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Sample records for significantly improved strength

  1. Bone Mass and Strength are Significantly Improved in Mice Overexpressing Human WNT16 in Osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Imranul; Reilly, Austin M; Alkhouli, Mohammed; Gerard-O'Riley, Rita L; Kasipathi, Charishma; Oakes, Dana K; Wright, Weston B; Acton, Dena; McQueen, Amie K; Patel, Bhavmik; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Robling, Alexander G; Econs, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recently, we demonstrated that osteoblast-specific overexpression of human WNT16 increased both cortical and trabecular bone mass and structure in mice. To further identify the cell-specific role of Wnt16 in bone homeostasis, we created transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing human WNT16 in osteocytes using Dmp1 promoter (Dmp1-hWNT16 TG) on C57BL/6 (B6) background. We analyzed bone phenotypes and serum bone biomarkers, performed gene expression analysis and measured dynamic bone histomorphometry in Dmp1-hWNT16 TG and wild-type (WT) mice. Compared to WT mice, Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice exhibited significantly higher whole-body, spine and femoral aBMD, BMC and trabecular (BV/TV, Tb.N, and Tb.Th) and cortical (bone area and thickness) parameters in both male and female at 12 weeks of age. Femur stiffness and ultimate force were also significantly improved in the Dmp1-hWNT16 TG female mice, compared to sex-matched WT littermates. In addition, female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice displayed significantly higher MS/BS, MAR and BFR/BS compared to the WT mice. Gene expression analysis demonstrated significantly higher mRNA level of Alp in both male and female Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice and significantly higher levels of Osteocalcin, Opg and Rankl in the male Dmp1-hWNT16 TG mice in bone tissue compared to sex-matched WT mice. These results indicate that WNT16 plays a critical role for acquisition of both cortical and trabecular bone mass and strength. Strategies designed to use WNT16 as a target for therapeutic interventions will be valuable to treat osteoporosis and other low bone mass conditions.

  2. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based...... on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives...... and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null...

  3. Strength improvement of fibre cement product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waranya Sonphuak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to improve the strength or the Modulus of Rupture (MOR of fibre cement. The Six Sigma approach with the DMAIC steps was applied to a case study company. This research started from defining problem, setting the project objective and the project scope. Next, the measurement system was analyzed and the process map was set up. The potential factors of the problem was then determined. Due to there were many factors that affect the MOR, the Cause and Effect Matrix and the Failure Mode and Effect Analysis technique were then used to reduce the number of factors to be studied further. Next, three process factors, which were the pulp slurry freeness, the film-layer thickness, and the pressure step, were optimized using the results from the Box-Behnken experimental design. Other 13 remaining factors were improved by creating or revising the standard work instructions and training the operators. After that, the statistical process control and the control plan were set up to control the production processes. After improvement, the process capability index (Ppk significantly increased from 0.26 to 1.35.

  4. Compressive strength improvement for recycled concrete aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Dhiyaa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing amount of construction waste and, concrete remnants, in particular pose a serious problem. Concrete waste exist in large amounts, do not decay and need long time for disintegration. Therefore, in this work old demolished concrete is crashed and recycled to produce recycled concrete aggregate which can be reused in new concrete production. The effect of using recycled aggregate on concrete compressive strength has been experimentally investigated; silica fume admixture also is used to improve recycled concrete aggregate compressive strength. The main parameters in this study are recycled aggregate and silica fume admixture. The percent of recycled aggregate ranged from (0-100 %. While the silica fume ranged from (0-10 %. The experimental results show that the average concrete compressive strength decreases from 30.85 MPa to 17.58 MPa when the recycled aggregate percentage increased from 0% to 100%. While, when silica fume is used the concrete compressive strength increase again to 29.2 MPa for samples with 100% of recycled aggregate.

  5. Significance of acceleration period in a dynamic strength testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W L; Su, F C; Chou, Y L

    1994-06-01

    The acceleration period that occurs during isokinetic tests may provide valuable information regarding neuromuscular readiness to produce maximal contraction. The purpose of this study was to collect the normative data of acceleration time during isokinetic knee testing, to calculate the acceleration work (Wacc), and to determine the errors (ERexp, ERwork, ERpower) due to ignoring Wacc during explosiveness, total work, and average power measurements. Seven male and 13 female subjects attended the test by using the Cybex 325 system and electronic stroboscope machine for 10 testing speeds (30-300 degrees/sec). A three-way ANOVA was used to assess gender, direction, and speed factors on acceleration time, Wacc, and errors. The results indicated that acceleration time was significantly affected by speed and direction; Wacc and ERexp by speed, direction, and gender; and ERwork and ERpower by speed and gender. The errors appeared to increase when testing the female subjects, during the knee flexion test, or when speed increased. To increase validity in clinical testing, it is important to consider the acceleration phase effect, especially in higher velocity isokinetic testing or for weaker muscle groups.

  6. Improved skeletal muscle mass and strength after heavy strength training in very old individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus Leidesdorff; Malmgaard-Clausen, Nikolaj Mølkjær; Gliese, Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    , muscle fiber type distribution and size did not differ significantly between groups. We conclude that in protein supplemented very old individuals, heavy resistance training can increase muscle mass and strength, and that the relative improvement in mass is more pronounced when initial muscle mass is low.......Age-related loss of muscle mass and function represents personal and socioeconomic challenges. The purpose of this study was to determine the adaptation of skeletal musculature in very old individuals (83 + years) performing 12 weeks of heavy resistance training (3 ×/week) (HRT) compared to a non....... The increase in CSA is correlated inversely with the baseline level of CSA (R2 = 0.43, P muscle isometric strength, isokinetic peak torque and power increased significantly only in HRT by 10–15%, whereas knee extension one-repetition maximum (1 RM) improved by 91%. Physical functional tests...

  7. Kettlebell swing training improves maximal and explosive strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effect that kettlebell swing (KB) training had on measures of maximum (half squat-HS-1 repetition maximum [1RM]) and explosive (vertical jump height-VJH) strength. To put these effects into context, they were compared with the effects of jump squat power training (JS-known to improve 1RM and VJH). Twenty-one healthy men (age = 18-27 years, body mass = 72.58 ± 12.87 kg) who could perform a proficient HS were tested for their HS 1RM and VJH pre- and post-training. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a KB or JS training group after HS 1RM testing and trained twice a week. The KB group performed 12-minute bouts of KB exercise (12 rounds of 30-second exercise, 30-second rest with 12 kg if 70 kg). The JS group performed at least 4 sets of 3 JS with the load that maximized peak power-Training volume was altered to accommodate different training loads and ranged from 4 sets of 3 with the heaviest load (60% 1RM) to 8 sets of 6 with the lightest load (0% 1RM). Maximum strength improved by 9.8% (HS 1RM: 165-181% body mass, p < 0.001) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that there was no significant difference between the effect of KB and JS training (p = 0.56). Explosive strength improved by 19.8% (VJH: 20.6-24.3 cm) after the training intervention, and post hoc analysis revealed that the type of training did not significantly affect this either (p = 0.38). The results of this study clearly demonstrate that 6 weeks of biweekly KB training provides a stimulus that is sufficient to increase both maximum and explosive strength offering a useful alternative to strength and conditioning professionals seeking variety for their athletes.

  8. Does plyometric training improve strength performance? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Sáez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Requena, Bernardo; Newton, Robert U

    2010-09-01

    Majority of the research suggests plyometric training (PT) improves maximal strength performance as measured by 1RM, isometric MVC or slow velocity isokinetic testing. However, the effectiveness of PT depends upon various factors. A meta-analysis of 15 studies with a total of 31 effect sizes (ES) was carried out to analyse the role of various factors on the effects of PT on strength performance. The inclusion criteria for the analysis were: (a) studies using PT programs for lower limb muscles; (b) studies employing true experimental design and valid and reliable measurements; (c) studies including sufficient data to calculate ES. When subjects can adequately follow plyometric exercises, the training gains are independent of fitness level. Subjects in either good or poor physical condition, benefit equally from plyometric work, also men obtain similar strength results to women following PT. In relation to the variables of program design, training volume of less than 10 weeks and with more than 15 sessions, as well as the implementation of high-intensity programs, with more than 40 jumps per session, were the strategies that seem to maximize the probability to obtain significantly greater improvements in performance (p<0.05). In order to optimise strength enhancement, the combination of different types of plyometrics with weight-training would be recommended, rather than utilizing only one form (p<0.05). The responses identified in this analysis are essential and should be considered by the strength and conditioning professional with regard to the most appropriate dose-response trends for PT to optimise strength gains.

  9. Micromechanical analysis of polyacrylamide-modified concrete for improving strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Zengzhi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chang' an University, Xi' an 710064 (China)], E-mail: zz-sun@126.com; Xu Qinwu [Pavement research, Transtec Group Inc., Austin 78731 (United States)], E-mail: qinwu_xu@yahoo.com

    2008-08-25

    This paper studies how polyacrylamide (PAM) alters the physicochemical and mechanical properties of concrete. The microstructure of PAM-modified concrete and the physicochemical reaction between PAM and concrete were studied through scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared spectrum analysis. Meanwhile, the workability and strengths of cement paste and concrete were tested. PAM's modification mechanism was also discussed. Results indicate that PAM reacts with the Ca{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} cations produced by concrete hydration to form the ionic compounds and reduce the crystallization of Ca(OH){sub 2}, acting as a flexible filler and reinforcement in the porosity of concrete and, therefore, improving concrete's engineering properties. PAM also significantly alters the microstructure at the aggregate-cement interfacial transition zone. Mechanical testing results indicate that the fluidity of cement paste decreases initially, then increases, and decreases again with increasing PAM content. PAM can effectively improve the flexural strength, bonding strength, dynamic impact resistance, and fatigue life of concrete, though it reduces the compressive strength to some extent.

  10. Micromechanical analysis of polyacrylamide-modified concrete for improving strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zengzhi; Xu Qinwu

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how polyacrylamide (PAM) alters the physicochemical and mechanical properties of concrete. The microstructure of PAM-modified concrete and the physicochemical reaction between PAM and concrete were studied through scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and infrared spectrum analysis. Meanwhile, the workability and strengths of cement paste and concrete were tested. PAM's modification mechanism was also discussed. Results indicate that PAM reacts with the Ca 2+ and Al 3+ cations produced by concrete hydration to form the ionic compounds and reduce the crystallization of Ca(OH) 2 , acting as a flexible filler and reinforcement in the porosity of concrete and, therefore, improving concrete's engineering properties. PAM also significantly alters the microstructure at the aggregate-cement interfacial transition zone. Mechanical testing results indicate that the fluidity of cement paste decreases initially, then increases, and decreases again with increasing PAM content. PAM can effectively improve the flexural strength, bonding strength, dynamic impact resistance, and fatigue life of concrete, though it reduces the compressive strength to some extent

  11. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (pwelding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (pwelding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  12. Carotid endarterectomy significantly improves postoperative laryngeal sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Georg Philipp; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Vasicek, Sarah; Graupp, Matthias; Gugatschka, Markus; Baumann, Anneliese; Konstantiniuk, Peter; Koter, Stephan Herwig

    2016-11-01

    sensory threshold on the operated-on side (6.08 ± 2.02 mm Hg) decreased significantly at the 6-week follow-up, even in relation to the preoperative measure (P = .022). With the exception of one patient with permanent unilateral vocal fold immobility, no signs of nerve injury were detected. In accordance with previous reports, injuries to the recurrent laryngeal nerve during CEA seem to be rare. In most patients, postoperative symptoms (globus, dysphagia, dysphonia) and signs fade within a few weeks without any specific therapeutic intervention. This study shows an improved long-term postoperative superior laryngeal nerve function with regard to laryngopharyngeal sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Ceramic Composite Intermediate Temperature Stress-Rupture Properties Improved Significantly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Hurst, Janet B.

    2002-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) composites are considered to be potential materials for future aircraft engine parts such as combustor liners. It is envisioned that on the hot side (inner surface) of the combustor liner, composites will have to withstand temperatures in excess of 1200 C for thousands of hours in oxidizing environments. This is a severe condition; however, an equally severe, if not more detrimental, condition exists on the cold side (outer surface) of the combustor liner. Here, the temperatures are expected to be on the order of 800 to 1000 C under high tensile stress because of thermal gradients and attachment of the combustor liner to the engine frame (the hot side will be under compressive stress, a less severe stress-state for ceramics). Since these composites are not oxides, they oxidize. The worst form of oxidation for strength reduction occurs at these intermediate temperatures, where the boron nitride (BN) interphase oxidizes first, which causes the formation of a glass layer that strongly bonds the fibers to the matrix. When the fibers strongly bond to the matrix or to one another, the composite loses toughness and strength and becomes brittle. To increase the intermediate temperature stress-rupture properties, researchers must modify the BN interphase. With the support of the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program, significant improvements were made as state-of-the-art SiC/SiC composites were developed during the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) program. Three approaches were found to improve the intermediate-temperature stress-rupture properties: fiber-spreading, high-temperature silicon- (Si) doped boron nitride (BN), and outside-debonding BN.

  14. Improving the casting properties of high-strength aluminium alloys:

    OpenAIRE

    Ekrt, Ondřej; Šerák, Jan; Vojtěch, Dalibor

    2004-01-01

    Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys are examples of high-strength alloys. After age-hardening they often possess tensile strengths of more than 500 MPa. However, their casting properties are relatively poor as a result of solidification intervals that are too wide. Therefore, they often require an extrusion, rolling, or forging treatment, and the production of small series of special parts can, as a consequence, be very expensive. In this study, an improvement in the castability and a reduction of the hot-tea...

  15. Improving the strength of amalgams by including steel fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Calvin T. [Hendrix College, Conway, AR 72032 (United States); Van Hoose, James R. [Siemens, Orlando, FL 32826 (United States); McGill, Preston B. [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM20, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Grugel, Richard N., E-mail: richard.n.grugel@nasa.gov [Marshall Space Flight Center, EM30, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States)

    2012-05-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A room temperature liquid Ga-In alloy was successfully substituted for mercury. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Physically sound amalgams with included steel fibers can be made. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small volume fraction inclusion of fibers increased strength by {approx}20%. - Abstract: Mercury amalgams, due to their material properties, are widely and successfully used in dental practice. They are, however, also well recognized as having poor tensile strength. With the possibility of expanding amalgam applications it is demonstrated that tensile strength can be increased some 20% by including a small amount of steel fibers. Furthermore, it is shown that mercury can be replaced with a room temperature liquid gallium-indium alloy. Processing, microstructures, and mechanical test results of these novel amalgams are presented and discussed in view of means to further improve their properties.

  16. Improving Strength-Ductility Balance of High Strength Dual-Phase Steels by Addition of Vanadium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yu; Hua, M.; Uusitalo, J.; DeArdo, A. J.

    For galvanized or galvannealed steels to be commercially successful, they must exhibit several attributes: (i) easy and inexpensive processing in the hot mill, cold mill and on the coating line, (ii) high strength with good formability and spot weldability, and (iii) good corrosion resistance, especially after cold forming. For good corrosion resistance, the coating must have sufficient coverage, be of uniform thickness, and most importantly, the coating must survive the cold stamping or forming operation. The purpose of this paper is to present research aiming at improving the steel substrate, such that high strength can be obtained while maintaining good global formability (tensile ductility), local formability (sheared-edge ductility), and good spot weldability. It is well-known that the strength of DP steels is controlled by several factors, including the amount of martensite found in the final microstructure. Recent research has revealed that the amount of austenite formed during intercritical annealing can be strongly influenced by the annealing temperature and the pre-annealing conditions of the hot band (coiling temperature) and cold band (% cold reduction). Current experiments have explored the combination of pre-annealing conditions and four annealing practices to help define the best practice to optimize the strength-formability balance in these higher strength DP steels. The steels used in these experiments contained (i) low carbon content for good spot weldability, (ii) the hardenability additions Mo and Cr for strength, and (iii) V for grain refinement, precipitation hardening and temper resistance. When processed correctly, these steels exhibited UTS levels up to 1000MPa, total elongation to 25%, reduction in area to 45%, and Hole Expansion Ratios to 50%. The results of this program will be presented and discussed.

  17. Strength training improves fatigue resistance and self-rated health in workers with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    of a randomized controlled trial investigates the effect of strength training on muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health among workers with chronic pain. Sixty-six slaughterhouse workers with chronic upper limb pain and work disability were randomly allocated to 10 weeks of strength training or usual...... (Spearman's rho = -0.40; P = 0.01). In conclusion, specific strength training improves muscular fatigue resistance and self-rated health and reduces pain of the hand/wrist in manual workers with chronic upper limb pain. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01671267.......-rated health and pain. Time to fatigue, muscle strength, hand/wrist pain, and self-rated health improved significantly more following strength training than usual care (all P

  18. Training visual imagery: Improvements of metacognition, but not imagery strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanne Lynn Rademaker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual imagery has been closely linked to brain mechanisms involved in perception. Can visual imagery, like visual perception, improve by means of training? Previous research has demonstrated that people can reliably evaluate the vividness of single episodes of sensory imagination – might the metacognition of imagery also improve over the course of training? We had participants imagine colored Gabor patterns for an hour a day, over the course of five consecutive days, and again two weeks after training. Participants rated the subjective vividness and effort of their mental imagery on each trial. The influence of imagery on subsequent binocular rivalry dominance was taken as our measure of imagery strength. We found no overall effect of training on imagery strength. Training did, however, improve participant’s metacognition of imagery. Trial-by-trial ratings of vividness gained predictive power on subsequent rivalry dominance as a function of training. These data suggest that, while imagery strength might be immune to training in the current context, people’s metacognitive understanding of mental imagery can improve with practice.

  19. An investigation of improved strength and toughness of ausformed H13 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Yong Chul; Yoon, Han Sang

    1986-01-01

    The effect of ausforming for AISI H13 steel was studied. Plastic deformation of metastable austenite increased the hardness and strength of the subsequently formed martensite. The increases in yield and tensile strength were proportional to the degree of austenite deformation without sacrifice of toughness, and large deformation (60%) resulted in significant increase in impact value. Furthermore, temper resistance up to 500 deg C, that is, consequent improvement in elevated-temperature strength property was demonstrated. These results can be interpreted as being attributed to the formation of cellular substructures which were fixed by alloy carbides. (Author)

  20. Improving body composition and strength in athletes through a 4-month combined martial arts and strength training program

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    Aleksandra Stachoń

    2016-06-01

    2Zakład Sportów Indywidualnych, Akademia Wychowania Fizycznego, ul. Paderewskiego 35, Wrocław       Corresponding author: Dr Aleksandra Jadwiga Stachoń, e-mail: aleksandra.stachon@awf.wroc.pl Departament of Physical Anthropology, University School of Physical Education in Wrocław, al. I.J. Paderewskiego 35, bud. P2, 51-612 Wrocław; Poland Phone: 71 347 33 44         Key words: resistance training, body build, body composition, combat sport.   Abstract Background and aim. Body composition is one of key components of health in both general and athletic populations. In martial arts great significance is attached to the development of mesomorphy and strength, which are crucial for performing offensive and defensive actions during fights. The study proposes to introduce progressive strength training programme - arranged primarily for beginners – in order to improve body composition of non-elite male martial arts competitors. The present study aims to evaluate the changes in body massiveness, body composition and strength in 31 martial arts practitioners from academic sports clubs after a combined martial arts and strength training programme. Material and methods. The 16-week intervention was based on a targeted progressive resistance training protocol developed by Stefaniak [1995]. The anthropometric, physical and motoric measurements were performed twice at four months interval. This programme includes training three times weekly with increased number of repetitions (19-24, number of sets (1-3 and increased loads (5%. Results. After the completion of the training program, significant increase for about 1.8 kgin body mass was observed. Body massiveness (BMI increased from 23.2 ± 1.8 kg/m2 to 23.9 ± 1.8 kg/m2. The analysis using Sheldon’s somatotypes revealed an increase of mesomorphy (from 5.5 to 5.7 and decrease of ectomorphy (from 2.5 to 2.4. The level of endomorphy became stable (2.1. The maximal circumferences of flexed arm, forearm, calf and

  1. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

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    Tarik Ozmen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.

  2. Multifunctional Beta Ti Alloy with Improved Specific Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hee; Hong, Jae-Keun; Lee, Sang Won; Yeom, Jong-Taek

    2017-12-01

    Gum metals feature properties such as ultrahigh strength, ultralow elastic modulus, superelasticity, and superplasticity. They are composed of elements from Groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table and exist when the valance electron concentration (\\overline{e/a}) is 4.24; the bond order (\\overline{Bo}) is 2.87; and the "d" electron-orbital energy level (\\overline{Md}) is 2.45 eV. Typical compositions include Ti-23Nb-2Zr-0.7Ta-O and Ti-12Ta-9Nb-6Zr-3 V-O, which contain large amounts of heavy Group-5 elements such as Nb and Ta. In the present study, to improve the specific strength of a multifunctional beta Ti alloy, three alloys (Ti-20Nb-5Zr-1Fe-O, Ti-12Zr-10Mo-4Nb-O, and Ti-24Zr-9Cr-3Mo-O) were designed by satisfying the above three requirements while adding Fe, Mo, and Cr, which are not only lightweight but also have strong hardening effects. Microstructural and mechanical property analyses revealed that Ti-20Nb-5Zr-1Fe-O has a 25% higher specific strength than gum metal while maintaining an ultralow elastic modulus.

  3. Using of science technologies for mining machinery constructions' strength improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, E. V.; Mehtiev, A. D.; Yugai, V. V.; Bulatbayev, F. N.

    2015-04-01

    Recommendations for strengthening the brake construction in accident dangerous areas of fatigue destruction were developed. Computer modeling was made using the ANSYS program that helps to visualize stained condition of the construction for further practical testing of the strength and reliability improving technology of mining elevating machines' constructions, which are being in a long-term use, with a help of the strengthening elements. A way of construction strengthening, which eliminates the possibility of further fatigue destruction of the brake system elements, because of the load cycle in exploitation process.

  4. Inhaler Reminders Significantly Improve Asthma Patients' Use of Controller Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... controller medications Share | Inhaler reminders significantly improve asthma patients’ use of controller medications Published Online: July 22, ... the burden and risk of asthma, but many patients do not use them regularly. This poor adherence ...

  5. Significant improvement in the thermal annealing process of optical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzenstein, Patrice; Zarubin, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    Thermal annealing performed during process improves the quality of the roughness of optical resonators reducing stresses at the periphery of their surface thus allowing higher Q-factors. After a preliminary realization, the design of the oven and the electronic method were significantly improved thanks to nichrome resistant alloy wires and chopped basalt fibers for thermal isolation during the annealing process. Q-factors can then be improved.

  6. Assessing the organisational and individual strengths use and deficit improvement amongst sport coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2013-11-01

    Research purpose: To (1 determine whether adapted versions of the Strengths Use and Deficit Improvement Questionnaire (SUDIQ and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES are valid and reliable, (2 determine the relationship of the SUDIQ dimensions in the nomological net, and (3 test a structural model. Motivation for the study: To gain a better understanding of the outcomes of following a balanced approach within a sport coaching context. Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional research approach was used. An availability sample (N = 364 of teachers occupying roles as sport coaches from various schools across three provinces in South Africa was used. Structural equation modelling was used to test the factor structures and the structural model. Main findings: The results indicated a valid factor structure for the adapted SUDIQ and UWES. Relationships between the SUDIQ dimensions and job and personal resources were positive and significant. Individual strengths use was the strongest predictor of engagement. Individual deficit improvement and organisational strengths use were also significant predictors. Organisational deficit improvement did not significantly predict engagement. Practical/managerial implications: Evidence suggests the adapted SUDIQ and UWES can be utilised effectively in a sport coaching environment. Organisational strengths use is also important in managing engagement levels of sport coaches. Contribution/value-add: Valid and reliable measures were provided for use in a sport coaching environment. It substantiates the outcomes that can be gained by following a combined approach based on strength and deficit.

  7. The significance of water ionic strength on aluminium toxicity in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstad, Nina E.W.; Kjelsberg, Birgitte M.; Voellestad, L. Asbjoern; Lydersen, Espen; Poleo, Antonio B.S.

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminium to fish is related to interactions between aluminium and the gill surface. We investigated the possible effect of water ionic strength on this interaction. The mortality of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to three different degrees of Al polymerisation was compared in water with increased ionic strength (mean 7.31 x 10 -4 M) after additions of the base cations Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , Na + or K + , and in water with no such addition (mean ionic strength 5.58 x 10 -4 M). Only a very slight ameliorating effect of increased ionic strength was observed, while the degree of Al polymerisation was of major importance in fish mortality. In addition, it was observed that smaller fish survived the Al exposures for a longer time than larger fish. We hypothesise that this is because larger fish are more susceptible to hypoxia than smaller fish. - Ionic strength has a slight ameliorating effect on Al toxicity in brown trout

  8. Mechanical Strength Improvements of Carbon Nanotube Threads through Epoxy Cross-Linking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingyue Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs have a great mechanical strength that needs to be transferred into macroscopic fiber assemblies. One approach to improve the mechanical strength of the CNT assemblies is by creating covalent bonding among their individual CNT building blocks. Chemical cross-linking of multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs within the fiber has significantly improved the strength of MWCNT thread. Results reported in this work show that the cross-linked thread had a tensile strength six times greater than the strength of its control counterpart, a pristine MWCNT thread (1192 MPa and 194 MPa, respectively. Additionally, electrical conductivity changes were observed, revealing 2123.40 S·cm−1 for cross-linked thread, and 3984.26 S·cm−1 for pristine CNT thread. Characterization suggests that the obtained high tensile strength is due to the cross-linking reaction of amine groups from ethylenediamine plasma-functionalized CNT with the epoxy groups of the cross-linking agent, 4,4-methylenebis(N,N-diglycidylaniline.

  9. Improving the Q:H strength ratio in women using plyometric exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Kavin K W; DiPasquale, Angela A

    2011-10-01

    Plyometric training programs have been implemented in anterior cruciate ligament injury prevention programs. Plyometric exercises are designed to aid in the improvement of muscle strength and neuromuscular control. Our purpose was to examine the effects of plyometric training on lower leg strength in women. Thirty (age = 20.3 ± 1.9 years) recreationally active women were divided into control and experimental groups. The experimental group performed a plyometric training program for 6 weeks, 3 d·wk(-1). All subjects attended 4 testing sessions: before the start of the training program and after weeks 2, 4, and 6. Concentric quadriceps and hamstring strength (dominant leg) was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer at speeds of 60 and 120°·s(-1). Peak torque, average peak torque, and average power (AvgPower) were measured. The results revealed a significant (p plyometric group than in the control group at testing session 4 and that AvgPower was greater in the plyometric group than in the control group in testing sessions 2-4. Our results indicate that the plyometric training program increased hamstring strength while maintaining quadriceps strength, thereby improving the Q:H strength ratio.

  10. Improved glucose tolerance after high-load strength training in patients undergoing dialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølsted, Stig; Harrison, Adrian Paul; Eidemak, Inge

    2013-01-01

    glucose tolerance (n = 9). Conclusion: The conducted strength training was associated with a significant improvement in glucose tolerance in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes undergoing dialysis. The effect was apparently not associated with muscle hypertrophy, whereas the muscle...... a week. Muscle fiber size, composition and capillary density were analyzed in biopsies obtained in the vastus lateralis muscle. Glucose tolerance and the insulin response were measured by a 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test. Results: All outcome measures remained unchanged during the control period....... After strength training the relative area of type 2X fibers was decreased. Muscle fiber size and capillary density remained unchanged. After the strength training, insulin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with impaired glucose tolerance or type 2 diabetes (n = 14) (fasting insulin...

  11. Training directionally selective motion pathways can significantly improve reading efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Teri

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether perceptual learning at early levels of visual processing would facilitate learning at higher levels of processing. This was examined by determining whether training the motion pathways by practicing leftright movement discrimination, as found previously, would improve the reading skills of inefficient readers significantly more than another computer game, a word discrimination game, or the reading program offered by the school. This controlled validation study found that practicing left-right movement discrimination 5-10 minutes twice a week (rapidly) for 15 weeks doubled reading fluency, and significantly improved all reading skills by more than one grade level, whereas inefficient readers in the control groups barely improved on these reading skills. In contrast to previous studies of perceptual learning, these experiments show that perceptual learning of direction discrimination significantly improved reading skills determined at higher levels of cognitive processing, thereby being generalized to a new task. The deficits in reading performance and attentional focus experienced by the person who struggles when reading are suggested to result from an information overload, resulting from timing deficits in the direction-selectivity network proposed by Russell De Valois et al. (2000), that following practice on direction discrimination goes away. This study found that practicing direction discrimination rapidly transitions the inefficient 7-year-old reader to an efficient reader.

  12. The significance of water ionic strength on aluminium toxicity in brown trout (Salmo trutta L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alstad, Nina E.W. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kjelsberg, Birgitte M. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Voellestad, L. Asbjoern [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Lydersen, Espen [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, P.O. Box 173 Kjelsaas, N-0411 Oslo (Norway); Poleo, Antonio B.S. [Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)]. E-mail: toni.poleo@bio.uio.no

    2005-01-01

    The toxicity of aluminium to fish is related to interactions between aluminium and the gill surface. We investigated the possible effect of water ionic strength on this interaction. The mortality of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) exposed to three different degrees of Al polymerisation was compared in water with increased ionic strength (mean 7.31 x 10{sup -4} M) after additions of the base cations Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Na{sup +} or K{sup +}, and in water with no such addition (mean ionic strength 5.58 x 10{sup -4} M). Only a very slight ameliorating effect of increased ionic strength was observed, while the degree of Al polymerisation was of major importance in fish mortality. In addition, it was observed that smaller fish survived the Al exposures for a longer time than larger fish. We hypothesise that this is because larger fish are more susceptible to hypoxia than smaller fish. - Ionic strength has a slight ameliorating effect on Al toxicity in brown trout.

  13. Strength Improvement of Clay Soil by Using Stone Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Sameer Abdulrasool

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil stabilization with stone powder is a good solution for the construction of subgrade for road way and railway lines, especially under the platforms and mostly in transition zones between embankments and rigid structures, where the mechanical properties of supporting soils are very influential. Stone powder often has a unique composition which justifies the need for research to study the feasibility of using this stone powder type for ground improvement applications. This paper presents results from a comprehensive laboratory study carried out to investigate the feasibility of using stone powder for improvement of engineering properties of clays. The stone powder contains bassanite (CaSO4. ½ H2O, and Calcite (CaCO3. Three percentages are used for stone powder (1%, 3% and 5% by dry weight of clay. Several tests are made to investigate the soil behavior after adding the stone powder (Atterberg limits, Standard Proctor density, Grain size distribution, Specific gravity, Unconfined Compressive test, and California bearing ratio test. Unconfined Compressive tests conducted at different curing. The samples are tested under both soaked and unsoaked condition. Chemical tests and X-ray diffraction analyses are also carried out. Stone powder reacts with clay producing decreasing in plasticity and The curves of grain size distribution are shifted to the coarse side as the stone powder percentage increase; the soil becomes more granular, and also with higher strength.

  14. Addition of Silica Fume to Improve Strength of Cement Paste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajian; Chen, Hongniao; Li, Gu

    2018-03-01

    This study measured the packing densities of 0 to 30% silica fume (SF) added cementitious materials and strength of the cementitious pastes with various water content. The results revealed that addition of silica fume up to a certain level has great effects on packing density and strength. In-depth analysis illustrated that a lower W/CM ratio would not always result in a higher cube strength, and the range between 0.05 and 0.07 µm would be the amount of water film thickness (WFT) for muximum strength.

  15. Improved magnetic properties and fracture strength of NdFeB by dehydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, M. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)]. E-mail: mse_yanmi@dial.zju.edu.cn; Yu, L.Q. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Wu, J.M. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Cui, X.G. [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2006-11-15

    Effects of the dehydrogenation of the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powders on the magnetic properties and the fracture strength of sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. It was found that the lattice parameters and the crystal phase of NdFeB changed significantly with the various hydrogen contents of the resultant HD powders due to the different degrees of dehydrogenation. The magnetic properties and fracture strength increased with decreasing hydrogen content, reaching the maximum increases of 200% for both intrinsic coercivity and bending strength, which can be ascribed to the improved microstructure of the sintered NdFeB magnets. The hydrogen remaining in the HD powders diffused out and affected drastically the grain and grain boundaries by the hydrogen out-take channel during the subsequent sintering process.

  16. Improved magnetic properties and fracture strength of NdFeB by dehydrogenation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, M.; Yu, L.Q.; Wu, J.M.; Cui, X.G.

