia, Ting; Song, Qi-Sheng; Stanley, David; Kuai, Peng; Lu, Xiu-Li; Yang, Guo-Qing; Wu, Jin-Cai

    2015-07-17

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, sugar transporter gene 6 (Nlst6) is a facilitative glucose/fructose transporter (often called a passive carrier) expressed in midgut that mediates sugar transport from the midgut lumen to hemolymph. The influence of down regulating expression of sugar transporter genes on insect growth, development, and fecundity is unknown. Nonetheless, it is reasonable to suspect that transporter-mediated uptake of dietary sugar is essential to the biology of phloem-feeding insects. Based on this reasoning, we posed the hypothesis that silencing, or reducing expression, of a BPH sugar transporter gene would be deleterious to the insects. To test our hypothesis, we examined the effects of Nlst6 knockdown on BPH biology. Reducing expression of Nlst6 led to profound effects on BPHs. It significantly prolonged the pre-oviposition period, shortened the oviposition period, decreased the number of eggs deposited and reduced body weight, compared to controls. Nlst6 knockdown also significantly decreased fat body and ovarian (particularly vitellogenin) protein content as well as vitellogenin gene expression. Experimental BPHs accumulated less fat body glucose compared to controls. We infer that Nlst6 acts in BPH growth and fecundity, and has potential as a novel target gene for control of phloem-feeding pest insects.

  13. Yerba mate enhances probiotic bacteria growth in vitro but as a feed additive does not reduce Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Francisco; Diaz-Sanchez, Sandra; Pendleton, Sean; Andino, Ana; Zhang, Nan; Yard, Carrie; Crilly, Nate; Harte, Federico; Hanning, Irene

    2014-02-01

    Yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is a tea known to have beneficial effects on human health and antimicrobial activity against some foodborne pathogens. Thus, the application of yerba mate as a feed additive for broiler chickens to reduce Salmonella colonization was evaluated. The first in vitro evaluation was conducted by suspending Salmonella Enteritidis and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in yerba mate extract. The in vivo evaluations were conducted using preventative and horizontal transmission experiments. In all experiments, day-of-hatch chicks were treated with one of the following 1) no treatment (control); 2) ground yerba mate in feed; 3) probiotic treatment (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Pediococcus; 9:1 administered once on day of hatch by gavage); or 4) both yerba mate and probiotic treatments. At d 3, all chicks were challenged with Salmonella Enteritidis (preventative experiment) or 5 of 20 chicks (horizontal transmission experiment). At d 10, all birds were euthanized, weighed, and cecal contents enumerated for Salmonella. For the in vitro evaluation, antimicrobial activity was observed against Salmonella and the same treatment enhanced growth of LAB. For in vivo evaluations, none of the yerba mate treatments significantly reduced Salmonella Enteritidis colonization, whereas the probiotic treatment significantly reduced Salmonella colonization in the horizontal transmission experiment. Yerba mate decreased chicken BW and decreased the performance of the probiotic treatment when used in combination. In conclusion, yerba mate had antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens and enhanced the growth of LAB in vitro, but in vivo yerba mate did not decrease Salmonella Enteritidis colonization.

  14. Experimental drought and heat can delay phenological development and reduce foliar and shoot growth in semiarid trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Briggs, Samuel P; Vennetier, Michel; Dickman, L Turin; Sevanto, Sanna A; Garcia-Forner, Núria; Powers, Heath H; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-11-01

    Higher temperatures associated with climate change are anticipated to trigger an earlier start to the growing season, which could increase the terrestrial C sink strength. Greater variability in the amount and timing of precipitation is also expected with higher temperatures, bringing increased drought stress to many ecosystems. We experimentally assessed the effects of higher temperature and drought on the foliar phenology and shoot growth of mature trees of two semiarid conifer species. We exposed field-grown trees to a ~45% reduction in precipitation with a rain-out structure ('drought'), a ~4.8 °C temperature increase with open-top chambers ('heat'), and a combination of both simultaneously ('drought + heat'). Over the 2013 growing season, drought, heat, and drought + heat treatments reduced shoot and needle growth in piñon pine (Pinus edulis) by ≥39%, while juniper (Juniperus monosperma) had low growth and little response to these treatments. Needle emergence on primary axis branches of piñon pine was delayed in heat, drought, and drought + heat treatments by 19-57 days, while secondary axis branches were less likely to produce needles in the heat treatment, and produced no needles at all in the drought + heat treatment. Growth of shoots and needles, and the timing of needle emergence correlated inversely with xylem water tension and positively with nonstructural carbohydrate concentrations. Our findings demonstrate the potential for delayed phenological development and reduced growth with higher temperatures and drought in tree species that are vulnerable to drought and reveal potential mechanistic links to physiological stress responses. Climate change projections of an earlier and longer growing season with higher temperatures, and consequent increases in terrestrial C sink strength, may be incorrect for regions where plants will face increased drought stress with climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Steviol reduces MDCK Cyst formation and growth by inhibiting CFTR channel activity and promoting proteasome-mediated CFTR degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowalit Yuajit

    Full Text Available Cyst enlargement in polycystic kidney disease (PKD involves cAMP-activated proliferation of cyst-lining epithelial cells and transepithelial fluid secretion into the cyst lumen via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR chloride channel. This study aimed to investigate an inhibitory effect and detailed mechanisms of steviol and its derivatives on cyst growth using a cyst model in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells. Among 4 steviol-related compounds tested, steviol was found to be the most potent at inhibiting MDCK cyst growth. Steviol inhibition of cyst growth was dose-dependent; steviol (100 microM reversibly inhibited cyst formation and cyst growth by 72.53.6% and 38.2±8.5%, respectively. Steviol at doses up to 200 microM had no effect on MDCK cell viability, proliferation and apoptosis. However, steviol acutely inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current in MDCK epithelia, measured with the Ussing chamber technique, in a dose-dependent manner. Prolonged treatment (24 h with steviol (100 microM also strongly inhibited forskolin-stimulated apical chloride current, in part by reducing CFTR protein expression in MDCK cells. Interestingly, proteasome inhibitor, MG-132, abolished the effect of steviol on CFTR protein expression. Immunofluorescence studies demonstrated that prolonged treatment (24 h with steviol (100 microM markedly reduced CFTR expression at the plasma membrane. Taken together, the data suggest that steviol retards MDCK cyst progression in two ways: first by directly inhibiting CFTR chloride channel activity and second by reducing CFTR expression, in part, by promoting proteasomal degradation of CFTR. Steviol and related compounds therefore represent drug candidates for treatment of polycystic kidney disease.

  16. Disguised as a Sulfate Reducer: Growth of the Deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus by Sulfide Oxidation with Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Thorup

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrates that the deltaproteobacterium Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus can grow chemolithotrophically by coupling sulfide oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of nitrate and nitrite to ammonium. Key genes of known sulfide oxidation pathways are absent from the genome of D. alkaliphilus. Instead, the genome contains all of the genes necessary for sulfate reduction, including a gene for a reductive-type dissimilatory bisulfite reductase (DSR. Despite this, growth by sulfate reduction was not observed. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a very high expression level of sulfate-reduction genes during growth by sulfide oxidation, while inhibition experiments with molybdate pointed to elemental sulfur/polysulfides as intermediates. Consequently, we propose that D. alkaliphilus initially oxidizes sulfide to elemental sulfur, which is then either disproportionated, or oxidized by a reversal of the sulfate reduction pathway. This is the first study providing evidence that a reductive-type DSR is involved in a sulfide oxidation pathway. Transcriptome sequencing further suggests that nitrate reduction to ammonium is performed by a novel type of periplasmic nitrate reductase and an unusual membrane-anchored nitrite reductase.

  17. Syntrophic growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria and colorless sulfur bacteria during oxygen limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vandenEnde, FP; Meier, J; vanGemerden, H

    Stable co-cultures of the sulfate-reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans PA2805 and the colorless sulfur bacterium Thiobacillus thioparus T5 were obtained in continuous cultures supplied with limiting amounts of lactate and oxygen while sulfate was present in excess. Neither species could

  18. Early growth characteristics and the risk of reduced lung function and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    den Dekker, Herman T; Sonnenschein-van der Voort, Agnes M M; de Jongste, Johan C

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children born preterm or with a small size for gestational age are at increased risk for childhood asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the hypothesis that these associations are explained by reduced airway patency. METHODS: We used individual participant data of 24,938 children fro...

  19. Dacomitinib, an irreversible Pan-ErbB inhibitor significantly abrogates growth in head and neck cancer models that exhibit low response to cetuximab.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdows Ather

    Full Text Available Aberrant epidermal growth factor (EGF signaling is associated with tumor growth in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in humans (HNSCC, and is a major focus of targeted therapy. Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against EGFR, has been successful at prolonging survival but has only a 10% tumor shrinkage response rate in a clinical setting. The goal of this study was to compare dacomitinib (PF-00299804, a next generation small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor that irreversibly blocks multiple HER family receptors (HER-1 (EGFR, HER-2 and HER-4 tyrosine kinases, to cetuximab, the current FDA approved anti-EGFR medication for HNSCC and erlotinib, an EGFR specific small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Dacomitinib, erlotinib and cetuximab were tested in a panel of 27 HNSCC cell lines. Treatment with 100 ug/ml of cetuximab or 1 uM of erlotinib inhibited growth by at least 50% in 7/27 cell lines, while treatment with 1 uM of dacomitinib had similar growth inhibition in 17/27 lines. Cell lines representing three levels of sensitivity to dacomitinib were further examined using Western blots, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis. Treatment with 100 nM of dacomitinib reduced EGFR activity and downstream AKT and ERK pathways more effectively than treatment with 100 ug/ml of cetuximab in all ten tested lines. Although both compounds induced apoptosis at similar levels, dacomitinib caused greater G0/G1 arrest. Sensitivity to EGFR blockade was associated with levels of EGFR and ERK and was not associated with common oncogenic mutations and copy number variations. Phosphorylated and total EGFR and ERK levels correlate with sensitivity to both cetuximab and dacomitinib. Three of the four lines in the exquisitely sensitive group had the highest levels of phosphorylated and total EGFR and ERK among the ten lines selected, while the three resistant lines collectively had the lowest levels. Neither pAKT nor tAKT was associated with sensitivity.

  20. The effectiveness of the anti-CD11d treatment is reduced in rat models of spinal cord injury that produce significant levels of intraspinal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geremia, N M; Hryciw, T; Bao, F; Streijger, F; Okon, E; Lee, J H T; Weaver, L C; Dekaban, G A; Kwon, B K; Brown, A

    2017-09-01

    We have previously reported that administration of a CD11d monoclonal antibody (mAb) improves recovery in a clip-compression model of SCI. In this model the CD11d mAb reduces the infiltration of activated leukocytes into the injured spinal cord (as indicated by reduced intraspinal MPO). However not all anti-inflammatory strategies have reported beneficial results, suggesting that success of the CD11d mAb treatment may depend on the type or severity of the injury. We therefore tested the CD11d mAb treatment in a rat hemi-contusion model of cervical SCI. In contrast to its effects in the clip-compression model, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve forelimb function nor did it significantly reduce MPO levels in the hemi-contused cord. To determine if the disparate results using the CD11d mAb were due to the biomechanical nature of the cord injury (compression SCI versus contusion SCI) or to the spinal level of the injury (12th thoracic level versus cervical) we further evaluated the CD11d mAb treatment after a T12 contusion SCI. In contrast to the T12 clip compression SCI, the CD11d mAb treatment did not improve locomotor recovery or significantly reduce MPO levels after T12 contusion SCI. Lesion analyses revealed increased levels of hemorrhage after contusion SCI compared to clip-compression SCI. SCI that is accompanied by increased intraspinal hemorrhage would be predicted to be refractory to the CD11d mAb therapy as this approach targets leukocyte diapedesis through the intact vasculature. These results suggest that the disparate results of the anti-CD11d treatment in contusion and clip-compression models of SCI are due to the different pathophysiological mechanisms that dominate these two types of spinal cord injuries. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  2. The PPARδ Ligand GW501516 Reduces Growth but Not Apoptosis in Mouse Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Clark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The collecting duct (CD expresses considerable amounts of PPARδ. While its role is unknown in the CD, in other renal cells it has been shown to regulate both growth and apoptosis. We thus hypothesized that PPARδ reduces apoptotic responses and stimulates cell growth in the mouse CD, and examined the effect of GW501516, a synthetic PPARδ ligand, on these responses in mouse IMCD-K2 cells. High doses of GW501516 decreased both DNA and protein synthesis in these cells by 80%, but had no overall effect on cell viability. Although anisomycin treatment resulted in an increase of caspase-3 levels of about 2.59-fold of control, GW501516 did not affect anisomycin-induced changes in active caspase-3 levels. These results show that a PPARδ ligand inhibits growth but does not affect anisomycin-apoptosis in a mouse IMCD cell line. This could have therapeutic implications for renal diseases associated with increased CD growth responses.

  3. Recruitment decline in North Sea herring is accompanied by reduced larval growth rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Payne, Mark; Ross, Stine Dalmann; Worsøe Clausen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    The stock of North Sea autumn spawning herring (Clupea harengus L.) has shown an unprecedented sequence of ten years of sharply reduced recruitment, in spite of a high spawning biomass. Recent work has identified this below-expected recruitment as being determined during the larval phase: however...... rate of 8%, concurrent with the reduced larval survival and recruitment, was identified: after correcting for the effect of other explanatory variables (e.g. temperature changes), the gross reduction was found to be 12%. This reduction is most probably due to changes in either the amount or quality...... and larvae survival, thereby narrowing the range of potential mechanisms underlying the observed reduction in the recruitment of North Sea autumn spawning herring...

  4. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  5. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth

    2013-07-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200 mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND40 but no effect of prenatal prochloraz exposure on social investigation or acquisition of social-olfactory memory. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth of mussels Mytilus edulis at algal (Rhodomonas salina) concentrations below and above saturation level for reduced filtration rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Pleissner, Daniel; Larsen, Poul Scheel

    2013-01-01

    Average filtration and growth rates of groups of juvenile Mytilus edulis (n =2545 of 22-35 mm shell length) were measured at different concentrations of an algal cell monoculture in 9 laboratory experiments of duration 14-30 days, 4 experiments below and 5 above the limit of incipient saturation...... concentration (Csat ≈ 6000-7000 Rhodomonas salina cells ml-1). From a nearly constant filtration rate (F ≈ 30 ml min-1 for a 30 mm shell length) at measured algal concentrations below Csat the steady-state filtration rate decreased approximately as 1/C for increasing algal concentrations (C) above Csat...... is exceeded and then as partial valve closure and reduced filtration and growth rates along with production of pseudofaeces. A survey of naturally occurring phytoplankton biomass in the sea shows that this is generally below Csat except for the short spring bloom periods; hence mussels generally feed...

  7. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bibeau

    Full Text Available Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days, rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2, apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9 and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  8. Downregulation of connective tissue growth factor reduces migration and invasiveness of osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yinjun; Zhao, Shichang; Zhang, Changqing; Li, Xiaolin

    2016-02-01

    As one of the most serious types of primary bone tumor, osteosarcoma (OSA) features metastatic lesions, and resistance to chemotherapy is common. The underlying mechanisms of these characteristics may account for the failure of treatments and the poor prognosis of patients with OSA. It has been reported that inhibition of Cyr61 suppresses OSA cell proliferation as it represents a target of statins. In addition to cystein‑rich protein 61 (Cyr61) and nephroblastoma overexpression, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is a member of the CCN family and may therefore exhibit effects on human OSA cells similar to those of Cyr61. In the current study, acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining were used to determine the rate of apoptosis. The present study demonstrated that small interfering RNA‑mediated silencing of CTGF promoted cell death and suppressed OSA cell migration and invasion, as indicated by wound healing and Transwell assays, while lentivirus‑mediated overexpression of CTGF reversed these effects. Furthermore, a colorimetric caspase assay demonstrated that CTGF knockdown enhanced the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs. The results of the present study provided a novel molecular target which may be utilized for the treatment of metastatic OSA.

  9. Electrophysiology of glioma: a Rho GTPase-activating protein reduces tumor growth and spares neuron structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannini, Eleonora; Olimpico, Francesco; Middei, Silvia; Ammassari-Teule, Martine; de Graaf, Erik L; McDonnell, Liam; Schmidt, Gudula; Fabbri, Alessia; Fiorentini, Carla; Baroncelli, Laura; Costa, Mario; Caleo, Matteo

    2016-12-01

    Glioblastomas are the most aggressive type of brain tumor. A successful treatment should aim at halting tumor growth and protecting neuronal cells to prevent functional deficits and cognitive deterioration. Here, we exploited a Rho GTPase-activating bacterial protein toxin, cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1 (CNF1), to interfere with glioma cell growth in vitro and vivo. We also investigated whether this toxin spares neuron structure and function in peritumoral areas. We performed a microarray transcriptomic and in-depth proteomic analysis to characterize the molecular changes triggered by CNF1 in glioma cells. We also examined tumor cell senescence and growth in vehicle- and CNF1-treated glioma-bearing mice. Electrophysiological and morphological techniques were used to investigate neuronal alterations in peritumoral cortical areas. Administration of CNF1 triggered molecular and morphological hallmarks of senescence in mouse and human glioma cells in vitro. CNF1 treatment in vivo induced glioma cell senescence and potently reduced tumor volumes. In peritumoral areas of glioma-bearing mice, neurons showed a shrunken dendritic arbor and severe functional alterations such as increased spontaneous activity and reduced visual responsiveness. CNF1 treatment enhanced dendritic length and improved several physiological properties of pyramidal neurons, demonstrating functional preservation of the cortical network. Our findings demonstrate that CNF1 reduces glioma volume while at the same time maintaining the physiological and structural properties of peritumoral neurons. These data indicate a promising strategy for the development of more effective antiglioma therapies. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate inhibit growth and reduce estradiol levels of antral follicles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rupesh K.; Singh, Jeffery M.; Leslie, Tracie C.; Meachum, Sharon; Flaws, Jodi A.; Yao, Humphrey H-C

    2010-01-01

    Any insult that affects survival of ovarian antral follicles can cause abnormal estradiol production and fertility problems. Phthalate esters (PEs) are plasticizers used in a wide range of consumer and industrial products. Exposure to these chemicals has been linked to reduced fertility in humans and animal models. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) decrease serum estradiol levels and aromatase (Arom) expression, prolong estrous cycles, and cause anovulation in animal and culture models. These observations suggest PEs directly target antral follicles. We therefore tested the hypothesis that DEHP (1-100 μg/ml) and MEHP (0.1-10 μg/ml) directly inhibit antral follicular growth and estradiol production. Antral follicles from adult mice were cultured with DEHP or MEHP, and/or estradiol for 96 h. During culture, follicle size was measured every 24 h as a measurement of follicle growth. After culture, media were collected for measurement of estradiol levels and follicles were subjected to measurement of cylin-D-2 (Ccnd2), cyclin-dependant-kinase-4 (Cdk4), and Arom. We found that DEHP and MEHP inhibited growth of follicles and decreased estradiol production compared to controls at the highest doses. DEHP and MEHP also decreased mRNA expression of Ccnd2, Cdk4, and Arom at the highest dose. Addition of estradiol to the culture medium prevented the follicles from DEHP- and MEHP-induced inhibition of growth, reduction in estradiol levels, and decreased Ccnd2 and Cdk4 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that DEHP and MEHP may directly inhibit antral follicle growth via a mechanism that partially includes reduction in levels of estradiol production and decreased expression of cell cycle regulators.