    2006-01-01

    Effects of the dehydrogenation of the hydrogen decrepitated (HD) powders on the magnetic properties and the fracture strength of sintered NdFeB magnets were studied. It was found that the lattice parameters and the crystal phase of NdFeB changed significantly with the various hydrogen contents of the resultant HD powders due to the different degrees of dehydrogenation. The magnetic properties and fracture strength increased with decreasing hydrogen content, reaching the maximum increases of 200% for both intrinsic coercivity and bending strength, which can be ascribed to the improved microstructure of the sintered NdFeB magnets. The hydrogen remaining in the HD powders diffused out and affected drastically the grain and grain boundaries by the hydrogen out-take channel during the subsequent sintering process

  17. Significant Improvement of Catalytic Efficiencies in Ionic Liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Choong Eui; Yoon, Mi Young; Choi, Doo Seong

    2005-01-01

    The use of ionic liquids as reaction media can confer many advantages upon catalytic reactions over reactions in organic solvents. In ionic liquids, catalysts having polar or ionic character can easily be immobilized without additional structural modification and thus the ionic solutions containing the catalyst can easily be separated from the reagents and reaction products, and then, be reused. More interestingly, switching from an organic solvent to an ionic liquid often results in a significant improvement in catalytic performance (e.g., rate acceleration, (enantio)selectivity improvement and an increase in catalyst stability). In this review, some recent interesting results which can nicely demonstrate these positive 'ionic liquid effect' on catalysis are discussed

  18. Dynamics of muscle strength improvement during isokinetic rehabilitation of athletes with ACL rupture and chondromalacia patellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnica Bakrac, N

    2003-03-01

    To assess quantitatively dynamics and extent of the increase in muscle strength during isokinetic rehabilitation. daily measurements of muscle strength; detailed testing at the beginning and at the end of rehabilitation. Cybex Rehabilitation Center, Zagreb. 44 athletes (31 m, 13 F, age 16-35), 3 injury-defined groups: athletes with ACL rupture (non-reconstructed and reconstructed) and chondromalacia patellae. all subjects underwent isokinetic rehabilitation on Cybex Orthotron KT2 device, using individually designed protocols (extension and flexion exercises, concentric muscle contractions, 15 treatments). monitoring of daily progress on rehabilitation device and detailed testing on diagnostic device. All patients showed considerable improvement. Muscle strength improved on average 141% (SD=110) in ACL-reconstructed group, 144% (SD=130) for chondromalacia patellae group and 150% (SD=74) for ACL-non-reconstructed group, comparing to initial strength. Dynamic status tested on Cybex Otrhotron diagnostic device prior and after rehabilitation strongly correlated with final progress monitored on the rehabilitation device. Isokinetic rehabilitation is a quick and effective method in treating knee injuries in athletes. Both types of objective criteria have shown significant increase in muscle strength. The improvement of muscle strength was on the average 149% (SD=101), which is about 10% daily for 15 treatments. The greatest progress, 19% per day, occurred during first five days. The athletes were able to resume their sport activities as follows: patients from chondromalacia patellae group, and most of them from the non-reconstructed ACL group were back in competition within a month, while 75% from the ACL reconstructed group came back within 3 months, and the rest of them within 5 months.

  19. Bedtime Blood Pressure Chronotherapy Significantly Improves Hypertension Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio; Crespo, Juan J; Ríos, María T; Smolensky, Michael H

    2017-10-01

    Consistent evidence of numerous studies substantiates the asleep blood pressure (BP) mean derived from ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) is both an independent and a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk than are daytime clinic BP measurements or the ABPM-determined awake or 24-hour BP means. Hence, cost-effective adequate control of sleep-time BP is of marked clinical relevance. Ingestion time, according to circadian rhythms, of hypertension medications of 6 different classes and their combinations significantly improves BP control, particularly sleep-time BP, and reduces adverse effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Improvement of Phi bodies stain and its clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xu-Bo; Lu, Xing-Guo; Yan, Li-Juan; Xiao, Xi-Bin; Wu, Dong; Xu, Gen-Bo; Zhang, Xiao-Hong; Zhao, Xiao-Ying

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the dyeing method of hydroperoxidase (HPO), to analyze the morphologic features of Phi bodies and to evaluate the clinical application of this method. 128 bone marrow or peripheral blood smears from patients with myeloid and lymphoid malignancies were stained by improved HPO staining. The Phi bodies were observed with detection rate of Phi bodies in different leukemias. 69 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) specimens were chosen randomly, the positive rate and the number of Phi bodies between the improved HPO and POX stain based on the same substrate of 3, 3'diaminobenzidine were compared. The results showed that the shape of bundle-like Phi bodies was variable, long or short. while the nubbly Phi bodies often presented oval and smooth. Club-like Phi bodies were found in M(3). The detection rates of bundle-like Phi bodies in AML M(1)-M(5) were 42.9% (6/14), 83.3% (15/18), 92.0% (23/25), 52.3% (11/21), 33.3% (5/15) respectively, and those of nubbly Phi bodies were 28.6% (4/14), 66.7% (12/18), 11.1% (3/25), 33.3% (7/21), 20.0% (3/15) respectively. The detection rate of bundle-like Phi bodies in M(3) was significantly higher than that in (M(1) + M(2)) or (M(4) + M(5)) groups. The detection rate of nubbly Phi bodies in (M(1) + M(2)) group was higher than that in M(3) group. In conclusion, after improvement of staining method, the HPO stain becomes simple, the detection rate of Phi bodies is higher than that by the previous method, the positive granules are more obvious, and the results become stable. This improved method plays an important role in differentiating AML from ALL, subtyping AML, and evaluating the therapeutic results.

  1. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (aged 21.87±1.13 years, body mass index 24.15 ± 0.50 kg/m(2)) were recruited. All subjects performed an exercise program on a Wii balance board for 8 weeks (30 min/session, twice a week for 8 weeks). A NeuroCom Balance Master and a hand-held dynamometer were used to measure balance performance and lower limb muscle strength. [Results] According to the comparison of pre- and post-intervention measurements, the Wii balance board exercise program significantly improved the limit of stability parameters. There was also a significant increase in strength of four lower-limb muscle groups: the hip flexor, knee flexor, ankle dorsiflexor and ankle plantarflexor. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that a Wii balance board exercise program can be used to improve the balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults.

  2. Improved Walking Capacity and Muscle Strength After Functional Power-Training in Young Children With Cerebral Palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vulpen, Liesbeth F; de Groot, Sonja; Rameckers, Eugene; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    Background. Strength training programs for children with cerebral palsy (CP) showed inconclusive evidence for improving walking, despite improvements in strength. Recent studies have suggested that strength training with high movement velocity is more effective for improving walking than traditional

  3. Improved bonding strength of bioactive cermet Cold Gas Spray coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardon, M; Concustell, A; Dosta, S; Cinca, N; Cano, I G; Guilemany, J M

    2014-12-01

    The fabrication of cermet biocompatible coatings by means Cold Gas Spray (CGS) provides prosthesis with outstanding mechanical properties and the required composition for enhancing the bioactivity of prosthetic materials. In this study, hydroxyapatite/Titanium coatings were deposited by means of CGS technology onto titanium alloy substrates with the aim of building-up well-bonded homogeneous coatings. Powders were blended in different percentages and sprayed; as long as the amount of hydroxyapatite in the feedstock increased, the quality of the coating was reduced. Besides, the relation between the particle size distribution of ceramic and metallic particles is of significant consideration. Plastic deformation of titanium particles at the impact eased the anchoring of hard hydroxyapatite particles present at the top surface of the coating, which assures the looked-for interaction with the cells. Coatings were immersed in Hank's solution for 1, 4 and 7 days; bonding strength value was above 60 MPa even after 7 days, which enhances common results of HAp coatings obtained by conventional thermal spray technologies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Ultraviolet and Infrared Oscillator Strengths for OH+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; Bittner, Dror M.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular ions are key reaction intermediates in the interstellar medium. OH+ plays a central role in the formation of more complex chemical species and for estimating the cosmic ray ionization rate in astrophysical environments. Here, we use a recent analysis of a laboratory spectrum in conjunction with ab initio methods to calculate infrared and ultraviolet oscillator strengths. These new oscillator strengths include branch dependent intensity corrections, arising from the Herman–Wallis effect, that have not been included before. We estimate 10% total uncertainty in the UV and 6% total uncertainty in the IR for the oscillator strengths.

  5. UV irradiation improves the bond strength of resin cement to fiber posts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Bo; Zhang, Yong; Zhou, Jianfeng; Chen, Li; Li, Deli; Tan, Jianguo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate the effect of UV irradiation on the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement. Twelve epoxy-based glass fiber posts were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 (Cont.): No surface treatment. Group 2 (Low-UV): UV irradiation was conducted from a distance of 10 cm for 10 min. Group 3 (High-UV): UV irradiation was conducted from a distance of 1 cm for 3 min. A resin cement (CLEARFIL SA LUTING) was used for the post cementation to form resin slabs which contained fiber posts in the center. Microtensile bond strengths were tested and the mean bond strengths (MPa) were 18.81 for Cont. group, 23.65 for Low-UV group, 34.75 for High-UV group. UV irradiation had a significant effect on the bond strength (pUV irradiation demonstrates its capability to improve the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement.

  6. High efficient and continuous surface modification of carbon fibers with improved tensile strength and interfacial adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingfeng; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Yue; Jin, Zhen; Liu, Xu; Huang, Yudong

    2017-08-01

    Most of the surface modification technologies for carbon fibers, no matter in laboratory scale or for commercial manufacture, are accompanied by a simultaneous decrease in tensile strength. In this paper, a feasible and high efficient strategy for carbon fiber treatment which could obviously improve both tensile strength and interfacial adhesion was proposed. Continuously moving carbon fibers were treated with atmospheric helium plasma for 1 min, followed by a 5 min pyrolytic carbon deposition using ethanol as precursor at 800 °C. The effects of the new approach were characterized by SEM, AFM, nanoindentation, XPS, Raman, wettability analysis, single fiber tensile strength testing and single fiber pull-out testing. After modification, pyrolytic carbon coating was deposited on the fiber surface uniformly, and the roughness and surface energy increased significantly. The single fiber tensile testing results indicate that the resulting fiber strength increased 15.7%, rising from 3.13 to 3.62 GPa. Meanwhile, the interfacial shear strength of its epoxy composites increased from 65.3 to 83.5 MPa. The comparative studies of carbon fibers modified with commercial anodic oxidation and sizing were also carried out. The results demonstrate that the new method can be utilized in the carbon fiber manufacture process and is more efficient than the traditional approaches.

  7. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    dysfunction at baseline. The association between change in knee flexor strength and change in physical function was not significant, irrespective of baseline function status. In patients with severe physical dysfunction, an increase in knee extensor strength and improved physical function were associated. ANZCTR 12610000660088 . Registered 12 August 2010.

  8. The significance of strength of silicon carbide for the mechanical integrity of coated fuel particles for HTRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, K.; Scheer, A.; Schuster, H.; Taeuber, K.

    1975-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) and pyrocarbon are used as coating material for the HTR fuel particles. The PyC shell having a certain strength acts as a pressure vessel for the fission gases whereas the SiC shell has to retain the solid fission products in the fuel kernel. For measuring the strength of coating material the so-called Brittle Ring Test was developed. Strength and Young's modulus can be measured simultaneously with this method on SiC or PyC rings prepared out of the coating material of real fuel particles. The strength measured on the ring under a certain stress distribution which is characteristic for this method is transformed with the aid of the Weibull formalism for brittle fracture into the equivalent strength of the spherical coating shell on the fuel particle under uniform stress caused by the fission gas pressure. The values measured for the strength of the SiC were high (400-700MN/m 2 ), it could therefore be assumed that a SiC layer might contribute significantly also to the mechanical strength of the fuel coating. This assumption was confirmed by an irradiation test on coated particles with PyC-SiC-PyC coatings. There were several particles with all PyC layers broken during the irradiation, whereas the SiC layers remained intact having to withstand the fission gas pressure alone. This fact can only be explained assuming that the strength of the SiC is within the range of the values measured with the brittle ring test. The result indicates that, in optimising the coating of a fuel particle, the PyC layers of a multilayer coating should be considered alone as prospective layers for the SiC. The SiC shell, besides acting as a fission product barrier, is then also responsible for the mechanical integrity of the particle

  9. Improving the engineering strength of heat strengthened glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, YM

    2016-01-01

    Although glass is increasingly used as a structural material, glass is not produced to strength standards, like steel and concrete. Of the three types of glass: annealed, heat strengthened and fully tempered, only heat strengthened glass has the properties to function as a safe structural material.

  10. Econometric analysis of the changing effects in wind strength and significant wave height on the probability of casualty in shipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sabine; Kumar, Shashi; Sakurada, Yuri; Shen, Jiajun

    2011-05-01

    This study uses econometric models to measure the effect of significant wave height and wind strength on the probability of casualty and tests whether these effects changed. While both effects are in particular relevant for stability and strength calculations of vessels, it is also helpful for the development of ship construction standards in general to counteract increased risk resulting from changing oceanographic conditions. The authors analyzed a unique dataset of 3.2 million observations from 20,729 individual vessels in the North Atlantic and Arctic regions gathered during the period 1979-2007. The results show that although there is a seasonal pattern in the probability of casualty especially during the winter months, the effect of wind strength and significant wave height do not follow the same seasonal pattern. Additionally, over time, significant wave height shows an increasing effect in January, March, May and October while wind strength shows a decreasing effect, especially in January, March and May. The models can be used to simulate relationships and help understand the relationships. This is of particular interest to naval architects and ship designers as well as multilateral agencies such as the International Maritime Organization (IMO) that establish global standards in ship design and construction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Balance disorder and increased risk of falls in osteoporosis and kyphosis: significance of kyphotic posture and muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaki, Mehrsheed; Brey, Robert H; Hughes, Christine A; Larson, Dirk R; Kaufman, Kenton R

    2005-08-01

    This controlled trial was designed to investigate the influence of osteoporosis-related kyphosis (O-K) on falls. Twelve community-dwelling women with O-K (Cobb angle, 50-65 degrees measured from spine radiographs) and 13 healthy women serving as controls were enrolled. Mean age of the O-K group was 76 years (+/-5.1), height 158 cm (+/-5), and weight 61 kg (+/-7.9), and mean age of the control group was 71 years (+/-4.6), height 161 cm (+/-3.8), and weight 66 kg (+/-11.7). Quantitative isometric strength data were collected. Gait was monitored during unobstructed level walking and during stepping over an obstacle of four different heights randomly assigned (2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 15% of the subject's height). Balance was objectively assessed with computerized dynamic posturography consisting of the sensory organization test. Back extensor strength, grip strength, and all lower extremity muscle groups were significantly weaker in the O-K group than the control group (P controls for all conditions of unobstructed and obstructed level walking. Obstacle height had a significant effect on all center-of-mass variables. The O-K subjects had significantly greater balance abnormalities on computerized dynamic posturography than the control group (P =0.002). Data show that thoracic hyperkyphosis on a background of reduced muscle strength plays an important role in increasing body sway, gait unsteadiness, and risk of falls in osteoporosis.

  12. Improving the strength of additively manufactured objects via modified interior structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Can Mert; Yaman, Ulas

    2017-10-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), in other words 3D printing, is becoming more common because of its crucial advantages such as geometric complexity, functional interior structures, etc. over traditional manufacturing methods. Especially, Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) 3D printing technology is frequently used because of the fact that desktop variants of these types of printers are highly appropriate for different fields and are improving rapidly. In spite of the fact that there are significant advantages of AM, the strength of the parts fabricated with AM is still a major problem especially when plastic materials, such as Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), Polylactic acid (PLA), Nylon, etc., are utilized. In this study, an alternative method is proposed in which the strength of AM fabricated parts is improved employing direct slicing approach. Traditional Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) software of 3D printers takes only the geometry as an input in triangular mesh form (stereolithography, STL file) generated by Computer Aided Design software. This file format includes data only about the outer boundaries of the geometry. Interior of the artifacts are manufactured with homogeneous infill patterns, such as diagonal, honeycomb, linear, etc. according to the paths generated in CAM software. The developed method within this study provides a way to fabricate parts with heterogeneous infill patterns by utilizing the stress field data obtained from a Finite Element Analysis software, such as ABAQUS. According to the performed tensile tests, the strength of the test specimen is improved by about 45% compared to the conventional way of 3D printing.

  13. Improving the Strength of ZTA Foams with Different Strategies: Immersion Infiltration and Recoating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The combination of high strength and toughness, excellent wear resistance and moderate density makes zirconia-toughened alumina (ZTA a favorable ceramic, and the foam version of it may also exhibit excellent properties. Here, ZTA foams were prepared by the polymer sponge replication method. We developed an immersion infiltration approach with simple equipment and operations to fill the hollow struts in as-prepared ZTA foams, and also adopted a multiple recoating method (up to four cycles to strengthen them. The solid load of the slurry imposed a significant influence on the properties of the ZTA foams. Immersion infiltration gave ZTA foams an improvement of 1.5 MPa in compressive strength to 2.6 MPa at 87% porosity, only resulting in a moderate reduction of porosity (2–3%. The Weibull modulus of the infiltrated foams was in the range of 6–9. The recoating method generated an increase in compression strength to 3.3–11.4 MPa with the reduced porosity of 58–83%. The recoating cycle dependency of porosity and compression strength is nearly linear. The immersion infiltration strategy is comparable to the industrially-established recoating method and can be applied to other reticulated porous ceramics (RPCs.

  14. Merits of using color and shape differentiation to improve the speed and accuracy of drug strength identification on over-the-counter medicines by laypeople.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellier, Elizabeth; Tucker, Mike; Kenny, Natalie; Rowntree, Anna; Edworthy, Judy

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine the utility of using color and shape to differentiate drug strength information on over-the-counter medicine packages. Medication errors are an important threat to patient safety, and confusions between drug strengths are a significant source of medication error. A visual search paradigm required laypeople to search for medicine packages of a particular strength from among distracter packages of different strengths, and measures of reaction time and error were recorded. Using color to differentiate drug strength information conferred an advantage on search times and accuracy. Shape differentiation did not improve search times and had only a weak effect on search accuracy. Using color to differentiate drug strength information improves drug strength identification performance. Color differentiation of drug strength information may be a useful way of reducing medication errors and improving patient safety.

  15. High-intensity strength training improves function of chronically painful muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Andersen, Christoffer H; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2014-01-01

    AIM: This study investigates consequences of chronic neck pain on muscle function and the rehabilitating effects of contrasting interventions. METHODS: Women with trapezius myalgia (MYA, n = 42) and healthy controls (CON, n = 20) participated in a case-control study. Subsequently MYA were...... randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training (SST, n = 18), general fitness training (GFT, n = 16), or a reference group without physical training (REF, n = 8). Participants performed tests of 100 consecutive cycles of 2 s isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of shoulder elevation followed...... MYA and CON. In the intervention study, SST improved all force parameters significantly more than the two other groups, to levels comparable to that of CON. This was seen along with muscle fiber hypertrophy and increased capillarization. CONCLUSION: Women with trapezius myalgia have lower strength...

  16. COMPARISON OF CONCENTRIC AND ECCENTRIC HAMSTRING STRENGTH TRAINING IN IMPROVING MUSCLE STRENGTH AND POWER AMONG FUTSAL PLAYERS A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunkumar Nedunchezhiyan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring injury is a common problem in many sports, especially those involving acceleration and maximal sprints. Hamstring strains are both common and painful. During sprinting the hip flexor and knee extensor torques are frequently produced and is opposed by the hamstring muscles, hence there are numerous studies done on the muscle strength training to prevent the hamstring strain injury as it is statistically stated as the highest rate involved injury in the contact sport. This study has been focused to evaluate the effectiveness of concentric and eccentric exercises in improving hamstring muscle strength and power among futsal players. Method: Thirty recreational futsal players were recruited for the study and were randomly divided into two groups. Each group received either hamstring curl exercise (concentric or Nordic hamstring exercise (eccentric twice a week for 4 weeks. The manual muscle test (MMT and 40-yard dash test was used to evaluate the muscle strength and power respectively by comparing the pretest and posttest values for both groups. Results: Wilcoxon signed rank test showed that there is no statistically significant difference between pre and post test values of MMT (Concentric (right side, z=.317; left side, z=.157, Eccentric (right side, z=.157; left side, z=.317 in both groups. Based on paired 't' test there is a significant difference between the pre and post test on improving muscle power [Concentric group, P=.020; Eccentric Group, P=.000]. Mann–Whitney U test and unpaired 't' test showed that there is no significant difference between both groups of MMT (z=.775 and 40-yard dash test (P=.707 respectively. Conclusion: The concentric strength training and eccentric strength training have a similar effect in improving hamstring muscle power in futsal players.

  17. Does 8-methacryloxyoctyl trimethoxy silane (8-MOTS) improve initial bond strength on lithium disilicate glass ceramic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo; Matsumoto, Takuya; Irie, Masao

    2017-03-01

    Dental ceramic surfaces are modified with silane coupling agents, such as γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane (γ-MPTS), to improve bond strength. For bonding between lithium disilicate glass ceramic and resin cement, the objective was to investigate if 8-methacryloxyoctyl trimethoxy silane (8-MOTS) could yield a similar performance as the widely used γ-MPTS. One hundred and ten lithium disilicate glass ceramic specimens were randomly divided into 11 groups (n=10) according to pretreatment regime. All specimens were pretreated with a different solution composed of one or a combination of these agents: 10 or 20wt% silane coupling agent of γ-MPTS or 8-MOTS, followed by a hydrolysis solution of acetic acid or 10-methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (10-MDP). Each pretreated surface was luted to a stainless steel rod of 3.6mm diameter and 2.0mm height with resin cement. Shear bond strength between ceramic and cement was measured after 24-h storage in 37°C distilled water. 8-MOTS produced the same bonding performance as γ-MPTS. Both silane coupling agents significantly increased the bond strength of resin cement, depending on their concentration. When activated by 10-MDP hydrolysis solution, 20wt% concentration produced the highest values (γ-MPTS: 24.9±5.1MPa; 8-MOTS: 24.6±7.4MPa). Hydrolysis with acetic acid produced lower bond strengths than with 10-MDP. Silane coupling pretreatment with 8-MOTS increased the initial bond strength between lithium disilicate glass ceramic and resin cement, rendering the same bonding effect as the conventional γ-MPTS. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Areva 2007 results: accelerated growth and significantly improved profitability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-02-01

    The AREVA group recorded accelerated growth and increased profitability in 2007, meeting both of its objectives for the year. The group made strategic inroads in fast growing markets. AREVA's integrated model met with record success in China, where GGNPC acquired two EPR nuclear islands in a combined order including both the reactors and the fuel, and the creation of a joint venture in engineering. Its T and D division was awarded the largest contract of its history in Qatar, making it the leader in a region where T and D was not even present a few years ago. For more than three years, AREVA has built up its capacity to meet surging demand in the nuclear power and T and D markets through an active policy of research and development and by capitalizing on the diversity and strength of its partnerships. Areva hired 8,600 people in 2006 and 11,500 people in 2007; this represents an investment in recruitment, training and integration of approximately euro 200 million per year. For 2008, the group foresees a further increase in its backlog, sales revenue and operating income. The Areva Group financial statements for 2007 are summarized below: - Backlog: euro 39.8 billion, up 55%; - Sales revenue: euro 11.9 billion, up 9.8% (up 10.4% like-for-like); - Operating income: euro 751 million, i.e. 6.3% operating margin, up 2.6 points compared with 2006; - Net income attributable to equity holders of the parent: euro 743 million (euro 20.95 per share), up from euro 649 million in 2006 (euro 18.31 per share); - Net debt: euro 1.954 billion, linked to the acquisition of UraMin; - Dividend: euro 6.77, to be proposed to the Annual General Meeting of Shareholders convening on April 17, 2008

  19. Methylphenidate significantly improves declarative memory functioning of adults with ADHD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, J.C.; Bekker, E.M.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Volkerts, E.R.; Olivier, B.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Declarative memory deficits are common in untreated adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but limited evidence exists to support improvement after treatment with methylphenidate. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of methylphenidate on memory

  20. The improved design method of shear strength of reinforced concrete beams without transverse reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegera Pavlo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, results of experimental testing of reinforced concrete beams without transverse shear reinforcement are given. Three prototypes for improved testing methods were tested. The testing variable parameter was the shear span to the effective depth ratio. In the result of the tests we noticed that bearing capacity of RC beams is increased with the decreasing shear span to the effective depth ratio. The design method according to current codes was applied to test samples and it showed a significant discrepancy results. Than we proposed the improved design method using the adjusted value of shear strength of concrete CRd,c. The results obtained by the improved design method showed satisfactory reproducibility.

  1. PRA: A PERSPECTIVE ON STRENGTHS, CURRENT LIMITATIONS, AND POSSIBLE IMPROVEMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI MOSLEH

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives? Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings.

  2. PRA: A Perspective on Strengths, Current Limitations, And Possible Improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosleh, Ail

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives? Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings

  3. Creating a Middle Grades Environment that Significantly Improves Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, Mark E.; Lenker, Ethan; Bullock, Ann; Lockamy, Becky; Mason, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the framework that Sampson County Public Schools (North Carolina) used to critically reflect on the current state of their middle grades schools. The article also highlights the changes that resulted from the district-wide analysis and the ways in which these changes led to a significant increase in the academic…

  4. Improving Fatigue Strength of polymer concrete using nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    Polymer concrete (PC) is that type of concrete where the cement binder is replaced with polymer. PC is often used to improve friction and protect structural substrates in reinforced concrete and orthotropic steel bridges. However, its low fatigue per...

  5. Introducing biomimetic shear and ion gradients to microfluidic spinning improves silk fiber strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David; Jacobsen, Matthew M; Gyune Rim, Nae; Backman, Daniel; Kaplan, David L; Wong, Joyce Y

    2017-05-31

    Silkworm silk is an attractive biopolymer for biomedical applications due to its high mechanical strength and biocompatibility; as a result, there is increasing interest in scalable devices to spin silk and recombinant silk so as to improve and customize their properties for diverse biomedical purposes (Vepari and Kaplan 2007 Prog. Polym. Sci. 32 ). While artificial spinning of regenerated silk fibroins adds tunability to properties such as degradation rate and surface functionalization, the resulting fibers do not yet approach the mechanical strength of native silkworm silk. These drawbacks reduce the applicability and attractiveness of artificial silk (Kinahan et al 2011 Biomacromolecules 12 ). Here, we used computational fluid dynamic simulations to incorporate shear in tandem with biomimetic ion gradients by coupling a modular novel glass microfluidic device to our previous co-axial flow device. Fibers spun with this combined apparatus demonstrated a significant increase in mechanical strength compared to fibers spun with the basic apparatus alone, with a three-fold increase in Young's modulus and extensibility and a twelve-fold increase in toughness. These results thus demonstrate the critical importance of ionic milieu and shear stress in spinning strong fibers from solubilized silk fibroin.

  6. Vitamin K2 improves femoral bone strength without altering bone mineral density in gastrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Jun; Sato, Yoshihiro; Matsumoto, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    Gastrectomy (GX) induces osteopenia in rats. The present study examined the skeletal effects of vitamin K2 in GX rats. Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 wk old) were randomized by the stratified weight method into the following three groups of 10 animals each: sham operation (control) group; GX group; and GX+oral vitamin K2 (menatetrenone, 30 mg/kg, 5 d/wk) group. Treatment was initiated at 1 wk after surgery. After 6 wk of treatment, the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and mechanical strength of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis were determined by peripheral quantitative computed tomography and mechanical strength tests, respectively. GX induced decreases in the BMC, BMD, and ultimate force of the femoral diaphysis and distal metaphysis. Vitamin K2 did not significantly influence the BMC or BMD of the femoral diaphysis or distal metaphysis in GX rats, but attenuated the decrease in the ultimate force and increased the stiffness of the femoral diaphysis. The present study showed that administration of vitamin K2 to GX rats improved the bone strength of the femoral diaphysis without altering the BMC or BMD, suggesting effects of vitamin K2 on the cortical bone quality.

  7. Polymer/Silicate Nanocomposites Developed for Improved Strength and Thermal Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sandi G.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, polymer-silicate nanocomposites have been attracting considerable attention as a method of enhancing polymer properties. The nanometer dimensions of the dispersed silicate reinforcement can greatly improve the mechanical, thermal, and gas barrier properties of a polymer matrix. In a study at the NASA Glenn Research Center, the dispersion of small amounts (less than 5 wt%) of an organically modified layered silicate (OLS) into the polymer matrix of a carbon-fiber-reinforced composite has improved the thermal stability of the composite. The enhanced barrier properties of the polymer-clay hybrid are believed to slow the diffusion of oxygen into the bulk polymer, thereby slowing oxidative degradation of the polymer. Electron-backscattering images show cracking of a nanocomposite matrix composite in comparison to a neat resin matrix composite. The images show that dispersion of an OLS into the matrix resin reduces polymer oxidation during aging and reduces the amount of cracking in the matrix significantly. Improvements in composite flexural strength, flexural modulus, and interlaminar shear strength were also obtained with the addition of OLS. An increase of up to 15 percent in these mechanical properties was observed in composites tested at room temperature and 288 C. The best properties were seen with low silicate levels, 1 to 3 wt%, because of the better dispersion of the silicate in the polymer matrix.

  8. Joint-Angle Specific Strength Adaptations Influence Improvements in Power in Highly Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Matthew R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05. Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05; however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.

  9. Cross-education for improving strength and mobility after distal radius fractures: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnus, Charlene R A; Arnold, Cathy M; Johnston, Geoffrey; Dal-Bello Haas, Vanina; Basran, Jenny; Krentz, Joel R; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of cross-education (contralateral effect of unilateral strength training) during recovery from unilateral distal radius fractures on muscle strength, range of motion (ROM), and function. Randomized controlled trial (26-wk follow-up). Hospital, orthopedic fracture clinic. Women older than 50 years with a unilateral distal radius fracture. Fifty-one participants were randomized and 39 participants were included in the final data analysis. Participants were randomized to standard rehabilitation (Control) or standard rehabilitation plus strength training (Train). Standard rehabilitation included forearm casting for 40.4±6.2 days and hand exercises for the fractured extremity. Nonfractured hand strength training for the training group began immediately postfracture and was conducted at home 3 times/week for 26 weeks. The primary outcome measure was peak force (handgrip dynamometer). Secondary outcomes were ROM (flexion/extension; supination/pronation) via goniometer and the Patient Rated Wrist Evaluation questionnaire score for the fractured arm. For the fractured hand, the training group (17.3±7.4kg) was significantly stronger than the control group (11.8±5.8kg) at 12 weeks postfracture (P<.017). There were no significant strength differences between the training and control groups at 9 (12.5±8.2kg; 11.3±6.9kg) or 26 weeks (23.0±7.6kg; 19.6±5.5kg) postfracture, respectively. Fractured hand ROM showed that the training group had significantly improved wrist flexion/extension (100.5°±19.2°) than the control group (80.2°±18.7°) at 12 weeks postfracture (P<.017). There were no significant differences between the training and control groups for flexion/extension ROM at 9 (78.0°±20.7°; 81.7°±25.7°) or 26 weeks (104.4°±15.5°; 106.0°±26.5°) or supination/pronation ROM at 9 (153.9°±23.9°; 151.8°±33.0°), 12 (170.9°±9.3°; 156.7°±20.8°) or 26 weeks (169.4°±11.9°; 162.8°±18.1°), respectively. There were no

  10. Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-02-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling medium-dose (3.53%), low-dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being visual analog scale pain intensity. Psychoactive side effects and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed-effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the 2 active dose groups' results (P > .7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo versus low-dose, 2.9 for placebo versus medium-dose, and 25 for medium- versus low-dose. As these NNTs are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1 to 2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. The analgesia obtained from a low dose of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (1.29%) in patients, most of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite conventional treatments, is a clinically significant outcome. In general, the effect sizes on cognitive testing were consistent with this minimal dose. As a result, one might not anticipate a significant impact on daily functioning. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. HYPNOSIS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF PHYSICAL STRENGTH AND RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Zurita Ortega

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this case study we assessed the effectiveness of hypnosis for the physical force in sportsmen. Participant was 1 amateur cyclist with hypnotic suggestion. The intervention with hypnosis consisted of a brief relaxation technique, a hypnotic induction phase, a deep hypnosis phase, hypnotic suggestion and a phase of exit from the hypnotic state. The results indicated an improvement of the physical force in the sportsman submitted to the treatment with hypnosis. Performance improved as number of hypnosis sessions increased. These finding suggest that hypnotic intervention can help sportsmen to withstand the physical exhaustion produced by high levels of effort.