  11. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed. PMID:22451723

  12. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibit pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by suppressing anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Wen; Zheng, Xi; Lin, Yong; Yang, Chung S.; Xu, Qing; Carpizo, Darren; Huang, Huarong; DiPaola, Robert S.; Tan, Xiang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Metformin and aspirin have been studied extensively as cancer preventive or therapeutic agents. However, the effects of their combination on pancreatic cancer cells have not been investigated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of metformin and aspirin, alone or in combination, on cell viability, migration, and apoptosis as well as the molecular changes in mTOR, STAT3 and apoptotic signaling pathways in PANC-1 and BxPC3 cells. Metformin and aspirin, at relatively low concentrations, demonstrated synergistically inhibitory effects on cell viability. Compared to the untreated control or individual drug, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited cell migration and colony formation of both PANC-1 and BxPC-3 cells. Metformin combined with aspirin significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of mTOR and STAT3, and induced apoptosis as measured by caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. Remarkably, metformin combined with aspirin significantly downregulated the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1 and Bcl-2, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins Bim and Puma, as well as interrupted their interactions. The downregulation of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 was independent of AMPK or STAT3 pathway but partially through mTOR signaling and proteasome degradation. In a PANC-1 xenograft mouse model, we demonstrated that the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited tumor growth and downregulated the protein expression of Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 in tumors. Taken together, the combination of metformin and aspirin significantly inhibited pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, supporting the continued investigation of this two drug combination as chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26056043

  13. Reducing Staphylococcus aureus growth on Ti alloy nanostructured surfaces through the addition of Sn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verissimo, Nathália C; Geilich, Benjamin M; Oliveira, Haroldo G; Caram, Rubens; Webster, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    β-type Ti alloys containing Nb are exciting materials for numerous orthopedic and dental applications due to their exceptional mechanical properties. To improve their cytocompatibility properties (such as increasing bone growth and decreasing infection), the surfaces of such materials can be optimized by adding elements and/or nanotexturing through anodization. Because of the increasing prevalence of orthopedic implant infections, the objective of this in vitro study was to add Sn and create unique nanoscale surface features on β-type Ti alloys. Nanotubes and nanofeatures on Ti-35Nb and Ti-35Nb-4Sn alloys were created by anodization in a HF-based electrolyte and then heat treated in a furnace to promote amorphous structures and phases such as anatase, a mixture of anatase-rutile, and rutile. Samples were characterized by SEM, which indicated different morphologies dependent on the oxide content and method of modification. XPS experiments identified the oxide content which resulted in a phase transformation in the oxide layer formed onto Ti-35Nb and Ti-35Nb-4Sn alloys. Most importantly, regardless of the resulting nanostructures (nanotubes or nanofeatures) and crystalline phase, this study showed for the first time that adding Sn to β-type Ti alloys strongly decreased the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; a bacteria which commonly infects orthopedic implants leading to their failure). Thus, this study demonstrated that β-type Ti alloys with Nb and Sn have great promise to improve numerous orthopedic applications where infection may be a concern. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Growth of sulfate reducers in deep-subseafloor sediments stimulated by crustal fluids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja eFichtel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On a global scale, crustal fluids fuel a substantial part of the deep subseafloor biosphere by providing electron acceptors for microbial respiration. In this study, we examined bacterial cultures from a sediment column of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, Northeast Pacific (IODP Site U1301 which is divided into three distinctive compartments: an upper sulfate-containing zone, formed by bottom-seawater diffusion, a sulfate-depleted zone and a second (~140 m thick sulfate-containing zone influenced by fluid diffusion from the basaltic aquifer. Sulfate reducers were isolated from near-surface and near-basement sediments. All initial enrichments harboured specific communities of heterotrophic microorganisms. Among those, the number of isolated spore-forming Firmicutes decreased from 60% to 21% with sediment depth. Strains affiliated to Desulfosporosinus lacus, Desulfotomaculum sp. and Desulfovibrio aespoeensis were recovered from the upper sediment layers (1.3-9.1 meters below seafloor, mbsf. Several strains of Desulfovibrio indonesiensis and one relative of Desulfotignum balticum were isolated from near-basement sediments (240-262 mbsf. The physiological investigation of strains affiliated to D. aespoeensis, D. indonesiensis and D. balticum indicated that they were all able to use sulfate, thiosulfate and sulfite as electron acceptors. In the presence of sulfate, they grew strain-specifically on a few short-chain n-alcohols and fatty acids, only. The strains fermented either ethanol, pyruvate or betaine. Interestingly, all strains utilized hydrogen and the isolate affiliated to D. indonesiensis even exhibited an autotrophic life-mode. Thus, in the deep subseafloor where organic substrates are limited or hardly degradable, hydrogen might become an essential electron donor. The isolation of non-sporeforming sulfate reducers from fluid-influenced layers indicates that they have survived the long-term burial as active populations even after the separation from

  15. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  16. Adaptive Significance of Quorum Sensing-Dependent Regulation of Rhamnolipids by Integration of Growth Rate in Burkholderia glumae: A Trade-Off between Survival and Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickzad, Arvin; Déziel, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell density-dependent mechanism which enables a population of bacteria to coordinate cooperative behaviors in response to the accumulation of self-produced autoinducer signals in their local environment. An emerging framework is that the adaptive significance of QS in the regulation of production of costly extracellular metabolites ("public goods") is to maintain the homeostasis of cooperation. We investigated this model using the phytopathogenic bacterium Burkholderia glumae, which we have previously demonstrated uses QS to regulate the production of rhamnolipids, extracellular surface-active glycolipids promoting the social behavior called "swarming motility." Using mass spectrometric quantification and chromosomal lux-based gene expression, we made the unexpected finding that when unrestricted nutrient resources are provided, production of rhamnolipids is carried out completely independently of QS regulation. This is a unique observation among known QS-controlled factors in bacteria. On the other hand, under nutrient-limited conditions, QS then becomes the main regulating mechanism, significantly enhancing the specific rhamnolipids yield. Accordingly, decreasing nutrient concentrations amplifies rhamnolipid biosynthesis gene expression, revealing a system where QS-dependent regulation is specifically triggered by the growth rate of the population, rather than by its cell density. Furthermore, a gradual increase in QS signal specific concentration upon decrease of specific growth rate suggests a reduction in quorum threshold, which reflects an increase in cellular demand for production of QS-dependent target gene product at low density populations. Integration of growth rate with QS as a decision-making mechanism for biosynthesis of costly metabolites, such as rhamnolipids, could serve to assess the demand and timing for expanding the carrying capacity of a population through spatial expansion mechanisms, such as swarming motility, thus

  17. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  18. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Bravo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain. Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO, local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees, tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results. Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  19. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, F.; Maguire, D.A.; González-Martínez, S.G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain). Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain) during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson) model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO), local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees), tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results). Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency) influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  20. Factors affecting cone production in Pinus pinaster Ait.: lack of growth-reproduction trade-offs but significant effects of climate and tree and stand characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo, F.; Maguire, D.A.; González-Martínez, S.G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: Our main goal is to determine the relationship between cone production and radial growth in Pinus pinaster Ait. under different climatic conditions across the Iberian Peninsula. Area of study: Coca Intensive Sampling Plateau, Northern Plateau (Spain). Material and methods: Cone counts were conducted on an intensive monitoring plot in Coca (North-Central Spain) during the years 2000, 2006 and 2007. A ZIP (zero-inflated Poisson) model was adjusted for simultaneously estimating the probability of obtaining crop cones and its amount. The Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index was used as explanatory variable, together with a wide variety of tree and local stand variables. Climate (as evaluated by NAO), local stand density (here estimated from the six nearest trees), tree size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency significantly influenced both occurrence and intensity of cone production. Main results: ZIP models for predicting reproductive effort seems an adequate tool to predict reproductive responses to climatic fluctuations and the resulting future species distribution in the face of climate change, as well as to identify silviculture actions that would promote reproductive success in naturally-regenerated stands, list and discuss relevant results (including numeric values of experimental results). Research highlights: Climate, stand density and tree conditions (size and vigor, competition and growth efficiency) influence significantly both cone occurrence and intensity of fruiting as shown by a ZIP model. As the climate variables included in the model (based on Northern Atlantic Oscillation, NAO) are general and easily obtained, the proposed model has practical applicability to predicting Pinus pinaster cone production in the Iberian Peninsula.

  1. The economic downturn and its lingering effects reduced medicare spending growth by $4 billion in 2009-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dranove, David; Garthwaite, Craig; Ody, Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Previous work has found a strong connection between the most recent economic recession and reductions in private health spending. However, the effect of economic downturns on Medicare spending is less clear. In contrast to studies involving earlier time periods, our study found that when the macroeconomy slowed during the Great Recession of 2007-09, so did Medicare spending growth. A small (14 percent) but significant share of the decline in Medicare spending growth from 2009 to 2012 relative to growth from 2004 to 2009 can be attributed to lingering effects of the recession. Absent the economic downturn, Medicare spending would have been $4 billion higher in 2009-12. A major reason for the relatively small impact of the macroeconomy is the relative lack of labor-force participation among people ages sixty-five and older. We estimate that if they had been working at the same rate as the nonelderly before the recession, the effect of the downturn on Medicare spending growth would have been twice as large. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  2. A proper choice of route significantly reduces air pollution exposure--a study on bicycle and bus trips in urban streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Ole; Hvidberg, Martin; Ketzel, Matthias; Storm, Lars; Stausgaard, Lizzi

    2008-01-15

    A proper selection of route through the urban area may significantly reduce the air pollution exposure. This is the main conclusion from the presented study. Air pollution exposure is determined for two selected cohorts along the route going from home to working place, and back from working place to home. Exposure is determined with a street pollution model for three scenarios: bicycling along the shortest possible route, bicycling along the low exposure route along less trafficked streets, and finally taking the shortest trip using public transport. Furthermore, calculations are performed for the cases the trip takes place inside as well as outside the traffic rush hours. The results show that the accumulated air pollution exposure for the low exposure route is between 10% and 30% lower for the primary pollutants (NO(x) and CO). However, the difference is insignificant and in some cases even negative for the secondary pollutants (NO(2) and PM(10)/PM(2.5)). Considering only the contribution from traffic in the travelled streets, the accumulated air pollution exposure is between 54% and 67% lower for the low exposure route. The bus is generally following highly trafficked streets, and the accumulated exposure along the bus route is therefore between 79% and 115% higher than the high exposure bicycle route (the short bicycle route). Travelling outside the rush hour time periods reduces the accumulated exposure between 10% and 30% for the primary pollutants, and between 5% and 20% for the secondary pollutants. The study indicates that a web based route planner for selecting the low exposure route through the city might be a good service for the public. In addition the public may be advised to travel outside rush hour time periods.

  3. Significance of determination of the serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) and insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) in patients with cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Haijiang; Wang Yaling; Wang Lin; Xia Weiren; Shi Min; Lu Yaling

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of homocysteine (Hcy) and insulin-like growth factor H (IGF-II) in patients with cerebrovascular diseases (CVD). Methods: The serum Hcy (with CLIA) and IGF-II (with RIA) levels were measured in 123 patients with CVD (cerebral infarction 69 and cerebral hemorrhage 54) and 43 controls. Results: The levels of Hcy and IGF-II in patients with CVD were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The serum Hcy and IGF-II levels in patients with CVD are elevated, Hcy and IGF-II may be involved in the development and pathogenesis of CVD. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta1(TGF-β1) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongfang; Peng Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Serum IV-C levels ( with RIA) and TGF-β 1 levels (with ELISA) were determined in 30 controls and 105 patients with type II diabetis mellitus (45 with diabetic nephropathy and 60 without nephropathy). Results: The serum levels of IV-C and TGF-β 1 in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IV-C and TGF-β 1 , levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe, they could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  5. Altered Expression of the Malate-Permeable Anion Channel OsALMT4 Reduces the Growth of Rice Under Low Radiance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the function of OsALMT4 in rice (Oryza sativa L. which is a member of the aluminum-activated malate transporter family. Previous studies showed that OsALMT4 localizes to the plasma membrane and that expression in transgenic rice lines results in a constitutive release of malate from the roots. Here, we show that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in roots, shoots, flowers, and grain but not guard cells. Expression was also affected by ionic and osmotic stress, light and to the hormones ABA, IAA, and salicylic acid. Malate efflux from the transgenic plants over-expressing OsALMT4 was inhibited by niflumate and salicylic acid. Growth of transgenic lines with either increased OsALMT4 expression or reduced expression was measured in different environments. Light intensity caused significant differences in growth between the transgenic lines and controls. When day-time light was reduced from 700 to 300 μmol m-2s-1 independent transgenic lines with either increased or decreased OsALMT4 expression accumulated less biomass compared to their null controls. This response was not associated with differences in photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance or sugar concentrations in tissues. We propose that by disrupting malate fluxes across the plasma membrane carbon partitioning and perhaps signaling are affected which compromises growth under low light. We conclude that OsALMT4 is expressed widely in rice and facilitates malate efflux from different cell types. Altering OsALMT4 expression compromises growth in low-light environments.

  6. Water availability drives gas exchange and growth of trees in northeastern US, not elevated CO2 and reduced acid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Mathieu; Andreu-Hayles, Laia; Pederson, Neil

    2017-04-10

    Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVM) exhibit high uncertainty about how climate change, elevated atmospheric CO 2 (atm. CO 2 ) concentration, and atmospheric pollutants will impact carbon sequestration in forested ecosystems. Although the individual roles of these environmental factors on tree growth are understood, analyses examining their simultaneous effects are lacking. We used tree-ring isotopic data and structural equation modeling to examine the concurrent and interacting effects of water availability, atm. CO 2 concentration, and SO 4 and nitrogen deposition on two broadleaf tree species in a temperate mesic forest in the northeastern US. Water availability was the strongest driver of gas exchange and tree growth. Wetter conditions since the 1980s have enhanced stomatal conductance, photosynthetic assimilation rates and, to a lesser extent, tree radial growth. Increased water availability seemingly overrides responses to reduced acid deposition, CO 2 fertilization, and nitrogen deposition. Our results indicate that water availability as a driver of ecosystem productivity in mesic temperate forests is not adequately represented in DGVMs, while CO 2 fertilization is likely overrepresented. This study emphasizes the importance to simultaneously consider interacting climatic and biogeochemical drivers when assessing forest responses to global environmental changes.

  7. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Pamella Macedo de; Goulart, Fátima Regina de Vasconcelos; Marques, Joana Montezano; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Groposo, Claudia; Sousa, Maíra Paula de; Vólaro, Vanessa; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Moreno, Daniela Sales Alviano; Seldin, Lucy

    2017-04-19

    Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO) produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium , Geotoga petraea , and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans . EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia , Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus , as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 78 µg/mL) the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral) and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  8. Growth Inhibition of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Produced Water from the Petroleum Industry Using Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Macedo de Souza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Strategies for the control of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB in the oil industry involve the use of high concentrations of biocides, but these may induce bacterial resistance and/or be harmful to public health and the environment. Essential oils (EO produced by plants inhibit the growth of different microorganisms and are a possible alternative for controlling SRB. We aimed to characterize the bacterial community of produced water obtained from a Brazilian petroleum facility using molecular methods, as well as to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of EO from different plants and their major components against Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491 and against SRB growth directly in the produced water. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed the presence of the genera Pelobacter and Marinobacterium, Geotoga petraea, and the SRB Desulfoplanes formicivorans in our produced water samples. Sequencing of dsrA insert-containing clones confirmed the presence of sequences related to D. formicivorans. EO obtained from Citrus aurantifolia, Lippia alba LA44 and Cymbopogon citratus, as well as citral, linalool, eugenol and geraniol, greatly inhibited (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC = 78 µg/mL the growth of D. alaskensis in a liquid medium. The same MIC was obtained directly in the produced water with EO from L. alba LA44 (containing 82% citral and with pure citral. These findings may help to control detrimental bacteria in the oil industry.

  9. Production of biosurfactant from Bacillus licheniformis for microbial enhanced oil recovery and inhibition the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. El-Sheshtawy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the bacterium Bacillus licheniformis has been isolated from oil reservoir; the ability of this bacterium to produce a biosurfactant was detected. Surface properties of the produced biosurfactant were confirmed by determining the emulsification power as well as surface and interfacial tension. The crude biosurfactant has been extracted from supernatant culture growth, and the yield of crude biosurfactant was about 1 g/l. Also, chemical structure of the produced biosurfactant was confirmed using FTIR analysis. Results revealed that, the emulsification power has been increased up to 96% and the surface tension decreased from 72 of distilled water to 36 mN/m after 72 h of incubation. The potential application of this bacterial species in microbial-enhanced oil recovery (MEOR was investigated. The percent of oil recovery was 16.6% upon application in a sand pack column designed to stimulate an oil recovery. It also showed antimicrobial activity against the growth of different strains of SRB (sulfate reducing bacteria. Results revealed that a complete inhibition of SRB growth using 1.0% crude biosurfactant is achieved after 3 h.

  10. Nitrogen side-dress as a strategy to reduce defoliation demages at different growth stages of maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sangoi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen can mitigate damages caused by leaf area reduction due to its influence on cell division. This work was carried out aiming to evaluate the efficiency of side-dressing different rates of nitrogen as a management strategy to maize stem defoliation at different growth stages. The experiment was set in Lages, during the 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 growing seasons. The experimental design was a randomized block with split plots. Three defoliation times were tested in the main plot: eight expanded leaves (V8, fifteen expanded leaves (V15 and tasseling (VT, plus a control without defoliation. Four nitrogen rates were assessed in the split-plots: 0, 50, 100 and 200 kg ha-1 of N. Nitrogen was side-dressed at the defoliation day of each growth stage and at V8 in the control. Defoliations performed at V8 did not reduce grain yield, in comparison to the control, regardless of N rate. Side-dressing N rates at V15 increased grain yield, mitigating damages caused by defoliation. Defoliation carried out at VT promoted great grain yield reduction that could not be alleviated with subsequent nitrogen fertilization. The success of nitrogen side-dress as a strategy to minimize maize grain yield losses caused by defoliation depends on the growth stage leaf area reduction occurs.

  11. Overexpression of thrombospondin-1 reduces growth and vascular index but not perfusion in glioblastoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Michael; Quistorff, Bjørn; Tenan, Mirna

    2002-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of antiangiogenic therapy on perfusion of human tumors and the mechanisms by which tumors can adapt to these treatments and recur. Here, we examined the effects of serial passaging of LN-229 human glioma xenografts overexpressing thrombospondin (TSP)-1 on tumor...... vascularity was estimated by noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy measuring blood volume at 800 +/- 10 nm and by histological vessel scores in CD31-immunostained cryosections. The tumor perfusion was assessed by noninvasive laser Doppler flowmetry. Overexpression of TSP-1 significantly inhibited tumor....... Elucidation of the mechanisms that allow this to happen has important consequences for the understanding of tumor recurrence after antiangiogenic therapy....

  12. Structural analogs of human insulin-like growth factor I with reduced affinity for serum binding proteins and the type 2 insulin-like growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayne, M.L.; Applebaum, J.; Chicchi, G.G.; Hayes, N.S.; Green, B.G.; Cascieri, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Four structural analogs of human insulin-like growth factor I (hIGF-I) have been prepared by site-directed mutagenesis of a synthetic IGF-I gene and subsequent expression and purification of the mutant protein from the conditioned media of transformed yeast. [Phe -1 , Val 1 , Asn 2 , Gln 3 , His 4 , Ser 8 , His 9 , Glu 12 , Tyr 15 , Leu 16 ]IGF-I (B-chain mutant), in which the first 16 amino acids of hIGF-I were replaced with the first 17 amino acids of the B-chain of insulin, has >1000-, 100-, and 2-fold reduced potency for human serum binding proteins, the rat liver type 2 IGF receptor, and the human placental type 1 IGF receptor, respectively. The B-chain mutant also has 4-fold increased affinity for the human placental insulin receptor. [Gln 3 , Ala 4 ] IGF-I has 4-fold reduced affinity for human serum binding proteins, but is equipotent to hIGF-I at the types 1 and 2 IGF and insulin receptors. [Tyr 15 , Leu 16 ] IGH-I has 4-fold reduced affinity for human serum binding proteins and 10-fold increased affinity for the insulin receptor. The peptide in which these four-point mutations are combined, [Gln 3 , Ala 4 , Tyr 15 ,Leu 16 ]IGF-I, has 600-fold reduced affinity for the serum binding proteins. All four of these mutants stimulate DNA synthesis in the rat vascular smooth muscle cell line A10 with potencies reflecting their potency at the type 1 IGF receptor. These studies identify some of the domains of hIGF-I which are responsible for maintaining high affinity binding with the serum binding protein and the type 2 IGF receptor. In addition, These peptides will be useful in defining the role of the type 2 IGF receptor and serum binding proteins in the physiological actions of hIGF-I

  13. A Rosa canina - Urtica dioica - Harpagophytum procumbens/zeyheri Combination Significantly Reduces Gonarthritis Symptoms in a Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moré, Margret; Gruenwald, Joerg; Pohl, Ute; Uebelhack, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    The special formulation MA212 (Rosaxan) is composed of rosehip ( Rosa canina L.) puree/juice concentrate, nettle ( Urtica dioica L.) leaf extract, and devil's claw ( Harpagophytum procumbens DC. ex Meisn. or Harpagophytum zeyheri Decne.) root extract and also supplies vitamin D. It is a food for special medical purposes ([EU] No 609/2013) for the dietary management of pain in patients with gonarthritis.This 12-week randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind parallel-design study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of MA212 versus placebo in patients with gonarthritis.A 3D-HPLC-fingerprint (3-dimensional high pressure liquid chromatography fingerprint) of MA212 demonstrated the presence of its herbal ingredients. Ninety-two randomized patients consumed 40 mL of MA212 (n = 46) or placebo (n = 44) daily. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC), quality-of-life scores at 0, 6, and 12 weeks, and analgesic consumption were documented. Statistically, the initial WOMAC subscores/scores did not differ between groups. During the study, their means significantly improved in both groups. The mean pre-post change of the WOMAC pain score (primary endpoint) was 29.87 in the MA212 group and 10.23 in the placebo group. The group difference demonstrated a significant superiority in favor of MA212 (p U  < 0.001; p t  < 0.001). Group comparisons of all WOMAC subscores/scores at 6 and 12 weeks reached same significances. Compared to placebo, both physical and mental quality of life significantly improved with MA212. There was a trend towards reduced analgesics consumption with MA212, compared to placebo. In the final efficacy evaluation, physicians (p Chi  < 0.001) and patients (p Chi  < 0.001) rated MA212 superior to placebo. MA212 was well tolerated.This study demonstrates excellent efficacy for MA212 in gonarthritis patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Myocardial fatty acid imaging with 123I-BMIPP in patients with chronic right ventricular pressure overload. Clinical significance of reduced uptake in interventricular septum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Yoshiro; Ishida, Yoshio; Fukuchi, Kazuki; Hayashida, Kouhei; Takamiya, Makoto

    2002-01-01

    Regionally reduced 123 I-beta-methyliodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) uptake in the interventricular septum (SEP) is observed in some patients with chronic right ventricular (RV) pressure overload. We studied the significance of this finding by comparing it with mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP). 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging was carried out in 21 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH; 51+-14 years; 11 men and 10 women; 7 with primary pulmonary hypertension, 11 with pulmonary thromboembolism, and 3 with atrial septal defect). mPAP ranged from 25 to 81 mmHg (49±16 mmHg). Using a midventricular horizontal long-axis plane, regional BMIPP distributions in the RV free wall and SEP were estimated by referring to those in the LV free wall. Count ratios of the RV free wall and SEP to the LV free wall (RV/LV, SEP/LV) were determined by ROI analysis. RV/LV showed a linear correlation with mPAP (r=0.42). However, SEP/LV was inversely correlated with mPAP (r=-0.49). When SEP/RV was compared among three regions of SEP in each patient, basal SEP/RV was most sensitively decreased in response to increased mPAP (r=-0.70). These results suggest that the assessment of septal tracer uptake in 123 I-BMIPP SPECT imaging is useful for evaluating the severity of RV pressure overload in patients with PH. (author)

  15. Current-horn suppression for reduced coherent-synchrotron-radiation-induced emittance growth in strong bunch compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. K. Charles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Control of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR-induced emittance growth is essential in linear accelerators designed to deliver very high brightness electron beams. Extreme current values at the head and tail of the electron bunch, resulting from strong bunch compression, are responsible for large CSR production leading to significant transverse projected emittance growth. The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS truncates the head and tail current spikes which greatly improves free electron laser (FEL performance. Here we consider the underlying dynamics that lead to formation of current spikes (also referred to as current horns, which has been identified as caustics forming in electron trajectories. We present a method to analytically determine conditions required to avoid the caustic formation and therefore prevent the current spikes from forming. These required conditions can be easily met, without increasing the transverse slice emittance, through inclusion of an octupole magnet in the middle of a bunch compressor.

  16. Long-term high-physiological-dose growth hormone reduces intra-abdominal fat in HIV-infected patients with a neutral effect on glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B R; Haugaard, S B; Jensen, Frank Krieger

    2010-01-01

    , glucose tolerance, and total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides did not significantly change during intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Daily 0.7 mg rhGH treatment for 40 weeks reduced abdominal visceral fat and trunk fat mass in HIV-infected patients. This treatment appeared to be safe with respect to glucose......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long-term high-physiological-dose recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy on fat distribution and glucose metabolism in HIV-infected patients. METHODS: Forty-six HIV-infected Caucasian men on highly active antiretroviral...... between 1 and 3 pm for 40 weeks. Endpoints included changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), limb fat mass, percentage of limb fat, plasma lipids, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance. RESULTS: VAT and trunk fat mass decreased significantly in the GH group compared...

  17. Growth of Thermophilic and Hyperthermophilic Fe(III)-Reducing Microorganisms on a Ferruginous Smectite as the Sole Electron Acceptor▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefi, Kazem; Shelobolina, Evgenya S.; Elliott, W. Crawford; Lovley, Derek R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the structural Fe(III) within phyllosilicate minerals, including smectite and illite, is an important electron acceptor for Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms in sedimentary environments at moderate temperatures. The reduction of structural Fe(III) by thermophiles, however, has not previously been described. A wide range of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea and Bacteria from marine and freshwater environments that are known to reduce poorly crystalline Fe(III) oxides were tested for their ability to reduce structural (octahedrally coordinated) Fe(III) in smectite (SWa-1) as the sole electron acceptor. Two out of the 10 organisms tested, Geoglobus ahangari and Geothermobacterium ferrireducens, were not able to conserve energy to support growth by reduction of Fe(III) in SWa-1 despite the fact that both organisms were originally isolated with solid-phase Fe(III) as the electron acceptor. The other organisms tested were able to grow on SWa-1 and reduced 6.3 to 15.1% of the Fe(III). This is 20 to 50% less than the reported amounts of Fe(III) reduced in the same smectite (SWa-1) by mesophilic Fe(III) reducers. Two organisms, Geothermobacter ehrlichii and archaeal strain 140, produced copious amounts of an exopolysaccharide material, which may have played an active role in the dissolution of the structural iron in SWa-1 smectite. The reduction of structural Fe(III) in SWa-1 by archaeal strain 140 was studied in detail. Microbial Fe(III) reduction was accompanied by an increase in interlayer and octahedral charges and some incorporation of potassium and magnesium into the smectite structure. However, these changes in the major element chemistry of SWa-1 smectite did not result in the formation of an illite-like structure, as reported for a mesophilic Fe(III) reducer. These results suggest that thermophilic Fe(III)-reducing organisms differ in their ability to reduce and solubilize structural Fe(III) in SWa-1 smectite and that SWa-1

  18. The anti-tumor effect of the quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod: blockade of recruitment of CD11b+ Ly6Chi cells to tumor tissue reduces tumor growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deronic, Adnan; Leanderson, Tomas; Ivars, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has demonstrated immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic effects of the small molecule quinoline-3-carboxamide tasquinimod in pre-clinical cancer models. To better understand the anti-tumor effects of tasquinimod in transplantable tumor models, we have evaluated the impact of the compound both on recruitment of myeloid cells to tumor tissue and on tumor-induced myeloid cell expansion as these cells are known to promote tumor development. Mice bearing subcutaneous 4 T1 mammary carcinoma tumors were treated with tasquinimod in the drinking water. A BrdU-based flow cytometry assay was utilized to assess the impact of short-term tasquinimod treatment on myeloid cell recruitment to tumors. Additionally, long-term treatment was performed to study the anti-tumor effect of tasquinimod as well as its effects on splenic myeloid cells and their progenitors. Myeloid cell populations were also immune-depleted by in vivo antibody treatment. Short-term tasquinimod treatment did not influence the proliferation of splenic Ly6C hi and Ly6G hi cells, but instead reduced the influx of Ly6C hi cells to the tumor. Treatment with tasquinimod for various periods of time after tumor inoculation revealed that the anti-tumor effect of this compound mainly operated during the first few days of tumor growth. Similar to tasquinimod treatment, antibody-mediated depletion of Ly6C hi cells within that same time frame, caused reduced tumor growth, thereby confirming a significant role for these cells in tumor development. Additionally, long-term tasquinimod treatment reduced the splenomegaly and expansion of splenic myeloid cells during a later phase of tumor development. In this phase, tasquinimod normalized the tumor-induced alterations in myeloerythroid progenitor cells in the spleen but had only limited impact on the same populations in the bone marrow. Our results indicate that tasquinimod treatment reduces tumor growth by operating early after tumor

  19. Allelopatic effect of different caster bean organs (Ricinus communis L. on reducing germination and growth of dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Seyyedi

    2016-05-01

    inflorescence and their aqueous extract concentrations in 5 levels (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10%. The third experiment was conducted with caster bean organs at 4 levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without inflorescence and decay durations at 8 levels (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days of decay and control. All experimental data were analyzed by ANOVA and the means were separated by Duncan's multiple range test at 5% probability level. Results and discussion The results of the first and the second experiment showed that aqueous extract of caster bean organs has a significant effect on dry weight, length of seedling and germination of dodder. From the third experiment, decay duration had a significant effect on the mentioned traits. Leaf aqueous extract in comparison with other organs had the most effect on the studied traits. The complete suppression of emergence was observed in 0, 15, 30 and 45 days of decay by using caster bean leaves. In conclusion, caster bean residues showed great potential for reducing germination and growth of dodder. Therefore, allelopatic potential of caster bean can be considered as a sustainable approach in integrated dodder management systems. In the future, the effective concentrations of aqueous extracts of caster bean organs may be useful as sources for producing biological herbicides. References Batish, D.R., Tung, P., Singh, H.P., and Kohli, R.K. 2002. Phytotoxicity of sunflower residues against some summer season crops. Journal of Agronomy and Crop Science 188: 19-24. Bhowmik, P.C., and Inderjit, I. 2003. Challenges and opportunities in implementing allelopathy for natural weed management. Crop Protection 22: 661-671. Jamil, M., Cheema, Z.A., Mushtaq, M.N., Farooq, M., and Cheema, M.A. 2009. Alternative control of wild oat and canary grass in wheat fields by allelopathic plant water extracts. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 29: 475-482. Lanini, W.T., and Kogan, M. 2005. Biology and management of Cucuta in crops. Ciencia e Investigaci

  20. PARP-1 depletion in combination with carbon ion exposure significantly reduces MMPs activity and overall increases TIMPs expression in cultured HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorai, Atanu; Sarma, Asitikantha; Chowdhury, Priyanka; Ghosh, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Hadron therapy is an innovative technique where cancer cells are precisely killed leaving surrounding healthy cells least affected by high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation like carbon ion beam. Anti-metastatic effect of carbon ion exposure attracts investigators into the field of hadron biology, although details remain poor. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) inhibitors are well-known radiosensitizer and several PARP-1 inhibitors are in clinical trial. Our previous studies showed that PARP-1 depletion makes the cells more radiosensitive towards carbon ion than gamma. The purpose of the present study was to investigate combining effects of PARP-1 inhibition with carbon ion exposure to control metastatic properties in HeLa cells. Activities of matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2, MMP-9) were measured using the gelatin zymography after 85 MeV carbon ion exposure or gamma irradiation (0- 4 Gy) to compare metastatic potential between PARP-1 knock down (HsiI) and control cells (H-vector - HeLa transfected with vector without shRNA construct). Expression of MMP-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of MMPs such as TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 were checked by immunofluorescence and western blot. Cell death by trypan blue, apoptosis and autophagy induction were studied after carbon ion exposure in each cell-type. The data was analyzed using one way ANOVA and 2-tailed paired-samples T-test. PARP-1 silencing significantly reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and carbon ion exposure further diminished their activities to less than 3 % of control H-vector. On the contrary, gamma radiation enhanced both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities in H-vector but not in HsiI cells. The expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in H-vector and HsiI showed different pattern after carbon ion exposure. All three TIMPs were increased in HsiI, whereas only TIMP-1 was up-regulated in H-vector after irradiation. Notably, the expressions of all TIMPs were significantly higher in HsiI than H-vector at 4 Gy. Apoptosis was

  1. Symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n reduce methylation of RARB and PTEN while significantly increase methylation of rRNA genes in MCF-7 cancer cells.

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    Svetlana V Kostyuk

    Full Text Available Hypermethylation is observed in the promoter regions of suppressor genes in the tumor cancer cells. Reactivation of these genes by demethylation of their promoters is a prospective strategy of the anticancer therapy. Previous experiments have shown that symmetric dimeric bisbenzimidazoles DBP(n are able to block DNA methyltransferase activities. It was also found that DBP(n produces a moderate effect on the activation of total gene expression in HeLa-TI population containing epigenetically repressed avian sarcoma genome.It is shown that DBP(n are able to penetrate the cellular membranes and accumulate in breast carcinoma cell MCF-7, mainly in the mitochondria and in the nucleus, excluding the nucleolus. The DBP(n are non-toxic to the cells and have a weak overall demethylation effect on genomic DNA. DBP(n demethylate the promoter regions of the tumor suppressor genes PTEN and RARB. DBP(n promotes expression of the genes RARB, PTEN, CDKN2A, RUNX3, Apaf-1 and APC "silent" in the MCF-7 because of the hypermethylation of their promoter regions. Simultaneously with the demethylation of the DNA in the nucleus a significant increase in the methylation level of rRNA genes in the nucleolus was detected. Increased rDNA methylation correlated with a reduction of the rRNA amount in the cells by 20-30%. It is assumed that during DNA methyltransferase activity inhibition by the DBP(n in the nucleus, the enzyme is sequestered in the nucleolus and provides additional methylation of the rDNA that are not shielded by DBP(n.It is concluded that DBP (n are able to accumulate in the nucleus (excluding the nucleolus area and in the mitochondria of cancer cells, reducing mitochondrial potential. The DBP (n induce the demethylation of a cancer cell's genome, including the demethylation of the promoters of tumor suppressor genes. DBP (n significantly increase the methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the nucleoli. Therefore the further study of these compounds is needed

  2. Complementary feeding with cowpea reduces growth faltering in rural Malawian infants: a blind, randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Kevin B; Agapova, Sophia E; Divala, Oscar; Kaimila, Yankho; Maleta, Kenneth M; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Ordiz, M Isabel; Trehan, Indi; Manary, Mark J

    2017-12-01

    Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend. Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old). The primary outcomes were change in length-for-age z score (LAZ) and improvements in EED, as measured by percentage of lactulose excretion (%L). %L Cowpea and common bean added 4.6-5.2 g protein/d and 4-5 g indigestible carbohydrate/d to the diet. LAZ and weight-for-height z score were reduced in all 3 groups from 6 to 12 mo of age. The changes in LAZ [mean (95% CI)] for the cowpea, common bean, and control groups from 6 to 9 mo were -0.14 (-0.24, -0.04), -0.27 (-0.38, -0.16), and -0.27 (-0.35, -0.19), respectively. LAZ was reduced less in infants receiving cowpea than in those receiving control food from 6 to 9 mo ( P = 0.048). The absolute value of %L did not differ between the dietary groups at 9 mo of age (mean ± SD: 0.30 ± 0.43, 0.23 ± 0.21, and 0.26 ± 0.31 for cowpea, common bean, and control, respectively), nor did the change in %L from 6 to 9 mo. Conclusion: Addition of cowpea to complementary feeding in Malawian infants resulted in less linear growth faltering. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02472262. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. A self-ordered, body-centered tetragonal superlattice of SiGe nanodot growth by reduced pressure CVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Capellini, Giovanni; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Hesse, Anne; Albani, Marco; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Montalenti, Francesco; Schroeder, Thomas; Tillack, Bernd

    2017-12-01

    Self-ordered three-dimensional body-centered tetragonal (BCT) SiGe nanodot structures are fabricated by depositing SiGe/Si superlattice layer stacks using reduced pressure chemical vapor deposition. For high enough Ge content in the island (>30%) and deposition temperature of the Si spacer layers (T > 700 °C), we observe the formation of an ordered array with islands arranged in staggered position in adjacent layers. The in plane periodicity of the islands can be selected by a suitable choice of the annealing temperature before the Si spacer layer growth and of the SiGe dot volume, while only a weak influence of the Ge concentration is observed. Phase-field simulations are used to clarify the driving force determining the observed BCT ordering, shedding light on the competition between heteroepitaxial strain and surface-energy minimization in the presence of a non-negligible surface roughness.

  4. Multi-Trait analysis of growth traits: fitting reduced rank models using principal components for Simmental beef cattle

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    Rodrigo Reis Mota

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this research was to evaluate the dimensional reduction of additive direct genetic covariance matrices in genetic evaluations of growth traits (range 100-730 days in Simmental cattle using principal components, as well as to estimate (covariance components and genetic parameters. Principal component analyses were conducted for five different models-one full and four reduced-rank models. Models were compared using Akaike information (AIC and Bayesian information (BIC criteria. Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood (REML. The AIC and BIC values were similar among models. This indicated that parsimonious models could be used in genetic evaluations in Simmental cattle. The first principal component explained more than 96% of total variance in both models. Heritability estimates were higher for advanced ages and varied from 0.05 (100 days to 0.30 (730 days. Genetic correlation estimates were similar in both models regardless of magnitude and number of principal components. The first principal component was sufficient to explain almost all genetic variance. Furthermore, genetic parameter similarities and lower computational requirements allowed for parsimonious models in genetic evaluations of growth traits in Simmental cattle.

  5. Complementary Feeding Interventions Have a Small but Significant Impact on Linear and Ponderal Growth of Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Anita; Heidkamp, Rebecca

    2017-11-01

    Background: World Health Assembly member states have committed to ambitious global targets for reductions in stunting and wasting by 2025. Improving complementary diets of children aged 6-23 mo is a recommended approach for reducing stunting in children impact of complementary feeding interventions on linear [length-for-age z score (LAZ)] and ponderal [weight-for-length z score (WLZ)] growth of children aged 6-23 mo, with the specific goal of updating intervention-outcome linkages in the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Methods: We started our review with studies included in the previous LiST review and searched for articles published since January 2012. We identified longitudinal trials that compared children aged 6-23 mo who received 1 of 2 types of complementary feeding interventions (nutrition education or counseling alone or complementary food supplementation with or without nutrition education or counseling) with a no-intervention control. We assessed study quality and generated pooled estimates of LAZ and WLZ change, as well as length and weight gain, for each category of intervention. Results: Interventions that provided nutrition education or counseling had a small but significant impact on linear growth in food-secure populations [LAZ standardized mean difference (SMD): 0.11; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.22] but not on ponderal growth. Complementary food supplementation interventions with or without nutrition education also had a small, significant effect in food-insecure settings on both LAZ (SMD: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.04, 0.13) and WLZ (SMD: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.08). Conclusions: Nutrition education and complementary feeding interventions both had a small but significant impact on linear growth, and complementary feeding interventions also had an impact on ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 mo in low- and middle-income countries. The updated LiST model will support nutrition program planning and evaluation efforts by allowing users to model changes in intervention coverage on

  6. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Zhang, Yulong; Sun, Zhanxiang; Zheng, Jiaming; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Yue; Liu, Yang; Feng, Liangshan; Feng, Chen; Zhang, Zhe; Yang, Ning; Evers, Jochem B.; Zhang, Lizhen

    2017-08-01

    A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L.) production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE). Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root / shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season) and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  7. Morphological plasticity of root growth under mild water stress increases water use efficiency without reducing yield in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. Cai

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A large yield gap exists in rain-fed maize (Zea mays L. production in semi-arid regions, mainly caused by frequent droughts halfway through the crop-growing period due to uneven distribution of rainfall. It is questionable whether irrigation systems are economically required in such a region since the total amount of rainfall does generally meet crop requirements. This study aimed to quantitatively determine the effects of water stress from jointing to grain filling on root and shoot growth and the consequences for maize grain yield, above- and below-ground dry matter, water uptake (WU and water use efficiency (WUE. Pot experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 with a mobile rain shelter to achieve conditions of no, mild or severe water stress. Maize yield was not affected by mild water stress over 2 years, while severe stress reduced yield by 56 %. Both water stress levels decreased root biomass slightly but shoot biomass substantially. Mild water stress decreased root length but increased root diameter, resulting in no effect on root surface area. Due to the morphological plasticity in root growth and the increase in root ∕ shoot ratio, WU under water stress was decreased, and overall WUE for both above-ground dry matter and grain yield increased. Our results demonstrate that an irrigation system might be not economically and ecologically necessary because the frequently occurring mild water stress did not reduce crop yield much. The study helps us to understand crop responses to water stress during a critical water-sensitive period (middle of the crop-growing season and to mitigate drought risk in dry-land agriculture.

  8. Inhibition of vimentin or B1 integrin reverts morphology of prostate tumor cells grown in laminin-rich extracellular matrix gels and reduces tumor growth in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueping; Fournier, Marcia V; Ware, Joy L; Bissell, Mina J; Yacoub, Adly; Zehner, Zendra E

    2008-06-12

    Prostate epithelial cells grown embedded in laminin-rich extracellular matrix (lrECM) undergo morphologic changes that closely resemble their architecture in vivo. In this study, growth characteristics of three human prostate epithelial sublines derived from the same cellular lineage, but displaying different tumorigenic and metastatic properties in vivo, were assessed in three-dimensional lrECM gels. M12, a highly tumorigenic and metastatic subline, was derived from the immortalized, prostate epithelial P69 cell line by selection in athymic, nude mice and found to contain a deletion of 19p-q13.1. The stable reintroduction of an intact human chromosome 19 into M12 resulted in a poorly tumorigenic subline, designated F6. When embedded in lrECM gels, the parental, nontumorigenic P69 line produced acini with clearly defined lumena. Immunostaining with antibodies to {beta}-catenin, E-cadherin, or {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins showed polarization typical of glandular epithelium. In contrast, the metastatic M12 subline produced highly disorganized cells with no evidence of polarization. The F6 subline reverted to acini-like structures exhibiting basal polarity marked with integrins. Reducing either vimentin levels via small interfering RNA interference or the expression of {alpha}6 and {beta}1 integrins by the addition of blocking antibodies, reorganized the M12 subline into forming polarized acini. The loss of vimentin significantly reduced M12-Vim tumor growth when assessed by s.c. injection in athymic mice. Thus, tumorigenicity in vivo correlated with disorganized growth in three-dimensional lrECM gels. These studies suggest that the levels of vimentin and {beta}1 integrin play a key role in the homeostasis of the normal acinus in prostate and that their dysregulation may lead to tumorigenesis. [Mol Cancer Ther 2009;8(3):499-508].