  12. Effect of curing and silanizing on composite repair bond strength using an improved micro-tensile test method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, Sigfus Thor; Dahl, Jon E

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the micro-tensile repair bond strength between aged and new composite, using silane and adhesives that were cured or left uncured when new composite was placed. Methods: Eighty Filtek Supreme XLT composite blocks and four control blocks were stored in water for two weeks and thermo-cycled. Sandpaper ground, etched and rinsed specimens were divided into two experimental groups: A, no further treatment and B, the surface was coated with bis-silane. Each group was divided into subgroups: (1) Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, (2) Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose adhesive, (3) Adper Scotchbond Universal, (4) Clearfil SE Bond and (5) One Step Plus. For each adhesive group, the adhesive was (a) cured according to manufacturer's instructions or (b) not cured before repair. The substrate blocks were repaired with Filtek Supreme XLT. After aging, they were serially sectioned, producing 1.1 × 1.1 mm square test rods. The rods were prepared for tensile testing and tensile strength calculated at fracture. Type of fracture was examined under microscope. Results: Leaving the adhesive uncured prior to composite repair placement increased the mean tensile values statistically significant for all adhesives tested, with or without silane pretreatment. Silane surface treatment improved significantly ( p strength values for all adhesives, both for the cured and uncured groups. The mean strength of the control composite was higher than the strongest repair strength ( p strength. Not curing the adhesive before composite placement increased the tensile bond strength.

  13. Low Dose Vaporized Cannabis Significantly Improves Neuropathic Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilsey, Barth; Marcotte, Thomas D.; Deutsch, Reena; Gouaux, Ben; Sakai, Staci; Donaghe, Haylee

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluating the analgesic efficacy of vaporized cannabis in subjects, the majority of whom were experiencing neuropathic pain despite traditional treatment. Thirty-nine patients with central and peripheral neuropathic pain underwent a standardized procedure for inhaling either medium dose (3.53%), low dose (1.29%), or placebo cannabis with the primary outcome being VAS pain intensity. Psychoactive side-effects, and neuropsychological performance were also evaluated. Mixed effects regression models demonstrated an analgesic response to vaporized cannabis. There was no significant difference between the two active dose groups’ results (p>0.7). The number needed to treat (NNT) to achieve 30% pain reduction was 3.2 for placebo vs. low dose, 2.9 for placebo vs. medium dose, and 25 for medium vs. low dose. As these NNT are comparable to those of traditional neuropathic pain medications, cannabis has analgesic efficacy with the low dose being, for all intents and purposes, as effective a pain reliever as the medium dose. Psychoactive effects were minimal and well-tolerated, and neuropsychological effects were of limited duration and readily reversible within 1–2 hours. Vaporized cannabis, even at low doses, may present an effective option for patients with treatment-resistant neuropathic pain. PMID:23237736

  14. Strength Improvement of Clay Soil by Using Stone Powder

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed Sameer Abdulrasool

    2015-01-01

    Soil stabilization with stone powder is a good solution for the construction of subgrade for road way and railway lines, especially under the platforms and mostly in transition zones between embankments and rigid structures, where the mechanical properties of supporting soils are very influential. Stone powder often has a unique composition which justifies the need for research to study the feasibility of using this stone powder type for ground improvement applications. This paper presents re...

  15. Nanoparticulate fillers improve the mechanical strength of bone cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomoll, Andreas H; Fitz, Wolfgang; Scott, Richard D; Thornhill, Thomas S; Bellare, Anuj

    2008-06-01

    Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA-) based bone cement contains micrometer-size barium sulfate or zirconium oxide particles to radiopacify the cement for radiographic monitoring during follow-up. Considerable effort has been expended to improve the mechanical qualities of cements, largely through substitution of PMMA with new chemical structures. The introduction of these materials into clinical practice has been complicated by concerns over the unknown long-term risk profile of these new structures in vivo. We investigated a new composite with the well characterized chemical composition of current cements, but with nanoparticles instead of the conventional, micrometer-size barium sulfate radiopacifier. In this study, we replaced the barium sulfate microparticles that are usually present in commercial PMMA cements with barium sulfate nanoparticles. The resultant "microcomposite" and "nanocomposite" cements were then characterized through morphological investigations such as ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical characterization included compression, tensile, compact tension, and fatigue testing. SEM and USAXS showed excellent dispersion of nanoparticles. Substitution of nanoparticles for microparticles resulted in a 41% increase in tensile strain-to-failure (p = 0.002) and a 70% increase in tensile work-of-fracture (p = 0.005). The nanocomposite cement also showed a two-fold increase in fatigue life compared to the conventional, microcomposite cement. In summary, nanoparticulate substitution of radiopacifiers substantially improved the in vitro mechanical properties of PMMA bone cement without changing the known chemical composition.

  16. Significant improvement of optical traps by tuning standard water immersion objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reihani, S Nader S; Mir, Shahid A; Richardson, Andrew C; Oddershede, Lene B

    2011-01-01

    Focused infrared lasers are widely used for micromanipulation and visualization of biological specimens. An inherent practical problem is that off-the-shelf commercial microscope objectives are designed for use with visible and not infrared wavelengths. Less aberration is introduced by water immersion objectives than by oil immersion ones, however, even water immersion objectives induce significant aberration. We present a simple method to reduce the spherical aberration induced by water immersion objectives, namely by tuning the correction collar of the objective to a value that is ∼ 10% lower than the physical thickness of the coverslip. This results in marked improvements in optical trapping strengths of up to 100% laterally and 600% axially from a standard microscope objective designed for use in the visible range. The results are generally valid for any water immersion objective with any numerical aperture

  17. Improved green strength of high CIS polyisoprene via electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    It appears possible to introduce sufficient crosslinks into synthetic polyisoprene or compounds derived from it to give significant increases in green strength without rendering the materials unmixable or unprocessable. It must be admitted that the balance between adequate green strength and satisfactory processability is a delicate one and further work is required to determine if such techniques are viable on an industrial scale. (author)

  18. CAN THE POWER BALANCE® BRACELET IMPROVE BALANCE, FLEXIBILITY, STRENGTH, AND POWER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Porcari

    2011-03-01

    tests: trunk flexibility, balance, strength, and vertical jump. The trunk flexibility, balance, and strength tests were the same tests that are presented on the Power Balance® website (www.powerbalance.com/test-video. The vertical jump test was added as a test of lower body power. Subjects performed two trials of each test, without warm-up: During one trial subjects wore a Power Balance® bracelet and for the other trial subjects wore a placebo bracelet. The order of bracelets was randomized and the testing was conducted in a double-blind fashion. Neither the subject nor the examiner knew which bracelet the subject had on for each trial.Comparisons between the Power Balance® and placebo bracelet are presented in Table 1. There was no significant difference in flexibility, balance, strength, or vertical jump height between the Power Balance® and placebo conditions. Comparisons between Trial 1 and Trial 2 scores are presented in Table 2. Flexibility, balance, strength, and vertical jump height were all significantly greater for Trial 2 compared to Trial 1, regardless of which bracelet was worn for the second trial.This study found that under the testing conditions used in the current study, there were no significant performance benefits when wearing the Power Balance® bracelet compared to the placebo bracelet. Trial 2 scores were significantly greater than Trial 1 scores for all of the testing measures. Because the order of bracelets was randomized and balanced, these improvements were attributed to the fact that subjects were either: 1 more warmed-up (Maud et al., 2006a; 2006b or 2 habituated to the task (Benson and Friedman, 1996; Wright et al., 2009. In either case, these findings help to explain why the public demonstrations of this type of product appear to have a beneficial effect on flexibility, balance, and strength.There are many ways to design a study such as this. This study was specifically conducted in the fashion it was, in order to mimic the way the

  19. Improved Strength and Toughness of Carbon Woven Fabric Composites with Functionalized MWCNTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eslam Soliman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This investigation examines the role of carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs in the on- and off-axis flexure and the shear responses of thin carbon woven fabric composite plates. The chemically functionalized COOH-MWCNTs were used to fabricate epoxy nanocomposites and, subsequently, carbon woven fabric plates to be tested on flexure and shear. In addition to the neat epoxy, three loadings of COOH-MWCNTs were examined: 0.5 wt%, 1.0 wt% and 1.5 wt% of epoxy. While no significant statistical difference in the flexure response of the on-axis specimens was observed, significant increases in the flexure strength, modulus and toughness of the off-axis specimens were observed. The average increase in flexure strength and flexure modulus with the addition of 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs improved by 28% and 19%, respectively. Finite element modeling is used to demonstrate fiber domination in on-axis flexure behavior and matrix domination in off-axis flexure behavior. Furthermore, the 1.5 wt% COOH-MWCNTs increased the toughness of carbon woven composites tested on shear by 33%. Microstructural investigation using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR proves the existence of chemical bonds between the COOH-MWCNTs and the epoxy matrix.

  20. Improvement of Ice Hockey Players' On-Ice Sprint With Combined Plyometric and Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dæhlin, Torstein E; Haugen, Ole C; Haugerud, Simen; Hollan, Ivana; Raastad, Truls; Rønnestad, Bent R

    2017-08-01

    Combined plyometric and strength training has previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training have not previously been compared with the effects of strength training only. To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with those of strength training only. Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to 2 groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions/wk for 8 wk. One group included plyometric exercises at the start of 3 sessions/wk (PLY+ST), and the other group included core exercises in the same sessions (ST). Tests of 10- and 35-m skating sprints, horizontal jumping, 1-repetition-maximum (1 RM) squat, skating multistage aerobic test (SMAT), maximal oxygen consumption, repeated cycle sprints, and body composition were performed before and after the intervention. The participants increased their 1RM squat, lean mass, and body mass (P plyometric and strength training for 8 wk was superior to strength training alone at improving 10-m on-ice sprint performance in high-level ice hockey players.

  1. Effectiveness of Aquatic Exercise in Improving Lower Limb Strength in Musculoskeletal Conditions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Sophie; McClelland, Jodie; Mentiplay, Benjamin; Geigle, Paula; Rahmann, Ann; Clark, Ross

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of aquatic exercise in improving lower limb strength in people with musculoskeletal conditions. A systematic search used 5 databases, including MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, SPORTDiscus, and The Cochrane Library. Randomized controlled trials evaluating aquatic exercise with a resistance training component for adults with musculoskeletal conditions compared with no intervention or land-based exercise were identified. Fifteen studies from the initial yield of 1214 met these criteria. Data related to participant demographics, study design, and methods, interventions, and outcomes, including numerical means and SDs, were extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Nine of the 15 studies were of high quality, scoring at least 6 on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database Scale. Limited consideration of the prescription of resistance in the aquatic exercise and application of resistance training principles existed. Low- or very low-quality evidence indicates there was no difference in average effect between aquatic exercise and no exercise in improving hip abductor strength (standardized mean difference [SMD], .28; 95% confidence interval [CI], -.04 to .59), knee extensor strength (SMD, .18; 95% CI, -.03 to .40), knee flexor strength (SMD, .13; 95% CI, -.20 to .45), or lower limb endurance (SMD, .35; 95% CI, -.06 to .77). Low-quality evidence indicates no difference in average effect between aquatic and land exercise for knee extensor (SMD, -.24; 95% CI, -.49 to .02) or flexor strength (SMD, -.15; 95% CI, -.53 to .22). It is likely that the inadequate application of resistance in water is a significant contributor to the limited effectiveness of aquatic exercise interventions in improving hip and knee muscle strength in people with musculoskeletal conditions. Future research is needed to quantify resistance with aquatic exercises and to determine if using opportunities for greater resistance in aquatic rehabilitation and appropriate resistance

  2. Human growth hormone stabilizes walking and improves strength in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahm, Kira Philipsen; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Vissing, John

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to investigate if daily low-dose treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (somatropine) can stabilize or improve muscle strength and walking capability in a patient with dominantly inherited calpainopathy. The patient was treated with daily injections of somatropine, except...... for a 6-month pause, over a period of 4.5 years. Efficacy was assessed by repeated muscle dynamometry tests and 6-minute walk tests (6MWT). Strength improved in most muscle groups on treatment, deteriorated in the 6-month off treatment, and improved again when treatment was resumed. The 6MWT stabilized...... during the initial 18-month treatment period, then deteriorated in the 6 months off treatment and improved to pre-trial levels when treatment was resumed. The findings suggest that supplementation with somatropine, within physiological ranges, may improve muscle strength and stabilize walking capability...

  3. Strength training in elderly people improves static balance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarabon Nejc

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different types of strength training programs on static balance in elderly subjects. Subjects older than 65 years of age were enrolled and assigned to control group (CG, n =19, electrical stimulation group (ES, n = 27 or leg press group (LP, n = 28. Subjects in both the training groups were exposed to training (2-3x/week for a period of 9 weeks. In the ES group the subjects received neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the anterior thigh muscles. In the LP group the subjects performed strength training on a computer-controlled leg press machine. Before and after the training period, static balance of the subject was tested using a quiet stance task. Average velocity, amplitude and frequency of the center-of-pressure (CoP were calculated from the acquired force plate signal. The data was statistically tested with analysis of (covariance and t-tests. The three groups of subjects showed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 regarding the pre-training vs. post-training changes in CoP velocity, amplitude and frequency. The differences were more pronounced for CoP velocity and amplitude, while they were less evident in case of mean frequency. The mean improvements were higher in the LP group than in the ES group. Our results provide supportive evidence to the existence of the strength-balance relationship. Additionally, results indicate the role of recruiting central processes and activation of functional kinetic chains for the better end effect.

  4. Schwann cell transplantation improves reticulospinal axon growth and forelimb strength after severe cervical spinal cord contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, S M; Kitay, B M; Cho, K S; Lo, T P; Barakat, D J; Marcillo, A E; Sanchez, A R; Andrade, C M; Pearse, D D

    2007-01-01

    Schwann cell (SC) implantation alone has been shown to promote the growth of propriospinal and sensory axons, but not long-tract descending axons, after thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI). In the current study, we examined if an axotomy close to the cell body of origin (so as to enhance the intrinsic growth response) could permit supraspinal axons to grow onto SC grafts. Adult female Fischer rats received a severe (C5) cervical contusion (1.1 mm displacement, 3 KDyn). At 1 week postinjury, 2 million SCs ex vivo transduced with lentiviral vector encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were implanted within media into the injury epicenter; injury-only animals served as controls. Animals were tested weekly using the BBB score for 7 weeks postimplantation and received at end point tests for upper body strength: self-supported forelimb hanging, forearm grip force, and the incline plane. Following behavioral assessment, animals were anterogradely traced bilaterally from the reticular formation using BDA-Texas Red. Stereological quantification revealed a twofold increase in the numbers of preserved NeuN+ neurons rostral and caudal to the injury/graft site in SC implanted animals, corroborating previous reports of their neuroprotective efficacy. Examination of labeled reticulospinal axon growth revealed that while rarely an axon was present within the lesion site of injury-only controls, numerous reticulospinal axons had penetrated the SC implant/lesion milieu. This has not been observed following implantation of SCs alone into the injured thoracic spinal cord. Significant behavioral improvements over injury-only controls in upper limb strength, including an enhanced grip strength (a 296% increase) and an increased self-supported forelimb hanging, accompanied SC-mediated neuroprotection and reticulospinal axon growth. The current study further supports the neuroprotective efficacy of SC implants after SCI and demonstrates that SCs alone are capable of supporting

  5. Hardystonite improves biocompatibility and strength of electrospun polycaprolactone nanofibers over hydroxyapatite: A comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Amit K. [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Chhabra, Hemlata; Kadam, Sachin S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Londhe, Kishore; Soni, Vivek P. [Department of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Bellare, Jayesh R., E-mail: jb@iitb.ac.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare physico-chemical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite (HA) and hardystonite (HS) based composite scaffolds. Hardystonite (Ca{sub 2}ZnSi{sub 2}O{sub 7}) powders were synthesized by a sol–gel method while polycaprolactone–hardystonite (PCL–HS) and polycaprolactone–hydroxyapatite (PCL–HA) were fabricated in nanofibrous form by electrospinning. The physico-chemical and biological properties such as tensile strength, cell proliferation, cell infiltration and alkaline phosphatase activity were determined on both kinds of scaffolds. We found that PCL–HS scaffolds had better mechanical strength compared to PCL–HA scaffolds. Addition of HA and HS particles to PCL did not show any inhibitory effect on blood biocompatibility of scaffolds when assessed by hemolysis assay. The in vitro cellular behavior was evaluated by growing murine adipose-tissue-derived stem cells (mE-ASCs) over the scaffolds. Enhanced cell proliferation and improved cellular infiltrations on PCL–HS scaffolds were observed when compared to HA containing scaffolds. PCL–HS scaffolds exhibited a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and better mineralization of the matrix in comparison to PCL–HA scaffolds. These results clearly demonstrate the stimulatory role of Zn and Si present in HS based composite scaffolds, suggesting their potential application for bone tissue engineering. - Highlights: • The osteogenic potential of PCL–HA and PCL–HS scaffolds was compared. • PCL–HS scaffolds showed better mechanical strength as compared to PCL–HA scaffolds. • Enhanced cell proliferation and infiltration were observed on PCL–HS scaffolds. • mE-ASCs showed better ALP activity and matrix mineralization on PCL–HS scaffolds.

  6. Strength and Functional Improvement Using Pneumatic Brace with Extension Assist for End-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis: A Prospective, Randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Jeffrey J; Bhave, Anil; Kapadia, Bhaveen H; Starr, Roland; McElroy, Mark J; Mont, Michael A

    2015-05-01

    Pneumatic unloader bracing with extension assists have been proposed as a non-operative modality that may delay the need for knee surgery by reducing pain and improving function. This prospective, randomized trial evaluated 52 patients who had knee osteoarthritis for changes in: (1) muscle strength; (2) objective functional improvements; (3); subjective functional improvements; (4) pain; (5) quality of life; and (6) conversion to total knee arthroplasty (TKA) compared to standard of care. Patient outcomes were evaluated at a minimum 3 months. Braced patient's demonstrated significant improvements in muscle strength, several functional tests, and patient reported outcomes when compared to the matched cohort. These results are encouraging and suggest that this device may represent a promising alternative to standard treatment methods for knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The retro-cut process: precision reshaping of magnetic quadrupole lens profiles to improve field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, Roland; Jamieson, David N.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Brenn, Ruediger

    2005-01-01

    In the evolution of magnetic quadrupole lens technology for nuclear microprobe systems, the pole profile has seen several improvements that have led to increases in the pole tip field for a given lens current. In a design dating from prior to 1994 the magnetic field strength was compromised by pole tip extensions that allowed significant flux leakage away from the central bore of the lens. There are many similar lenses in use world wide and they have a weaker focusing action compared to more modern designs which omit the pole tip extensions. We demonstrate that these pre-1994 lenses can have a new profile cut into the pole tip using a precision wire cutting machine that does not require the lens to be dismantled and does not compromise the purity of the lens field. We present the results of applying this process to lenses 1 and 4 in the antisymmetric quadruplet nuclear microprobe system at the University of Freiburg. The grid shadow method was used to show lens quality was not compromised by the process and we find that the lens field strength for a given current is increased by 15% when used to focus 2 MeV H + ions in the antisymmetric quadruplet

  8. Improved strength and durability of concrete through metabolic activity of ureolytic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Maria Jose Castro; Ortiz, Carlos Eloir Lopez; Perez, Sixto Omar Garcia; Narayanasamy, Rajeswari; Fajardo San Miguel, Gerardo Del Jesús; Hernández, Héctor Herrera; Balagurusamy, Nagamani

    2017-06-07

    In recent years, biomineralization process is being employed in development of bioconcrete, which is emerging as a sustainable method to enhance the durability of concrete by way of increasing compressive strength and reducing the chloride permeability. In this study, different bacterial strains isolated from the soils of the Laguna Region of Mexico were selected for further study. ACRN5 strain demonstrated higher urease activity than other strains, and the optimum substrate concentration, pH, and temperature were 120 mM, pH 8, and 25 °C, respectively. Further, Km and Vmax of urease activity of ACRN5 were 21.38 mM and 0.212 mM min -1 , respectively. It was observed that addition of ACRN5 at 10 5  cells ml -1 to cement-water mixture significantly increased (14.94%) in compressive strength after 36 days of curing and reduced chloride penetration. Deposition of calcite in bio-mortars was observed in scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray diffraction spectrometry analyses. Results of this study demonstrated the role of microbially induced calcium carbonate precipitation in improving the physico-mechanical properties of bio-mortars.

  9. Selective Acid Etching Improves the Bond Strength of Universal Adhesive to Sound and Demineralized Enamel of Primary Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniazzi, Bruna Feltrin; Nicoloso, Gabriel Ferreira; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira

    To evaluate the influence of enamel condition and etching strategy on bond strength of a universal adhesive in primary teeth. Thirty-six primary molars were randomly assigned to six groups (n = 6) according to the enamel condition (sound [S] and demineralized [DEM]/cariogenic challenge by pH cycling prior to restorative procedures) and adhesive system (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SBU]) used in either etch-and-rinse (ER) or selfetching (SE) mode, with Clearfil SE Bond as the self-etching control. The adhesives were applied to flat enamel surfaces and composite cylinders (0.72 mm2) were built up. After 24-h storage in water, specimens were subjected to the microshear test. Bond strength (MPa) data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). Significant differences were found considering the factors adhesive system (p = 0.003) and enamel condition (p = 0.001). Demineralized enamel negatively affected the bond strength, with μSBS values approximately 50% lower than those obtained for sound enamel. SBU performed better in etch-and-rinse mode, and the bond strength found for SBU applied in self-etching mode was similar to that of CSE. Enamel etching with phosphoric acid improves the bond strength of a universal adhesive system to primary enamel. Demineralized primary enamel results in lower bond strength.

  10. Resistance training improves muscle strength and functional capacity in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgas, U; Stenager, E; Jakobsen, J

    2009-01-01

    strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis, the effects persisting after 12 weeks of self-guided physical activity. Level of evidence: The present study provides level III evidence supporting the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training can improve muscle......OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that lower extremity progressive resistance training (PRT) can improve muscle strength and functional capacity in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and to evaluate whether the improvements are maintained after the trial. METHODS: The present study was a 2-arm...... and was afterward encouraged to continue training. After the trial, the control group completed the PRT intervention. Both groups were tested before and after 12 weeks of the trial and at 24 weeks (follow-up), where isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors (KE MVC) and functional capacity (FS; combined score...

  11. Does combined strength training and local vibration improve isometric maximum force? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, Ruben; Haddad, Monoem; Kleinöder, Heinz; Yue, Zengyuan; Heinen, Thomas; Mester, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine whether a combination of strength training (ST) and local vibration (LV) improved the isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. ST was applied to the left arm of the subjects; LV was applied to the right arm of the same subjects. The main aim was to examine the effect of LV during a dumbbell biceps curl (Scott Curl) on isometric maximum force of the opposite muscle among the same subjects. It is hypothesized, that the intervention with LV produces a greater gain in isometric force of the arm flexors than ST. Twenty-seven collegiate students participated in the study. The training load was 70% of the individual 1 RM. Four sets with 12 repetitions were performed three times per week during four weeks. The right arm of all subjects represented the vibration trained body side (VS) and the left arm served as the traditional trained body side (TTS). A significant increase of isometric maximum force in both body sides (Arms) occurred. VS, however, significantly increased isometric maximum force about 43% in contrast to 22% of the TTS. The combined intervention of ST and LC improves isometric maximum force of arm flexor muscles. III.

  12. Strength and Aerobic Exercises Improve Spatial Memory in Aging Rats Through Stimulating Distinct Neuroplasticity Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Thais Ceresér; Muller, Alexandre Pastoris; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Macan, Tamires Pavei; da Silva, Sabrina; Canteiro, Paula Bortoluzzi; de Sena Casagrande, Alisson; Pedroso, Giulia Dos Santos; Nesi, Renata Tiscoski; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; de Pinho, Ricardo Aurino

    2017-12-01

    Aging is associated with impaired cognition and memory and increased susceptibility to neurodegenerative disorders. Physical exercise is neuroprotective; however, the major evidence of this effect involves studies of only aerobic training in young animals. The benefits of other exercise protocols such as strength training in aged animals remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of aerobic and strength training on spatial memory and hippocampal plasticity in aging rats. Aging Wistar rats performed aerobic or strength training for 50 min 3 to 4 days/week for 8 weeks. Spatial memory and neurotrophic and glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus of aged rats were evaluated after aerobic or strength training. Both aerobic and strength training improved cognition during the performance of a spatial memory task. Remarkably, the improvement in spatial memory was accompanied by an increase in synaptic plasticity proteins within the hippocampus after exercise training, with some differences in the intracellular functions of those proteins between the two exercise protocols. Moreover, neurotrophic signaling (CREB, BDNF, and the P75 NTR receptor) increased after training for both exercise protocols, and aerobic exercise specifically increased glutamatergic proteins (NMDA receptor and PSD-95). We also observed a decrease in DNA damage after aerobic training. In contrast, strength training increased levels of PKCα and the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-1β. Overall, our results show that both aerobic and strength training improved spatial memory in aging rats through inducing distinct molecular mechanisms of neuroplasticity. Our findings extend the idea that exercise protocols can be used to improve cognition during aging.

  13. Measurement and Improvement the Quality of the Compressive Strength of Product Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohair Hassan Abdullah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research dealt with studying path technology to manufacture of concrete cubes according to specification design of Iraq to the degree of concrete C20 No. 52 of 1984, and in which sample was cubic shape and the dimensions (150 × 150 × 150 mm for each dimensions and the proportion of mixing of the concrete is (1:2:4 using in the casting floor. For concrete resistance required that achieve the degree of confidence of 100%, were examined compressive strength 40 samples of concrete cubes of age 28 days in the Labs section of Civil Department – Technical Institute of Babylon, all made from the same mixing concrete. Where, these samples classified within the acceptable tests were adopted in the implementation of investment projects in the construction sector. The research aims first, to measure the compressive strength of concrete cubes because the decrease or increase the compressive strength from specification design contributes to the failure of investment projects in the construction sector therefore, test was classified units that produced within damaged units. Second, to study an improvement the quality of compressive strength of concrete cubes. Results show that the proportion of damaged cubes are 0.00685, compressive strength was achieve confidence level 99.5% and producing of concrete cubes within the acceptable level of quality (3 Sigma. The quality of compressive strength was improved to good level use advanced sigma  levels. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.20

  14. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    .Study design:Experimental follow-up.Methods:The women used the active spinal orthosis for 3 months. Outcomes were changes in isometric back extensor strength, changes in back pain and changes in physical functioning.Results:A total of 13 women were included in the trial. Wearing the orthosis during a 3-month......Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures...

  15. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease......Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...

  16. Using 4+ to grade near-normal muscle strength does not improve agreement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Søren; Jaszczak, Sofie Louise Thomsen; Steffensen, Anne Katrine Søndergaard

    2017-01-01

    Manual assessment of muscle strength is often graded using the ordinal Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. The scale has a number of inherent weaknesses, including poorly defined limits between grades `4' and `5' and very large differences in the span of muscle strength encompassed by each...... of the six grades. It is not necessarily obvious how to convert a manual muscle test finding into an MRC grade. Several modifications which include intermediate grades have been suggested to improve the MRC scale and the current study examines whether agreement improves and variation in ratings decrease...

  17. Improvement of the compressive strength of a cuttlefish bone-derived porous hydroxyapatite scaffold via polycaprolactone coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beom-Su; Kang, Hyo Jin; Lee, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Cuttlefish bones (CBs) have emerged as attractive biomaterials because of their porous structure and components that can be converted into hydroxyapatite (HAp) via a hydrothermal reaction. However, their brittleness and low strength restrict their application in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, to improve the compressive strength of the scaffold following hydrothermal conversion to a HAp form of CB (CB-HAp), the scaffold was coated using a polycaprolactone (PCL) polymer at various concentrations. In this study, raw CB was successfully converted into HAp via a hydrothermal reaction. We then evaluated their surface properties and composition by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. The CB-HAp coated with PCL showed improved compressive performance and retained a microporous structure. The compressive strength was significantly increased upon coating with 5 and 10% PCL, by 2.09- and 3.30-fold, respectively, as compared with uncoated CB-HAp. However, coating with 10% PCL resulted in a reduction in porosity. Furthermore, an in vitro biological evaluation demonstrated that MG-63 cells adhered well, proliferated and were able to be differentiated on the PCL-coated CB-HAp scaffold, which was noncytotoxic. These results suggest that a simple coating method is useful to improve the compressive strength of CB-HAp for bone tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uswatta, Suren P.; Okeke, Israel U. [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C., E-mail: a.jayasuriya@utoledo.edu [Department of Bioengineering, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43614 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33 mm (n = 25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93 mm (n = 25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores < 10 and 2 μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59 MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93 MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98 MPa and 357 MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p < 0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro

  19. Injectable porous nano-hydroxyapatite/chitosan/tripolyphosphate scaffolds with improved compressive strength for bone regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uswatta, Suren P.; Okeke, Israel U.; Jayasuriya, Ambalangodage C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have fabricated porous injectable spherical scaffolds using chitosan biopolymer, sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA). TPP was primarily used as an ionic crosslinker to crosslink nHA/chitosan droplets. We hypothesized that incorporating nHA into chitosan could support osteoconduction by emulating the mineralized cortical bone structure, and improve the Ultimate Compressive Strength (UCS) of the scaffolds. We prepared chitosan solutions with 0.5%, 1% and 2% (w/v) nHA concentration and used simple coacervation and lyophilization techniques to obtain spherical scaffolds. Lyophilized spherical scaffolds had a mean diameter of 1.33 mm (n = 25). Further, portion from each group lyophilized scaffolds were soaked and dried to obtain Lyophilized Soaked and Dried (LSD) scaffolds. LSD scaffolds had a mean diameter of 0.93 mm (n = 25) which is promising property for the injectability. Scanning Electron Microscopy images showed porous surface morphology and interconnected pore structures inside the scaffolds. Lyophilized and LSD scaffolds had surface pores < 10 and 2 μm, respectively. 2% nHA/chitosan LSD scaffolds exhibited UCS of 8.59 MPa compared to UCS of 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds at 3.93 MPa. Standardize UCS values were 79.98 MPa and 357 MPa for 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized and LSD particles respectively. One-way ANOVA results showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) in UCS of 1% and 2% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds compared to 0% and 0.5% nHA/chitosan lyophilized scaffolds. Moreover, 2% nHA LSD scaffolds had significantly increased (p < 0.005) their mean UCS by 120% compared to 2% nHA lyophilized scaffolds. In a drawback, all scaffolds have lost their mechanical properties by 95% on the 2nd day when fully immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Additionally live and dead cell assay showed no cytotoxicity and excellent osteoblast attachment to both lyophilized and LSD scaffolds at the end of 14th day of in vitro

  20. Improving the Bond Strength of Rice Husk Ash Concrete by Incorporating Polymer: A New Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. Bangwar

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives an insight of how to improve the bond strength of cement in which concrete is replaced with rice husk ash. A concrete mix was prepared and was used in different types of mixes i.e. Control Mix, 10% cement substituted concrete with rice husk ash and polymer modified concrete by incorporation different dosages of polymer in the 10% cement substituted concrete. A bar of 12mm diameter, 300mm in length was placed in the center of the cylindrical specimens for pull out test. It was observed that the bond strength between concrete and steel decreases with the replacement of cement with ash, conversely the bond strength improves with the addition of polymer dosages.