  9. Disruption of gene pqqA or pqqB reduces plant growth promotion activity and biocontrol of crown gall disease by Rahnella aquatilis HX2.

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    Lei Li

    Full Text Available Rahnella aquatilis strain HX2 has the ability to promote maize growth and suppress sunflower crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis, A. tumefaciens, and A. rhizogenes. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ, a cofactor of aldose and alcohol dehydrogenases, is required for the synthesis of an antibacterial substance, gluconic acid, by HX2. Mutants of HX2 unable to produce PQQ were obtained by in-frame deletion of either the pqqA or pqqB gene. In this study, we report the independent functions of pqqA and pqqB genes in relation to PQQ synthesis. Interestingly, both the pqqA and pqqB mutants of R. aquatilis eliminated the ability of strain HX2 to produce antibacterial substance, which in turn, reduced the effectiveness of the strain for biological control of sunflower crown gall disease. The mutation also resulted in decreased mineral phosphate solubilization by HX2, which reduced the efficacy of this strain as a biological fertilizer. These functions were restored by complementation with the wild-type pqq gene cluster. Additionally, the phenotypes of HX2 derivatives, including colony morphology, growth dynamic, and pH change of culture medium were impacted to different extents. Our findings suggested that pqqA and pqqB genes individually play important functions in PQQ biosynthesis and are required for antibacterial activity and phosphorous solubilization. These traits are essential for R. aquatilis efficacy as a biological control and plant growth promoting strain. This study enhances our fundamental understanding of the biosynthesis of an environmentally significant cofactor produced by a promising biocontrol and biological fertilizer strain.

  10. Reduced appearance of under-eye bags with twice-daily application of epidermal growth factor (EGF) serum: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Rachel; Moy, Ronald L

    2015-04-01

    Under-eye bags are a common manifestation of age and a frequent complaint among patients who no longer feel youthful. Non-invasive topical agents are largely ineffective at reducing their appearance. We studied the ability of a topical serum containing epidermal growth factor (EGF) to minimize the appearance of under-eye bags. A single-center clinical trial was performed on eighteen volunteer male and female patients with under-eye bags. Subjects applied EGF serum to the infraorbital area twice daily for 12 weeks. At each visit, subjects were evaluated using clinical photography and written self-assessment. A grade on the Merz Infraorbital Hollowness Scale was also given and two independent, blind investigators assigned an Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) score. At the trial's end, patients shared their final evaluation and perception of results with a questionnaire. Sixteen subjects completed the trial. The final average Merz grade was 1.63 (SEM = .273), statistically significantly lower than the mean baseline average of 2.06 (SEM = .232) (P = .0019). A reduction in average IGA score was also significant (Pbags as milder at the end of the trial compared to the first visit. Seven subjects reported greater satisfaction with their overall facial appearance. Of the subjects who had used other topical treatments in the past, two reported the serum to be "significantly better" and four said it was "better" in treating their under-eye bags. Our results offer evidence that topical EGF can reduce the appearance of under-eye bags.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor I reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-lipoxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Snarski, Patricia; Vaughn, Charlotte; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia; Kim, Catherine; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2015-02-01

    We have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) infusion in Apoe(-/-) mice decreased atherosclerotic plaque size and plaque macrophage and lipid content suggesting that IGF-1 suppressed formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Since 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) plays an important role in OxLDL and foam cell formation, we hypothesized that IGF-1 downregulates 12/15-LOX, thereby suppressing lipid oxidation and foam cell formation. We found that IGF-1 decreased 12/15-LOX plaque immunopositivity and serum OxLDL levels in Apoe(-/-) mice. IGF-1 reduced 12/15-LOX protein and mRNA levels in cultured THP-1 macrophages and IGF-1 also decreased expression of STAT6 transcription factor. IGF-1 reduction in macrophage 12/15-LOX was mediated in part via a PI3 kinase- and STAT6-dependent transcriptional mechanism. IGF-1 suppressed THP-1 macrophage ability to oxidize lipids and form foam cells. IGF-1 downregulated 12/15-LOX in human blood-derived primary macrophages and IGF-1 decreased LDL oxidation induced by these cells. IGF-1 reduced LDL oxidation and formation of foam cells by wild type murine peritoneal macrophages, however these effects were completely blocked in 12/15-LOX-null macrophages suggesting that the ability of IGF-1 to reduce LDL oxidation and foam cells formation is dependent on its ability to downregulate 12/15-LOX. Overall our data demonstrate that IGF-1 reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-LOX and this mechanism may play a major role in the anti-atherosclerotic effects of IGF-1. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  12. Insulin-like Growth Factor I Reduces Lipid Oxidation and Foam Cell Formation via Downregulation of 12/15-lipoxygenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanov, Sergiy; Snarski, Patricia; Vaughn, Charlotte; Lobelle-Rich, Patricia; Kim, Catherine; Higashi, Yusuke; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective We have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) infusion in Apoe−/− mice decreased atherosclerotic plaque size and plaque macrophage and lipid content suggesting that IGF-1 suppressed formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Since 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) plays an important role in OxLDL and foam cell formation, we hypothesized that IGF-1 downregulates 12/15-LOX, thereby suppressing lipid oxidation and foam cell formation. Approach and Results We found that IGF-1 decreased 12/15-LOX plaque immunopositivity and serum OxLDL levels in Apoe−/− mice. IGF-1 reduced 12/15-LOX protein and mRNA levels in cultured THP-1 macrophages and IGF-1 also decreased expression of STAT6 transcription factor. IGF-1 reduction in macrophage 12/15-LOX was mediated in part via a PI3 kinase- and STAT6-dependent transcriptional mechanism. IGF-1 suppressed THP-1 macrophage ability to oxidize lipids and form foam cells. IGF-1 downregulated 12/15-LOX in human blood-derived primary macrophages and IGF-1 decreased LDL oxidation induced by these cells. IGF-1 reduced LDL oxidation and formation of foam cells by wild type murine peritoneal macrophages, however these effects were completely blocked in 12/15-LOX-null macrophages suggesting that the ability of IGF-1 to reduce LDL oxidation and foam cells formation is dependent on its ability to downregulate 12/15-LOX. Conclusions Overall our data demonstrate that IGF-1 reduces lipid oxidation and foam cell formation via downregulation of 12/15-LOX and this mechanism may play a major role in the anti-atherosclerotic effects of IGF-1. PMID:25549319

  13. Significance of Herbaspirillum seropedicae inoculation and/or straw amendment on growth and dinitrogen fixation of wheat using 15N-dilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Komy, H M; Saad, O A; Hetta, A M

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Herbaspirillum seropedicae inoculation and/or maize straw (0, 5 and 10 Mg/hm2) amendment on the growth and N2 fixation of wheat was determined in pot experiments using 15N-dilution method. Inoculation resulted in accumulation of fixed nitrogen, and % N from atmosphere being 24.6 and 26.5% in wheat shoot and grain, respectively. Straw amendment reduced % Natm to 16.1 and 20.2% at high straw level (10 Mg/hm2). Rational nitrogen fertilization (180 kg N/hm2) completely inhibited N2 fixation by H. seropedicae inoculation. Bacterial inoculation increased dry shoot and grain yield up to 23 and 31%, respectively. The highest levels of shoot and grain dry mass (46.5 and 42.4%) were obtained by N-fertilization in both inoculated and uninoculated plants. Total shoot and grain N-yield increased irrespective of organic matter amendment by inoculation up to 9 and 25%, respectively. N-fertilized plants recorded a maximum increase in N-yield (57 and 51%). H. seropedicae was reisolated from inoculated wheat histosphere after harvesting (90 d from sowing). Neither organic matter nor mineral nitrogen applications had any marked effect on bacterial total counts colonizing wheat histosphere. Moreover, no symptoms of mottled stripe disease were observed on leaves and stems of inoculated plants.

  14. Detection and significance of serum insulin-like growth factor-1 in patients with type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetic osteoporosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Rong Kang; Pei-Li Gu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the content of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in serum and the relationship with type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetic osteoporosis.Methods:A total of 86 cases of patients with type 2 diabetes, 82 cases of patients with osteoporosis, 79 cases of patients with type 2 diabetic osteoporosis and 86 cases of healthy person were selected, the levels of IGF-1, diabetes related factors (fasting plasma c-peptide, FIN, HbA1c, GLU) and osteoporosis related factors (BMP, osteocalcin,β-CTx, P1NP, lumbar vertebra BMD) were detected, the relationship between the above indicators were compared with those of the disease.Results: In each group, content change of IGF-1 was not statistically significant; content changes of IGF-1, BMP and osteocalcin were control group>type 2 diabetes group>osteoporosis group>type 2 diabetic osteoporosis group. Diabetic osteoporosis enhanced the decrease of IGF-1 content. The contents ofβ-CTx and P1NP in osteoporosis group and diabetic osteoporosis group were similar, which were significantly lower than that in control group and type 2 diabetes group. The level of lumbar vertebra BMD in osteoporosis group and diabetic osteoporosis group were the lowest. Fasting plasma c-peptide in diabetes group and diabetic osteoporosis group were significantly lower than that in control group and osteoporosis group, and the content of fasting plasma c-peptide in diabetic osteoporosis group was the lowest. The contents of FIN, HbA1c and GLU in type 2 diabetes group and type 2 diabetic osteoporosis group were significantly higher than that in control group and osteoporosis group.Conclusion:IGF-1 was related with type 2 diabetes, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetic osteoporosis, and could offer help for predicting type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis in the future.

  15. Anti-tumor effects of ONC201 in combination with VEGF-inhibitors significantly impacts colorectal cancer growth and survival in vivo through complementary non-overlapping mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jessica; Kline, C Leah; Zhou, Lanlan; Khazak, Vladimir; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2018-01-22

    Small molecule ONC201 is an investigational anti-tumor agent that upregulates intra-tumoral TRAIL expression and the integrated stress response pathway. A Phase I clinical trial using ONC201 therapy in advanced cancer patients has been completed and the drug has progressed into Phase II trials in several cancer types. Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains one of the leading causes of cancer worldwide and metastatic disease has a poor prognosis. Clinical trials in CRC and other tumor types have demonstrated that therapeutics targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway, such as bevacizumab, are effective in combination with certain chemotherapeutic agents. We investigated the potential combination of VEGF inhibitors such as bevacizumab and its murine-counterpart; along with other anti-angiogenic agents and ONC201 in both CRC xenograft and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. We utilized non-invasive imaging and immunohistochemistry to determine potential mechanisms of action. Our results demonstrate significant tumor regression or complete tumor ablation in human xenografts with the combination of ONC201 with bevacizumab, and in syngeneic MC38 colorectal cancer xenografts using a murine VEGF-A inhibitor. Imaging demonstrated the impact of this combination on decreasing tumor growth and tumor metastasis. Our results indicate that ONC201 and anti-angiogenic agents act through distinct mechanisms while increasing tumor cell death and inhibiting proliferation. With the use of both a murine VEGF inhibitor in syngeneic models, and bevacizumab in human cell line-derived xenografts, we demonstrate that ONC201 in combination with anti-angiogenic therapies such as bevacizumab represents a promising approach for further testing in the clinic for the treatment of CRC.

  16. Photoprotection, photosynthesis and growth of tropical tree seedlings under near-ambient and strongly reduced solar ultraviolet-B radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, G Heinrich; Jahns, Peter; Virgo, Aurelio; García, Milton; Aranda, Jorge; Wellmann, Eckard; Winter, Klaus

    2007-10-01

    Seedlings of two late-successional tropical rainforest tree species, Tetragastris panamensis (Engler) O. Kuntze and Calophyllum longifolium (Willd.), were field grown for 3-4 months at an open site near Panama City (9 degrees N), Panama, under plastic films that either transmitted or excluded most solar UV-B radiation. Experiments were designed to test whether leaves developing under bright sunlight with strongly reduced UV-B are capable of acclimating to near-ambient UV-B conditions. Leaves of T. panamensis that developed under near-ambient UV-B contained higher amounts of UV-absorbing substances than leaves of seedlings grown under reduced UV-B. Photosynthetic pigment composition, content of alpha-tocopherol, CO(2) assimilation, potential photosystem II (PSII) efficiency (evaluated by F(v)/F(m) ratios) and growth of T. panamensis and C. longifolium did not differ between seedlings developed under near-ambient and reduced solar UV-B. When seedlings were transferred from the reduced UV-B treatment to the near-ambient UV-B treatment, a pronounced inhibition of photosynthetic capacity was observed initially in both species. UV-B-mediated inhibition of photosynthetic capacity nearly fully recovered within 1 week of the transfer in C. longifolium, whereas in T. panamensis an about 35% reduced capacity of CO(2) uptake was maintained. A marked increase in UV-absorbing substances was observed in foliage of transferred T. panamensis seedlings. Both species exhibited enhanced mid-day photoinhibition of PSII immediately after being transferred from the reduced UV-B to the near-ambient UV-B treatment. This effect was fully reversible within 1d in T. panamensis and within a few days in C. longifolium. The data show that leaves of these tropical tree seedlings, when developing in full-spectrum sunlight, are effectively protected against high solar UV-B radiation. In contrast, leaves developing under conditions of low UV-B lacked sufficient UV protection. They experienced a

  17. Survival significance of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and current staging system for survival after recurrence in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saji, Hisashi; Sakai, Hiroki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Miyazawa, Tomoyuki; Marushima, Hideki; Nakamura, Haruhiko

    2017-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that the staging system and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status are key factors for treatment strategy and predicting survival. However, the significance of these factors as predictors of overall survival (OS) and postoperative recurrence survival (PRS) has not been sufficiently elucidated. The objective here was to investigate EGFR mutation status and p-stage, which affect PRS and OS in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma, using a different database. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 56 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma patients with disease recurrence in St. Marianna University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014. Results EGFR mutants (M) were detected in 16/56 patients (29%). The patients with EGFR M had a better OS than those with EGFR wild-type (WT) status (5-year survival: 50.3% vs 43.1, P=0.133). There was no significant difference in the 3-year recurrence-free survival rate between patients with M and WT (6.3% vs 7.7%, P=0.656), and the patients with EGFR M had a significantly better 3-year PRS than those with WT (77.4% vs 51.7%, P=0.033). The 3-year PRS rate for patients with M/pathologic stage (p-stage) I–II (87.5%) was better than that for patients with M/p-stage III (60.0%), WT/p-stage I–II (52.7%), and WT/p-stage III (43.8%). There was a significant difference between patients with M/p-stage I and WT/p-stage I–II or WT/p-stage III (P=0.021 and 0.030, respectively). During the study period, of the 16 patients with mutants, 12 patients (75%) received EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy and among the 40 patients with WT, no patient received EGFR-TKI therapy. Multivariate survival analysis showed that patients with EGFR-TKI therapy had a statistically significant association with favorable PRS (hazard ratio 0.271; 95% confidence interval 0.074–1.000; P=0.050). Conclusion EGFR status and p-stage were found to be essential prognostic factors for

  18. Liver Growth Factor (LGF Upregulates Frataxin Protein Expression and Reduces Oxidative Stress in Friedreich’s Ataxia Transgenic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Calatrava-Ferreras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Friedreich’s ataxia (FA is a severe disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance that is caused by the abnormal expansion of GAA repeat in intron 1 of FRDA gen. This alteration leads to a partial silencing of frataxin transcription, causing a multisystem disorder disease that includes neurological and non-neurological damage. Recent studies have proven the effectiveness of neurotrophic factors in a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, we intend to determine if liver growth factor (LGF, which has a demonstrated antioxidant and neuroprotective capability, could be a useful therapy for FA. To investigate the potential therapeutic activity of LGF we used transgenic mice of the FXNtm1MknTg (FXNYG8Pook strain. In these mice, intraperitoneal administration of LGF (1.6 μg/mouse exerted a neuroprotective effect on neurons of the lumbar spinal cord and improved cardiac hypertrophy. Both events could be the consequence of the increment in frataxin expression induced by LGF in spinal cord (1.34-fold and heart (1.2-fold. LGF also upregulated by 2.6-fold mitochondrial chain complex IV expression in spinal cord, while in skeletal muscle it reduced the relation oxidized glutathione/reduced glutathione. Since LGF partially restores motor coordination, we propose LGF as a novel factor that may be useful in the treatment of FA.

  19. Bracing can reduce high degree curves and improve aesthetics immediately after the end of growth. Final results of a retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Stefano; Donzelli, Sabrina; Lusini, Monia; Zaina, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that idiopathic scoliosis (IS) curves can be reduced with bracing, and it has been proposed that this could be useful in non-surgically treated high degree curves even after Risser 3. Moreover, bracing has been shown to be able to improve aesthetics, and this could be another reason to treat some patients with cosmetic needs. Our aim is to preliminary check if results can be obtained in IS patients after Risser 3. Design. Retrospective uncontrolled cohort study. Inclusion criteria. All IS patients treated on a voluntary basis for aesthetic reasons and/or for curve reduction; Risser 4-5 at start; end of treatment reached. Population. 34 females and 2 males, age 16.2±1.6 years, Cobb angle 27.6°±8.9°. Treatment. Lyon or SPoRT braces 18 to 24 hours/day, specific SEAS exercises, rapid weaning (2-3 hours every 6 months). Outcome criteria: SRS (unchanged; worsened over 6°; over 45° at the end of treatment; surgically treated), radiographic and clinical. Statistics. ANOVA and chi-test. The reported compliance during the 2.8 ± 1.1 treatment years was 95.1%, while residual growth was 0.9 ± 1.1 cm. Improvements were found in 39% of this cohort, (46% in curves over 30°). Only 1 patient progressed 6°. We found highly statistically significant reductions of maximal (-4.4°), thoracic (-6.0°) and thoracolumbar (-6.6°) curves. Statistically significant improvements were found for Aesthetic Index. Before 20 years of age, even in skeletally mature patients, it is possible to reach radiographic and aesthetic improvements, although not as good as during growth. Correction is based on bone growth, but ligaments and neuromuscular control of posture can also be involved.

  20. Exposure to sublethal concentrations of tributyltin reduced survival, growth, and 20-hydroxyecdysone levels in a marine mysid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Saravanan, Manoharan; Lee, Do-Hee; Kang, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Moonkoo; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Rhee, Jae-Sung

    2018-06-07

    Tributyltin (TBT) is as an antifouling organotin compound used in boat paints. Although organotin-based antifouling agents have been banned on a global scale, the mode of action of TBT has been studied in numerous aquatic species because of its toxicity, persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and endocrine-disrupting characteristics. In this study, we conducted 96-h acute toxicity tests wherein we exposed juvenile and adult marine mysids to waterborne TBT. Over 4 weeks of exposure, mortality was dose-dependently increased in juveniles and adult mysids. To test sublethal effects of TBT on juvenile development, newborn juvenile mysids were exposed to 1, 5, or 10 ng L -1  TBT for 4 weeks. Subsequently, we measured morphological growth parameters and quantified the hormone ecdysterone (20-hydroxyecdysone: 20E), which controls molting in mysids. The lengths of the whole body, antennal scale, exopod, endopod, and telson were significantly smaller in the 5 and/or 10 ng L -1 TBT-exposed juvenile mysids than in control and DMSO-exposed groups. Levels of 20E were significantly lower at 5 and 10 ng L -1  TBT exposures. Additionally, the number of newly hatched juveniles was significantly lower from females previously exposed to 10 ng L -1  TBT. Our results indicate sublethal concentrations of TBT have inhibitory effects on the survival, growth, and production of juveniles. The lower 20E levels could be strongly associated with TBT-triggered inhibition. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection t...

  2. Water stress drastically reduces root growth and inulin yield in Cichorium intybus (var. sativum) independently of photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoorne, B.; Mathieu, A.-S.; Van den Ende, W.; Vergauwen, R.; Périlleux, C.; Javaux, M.; Lutts, S.

    2012-01-01

    Root chicory (Cichorium intybus var. sativum) is a cash crop cultivated for inulin production in Western Europe. This plant can be exposed to severe water stress during the last 3 months of its 6-month growing period. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of a progressive decline in water availability on plant growth, photosynthesis, and sugar metabolism and to determine its impact on inulin production. Water stress drastically decreased fresh and dry root weight, leaf number, total leaf area, and stomatal conductance. Stressed plants, however, increased their water-use efficiency and leaf soluble sugar concentration, decreased the shoot-to-root ratio and lowered their osmotic potential. Despite a decrease in photosynthetic pigments, the photosynthesis light phase remained unaffected under water stress. Water stress increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity in the leaves but not in the roots. Water stress inhibited sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1 fructosyltransferase after 19 weeks of culture and slightly increased fructan 1-exohydrolase activity. The root inulin concentration, expressed on a dry-weight basis, and the mean degree of polymerization of the inulin chain remained unaffected by water stress. Root chicory displayed resistance to water stress, but that resistance was obtained at the expense of growth, which in turn led to a significant decrease in inulin production. PMID:22577185

  3. High costs of infection: Alphavirus infection reduces digestive function and bone and feather growth in nestling house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder-Orth, Carol A.; Killpack, Tess L.; Goto, Dylan S.; Rainwater, Ellecia L.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    Increasingly, ecoimmunology studies aim to use relevant pathogen exposure to examine the impacts of infection on physiological processes in wild animals. Alphaviruses are arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses (“arboviruses”) responsible for millions of cases of human illnesses each year. Buggy Creek virus (BCRV) is a unique alphavirus that is transmitted by a cimicid insect, the swallow bug, and is amplified in two avian species: the house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and the cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota). BCRV, like many alphaviruses, exhibits age-dependent susceptibility where the young are most susceptible to developing disease and exhibit a high mortality rate. However, alphavirus disease etiology in nestling birds is unknown. In this study, we infected nestling house sparrows with Buggy Creek virus and measured virological, pathological, growth, and digestive parameters following infection. Buggy Creek virus caused severe encephalitis in all infected nestlings, and the peak viral concentration in brain tissue was over 34 times greater than any other tissue. Growth, tissue development, and digestive function were all significantly impaired during BCRV infection. However, based on histopathological analysis performed, this impairment does not appear to be the result of direct tissue damage by the virus, but likely caused by encephalitis and neuronal invasion and impairment of the central nervous system. This is the first study to examine the course of alphavirus diseases in nestling birds and these results will improve our understanding of age-dependent infections of alphaviruses in vertebrate hosts.

  4. Quantification of water uptake by arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae and its significance for leaf growth, water relations, and gas exchange of barley subjected to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalvati, M A; Hu, Y; Mozafar, A; Schmidhalter, U

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi alleviate drought stress in their host plants via the direct uptake and transfer of water and nutrients through the fungal hyphae to the host plants. To quantify the contribution of the hyphae to plant water uptake, a new split-root hyphae system was designed and employed on barley grown in loamy soil inoculated with Glomus intraradices under well-watered and drought conditions in a growth chamber with a 14-h light period and a constant temperature (15 degrees C; day/night). Drought conditions were initiated 21 days after sowing, with a total of eight 7-day drying cycles applied. Leaf water relations, net photosynthesis rates, and stomatal conductance were measured at the end of each drying cycle. Plants were harvested 90 days after sowing. Compared to the control treatment, the leaf elongation rate and the dry weight of the shoots and roots were reduced in all plants under drought conditions. However, drought resistance was comparatively increased in the mycorrhizal host plants, which suffered smaller decreases in leaf elongation, net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and turgor pressure compared to the non-mycorrhizal plants. Quantification of the contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae to root water uptake showed that, compared to the non-mycorrhizal treatment, 4 % of water in the hyphal compartment was transferred to the root compartment through the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. This indicates that there is indeed transport of water by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae under drought conditions. Although only a small amount of water transport from the hyphal compartment was detected, the much higher hyphal density found in the root compartment than in the hyphal compartment suggests that a larger amount of water uptake by the arbuscular mycorrhizal hyphae may occur in the root compartment.

  5. The soil sulphate effect and maize plant (Zea mays L.) growth of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) inoculation in acid sulfate soils with the different soil water condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmarlaili, S.; Rauf, A.; Hanafiah, D. S.; Sudarno, Y.; Abdi, P.

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the potential application of sulphate reducing bacteria on acid sulfate soil with different water content in the green house. The research was carried out in the Laboratory and Green House, Faculty of Agriculture, Universitas Sumatera Utara. This research used Randomized Block Design with two treatments factors, ie sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) isolate (control, LK4, LK6, TSM4, TSM3, AP4, AP3, LK4 + TSM3, LK4 + AP4, LK4 + AP3, LK6 + TSM3, LK6 + AP4, LK6 + AP3, TSM4 + TSM3, TSM4 + AP4, TSM4 + AP3) and water condition (100% field capacity and 110% field capacity). The results showed that application of isolate LK4 + AP4 with water condition 110% field capacity decreased the soil sulphate content (27.38 ppm) significantly after 6 weeks. Application of isolate LK4 + AP3 with water condition 110% field capacity increased soil pH (5.58) after-week efficacy 6. Application of isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field capacity increased plant growth (140 cm; 25.74 g) significantly after week 6. The best treatment was application isolate LK4 with water condition 110% field Capacity (SRB population 2.5x108; soil sulphate content 29.10ppm; soil acidity 4.78; plant height 140cm; plant weight 25.74g).

  6. Significance of determination of female sex hormones (E2, LH, FSH), insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and leptin in girls with precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianrong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the diagnostic value of determination of serum levels of estradiol (E 2 ), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) and leptin in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP). Methods: Serum E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I (with chemiluminescence immunoassay) and leptin (with RIA) levels were determined in 35 girls with early development of breast as the sign of precocious puberty, of which, 15 was considered to be of the ICPP group and 20 of simple premature thelarche group (SPT). Criteria of diagnosis for ICPP were: peak LH value>12IU/L and LH/FSH>1 after GnRH stimulating test. Results: Serum E 2 , LH, FSH, IGF-I leptin levels in girls with ICPP were significantly higher than those in the girls with SPT (P 0.2 as the cut-off value for diagnosis of ICPP there would still be a positive rate of 86.6% suggesting that the diagnostic criteria might be set lower. Serum IGF-I levels were positively correlated to those of E 2 (r=0.47, P 2 and IGF-I. Conclusion: Determinations of serum E 2 , LH, FHS, IGF-I and leptin levels were helpful for the early diagnosis of ICPP. (author)

  7. Toll-like receptor 6 and connective tissue growth factor are significantly upregulated in mitomycin-C-treated urothelial carcinoma cells under hydrostatic pressure stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Kuan; Chung, Chih-Ang; Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Chi-Jung; Chen, Wen-Yih; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Li, Chuan; Tsao, Chia-Wen; Hu, Wei-Wen; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2014-06-01

    Urothelial carcinoma (UC) is the most common histologic subtype of bladder cancer. The administration of mitomycin C (MMC) into the bladder after transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) is a common treatment strategy for preventing recurrence after surgery. We previously applied hydrostatic pressure combined with MMC in UC cells and found that hydrostatic pressure synergistically enhanced MMC-induced UC cell apoptosis through the Fas/FasL pathways. To understand the alteration of gene expressions in UC cells caused by hydrostatic pressure and MMC, oligonucleotide microarray was used to explore all the differentially expressed genes. After bioinformatics analysis and gene annotation, Toll-like receptor 6 (TLR6) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) showed significant upregulation among altered genes, and their gene and protein expressions with each treatment of UC cells were validated by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Under treatment with MMC and hydrostatic pressure, UC cells showed increasing apoptosis using extrinsic pathways through upregulation of TLR6 and CTGF.

  8. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riak Asie Erina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag, P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag, P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag, and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag. The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag, L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag, L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag, and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag. Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1 fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2 the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  9. Effectiveness of Reducing P Fertilizer and Adding Fish Pond Mud Waste on Growth and Yield of Soybean in Peatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asie, Erina Riak; Rumbang, Nyahu; Winarti, Sih; Sinaga, Soaloon

    2018-02-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of P fertilizer reduction and the addition of fish pond sludge waste on the growth and yield of soybean crop in peatland. Research used Complete Randomized Design factorial with two factors. The first factor was the reduction of P fertilizer from the dose of 150 kg.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely P0: 100% (2.944 g/polybag), P1: 75% (2.208 g/polybag), P2: 50% (1.472 g/polybag), and P3: 25% (0.736 g/polybag). The second factor was the addition of fish pond mud waste (L) from the dose of 15 ton.ha-1 consisting of 4 levels, namely L0: 25% (73.595 g/polybag), L1: 50% (147.19 g/polybag), L2: 75% (220.78 g/polybag), and L3: 100% (294.38 g/polybag). Each treatment combination was replicated 3 times to obtain 48 experimental units. The results showed that (1) fish pond mud waste was effective to reduce the use of P fertilizer, (2) the reduction of P fertilizer up to 50% from recommendation dosage by addition of fish pond sludge waste at 75% dose of 15 ton/ha was the best combination due to providing the best plant growth and the highest P concentration of plant tissue. The highest number of pods and weight of seed obtained in the combination were 60.33 pods/plant and 7.30 g/plant, respectively.

  10. A Case of Acromegaly in which a Pituitary Gland Tumor was Reduced Significantly by Administering Octreotide Long Acting Release (LAR) and Could Be Removed Surgically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arao, Tadashi; Okada, Yosuke; Uemura, Fumi; Nishizawa, Shigeru; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    A 54-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for detailed examination of acromegaly because she noticed bilateral hand and finger swelling at the age of 43 and plantar thickening, facial changes and unclear articulation at the age of 49. She had prominent brow ridges, mandibular protrusion, and enlargement of the hands, feet, nasal wings, lips and tongue. Her growth hormone (GH) level was 39.8 ng/ml, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level was 717 ng/ml, GH level was not suppressed (22.9 ng/ml) during a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Radiography showed cauliflower-like enlargement of the distal phalanx of the fingers, thickening/enlargement of the plantar soft tissues, and increased antero-posterior diameter of the sella turcica. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass (21×17 mm) growing towards the right suprasellar region and invading the cavernous sinus. She was diagnosed with acromegaly based on the characteristic physical findings, GH excess, high IGF-1, lack of GH suppression during the 75-g OGTT, and the presence of a pituitary tumor. She was started on octreotide long acting release (Oct-LAR) 20 mg/4w for tumor shrinkage. After three doses, her GH and IGF-1 levels decreased to 2.19 ng/ml (1.69 during the 75-g OGTT) and 205 ng/ml, respectively, meeting cure criteria for acromegaly. In this case, a decrease in GH and IGF-1 levels, tumor shrinkage, and resolution of cavernous sinus invasion allowed the patient to undergo surgery with curative intent (the first-line treatment for acromegaly) without postoperative complications. Thus, preoperative Oct-LAR administration has the potential to improve treatment outcomes of acromegaly.

  11. Expression of porcine myostatin prodomain genomic sequence leads to a decrease in muscle growth, but significant intramuscular fat accretion in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myostatin, a member of TGF-beta superfamily, is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Previously, skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of myostatin prodomain cDNA (5’-region 886 nucleotide) dramatically increased growth performance and muscle mass in transgenic mice. I...

  12. Evaluation of indigenous rhizobacterial strains with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer towards growth and yield of mustard (Brassica campestris under old alluvial soil zone of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shampa Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment had been carried out in the Crop Research and Seed Multiplication Farm of The University of Burdwan, West Bengal, India during the two consecutive winter seasons of 2011-2012 and 2012-2013 to study the effect of indigenous rhizospheric bacterial strains on growth, physiology and yield of mustard variety. Pseudomonas putida, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia sp. and their mixture were used as seed inoculants for mustard cultivation. The experiment was laid down in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications. Results revealed that indigenous inoculation (with reduced dose of chemical fertilizer significantly increased (p < 0.05 the yield of mustard as compared to uninoculated control (full recommended dose of NPK fertilizers. A combination treatment of biofertilizer and chemical fertilizer also increased plant height, plant biomass and other yield components compared to control. The comprehensive approach of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR in agriculturally important crops should be carried out to explore the hidden potential of PGPR and to promote the quality and yield of crop under field conditions. Keywords: Indigenous rhizobacteria, Mustard, PGPR, Yield

  13. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Reduces Behavioral Deficits following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sindhu K Madathil

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI survivors often suffer from long-lasting cognitive impairment that stems from hippocampal injury. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1, a polypeptide growth factor known to play vital roles in neuronal survival, has been shown to attenuate posttraumatic cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, its neuroprotective effects in TBI have not been examined. To this end, moderate or severe contusion brain injury was induced in mice with conditional (postnatal overexpression of IGF-1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI injury model. CCI brain injury produces robust reactive astrocytosis in regions of neuronal damage such as the hippocampus. We exploited this regional astrocytosis by linking expression of hIGF-1 to the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP promoter, effectively targeting IGF-1 delivery to vulnerable neurons. Following brain injury, IGF-1Tg mice exhibited a progressive increase in hippocampal IGF-1 levels which was coupled with enhanced hippocampal reactive astrocytosis and significantly greater GFAP levels relative to WT mice. IGF-1 overexpression stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reduced acute (1 and 3d hippocampal neurodegeneration, culminating in greater neuron survival at 10d after CCI injury. Hippocampal neuroprotection achieved by IGF-1 overexpression was accompanied by improved motor and cognitive function in brain-injured mice. These data provide strong support for the therapeutic efficacy of increased brain levels of IGF-1 in the setting of TBI.

  14. Astrocyte-Specific Overexpression of Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Protects Hippocampal Neurons and Reduces Behavioral Deficits following Traumatic Brain Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madathil, Sindhu K.; Carlson, Shaun W.; Brelsfoard, Jennifer M.; Ye, Ping; D’Ercole, A. Joseph; Saatman, Kathryn E.

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors often suffer from long-lasting cognitive impairment that stems from hippocampal injury. Systemic administration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a polypeptide growth factor known to play vital roles in neuronal survival, has been shown to attenuate posttraumatic cognitive and motor dysfunction. However, its neuroprotective effects in TBI have not been examined. To this end, moderate or severe contusion brain injury was induced in mice with conditional (postnatal) overexpression of IGF-1 using the controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury model. CCI brain injury produces robust reactive astrocytosis in regions of neuronal damage such as the hippocampus. We exploited this regional astrocytosis by linking expression of hIGF-1 to the astrocyte-specific glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter, effectively targeting IGF-1 delivery to vulnerable neurons. Following brain injury, IGF-1Tg mice exhibited a progressive increase in hippocampal IGF-1 levels which was coupled with enhanced hippocampal reactive astrocytosis and significantly greater GFAP levels relative to WT mice. IGF-1 overexpression stimulated Akt phosphorylation and reduced acute (1 and 3d) hippocampal neurodegeneration, culminating in greater neuron survival at 10d after CCI injury. Hippocampal neuroprotection achieved by IGF-1 overexpression was accompanied by improved motor and cognitive function in brain-injured mice. These data provide strong support for the therapeutic efficacy of increased brain levels of IGF-1 in the setting of TBI. PMID:23826235

  15. Reduced memory skills and increased hair cortisol levels in recent Ecstasy/MDMA users: significant but independent neurocognitive and neurohormonal deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Luke A; Sands, Helen; Jones, Lewis; Clow, Angela; Evans, Phil; Stalder, Tobias; Parrott, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    The goals of this study were to measure the neurocognitive performance of recent users of recreational Ecstasy and investigate whether it was associated with the stress hormone cortisol. The 101 participants included 27 recent light users of Ecstasy (one to four times in the last 3 months), 23 recent heavier Ecstasy users (five or more times) and 51 non-users. Rivermead paragraph recall provided an objective measure for immediate and delayed recall. The prospective and retrospective memory questionnaire provided a subjective index of memory deficits. Cortisol levels were taken from near-scalp 3-month hair samples. Cortisol was significantly raised in recent heavy Ecstasy users compared with controls, whereas hair cortisol in light Ecstasy users was not raised. Both Ecstasy groups were significantly impaired on the Rivermead delayed word recall, and both groups reported significantly more retrospective and prospective memory problems. Stepwise regression confirmed that lifetime Ecstasy predicted the extent of these memory deficits. Recreational Ecstasy is associated with increased levels of the bio-energetic stress hormone cortisol and significant memory impairments. No significant relationship between cortisol and the cognitive deficits was observed. Ecstasy users did display evidence of a metacognitive deficit, with the strength of the correlations between objective and subjective memory performances being significantly lower in the Ecstasy users. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Survival significance of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors and current staging system for survival after recurrence in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saji H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hisashi Saji,1,2 Hiroki Sakai,1 Hiroyuki Kimura,1 Tomoyuki Miyazawa,1 Hideki Marushima,1 Haruhiko Nakamura1 1Department of Chest Surgery, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Miyamae-ku, Kawasaki, Kanagawa, Japan; 2Department of Thoracic Surgery, Tokyo Medical University, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Objective: We previously reported that the staging system and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR mutation status are key factors for treatment strategy and predicting survival. However, the significance of these factors as predictors of overall survival (OS and postoperative recurrence survival (PRS has not been sufficiently elucidated. The objective here was to investigate EGFR mutation status and p-stage, which affect PRS and OS in patients with completely resected lung adenocarcinoma, using a different database.Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed 56 consecutive lung adenocarcinoma patients with disease recurrence in St. Marianna University Hospital between January 2010 and December 2014.Results: EGFR mutants (M were detected in 16/56 patients (29%. The patients with EGFR M had a better OS than those with EGFR wild-type (WT status (5-year survival: 50.3% vs 43.1, P=0.133. There was no significant difference in the 3-year recurrence-free survival rate between patients with M and WT (6.3% vs 7.7%, P=0.656, and the patients with EGFR M had a significantly better 3-year PRS than those with WT (77.4% vs 51.7%, P=0.033. The 3-year PRS rate for patients with M/pathologic stage (p-stage I–II (87.5% was better than that for patients with M/p-stage III (60.0%, WT/p-stage I–II (52.7%, and WT/p-stage III (43.8%. There was a significant difference between patients with M/p-stage I and WT/p-stage I–II or WT/p-stage III (P=0.021 and 0.030, respectively. During the study period, of the 16 patients with mutants, 12 patients (75% received EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI therapy and among the 40 patients with WT, no patient received

  17. Metaldyne: Plant-Wide Assessment at Royal Oak Finds Opportunities to Improve Manufacturing Efficiency, Reduce Energy Use, and Achieve Significant Cost Savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2005-05-01

    This case study prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program describes a plant-wide energy assessment conducted at the Metaldyne, Inc., forging plant in Royal Oak, Michigan. The assessment focused on reducing the plant's operating costs, inventory, and energy use. If the company were to implement all the recommendations that came out of the assessment, its total annual energy savings for electricity would be about 11.5 million kWh and annual cost savings would be $12.6 million.

  18. Ted (G.J.) Kloosterman: on intrauterine growth. The significance of prenatal care. Studies on birth weight, placental weight and placental index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleker, O P; Buimer, M; van der Post, J A M; van der Veen, F

    2006-01-01

    In the last century, there was a heated debate on whether fetal growth retardation is caused by a small placenta or whether a placenta is small because the baby is small. One of the active participants in this debate was Kloosterman who studied 80,000 birth weights, and 30,000 placental weights, in relation to gestational age at birth, fetal sex, maternal parity, and perinatal mortality. He found that pregnancies related to heavier placentas last longer. He also found that, from about 32 weeks of gestation onwards, children from primiparous women as compared to those from multiparous women, like twin children as compared to singleton children, are relatively growth retarded, most likely related to prior relatively poor placental growth. He concluded that poor fetal growth is not the cause, but the result of poor placental growth. The clinical implication of all these is that future early detection of poor placental growth may prospect poor fetal growth, and may even allow for early interventions to improve fetal outcome.