  1. Effects of exercise improves muscle strength and fat mass in patients with high fracture risk: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding-Cheng Chan

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The deterioration of the musculoskeletal system imposes significant impact on physical activity. Exercise is an important strategy which minimizes these changes. It is not clear which type of exercise provides better improvement on low physical performance, low muscle mass and low strength of sarcopenia. We aim to develop an integrated care (IC model and compare its relative efficacy in limb fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance with low extremities exercise (LEE in community dwelling older adults with high risk of fractures (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX® ≧3% for hip fracture, ≧20% for major osteoporotic fracture or 1-min osteoporosis risk test (≧1 point or fall (≧2 falls in previous year. Methods: Patients were assigned randomized to participate in either IC or LEE group (n = 55 each for 3 months. All participants received education including home-based exercise. The IC group consisted of different modalities of exercise while the LEE group performed machine-based low extremities exercise. Fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance were measured at their baseline and 3-months follow-up. Results: Mean age was 73.8 ± 7 years with 69.1% women. Entire cohort demonstrated significant increment in fat free mass, muscle strength (4 indicators and physical performance (3 indicators. However, between group differences were not significant. Conclusion: With regular supervise exercise; both groups are equally effective in decreasing fat mass and increasing physical performance, muscle mass and strength. However, the IC group required fewer resources and thus more financially feasible in a community setting. Keywords: Bone mineral density, Gender differences, Integrated care, Low extremities exercise, Muscle strength

  2. Metallic Reinforcement of Direct Squeeze Die Casting Aluminum Alloys for Improved Strength and Fracture Resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Schwam: J.F. Wallace: Y. Zhu: J.W. Ki

    2004-10-01

    The utilization of aluminum die casting as enclosures where internal equipment is rotating inside of the casting and could fracture requires a strong housing to restrain the fractured parts. A typical example would be a supercharger. In case of a failure, unless adequately contained, fractured parts could injure people operating the equipment. A number of potential reinforcement materials were investigated. The initial work was conducted in sand molds to create experimental conditions that promote prolonged contact of the reinforcing material with molten aluminum. Bonding of Aluminum bronze, Cast iron, and Ni-resist inserts with various electroplated coatings and surface treatments were analyzed. Also toughening of A354 aluminum cast alloy by steel and stainless steel wire mesh with various conditions was analyzed. A practical approach to reinforcement of die cast aluminum components is to use a reinforcing steel preform. Such performs can be fabricated from steel wire mesh or perforated metal sheet by stamping or deep drawing. A hemispherical, dome shaped casting was selected in this investigation. A deep drawing die was used to fabricate the reinforcing performs. The tendency of aluminum cast enclosures to fracture could be significantly reduced by installing a wire mesh of austenitic stainless steel or a punched austenitic stainless steel sheet within the casting. The use of reinforcements made of austenitic stainless steel wire mesh or punched austenitic stainless steel sheet provided marked improvement in reducing the fragmentation of the casting. The best strengthening was obtained with austenitic stainless steel wire and with a punched stainless steel sheet without annealing this material. Somewhat lower results were obtained with the annealed punched stainless steel sheet. When the annealed 1020 steel wire mesh was used, the results were only slightly improved because of the lower mechanical properties of this unalloyed steel. The lowest results were

  3. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    VAN DER HEIJDEN, G.-J., Z. J. WANG, Z. CHU, G. TOFFOLO, E. MANESSO, P. J. J. SAUER, and A. L. SUNEHAG. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 1973-1980, 2010. Introduction: Data on the metabolic effects of

  4. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Heijden, Gert-Jan; Wang, Zhiyue J.; Chu, Zili; Toffolo, Gianna; Manesso, Erica; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2010-01-01

    VAN DER HEIJDEN, G.-J., Z. J. WANG, Z. CHU, G. TOFFOLO, E. MANESSO, P. J. J. SAUER, and A. L. SUNEHAG. Strength Exercise Improves Muscle Mass and Hepatic Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Youth. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 42, No. 11, pp. 1973-1980, 2010. Introduction: Data on the metabolic effects of

  5. Can the Power Balance® Bracelet Improve Balance, Flexibility, Strength, and Power?

    OpenAIRE

    Porcari, John; Hazuga, Rachel; Foster, Carl; Doberstein, Scott; Becker, Jordan; Kline, Dennis; Mickschl, Thomas; Dodge, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Athletes are constantly searching for something that will give them a competitive edge. Performance jewelry is one of the latest products on the market designed to improve athletic performance. The most common claims are that wearing this performance jewelry will improve flexibility, balance, and strength. There is considerable marketing of these products, including testimonial evidence by high profile athletes, in support of the purported benefits. In demonstrations designed to validate the ...

  6. Symbiosis of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Robinia pseudoacacia L. Improves Root Tensile Strength and Soil Aggregate Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoqiang; Liu, Zhenkun; Chen, Hui; Tang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Robinia pseudoacacia L. (black locust) is a widely planted tree species on Loess Plateau for revegetation. Due to its symbiosis forming capability with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, we explored the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass, root morphology, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability in a pot experiment. We inoculated R. pseudoacacia with/without AM fungus (Rhizophagus irregularis or Glomus versiforme), and measured root colonization, plant growth, root morphological characters, root tensile force and tensile strength, and parameters for soil aggregate stability at twelve weeks after inoculation. AM fungi colonized more than 70% plant root, significantly improved plant growth. Meanwhile, AM fungi elevated root morphological parameters, root tensile force, root tensile strength, Glomalin-related soil protein (GRSP) content in soil, and parameters for soil aggregate stability such as water stable aggregate (WSA), mean weight diameter (MWD) and geometric mean diameter (GMD). Root length was highly correlated with WSA, MWD and GMD, while hyphae length was highly correlated with GRSP content. The improved R. pseudoacacia growth, root tensile strength and soil aggregate stability indicated that AM fungi could accelerate soil fixation and stabilization with R. pseudoacacia, and its function in revegetation on Loess Plateau deserves more attention.

  7. Evaluation of Fatigue Strength Improvement by CFRP Laminates and Shot Peening onto the Tension Flanges Joining Corrugated SteelWebs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yu Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Corrugated steel web with inherent high out-of-plane stiffness has a promising application in configuring large span highway bridge girders. Due to the irregularity of the configuration details, the local stress concentration poses a major fatigue problem for the welded flange plates of high strength low alloy structural steels. In this work, the methods of applying CFRP laminate and shot peening onto the surfaces of the tension flanges were employed with the purpose of improving the fatigue strength of such configuration details. The effectiveness of this method in the improvement of fatigue strength has been examined experimentally. Test results show that the shot peening significantly increases hardness and roughness in contrast to these without treatment. Also, it has beneficial effects on the fatigue strength enhancement when compared against the test data of the joints with CFRP strengthening. The stiffness degradation during the loading progress is compared with each treatment. Incorporating the stress acting on the constituent parts of the CFRP laminates, a discussion is made regarding the mechanism of the retrofit and related influencing factors such as corrosion and economic cost. This work could enhance the understanding of the CFRP and shot peening in repairing such welded details and shed light on the reinforcement design of welded joints between corrugated steel webs and flange plates.

  8. Motor effort training with low exercise intensity improves muscle strength and descending command in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Changhao; Ranganathan, Vinoth K; Zhang, Junmei; Siemionow, Vlodek; Yue, Guang H

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the effect of high mental effort training (MET) and conventional strength training (CST) on increasing voluntary muscle strength and brain signal associated with producing maximal muscle force in healthy aging. Twenty-seven older adults (age: 75 ± 7.9 yr, 8 women) were assigned into 1 of 3 groups: MET group-trained with low-intensity (30% maximal voluntary contraction [MVC]) physical exercise combined with MET, CST group-trained with high-intensity muscle contractions, or control (CTRL) group-no training of any kind. MET and CST lasted for 12 weeks (5 sessions/week). The participants' elbow flexion strength of the right arm, electromyography (EMG), and motor activity-related cortical potential (MRCP) directly related to the strength production were measured before and after training. The CST group had the highest strength gain (17.6%, P boarder-line significance level (12.11%, P = 0.061) and that for CTRL group was only 4.9% (P = 0.539). These results suggest that high mental effort training combined with low-intensity physical exercise is an effective method for voluntary muscle strengthening and this approach is especially beneficial for those who are physically weak and have difficulty undergoing conventional strength training.

  9. Some considerations about improvement for fatigue strength of structures; Shatai kozobutsu no hiro kyodo kojo ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimoto, H; Toyama, K; Maruyama, H; Magara, S [Press Kogyo Co. Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    To reduce weight, higher tensile strength and/or thinner plate are used or considered in vehicle structures. In general, welded or notch sections, fatigue strength decreases because of increasing concentrated stress or effect of notch sensitivity and so on. In this paper, some methods are studied to improve fatigue strength and obtain a long life. 2 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Genipin crosslinker releasing sutures for improving the mechanical/repair strength of damaged connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaj, Sharath; Slusarewicz, Paul; Brown, Matt; Hedman, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    The most common mode of surgical repair of ruptured tendons and ligaments involves the use of sutures for reattachment. However, there is a high incidence of rerupture and repair failure due to pulling out of the suture material from the damaged connective tissue. The main goal of this research was to achieve a localized delivery of crosslinking agent genipin (GP) from rapid-release biodegradable coatings on sutures, for strengthening the repair of ruptured connective tissue. Our hypothesis is that GP released from the suture coating will lead to exogenous crosslinking of native connective tissue resulting in beneficial effects on clinically relevant mechanical parameters such as tear resistance, tissue strength, and energy required to rupture the tissue (toughness). Sutures were successfully coated with a biodegradable polymer layer loaded with the crosslinking agent genipin, without compromising the mechanical properties of the suture. The rapid-release of genipin was achieved under both in vitro and ex vivo conditions. Exogenous crosslinking using these genipin releasing sutures was demonstrated using equine tendons. The tendons treated with genipin releasing sutures showed significant improvement in failure load, energy required for pull-out failure, and stiffness. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2199-2205, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Effects of exercise improves muscle strength and fat mass in patients with high fracture risk: A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ding-Cheng; Chang, Chirn-Bin; Han, Der-Sheng; Hong, Cian-Hui; Hwang, Jawl-Shan; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Yang, Rong-Sen

    2017-10-26

    The deterioration of the musculoskeletal system imposes significant impact on physical activity. Exercise is an important strategy which minimizes these changes. It is not clear which type of exercise provides better improvement on low physical performance, low muscle mass and low strength of sarcopenia. We aim to develop an integrated care (IC) model and compare its relative efficacy in limb fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance with low extremities exercise (LEE) in community dwelling older adults with high risk of fractures (Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX ® )) ≧3% for hip fracture, ≧20% for major osteoporotic fracture or 1-min osteoporosis risk test (≧1 point) or fall (≧2 falls in previous year). Patients were assigned randomized to participate in either IC or LEE group (n = 55 each) for 3 months. All participants received education including home-based exercise. The IC group consisted of different modalities of exercise while the LEE group performed machine-based low extremities exercise. Fat free mass, muscle strength, and physical performance were measured at their baseline and 3-months follow-up. Mean age was 73.8 ± 7 years with 69.1% women. Entire cohort demonstrated significant increment in fat free mass, muscle strength (4 indicators) and physical performance (3 indicators). However, between group differences were not significant. With regular supervise exercise; both groups are equally effective in decreasing fat mass and increasing physical performance, muscle mass and strength. However, the IC group required fewer resources and thus more financially feasible in a community setting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Rating the strength of scientific evidence: relevance for quality improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, Kathleen N

    2004-02-01

    To summarize an extensive review of systems for grading the quality of research articles and rating the strength of bodies of evidence, and to highlight for health professionals and decision-makers concerned with quality measurement and improvement the available "best practices" tools by which these steps can be accomplished. Drawing on an extensive review of checklists, questionnaires, and other tools in the field of evidence-based practice, this paper discusses clinical, management, and policy rationales for rating strength of evidence in a quality improvement context, and documents best practices methods for these tasks. After review of 121 systems for grading the quality of articles, 19 systems, mostly specific, met a priori scientific standards for grading systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and diagnostic tests; eight systems (of 40 reviewed) met similar standards for rating the overall strength of evidence. All can be used as is or adapted for particular types of evidence reports or systematic reviews. Formally grading study quality and rating overall strength of evidence, using sound instruments and procedures, can produce reasonable levels of confidence about the science base for parts of quality improvement programs. With such information, health care professionals and administrators concerned with quality improvement can understand better the level of science (versus only clinical consensus or opinion) that supports practice guidelines, review criteria, and assessments that feed into quality assurance and improvement programs. New systems are appearing and research is needed to confirm the conceptual and practical underpinnings of these grading and rating systems, but the need for those developing systematic reviews, practice guidelines, and quality or audit criteria to understand and undertake these steps is becoming increasingly clear.

  13. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA; Olusegun Olusoji SOREMEKUN; Olakunle Wasiu SUBAIR; Atinuke OLADOYE

    2008-01-01

    The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5) were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel i...

  14. Improving Parolees' Participation in Drug Treatment and Other Services through Strengths Case Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Michael; Cartier, Jerome J

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to increase participation in community aftercare treatment for substance-abusing parolees, an intervention based on a transitional case management (TCM) model that focuses mainly on offenders' strengths has been developed and is under testing. This model consists of completion, by the inmate, of a self-assessment of strengths that informs the development of the continuing care plan, a case conference call shortly before release, and strengths case management for three months post-release to promote retention in substance abuse treatment and support the participant's access to designated services in the community. The post-release component consists of a minimum of one weekly client/case manager meeting (in person or by telephone) for 12 weeks. The intervention is intended to improve the transition process from prison to community at both the individual and systems level. Specifically, the intervention is designed to improve outcomes in parolee admission to, and retention in, community-based substance-abuse treatment, parolee access to other needed services, and recidivism rates during the first year of parole. On the systems level, the intervention is intended to improve the communication and collaboration between criminal justice agencies, community-based treatment organizations, and other social and governmental service providers. The TCM model is being tested in a multisite study through the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS) research cooperative funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse.

  15. Compression stockings significantly improve hemodynamic performance in post-thrombotic syndrome irrespective of class or length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimer, Christopher R; Azzam, Mustapha; Kalodiki, Evi; Makris, Gregory C; Geroulakos, George

    2013-07-01

    Graduated elastic compression (GEC) stockings have been demonstrated to reduce the morbidity associated with post-thrombotic syndrome. The ideal length or compression strength required to achieve this is speculative and related to physician preference and patient compliance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of four different stockings and determine the patient's preference. Thirty-four consecutive patients (40 legs, 34 male) with post-thrombotic syndrome were tested with four different stockings (Mediven plus open toe, Bayreuth, Germany) of their size in random order: class 1 (18-21 mm Hg) and class II (23-32 mm Hg), below-knee (BK) and above-knee thigh-length (AK). The median age, Venous Clinical Severity Score, Venous Segmental Disease Score, and Villalta scale were 62 years (range, 31-81 years), 8 (range, 1-21), 5 (range, 2-10), and 10 (range, 2-22), respectively. The C of C0-6EsAs,d,pPr,o was C0 = 2, C2 = 1, C3 = 3, C4a = 12, C4b = 7, C5 = 12, C6 = 3. Obstruction and reflux was observed on duplex in 47.5% legs, with deep venous reflux alone in 45%. Air plethysmography was used to measure the venous filling index (VFI), venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume. Direct pressure measurements were obtained while lying and standing using the PicoPress device (Microlab Elettronica, Nicolò, Italy). The pressure sensor was placed underneath the test stocking 5 cm above and 2 cm posterior to the medial malleolus. At the end of the study session, patients stated their preferred stocking based on comfort. The VFI, venous volume, and time to fill 90% of the venous volume improved significantly with all types of stocking versus no compression. In class I, the VFI (mL/s) improved from a median of 4.9 (range, 1.7-16.3) without compression to 3.7 (range, 0-14) BK (24.5%) and 3.6 (range, 0.6-14.5) AK (26.5%). With class II, the corresponding improvement was to 4.0 (range, 0.3-16.2) BK (18.8%) and 3.7 (range, 0.5-14.2) AK (24

  16. Improvement of isometric dorsiflexion protocol for assessment of tibialis anterior muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    It is important to accurately estimate the electromyogram (EMG)/force relationship of triceps surae (TS) muscle for detecting strength deficit of tibalis anterior (TA) muscle. In literature, the protocol for recording EMG and force of dorsiflexion have been described, and the necessity for immobilizing the ankle has been explained. However, there is a significant variability of the results among researchers even though they report the fixation of the ankle. We have determined that toe extension can cause significant variation in the dorsiflexion force and EMG of TS and this can occur despite following the current guidelines which require immobilizing the ankle. The results also show that there was a large increase in the variability of the force and the RMS of EMG of TS when the toes were not strapped compared with when they were strapped. Thus, with the current guidelines, where there are no instructions regarding the necessity of strapping the toes, the EMG/force relationship of TS could be incorrect and give an inaccurate assessment of the dorsiflexor TA strength. In summary, •Current methodology to estimate the dorsiflexor TA strength with respect to the TS activity, emphasizing on ankle immobilization is insufficient to prevent large variability in the measurements.•Toe extension during dorsiflexion was found to be one source of variability in estimating the TA strength.•It is recommended that guidelines for recording force and EMG from TA and TS muscles should require the strapping of the toes along with the need for immobilizing the ankle.

  17. National Emergency Preparedness and Response: Improving for Incidents of National Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    The national emergency management system has need of significant improvement in its contingency planning and early consolidation of effort and coordination between federal, state, and local agencies...

  18. Short-term high intensity plyometric training program improves strength, power and agility in male soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 - 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer.

  19. Short-Term High Intensity Plyometric Training Program Improves Strength, Power and Agility in Male Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váczi, Márk; Tollár, József; Meszler, Balázs; Juhász, Ivett; Karsai, István

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a short-term in-season plyometric training program on power, agility and knee extensor strength. Male soccer players from a third league team were assigned into an experimental and a control group. The experimental group, beside its regular soccer training sessions, performed a periodized plyometric training program for six weeks. The program included two training sessions per week, and maximal intensity unilateral and bilateral plyometric exercises (total of 40 – 100 foot contacts/session) were executed. Controls participated only in the same soccer training routine, and did not perform plyometrics. Depth vertical jump height, agility (Illinois Agility Test, T Agility Test) and maximal voluntary isometric torque in knee extensors using Multicont II dynamometer were evaluated before and after the experiment. In the experimental group small but significant improvements were found in both agility tests, while depth jump height and isometric torque increments were greater. The control group did not improve in any of the measures. Results of the study indicate that plyometric training consisting of high impact unilateral and bilateral exercises induced remarkable improvements in lower extremity power and maximal knee extensor strength, and smaller improvements in soccer-specific agility. Therefore, it is concluded that short-term plyometric training should be incorporated in the in-season preparation of lower level players to improve specific performance in soccer. PMID:23717351

  20. Virtual Reality Training With Three-Dimensional Video Games Improves Postural Balance and Lower Extremity Strength in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongwoo; Choi, Wonjae; Lee, Kyeongjin; Song, Changho; Lee, Seungwon

    2017-10-01

    Avatar-based three-dimensional technology is a new approach to improve physical function in older adults. The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional video gaming technology in virtual reality training to improve postural balance and lower extremity strength in a population of community-dwelling older adults. The experimental group participated in the virtual reality training program for 60 min, twice a week, for 6 weeks. Both experimental and control groups were given three times for falls prevention education at the first, third, and fifth weeks. The experimental group showed significant improvements not only in static and dynamic postural balance but also lower extremity strength (p < .05). Furthermore, the experimental group was improved to overall parameters compared with the control group (p < .05). Therefore, three-dimensional video gaming technology might be beneficial for improving postural balance and lower extremity strength in community-dwelling older adults.

  1. Resolution Improvements in in Vivo1H NMR Spectra with Increased Magnetic Field Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruetter, Rolf; Weisdorf, Sally A.; Rajanayagan, Vasantham; Terpstra, Melissa; Merkle, Hellmut; Truwit, Charles L.; Garwood, Michael; Nyberg, Scott L.; Ugurbil, Kâmil

    1998-11-01

    The measurement of cerebral metabolites using highly homologous localization techniques and similar shimming methods was performed in the human brain at 1.5 and 4 T as well as in the dog and rat brain at 9.4 T. In rat brain, improved resolution was achieved by shimming all first- and second-order shim coils using a fully adiabatic FASTMAP sequence. The spectra showed a clear improvement in spectral resolution for all metabolite resonances with increased field strength. Changes in cerebral glutamine content were clearly observed at 4 T compared to 1.5 T in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. At 9.4 T, glutamine H4 at 2.46 ppm was fully resolved from glutamate H4 at 2.37 ppm, as was the potential resonance from γ-amino-butyric acid at 2.30 ppm and N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate at 2.05 ppm. Singlet linewidths were found to be as low as 6 Hz (0.015 ppm) at 9.4 T, indicating a substantial decrease in ppm linewidth with field strength. Furthermore, the methylene peak of creatine was partially resolved from phosphocreatine, indicating a close to 1:1 relationship in gray matter. We conclude that increasing the magnetic field strength increases spectral resolution also for1H NMR, which can lead to more than linear sensitivity gains.

  2. Improvement of colour strength and colourfastness properties of gamma irradiated cotton using reactive black-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Bhatti, Ijaz; Adeel, Shahid; Nadeem, Raziya; Asghar, Toheed

    2012-01-01

    The dyeing behaviour of gamma irradiated cotton fabric using Reactive Black-5 dye powder has been investigated. The mercerized, bleached and plain weaved cotton fabric was irradiated to different absorbed doses of 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 Gy using Co-60 gamma irradiator. Dyeing was performed using irradiated and un-irradiated cotton with dye solutions. The dyeing parameters such as temperature of dyeing, time of dyeing and pH of dyeing solutions were optimised. The colour strength values of dyed fabrics were evaluated by comparing irradiated and un-irradiated cotton in CIE Lab system using Spectra flash SF650. Methods suggested by International Standard Organisation (ISO) were employed to study the effect of gamma irradiation on the colourfastness properties of dyed fabric. It is found that gamma irradiated cotton dyed with Reactive Black-5 has not only improved the colour strength but also enhanced the rating of fastness properties. - Highlights: ► Optimum absorbed dose for cotton is 500 Gy using un-irradiated Reactive Black-5. ► Optimum dyeing conditions: 60 °C, 30 min and dyeing pH is10. ► At optimum conditions colour strength and fastness properties are enhanced. ► Gamma irradiation can improve dyeing characters of other dyed fabrics.

  3. Isolation and identification of bacteria to improve the strength of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnapriya, S; Venkatesh Babu, D L; G, Prince Arulraj

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research work is to isolate and identify calcite precipitating bacteria and to check the suitability of these bacteria for use in concrete to improve its strength. Bacteria to be incorporated in concrete should be alkali resistant to endure the high pH of concrete and endospore forming to withstand the mechanical stresses induced in concrete during mixing. They must exhibit high urease activity to precipitate calcium carbonate in the form of calcite. Bacterial strains were isolated from alkaline soil samples of a cement factory and were tested for urease activity, potential to form endospores and precipitation of calcium carbonate. Based on these results, three isolates were selected and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. They were identified as Bacillus megaterium BSKAU, Bacillus licheniformis BSKNAU and Bacillus flexus BSKNAU. The results were compared with B. megaterium MTCC 1684 obtained from Microbial Type Culture Collection and Gene Bank, Chandigarh, India. Experimental work was carried out to assess the influence of bacteria on the compressive strength and tests revealed that bacterial concrete specimens showed enhancement in compressive strength. The efficiency of bacteria toward crack healing was also tested. Substantial increase in strength and complete healing of cracks was observed in concrete specimens cast with B. megaterium BSKAU, B. licheniformis BSKNAU and B. megaterium MTCC 1684. This indicates the suitability of these bacterial strains for use in concrete. The enhancement of strength and healing of cracks can be attributed to the filling of cracks in concrete by calcite which was visualized by scanning electron microscope. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Frameworks for improvement: clinical audit, the plan-do-study-act cycle and significant event audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillam, Steve; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2013-01-01

    This is the first in a series of articles about quality improvement tools and techniques. We explore common frameworks for improvement, including the model for improvement and its application to clinical audit, plan-do-study-act (PDSA) cycles and significant event analysis (SEA), examining the similarities and differences between these and providing examples of each.

  5. Improving the Bearing Strength of Sandy Loam Soil Compressed Earth Block Bricks Using Sugercane Bagasse Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhan W. Salim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The need for affordable and sustainable alternative construction materials to cement in developing countries cannot be underemphasized. Compressed Earth Bricks have gained acceptability as an affordable and sustainable construction material. There is however a need to boost its bearing capacity. Previous research show that Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as a soil stabilizer has yielded positive results. However, there is limited research on its effect on the mechanical property of Compressed Earth Brick. This current research investigated the effect of adding 3%, 5%, 8% and 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash on the compressive strength of compressed earth brick. The result showed improvement in its compressive strength by 65% with the addition of 10% Sugarcane Bagasse Ash.

  6. Improvement of the fatigue strength of AISI 4140 steel by an ion nitriding process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, A. [Atatuerk Univ., Erzurum (Turkey). Dept. of Mech. Eng.; Karadeniz, S. [Dokuz Eyluel Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mech. Eng.

    1995-06-01

    The influence of plasma nitriding on the fatigue behaviour of AISI 4140 low-alloy steel was investigated under varying process conditions of temperature (500-600 C), time (1-12 h), heat treatment before ion nitriding (quenched and tempered, normalized) and gas mixture (50% H{sub 2}-50% N{sub 2}). A rotating bending fatigue machine was used to determine the fatigue strength. It was found that the plasma nitriding improves the fatigue strength and increases the fatigue limit depending on the surface hardness of the case depth. The microstructure of surface and diffusion layers was examined by optical microscopy. The fracture surface of specimens and the origin of fatigue cracks were observed by scanning electron microscopy.

  7. Near-surface modifications for improved crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys: trends and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettche, L.R.; Rath, B.B.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to examine the potential of surface modifications in improving the crack tolerant behavior of high strength alloys. Provides a critique of two of the most promising and versatile techniques: ion implantation and laser beam surface processing. Discusses crack tolerant properties; engineering characterization; publication trends and Department of Defense interests; and emergent surface modification techniques. Finds that the efficiency with which high strength alloys can be incorporated into a structure or component is dependent on the following crack tolerant properties: fracture toughness, fatigue resistance, sustained loading cracking resistance, fretting fatigue resistance, and hydrogen embrittlement resistance. Concludes that ion implantation and laser surface processing coupled with other advanced metallurgical procedures and fracture mechanic analyses provide the means to optimize both the bulk and surface controlled crack tolerant properties

  8. Serotonin and Histamine Therapy Increases Tetanic Forces of Myoblasts, Reduces Muscle Injury, and Improves Grip Strength Performance of Dmdmdx Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Gurel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is a recessive X-linked fatal disorder caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene. Although several therapeutic approaches have been studied, none has led to substantial long-term effects in patients. The aim of this study was to test a serotonin and histamine (S&H combination on human skeletal myoblasts and Dmdmdx mice for its effects on muscle strength and injury. Normal human bioartificial muscles (BAMs were treated, and muscle tetanic forces and muscle injury tests were performed using the MyoForce Analysis System. Dmdmdx mice, the murine model of DMD, were administered serotonin, histamine, or S&H combination twice daily for 6 weeks, and functional performance tests were conducted once a week. The S&H combination treatment caused significant increases in tetanic forces at all time points and concentrations tested as compared to the saline controls. Dose response of the BAMs to the treatment demonstrated a significant increase in force generation at all concentrations compared to the controls after 3 to 4 days of drug treatment. The highest 3 concentrations had a significant effect on lowering contractile-induced injury as measured by a reduction in the release of adenylate kinase. Histamine-only and S&H treatments improved grip strength of Dmdmdx mice, whereas serotonin-only treatment resulted in no significant improvement in muscle strength. The results of this study indicate that S&H therapy might be a promising new strategy for muscular dystrophies and that the mechanism should be further investigated.

  9. Intelligent Physical Exercise Training in a Workplace Setting Improves Muscle Strength and Musculoskeletal Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Dalager

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess effects of 1-year Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET on musculoskeletal health. Methods. Office workers were randomized 1 : 1 to a training group, TG (N=193, or a control group, CG (N=194. TG received 1 h supervised high intensity IPET every week within working hours for 1 year and was recommended to perform 30 min of moderate intensity physical activity for 6 days a week during leisure. The IPET program was based on baseline health measures. Results. No baseline differences were present. An intention-to-treat analysis showed significant between-group effect for muscle strength but not for musculoskeletal pain. However, a per-protocol analysis of those with an adherence of ≥70% demonstrated a significant between-group effect for neck pain during the past three months. Several significant within-group changes were present, where TG and TG ≥ 70% demonstrated clinically relevant pain reductions whereas minimal reductions were seen for CG. Conclusion. IPET and recommendations of moderate intensity physical activity demonstrated significant between-group effect on muscle strength. Interestingly, significant within-group reductions in musculoskeletal pain were seen not only in TG but also in CG. This may underlie the lack of such between-group effect and shows that a possible positive side effect of merely drawing attention can improve musculoskeletal health.

  10. Improving stability and strength characteristics of framed structures with nonlinear behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshk, Shahram

    1990-01-01

    In this paper an optimal design procedure is introduced to improve the overall performance of nonlinear framed structures. The design methodology presented here is a multiple-objective optimization procedure whose objective functions involve the buckling eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the structure. A constant volume with bounds on the design variables is used in conjunction with an optimality criterion approach. The method provides a general tool for solving complex design problems and generally leads to structures with better limit strength and stability. Many algorithms have been developed to improve the limit strength of structures. In most applications geometrically linear analysis is employed with the consequence that overall strength of the design is overestimated. Directly optimizing the limit load of the structure would require a full nonlinear analysis at each iteration which would be prohibitively expensive. The objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm that can improve the limit-load of geometrically nonlinear framed structures while avoiding the nonlinear analysis. One of the novelties of the new design methodology is its ability to efficiently model and design structures under multiple loading conditions. These loading conditions can be different factored loads or any kind of loads that can be applied to the structure simultaneously or independently. Attention is focused on optimal design of space framed structures. Three-dimensional design problems are more complicated to carry out, but they yield insight into real behavior of the structure and can help avoiding some of the problems that might appear in planar design procedure such as the need for out-of-plane buckling constraint. Although researchers in the field of structural engineering generally agree that optimum design of three-dimension building frames especially in the seismic regions would be beneficial, methods have been slow to emerge. Most of the research in this area has dealt

  11. Upper-body progressive resistance training improves strength and household physical activity performance in women attending cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coke, Lola A; Staffileno, Beth A; Braun, Lynne T; Gulanick, Meg

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of moderate-intensity, progressive, upper-body resistance training (RT) on muscle strength and perceived performance of household physical activities (HPA) among women in cardiac rehabilitation. The 10-week, pretest-posttest, experiment randomized women to either usual care (UC) aerobic exercise or RT. Muscle strength for 5 upper-body RT exercises (chest press, shoulder press, biceps curl, lateral row, and triceps extension) was measured using the 1-Repetition Maximum Assessment. The RT group progressively increased weight lifted using 40%, 50%, and 60% of obtained 1-Repetition Maximum Assessment at 3-week intervals. Perceived performance of HPA was measured with the Kimble Household Activities Scale. The RT group (n = 16, mean age 64 +/- 11) significantly increased muscle strength in all 5 exercises in comparison with the UC group (n = 14, mean age 65 +/- 10) (chest press, 18% vs 11%; shoulder press, 24% vs 14%; biceps curl, 21% vs 12%; lateral row, 32% vs 9%; and triceps extension, 28% vs 20%, respectively). By study end, Household Activities Scale scores significantly increased (F = 13.878, P = .001) in the RT group (8.75 +/- 3.19 vs 11.25 +/- 2.14), whereas scores in the UC group decreased (8.60 +/- 3.11 vs 6.86 +/- 4.13). Progressive upper-body RT in women shows promise as an effective tool to increase muscle strength and improve the ability to perform HPA after a cardiac event. Beginning RT early after a cardiac event in a monitored cardiac rehabilitation environment can maximize the strengthening benefit.

  12. Improvement of Shear Strength of Sandy Soil by Cement Grout with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifaa Abdulrasool Ali

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the permeation cement grout with fly ash on the sandy soil skeleton were studied in the present work in two phase; first phase the shear strength parameters, and the second phase effect of these grouted materials on volume grouted zone by injection (51 cm³ of slurry in sandy soil placed in steel cylinder model with dimension 15 cm in diameter and 30 cm in height. The soil sample was obtained from Karbala city and it is classified as poorly graded sand (SP according to USCS. The soil samples were improved by cement grout with three percentages weight of water cement ratio (w:c; (0.1w:0.9c, 0.8w:0.2c, and 0.7w:0.3c, while the soil samples were dehydrated for one day curing time. Fly ash class (F was used with cement grout as filler material; it was added to the mixture as a replacement material for cement in weight percentages; 10%, 25% and 40%. According to the results of tests, both shear strength and approximate volume of the effective grouted zone for treated samples soil with cement grout was increased when the water cement ratio decreased. Fly ash with cement grout needs to increase the water demand for the grout mixing to give best results in both shear strength and filling the soil voids.

  13. Resistance training and aerobic training improve muscle strength and aerobic capacity in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markvardsen, Lars H; Overgaard, Kristian; Heje, Karen; Sindrup, Søren H; Christiansen, Ingelise; Vissing, John; Andersen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Eighteen CIDP patients treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin performed 12 weeks of aerobic exercise and 12 weeks of resistance exercise after a run-in period of 12 weeks without exercise. Three times weekly the participants performed aerobic exercise on an ergometer bike or resistance exercise with unilateral training of knee and elbow flexion/extension. Primary outcomes were maximal oxygen consumption velocity (VO 2 -max) and maximal combined isokinetic muscle strength (cIKS) of knee and elbow flexion/extension. VO 2 -max and muscle strength were unchanged during run-in (-4.9% ± 10.3%, P = 0.80 and -3.7% ± 10.1%, P = 0.17, respectively). Aerobic exercise increased VO 2 -max by 11.0% ± 14.7% (P = 0.02). Resistance exercise resulted in an increase of 13.8% ± 16.0% (P = 0.0004) in cIKS. Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training improve fitness and strength in CIDP patients. Muscle Nerve 57: 70-76, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Targeting DMPK with Antisense Oligonucleotide Improves Muscle Strength in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Jauvin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, a dominant hereditary muscular dystrophy, is caused by an abnormal expansion of a (CTGn trinucleotide repeat in the 3′ UTR of the human dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK gene. As a consequence, mutant transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats are retained in nuclear foci and alter the function of splicing regulatory factors members of the MBNL and CELF families, resulting in alternative splicing misregulation of specific transcripts in affected DM1 tissues. In the present study, we treated DMSXL mice systemically with a 2′-4′-constrained, ethyl-modified (ISIS 486178 antisense oligonucleotide (ASO targeted to the 3′ UTR of the DMPK gene, which led to a 70% reduction in CUGexp RNA abundance and foci in different skeletal muscles and a 30% reduction in the heart. Furthermore, treatment with ISIS 486178 ASO improved body weight, muscle strength, and muscle histology, whereas no overt toxicity was detected. This is evidence that the reduction of CUGexp RNA improves muscle strength in DM1, suggesting that muscle weakness in DM1 patients may be improved following elimination of toxic RNAs.

  15. Targeting DMPK with Antisense Oligonucleotide Improves Muscle Strength in Myotonic Dystrophy Type 1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauvin, Dominic; Chrétien, Jessina; Pandey, Sanjay K; Martineau, Laurie; Revillod, Lucille; Bassez, Guillaume; Lachon, Aline; MacLeod, A Robert; Gourdon, Geneviève; Wheeler, Thurman M; Thornton, Charles A; Bennett, C Frank; Puymirat, Jack

    2017-06-16

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), a dominant hereditary muscular dystrophy, is caused by an abnormal expansion of a (CTG) n trinucleotide repeat in the 3' UTR of the human dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. As a consequence, mutant transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats are retained in nuclear foci and alter the function of splicing regulatory factors members of the MBNL and CELF families, resulting in alternative splicing misregulation of specific transcripts in affected DM1 tissues. In the present study, we treated DMSXL mice systemically with a 2'-4'-constrained, ethyl-modified (ISIS 486178) antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) targeted to the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene, which led to a 70% reduction in CUG exp RNA abundance and foci in different skeletal muscles and a 30% reduction in the heart. Furthermore, treatment with ISIS 486178 ASO improved body weight, muscle strength, and muscle histology, whereas no overt toxicity was detected. This is evidence that the reduction of CUG exp RNA improves muscle strength in DM1, suggesting that muscle weakness in DM1 patients may be improved following elimination of toxic RNAs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving the Bond Strength of Rice Husk Ash Concrete by Incorporating Polymer: A New Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bangwar, Daddan Khan; Ali Soomro, Mohsin; Ali Laghari, Nasir; Ali Soomro, Mukhtiar; Ali Buriro, Ahsan

    2018-01-01

    This paper gives an insight of how to improve the bond strength of cement in which concrete is replaced with rice husk ash. A concrete mix was prepared and was used in different types of mixes i.e. Control Mix, 10% cement substituted concrete with rice husk ash and polymer modified concrete by incorporation different dosages of polymer in the 10% cement substituted concrete. A bar of 12mm diameter, 300mm in length was placed in the center of the cylindrical specimens for pull out test. It was...

  17. Method of improving the green strength of nuclear fuel pellets, and products thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.I.; Brassfield, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method of preparing an admixture comprising a particulate material and a fugitive binder for producing green pellets free of flaws and having improved strength, comprising the steps of: a) fluidizing and agitating a mass of particulate material with a fluidized bed system; b) adding a fugitive binder to the fluidizing and agitating mass of particulate material and blending the binder with the particulate material, said fugitive binder being comprised of ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof; c) aging the blended binder and particulate material for a period of greater than 48 hours; and d) forming the resulting aged blend by pressing into a green body

  18. Methods for improving weld strength of two-phase titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamkov, V.N.; Kushnirenko, N.A.; Topol'ski , V.F.; Khorev, A.I.

    1980-01-01

    The methods for improving the strength and impact toughness of welded joints of two-phase α+β martensitic titanium alloys (VT14, VT6, VT6S, VT23, VT22) are discussed. Thermal hardening of of welded joints under conditions recommended for the basic metal is shown to lead to the decrease of their ductibility. It has been established that the high quality of welded joints is obtained by the usage of the additional wire of Ti-Al-Mo-V-Nb-Zr-Re system in heat treatment under optimum conditions, in particular, after the low-temperature aging

  19. Modified heat treatment for lower temperature improvement of the mechanical properties of two ultrahigh strength low alloy steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki; Okabayashi, Kunio

    1985-01-01

    In the previous papers, a new heat treatment for improving the lower temperature mechanical propertise of the ultrahigh strength low alloy steels was suggested by the authors which produces a mixed structure of 25 vol pct lower bainite and 75 vol pct martensite through isothermal transformation at 593 K for a short time followed by water quenching (after austenitization at 1133 K). In this paper, two commercial Japanese ultrahigh strength steels, 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo (AISI 4340 type) and 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo (AISI 4140 type), have been studied to determine the effect of the modified heat treatment, coupled above new heat treatment with γ ⇆ α' repctitive heat treatment, on the mechanical properties from ambient temperature (287 K) to 123 K. The results obtained for various test temperatures have been compared with those for the new heat treatment reported previously and the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment. The incorporation of intermediate four cyclic γ ⇆ α' repctitive heat treatment steps (after the initial austenitization at 1133 K and oil quenching) into the new heat treatment reported previously, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved 0.2 pct proof stress as well as notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel at similar fracture ductility levels from 287 to 123 K. Also, this heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved both 0.2 pct proof stress and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel with increased fracture ductility at 203 K and above. The microstructure consists of mixed areas of ultrafine grained martensite, within which is the refined blocky, highly dislocated structure, and the second phase lower bainite (about 15 vol pct), which appears in acicular form and partitions prior austenite grains. This newly developed heat treatment makes it possible to modify

  20. Design and Characterization of High-strength Bond Coats for Improved Thermal Barrier Coating Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, David John

    High pressure turbine blades in gas turbine engines rely on thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems for protection from the harsh combustion environment. These coating systems consist of a ceramic topcoat for thermal protection, a thermally grown oxide (TGO) for oxidation passivation, and an intermetallic bond coat to provide compatibility between the substrate and ceramic over-layers while supplying aluminum to sustain Al2O 3 scale growth. As turbine engines are pushed to higher operating temperatures in pursuit of better thermal efficiency, the strength of industry-standard bond coats limits the lifetime of these coating systems. Bond coat creep deformation during thermal cycling leads to a failure mechanism termed rumpling. The interlayer thermal expansion differences, combined with TGO-imposed growth stresses, lead to the development of periodic undulations in the bond coat. The ceramic topcoat has low out-of-plane compliance and thus detaches and spalls from the substrate, resulting in a loss of thermal protection and subsequent degradation of mechanical properties. New creep resistant Ni3Al bond coats were designed with improved high-temperature strength to inhibit this type of premature failure at elevated temperatures. These coatings resist rumpling deformation while maintaining compatibility with the other layers in the system. Characterization methods are developed to quantify rumpling and assess the TGO-bond coat interface toughness of experimental systems. Cyclic oxidation experiments at 1163 °C show that the Ni3Al bond coats do not experience rumpling but have faster oxide growth rates and are quicker to spall TGO than the (Pt,Ni)Al benchmark. However, the Ni 3Al coatings outperformed the benchmark by over threefold in TBC system life due to a higher resistance to rumpling (mechanical degradation) while maintaining adequate oxidation passivation. The Ni3Al coatings eventually grow spinel NiAl2O4 on top of the protective Al2O3 layer, which leads to the

  1. Monitoring biocalcification potential of Lysinibacillus sp. isolated from alluvial soils for improved compressive strength of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashisht, Rajneesh; Attri, Sampan; Sharma, Deepak; Shukla, Abhilash; Goel, Gunjan

    2018-03-01

    The present study reports the potential of newly isolated calcite precipitating bacteria isolated from alluvial soil to improve the strength and durability of concrete. A total of sixteen samples of alluvial soil and sewage were collected from the different locations of province Solan (India). For isolation, enrichment culture technique was used to enrich calcite precipitating strains in Urea broth. After enrichment, fourteen distinct bacterial strains were obtained on Urea agar. Based on qualitative and quantitative screening for urease activity, five isolates were obtained possessing higher calcite formation and urease activities (38-77 μmhos/cm) as compared with standard strain of Bacillus megaterium MTCC 1684 (77 μmhos/cm). An isolate I13 identified as Lysinibacillus sp. was selected for self healing property in the concrete mix of M20. An improved compressive strength of 1.5 fold was observed in concrete samples amended with Lysinibacillus sp. over the concrete amended with B. megaterium MTCC 1684 after 28 days of curing. The higher calcite precipitation activity was indicated in Lysinibacillus sp. by FE-SEM micrographs and EDX analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Improving the Corrosion Inhibitive Strength of Sodium Sulphite in Hydrogen Cyanide Solution Using Sodium Benzoate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Olawale Hakeem AMUDA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The improvement in the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide by adding sodium benzoate in regulated volume was investigated using the fundamental weight loss measurement.500 ppm concentration inhibitive mixtures of sodium benzoate and sodium sulphite in three different volume ratios (5/15, 10/10, 15/5 were formulated and studied for corrosion rate in 200ml hydrogen cyanide fluid. Result obtained indicates that the corrosion rate of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide in the presence of sodium benzoate/sodium sulphite inhibitive mixtures range 0.322mmpy to 1.1269mmpy across the three volumetric ratios considered. The 15ml5ml sodium benzoatesodium sulphite mixture had the best average corrosion rate of 0.5123mmpy.The corrosion rate followed reducing pattern after the first 200 hours of immersion. The average corrosion rate in the sodium benzoate / sodium sulphite mixture is less than the rate in sodium sulphite and the mixture is only effective after long time exposure.It is concluded that adding sodium benzoate to sodium sulphite in the volumetric ratio 155ml improves the inhibitive strength of sodium sulphite on the corrosion of mild steel in hydrogen cyanide environment.

  3. Improving Tensile Bond Strength of Orthodontic Bracket by Applying Papain Gel as an Email Deproteinization Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niswati Fathmah Rosyida

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An effort to improve the bonding between bracket and tooth surface is required. Objective: The aim of this studywas to evaluate the effect of papain gel on tensile bond strength (TBS and adhesive remnant index (ARI of the orthodontic brackets. Methods: A total of 42 healthy human premolars were randomly divided into six groups. 1 Resin-modifed glass ionomer cement (RMGIC without papain, 2 RMGIC with papain 8%, 3 RMGIC with papain 10%, 4 Composite resin (CR without papain, 5 CR with papain 8%, 6 CR with papain 10%. The TBS was determined using a universal testing machine. Bond failure was classifed according to the ARI. The TBS data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mean Whitney tests with 5% of signifcance level. Results: The mean of TBS(MPa values of RMGIC groups are without papain (5.03 ± 1.52, papain 8% (4.79 ± 2.61, papain 10 (7.75 ± 1, 48. CR groups without papain (5.45 ± 1.23, papain 8% (2.30 ± 0.73, and papain 10% (4.84 ± 1.72 Bond failure was mainly classifed as score 1. The TBS values were statistically influenced by the application of papain and adhesive. Conclusion: The application of papain 10% before RMGIC cementation improves the tensile bond strength and could decrease the bond failure of the orthodontic bracket.

  4. Aerobic-Strength Exercise Improves Metabolism and Clinical State in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Krumpolec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise ameliorates motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Here, we aimed to provide evidence that exercise brings additional benefits to the whole-body metabolism and skeletal muscle molecular and functional characteristics, which might help to explain exercise-induced improvements in the clinical state. 3-months supervised endurance/strength training was performed in early/mid-stage PD patients and age/gender-matched individuals (n = 11/11. The effects of exercise on resting energy expenditure (REE, glucose metabolism, adiposity, and muscle energy metabolism (31P-MRS were evaluated and compared to non-exercising PD patients. Two muscle biopsies were taken to determine intervention-induced changes in fiber type, mitochondrial content, and expression of genes related to muscle energy metabolism, as well as proliferative and regenerative capacity. Exercise improved the clinical disability score (MDS-UPDRS, bradykinesia, balance, walking speed, REE, and glucose metabolism and increased muscle expression of energy sensors (AMPK. However, the exercise-induced increase in muscle mass/strength, mitochondrial content, type II fiber size, and postexercise phosphocreatine (PCr recovery (31P-MRS were found only in controls. Nevertheless, MDS-UPDRS was associated with muscle AMPK and mechano-growth factor (MGF expression. Improvements in fasting glycemia were positively associated with muscle function and the expression of Sirt1 and Cox7a1, and the parameters of fitness/strength were positively associated with the expression of MyHC2, MyHC7, and MGF. Moreover, reduced bradykinesia was associated with better muscle metabolism (maximal oxidative capacity and postexercise PCr recovery; 31P-MRS. Exercise training improved the clinical state in early/mid-stage Parkinson’s disease patients, including motor functions and whole-body metabolism. Although the adaptive response to exercise in PD was different from that of controls, exercise

  5. Sitting Tai Chi Improves the Balance Control and Muscle Strength of Community-Dwelling Persons with Spinal Cord Injuries: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William W. N. Tsang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of sitting Tai Chi on muscle strength, balance control, and quality of life (QOL among survivors with spinal cord injuries (SCI. Methods. Eleven SCI survivors participated in the sitting Tai Chi training (90 minutes/session, 2 times/week for 12 weeks and eight SCI survivors acted as controls. Dynamic sitting balance was evaluated using limits of stability test and a sequential weight shifting test in sitting. Handgrip strength was also tested using a hand-held dynamometer. QOL was measured using the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Scale. Results. Tai Chi practitioners achieved significant improvements in their reaction time (P=0.042; maximum excursion (P=0.016; and directional control (P=0.025 in the limits of stability test after training. In the sequential weight shifting test, they significantly improved their total time to sequentially hit the 12 targets (P=0.035. Significant improvement in handgrip strength was also found among the Tai Chi practitioners (P=0.049. However, no significant within and between-group differences were found in the QOL outcomes (P>0.05. Conclusions. Twelve weeks of sitting Tai Chi training could improve the dynamic sitting balance and handgrip strength, but not QOL, of the SCI survivors.

  6. Development of Advanced High Strength Steel for Improved Vehicle Safety, Fuel Efficiency and CO2 Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satendra; Singhai, Mrigandra; Desai, Rahul; Sam, Srimanta; Patra, Pradip Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Global warming and green house gas emissions are the major issues worldwide and their impacts are clearly visible as a record high temperatures, rising sea, and severe `flooding and droughts'. Motor vehicles considered as a major contributor on global warming due to its green house gas emissions. Hence, the automobile industries are under tremendous pressure from government and society to reduce green house gas emission to maximum possible extent. In present work, Dual Phase steel with boron as microalloying is manufactured using thermo-mechanical treatment during hot rolling. Dual phase steel with boron microalloying improved strength by near about 200 MPa than dual phase steel without boron. The boron added dual phase steel can be used for manufacturing stronger and a lighter vehicle which is expected to perform positively on green house gas emissions. The corrosion resistance behavior is also improved with boron addition which would further increase the life cycle of the vehicle even under corrosive atmosphere.

  7. Improved critical current densities and compressive strength in porous superconducting structures containing calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D; Hall, S R; Wimbush, S C

    2008-01-01

    Templated control of crystallization by biopolymers is a new technique in the synthesis of high temperature superconducting phases. By controlling the way YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Y123) materials crystallize and are organized in three dimensions, the critical current density can be improved. In this work, we present the results of doping superconducting sponges with calcium ions, which result in higher critical current densities (J c ) and improved compressive strength compared to that of commercially available Y123, in spite of minor reductions in T c . Y123 synthesis using the biopolymer dextran achieves not only an extremely effective oxygenation of the superconductor but also an in situ template-directing of the crystal morphology producing high J c , homogeneous superconducting structures with nano-scale crystallinity

  8. Tissue-engineering with muscle fiber fragments improves the strength of a weak abdominal wall in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jangö, Hanna; Gräs, Søren; Christensen, Lise

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Alternative approaches to reinforce the native tissue in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are needed to improve surgical outcome. Our aims were to develop a weakened abdominal wall in a rat model to mimic the weakened vaginal wall in women with POP and then e...... showed a significantly higher strength than the group with MPEG-PLGA alone (p = 0.034). CONCLUSION: Tissue-engineering with MFFs seeded on a scaffold of biodegradable MPEG-PLGA might be an interesting adjunct to future POP repair.......INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Alternative approaches to reinforce the native tissue in patients with pelvic organ prolapse (POP) are needed to improve surgical outcome. Our aims were to develop a weakened abdominal wall in a rat model to mimic the weakened vaginal wall in women with POP...

  9. Optimization of process parameters during carbonization for improved carbon fibre strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T.; Pursche, F.; Burscheidt, P.; Seide, G.; Gries, T.

    2017-10-01

    Based on their extraordinary properties, carbon fibres nowadays play a significant role in modern industries. In the last years carbon fibres are increasingly used for lightweight constructions in the energy or the transportation industry. However, a bigger market penetration of carbon fibres is still hindered by high prices (~ 22 /kg) [3]. One crucial step in carbon fibre production is the process of carbonization of stabilized fibres. However, the cause effect relationships of carbonization are nowadays not fully understood. Therefore, the main goal of this research work is the quantification of the cause-effect relationships of process parameters like temperature and residence time on carbon fibre strength.

  10. Heat treatment for improvement in lower temperature mechanical properties of 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Yoshiyuki; Okabayashi, Kunio

    1983-11-01

    In the previous paper, it was reported that isothermal heat treatment of a commercial Japanese 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel (AISI 4340 type) at 593 K for a short time followed by water quenching, in which a mixed structure of 25 vol pct lower bainite and 75 vol pct martensite is produced, results in the improvement of low temperature mechanical properties (287 to 123 K). The purpose of this paper is to study whether above new heat treatment will still be effective in commercial practice for improving low temperature mechanical properties of the ultrahigh strength steel when applied to a commercial Japanese 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel which is economical because it lacks the expensive nickel component (AISI 4140 type). At and above 203 K this new heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment, significantly improved the strength, tensile ductility, and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel. At and above 203 K the new heat treatment also produced superior fracture ductility and notch toughness results at similar strength levels as compared to those obtained by using γ α' repetitive heat treatment for the same steel. However, the new heat treatment remarkably decreased fracture ductility and notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel below 203 K, and thus no significant improvement in the mechanical properties was noticeable as compared with the properties produced by the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment and the γ α' repetitive heat treatment. This contrasts with the fact that the new heat treatment, as compared with the conventional 1133 K direct water quenching treatment and the γ α' repetitive heat treatment, dramatically improved the notch toughness of the 0.40 pct C-Ni-Cr-Mo ultrahigh strength steel, providing a better combination of strength and ductility throughout the 287 to 123 K temperature range. The difference

  11. Parameter definition using vibration prediction software leads to significant drilling performance improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amorim, Dalmo; Hanley, Chris Hanley; Fonseca, Isaac; Santos, Juliana [National Oilwell Varco, Houston TX (United States); Leite, Daltro J.; Borella, Augusto; Gozzi, Danilo [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    field monitoring. Vibration prediction diminishes the importance of trial-and-error procedures such as drill-off tests, which are valid only for short sections. It also solves an existing lapse in Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) real-time drilling control programs applying the theory of Teale, which states that a drilling system is perfectly efficient when it spends the exact energy to overcome the in situ rock strength. Using the proprietary software tool this paper will examine the resonant vibration modes that may be initiated while drilling with different BHA's and drill string designs, showing that the combination of a proper BHA design along with the correct selection of input parameters results in an overall improvement to drilling efficiency. Also, being the BHA predictively analyzed, it will be reduced the potential for vibration or stress fatigue in the drill string components, leading to a safer operation. In the recent years there has been an increased focus on vibration detection, analysis, and mitigation techniques, where new technologies, like the Drilling Dynamics Data Recorders (DDDR), may provide the capability to capture high frequency dynamics data at multiple points along the drilling system. These tools allow the achievement of drilling performance improvements not possible before, opening a whole new array of opportunities for optimization and for verification of predictions calculated by the drill string dynamics modeling software tool. The results of this study will identify how the dynamics from the drilling system, interacting with formation, directly relate to inefficiencies and to the possible solutions to mitigate drilling vibrations in order to improve drilling performance. Software vibration prediction and downhole measurements can be used for non-drilling operations like drilling out casing or reaming, where extremely high vibration levels - devastating to the cutting structure of the bit before it has even touched bottom - have

  12. Structure–property relationship in a 960 MPa grade ultrahigh strength low carbon niobium–vanadium microalloyed steel: The significance of high frequency induction tempering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Z.J.; Fang, Y.P.; Han, G.; Guo, H.; Misra, R.D.K.; Shang, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes the microstructure and precipitation behavior in an ultra-high strength low carbon niobium–vanadium microalloyed steel that was processed by quenching and high frequency induction tempering. Ultrahigh yield strength of ∼1000 MPa with high elongation of ∼15% and high low temperature toughness of 55 J (half thickness) at −40 °C was obtained after quenching from austenitization at 900 °C for 30 min, and tempering at 600 °C for 15 min by induction reheating with a reheating rate of ∼50 °C/s. While the yield strength increase on tempering was similar for both induction reheating and conventional reheating (electrical resistance reheating), there was ∼100% increase in low temperature toughness in induction reheated steel compared to the conventional reheating process. The underlying reason for the increase in toughness was attributed to the transformation of cementite film observed in conventional reheating and tempering to nanoscale cementite in induction reheating and tempering. The precipitation of nanoscale carbides is believed to significantly contribute to ultra-high strength, good ductility, and high toughness in the high frequency induction reheating and tempering process

  13. Influences of Fascicle Length During Isometric Training on Improvement of Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroki; Ikezoe, Tome; Umehara, Jun; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Umegaki, Hiroki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Nishishita, Satoru; Fujita, Kosuke; Araki, Kojiro; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2016-11-01

    Tanaka, H, Ikezoe, T, Umehara, J, Nakamura, M, Umegaki, H, Kobayashi, T, Nishishita, S, Fujita, K, Araki, K, and Ichihashi, N. Influences of fascicle length during isometric training on improvement of muscle strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3249-3255, 2016-This study investigated whether low-intensity isometric training would elicit a greater improvement in maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) at the same fascicle length, rather than the joint angle, adopted during training. Sixteen healthy women (21.8 ± 1.5 years) were randomly divided into an intervention group and a control group. Before (Pre) and after (Post) training, isometric plantarflexion MVCs were measured every 10° through the range of ankle joint position from 20° dorsiflexion to 30° plantarflexion (i.e., 6 ankle angles). Medial gastrocnemius fascicle length was also measured at each position, using B-mode ultrasound under 3 conditions of muscle activation: at rest, 30%MVC at respective angles, and MVC. Plantarflexion resistance training at an angle of 20° plantarflexion was performed 3 days a week for 4 weeks at 30%MVC using 3 sets of twenty 3-second isometric contractions. Maximum voluntary contraction in the intervention group increased at 0 and 10° plantarflexion (0°; Pre: 81.2 ± 26.5 N·m, Post: 105.0 ± 21.6 N·m, 10°; Pre: 63.0 ± 23.6 N·m, Post: 81.3 ± 20.3 N·m), which was not the angle used in training (20°). However, the fascicle length adopted in training at 20° plantarflexion and 30%MVC was similar to the value at 0 or 10° plantarflexion at MVC. Low-intensity isometric training at a shortened muscle length may be effective for improving MVC at a lengthened muscle length because of specificity of the fascicle length than the joint angle.

  14. Does Eccentric Exercise Reduce Pain and Improve Strength in Physically Active Adults With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Tendinosis? A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasielewski, Noah J; Kotsko, Kevin M

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To critically review evidence for the effectiveness of eccentric exercise to treat lower extremity tendinoses. Data Sources: Databases used to locate randomized controlled trials (RCTs) included PubMed (1980–2006), CINAHL (1982–2006), Web of Science (1995–2006), SPORT Discus (1980–2006), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), and the Cochrane Collaboration Database. Key words included tendon, tendonitis, tendinosis, tendinopathy, exercise, eccentric, rehabilitation, and therapy. Study Selection: The criteria for trial selection were (1) the literature was written in English, (2) the research design was an RCT, (3) the study participants were adults with a clinical diagnosis of tendinosis, (4) the outcome measures included pain or strength, and (5) eccentric exercise was used to treat lower extremity tendinosis. Data Extraction: Specific data were abstracted from the RCTs, including eccentric exercise protocol, adjunctive treatments, concurrent physical activity, and treatment outcome. Data Synthesis: The calculated post hoc statistical power of the selected studies (n = 11) was low, and the average methodologic score was 5.3/10 based on PEDro criteria. Eccentric exercise was compared with no treatment (n = 1), concentric exercise (n = 5), an alternative eccentric exercise protocol (n = 1), stretching (n = 2), night splinting (n = 1), and physical agents (n = 1). In most trials, tendinosis-related pain was reduced with eccentric exercise over time, but only in 3 studies did eccentric exercise decrease pain relative to the control treatment. Similarly, the RCTs demonstrated that strength-related measures improved over time, but none revealed significant differences relative to the control treatment. Based on the best evidence available, it appears that eccentric exercise may reduce pain and improve strength in lower extremity tendinoses, but whether eccentric exercise is more effective than other forms of therapeutic exercise for the resolution

  15. The Ras antagonist, farnesylthiosalicylic acid (FTS, decreases fibrosis and improves muscle strength in dy/dy mouse model of muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoram Nevo

    Full Text Available The Ras superfamily of guanosine-triphosphate (GTP-binding proteins regulates a diverse spectrum of intracellular processes involved in inflammation and fibrosis. Farnesythiosalicylic acid (FTS is a unique and potent Ras inhibitor which decreased inflammation and fibrosis in experimentally induced liver cirrhosis and ameliorated inflammatory processes in systemic lupus erythematosus, neuritis and nephritis animal models. FTS effect on Ras expression and activity, muscle strength and fibrosis was evaluated in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of merosin deficient congenital muscular dystrophy. The dy(2J/dy(2J mice had significantly increased RAS expression and activity compared with the wild type mice. FTS treatment significantly decreased RAS expression and activity. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK, a Ras downstream protein, was significantly decreased following FTS treatment in the dy(2J/dy(2J mice. Clinically, FTS treated mice showed significant improvement in hind limb muscle strength measured by electronic grip strength meter. Significant reduction of fibrosis was demonstrated in the treated group by quantitative Sirius Red staining and lower muscle collagen content. FTS effect was associated with significantly inhibition of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities. We conclude that active RAS inhibition by FTS was associated with attenuated fibrosis and improved muscle strength in the dy(2J/dy(2J mouse model of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  16. Swiss ball exercises improve muscle strength and walking performance in ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Cardoso de Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The purpose was to evaluate the effectiveness of a progressive muscle strengthening program using a Swiss ball for AS patients. Methods: Sixty patients with AS were randomized into the intervention group (IG or the control group (CG. Eight exercises were performed by the IG patients with free weights on a Swiss ball two times per week for 16 weeks. The evaluations were performed by a blinded evaluator at baseline and after 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks using the following instruments: the one-repetition maximum test (1 RM, BASMI, BASFI, HAQ-S, SF-36, 6-minute walk test, time up and go test, BASDAI, ASDAS, ESR and CRP dosage and Likert scale. Results: There was a statistical difference between groups for: strength (1 RM capacity in the following exercises: abdominal, rowing, squat, triceps and reverse fly (p < 0.005; 6-minute walk test (p < 0.001; timed up and go test (p = 0.025 and Likert scale (p < 0.001, all of them with better results for the IG. No differences were observed between the groups with respect to the functional capacity evaluation using the BASFI, HAQ-S, BASMI, SF-36, TUG, ASDAS, ESR and CPR dosage. Conclusions: Progressive muscle strengthening using a Swiss ball is effective for improving muscle strength and walking performance in patients with AS.

  17. Desensitizing bioactive agents improves bond strength of indirect resin-cemented restorations: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri Pires-de-Souza

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the bond strength of indirect composite restorations cemented with a resin-based cement associated with etch-and-rinse and self-etching primer adhesive systems to dentin treated or not with a bioactive material. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Twenty bovine incisor crowns had the buccal enamel removed and the dentin ground flat. The teeth were assigned to 4 groups (n=5: Group I: acid etching + Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply; Group II: application of a bioactive glass (Biosilicato®+ acid etching + Prime & Bond NT; Group III: One-up Bond F (J Morita; Group IV: Biosilicato® + One-up Bond F. Indirect composite resin (Artglass, Kulzer cylinders (6x10mm were fabricated and cemented to the teeth with a dual-cure resin-based cement (Enforce, Dentsply. After cementation, the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37ºC for 30 days and thereafter tested in tensile strength in a universal testing machine (EMIC with 50 kgf load cell at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Failure modes were assessed under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (95% level of confidence. RESULTS: Groups I, II and III had statistically similar results (p>0.05. Group IV had statistically significant higher bond strength means (p<0.05 than the other groups. The analysis of the debonded surfaces showed a predominance of adhesive failure mode for Group III and mixed failure mode for the other groups. CONCLUSION: The use of desensitizing agent did not affect negatively the bonding of the indirect composite restorations to dentin, independently of the tested adhesive systems.

  18. Directly deposited graphene nanowalls on carbon fiber for improving the interface strength in composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Yao [Department of Building Materials Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Key Laboratory of Multi-Scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Chu, Jin; Li, Chaolong, E-mail: cmf-210@126.com, E-mail: lichaolong@cigit.ac.cn; Piao, Mingxing; Zhang, Heng; Shi, Haofei [Key Laboratory of Multi-Scale Manufacturing Technology, Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China); Chen, Mingfeng, E-mail: cmf-210@126.com, E-mail: lichaolong@cigit.ac.cn; Mao, Weijie [Department of Building Materials Engineering, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Liu, Bao Sheng [Avic Beijing Aeronautical Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Beijing 100024 (China)

    2016-05-23

    Graphene nanowalls (GNWs) were grown directly on carbon fibers using a chemical vapor deposition technique which is simple and catalyst-free. We found that there is very strong π-π stacking which is a benefit for the GNWs/carbon fiber interface. This single modified filament then was embedded into an epoxy matrix to be a single-fiber composite in which was formed a “tenon-mortise” structure. Such a “tenon-mortise” model provides a simple, stable, and powerful connection between carbon fiber and the epoxy matrix. In addition, it was demonstrated that the epoxy matrix can be well embedded into GNWs through a field emission scanning electron microscope. The results of the single-fiber composite tests indicated that the interfacial strength of the composites was immensely improved by 173% compared to those specimens without GNWs.

  19. IIW recommendations for the HFMI treatment for improving the fatigue strength of welded joints

    CERN Document Server

    Marquis, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    This book of recommendations presents an overview of High Frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) techniques existing today in the market and their proper procedures, quality assurance measures and documentation. Due to differences in HFMI tools and the wide variety of potential applications, certain details of proper treatments and quantitative quality control measures are presented generally. An example of procedure specification as a quality assurance measure is given in the Appendix. Moreover, the book presents procedures for the fatigue life assessment of HFMI-improved welded joints based on nominal stress, structural hot spot stress and effective notch stress. It also considers the extra benefit that has been experimentally observed for HFMI-treated high-strength steels. The recommendations offer proposals on the effect of loading conditions like high mean stress fatigue cycles, variable amplitude loading and large amplitude/low cycle fatigue cycles. Special considerations for low stress concentration welded...

  20. Modulating rheo-kinetics of native starch films towards improved wet-strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillgren, Thomas; Blennow, Andreas; Pettersson, Anders J.

    2011-01-01

    properties of the films – an increase in the amylose content resulted in both a higher stress and strain at break. Interestingly, there was no correlation between the speed of hydration and mechanical water resistance of the films. Generally, the films were clear and transparent, even after wetting...... highly different starch types derived from potato and cereal sources of normal and mutant and transgenic backgrounds. A new improved technique was developed to permit the dynamic mechanical analysis of films in the presence of water. It was found that the amylose content was decisive for the mechanical....... Transgenic potato starch with a low content of phosphate displayed an extraordinary combination of high robustness, transparency, mechanical strength and extensibility even in a wet condition. The combination of optimal phosphate and amylose concentrations in this sample probably favoured hydration...