  19. Cymbopogon citratus and Camellia sinensis extracts selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells and reduce growth of lymphoma xenografts in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philion, Cory; Ma, Dennis; Ruvinov, Ivan; Mansour, Fadi; Pignanelli, Christopher; Noel, Megan; Saleem, Ammar; Arnason, John; Rodrigues, Mark; Singh, Inderpal; Ropat, Jesse; Pandey, Siyaram

    2017-01-01

    Cancer cells are reported to have elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are highly dependent on cellular defense mechanisms against oxidative stress. Numerous nutraceuticals and natural polyphenolic compounds have a wide range of abilities to alter cellular redox states with potential implications in various diseases. Furthermore, therapeutic options for cancers are mostly nonselective treatments including genotoxic or tubulin-targeting compounds. Some of the natural extracts, containing multiple bioactive compounds, could target multiple pathways in cancer cells to selectively induce cell death. Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Camellia sinensis (white tea) extracts have been shown to have medicinal properties, however, their activity against lymphoma and leukemia, as well as mechanistic details, have not been fully characterized. Herein, we report potent anti-cancer properties in dose and time-dependent manners of ethanolic lemongrass and hot water white tea extracts in lymphoma and leukemia models. Both extracts were able to effectively induce apoptosis selectively in these human cancer cell types. Interestingly, ethanolic lemongrass extract induces apoptosis primarily by the extrinsic pathway and was found to be dependent on the generation of ROS. Conversely, apoptotic induction by hot water white tea extract was independent of ROS. Furthermore, both of these extracts caused mitochondrial depolarization and decreased rates of oxygen consumption in lymphoma and leukemia cells, leading to cell death. Most importantly, both these extracts were effective in reducing tumor growth in human lymphoma xenograft models when administered orally. Thus, these natural extracts could have potential for being nontoxic alternatives for the treatment of cancer. PMID:29340014

  20. Oral Supplementation with a Special Additive of Retinyl Palmitate and Alpha Tocopherol Reduces Growth Retardation in Young Pancreatic Duct Ligated Pigs Used as a Model for Children Suffering from Exocrine Pancreatic Insufficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mößeler

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI is a disease of diverse aetiology—e.g., majority of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (CF show PEI congenitally. Malnutrition and malabsorption of nutrients impair growth and nutritional status. As reduced fat digestion leads to a deficiency of fat-soluble vitamins the supplementation is standard, but absorption is a critical point in PEI-patients. The pancreatic duct ligated (PL pig is an established model for PEI in humans and has been proven to be a suitable model to compare different vitamin additives for supplementation. In a former study, PEI caused distinct growth retardation in young piglets, but did not affect growth in older ones. Our study hypothesised that this age-dependent effect is caused by exhausted body reserves of fat-soluble vitamins and, therefore, extra supply reduces growth retardation. PEI was induced by PL at the age of seven (PL-7 or 16 weeks (PL-16. Controls (C underwent a sham surgery. Some PL-7 pigs (PL-7 + Vit were fed a special vitamin additive. PEI reduced the mean final body weight (kg at 26 weeks of age significantly with lower effect in PL-16-pigs (C:117; PL-7:49.5; PL-7 + Vit:77.1; PL-16:96.4. Extra vitamin supply resulted in an increased growth and normalised serum concentration of alpha-tocopherol, underlining the importance of special supplementation in PEI-patients.

  1. Significant effect of NSP-ase enzyme supplementation in sunflower meal-based diet on the growth and nutrient digestibility in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, M; Mirza, M A; Kaleem, M; Saeed, M; Reyad-Ul-Ferdous, Md; Abd El-Hack, M E

    2017-04-01

    The response of broiler chickens to 3 levels of sunflower meal and 2 levels of NSP-ase enzyme combination (with and without) was investigated in 3 × 2 factorial arrangement under complete randomized design (CRD). A total of 240 Hubbard broiler chicks were fed on practical mash diets having 2950 kcal of ME and 21% CP from 1 to 42 days of age. The BW gain was not significantly reduced when 25% SFM was added in the diets during 1 to 42 days of age. Supplementation of NSP-ase in broiler diets (day 1-42 overall) demonstrated non-significant differences (p Replacement of SBM with SFM or inclusion of SFM at higher level (25%) increased/deteriorated FCR. The addition of exogenous NSP-ase showed a significant improvement (p < 0.01) in feed:gain. The improvement was clearly demonstrated when SFM was added to the experimental diet at 15% or even 20%. Supplementation of NSP-ase at the 25% inclusion level could not, however, sustain the beneficial effect, which was possibly due to excessively high dietary CF. No difference was noted across the treatments regarding carcass response. Relative gizzard weight and intestinal weight were observed to be improved in birds consuming higher levels of SFM (p = 0.00). The digestibility of CF was observed to improve when SFM was used at 20% and 25% in the diets. No improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation, which meant other factors were clearly involved. Supplementation of NSP-ase improved FCR up to 20% SFM. At 25% SFM, no improvement in the digestibility of CF was observed with NSP-ase supplementation. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR AND SURVIVIN EXPRESSION IN BLADDER CANCER TISSUE AND URINE CYTOLOGY OF PATIENTS WITH TRANSITIONAL CELL CARCINOMA OF THE URINARY BLADDER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehinde, E O; Al-Maghrebi, M; Anim, J T; Kapila, K; George, S S; Al-Juwaiser, A; Memon, A

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and survivin immunostaining of tumour cells in urinary cytology and tissue of patients with bladder cancer has a prognostic significance. Prospective study Department of Surgery (Division of Urology), Mubarak Al-Kabeer Teaching Hospital and Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait Urine cytology smears obtainedpriorto cystoscopy in patients with transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder were immunostained for EGFR and survivin. Bladder cancer tissue resected at surgery was also immunostained for EGFR and survivin expression. Tissue expression of EGFR and survivin in TCC of the bladder was compared to their expression in urine cytology and relationship to tumour grade and stage. 178 patients were studied (43 newly diagnosed bladder cancer, 58 with recurrent TCC and 77 in disease remission). Twenty five patients with normal urothelium served as controls. The mean sensitivity of urine cytology, tissue survivin immunohistochemistry (IHC) and tissue EGFR IHC was 30.5%, 62% and 59% respectively. The corresponding mean specificity was 95%, 79% and 38% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, tissue expression positivity for EGFR was 47.8%, 92.9%, 100% and for tissue survivin it was 27.8%, 18.2% and 33.3% respectively. For grades 1, 2 and 3 bladder tumors, urine expression positivity for EGFR was 35.7%, 40% and 67.7% and for urine survivin it was 8.3%, 42.9% and 33.3% respectively. Positive EGFR immunostaining of urine cytology specimen or tumour tissue increases with histological grade of TCC of the bladder. Survivin expression is less consistent in both urine cytology specimen and tissue samples. EGFR immunostaining may provide a useful tool in the grading of bladder TCC and aid in the selection of patients that may benefit from administration of EGFR inhibitors.

  3. The co registration of initial PET on the CT-radiotherapy reduces significantly the variabilities of anatomo-clinical target volume in the child hodgkin disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, H.; Blouet, A.; David, I.; Rives, M.; Izar, F.; Courbon, F.; Filleron, T.; Laprie, A.; Plat, G.; Vial, J.

    2009-01-01

    It exists a great interobserver variability for the anatomo-clinical target volume (C.T.V.) definition in children suffering of Hodgkin disease. In this study, the co-registration of the PET with F.D.G. on the planning computed tomography has significantly lead to a greater coherence in the clinical target volume definition. (N.C.)

  4. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) – Test of hypothesis and new ‘high Chl a BEG-model’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl...... a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l−1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison...... the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu....

  5. Maternally derived anti-fibroblast growth factor 23 antibody as new tool to reduce phosphorus requirement of chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhouzheng; Bütz, Daniel E; Sand, Jordan M; Cook, Mark E

    2017-04-01

    Novel means to reduce phosphate input into poultry feeds and increase its retention would preserve world phosphate reserves and reduce environmental impact of poultry production. Here we show that a maternally derived antibody to a fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) peptide (GMNPPPYS) alleviated phosphorus deficiency in chicks fed low non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) diets. White Leghorn laying hens were vaccinated with either an adjuvant control or the synthetic FGF-23 peptide, and chicks with control or anti-FGF-23 maternal antibodies were fed a diet containing either 0.13 or 0.45% nPP (experiment 1), and 0.20 or 0.45% nPP (experiment 2) for 14 d. In both experiments, decreasing nPP from 0.45 to 0.13 or 0.20% decreased BW gain, G:F, excreta phosphorus, plasma phosphate, and plasma FGF-23 at all time periods examined (nPP main effect, P posture scores (d 7, 14) and bone lesion scores (d 14) decreased and plasma phosphate (d 14) increased in anti-FGF-23 chicks fed 0.13% nPP, compared to those with control antibody on the same diet (P < 0.05). In experiment 2, chicks with maternal anti-FGF-23 antibody had increased tibiotarsi ash (d 14), and plasma phosphate (d 14) and 1,25(OH)2D3 (d 14) levels, compared to chicks with control antibody (antibody main effect, P < 0.05). BW gain and G:F were increased in chicks with anti-FGF-23 antibody fed 0.20% nPP, compared to control antibody chicks on the same diet, at all time periods examined (P < 0.05). In conclusion, maternally-derived anti-FGF-23 antibody increased phosphorus retention in chicks fed diets containing either 0.13 or 0.20% nPP and thereby, reduced signs of phosphorus deficiency. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the relation between soluble CD36 (sCD36), risk markers of atherosclerosis and body composition, and glucose and lipid metabolism in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) Research Design and Methods: Thirty PCOS patients were randomized to pioglitazone, 30 mg/day or placebo...... units), oxLDL (44.9 (26.9 - 75.1) vs. 36.1 (23.4 - 55.5) U/l), and hsCRP (0.26 (0.03 - 2.41) vs. 0.12 (0.02 - 0.81) mg/dl) were significantly increased in PCOS patients vs. controls (geometric mean (+/- 2SD)). In PCOS, positive correlations were found between central fat mass and sCD36 (r=0.43), hs......CRP (r=0.43), and IL-6 (r=0.42), all pPCOS patients and controls (n=44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant...

  7. Does Liposomal Bupivacaine (Exparel) Significantly Reduce Postoperative Pain/Numbness in Symptomatic Teeth with a Diagnosis of Necrosis? A Prospective, Randomized, Double-blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Brandon; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Fowler, Sara; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2016-09-01

    Medical studies have shown some potential for infiltrations of liposomal bupivacaine (Exparel; Pacira Pharmaceuticals, San Diego, CA), a slow-release bupivacaine solution, to extend postoperative benefits of numbness/pain relief for up to several days. Because the Food and Drug Administration has approved Exparel only for infiltrations, we wanted to evaluate if it would be effective as an infiltration to control postoperative pain. The purpose of this study was to compare an infiltration of bupivacaine with liposomal bupivacaine for postoperative numbness and pain in symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain. One hundred patients randomly received a 4.0-mL buccal infiltration of either bupivacaine or liposomal bupivacaine after endodontic debridement. For postoperative pain, patients were given ibuprofen/acetaminophen, and they could receive narcotic pain medication as an escape. Patients recorded their level of numbness, pain, and medication use the night of the appointment and over the next 5 days. Success was defined as no or mild postoperative pain and no narcotic use. The success rate was 29% for the liposomal group and 22% for the bupivacaine group, with no significant difference (P = .4684) between the groups. Liposomal bupivacaine had some effect on soft tissue numbness, pain, and use of non-narcotic medications, but it was not clinically significant. There was no significant difference in the need for escape medication. For symptomatic patients diagnosed with pulpal necrosis experiencing moderate to severe preoperative pain, a 4.0-mL infiltration of liposomal bupivacaine did not result in a statistically significant increase in postoperative success compared with an infiltration of 4.0 mL bupivacaine. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Soy isoflavone exposure through all life stages accelerates 17β-estradiol-induced mammary tumor onset and growth, yet reduces tumor burden, in ACI rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Frank Josef; Pemp, Daniela; Soukup, Sebastian T; Wende, Kathleen; Zhang, Xiajie; Zierau, Oliver; Muders, Michael H; Bosland, Maarten C; Kulling, Sabine E; Lehmann, Leane; Vollmer, Günter

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing debate whether the intake of soy-derived isoflavones (sISO) mediates beneficial or adverse effects with regard to breast cancer risk. Therefore, we investigated whether nutritional exposure to a sISO-enriched diet from conception until adulthood impacts on 17β-estradiol (E2)-induced carcinogenesis in the rat mammary gland (MG). August-Copenhagen-Irish (ACI) rats were exposed to dietary sISO from conception until postnatal day 285. Silastic tubes containing E2 were used to induce MG tumorigenesis. Body weight, food intake, and tumor growth were recorded weekly. At necropsy, the number, position, size, and weight of each tumor were determined. Plasma samples underwent sISO analysis, and the morphology of MG was analyzed. Tumor incidence and multiplicity were reduced by 20 and 56 %, respectively, in the sISO-exposed rats compared to the control rats. Time-to-tumor onset was shortened from 25 to 20 weeks, and larger tumors developed in the sISO-exposed rats. The histological phenotype of the MG tumors was independent of the sISO diet received, and it included both comedo and cribriform phenotypes. Morphological analyses of the whole-mounted MGs also showed no diet-dependent differences. Lifelong exposure to sISO reduced the overall incidence of MG carcinomas in ACI rats, although the time-to-tumor was significantly shortened.

  9. Reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR 73 m2 ) at first transurethral resection of bladder tumour is a significant predictor of subsequent recurrence and progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blute, Michael L; Kucherov, Victor; Rushmer, Timothy J; Damodaran, Shivashankar; Shi, Fangfang; Abel, E Jason; Jarrard, David F; Richards, Kyle A; Messing, Edward M; Downs, Tracy M

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate if moderate chronic kidney disease [CKD; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 73 m 2 ] is associated with high rates of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) recurrence or progression. A multi-institutional database identified patients with serum creatinine values prior to first transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT). The CKD-epidemiology collaboration formula calculated patient eGFR. Cox proportional hazards models evaluated associations with recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS). In all, 727 patients were identified with a median (interquartile range [IQR]) patient age of 69.8 (60.1-77.6) years. Data for eGFR were available for 632 patients. During a median (IQR) follow-up of 3.7 (1.5-6.5) years, 400 (55%) patients had recurrence and 145 (19.9%) patients had progression of tumour stage or grade. Moderate or severe CKD was identified in 183 patients according to eGFR. Multivariable analysis identified an eGFR of 73 m 2 (hazard ratio [HR] 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-1.9; P = 0.002) as a predictor of tumour recurrence. The 5-year RFS rate was 46% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 27% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P 73 m 2 (HR 3.7, 95% CI: 1.75-7.94; P = 0.001) was associated with progression to muscle-invasive disease. The 5-year PFS rate was 83% for patients with an eGFR of ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 71% for patients with an eGFR of 73 m 2 (P = 0.01). Moderate CKD at first TURBT is associated with reduced RFS and PFS. Patients with reduced renal function should be considered for increased surveillance. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Intra-articular laser treatment plus Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.

  11. Glucagon-like peptide-1 acutely affects renal blood flow and urinary flow rate in spontaneously hypertensive rats despite significantly reduced renal expression of GLP-1 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronn, Jonas; Jensen, Elisa P; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Holst, Jens Juul; Sorensen, Charlotte M

    2017-12-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone increasing postprandial insulin release. GLP-1 also induces diuresis and natriuresis in humans and rodents. The GLP-1 receptor is extensively expressed in the renal vascular tree in normotensive rats where acute GLP-1 treatment leads to increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and increased renal blood flow (RBF). In hypertensive animal models, GLP-1 has been reported both to increase and decrease MAP. The aim of this study was to examine expression of renal GLP-1 receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to assess the effect of acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1. We hypothesized that GLP-1 would increase diuresis and natriuresis and reduce MAP in SHR. Immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridization for the GLP-1 receptor were used to localize GLP-1 receptors in the kidney. Sevoflurane-anesthetized normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats and SHR received a 20 min intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 and changes in MAP, RBF, heart rate, dieresis, and natriuresis were measured. The vasodilatory effect of GLP-1 was assessed in isolated interlobar arteries from normo- and hypertensive rats. We found no expression of GLP-1 receptors in the kidney from SHR. However, acute intrarenal infusion of GLP-1 increased MAP, RBF, dieresis, and natriuresis without affecting heart rate in both rat strains. These results suggest that the acute renal effects of GLP-1 in SHR are caused either by extrarenal GLP-1 receptors activating other mechanisms (e.g., insulin) to induce the renal changes observed or possibly by an alternative renal GLP-1 receptor. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  13. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Growth factor-induced mobilization of cardiac progenitor cells reduces the risk of arrhythmias, in a rat model of chronic myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Bocchi

    Full Text Available Heart repair by stem cell treatment may involve life-threatening arrhythmias. Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs appear best suited for reconstituting lost myocardium without posing arrhythmic risks, being commissioned towards cardiac phenotype. In this study we tested the hypothesis that mobilization of CPCs through locally delivered Hepatocyte Growth Factor and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 to heal chronic myocardial infarction (MI, lowers the proneness to arrhythmias. We used 133 adult male Wistar rats either with one-month old MI and treated with growth factors (GFs, n = 60 or vehicle (V, n = 55, or sham operated (n = 18. In selected groups of animals, prior to and two weeks after GF/V delivery, we evaluated stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias by telemetry-ECG, cardiac mechanics by echocardiography, and ventricular excitability, conduction velocity and refractoriness by epicardial multiple-lead recording. Invasive hemodynamic measurements were performed before sacrifice and eventually the hearts were subjected to anatomical, morphometric, immunohistochemical, and molecular biology analyses. When compared with untreated MI, GFs decreased stress-induced arrhythmias and concurrently prolonged the effective refractory period (ERP without affecting neither the duration of ventricular repolarization, as suggested by measurements of QTc interval and mRNA levels for K-channel α-subunits Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, nor the dispersion of refractoriness. Further, markers of cardiomyocyte reactive hypertrophy, including mRNA levels for K-channel α-subunit Kv1.4 and β-subunit KChIP2, interstitial fibrosis and negative structural remodeling were significantly reduced in peri-infarcted/remote ventricular myocardium. Finally, analyses of BrdU incorporation and distribution of connexin43 and N-cadherin indicated that cytokines generated new vessels and electromechanically-connected myocytes and abolished the correlation of infarct size with deterioration

  15. A novel and efficient gene transfer strategy reduces glial reactivity and improves neuronal survival and axonal growth in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Desclaux

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The lack of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is attributed among other factors to the formation of a glial scar. This cellular structure is mainly composed of reactive astrocytes that overexpress two intermediate filament proteins, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and vimentin. Indeed, in vitro, astrocytes lacking GFAP or both GFAP and vimentin were shown to be the substrate for increased neuronal plasticity. Moreover, double knockout mice lacking both GFAP and vimentin presented lower levels of glial reactivity in vivo, significant axonal regrowth and improved functional recovery in comparison with wild-type mice after spinal cord hemisection. From these results, our objective was to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for axonal regeneration, based on the targeted suppression of astroglial reactivity and scarring by lentiviral-mediated RNA-interference (RNAi. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In this study, we constructed two lentiviral vectors, Lv-shGFAP and Lv-shVIM, which allow efficient and stable RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous GFAP or vimentin in vitro. In cultured cortical and spinal reactive astrocytes, the use of these vectors resulted in a specific, stable and highly significant decrease in the corresponding protein levels. In a second model -- scratched primary cultured astrocytes -- Lv-shGFAP, alone or associated with Lv-shVIM, decreased astrocytic reactivity and glial scarring. Finally, in a heterotopic coculture model, cortical neurons displayed higher survival rates and increased neurite growth when cultured with astrocytes in which GFAP and vimentin had been invalidated by lentiviral-mediated RNAi. CONCLUSIONS: Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GFAP and vimentin in astrocytes show that GFAP is a key target for modulating reactive gliosis and monitoring neuron/glia interactions. Thus, manipulation of reactive astrocytes with the Lv-shGFAP vector constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy for

  16. A novel and efficient gene transfer strategy reduces glial reactivity and improves neuronal survival and axonal growth in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desclaux, Mathieu; Teigell, Marisa; Amar, Lahouari; Vogel, Roland; Gimenez Y Ribotta, Minerva; Privat, Alain; Mallet, Jacques

    2009-07-14

    The lack of axonal regeneration in the central nervous system is attributed among other factors to the formation of a glial scar. This cellular structure is mainly composed of reactive astrocytes that overexpress two intermediate filament proteins, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin. Indeed, in vitro, astrocytes lacking GFAP or both GFAP and vimentin were shown to be the substrate for increased neuronal plasticity. Moreover, double knockout mice lacking both GFAP and vimentin presented lower levels of glial reactivity in vivo, significant axonal regrowth and improved functional recovery in comparison with wild-type mice after spinal cord hemisection. From these results, our objective was to develop a novel therapeutic strategy for axonal regeneration, based on the targeted suppression of astroglial reactivity and scarring by lentiviral-mediated RNA-interference (RNAi). In this study, we constructed two lentiviral vectors, Lv-shGFAP and Lv-shVIM, which allow efficient and stable RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous GFAP or vimentin in vitro. In cultured cortical and spinal reactive astrocytes, the use of these vectors resulted in a specific, stable and highly significant decrease in the corresponding protein levels. In a second model -- scratched primary cultured astrocytes -- Lv-shGFAP, alone or associated with Lv-shVIM, decreased astrocytic reactivity and glial scarring. Finally, in a heterotopic coculture model, cortical neurons displayed higher survival rates and increased neurite growth when cultured with astrocytes in which GFAP and vimentin had been invalidated by lentiviral-mediated RNAi. Lentiviral-mediated knockdown of GFAP and vimentin in astrocytes show that GFAP is a key target for modulating reactive gliosis and monitoring neuron/glia interactions. Thus, manipulation of reactive astrocytes with the Lv-shGFAP vector constitutes a promising therapeutic strategy for increasing glial permissiveness and permitting axonal regeneration

  17. Insulin-like growth factor-I gene therapy reverses morphologic changes and reduces hyperprolactinemia in experimental rat prolactinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bracamonte Maria I

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The implementation of gene therapy for the treatment of pituitary tumors emerges as a promising complement to surgery and may have distinct advantages over radiotherapy for this type of tumors. Up to now, suicide gene therapy has been the main experimental approach explored to treat experimental pituitary tumors. In the present study we assessed the effectiveness of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I gene therapy for the treatment of estrogen-induced prolactinomas in rats. Results Female Sprague Dawley rats were subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with 17-β estradiol (E2 in order to induce pituitary prolactinomas. Blood samples were taken at regular intervals in order to measure serum prolactin (PRL. As expected, serum PRL increased progressively and 23 days after implanting the E2 capsules (Experimental day 0, circulating PRL had undergone a 3–4 fold increase. On Experimental day 0 part of the E2-implanted animals received a bilateral intrapituitary injection of either an adenoviral vector expressing the gene for rat IGF-I (RAd-IGFI, or a vector (RAd-GFP expressing the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP. Seven days post vector injection all animals were sacrificed and their pituitaries morphometrically analyzed to evaluate changes in the lactotroph population. RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP, induced a significant fall in serum PRL. Furthermore, RAd-IGFI but not RAd-GFP significantly reversed the increase in lactotroph size (CS and volume density (VD induced by E2 treatment. Conclusion We conclude that IGF-I gene therapy constitutes a potentially useful intervention for the treatment of prolactinomas and that bioactive peptide gene delivery may open novel therapeutic avenues for the treatment of pituitary tumors.