  1. Microscopic mechanisms contributing to the synchronous improvement of strength and plasticity (SISP) for TWIP copper alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R; Zhang, Z J; Li, L L; An, X H; Zhang, Z F

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the concept of "twinning induced plasticity (TWIP) alloys" is broadened, and the underlying intrinsic microscopic mechanisms of the general TWIP effect are intensively explored. For the first aspect, "TWIP copper alloys" was proposed following the concept of "TWIP steels", as they share essentially the same strengthening and toughening mechanisms. For the second aspect, three intrinsic features of twinning: i.e. "dynamic development", "planarity", as well as "orientation selectivity" were derived from the detailed exploration of the deformation behavior in TWIP copper alloys. These features can be considered the microscopic essences of the general "TWIP effect". Moreover, the effective cooperation between deformation twinning and dislocation slipping in TWIP copper alloys leads to a desirable tendency: the synchronous improvement of strength and plasticity (SISP). This breakthrough against the traditional trade-off relationship, achieved by the general "TWIP effect", may provide useful strategies for designing high-performance engineering materials.

  2. Postural control in elderly persons with osteoporosis: Efficacy of an intervention program to improve balance and muscle strength: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Thomaz Nogueira; França, Fábio Jorge Renovato; Ferreira de Meneses, Sarah Rúbia; Cardoso, Viviam Inhasz; Marques, Amélia Pasqual

    2010-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of an exercise program aiming to improve balance and muscular strength, for postural control and muscular strength of women with osteoporosis. Sample consisted of 33 women with osteoporosis, randomized into one of two groups: intervention group, in which exercises for balance and improvement of muscular strength of the inferior members were performed for 8 wks (n = 17, age 72.8 +/- 3.6 yrs); control group, which was women not practicing exercises (n = 16, age 74.4 +/- 3.7 yrs). At baseline and after 8 wks of treatment, postural control was assessed using a force plate (Balance Master, Neurocom), and muscular strength during ankle dorsiflexion, knee extension, and flexion was assessed by dynamometry. Adherence to the program was 82%. When compared with the control group, individuals in the intervention group significantly improved the center of pressure velocity (P = 0.02) in the modified clinical test of sensory interaction for balance test, center of pressure velocity (P control (P postural control and lower-limb strength in elderly women with osteoporosis.

  3. Neuro-Linguistic Programming: Improving Rapport between Track/Cross Country Coaches and Significant Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, David Jay

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the background information and the components of N.L.P., being eye movements, use of predicates, and posturing, as they apply to improving rapport and empathy between track/cross country coaches and their significant others in the arena of competition to help alleviate the inherent stressors.

  4. Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Afrooz, E-mail: afroozlatifi@yahoo.com [Department of Biomaterials, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, Mohammad [Novel Drug Delivery Systems Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi [Biomaterials Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/159, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daliri Joupari, Morteza [Animal and Marine Biotechnology Dept., National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 14965/161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Stainless steel 316L was surface modified by plasma surface oxidation (PSO) and silicone rubber (SR) coating. • On the PSO substrates, concentration of oxide species was increased ca. 2.5 times comparing to non-PSO substrates. • The surface wettability was improved to 12.5°, in terms of water contact angle, after PSO. • Adhesion strength of SR coating on the PSO substrates was improved by more than two times comparing to non-PSO ones. • After pull-off test, the fractured area patterns for SR coating were dependent on the type of surface modifications received. - Abstract: Stainless steel 316L is one of the most widely used materials for fabricating of biomedical devices hence, improving its surface properties is still of great interest and challenging in biomaterial sciences. Plasma oxidation, in comparison to the conventional chemical or mechanical methods, is one of the most efficient methods recently used for surface treatment of biomaterials. Here, stainless steel specimens were surface oxidized by radio-frequency plasma irradiation operating at 34 MHz under pure oxygen atmosphere. Surface chemical composition of the samples was significantly changed after plasma oxidation by appearance of the chromium and iron oxides on the plasma-oxidized surface. A wettable surface, possessing high surface energy (83.19 mN m{sup −1}), was observed after plasma oxidation. Upon completion of the surface modification process, silicone rubber was spray coated on the plasma-treated stainless steel surface. Morphology of the silicone rubber coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A uniform coating was formed on the oxidized surface with no delamination at polymer–metal interface. Pull-off tests showed the lowest adhesion strength of coating to substrate (0.12 MPa) for untreated specimens and the highest (0.89 MPa) for plasma-oxidized ones.

  5. Rehearsal significantly improves immediate and delayed recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik

    2011-10-01

    A repeated observation during memory assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is that patients who spontaneously employ a memory rehearsal strategy by repeating the word list more than once achieve better scores than patients who only repeat the word list once. This observation led to concern about the ability of the standard test procedure of RAVLT and similar tests in eliciting the best possible recall scores. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a rehearsal recall strategy of repeating the word list more than once would result in improved scores of recall on the RAVLT. We report on differences in outcome after standard administration and after experimental administration on Immediate and Delayed Recall measures from the RAVLT of 50 patients. The experimental administration resulted in significantly improved scores for all the variables employed. Additionally, it was found that patients who failed effort screening showed significantly poorer improvement on Delayed Recall compared with those who passed the effort screening. The general clear improvement both in raw scores and T-scores demonstrates that recall performance can be significantly influenced by the strategy of the patient or by small variations in instructions by the examiner.

  6. Costello Syndrome with Severe Nodulocystic Acne: Unexpected Significant Improvement of Acanthosis Nigricans after Oral Isotretinoin Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leelawadee Sriboonnark

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of 17-year-old female diagnosed with Costello syndrome. Genetic testing provided a proof with G12S mutation in the HRAS gene since 3 years of age with a presentation of severe nodulocystic acne on her face. After 2 months of oral isotretinoin treatment, improvement in her acne was observed. Interestingly, an unexpected significant improvement of acanthosis nigricans on her neck and dorsum of her hands was found as well. We present this case as a successful treatment option by using oral isotretinoin for the treatment of acanthosis nigricans in Costello syndrome patients.

  7. Determination of significance in Ecological Impact Assessment: Past change, current practice and future improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk

    2013-01-15

    Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' impacts are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in practice is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current practice is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of impacts is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future practice are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring

  8. Preoperative motor strength and time to surgery are the most important predictors of improvement in foot drop due to degenerative lumbar disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macki, Mohamed; Syeda, Sbaa; Kerezoudis, Panagiotis; Gokaslan, Ziya L; Bydon, Ali; Bydon, Mohamad

    2016-02-15

    Palsy of dorsiflexion, or foot drop, may be due to degenerative lumbar disease and amenable to posterior spinal decompression. The objective of this study is to measure prognostic factors of and time to foot drop improvement after posterior lumbar decompression. We retrospectively reviewed 71 patients undergoing first-time, posterior lumbar decompression for foot drop due to degenerative spinal disease. Patient sex, age, comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index), preoperative anterior tibialis strength (manual muscle testing, MMT), and duration of foot drop were ascertained from clinical notes. Prognostic factors affecting foot drop improvement were calculated with a discrete time proportional hazards model, in which follow-up times and outcome measures were binned into six time intervals: 1 week, 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and ≥ 1 year. Of the 71 patients, the mean age was 54.6 ± 16.0 years, and 66.2% (n=47) were males. The mean Charlson Comorbidity Index was 2.42. During a mean follow-up of 30.4 months, dorsiflexion function improved postoperatively in 73.2% (n=52) of patients. The median time to surgery from onset of foot drop was within 6 weeks, and the median preoperative MMT strength of patients with foot drop improvement was 3. Following a discrete-time proportional hazards model, duration of anterior tibialis palsy (HR=0.67, P=0.004) and preoperative muscle strength (HR=1.10, P=0.010) were significant predictors of foot drop improvement. Following an adjusted Kaplan-Meier analysis, the median time to foot drop improvement was within 6 weeks of surgical intervention. Preoperative muscle strength and palsy duration were statistically significant predictors of foot drop improvement. Furthermore, the median time to improvement was 6 weeks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Histone deacetylase inhibitor significantly improved the cloning efficiency of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongye; Tang, Xiaochun; Xie, Wanhua; Zhou, Yan; Li, Dong; Yao, Chaogang; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Jianguo; Lai, Liangxue; Ouyang, Hongsheng; Pang, Daxin

    2011-12-01

    Valproic acid (VPA), a histone deacetylase inbibitor, has been shown to generate inducible pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from mouse and human fibroblasts with a significant higher efficiency. Because successful cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) undergoes a full reprogramming process in which the epigenetic state of a differentiated donor nuclear is converted into an embryonic totipotent state, we speculated that VPA would be useful in promoting cloning efficiency. Therefore, in the present study, we examined whether VPA can promote the developmental competence of SCNT embryos by improving the reprogramming state of donor nucleus. Here we report that 1 mM VPA for 14 to 16 h following activation significantly increased the rate of blastocyst formation of porcine SCNT embryos constructed from Landrace fetal fibroblast cells compared to the control (31.8 vs. 11.4%). However, we found that the acetylation level of Histone H3 lysine 14 and Histone H4 lysine 5 and expression level of Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4 was not significantly changed between VPA-treated and -untreated groups at the blastocyst stage. The SCNT embryos were transferred to 38 surrogates, and the cloning efficiency in the treated group was significantly improved compared with the control group. Taken together, we have demonstrated that VPA can improve both in vitro and in vivo development competence of porcine SCNT embryos.

  10. Improving the strength of ceramics by controlling the interparticle forces and rheology of the ceramic suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Yi-Ping

    2001-01-01

    the sintered compacts have been characterised by density and bending strength measurements. The Scanning Electron Microscope provides a direct view of the developed microstructure of different ceramic samples. Both the mechanical and SEM results proved the effect of colloidal processing in improving the strength of ceramics. (author)

  11. Communication: Proper treatment of classically forbidden electronic transitions significantly improves detailed balance in surface hopping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sifain, Andrew E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Wang, Linjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Prezhdo, Oleg V. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0485 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-1062 (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Surface hopping is the most popular method for nonadiabatic molecular dynamics. Many have reported that it does not rigorously attain detailed balance at thermal equilibrium, but does so approximately. We show that convergence to the Boltzmann populations is significantly improved when the nuclear velocity is reversed after a classically forbidden hop. The proposed prescription significantly reduces the total number of classically forbidden hops encountered along a trajectory, suggesting that some randomization in nuclear velocity is needed when classically forbidden hops constitute a large fraction of attempted hops. Our results are verified computationally using two- and three-level quantum subsystems, coupled to a classical bath undergoing Langevin dynamics.

  12. Improving Parolees' Participation in Drug Treatment and Other Services through Strengths Case Management

    OpenAIRE

    Prendergast, Michael; Cartier, Jerome J.

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to increase participation in community aftercare treatment for substance-abusing parolees, an intervention based on a transitional case management (TCM) model that focuses mainly on offenders' strengths has been developed and is under testing. This model consists of completion, by the inmate, of a self-assessment of strengths that informs the development of the continuing care plan, a case conference call shortly before release, and strengths case management for three months post...

  13. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarik Ozmen; Bekir Yuktasir; Necmiye Un Yildirim; Birol Yalcin; Mark ET Willems

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs) were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES); control (CN)] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Fede...

  14. Improvement of the adhesion strength between copper plated layer and resin substrate using a chemically adsorbed monolayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya K.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With reducing the size and weight of electric devices, high-tensile, light and fine copper wire is demanded. So the production technique of a copper wire plated on a super fiber resin (Vectran film was researched for improving the adhesion strength between the copper and the resin. In this study, we used the Cu2+ or Pd2+ complex prepared with a chemically adsorbed monolayer (CAM to improve the adhesion strength between the copper plated layer and the Vectran film. As the result of scotch tape test, it was observed that the adhesion strength between the copper plated layer and Vectran film was improved by the Cu2+ or Pd2+ complex CAM.

  15. The challenges of ESRD care in developing economies: sub-Saharan African opportunities for significant improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamgboye, Ebun Ladipo

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This, along with other noncommunicable diseases like hypertension, diabetes, and heart diseases, poses a double burden on a region that is still struggling to cope with the scourge of communicable diseases like malaria, tuberculosis, HIV, and more recently Ebola. Causes of CKD in the region are predominantly glomerulonephritis and hypertension, although type 2 diabetes is also becoming a significant cause as is the retroviral disease. Patients are generally younger than in the developed world, and there is a significant male preponderance. Most patients are managed by hemodialysis, with peritoneal dialysis and kidney transplantation being available in only few countries in the region. Government funding and support for dialysis is often unavailable, and when available, often with restrictions. There is a dearth of trained manpower to treat the disease, and many countries have a limited number of units, which are often ill-equipped to deal adequately with the number of patients who require end-stage renal disease (ESRD) care in the region. Although there has been a significant improvement when compared with the situation, even as recently as 10 years ago, there is also the potential for further improvement, which would significantly improve the outcomes in patients with ESRD in the region. The information in this review was obtained from a combination of renal registry reports (published and unpublished), published articles, responses to a questionnaire sent to nephrologists prior to the World Congress of Nephrology (WCN) in Cape Town, and from nephrologists attending the WCN in Cape Town (March 13 - 17, 2015).

  16. Survival prediction algorithms miss significant opportunities for improvement if used for case selection in trauma quality improvement programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, Catherine; Cole, Elaine; West, Anita; Tai, Nigel; Brohi, Karim

    2016-09-01

    Quality improvement (QI) programs have shown to reduce preventable mortality in trauma care. Detailed review of all trauma deaths is a time and resource consuming process and calculated probability of survival (Ps) has been proposed as audit filter. Review is limited on deaths that were 'expected to survive'. However no Ps-based algorithm has been validated and no study has examined elements of preventability associated with deaths classified as 'expected'. The objective of this study was to examine whether trauma performance review can be streamlined using existing mortality prediction tools without missing important areas for improvement. We conducted a retrospective study of all trauma deaths reviewed by our trauma QI program. Deaths were classified into non-preventable, possibly preventable, probably preventable or preventable. Opportunities for improvement (OPIs) involve failure in the process of care and were classified into clinical and system deviations from standards of care. TRISS and PS were used for calculation of probability of survival. Peer-review charts were reviewed by a single investigator. Over 8 years, 626 patients were included. One third showed elements of preventability and 4% were preventable. Preventability occurred across the entire range of the calculated Ps band. Limiting review to unexpected deaths would have missed over 50% of all preventability issues and a third of preventable deaths. 37% of patients showed opportunities for improvement (OPIs). Neither TRISS nor PS allowed for reliable identification of OPIs and limiting peer-review to patients with unexpected deaths would have missed close to 60% of all issues in care. TRISS and PS fail to identify a significant proportion of avoidable deaths and miss important opportunities for process and system improvement. Based on this, all trauma deaths should be subjected to expert panel review in order to aim at a maximal output of performance improvement programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  17. Weighted Least Squares Techniques for Improved Received Signal Strength Based Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Casar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The practical deployment of wireless positioning systems requires minimizing the calibration procedures while improving the location estimation accuracy. Received Signal Strength localization techniques using propagation channel models are the simplest alternative, but they are usually designed under the assumption that the radio propagation model is to be perfectly characterized a priori. In practice, this assumption does not hold and the localization results are affected by the inaccuracies of the theoretical, roughly calibrated or just imperfect channel models used to compute location. In this paper, we propose the use of weighted multilateration techniques to gain robustness with respect to these inaccuracies, reducing the dependency of having an optimal channel model. In particular, we propose two weighted least squares techniques based on the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning algorithms that specifically consider the accuracies of the different measurements to obtain a better estimation of the position. These techniques are compared to the standard hyperbolic and circular positioning techniques through both numerical simulations and an exhaustive set of real experiments on different types of wireless networks (a wireless sensor network, a WiFi network and a Bluetooth network. The algorithms not only produce better localization results with a very limited overhead in terms of computational cost but also achieve a greater robustness to inaccuracies in channel modeling.

  18. Measurements of near-ultimate strength for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and irradiation-induced crosslinking improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bei; Locascio, Mark; Zapol, Peter; Li, Shuyou; Mielke, Steven L; Schatz, George C; Espinosa, Horacio D

    2008-10-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are being exploited in a growing number of applications from ballistic armour to nanoelectronics. However, measurements of these properties have not achieved the values predicted by theory due to a combination of artifacts introduced during sample preparation and inadequate measurements. Here we report multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a mean fracture strength >100 GPa, which exceeds earlier observations by a factor of approximately three. These results are in excellent agreement with quantum-mechanical estimates for nanotubes containing only an occasional vacancy defect, and are approximately 80% of the values expected for defect-free tubes. This performance is made possible by omitting chemical treatments from the sample preparation process, thus avoiding the formation of defects. High-resolution imaging was used to directly determine the number of fractured shells and the chirality of the outer shell. Electron irradiation at 200 keV for 10, 100 and 1,800 s led to improvements in the maximum sustainable loads by factors of 2.4, 7.9 and 11.6 compared with non-irradiated samples of similar diameter. This effect is attributed to crosslinking between the shells. Computer simulations also illustrate the effects of various irradiation-induced crosslinking defects on load sharing between the shells.

  19. Measurements of near-ultimate strength for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and irradiation-induced crosslinking improvements.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, B.; Locascio, M.; Zapol, P.; Li, S.; Mielke, S. L.; Schatz, G. C.; Espinosa, H. D.; Northwestern Univ.

    2008-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are being exploited in a growing number of applications from ballistic armour to nanoelectronics. However, measurements of these properties have not achieved the values predicted by theory due to a combination of artifacts introduced during sample preparation and inadequate measurements. Here we report multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a mean fracture strength >100 GPa, which exceeds earlier observations by a factor of approximately three. These results are in excellent agreement with quantum-mechanical estimates for nanotubes containing only an occasional vacancy defect, and are {approx}80% of the values expected for defect-free tubes. This performance is made possible by omitting chemical treatments from the sample preparation process, thus avoiding the formation of defects. High-resolution imaging was used to directly determine the number of fractured shells and the chirality of the outer shell. Electron irradiation at 200 keV for 10, 100 and 1,800 s led to improvements in the maximum sustainable loads by factors of 2.4, 7.9 and 11.6 compared with non-irradiated samples of similar diameter. This effect is attributed to crosslinking between the shells. Computer simulations also illustrate the effects of various irradiation-induced crosslinking defects on load sharing between the shells.

  20. Measurements of near-ultimate strength for multiwalled carbon nanotubes and irradiation-induced crosslinking improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, B.; Locascio, M.; Zapol, P.; Li, S.; Mielke, S.L.; Schatz, G.C.; Espinosa, H.D.

    2008-01-01

    The excellent mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes are being exploited in a growing number of applications from ballistic armour to nanoelectronics. However, measurements of these properties have not achieved the values predicted by theory due to a combination of artifacts introduced during sample preparation and inadequate measurements. Here we report multiwalled carbon nanotubes with a mean fracture strength >100 GPa, which exceeds earlier observations by a factor of approximately three. These results are in excellent agreement with quantum-mechanical estimates for nanotubes containing only an occasional vacancy defect, and are ∼80% of the values expected for defect-free tubes. This performance is made possible by omitting chemical treatments from the sample preparation process, thus avoiding the formation of defects. High-resolution imaging was used to directly determine the number of fractured shells and the chirality of the outer shell. Electron irradiation at 200 keV for 10, 100 and 1,800 s led to improvements in the maximum sustainable loads by factors of 2.4, 7.9 and 11.6 compared with non-irradiated samples of similar diameter. This effect is attributed to crosslinking between the shells. Computer simulations also illustrate the effects of various irradiation-induced crosslinking defects on load sharing between the shells.

  1. Protein Modifiers Generally Provide Limited Improvement in Wood Bond Strength of Soy Flour Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart; Linda Lorenz

    2013-01-01

    Soy flour adhesives using a polyamidoamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE) polymeric coreactant are used increasingly as wood adhesives for interior products. Although these adhesives give good performance, higher bond strength under wet conditions is desirable. Wet strength is important for accelerated tests involving the internal forces generated by the swelling of wood and...

  2. How do NHS organisations plan research capacity development? Strategies, strengths, and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Melanie; Cooke, Jo

    2018-03-22

    Research that is integral into a 'learning healthcare system' can promote cost effective services and knowledge creation. As such, research is defined as a 'core function' in UK health service organisations, and is often planned through research and development (R&D) strategies that aim to promote research activity and research capacity development (RCD). The discussion focuses around the content of ten R&D strategies for healthcare organisations in England and Scotland, with respect to RCD. These organisations were engaged with a research interest network called ACORN (Addressing Organisational Capacity to do Research Network) that included two Scottish Health Boards, four community and mental health trusts, two provincial district hospitals, and two teaching hospitals. We undertook a thematic documentary analysis of the R&D strategies which identified 11 'core activities' of RCD. The potential for building research capacity in these 'core activities' was established by reviewing them through the lens of a RCD framework. Core activities aimed to 'hard wire' RCD into health organisations. They demonstrated a complex interplay between developing a strong internal organisational infrastructure, and supporting individual career planning and skills development, in turn enabled by organisational processes. They also included activities to build stronger inter-organisational relationships and networks. Practitioner, manager and patient involvement was a cross cutting theme. The potential to demonstrate progress was included in plans through monitoring activity across all RCD principles. Strategies were primarily aimed at research production rather than research use. Developing 'actionable dissemination' was poorly addressed in the strategies, and represents an area for improvement. We describe strengths of RCD planning activities, and opportunities for improvement. We explore how national policy and research funders can influence health systems' engagement in research.

  3. Respiratory muscle training with enzyme replacement therapy improves muscle strength in late - onset Pompe disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevnikar, Mitja; Kodric, Metka; Cantarutti, Fabiana; Cifaldi, Rossella; Longo, Cinzia; Della Porta, Rossana; Bembi, Bruno; Confalonieri, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Pompe disease is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme acid α-glucosidase. This deficiency leads to glycogen accumulation in the lysosomes of muscle tissue causing progressive muscular weakness particularly of the respiratory system. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) has demonstrated efficacy in slowing down disease progression in infants. Despite the large number of studies describing the effects of physical training in juvenile and adult late onset Pompe disease (LOPD). There are very few reports that analyze the benefits of respiratory muscle rehabilitation or training. The effectiveness of respiratory muscle training was investigated using a specific appliance with adjustable resistance (Threshold). The primary endpoint was effect on respiratory muscular strength by measurements of MIP and MEP. Eight late-onset Pompe patients (aged 13 to 58 years; 4 female, 4 male) with respiratory muscle deficiency on functional respiratory tests were studied. All patients received ERT at the dosage of 20 mg/kg/every 2 weeks and underwent training with Threshold at specified pressures for 24 months. A significant increase in MIP was observed during the follow-up of 24 month: 39.6 cm H 2 O (+ 25.0%) at month 3; 39.5 cm H 2 O (+ 24.9%) at month 6; 39.1 cm H 2 O (+ 23.7%) at month 9; 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 18.2%) at month 12; and 37.3 cm H 2 O (+ 17.8%) at month 24. Median MEP values also showed a significant increase during the first 9 months: 29.8 cm H 2 O, (+ 14.3%) at month 3; 31.0 cm H 2 O (+ 18.6) at month 6; and 29.5 cm H 2 O (+ 12.9) at month 9. MEP was then shown to be decreased at months 12 and 24; median MEP was 27.2 cm H 2 O (+ 4.3%) at 12 months and 26.6 cm H 2 O (+ 1.9%) at 24 months. The FVC remain stable throughout the study. An increase in respiratory muscular strength was demonstrated with Threshold training when used in combination with ERT.

  4. PXD101 significantly improves nuclear reprogramming and the in vitro developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Kang, Jin-Dan; Li, Suo; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Guo, Qing; Gao, Qing-Shan; Yan, Chang-Guo; Yin, Xi-Jun, E-mail: yinxj33@msn.com

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • First explored that the effects of PXD101 on the development of SCNT embryos in vitro. • 0.5 μM PXD101 treated for 24 h improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos. • Level of AcH3K9 was significantly higher than control group at early stages. - Abstract: In this study, we investigated the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 (belinostat) on the preimplantation development of porcine somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos and their expression of the epigenetic markers histone H3 acetylated at lysine 9 (AcH3K9). We compared the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with various concentrations of PXD101 for 24 h. Treatment with 0.5 μM PXD101 significantly increased the proportion of SCNT embryos that reached the blastocyst stage, in comparison to the control group (23.3% vs. 11.5%, P < 0.05). We tested the in vitro developmental competence of SCNT embryos treated with 0.5 μM PXD101 for various amounts of times following activation. Treatment for 24 h significantly improved the development of porcine SCNT embryos, with a significantly higher proportion of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage in comparison to the control group (25.7% vs. 10.6%, P < 0.05). PXD101-treated SCNT embryos were transferred into two surrogate sows, one of whom became pregnant and four fetuses developed. PXD101 treatment significantly increased the fluorescence intensity of immunostaining for AcH3K9 in embryos at the pseudo-pronuclear and 2-cell stages. At these stages, the fluorescence intensities of immunostaining for AcH3K9 were significantly higher in PXD101-treated embryos than in control untreated embryos. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that PXD101 can significantly improve the in vitro and in vivo developmental competence of porcine SCNT embryos and can enhance their nuclear reprogramming.

  5. The Optimization of Calcareous Fly Ash-Added Cement Containing Grinding Aids and Strength-Improving Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kaplan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an experimental study which explores the physical, mechanical, and economic factors involved in the production of type CEM II A-B/W cement. In this context, 4 cement additives were used in two different dosages (200 and 800 g/t. Class C fly ash was used for composite cement production at ratios of 5%, 20%, and 35%. It was shown that Blaine fineness increases with the increasing fly ash content. The use of fly ash at ratios of 5% and 20% was not found to have any unfavorable effects on the compressive strength at the early days. It is found that the use of additive for improving the early-age strength is preferable when fly ash is used. It is possible to produce Class 52.5 N cement using additives to improve early strength and 20% fly ash. Loss in strength was observed in cement mortars produced using glycol-based grinding aid. Increasing the dosage of chemical additive also led to loss in strength due to nonhomogeneous distribution of hydration products. As a result, grinding fly ash with clinker and the use of cement chemicals contribute to the cement sector in terms of sustainability. It is possible to produce cements with improved mechanical properties especially with the use of 20% fly ash.

  6. Unified Health Gamification can significantly improve well-being in corporate environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrestani, Arash; Van Gorp, Pieter; Le Blanc, Pascale; Greidanus, Fabrizio; de Groot, Kristel; Leermakers, Jelle

    2017-07-01

    There is a multitude of mHealth applications that aim to solve societal health problems by stimulating specific types of physical activities via gamification. However, physical health activities cover just one of the three World Health Organization (WHO) dimensions of health. This paper introduces the novel notion of Unified Health Gamification (UHG), which covers besides physical health also social and cognitive health and well-being. Instead of rewarding activities in the three WHO dimensions using different mHealth competitions, UHG combines the scores for such activities on unified leaderboards and lets people interact in social circles beyond personal interests. This approach is promising in corporate environments since UHG can connect the employees with intrinsic motivation for physical health with those who have quite different interests. In order to evaluate this approach, we realized an app prototype and we evaluated it in two corporate pilot studies. In total, eighteen pilot users participated voluntarily for six weeks. Half of the participants were recruited from an occupational health setting and the other half from a treatment setting. Our results suggest that the UHG principles are worth more investigation: various positive health effects were found based on a validated survey. The mean mental health improved significantly at one pilot location and at the level of individual pilot participants, multiple other effects were found to be significant: among others, significant mental health improvements were found for 28% of the participants. Most participants intended to use the app beyond the pilot, especially if it would be further developed.

  7. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  8. Assessment of an improved multiaxial strength theory based on creep-rupture data for Inconel 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huddleston, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    A new multiaxial strength theory incorporating three independent stress parameters was developed and reported by the author in 1984. It was formally incorporated into ASME Code Case N47-29 in 1990. The new theory provided significantly more accurate stress-rupture life predictions than obtained using the classical theories of von Mises, Tresca, and Rankins (maximum principal stress), for Types 304 and 316 stainless steel tested at 593 and 600 degrees C respectively under different biaxial stress states. Additional results for Inconel 600 specimens tested at 816 degrees C under tension-tension and tension-compression stress states are presented in this paper and show a factor of approximately 2.4 reduction in the scatter of predicted versus observed lives as compared to the classical theories of von Mises and Tresca and a factor of about 5 as compared to the Rankins theory. A key feature of the theory, which incorporates the maximum deviatoric stress, the first invariant of the stress tensor, and the second invariant of the deviatoric stress tensor, is its ability to distinguish between life under tensile versus compressive stress states

  9. Formulating the strength factor α for improved predictability of radiation hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, L., E-mail: tanl@ornl.gov; Busby, J.T.

    2015-10-15

    Analytical equations were developed to calculate the strength factors of precipitates, Frank loops, and cavities in austenitic alloys, which strongly depend on barrier type, size, geometry and density, as well as temperature. Calculated strength factors were successfully used to estimate radiation hardening using the broadly employed dispersed barrier-hardening model, leading to good agreement with experimentally measured hardening in neutron-irradiated type 304 and 316 stainless steel variants. The formulated strength factor provides a route for more reliable hardening predictions and can be easily incorporated into component simulations and design.

  10. Dynamic locking screw improves fixation strength in osteoporotic bone: an in vitro study on an artificial bone model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlemann, Tim; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Agarwal, Yash; Wahl, Dieter; Sprecher, Christoph; Schwieger, Karsten; Lenz, Mark

    2015-04-01

    The novel dynamic locking screw (DLS) was developed to improve bone healing with locked-plate osteosynthesis by equalising construct stiffness at both cortices. Due to a theoretical damping effect, this modulated stiffness could be beneficial for fracture fixation in osteoporotic bone. Therefore, the mechanical behaviour of the DLS at the screw-bone interface was investigated in an artificial osteoporotic bone model and compared with conventional locking screws (LHS). Osteoporotic surrogate bones were plated with either a DLS or a LHS construct consisting of two screws and cyclically axially loaded (8,500 cycles, amplitude 420 N, increase 2 mN/cycle). Construct stiffness, relative movement, axial screw migration, proximal (P) and distal (D) screw pullout force and loosening at the bone interface were determined and statistically evaluated. DLS constructs exhibited a higher screw pullout force of P 85 N [standard deviation (SD) 21] and D 93 N (SD 12) compared with LHS (P 62 N, SD 28, p = 0.1; D 57 N, SD 25, p LHS (p = 0.01). DLS constructs showed significantly lower axial construct stiffness (403 N/mm, SD 21, p LHS (529 N/mm, SD 27; 0.8 mm, SD 0.04). Based on the model data, the DLS principle might also improve in vivo plate fixation in osteoporotic bone, providing enhanced residual holding strength and reducing screw cutout. The influence of pin-sleeve abutment still needs to be investigated.

  11. Improvement in upper leg muscle strength underlies beneficial effects of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoop, J; Steultjens, M P M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; van der Esch, M; Thorstensson, C A; Twisk, J W R; Bierma-Zeinstra, S M A; van der Leeden, M; Dekker, J

    2015-06-01

    Although exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate if improvements in neuromuscular factors (i.e. upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception) underlie the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Secondary analyses from a randomised controlled trial, with measurements at baseline, 6 weeks, 12 weeks and 38 weeks. Rehabilitation centre. One hundred and fifty-nine patients diagnosed with knee OA. Exercise therapy. Changes in pain [numeric rating scale (NRS)] and activity limitations [Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical function subscale and get-up-and-go test] during the study period. Independent variables were changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee joint proprioception (i.e. motion sense) during the study period. Longitudinal regression analyses (generalised estimating equation) were performed to analyse associations between changes in upper leg muscle strength and knee proprioception with changes in pain and activity limitations. Improved muscle strength was significantly associated with reductions in NRS pain {B coefficient -2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI) -3.7 to -1.4], meaning that every change of 1 unit of strength was linked to a change of -2.5 units of pain}, WOMAC physical function (-8.8, 95% CI -13.4 to -4.2) and get-up-and-go test (-1.7, 95% CI -2.4 to -1.0). Improved proprioception was not significantly associated with better outcomes of exercise therapy (P>0.05). Upper leg muscle strengthening is one of the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of exercise therapy in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface modification of polyethylene by radiation-induced grafting for adhesive bonding. IV. Improvement in wet peel strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, S.; Yamamoto, F.

    1980-01-01

    Adhesive joints of hydrolyzed methyl acrylate grafts, bonded with epoxy adhesives, yield extremely high peel strength (adherend failure) in dry conditions. However, when the joints are exposed to humid environments, the peel strength rapidly decreases with exposure time and then reaches a constant value (wet peel strength). Since the locus of failure changes from the adherend to the homopolymer layer with decreasing peel strength, the decrease is due to a decrease in mechanical strength of the homopolymer layer itself, which results from its swelling by water absorption. Many attempts to reduce the swelling of the homopolymer layer or to strengthen the swollen homopolymer layer were unsuccessful except (1) priming with epoxy solutions consisting of a base epoxy resin and organic solvents which can dissolve not only epoxy resins but also hydrolyzed poly(methyl acrylate) and (2) partial etching of the homopolymer layer by photo-oxidative degradation. All the results on the improvement in wet peel strength can be explained in terms of the penetration of epoxy resins into the homopolymer layer and subsequent curing of the penetrated epoxy resin. 15 figures, 1 table

  13. Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Quattrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.

  14. E2F5 status significantly improves malignancy diagnosis of epithelial ovarian cancer

    KAUST Repository

    Kothandaraman, Narasimhan

    2010-02-24

    Background: Ovarian epithelial cancer (OEC) usually presents in the later stages of the disease. Factors, especially those associated with cell-cycle genes, affecting the genesis and tumour progression for ovarian cancer are largely unknown. We hypothesized that over-expressed transcription factors (TFs), as well as those that are driving the expression of the OEC over-expressed genes, could be the key for OEC genesis and potentially useful tissue and serum markers for malignancy associated with OEC.Methods: Using a combination of computational (selection of candidate TF markers and malignancy prediction) and experimental approaches (tissue microarray and western blotting on patient samples) we identified and evaluated E2F5 transcription factor involved in cell proliferation, as a promising candidate regulatory target in early stage disease. Our hypothesis was supported by our tissue array experiments that showed E2F5 expression only in OEC samples but not in normal and benign tissues, and by significantly positively biased expression in serum samples done using western blotting studies.Results: Analysis of clinical cases shows that of the E2F5 status is characteristic for a different population group than one covered by CA125, a conventional OEC biomarker. E2F5 used in different combinations with CA125 for distinguishing malignant cyst from benign cyst shows that the presence of CA125 or E2F5 increases sensitivity of OEC detection to 97.9% (an increase from 87.5% if only CA125 is used) and, more importantly, the presence of both CA125 and E2F5 increases specificity of OEC to 72.5% (an increase from 55% if only CA125 is used). This significantly improved accuracy suggests possibility of an improved diagnostics of OEC. Furthermore, detection of malignancy status in 86 cases (38 benign, 48 early and late OEC) shows that the use of E2F5 status in combination with other clinical characteristics allows for an improved detection of malignant cases with sensitivity

  15. Significance of MPEG-7 textural features for improved mass detection in mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltonsy, Nevine H; Tourassi, Georgia D; Fadeev, Aleksey; Elmaghraby, Adel S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the significance of MPEG-7 textural features for improving the detection of masses in screening mammograms. The detection scheme was originally based on morphological directional neighborhood features extracted from mammographic regions of interest (ROIs). Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) was performed to evaluate the performance of each set of features independently and merged into a back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) using the leave-one-out sampling scheme (LOOSS). The study was based on a database of 668 mammographic ROIs (340 depicting cancer regions and 328 depicting normal parenchyma). Overall, the ROC area index of the BPANN using the directional morphological features was Az=0.85+/-0.01. The MPEG-7 edge histogram descriptor-based BPNN showed an ROC area index of Az=0.71+/-0.01 while homogeneous textural descriptors using 30 and 120 channels helped the BPNN achieve similar ROC area indexes of Az=0.882+/-0.02 and Az=0.877+/-0.01 respectively. After merging the MPEG-7 homogeneous textural features with the directional neighborhood features the performance of the BPANN increased providing an ROC area index of Az=0.91+/-0.01. MPEG-7 homogeneous textural descriptor significantly improved the morphology-based detection scheme.

  16. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marián, Vanderka; Katarína, Longová; Dávid, Olasz; Matúš, Krčmár; Simon, Walker

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax) and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100), countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg) were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36) and control (CON, n = 32) groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions). Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, psquats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term. Key points Jump squat exercise is one of many exercises to develop explosive strength that has been the focus of several researches, while the load used during the training seem to be an important factor that affects training outcomes. Experimental group improved performance in all assessed parameters, such as Fmax, RFD100, CMJ, SJ and 50 m sprint time. However, improvements in CMJ and SJ were recorded after the entire power training period and thereafter plateau occurred. The portable FitroDyne could serve as a valuable device to individualize the load that maximizes mean power output and visual feedback can be provided to athletes during the training. PMID:27803628

  17. Evaluation and field verification of strength and structural improvement of chemically stabilized subgrade soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Often subgrade soils exhibit properties, particularly strength and/or volume change properties that limit their performance as a support element for pavements. : Typical problems include shrink-swell, settlement, collapse, erosion or simply insuffici...

  18. Application of tung oil to improve adhesion strength and water resistance of cottonseed meal and protein adhesives on maple veneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottonseed meal-based products show promise in serving as environment-friendly wood adhesives. However, their practical utilization is currently limited due to low durability and water resistant properties. In this research, we tested the improvement of adhesion strength and water resistance of cott...

  19. A Progressive Resistance Weight Training Program Designed to Improve the Armor Crewman’s Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-05

    Training with a weightlifting belt which supports the abdominal region and lower back can help reduce the chance for injury . A belt 35 should be used...life-saving task more efficiently. If the wounded or unconscious crewman has a traumatic injury , extreme care must be taken not to cause further... injury . This justifies the need for added strength. Three strength related maintenance tasks routinely performed are: (1) checking the link assembly, (2

  20. Simultaneous improvement of strength, ductility and corrosion resistance of Al2024 alloy processed by cryoforging followed by ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar Singh, Amit; Ghosh, Sumit; Mula, Suhrit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to simultaneous improvement of strength and ductility as well as corrosion resistance of ultrafine grained 2024 Al-alloy processed by multiaxial cryoforging (MAF) and cryorolling followed by ageing. The evolution of ultrafine grained microstructure during MAF followed by ageing is investigated using optical and transmission electron microscopy. Both multiaxially forged (MAFed) and cryorolled (CRed) samples showed an improvement in yield strength (YS) with a corresponding decrease in the ductility. Aging treatment not only improved the YS, but also its ductility. Improvement in the ductility after ageing is confirmed by the fractography analysis. Corrosion resistance of the MAFed+aged samples found to be higher compared to that of the MAFed and coarse grained counterpart. The corrosion behavior has been analyzed in the light of open circuit potential (OCP), solutionizing, grain size and precipitation strengthening mechanisms. SEM images of the corroded samples also corroborated the corrosion test results.

  1. Carfilzomib significantly improves the progression-free survival of high-risk patients in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avet-Loiseau, Hervé; Fonseca, Rafael; Siegel, David; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Špička, Ivan; Masszi, Tamás; Hájek, Roman; Rosiñol, Laura; Goranova-Marinova, Vesselina; Mihaylov, Georgi; Maisnar, Vladimír; Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Wang, Michael; Niesvizky, Ruben; Oriol, Albert; Jakubowiak, Andrzej; Minarik, Jiri; Palumbo, Antonio; Bensinger, William; Kukreti, Vishal; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Stewart, A Keith; Obreja, Mihaela; Moreau, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    The presence of certain high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities, such as translocations (4;14) and (14;16) and deletion (17p), are known to have a negative impact on survival in multiple myeloma (MM). The phase 3 study ASPIRE (N = 792) demonstrated that progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly improved with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd), compared with lenalidomide and dexamethasone (Rd) in relapsed MM. This preplanned subgroup analysis of ASPIRE was conducted to evaluate KRd vs Rd by baseline cytogenetics according to fluorescence in situ hybridization. Of 417 patients with known cytogenetic risk status, 100 patients (24%) were categorized with high-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 48; Rd, n = 52) and 317 (76%) were categorized with standard-risk cytogenetics (KRd, n = 147; Rd, n = 170). For patients with high-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd resulted in a median PFS of 23.1 months, a 9-month improvement relative to treatment with Rd. For patients with standard-risk cytogenetics, treatment with KRd led to a 10-month improvement in median PFS vs Rd. The overall response rates for KRd vs Rd were 79.2% vs 59.6% (high-risk cytogenetics) and 91.2% vs 73.5% (standard-risk cytogenetics); approximately fivefold as many patients with high- or standard-risk cytogenetics achieved a complete response or better with KRd vs Rd (29.2% vs 5.8% and 38.1% vs 6.5%, respectively). KRd improved but did not abrogate the poor prognosis associated with high-risk cytogenetics. This regimen had a favorable benefit-risk profile in patients with relapsed MM, irrespective of cytogenetic risk status, and should be considered a standard of care in these patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01080391. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Strength Training Using Elastic Bands: Improvement of Muscle Power and Throwing Performance in Young Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Naryana Cristina; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Vancini, Rodrigo Luiz; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Dos Santos Andrade, Marilia

    2017-05-01

    Imbalance in shoulder-rotator muscles has been considered a risk factor for injuries in handball. Strength training programs (STPs) may play an important preventive role. To verify the effects of an STP using elastic bands on shoulder muscles and ball-throwing speed. Randomized and prospective controlled trial. Exercise physiology laboratory. Thirty-nine female handball players were randomly assigned to an experimental (EG, n = 21, 15.3 ± 1.1 y) or a control (CG, n = 18, 15.0 ± 0.8 y) group. The EG performed the STP with elastic-band progressive exercises for 6 wk before regular handball training, and the CG underwent only their regular training. Before and after the STP, both groups underwent a ball-throwing-speed test and isokinetic test to assess shoulder internal- (IR) and external-rotator muscle performance. Average power values for IR muscles presented a significant group-vs-time interaction effect (F = 3.9, P = .05); EG presented significantly higher values after the STP (P = .03). Ball speed presented higher values in EG after the STP in standing (P = .04) and jumping (P = .03) throws. IR peak-torque values and balance in shoulder-rotator muscles presented no group-vs-time interaction effect. STP using elastic bands performed for 6 wk was effective to improve muscle power and ball speed for young female handball players.

  3. Radiotherapy is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Susan H; Haydu, Lauren E; Goh, Robin Yeong Hong; Fogarty, Gerald B

    2012-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare tumour of skin. This study is a retrospective audit of patients with MCC from St Vincent’s and Mater Hospital, Sydney, Australia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of radiotherapy (RT) on the local and regional control of MCC lesions and survival of patients with MCC. The data bases in anatomical pathology, RT and surgery. We searched for patients having a diagnosis of MCC between 1996 and 2007. Patient, tumour and treatment characteristics were collected and analysed. Univariate survival analysis of categorical variables was conducted with the Kaplan-Meier method together with the Log-Rank test for statistical significance. Continuous variables were assessed using the Cox regression method. Multivariate analysis was performed for significant univariate results. Sixty seven patients were found. Sixty two who were stage I-III and were treated with radical intent were analysed. 68% were male. The median age was 74 years. Forty-two cases (68%) were stage I or II, and 20 cases (32%) were stage III. For the subset of 42 stage I and II patients, those that had RT to their primary site had a 2-year local recurrence free survival of 89% compared with 36% for patients not receiving RT (p<0.001). The cumulative 2-year regional recurrence free survival for patients having adjuvant regional RT was 84% compared with 43% for patients not receiving this treatment (p<0.001). Immune status at initial surgery was a significant predictor for OS and MCCSS. In a multivariate analysis combining macroscopic size (mm) and immune status at initial surgery, only immune status remained a significant predictor of overall survival (HR=2.096, 95% CI: 1.002-4.385, p=0.049). RT is associated with significant improvement in local and regional control in Merkel cell carcinoma. Immunosuppression is an important factor in overall survival

  4. Comparison of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise to improve isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance and balance of female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Youn; Park, Si-Eun

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of whole-body vibration exercise and plyometric exercise on female volleyball players. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly allocated to two exercise groups (whole-body vibration exercise group and plyometric exercise group). The exercise was conducted three times each week for 8 weeks. Isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance were measured before starting the exercise and after finishing the 8 weeks of exercise. [Results] Measurements of isokinetic muscular strength revealed that the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group had no significant increase in lumbar flexion, extension, and knee flexion. Measurements of vertical jumping revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group had no significant increase after the exercise. However, the plyometric exercise group showed significant increase. Measurements of balance revealed that, the whole-body vibration exercise group showed significant increase. However, the plyometric exercise group showed no significant increase. [Conclusion] Although both whole-body vibration and plyometric exercises are effective intervention methods, the two methods have different effects on the improvement of isokinetic muscular strength, jumping performance, and balance of female volleyball players.

  5. Integration of biomimicry and nanotechnology for significantly improved detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myung, Ja Hye; Park, Sin-Jung; Wang, Andrew Z; Hong, Seungpyo

    2017-12-13

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have received a great deal of scientific and clinical attention as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis of many types of cancer. Given their potential significance in clinics, a variety of detection methods, utilizing the recent advances in nanotechnology and microfluidics, have been introduced in an effort of achieving clinically significant detection of CTCs. However, effective detection and isolation of CTCs still remain a tremendous challenge due to their extreme rarity and phenotypic heterogeneity. Among many approaches that are currently under development, this review paper focuses on a unique, promising approach that takes advantages of naturally occurring processes achievable through application of nanotechnology to realize significant improvement in sensitivity and specificity of CTC capture. We provide an overview of successful outcome of this biomimetic CTC capture system in detection of tumor cells from in vitro, in vivo, and clinical pilot studies. We also emphasize the clinical impact of CTCs as biomarkers in cancer diagnosis and predictive prognosis, which provides a cost-effective, minimally invasive method that potentially replaces or supplements existing methods such as imaging technologies and solid tissue biopsy. In addition, their potential prognostic values as treatment guidelines and that ultimately help to realize personalized therapy are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Improved statistical signal detection in pharmacovigilance by combining multiple strength-of-evidence aspects in vigiRank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caster, Ola; Juhlin, Kristina; Watson, Sarah; Norén, G Niklas

    2014-08-01

    Detection of unknown risks with marketed medicines is key to securing the optimal care of individual patients and to reducing the societal burden from adverse drug reactions. Large collections of individual case reports remain the primary source of information and require effective analytics to guide clinical assessors towards likely drug safety signals. Disproportionality analysis is based solely on aggregate numbers of reports and naively disregards report quality and content. However, these latter features are the very fundament of the ensuing clinical assessment. Our objective was to develop and evaluate a data-driven screening algorithm for emerging drug safety signals that accounts for report quality and content. vigiRank is a predictive model for emerging safety signals, here implemented with shrinkage logistic regression to identify predictive variables and estimate their respective contributions. The variables considered for inclusion capture different aspects of strength of evidence, including quality and clinical content of individual reports, as well as trends in time and geographic spread. A reference set of 264 positive controls (historical safety signals from 2003 to 2007) and 5,280 negative controls (pairs of drugs and adverse events not listed in the Summary of Product Characteristics of that drug in 2012) was used for model fitting and evaluation; the latter used fivefold cross-validation to protect against over-fitting. All analyses were performed on a reconstructed version of VigiBase(®) as of 31 December 2004, at around which time most safety signals in our reference set were emerging. The following aspects of strength of evidence were selected for inclusion into vigiRank: the numbers of informative and recent reports, respectively; disproportional reporting; the number of reports with free-text descriptions of the case; and the geographic spread of reporting. vigiRank offered a statistically significant improvement in area under the receiver

  7. Improved creep strength of nickel-base superalloys by optimized γ/γ′ partitioning behavior of solid solution strengthening elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pröbstle, M.; Neumeier, S.; Feldner, P.; Rettig, R.; Helmer, H.E.; Singer, R.F.; Göken, M.

    2016-01-01

    Solid solution strengthening of the γ matrix is one key factor for improving the creep strength of single crystal nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures. Therefore a strong partitioning of solid solution hardening elements to the matrix is beneficial for high temperature creep strength. Different Rhenium-free alloys which are derived from CMSX-4 are investigated. The alloys have been characterized regarding microstructure, phase compositions as well as creep strength. It is found that increasing the Titanium (Ti) as well as the Tungsten (W) content causes a stronger partitioning of the solid solution strengtheners, in particular W, to the γ phase. As a result the creep resistance is significantly improved. Based on these ideas, a Rhenium-free alloy with an optimized chemistry regarding the partitioning behavior of W is developed and validated in the present study. It shows comparable creep strength to the Rhenium containing second generation alloy CMSX-4 in the high temperature / low stress creep regime and is less prone to the formation of deleterious topologically close packed (TCP) phases. This more effective usage of solid solution strengtheners can enhance the creep properties of nickel-base superalloys while reducing the content of strategic elements like Rhenium.

  8. Improvement of gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin by addition of coenhancers using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koli, Jayappa M; Basu, Subrata; Nayak, Binay B; Kannuchamy, Nagalakshmi; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2011-08-01

    Fish gelatin is a potential alternative to mammalian gelatin. However, poor gel strength and low melting point limit its applications. The study was aimed at improving these properties by adding coenhancers in the range obtained from response surface methodology (RSM) by using Box-Behnken design. Three different coenhancers, MgSO₄, sucrose, and transglutaminase were used as the independent variables for improving the gel strength and melting point of gelatin extracted from Tiger-toothed croaker (Otolithes ruber). Addition of coenhancers at different combinations resulted gel strength and melting point in the range of 150.5 to 240.5 g and 19.5 to 22.5 °C, respectively. The optimal concentrations of coenhancers for predicted maximum gel strength (242.8 g) obtained by RSM were 0.23 M MgSO₄, 12.60% sucrose (w/v), and 5.92 mg/g transglutaminase and for predicted maximum melting point (22.57 °C), the values were 0.24 M MgSO₄, 10.44% sucrose (w/v), and 5.72 mg/g transglutaminase. By addition of coenhancers at these optimal concentrations in verification experiments, the gel strength and melting point were improved from 170 to 240.89 g and 20.3 to 22.7 °C, respectively. These experimental values agreed well with the predicted values demonstrating the fitness of the models. Results from the present study clearly revealed that the addition of coenhancers at a particular combination can improve the gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin to enhance its range of applications. There is a growing interest in the use of fish gelatin as an alternative to mammalian gelatin. However, poor gel strength and low melting point of fish gelatin have limited its commercial applications. The gel strength and melting point of fish gelatin can be increased by incorporation of coenhancers such as magnesium sulphate, sucrose, and transglutaminase. Results of this work help to produce the fish gelatin suitable for wide range of applications in the food industry. © 2011 Institute

  9. Significant Improvement of Organic Thin-Film Transistor Mobility Utilizing an Organic Heterojunction Buffer Layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Qian Xian-Rui; Huang Li-Zhen; Wang Hai-Bo; Yan Dong-Hang

    2011-01-01

    High-mobility vanadyl phthalocyanine (VOPc)/5,5‴-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-2,2':5',2″:5″,2‴-quaterthiophene (F2-P4T) thin-film transistors are demonstrated by employing a copper hexadecafluorophthalocyanine (F 16 CuPc)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) heterojunction unit, which are fabricated at different substrate temperatures, as a buffer layer. The highest mobility of 4.08cm 2 /Vs is achieved using a F 16 CuPc/CuPc organic heterojunction buffer layer fabricated at high substrate temperature. Compared with the random small grain-like morphology of the room-temperature buffer layer, the high-temperature organic heterojunction presents a large-sized fiber-like film morphology, resulting in an enhanced conductivity. Thus the contact resistance of the transistor is significantly reduced and an obvious improvement in device mobility is obtained. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  10. Significant improvement in the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes on molecularly modified Gallium Nitride surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manjari; Naik, Tejas R.; Pathak, C. S.; Nagarajan, S.; Rao, V. Ramgopal; Singh, R.

    2018-04-01

    III-Nitride semiconductors face the issue of localized surface states, which causes fermi level pinning and large leakage current at the metal semiconductor interface, thereby degrading the device performance. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) of organic molecules to improve the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on n-type Gallium Nitride (n-GaN) epitaxial films. The electrical characteristics of diodes were improved by adsorption of SAM of hydroxyl-phenyl metallated porphyrin organic molecules (Zn-TPPOH) onto the surface of n-GaN. SAM-semiconductor bonding via native oxide on the n-GaN surface was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Surface morphology and surface electronic properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Current-voltage characteristics of different metal (Cu, Ni) SBDs on bare n-GaN were compared with those of Cu/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN and Ni/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN SBDs. It was found that due to the molecular monolayer, the surface potential of n-GaN was decreased by ˜350 mV. This caused an increase in the Schottky barrier height of Cu and Ni SBDs from 1.13 eV to 1.38 eV and 1.07 eV to 1.22 eV, respectively. In addition to this, the reverse bias leakage current was reduced by 3-4 orders of magnitude for both Cu and Ni SBDs. Such a significant improvement in the electrical performance of the diodes can be very useful for better device functioning.

  11. pEPito: a significantly improved non-viral episomal expression vector for mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogris Manfred

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The episomal replication of the prototype vector pEPI-1 depends on a transcription unit starting from the constitutively expressed Cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter (CMV-IEP and directed into a 2000 bp long matrix attachment region sequence (MARS derived from the human β-interferon gene. The original pEPI-1 vector contains two mammalian transcription units and a total of 305 CpG islands, which are located predominantly within the vector elements necessary for bacterial propagation and known to be counterproductive for persistent long-term transgene expression. Results Here, we report the development of a novel vector pEPito, which is derived from the pEPI-1 plasmid replicon but has considerably improved efficacy both in vitro and in vivo. The pEPito vector is significantly reduced in size, contains only one transcription unit and 60% less CpG motives in comparison to pEPI-1. It exhibits major advantages compared to the original pEPI-1 plasmid, including higher transgene expression levels and increased colony-forming efficiencies in vitro, as well as more persistent transgene expression profiles in vivo. The performance of pEPito-based vectors was further improved by replacing the CMV-IEP with the human CMV enhancer/human elongation factor 1 alpha promoter (hCMV/EF1P element that is known to be less affected by epigenetic silencing events. Conclusions The novel vector pEPito can be considered suitable as an improved vector for biotechnological applications in vitro and for non-viral gene delivery in vivo.

  12. Electronic monitoring in combination with direct observation as a means to significantly improve hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M

    2017-05-01

    Monitoring hand hygiene compliance among health care personnel (HCP) is an essential element of hand hygiene promotion programs. Observation by trained auditors is considered the gold standard method for establishing hand hygiene compliance rates. Advantages of observational surveys include the unique ability to establish compliance with all of the World Health Organization "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" initiative Moments and to provide just-in-time coaching. Disadvantages include the resources required for observational surveys, insufficient sample sizes, and nonstandardized methods of conducting observations. Electronic and camera-based systems can monitor hand hygiene performance on all work shifts without a Hawthorne effect and provide significantly more data regarding hand hygiene performance. Disadvantages include the cost of installation, variable accuracy in estimating compliance rates, issues related to acceptance by HCP, insufficient data regarding their cost-effectiveness and influence on health care-related infection rates, and the ability of most systems to monitor only surrogates for Moments 1, 4, and 5. Increasing evidence suggests that monitoring only Moments 1, 4, and 5 provides reasonable estimates of compliance with all 5 Moments. With continued improvement of electronic monitoring systems, combining electronic monitoring with observational methods may provide the best information as part of a multimodal strategy to improve and sustain hand hygiene compliance rates among HCP. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  14. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koohbor, M.; Soltanian, S.; Najafi, M.; Servati, P.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. ► Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. ► Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. ► The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. ► Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co 1−x Zn x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of ∼35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 °C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of the NW arrays. The changes in magnetic property of NWs are rooted in a competition between shape anisotropy and

  15. Fabrication of CoZn alloy nanowire arrays: Significant improvement in magnetic properties by annealing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohbor, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Soltanian, S., E-mail: s.soltanian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Najafi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Hamadan University of Technology, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Servati, P. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada)

    2012-01-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration changes the structure of NWs from hcp to amorphous. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increasing the Zn concentration significantly reduces the Hc value of NWs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of CoZn NWs can be significantly enhanced by appropriate annealing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The pH of electrolyte has no significant effect on the properties of the NW arrays. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deposition frequency has considerable effects on the magnetic properties of NWs. - Abstract: Highly ordered arrays of Co{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x} (0 {<=} x {<=} 0.74) nanowires (NWs) with diameters of {approx}35 nm and high length-to-diameter ratios (up to 150) were fabricated by co-electrodeposition of Co and Zn into pores of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. The Co and Zn contents of the NWs were adjusted by varying the ratio of Zn and Co ion concentrations in the electrolyte. The effect of the Zn content, electrodeposition conditions (frequency and pH) and annealing on the structural and magnetic properties (e.g., coercivity (Hc) and squareness (Sq)) of NW arrays were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and alternating gradient force magnetometer (AGFM). XRD patterns reveal that an increase in the concentration of Zn ions of the electrolyte forces the hcp crystal structure of Co NWs to change into an amorphous phase, resulting in a significant reduction in Hc. It was found that the magnetic properties of NWs can be significantly improved by appropriate annealing process. The highest values for Hc (2050 Oe) and Sq (0.98) were obtained for NWs electrodeposited using 0.95/0.05 Co:Zn concentrations at 200 Hz and annealed at 575 Degree-Sign C. While the pH of electrolyte is found to have no significant effect on the structural and magnetic properties of the NW arrays, the electrodeposition frequency has considerable effects on

  16. Tongue-to-palate resistance training improves tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in subacute stroke survivors with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H D; Choi, J B; Yoo, S J; Chang, M Y; Lee, S W; Park, J S

    2017-01-01

    Tongue function can affect both the oral and pharyngeal stages of the swallowing process, and proper tongue strength is vital for safe oropharyngeal swallowing. This trial investigated the effect of tongue-to-palate resistance training (TPRT) on tongue strength and oropharyngeal swallowing function in stroke with dysphagia patients. This trial was performed using a 4-week, two-group, pre-post-design. Participants were allocated to the experimental group (n = 18) or the control group (n = 17). The experimental group performed TPRT for 4 weeks (5 days per week) and traditional dysphagia therapy, whereas the control group performed traditional dysphagia therapy on the same schedule. Tongue strength was measured using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Swallowing function was measured using the videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale (VDS) and penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) based on a videofluoroscopic swallowing study. Experimental group showed more improved in the tongue strength (both anterior and posterior regions, P = 0·009, 0·015). In addition, the experimental group showed more improved scores on the oral and pharyngeal phase of VDS (P = 0·029, 0·007), but not on the PAS (P = 0·471), compared with the control group. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of TPRT in increasing tongue muscle strength and improving swallowing function in patients with post-stroke dysphagia. Therefore, we recommend TPRT as an easy and simple rehabilitation strategy for improving swallowing in patients with dysphagia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Improvement of formability of high strength steel sheets in shrink flanging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamedon, Z; Abe, Y; Mori, K

    2016-01-01

    In the shrinkage flanging, the wrinkling tends to occur due to compressive stress. The wrinkling will cause a difficulty in assembling parts, and severe wrinkling may leads to rupture of parts. The shrinkage flange of the ultra-high strength steel sheets not only defects the product by the occurrence of the wrinkling but also causes seizure and wear of the dies and shortens the life of dies. In the present study, a shape of a punch having gradual contact was optimized in order to prevent the wrinkling in shrinkage flanging of ultra-high strength steel sheets. The sheet was gradually bent from the corner of the sheet to reduce the compressive stress. The wrinkling in the shrink flanging of the ultra-high strength steel sheets was prevented by the punch having gradual contact. It was found that the punch having gradual contact is effective in preventing the occurrence of wrinkling in the shrinkage flanging. (paper)

  18. IMPROVEMENT OF FATIGUE STRENGTH OF TIN BABBITT BY REINFORCING WITH NANO ILMENITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. BABU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tin Babbitt is an idle journal bearing material, its fatigue strength limits and its usage. To enhance its fatigue strength, in this paper a Tin Babbitt metal matrix is reinforced with nano Ilmenite. The metal matrix nanocomposite was fabricated by using ultrasonic assisted stir casting technique. ASTM standards in statistical planning for fatigue testing were employed in planning the fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were conducted at three stress levels, i.e., 0.9 UTS, 0.7 UTS and 0.5 UTS. Tests were conducted on a rotating-beam type fatigue testing machine. It was observed that the nano Ilmenite reinforcement enhanced the fatigue strength of Tin Babbitt.

  19. Significant improvement of intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after traditional Chinese medicine feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B; Gatesoupe, F-J; Li, T T; Wang, X H; Zhang, Q Q; Feng, D Y; Feng, Y Q; Chen, H; Li, A H

    2018-03-01

    Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) feed additives have been applied in aquaculture to improve fish health, but the interaction with fish gut microbiota is still poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of adding TCM in feed on the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Bacterial communities of 16 fish intestinal contents and one water sample were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that the composition and structure of the bacterial community were significantly altered by the TCM feeding. Some phyla increased markedly (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, etc.), while Fusobacteria were significantly reduced. Concurrently, the richness and diversity of the taxonomic units increased, and the microbiota composition of TCM-treated fish was more homogeneous among individuals. At the genus level, the addition of TCM tended to reduce the incidence of potential pathogens (Aeromonas, Acinetobacter and Shewanella), while stimulating the emergence of some potential probiotics (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas). These data suggested that the feed additive could regulate the fish intestinal microbiota by reinforcing the microbial balance. This study may provide useful information for further application of TCM for diseases prevention and stress management in aquaculture. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Significant improvement in one-dimensional cursor control using Laplacian electroencephalography over electroencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudria, Yacine; Feltane, Amal; Besio, Walter

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on electroencephalography (EEG) have been shown to accurately detect mental activities, but the acquisition of high levels of control require extensive user training. Furthermore, EEG has low signal-to-noise ratio and low spatial resolution. The objective of the present study was to compare the accuracy between two types of BCIs during the first recording session. EEG and tripolar concentric ring electrode (TCRE) EEG (tEEG) brain signals were recorded and used to control one-dimensional cursor movements. Approach. Eight human subjects were asked to imagine either ‘left’ or ‘right’ hand movement during one recording session to control the computer cursor using TCRE and disc electrodes. Main results. The obtained results show a significant improvement in accuracies using TCREs (44%-100%) compared to disc electrodes (30%-86%). Significance. This study developed the first tEEG-based BCI system for real-time one-dimensional cursor movements and showed high accuracies with little training.

  1. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui; Alotaibi, Hamad S.; Sun, Haiding; Lin, Ronghui; Guo, Wenzhe; Torres-Castanedo, Carlos G.; Liu, Kaikai; Galan, Sergio V.; Li, Xiaohang

    2018-01-01

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  2. Induction-heating MOCVD reactor with significantly improved heating efficiency and reduced harmful magnetic coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Kuang-Hui

    2018-02-23

    In a conventional induction-heating III-nitride metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactor, the induction coil is outside the chamber. Therefore, the magnetic field does not couple with the susceptor well, leading to compromised heating efficiency and harmful coupling with the gas inlet and thus possible overheating. Hence, the gas inlet has to be at a minimum distance away from the susceptor. Because of the elongated flow path, premature reactions can be more severe, particularly between Al- and B-containing precursors and NH3. Here, we propose a structure that can significantly improve the heating efficiency and allow the gas inlet to be closer to the susceptor. Specifically, the induction coil is designed to surround the vertical cylinder of a T-shaped susceptor comprising the cylinder and a top horizontal plate holding the wafer substrate within the reactor. Therefore, the cylinder coupled most magnetic field to serve as the thermal source for the plate. Furthermore, the plate can block and thus significantly reduce the uncoupled magnetic field above the susceptor, thereby allowing the gas inlet to be closer. The results show approximately 140% and 2.6 times increase in the heating and susceptor coupling efficiencies, respectively, as well as a 90% reduction in the harmful magnetic flux on the gas inlet.

  3. Nicotine Significantly Improves Chronic Stress-Induced Impairments of Cognition and Synaptic Plasticity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xueliang; Shang, Yingchun; Fu, Jingxuan; Zhang, Tao

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if nicotine was able to improve cognition deficits in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. Twenty-four male C57BL/6 mice were divided into three groups: control, stress, and stress with nicotine treatment. The animal model was established by combining chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) and isolated feeding. Mice were exposed to CUMS continued for 28 days, while nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) was also administrated for 28 days. Weight and sucrose consumption were measured during model establishing period. The anxiety and behavioral despair were analyzed using the forced swim test (FST) and open-field test (OFT). Spatial cognition was evaluated using Morris water maze (MWM) test. Following behavioral assessment, both long-term potentiation (LTP) and depotentiation (DEP) were recorded in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region. Both synaptic and Notch1 proteins were measured by Western. Nicotine increased stressed mouse's sucrose consumption. The MWM test showed that spatial learning and reversal learning in stressed animals were remarkably affected relative to controls, whereas nicotine partially rescued cognitive functions. Additionally, nicotine considerably alleviated the level of anxiety and the degree of behavioral despair in stressed mice. It effectively mitigated the depression-induced impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, in which both the LTP and DEP were significantly inhibited in stressed mice. Moreover, nicotine enhanced the expression of synaptic and Notch1 proteins in stressed animals. The results suggest that nicotine ameliorates the depression-like symptoms and improves the hippocampal synaptic plasticity closely associated with activating transmembrane ion channel receptors and Notch signaling components. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. Significant improvements in stability and reproducibility of atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akrami, S M R; Nakayachi, H; Fukuma, T; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H

    2014-01-01

    Recent advancement of dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for liquid-environment applications enabled atomic-scale studies on various interfacial phenomena. However, instabilities and poor reproducibility of the measurements often prevent systematic studies. To solve this problem, we have investigated the effect of various tip treatment methods for atomic-scale imaging and force measurements in liquid. The tested methods include Si coating, Ar plasma, Ar sputtering and UV/O 3 cleaning. We found that all the methods provide significant improvements in both the imaging and force measurements in spite of the tip transfer through the air. Among the methods, we found that the Si coating provides the best stability and reproducibility in the measurements. To understand the origin of the fouling resistance of the cleaned tip surface and the difference between the cleaning methods, we have investigated the tip surface properties by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that the contaminations adsorbed on the tip during the tip transfer through the air should desorb from the surface when it is immersed in aqueous solution due to the enhanced hydrophilicity by the tip treatments. The tip surface prepared by the Si coating is oxidized when it is immersed in aqueous solution. This creates local spots where stable hydration structures are formed. For the other methods, there is no active mechanism to create such local hydration sites. Thus, the hydration structure formed under the tip apex is not necessarily stable. These results reveal the desirable tip properties for atomic-scale AFM measurements in liquid, which should serve as a guideline for further improvements of the tip treatment methods. (paper)

  5. Significant improvement of accuracy and precision in the determination of trace rare earths by fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozawa, L.; Hersh, H.N.