  18. Administration of the optimized β-Lapachone-poloxamer-cyclodextrin ternary system induces apoptosis, DNA damage and reduces tumor growth in a human breast adenocarcinoma xenograft mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Samuel; Díaz-Rodríguez, Patricia; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Gallego, Rosalia; Pérez-Fernández, Román; Landin, Mariana

    2013-08-01

    β-Lapachone (β-Lap) is a 1,2-orthonaphthoquinone that selectively induces cell death in human cancer cells through NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1). NQO1 is overexpressed in a variety of tumors, as compared to normal adjacent tissue. However, the low solubility and non-specific distribution of β-Lap limit its suitability for clinical assays. We formulated β-Lap in an optimal random methylated-β-cyclodextrin/poloxamer 407 mixture (i.e., β-Lap ternary system) and, using human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells and immunodeficient mice, performed in vitro and in vivo evaluation of its anti-tumor effects on proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, DNA damage, and tumor growth. This ternary system is fluid at room temperature, gels over 29 °C, and provides a significant amount of drug, thus facilitating intratumoral delivery, in situ gelation, and the formation of a depot for time-release. Administration of β-Lap ternary system to MCF-7 cells induces an increase in apoptosis and DNA damage, while producing no changes in cell cycle. Moreover, in a mouse xenograft tumor model, intratumoral injection of the system significantly reduces tumor volume, while increasing apoptosis and DNA damage without visible toxicity to liver or kidney. These anti-tumoral effects and lack of visible toxicity make this system a promising new therapeutic agent for breast cancer treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition reduces angiogenesis via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α and Notch1 in head neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Wang

    Full Text Available Angiogenesis, a marker of cancer development, affects response to radiotherapy sensibility. This preclinical study aims to understand the receptor tyrosine kinase-mediated angiogenesis in head neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC. The receptor tyrosine kinase activity in a transgenic mouse model of HNSCC was assessed. The anti-tumorigenetic and anti-angiogenetic effects of cetuximab-induced epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibition were investigated in xenograft and transgenic mouse models of HNSCC. The signaling transduction of Notch1 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α was also analyzed. EGFR was overexpressed and activated in the Tgfbr1/Pten deletion (2cKO mouse model of HNSCC. Cetuximab significantly delayed tumor onset by reducing tumor angiogenesis. This drug exerted similar effects on heterotopic xenograft tumors. In the human HNSCC tissue array, increased EGFR expression correlated with increased HIF-1α and micro vessel density. Cetuximab inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo by significantly downregulating HIF-1α and Notch1. EGFR is involved in the tumor angiogenesis of HNSCC via the HIF-1α and Notch1 pathways. Therefore, targeting EGFR by suppressing hypoxia- and Notch-induced angiogenesis may benefit HNSCC therapy.

  20. Effects of reduced natural background radiation on Drosophila melanogaster growth and development as revealed by the FLYINGLOW program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Patrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Iovino, Daniela; Cipressa, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Porrazzo, Antonella; Satta, Luigi; Alesse, Edoardo; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Cenci, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  2. Low PAPP-A in the first trimester is associated with reduced fetal growth rate prior to gestational week 20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvig, J D; Kirkegaard, I; Winding, Trine Nøhr

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the association between maternal pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal growth from the first to the second trimester.......To evaluate the association between maternal pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and fetal growth from the first to the second trimester....

  3. Hypoxia, but not an electrolyte-imbalanced diet, reduces feed intake, growth and oxygen consumption in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnoni, Leonardo J.; Eding, Ep; Leguen, Isabelle; Prunet, Patrick; Geurden, Inge; Ozório, Rodrigo O.A.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2018-01-01

    Oxygen limitation and dietary imbalances are key aspects influencing feed intake (FI) and growth performance in cultured fish. This study investigated the combined effects of hypoxia and dietary electrolyte balance on the growth performance, body composition and nutrient utilization in a rainbow

  4. Analysis of triclosan-selected Salmonella enterica mutants of eight serovars revealed increased aminoglycoside susceptibility and reduced growth rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Rensch

    Full Text Available The biocide triclosan (TRC is used in a wide range of household, personal care, veterinary, industrial and medical products to control microbial growth. This extended use raises concerns about a possible association between the application of triclosan and the development of antibiotic resistance. In the present study we determined triclosan mutant prevention concentrations (MPC for Salmonella enterica isolates of eight serovars and investigated selected mutants for their mechanisms mediating decreased susceptibility to triclosan. MPCTRC values were 8-64-fold higher than MIC values and ranged between 1-16 µg/ml. The frequencies at which mutants were selected varied between 1.3 x 10(-10-9.9 x 10(-11. Even if MIC values of mutants decreased by 3-7 dilution steps in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphtylamide, only minor changes were observed in the expression of genes encoding efflux components or regulators, indicating that neither the major multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC nor AcrEF are up-regulated in triclosan-selected mutants. Nucleotide sequence comparisons confirmed the absence of alterations in the regulatory regions acrRA, soxRS, marORAB, acrSE and ramRA of selected mutants. Single bp and deduced Gly93→Val amino acid exchanges were present in fabI, the target gene of triclosan, starting from a concentration of 1 µg/ml TRC used for MPC determinations. The fabI genes were up to 12.4-fold up-regulated. Complementation experiments confirmed the contribution of Gly93→Val exchanges and fabI overexpression to decreased triclosan susceptibility. MIC values of mutants compared to parent strains were even equal or resulted in a more susceptible phenotype (1-2 dilution steps for the aminoglycoside antibiotics kanamycin and gentamicin as well as for the biocide chlorhexidine. Growth rates of selected mutants were significantly lower and hence, might partly explain the rare occurrence of Salmonella field isolates exhibiting

  5. Multiple autophosphorylation sites of the epidermal growth factor receptor are essential for receptor kinase activity and internalization. Contrasting significance of tyrosine 992 in the native and truncated receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorkin, A; Helin, K; Waters, C M

    1992-01-01

    The role of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor autophosphorylation sites in the regulation of receptor functions has been studied using cells transfected with mutant EGF receptors. Simultaneous point mutation of 4 tyrosines (Y1068, Y1086, Y1148, Y1173) to phenylalanine, as well as removal of ...

  6. Ted (G.J.) Kloosterman: on intrauterine growth. The significance of prenatal care. Studies on birth weight, placental weight and placental index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleker, O. P.; Buimer, M.; van der Post, J. A. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2006-01-01

    In the last century, there was a heated debate on whether fetal growth retardation is caused by a small placenta or whether a placenta is small because the baby is small. One of the active participants in this debate was Kloosterman who studied 80,000 birth weights, and 30,000 placental weights, in

  7. Maternal-fetal hepatic and placental metabolome profiles are associated with reduced fetal growth in a rat model of maternal obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mumme, Karen; Gray, Clint; Reynolds, Clare M.

    2016-01-01

    : Metabolomic profiling was used to reveal altered maternal and fetal metabolic pathways in a model of diet induced obesity during pregnancy, leading to reduced fetal growth. Methods: We examined the metabolome of maternal and fetal livers, and placenta following a high fat and salt intake. Sprague–Dawley rats...

  8. Reprogramming amino acid catabolism in CHO cells with CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing improves cell growth and reduces by-product secretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ley, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; Pedersen, Lasse Ebdrup

    2017-01-01

    CHO cells primarily utilize amino acids for three processes: biomass synthesis, recombinant protein production and catabolism. In this work, we disrupted 9 amino acid catabolic genes participating in 7 dierent catabolic pathways, to increase synthesis of biomass and recombinant protein, while red...... reducing production of growth-inhibiting metabolic by-products from amino acid catabolism....

  9. Densification and Grain Growth during Early-stage Sintering of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ in Reducing Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Zeming; Yuan, Hao; Glasscock, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The present work investigates the processes of densification and grain growth of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95-δ (CGO10) during sintering in reducing atmosphere. Sintering variables were experimentally characterized and analyzed using defect chemistry and sintering constitutive laws. Based on the achieved...

  10. Blockade of A2b Adenosine Receptor Reduces Tumor Growth and Immune Suppression Mediated by Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in a Mouse Model of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Iannone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The A2b receptor (A2bR belongs to the adenosine receptor family. Emerging evidence suggest that A2bR is implicated in tumor progression in some murine tumor models, but the therapeutic potential of targeting A2bR in melanoma has not been examined. This study first shows that melanoma-bearing mice treated with Bay 60-6583, a selective A2bR agonist, had increased melanoma growth. This effect was associated with higher levels of immune regulatory mediators interleukin-10 (IL-10 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1 and accumulation of tumor-associated CD11b positive Gr1 positive cells (CD11b+Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs. Depletion of CD11b+Gr1+ cells completely reversed the protumor activity of Bay 60-6583. Conversely, pharmacological blockade of A2bR with PSB1115 reversed immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment, leading to a significant melanoma growth delay. PSB1115 treatment reduced both levels of IL-10 and MCP-1 and CD11b+Gr1+ cell number in melanoma lesions. These effects were associated with higher frequency of tumor-infiltrating CD8 positive (CD8+ T cells and natural killer T (NKT cells and increased levels of T helper 1 (Th1-like cytokines. Adoptive transfer of CD11b+Gr1+ cells abrogated the antitumor activity of PSB1115. These data suggest that the antitumor activity of PSB1115 relies on its ability to lower accumulation of tumor-infiltrating MDSCs and restore an efficient antitumor T cell response. The antitumor effect of PSB1115 was not observed in melanoma-bearing nude mice. Furthermore, PSB1115 enhanced the antitumor efficacy of dacarbazine. These data indicate that A2bR antagonists such as PSB1115 should be investigated as adjuvants in the treatment of melanoma.

  11. Too much food may cause reduced growth of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) - Test of hypothesis and new 'high Chl a BEG-model'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Poul S.; Lüskow, Florian; Riisgård, Hans Ulrik

    2018-04-01

    Growth of the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) is closely related to the biomass of phytoplankton (expressed as concentration of chlorophyll a, Chl a), but the effect of too much food in eutrophicated areas has so far been overlooked. The hypothesis addressed in the present study suggests that high Chl a concentrations (> about 8 μg Chl a l-1) result in reduced growth because mussels are not evolutionarily adapted to utilize such high phytoplankton concentrations and to physiologically regulate the amount of ingested food in such a way that the growth rate remains high and constant. We first make a comparison of literature values for actually measured weight-specific growth rates (μ, % d-1) of small (20 to 25 mm) M. edulis, either grown in controlled laboratory experiments or in net bags in Danish waters, as a function of Chl a. A linear increase up to about μ = 8.3% d-1 at 8.1 μg Chl a l-1 fits the "standard BEG-model" after which a marked decrease takes place, and this supports the hypothesis. A "high Chl a BEG-model", applicable to newly settled post-metamorphic and small juvenile (non-spawning) mussels in eutrophicated Danish and other temperate waters, is developed and tested, and new data from a case study in which the growth of mussels in net bags was measured along a Chl a gradient are presented. Finally, we discuss the phenomenon of reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated areas versus a possible impact of low salinity. It is concluded that it is difficult to separate the effect of salinity from the effect of Chl a, but the present study shows that too much food may cause reduced growth of mussels in eutrophicated marine areas regardless of high or moderate salinity above about 10 psu.

  12. Biologic significance of receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) as a pivotal regulator of tumor growth through angiogenesis in human uterine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonoda, Kenzo; Miyamoto, Shingo; Yamazaki, Ayano; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Nakashima, Manabu; Mekada, Eisuke; Wake, Norio

    2007-11-01

    The expression of receptor-binding cancer antigen expressed on SiSo cells (RCAS1) is related significantly to the overall survival of patients with various cancers. RCAS1 reportedly induces apoptotic cell death in peripheral lymphocytes, which may contribute to the escape of tumor cells from immune surveillance. RCAS1 expression also has been related to tumor invasiveness and size in uterine cervical cancer. To clarify whether RCAS1 exacerbates tumor progression, the authors investigated the association between RCAS1 expression and tumor growth potential. The authors constructed small interfering ribonucleic acid (RNA) (siRNA) to target RCAS1. After transfection of siRNA and the RCAS1-encoding gene, growth of tumor cells was assessed in vitro and in vivo. The correlation between RCAS1 expression and angiogenesis was investigated in the transfected cells and in inoculated tumors from nude mice. In addition, the same association was investigated immunohistochemically with tissue samples from patients with uterine cervical cancer. Knockdown of RCAS1 expression by siRNA significantly suppressed the in vivo growth of SiSo and HOUA tumor cells (P cell growth was not affected significantly. Enhanced RCAS1 expression significantly promoted in vivo growth, but not in vitro growth, of tumors derived from COS-7 cells (P = .0039). Introduction of the RCAS1-encoding gene increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In uterine cervical cancer, RCAS1 expression was associated significantly with VEGF expression (P = .0407) and with microvessel density (P = .0108). RCAS1 may be a pivotal regulator of tumor growth through angiogenesis. Continued exploration of the biologic function of RCAS1 may allow the development of novel therapeutic strategies for uterine cancer.

  13. Vitamin B5 Reduces Bacterial Growth via Regulating Innate Immunity and Adaptive Immunity in Mice Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenting He

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which vitamins regulate immunity and their effect as an adjuvant treatment for tuberculosis have gradually become very important research topics. Studies have found that vitamin B5 (VB5 can promote epithelial cells to express inflammatory cytokines. We aimed to examine the proinflammatory and antibacterial effect of VB5 in macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB strain H37Rv and the therapeutic potential of VB5 in vivo with tuberculosis. We investigated the activation of inflammatory signal molecules (NF-κB, AKT, JNK, ERK, and p38, the expression of two primary inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-6 and the bacterial burdens in H37Rv-infected macrophages stimulated with VB5 to explore the effect of VB5 on the inflammatory and antibacterial responses of macrophages. We further treated the H37Rv-infected mice with VB5 to explore VB5’s promotion of the clearance of H37Rv in the lungs and the effect of VB5 on regulating the percentage of inflammatory cells. Our data showed that VB5 enhanced the phagocytosis and inflammatory response in macrophages infected with H37Rv. Oral administration of VB5 decreased the number of colony-forming units of H37Rv in lungs of mice at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after infection. In addition, VB5 regulated the percentage of macrophages and promoted CD4+ T cells to express interferon-γ and interleukin-17; however, it had no effect on the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. In conclusion, VB5 significantly inhibits the growth of MTB by regulating innate immunity and adaptive immunity.

  14. Significance of soluble growth factors in the chondrogenic response of human umbilical cord matrix stem cells in a porous three dimensional scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Nirmal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell based tissue engineering has emerged as a promising strategy for articular cartilage regeneration. Foetal derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs with their ease of availability, pluripotency and high expansion potential have been demonstrated to be an attractive cell source over adult MSCs. However, there is a need for optimisation of chondrogenic signals to direct the differentiation of these multipotent MSCs to chondrogenic lineage. In this study we have demonstrated the in vitro chondrogenesis of human umbilical cord matrix MSCs in three dimensional PVA-PCL (polyvinyl alcohol-polycaprolactone scaffolds in the presence of the individual growth factors TGFβ1, TGFβ3, IGF, BMP2 and their combination with BMP2. Gene expression, histology and immunohistology were evaluated after 28 d culture. The induced cells showed the feature of chondrocytes in their morphology and expression of typical chondrogenic extracellular matrix molecules. Moreover, the real-time PCR assay has shown the expression of gene markers of chondrogenesis, SOX9, collagen type II and aggrecan. The expression of collagen type I and collagen type X was also evaluated. This study has demonstrated the successful chondrogenic induction of human umbilical cord MSCs in 3D scaffolds. Interestingly, the growth factor combination of TGF-β3 and BMP-2 was found to be more effective for chondrogenesis as shown by the real-time PCR studies. The findings of this study suggest the importance of using growth factor combinations for successful chondrogenic differentiation of umbilical cord MSCs.

  15. Nuclear energy significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koprda, V.

    2006-01-01

    This article is devoted to nuclear energy, to its acceptability, compatibility and sustainability. Nuclear energy is non-dispensable part of energy sources with vast innovation potential. The safety of nuclear energy, radioactive waste deposition, and prevention of risk from misuse of nuclear material have to be very seriously adjudged and solved. Nuclear energy is one of the ways how to decrease the contamination of atmosphere with carbon dioxide and it solves partially also the problem of global increase of temperature and climate changes. Given are the main factors responsible for the renaissance of nuclear energy. (author)

  16. Acetoacetate reduces growth and ATP concentration in cancer cell lines which over-express uncoupling protein 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quadros Edward V

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that several human cancers are capable of uncoupling of mitochondrial ATP generation in the presence of intact tricarboxylic acid (TCA enzymes. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that ketone bodies can inhibit cell growth in aggressive cancers and that expression of uncoupling protein 2 is a contributing factor. The proposed mechanism involves inhibition of glycolytic ATP production via a Randle-like cycle while increased uncoupling renders cancers unable to produce compensatory ATP from respiration. Methods Seven aggressive human cancer cell lines, and three control fibroblast lines were grown in vitro in either 10 mM glucose medium (GM, or in glucose plus 10 mM acetoacetate [G+AcA]. The cells were assayed for cell growth, ATP production and expression of UCP2. Results There was a high correlation of cell growth with ATP concentration (r = 0.948 in a continuum across all cell lines. Controls demonstrated normal cell growth and ATP with the lowest density of mitochondrial UCP2 staining while all cancer lines demonstrated proportionally inhibited growth and ATP, and over-expression of UCP2 (p Conclusion Seven human cancer cell lines grown in glucose plus acetoacetate medium showed tightly coupled reduction of growth and ATP concentration. The findings were not observed in control fibroblasts. The observed over-expression of UCP2 in cancer lines, but not in controls, provides a plausible molecular mechanism by which acetoacetate spares normal cells but suppresses growth in cancer lines. The results bear on the hypothesized potential for ketogenic diets as therapeutic strategies.

  17. Silencing of osteopontin promotes the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells by reducing the expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Li; ZHAO Wei; ZUO Wen-shu; WEI Ling; SONG Xian-rang; WANG Xing-wu; ZHENG Gang; ZHENG Mei-zhu

    2012-01-01

    Background Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted phosphoglycoprotein (SSP) that is overexpressed in a variety of tumors and was regarded as a molecular marker of tumors.In this study,we intended to demonstrate the role of OPN in human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231.Methods Recombinant plasmid expressing small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific to OPN mRNA was transfected into MDA-MB-231 cells to generate the stable transfected cell line MDA-MB-343,and the empty plasmid tansfected cells (MDA-MB-neg) or wildtype MDA-MB-231 cells were used as control cells respectively.Expression of OPN,hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) proteins was analyzed by Western blotting analysis.The radiosensitivity of cells was determined by detecting cell apoptosis,cell proliferation and cell senescence.Results HIF-1 and VEGF proteins in MDA-MB-343 cells were significantly downregulated upon the efficient knockdown of OPN expression under either hypoxia or normoxia environment.Moreover,expression of OPN protein was upregualted upon hypoxic culture.Stable OPN-silencing also decreased cell invasion,increased cell apoptosis and cell senescence,as well as reduced clonogenic survival,resulting in increase radiation tolerance.Conclusions Suppression of OPN gene expression can enhance radiosensitivity and affect cell apoptosis in breast cancer cells.OPN seems to be an attractive target for the improvement of radiotherapy.

  18. Positive effect of reduced aeration rate on growth and stereospecificity of DL-malic acid consumption by Azospirillum brasilense: improving the shelf life of a liquid inoculant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Espinosa, Karen; García-Cabrera, Ramsés I; Bedoya-López, Andrea; Trujillo-Roldán, Mauricio A; Valdez-Cruz, Norma A

    2015-02-10

    Azospirillum brasilense has significance as a growth promoter in plants of commercial interest. Two industrial native strains (Start and Calf), used as a part of an inoculant formulation in Mexico during the last 15 years, were incubated in laboratory-scale pneumatic bioreactors at different aeration rates. In both strains, the positive effect of decreased aeration was observed. At the lowest (0.1 vvm, air volume/liquid volume×minute), the highest biomass were obtained for Calf (7.8 × 10(10)CFU/ml), and Start (2.9 × 10(9)CFU/ml). These were higher in one magnitude order compared to cultures carried out at 0.5 vvm, and two compared to those at 1.0 vvm. At lower aeration, both stereoisomeric forms of malic acid were consumed, but at higher aeration, just L-malate was consumed. A reduction in aeration allows an increase of the shelf life and the microorganism saved higher concentrations of polyhydroxybutyrate. The selected fermentation conditions are closely related to those prevalent in large-scale bioreactors and offer the possibility of achieving high biomass titles with high shelf life at a reduced costs, due to the complete use of a carbon source at low aeration of a low cost raw material as DL-malic acid mixture in comparison with the L-malic acid stereoisomer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Elevated insulin and reduced insulin like growth factor binding protein-3/prostate specific antigen ratio with increase in prostate size in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivasulu, Karli; Nandeesha, Hanumanthappa; Dorairajan, Lalgudi Narayanan; Rajappa, Medha; Vinayagam, Vickneshwaran

    2017-06-01

    Insulin and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have growth promoting effects, while insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) has growth inhibitory effects. The present study was designed to assess the concentrations of insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3 and their association with prostate size in patients with BPH. Ninety 90 BPH cases and 90 controls were enrolled in the study. Insulin, IGF-1, IGFBP-3, PSA, testosterone and estradiol were estimated in both the groups. Insulin, IGF-1 and estradiol were increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was decreased in BPH cases when compared with controls. Insulin (r=0.64, p=0.001) and IGF-1 (r=0.22, p=0.03) were positively correlated and IGFBP-3/PSA (r=-0.316, p=0.002) were negatively correlated with prostate size in BPH. Multivariate analysis showed that insulin (p=0.001) and IGFBP-3/PSA (p=0.004) predicts the prostate size in patients with BPH. Insulin was increased and IGFBP-3/PSA was reduced in BPH patients with increased prostate size. At a cutoff concentration of 527.52, IGFBP-3/PSA ratio was found to differentiate benign growth of prostate from normal prostate with 96% sensitivity and 96% specificity. Insulin is elevated and IGFBP-3/PSA is reduced with increase prostate size in BPH cases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Significance of abnormal serum binding of insulin-like growth factor II in the development of hypoglycemia in patients with non-islet-cell tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daughaday, W.H.; Kapadia, M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors reported that serum and tumor from a hypoglycemic patient with a fibrosarcoma contained insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), mostly in a large molecular form designated big IGF-II. They now describe two additional patients with non-islet-cell tumor with hypoglycemia (NICTH) whose sera contained big IGF-II. Removal of the tumor eliminated most of the big IGF-II from the sera of two patients. Because specific IGF-binding proteins modify the bioactivity of IGFs, the sizes of the endogenous IGF-binding protein complexes were determined after neutral gel filtration through Sephadex G-200. Normally about 75% of IGFs are carried as a ternary complex of 150 kDa consisting of IGF, a growth hormone (GH)-dependent IGF-binding protein, and an acid-labile complexing component. The three patients with NICTH completely lacked the 150-kDa complex. IGF-II was present as a 60-kDa complex with variable contributions of smaller complexes. In the immediate postoperative period, a 110-kDa complex appeared rather than the expected 150-kDa complex. Abnormal IGF-II binding may be important in NICTH because the 150-kDa complexes cross the capillary membrane poorly. The smaller complexes present in our patients' sera would be expected to enter interstitial fluid readily, and a 4- to 5-fold increase in the fraction of IGFs reaching the target cells would result

  1. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu overexpression in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder and its prognostic significance: Is it worth hype?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In urothelial tumors of the urinary bladder, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu expression has been reported over 10 years, but there is no clear correlation between prognosis and recurrence rate. The present study evaluates prognostic implication of HER-2/neu expression. Subjects and Methods: In this study, 100 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens of primary transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder were processed. HER-2/neu monoclonal antibody immunohistochemistry staining procedure used for the study. Results: A total of 70 (70% patients were positive for overexpression of HER-2/neu. HER-2/neu was positive in patients with 42 (70% superficial tumor, 28 (70% muscle invasive tumor, 41 (75.9% high-grade tumor, 29 (63% low grade tumor, 31 (68.9% recurrent tumor, and 6 (66.6% had positive lymph nodes. Conclusions: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu over expression was not correlated with the tumor stage, lymphnode metastasis or recurrence of the disease. HER-2/neu overexpression was statistically insignificantly correlated with the differentiation grade (P < 0.161 as compared to previous studies. Future studies on HER-2 expression with chemo-sensitivity and efficacy of HER-2-targeted therapies in urothelial carcinomas is needed.

  2. High Prestroke Physical Activity Is Associated with Reduced Infarct Growth in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Treated with Intravenous tPA and Randomized to Remote Ischemic Perconditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blauenfeldt, Rolf Ankerlund; Hougaard, Kristina D; Mouridsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    A high prestroke physical activity (PA) level is associated with reduced stroke rate, stroke mortality, better functional outcome, and possible neuroprotective abilities. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible neuroprotective effect of prestroke PA on 24-h cerebral infarct growth...... admission) PA was quantified using the PA Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire at baseline. Infarct growth was evaluated using MRI (acute, 24-h, and 1-month). PASE scores were obtained from 102 of 153 (67%) patients with a median (interquartile range) age of 66 (58-73) years. A high prestroke PA level...

  3. The Effect of Vermicompost on Reducing the Adverse Effects of Water Stress on Growth and Chemical Composition of Corn in a Calcareous Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    leila zare

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vermicompost is one of the important bio-fertilizer which is the product of the process of composting different organic wastes such as manures and crop residues using different earthworms. Vermicomposts, especially those are derived from animal wastes,contain the large amounts of nutrients compaired with the composts prepared from crop residues. Vermicomposts contain plant available form of nutrients such as nitrate nitrogen, exchangeable phosphorus and potassium, calcium and magnesium. Nowadays, the use of vermicompost in sustainable agriculture to improve the growth and quality of fruits and crops is very common. Drought occurs when the amount of moisture in soil and water resources and rainfall is less than what plants need for normal growth and function. Two thirds of farm lands in Iran have been located in arid and semi-arid regions with annual rainfall less than150 mm that has been distributed irregularly and unpredictable during growth season imposing water stress in most crops. It indicates the importance of water management and proposing different strategies for mitigating detrimental effect of water stress in croplands. Due to the fact that crops nutrient management under drought and water stress using organic fertilizers is an effective method in reaching to high yields in sustainable agriculture, the objective of the present study was to investigate the influence of vermicompost application on reducing the adverse effects of water stress on the growth and chemical composition of corn in a calcareous soil. Materials and Methods: In order to study the influence of water stress and application of vermicompost on corn dry matter yield and nutrients concentration of corn shoot, a greenhouse factorial experiment (4×3 in completely randomized design with three replications was conducted in college of agriculture, Shiraz university, Shiraz, Iran. The factors consisted of four vermicompost levels (0, 10, 20 and30g kg-1soil

  4. The growth rate of pyrimidine auxotrophic mutants of Lactococcus lactis MG1363 is reduced in the presence of exogenous aspartate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Steen Lyders Lerche; Martinussen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide metabolism is important for all cells as supplier of building blocks for the synthesis of nucleic acids and coenzymes. Furthermore, they act as intracellular energy carriers and allosteric effectors in a large number of enzymatic reactions. Nucleotides can either be made de novo or from...... encoding enzymes in the distal part of the pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway of L. lactis MG1363, results in reduction of the growth rate if exogenous aspartate is supplied to the growth medium. This observation can be explained by an increased accumulation of a toxic intermediate, most likely carbamoyl...... aspartate, provoked by high concentrations of aspartate....

  5. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) promotes primordial follicle growth and reduces DNA fragmentation through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Maria É S; Barberino, Ricássio S; Menezes, Vanúzia G; Gouveia, Bruna B; Macedo, Taís J S; Santos, Jamile M S; Monte, Alane P O; Barros, Vanessa R P; Matos, Maria H T

    2018-05-30

    We investigated the effects of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the morphology and follicular activation of ovine preantral follicles cultured in situ and whether the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) pathway is involved in IGF-1 action in the sheep ovary. Ovine ovarian fragments were fixed for histological and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) analyses (fresh control) or cultured in supplemented alpha-minimum essential medium (α-MEM+; control) or α-MEM+ with IGF-1 (1, 10, 50, 100 or 200ngmL-1) for 7 days. Follicles were classified as normal or atretic, primordial or growing and the oocyte and follicle diameters were measured. DNA fragmentation was evaluated by TUNEL assay. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immunohistochemistry was performed on the fresh control, α-MEM+ and 100ngmL-1 IGF-1 samples. Inhibition of PI3K activity was performed through pretreatment with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and phosphorylated AKT (pAKT) expression was analysed after culture in the absence or presence of LY294002. IGF-1 at 100ngmL-1 increased (PIGF-1. LY294002 significantly inhibited follicular activation stimulated by α-MEM+ and 100ngmL-1 IGF-1 and reduced pAKT expression in follicles. Overall, IGF-1 at 100ngmL-1 promoted primordial follicle activation, cell proliferation and reduced DNA fragmentation after in situ culture through the PI3K/AKT pathway.

  6. PLASMA PROTEIN AND HEMOGLOBIN PRODUCTION : DELETION OF INDIVIDUAL AMINO ACIDS FROM GROWTH MIXTURE OF TEN ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS. SIGNIFICANT CHANGES IN URINARY NITROGEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robscheit-Robbins, F S; Miller, L L; Whipple, G H

    1947-02-28

    Given healthy dogs fed abundant iron and protein-free or low protein diets with sustained anemia and hypoproteinemia, we can study the capacity of these animals to produce simultaneously new hemoglobin and plasma protein. Reserve stores of blood protein-building materials are measurably depleted and levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent for hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent for plasma protein can be maintained for weeks or months depending upon the intake of food proteins or amino acid mixtures. These dogs are very susceptible to infection and various poisons. Dogs tire of these diets and loss of appetite terminates many experiments. Under these conditions (double depletion) standard growth mixtures of essential amino acids are tested to show the response in blood protein output and urinary nitrogen balance. As a part of each tabulated experiment one of the essential amino acids is deleted from the complete growth mixture to compare such response with that of the whole mixture. Methionine, threonine, phenylalanine, and tryptophane when singly eliminated from the complete amino acid mixture do effect a sharp rise in urinary nitrogen. This loss of urinary nitrogen is corrected when the individual amino acid is replaced in the mixture. Histidine, lysine, and valine have a moderate influence upon urinary nitrogen balance toward nitrogen conservation. Leucine, isoleucine, and arginine have minimal or no effect upon urinary nitrogen balance when these individual amino acids are deleted from the complete growth mixture of amino acids during 3 to 4 week periods. Tryptophane and to a less extent phenylalanine and threonine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a conspicuous preponderance of plasma protein output over the hemoglobin output (Table 4). Arginine, lysine, and histidine when returned to the amino acid mixture are associated with a large preponderance of hemoglobin output. Various amino acid mixtures under these conditions may give a positive

  7. Prognostic significance of equivocal human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 results and clinical utility of alternative chromosome 17 genes in patients with invasive breast cancer: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneige, Nour; Hess, Kenneth R; Multani, Asha S; Gong, Yun; Ibrahim, Nuhad K

    2017-04-01

    The 2013 testing guidelines for determining the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status include new cutoff points for the HER2/chromosome enumeration probe 17 (CEP17) ratio and the average HER2 copy number per cell, and they recommend using a reflex test with alternative chromosome 17 probes (Ch17Ps) to resolve equivocal HER2 results. This study sought to determine the clinical utility of alternative Ch17Ps in equivocal cases and the effects of equivocal results and/or a change in the HER2 status on patients' outcomes. The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center database of HER2 dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization results from 2000 to 2010 was searched for cases of invasive breast cancer with HER2/CEP17 ratios Cancer 2017;123:1115-1123. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. Biosensor-based detection of reduced sex hormone-binding globulin binding capacities in response to growth-promoter administrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooney, M.H.; Bergwerff, A.A.; van Meeuwen, J.A.; Luppa, P.B.; Elliott, C.T.

    2009-01-01

    Growth-promoting agents are illicitly used during animal rearing processes and the detection of their use is limited by new compounds and dosing practices that limit the efficiency of current testing which is based on residue analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and

  9. Understanding the growth mechanism of stabilizer-free Ag nanoparticles on reduced graphene oxide: the role of CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Weiyin; Ran Chenxin; Wang Minqiang; Yao Xi; He Delong; Bai Jinbo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, one-step approach to prepare stabilizer-free Ag–graphene nanocomposites using DMAc-assisted thermal reduction method with uniform distribution of “near spherical” Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) in the range of 16–20 nm is reported. Interestingly, from the change of absorption spectrum as a function of reaction time, we observed that the characteristic absorption peak of Ag NPs shows no peak position shift in a quite long time without extra stabilizer while red-shift and broaden after continuous reaction. To explain this phenomenon, we further proposed a growth mechanism that CO, which is generated from reduction of functional groups on GO, adsorbed on the surface of Ag NPs and leaded to growth cease of Ag NPs into a narrow size distribution during the reduction of GO. Meanwhile, Ag NPs can catalyze the oxidation of adsorbed-CO to CO 2 in the presence of O 2 which can easily desorb from Ag surfaces. Hence, after fully removal of functional groups on GO, continuous supply of CO was cutoff while the desorption of adsorbed-CO was still happening continually, so Ag NPs start to gradually grow and resulting in aggregation. Moreover, the dosage of less DMAc or more AgNO 3 would cause the anisotropic growth and form multiply twinned structure of Ag NPs. Our study presents a useful understanding on the growth of Ag NPs on graphene.

  10. Single-tree harvesting reduces survival and growth of oak stump sprouts in the Missouri Ozark Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel C. Dey; Randy G. Jensen; Michael J. Wallendorf

    2008-01-01

    Regeneration and recruitment into the overstory is critical to the success of using uneven-aged systems to sustain oak forests. We evaluated survival and growth of white oak (Quercus alba L.), black oak (Q. velutina Lam.), and scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.) stump sprouts 10 years after harvesting Ozark...

  11. Biochar-organic amendment mixtures added to simulated golf greens under reduced chemical fertilization increase creeping bentgrass growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simulated golf greens were used to test the growth of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L. "007") receiving suboptimal chemical fertilization in sand based substrates amended with 15% peat (control), a commercial biochar, a commercial biochar-compost (CarbonizPN), or seven formulated biochar...

  12. Reduced transforming growth factor-beta signaling in cartilage of old mice: role in impaired repair capacity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Scharstuhl, A.; Vitters, E.L.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2005-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease, mainly effecting the elderly population. The cause of OA seems to be an imbalance in catabolic and anabolic factors that develops with age. IL-1 is a catabolic factor known to induce cartilage damage, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is an

  13. Intradiscal and intra-articular facet infiltrations with plasma rich in growth factors reduce pain in patients with chronic low back pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Fernando; Anitua, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Context: Low back pain (LBP) is a complex and disabling condition, and its treatment becomes a challenge. Aims: The aim of our study was to assess the clinical outcome of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF-Endoret) infiltrations (one intradiscal, one intra-articular facet, and one transforaminal epidural injection) under fluoroscopic guidance-control in patients with chronic LBP. PRGF-Endoret which has been shown to be an efficient treatment to reduce joint pain. Settings and Design: The study was designed as an observational retrospective pilot study. Eighty-six patients with a history of chronic LBP and degenerative disease of the lumbar spine who met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited between December 2010 and January 2012. Subjects and Methods: One intradiscal, one intra-articular facet, and one transforaminal epidural injection of PRGF-Endoret under fluoroscopic guidance-control were carried out in 86 patients with chronic LBP in the operating theater setting. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics were performed using absolute and relative frequency distributions for qualitative variables and mean values and standard deviations for quantitative variables. The nonparametric Friedman statistical test was used to determine the possible differences between baseline and different follow-up time points on pain reduction after treatment. Results: Pain assessment was determined using a visual analog scale (VAS) at the first visit before (baseline) and after the procedure at 1, 3, and 6 months. The pain reduction after the PRGF-Endoret injections showed a statistically significant drop from 8.4 ± 1.1 before the treatment to 4 ± 2.6, 1.7 ± 2.3, and 0.8 ± 1.7 at 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment, respectively, with respect to all the time evaluations (P PRGF in patients with chronic LBP resulted in significant pain reduction assessed by VAS. PMID:27891035

  14. Clinical significance of combined determination of serum CA199 and tumor specific growth factor (TSGF) contents in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jiancheng

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the changes of serum TSGF and CA199 contents in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma. Methods: Serum CA199 (with IRMA) and TSGF (with biochemistry method) contents were determined in 33 patients with primary hepatic carcinoma and 35 controls. Results: Serum CA199 and TSGF contents were significantly higher in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma than those in controls (P<0.01) and their levels were significantly positively correlated with those of serum AFP. Conclusion: Determination of serum TSGF and CA199 contents was of clinical diagnostic value in patients with primary hepatic carcinoma. (authors)

  15. Understanding the null-to-small association between increased macroeconomic growth and reducing child undernutrition in India: role of development expenditures and poverty alleviation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, William; Rajaram, Ramaprasad; Subramanian, S V

    2016-05-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that macroeconomic growth in India is not correlated with any substantial reductions in the prevalence of child undernutrition over time. This study investigates the two commonly hypothesized pathways through which macroeconomic growth is expected to reduce child undernutrition: (1) an increase in public developmental expenditure and (2) a reduction in aggregate income-poverty levels. For the anthropometric data on children, we draw on the data from two cross-sectional waves of National Family Health Survey conducted in 1992-1993 and 2005-2006, while the data for per capita net state domestic product and per capita public spending on developmental expenditure and headcount ratio of poverty were obtained from the Reserve Bank of India and the Government of India expert committee reports. We find that between 1992-1993 and 2005-2006, state-level macroeconomic growth was not associated with any substantial increases in public development expenditure or substantial reductions in poverty at the aggregate level. Furthermore, the association between changes in public development expenditure or aggregate poverty and changes in undernutrition was small. In summary, it appears that the inability of macroeconomic growth to translate into reductions in child undernutrition in India is likely a consequence of the macroeconomic growth not translating into substantial investments in development expenditure that could matter for children's nutritional status and neither did it substantially improve incomes of the poor, a group where undernutrition is also the highest. The findings here build a case to advocate a 'support-led' strategy for reducing undernutrition rather than simply relying on a 'growth-mediated' strategy. Key messages Increases in macroeconomic growth have not been accompanied by substantial increases in public developmental spending or reduction in aggregate poverty headcount ratio in India. Association between increases in public

  16. The use of feed additives to reduce the effects of aflatoxin and deoxynivalenol on pig growth, organ health and immune status during chronic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alexandra C; See, M Todd; Hansen, Jeff A; Kim, Yong B; De Souza, Anna L P; Middleton, Teena F; Kim, Sung Woo

    2013-07-17

    Three feed additives were tested to improve the growth and health of pigs chronically challenged with aflatoxin (AF) and deoxynivalenol (DON). Gilts (n = 225, 8.8 ± 0.4 kg) were allotted to five treatments: CON (uncontaminated control); MT (contaminated with 150 µg/kg AF and 1100 µg/kg DON); A (MT + a clay additive); B (MT + a clay and dried yeast additive); and C (MT + a clay and yeast culture additive). Average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (ADFI) were recorded for 42 days, blood collected for immune analysis and tissue samples to measure damage. Feeding mycotoxins tended to decrease ADG and altered the immune system through a tendency to increase monocytes and immunoglobulins. Mycotoxins caused tissue damage in the form of liver bile ductule hyperplasia and karyomegaly. The additives in diets A and B reduced mycotoxin effects on the immune system and the liver and showed some ability to improve growth. The diet C additive played a role in reducing liver damage. Collectively, we conclude that AF and DON can be harmful to the growth and health of pigs consuming mycotoxins chronically. The selected feed additives improved pig health and may play a role in pig growth.

  17. Genetic disruption of the pHi-regulating proteins Na+/H+ exchanger 1 (SLC9A1) and carbonic anhydrase 9 severely reduces growth of colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Scott K; Cormerais, Yann; Durivault, Jerome; Pouyssegur, Jacques

    2017-02-07

    Hypoxia and extracellular acidosis are pathophysiological hallmarks of aggressive solid tumors. Regulation of intracellular pH (pHi) is essential for the maintenance of tumor cell metabolism and proliferation in this micro