    1976-01-01

    Most of the rare earths in yttrium, gadolinium and lanthanum oxides emit characteristic fluorescent line spectra under irradiation with photons, electrons and x rays. The sensitivity and selectivity of the rare earth fluorescences are high enough to determine the trace amounts (0.01 to 100 ppM) of rare earths. The absolute fluorescent intensities of solids, however, are markedly affected by the synthesis procedure, level of contamination and crystal perfection, resulting in poor accuracy and low precision for the method (larger than 50 percent error). Special care in preparation of the samples is required to obtain good accuracy and precision. It is found that the accuracy and precision for the determination of trace (less than 10 ppM) rare earths by fluorescence analysis improved significantly, while still maintaining the sensitivity, when the determination is made by comparing the ratio of the fluorescent intensities of the trace rare earths to that of a deliberately added rare earth as reference. The variation in the absolute fluorescent intensity remains, but is compensated for by measuring the fluorescent line intensity ratio. Consequently, the determination of trace rare earths (with less than 3 percent error) is easily made by a photoluminescence technique in which the rare earths are excited directly by photons. Accuracy is still maintained when the absolute fluorescent intensity is reduced by 50 percent through contamination by Ni, Fe, Mn or Pb (about 100 ppM). Determination accuracy is also improved for fluorescence analysis by electron excitation and x-ray excitation. For some rare earths, however, accuracy by these techniques is reduced because indirect excitation mechanisms are involved. The excitation mechanisms and the interferences between rare earths are also reported

  6. Ni.sub.3 Al-based intermetallic alloys having improved strength above 850.degree. C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chain T.

    2000-01-01

    Intermetallic alloys composed essentially of: 15.5% to 17.0% Al, 3.5% to 5.5% Mo, 4% to 8% Cr, 0.04% to 0.2% Zr, 0.04% to 1.5% B, balance Ni, are characterized by melting points above 1200.degree. C. and superior strengths at temperatures above 1000.degree. C.

  7. Potential fatigue strength improvement of AA 5083-H111 notched parts by wire brush hammering: Experimental analysis and numerical simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidhom, Naziha; Moussa, Naoufel Ben; Janeb, Sameh; Braham, Chedly; Sidhom, Habib

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Wire brush hammering increases by 20% the AA 5083-H111 notched parts fatigue limit. • Improvement of fatigue strength is related to the fatigue cracks nucleation. • Fatigue strength prediction accounts for wire brush hammering effects. - Abstract: The effects of milling as machining process and a post-machining treatment by wire-brush hammering, on the near surface layer characteristics of AA 5083-H111 were investigated. Surface texture, work-hardening and residual stress profiles were determined by roughness measurement, scanning electron microscope (SEM) examinations, microhardness and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The effects of surface preparation on the fatigue strength were assessed by bending fatigue tests performed on notched samples for two loading stress ratios R 0.1 and R 0.5 . It is found that the bending fatigue limit at R 0.1 and 10 7 cycles is 20% increased, with respect to the machined surface, by wire-brush hammering. This improvement was discussed on the basis of the role of surface topography, stabilized residual stress and work-hardening on the fatigue-crack network nucleation and growth. The effects biaxial residual stress field and surface work-hardening were taken into account in the finite element model. A multi-axial fatigue criterion was proposed to predict the fatigue strength of aluminum alloy notched parts for both machined and treated states

  8. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognition in urban children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Cross, Janet V; Engle, Randall; Aragón-Flores, Mariana; Gómez-Garza, Gilberto; Jewells, Valerie; Medina-Cortina, Humberto; Solorio, Edelmira; Chao, Chih-Kai; Zhu, Hongtu; Mukherjee, Partha S; Ferreira-Azevedo, Lara; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2013-01-01

    Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children). We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1) and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty gram of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11 ± 3.4 days (range 9-24 days) to 18 children (10.55 years, SD = 1.45; 11F/7M). Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p = 0.0002). Fifteen children (83%) showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter (PM) and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  9. Model training across multiple breeding cycles significantly improves genomic prediction accuracy in rye (Secale cereale L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Hans-Jürgen; Schönleben, Manfred; Lehermeier, Christina; Schmidt, Malthe; Korzun, Viktor; Geiger, Hartwig H; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Gordillo, Andres; Wilde, Peer; Bauer, Eva; Schön, Chris-Carolin

    2016-11-01

    Genomic prediction accuracy can be significantly increased by model calibration across multiple breeding cycles as long as selection cycles are connected by common ancestors. In hybrid rye breeding, application of genome-based prediction is expected to increase selection gain because of long selection cycles in population improvement and development of hybrid components. Essentially two prediction scenarios arise: (1) prediction of the genetic value of lines from the same breeding cycle in which model training is performed and (2) prediction of lines from subsequent cycles. It is the latter from which a reduction in cycle length and consequently the strongest impact on selection gain is expected. We empirically investigated genome-based prediction of grain yield, plant height and thousand kernel weight within and across four selection cycles of a hybrid rye breeding program. Prediction performance was assessed using genomic and pedigree-based best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP and PBLUP). A total of 1040 S 2 lines were genotyped with 16 k SNPs and each year testcrosses of 260 S 2 lines were phenotyped in seven or eight locations. The performance gap between GBLUP and PBLUP increased significantly for all traits when model calibration was performed on aggregated data from several cycles. Prediction accuracies obtained from cross-validation were in the order of 0.70 for all traits when data from all cycles (N CS  = 832) were used for model training and exceeded within-cycle accuracies in all cases. As long as selection cycles are connected by a sufficient number of common ancestors and prediction accuracy has not reached a plateau when increasing sample size, aggregating data from several preceding cycles is recommended for predicting genetic values in subsequent cycles despite decreasing relatedness over time.

  10. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO 2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca 2+ decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO 2 . Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO 2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO 2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO 2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Significant effect of Ca2+ on improving the heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Song; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2013-07-01

    The heat resistance of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been extensively investigated due to its highly practical significance. Reconstituted skim milk (RSM) has been found to be one of the most effective protectant wall materials for microencapsulating microorganisms during convective drying, such as spray drying. In addition to proteins and carbohydrate, RSM is rich in calcium. It is not clear which component is critical in the RSM protection mechanism. This study investigated the independent effect of calcium. Ca(2+) was added to lactose solution to examine its influence on the heat resistance of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ZY, Lactobacillus casei Zhang, Lactobacillus plantarum P8 and Streptococcus thermophilus ND03. The results showed that certain Ca(2+) concentrations enhanced the heat resistance of the LAB strains to different extents, that is produced higher survival and shorter regrowth lag times of the bacterial cells. In some cases, the improvements were dramatic. More scientifically insightful and more intensive instrumental study of the Ca(2+) behavior around and in the cells should be carried out in the near future. In the meantime, this work may lead to the development of more cost-effective wall materials with Ca(2+) added as a prime factor. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting Heparin to Collagen within Extracellular Matrix Significantly Reduces Thrombogenicity and Improves Endothelialization of Decellularized Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Suen, Rachel; Wertheim, Jason A; Ameer, Guillermo A

    2016-12-12

    Thrombosis within small-diameter vascular grafts limits the development of bioartificial, engineered vascular conduits, especially those derived from extracellular matrix (ECM). Here we describe an easy-to-implement strategy to chemically modify vascular ECM by covalently linking a collagen binding peptide (CBP) to heparin to form a heparin derivative (CBP-heparin) that selectively binds a subset of collagens. Modification of ECM with CBP-heparin leads to increased deposition of functional heparin (by ∼7.2-fold measured by glycosaminoglycan composition) and a corresponding reduction in platelet binding (>70%) and whole blood clotting (>80%) onto the ECM. Furthermore, addition of CBP-heparin to the ECM stabilizes long-term endothelial cell attachment to the lumen of ECM-derived vascular conduits, potentially through recruitment of heparin-binding growth factors that ultimately improve the durability of endothelialization in vitro. Overall, our findings provide a simple yet effective method to increase deposition of functional heparin on the surface of ECM-based vascular grafts and thereby minimize thrombogenicity of decellularized tissue, overcoming a significant challenge in tissue engineering of bioartificial vessels and vascularized organs.

  13. Significant Improvement in Chronic Persistent Headaches Caused by Small Rathke Cleft Cysts After Transsphenoidal Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Issei; Hayashi, Yasuhiko; Kita, Daisuke; Sasagawa, Yasuo; Oishi, Masahiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi

    2017-03-01

    Rathke cleft cysts (RCC) usually are asymptomatic and can be observed via the use of conservative methods. Some patients with RCCs, however, have severe headaches even if they are small enough to be confined to the sella, and these small RCCs seldom have been discussed. This study presents an investigation into clinical characteristics of small RCCs associated with severe headaches, demonstrating efficacy and safety of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS) to relieve headaches. In this study, 13 patients with small RCCs (maximum diameter HIT-6) score was calculated both pre- and postoperatively to evaluate headache severity. All patients complained of severe headaches, which disturbed their daily life. Most headaches were nonpulsating and localized in the frontal area. Characteristically, 6 patients (46%) experienced severe headaches with sudden onset that continued chronically. HIT-6 score was 64 on average, meaning headaches affected daily life severely. After surgical decompression of the cyst, headache in all of the patients improved dramatically and HIT-6 score decreased significantly to 37, suggesting that headaches were diminished. No newly developed deficiencies of the anterior pituitary lobe function were detected. Postoperative occurrence of diabetes insipidus was found in 2 patients, both of which were transient. No recurring cysts were found. Severe headaches can develop from small RCCs. In the present study, ETSS was performed on such patients effectively and safely to relieve their headaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Eckardt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT] on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT and free-weight URT (F-URT, on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Methods Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65–80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength, power (e.g., chair rise test and balance (e.g., functional reach test, carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Results Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Conclusion Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an

  15. Lower-extremity resistance training on unstable surfaces improves proxies of muscle strength, power and balance in healthy older adults: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Nils

    2016-11-24

    It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i.e., machine-based (M-URT) and free-weight URT (F-URT), on measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults. Seventy-five healthy community-dwelling older adults aged 65-80 years, were assigned to three intervention groups: M-SRT, M-URT and F-URT. Over a period of ten weeks, all participants exercised two times per week with each session lasting ~60 min. Tests included assessment of leg muscle strength (e.g., maximal isometric leg extension strength), power (e.g., chair rise test) and balance (e.g., functional reach test), carried out before and after the training period. Furthermore, maximal training load of the squat-movement was assessed during the last training week. Maximal training load of the squat-movement was significantly lower in F-URT in comparison to M-SRT and M-URT. However, lower-extremity resistance training conducted on even and uneven surfaces meaningfully improved proxies of strength, power and balance in all groups. M-URT produced the greatest improvements in leg extension strength and F-URT in the chair rise test and functional reach test. Aside from two interaction effects, overall improvements in measures of lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance were similar across training groups. Importantly, F-URT produced similar results with considerably lower training load as compared to M-SRT and M-URT. Concluding, F-URT seems an effective and safe alternative training program to mitigate

  16. Successful percutaneous coronary intervention significantly improves coronary sinus blood flow as assessed by transthoracic echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyubarova, Radmila; Boden, William E; Fein, Steven A; Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Torosoff, Mikhail

    2018-06-01

    Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) has been used to assess coronary sinus blood flow (CSBF), which reflects total coronary arterial blood flow. Successful angioplasty is expected to improve coronary arterial blood flow. Changes in CSBF after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), as assessed by TTE, have not been systematically evaluated. TTE can be utilized to reflect increased CSBF after a successful, clinically indicated PCI. The study cohort included 31 patients (18 females, 62 ± 11 years old) referred for diagnostic cardiac catheterization for suspected coronary artery disease and possible PCI, when clinically indicated. All performed PCIs were successful, with good angiographic outcome. CSBF per cardiac cycle (mL/beat) was measured using transthoracic two-dimensional and Doppler flow imaging as the product of coronary sinus (CS) area and CS flow time-velocity integral. CSBF per minute (mL/min) was calculated as the product of heart rate and CSBF per cardiac cycle. In each patient, CSBF was assessed prospectively, before and after cardiac catheterization with and without clinically indicated PCI. Within- and between-group differences in CSBF before and after PCI were assessed using repeated measures analysis of variance. Technically adequate CSBF measurements were obtained in 24 patients (77%). In patients who did not undergo PCI, there was no significant change in CSBF (278.1 ± 344.1 versus 342.7 ± 248.5, p = 0.36). By contrast, among patients who underwent PCI, CSBF increased significantly (254.3 ± 194.7 versus 618.3 ± 358.5 mL/min, p < 0.01, p-interaction = 0.03). Other hemodynamic and echocardiographic parameters did not change significantly before and after cardiac catheterization in either treatment group. Transthoracic echocardiographic assessment can be employed to document CSBF changes after angioplasty. Future studies are needed to explore the clinical utility of this noninvasive metric.

  17. Improved TIG weld joint strength in aluminum alloy 2219-T87 by filler metal substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poorman, R. M.; Lovoy, C. V.

    1972-01-01

    The results of an investigation on weld joint characteristics of aluminum alloy 2219-T87 are given. Five different alloys were utilized as filler material. The mechanical properties of the joints were determined at ambient and cryogenic temperatures for weldments in the as-welded condition and also, for weldments after elevated temperature exposures. Other evaluations included hardness surveys, stress corrosion susceptibility, and to a limited extent, the internal metallurgical weld structures. The overall results indicate that M-943 filler weldments are superior in strength to weldments containing either the standard 2319 filler or fillers 2014, 2020, and a dual wire feed consisting of three parts 2319 and one part 5652. In addition, no deficiencies were evident in M-934 filler weldments with regard to ductility, joint strength after elevated temperature exposure, weld hardness, metallographic structures, or stress corrosion susceptibility.

  18. A transformational product to improve self-control strength: The Chocolate Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Flavius; Hassenzahl, Marc; Laschke, Matthias; Diefenbach, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Lack of self-control is at the heart of many undesirable behaviors, such as overeating, overspending, and evenoverworking. While the field of persuasive technologies explicitly searches for ways to change attitudes and behaviors, it more or less neglects the science of self-control. We present the Chocolate Machine, an interactive device to train self-control strength based upon Ego Depletion theory. A longitudinal, control-group, field study showed the machine to increase self-control str...

  19. Wii balance board exercise improves balance and lower limb muscle strength of overweight young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Siriphorn, Akkradate; Chamonchant, Dannaovarat

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The potential health benefits of the Nintendo Wii balance board exercise have been widely investigated. However, no study has been conducted to examine the benefits of Wii exercise for overweight young adults. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise performed on a Nintendo Wii balance board on the balance and lower limb muscle strength in overweight young adults. [Subjects and Methods] Within-subject repeated measures analysis was used. Sixteen young adults (...

  20. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2009-08-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy

  1. Significant improvement of eczema with skin care and food elimination in small children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norrman, Gunilla; Tomicić, Sara; Böttcher, Malin Fagerås; Oldaeus, Göran; Strömberg, Leif; Fälth-magnusson, Karin

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate common methods of investigation and treatment in children younger than 2 y of age with eczema, with or without sensitization to food allergens. One hundred and twenty-three children younger than 2 y of age with eczema and suspected food allergy were included in this prospective study. The children underwent skin-prick test with cow's milk, fresh hen's egg white and wheat. Specific IgE to milk and egg white was analysed. The eczema extent and severity was estimated with SCORAD before and after treatment. Children with a positive skin-prick test were instructed to exclude that food item from their diet. All children were treated with emollients and topical steroids when needed. Sixty-two of the children were skin-prick positive to at least one of the allergens; 62% had mild, 30% moderate and 8% severe eczema at their first visit. After treatment, 90% had mild, 10% moderate and 0% severe eczema. Forty-six per cent of the children had circulating IgE antibodies to milk or egg white. Ten per cent had specific IgE but negative skin-prick test to the same allergen. This subgroup improved their eczema significantly without elimination diet. The conventional treatments for children with eczema, i.e. skin care and food elimination, are effective. The beneficial effect of skin care as the first step should not be neglected, and it may not be necessary to eliminate food allergens to relieve skin symptoms in all food-sensitized children with eczema.

  2. Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckfessel, Sandra; Stühmer, Constantin; Bormann, Kai-Hendrik; Kupka, Thomas; Behrends, Marianne; Matthies, Herbert; Vaske, Bernhard; Stiesch, Meike; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Rücker, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Because a traditionally instructed dental radiology lecture course is very time-consuming and labour-intensive, online courseware, including an interactive-learning module, was implemented to support the lectures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of students who have worked with web-based courseware as well as the effect on their results in final examinations. Users (n(3+4)=138) had access to the e-program from any networked computer at any time. Two groups (n(3)=71, n(4)=67) had to pass a final exam after using the e-course. Results were compared with two groups (n(1)=42, n(2)=48) who had studied the same content by attending traditional lectures. In addition a survey of the students was statistically evaluated. Most of the respondents reported a positive attitude towards e-learning and would have appreciated more access to computer-assisted instruction. Two years after initiating the e-course the failure rate in the final examination dropped significantly, from 40% to less than 2%. The very positive response to the e-program and improved test scores demonstrated the effectiveness of our e-course as a learning aid. Interactive modules in step with clinical practice provided learning that is not achieved by traditional teaching methods alone. To what extent staff savings are possible is part of a further study. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available 80% of arable land in Africa has low soil fertility and suffers from physical soil problems. Additionally, significant amounts of nutrients are lost every year due to unsustainable soil management practices. This is partially the result of insufficient use of soil management knowledge. To help bridge the soil information gap in Africa, the Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS project was established in 2008. Over the period 2008-2014, the AfSIS project compiled two point data sets: the Africa Soil Profiles (legacy database and the AfSIS Sentinel Site database. These data sets contain over 28 thousand sampling locations and represent the most comprehensive soil sample data sets of the African continent to date. Utilizing these point data sets in combination with a large number of covariates, we have generated a series of spatial predictions of soil properties relevant to the agricultural management--organic carbon, pH, sand, silt and clay fractions, bulk density, cation-exchange capacity, total nitrogen, exchangeable acidity, Al content and exchangeable bases (Ca, K, Mg, Na. We specifically investigate differences between two predictive approaches: random forests and linear regression. Results of 5-fold cross-validation demonstrate that the random forests algorithm consistently outperforms the linear regression algorithm, with average decreases of 15-75% in Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE across soil properties and depths. Fitting and running random forests models takes an order of magnitude more time and the modelling success is sensitive to artifacts in the input data, but as long as quality-controlled point data are provided, an increase in soil mapping accuracy can be expected. Results also indicate that globally predicted soil classes (USDA Soil Taxonomy, especially Alfisols and Mollisols help improve continental scale soil property mapping, and are among the most important predictors. This indicates a promising potential for transferring

  4. Optimized distributed systems achieve significant performance improvement on sorted merging of massive VCF files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobo; Gao, Jingjing; Jin, Peng; Eng, Celeste; Burchard, Esteban G; Beaty, Terri H; Ruczinski, Ingo; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen; Wang, Fusheng; Qin, Zhaohui S

    2018-06-01

    Sorted merging of genomic data is a common data operation necessary in many sequencing-based studies. It involves sorting and merging genomic data from different subjects by their genomic locations. In particular, merging a large number of variant call format (VCF) files is frequently required in large-scale whole-genome sequencing or whole-exome sequencing projects. Traditional single-machine based methods become increasingly inefficient when processing large numbers of files due to the excessive computation time and Input/Output bottleneck. Distributed systems and more recent cloud-based systems offer an attractive solution. However, carefully designed and optimized workflow patterns and execution plans (schemas) are required to take full advantage of the increased computing power while overcoming bottlenecks to achieve high performance. In this study, we custom-design optimized schemas for three Apache big data platforms, Hadoop (MapReduce), HBase, and Spark, to perform sorted merging of a large number of VCF files. These schemas all adopt the divide-and-conquer strategy to split the merging job into sequential phases/stages consisting of subtasks that are conquered in an ordered, parallel, and bottleneck-free way. In two illustrating examples, we test the performance of our schemas on merging multiple VCF files into either a single TPED or a single VCF file, which are benchmarked with the traditional single/parallel multiway-merge methods, message passing interface (MPI)-based high-performance computing (HPC) implementation, and the popular VCFTools. Our experiments suggest all three schemas either deliver a significant improvement in efficiency or render much better strong and weak scalabilities over traditional methods. Our findings provide generalized scalable schemas for performing sorted merging on genetics and genomics data using these Apache distributed systems.

  5. Cyclosporin A significantly improves preeclampsia signs and suppresses inflammation in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bihui; Yang, Jinying; Huang, Qian; Bao, Junjie; Brennecke, Shaun Patrick; Liu, Huishu

    2016-05-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with an increased inflammatory response. Immune suppression might be an effective treatment. The aim of this study was to examine whether Cyclosporin A (CsA), an immunosuppressant, improves clinical characteristics of preeclampsia and suppresses inflammation in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced preeclampsia rat model. Pregnant rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: group 1 (PE) rats each received LPS via tail vein on gestational day (GD) 14; group 2 (PE+CsA5) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (5mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 3 (PE+CsA10) rats were pretreated with LPS (1.0 μg/kg) on GD 14 and were then treated with CsA (10mg/kg, ip) on GDs 16, 17 and 18; group 4 (pregnant control, PC) rats were treated with the vehicle (saline) used for groups 1, 2 and 3. Systolic blood pressure, urinary albumin, biometric parameters and the levels of serum cytokines were measured on day 20. CsA treatment significantly reduced LPS-induced systolic blood pressure and the mean 24-h urinary albumin excretion. Pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α were increased in the LPS treatment group but were reduced in (LPS+CsA) group (Ppreeclampsia signs and attenuated inflammatory responses in the LPS induced preeclampsia rat model which suggests that immunosuppressant might be an alternative management option for preeclampsia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mechanical strength parameters of cast iron with lamellar graphite and their significance for the design of pressure-carrying reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janakiev, N.

    1977-01-01

    The tensile strength of thick-walled components in cast iron with lamellar graphite is lower by about 50 to 65% than that stated in DIN 1691. The usable compressive strength of this material under uni-axial load is about twice as high as its tensile strength. The graphite lamellae are not bonded into the metallic matrix. The width of the gaps between the graphite lamellae and the matrix increases with increasing wall thickness of the casting. In stress calculations for design purposes it is advisable to rely only on the permissible tensile stresses. It is shown that cast iron can be used as structural material for shieldings but is unsuitable for thick-walled reactor components carrying compressive and tensile stresses because its mechanical strength parameters decrease rapidly with increasing wall thickness. (orig.) [de

  7. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson José

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Participants: Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. Intervention: The experimental group (n = 32 underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n = 17 underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. Outcome measures: The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending. Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. Results: There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59 and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182. There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. Conclusion: The improvement in functional outcomes after an

  8. Improvement of Strength-Toughness-Hardness Balance in Large Cross-Section 718H Pre-Hardened Mold Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hanghang; Fu, Paixian; Liu, Hongwei; Li, Dianzhong

    2018-01-01

    The strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity in large cross-section 718H pre-hardened mold steel from a 20 ton ingot were investigated with three different heat treatments for industrial applications. The different microstructures, including tempered martensite, lower bainite, and retained austenite, were obtained at equivalent hardness. The microstructures were characterized by using metallographic observations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD). The mechanical properties were compared by tensile, Charpy U-notch impact and hardness uniformity tests at room temperature. The results showed that the test steels after normalizing-quenching-tempering (N-QT) possessed the best strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity compared with the conventional quenched-tempered (QT) steel. In addition, the test steel after austempering-tempering (A-T) demonstrated the worse hardness uniformity and lower yield strength while possessing relatively higher elongation (17%) compared with the samples after N-QT (14.5%) treatments. The better ductility of A-T steel mainly depended on the amount and morphology of retained austenite and thermal/deformation-induced twined martensite. This work elucidates the mechanisms of microstructure evolution during heat treatments and will highly improve the strength-toughness-hardness trade-off in large cross-section steels. PMID:29642642

  9. Improvement of Strength-Toughness-Hardness Balance in Large Cross-Section 718H Pre-Hardened Mold Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanghang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity in large cross-section 718H pre-hardened mold steel from a 20 ton ingot were investigated with three different heat treatments for industrial applications. The different microstructures, including tempered martensite, lower bainite, and retained austenite, were obtained at equivalent hardness. The microstructures were characterized by using metallographic observations, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD. The mechanical properties were compared by tensile, Charpy U-notch impact and hardness uniformity tests at room temperature. The results showed that the test steels after normalizing-quenching-tempering (N-QT possessed the best strength-toughness combination and hardness uniformity compared with the conventional quenched-tempered (QT steel. In addition, the test steel after austempering-tempering (A-T demonstrated the worse hardness uniformity and lower yield strength while possessing relatively higher elongation (17% compared with the samples after N-QT (14.5% treatments. The better ductility of A-T steel mainly depended on the amount and morphology of retained austenite and thermal/deformation-induced twined martensite. This work elucidates the mechanisms of microstructure evolution during heat treatments and will highly improve the strength-toughness-hardness trade-off in large cross-section steels.

  10. Waste Minimization Improvements Achieved Through Six Sigma Analysis Result In Significant Cost Savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, Jeffrey D.; Jansen, John R.; Janke, David H.; Plowman, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Improved waste minimization practices at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) are leading to a 15% reduction in the generation of hazardous and radioactive waste. Bechtel, BWXT Idaho, LLC (BBWI), the prime management and operations contractor at the INEEL, applied the Six Sigma improvement process to the INEEL Waste Minimization Program to review existing processes and define opportunities for improvement. Our Six Sigma analysis team: composed of an executive champion, process owner, a black belt and yellow belt, and technical and business team members used this statistical based process approach to analyze work processes and produced ten recommendations for improvement. Recommendations ranged from waste generator financial accountability for newly generated waste to enhanced employee recognition programs for waste minimization efforts. These improvements have now been implemented to reduce waste generation rates and are producing positive results

  11. Design of duplex low carbon steels for improved strength: weight applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J.

    1977-08-01

    Duplex ferrite-martensite (DFM) steels with excellent combinations of strength and formability have been selected from first principles, and their microstructure-property relationships established through a systematic investigation of a series of ternary Fe/X/0.1 C steels (X being varying amount of Cr and Si). Duplex processing consists of initial austenitization and quenching to form 100% martensite, followed by annealing in the (..cap alpha.. + ..gamma..) range and subsequent quenching. The resultant DFM morphology is controlled by the type and amount of alloying element X.

  12. Contemporary Management of Acute Aortic Occlusion Has Evolved but Outcomes Have Not Significantly Improved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, William P; Patel, Rupal K; Columbo, Jesse A; Flahive, Julie; Aiello, Francesco A; Baril, Donald T; Schanzer, Andres; Messina, Louis M

    2016-07-01

    hospitalization. AAO is now more commonly caused by in situ thrombosis rather than embolism. A high index of suspicion for AAO is required for prompt diagnosis and treatment, particularly when patients present with profound lower extremity neurologic deficit. In comparison with previous reports, the contemporary management of AAO includes increased use of axillobifemoral bypass and now involves endovascular revascularization, although a variety of open surgical procedures are utilized. However, the in-hospital mortality and morbidity of AAO has not decreased significantly over the last 2 decades and mid-term survival remains limited. Further study is required to identify strategies that improve outcomes after AAO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Velde, AA. de; Burtak, F.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper authors deals with nuclear fuel cycle and their economic aspects. At Siemens, the developments focusing on the reduction of fuel cycle costs are currently directed on .further batch average burnup increase, .improvement of fuel reliability, .enlargement of fuel operation margins, .improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. These items will be presented in detail in the full paper and illustrated by the global operating experience of Siemens fuel for both PWRs and BWRs. (authors)

  14. Reassessment of pH reference values with improved methodology for the evaluation of ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lito, M.J. Guiomar H.M.; Camoes, M. Filomena G.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The conflict between pH as empirical number in routine control and the pH value regarded as conveying some information concerning the effective concentration or activity of hydrogen ions, a H , has caused much confusion. There are, however, reasons to conclude that the overwhelming amount of thermodynamic data is not sufficiently accurate--either due to ignorance of metrological concepts or due to insufficiently specified measurement processes of fundamental chemical quantities pH. The commonly used seven reference buffer solutions to which primary pH values have been conventional assigned, represent a selection out of a more extensive list, recommended by NBS (now NIST) in 1962. From then onwards conventions concerning the Debye-Hueckel model of electrolyte solutions and ionic strength have been revised and the pH(S) values reassessed in conformity but only for these seven reference buffer solutions. The others have, so far remained unchanged, locking harmonisation of the conventionally assigned pH(S) values. In this work, ionic strength is calculated through complete equations derived from the acidity constants. Concentrations of the various species involved in the conventional assignment of pH and their corresponding activity coefficients are therefore, more rigorously known. The process proves particularly useful for poliprotic acids with overlapping acidity constants, where the ratio is less than 10 3 . As a consequence, conventionally assigned pH values of reference buffer solutions are recalculated and corrections are introduced as appropriate

  15. Mix design for improved strength and freeze-thaw durability of pervious concrete fill in Pearl-Chain Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mia Schou Møller; Kevern, John T.; Schaefer, Vernon R.

    2017-01-01

    different mixture proportions using two different sizes of granite coarse aggregate and at two different water-to-cement ratios. The specimens had an average void content of 24-28 %. Specimens containing air entraining and high-range water reducing admixtures were most workable, as determined by fresh...... density, and thus the easiest to place. The addition of a high-range water reducing admixture and lightweight sand (expanded shale) for internal curing improved the 28-day compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. The coarse aggregate gradation had a large influence on permeability; however......, all tested permeabilities were high enough to drain the rain from a 100-year rain event in Denmark. The air entraining agent dosage used was not sufficiently high to create the necessary protective air content in the cement paste, and the freeze-thaw durability of the specimens were generally poor...

  16. Aquatic Therapy Improves Outcomes for Subacute Stroke Patients by Enhancing Muscular Strength of Paretic Lower Limbs Without Increasing Spasticity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Wang, Yi-Zhao; Huang, Li-Ping; Bai, Bei; Zhou, Shi; Yin, Miao-Miao; Zhao, Hua; Zhou, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hong-Tu

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an aquatic exercise program designed to enhance muscular strength in paretic lower limbs in subacute stroke patients. Thirty-six subacute stroke patients were randomly divided to a conventional or an aquatic group (n = 18 each). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 8 wks of training. For the paretic lower limbs, maximum isometric voluntary contraction strength of the rectus femoris and biceps femoris caput longus and the tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius was measured. Cocontraction ratios during knee extension and flexion and ankle dorsiflexion and plantarflexion were calculated respectively. In addition, Modified Ashworth Scale, Functional Ambulation Category, and Barthel Index were assessed. Compared with the conventional intervention, the aquatic intervention resulted in significantly higher knee extension (P = 0.002) and ankle plantarflexion torque (P = 0.002), accompanied with a significantly lower knee extension cocontraction ratio in the paretic limb (P = 0.000). Functional Ambulation Category (P = 0.009) and Barthel Index (P = 0.024) were greater in aquatic group than conventional group posttreatment. Modified Ashworth Scale scores did not show any differences between groups. Aquatic exercise enhanced muscle strength in paretic lower limbs and improved muscle cocontraction without increasing spasticity in subacute stroke patients.

  17. Functional strength training and movement performance therapy produce analogous improvement in sit-to-stand early after stroke: early-phase randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, A; Clark, A; Cooke, E V; Rowe, P; Pomeroy, V M

    2017-09-01

    Restoring independence in the sit-to-stand (STS) task is an important objective for stroke rehabilitation. It is not known if a particular intervention, strength training or therapy focused on movement performance is more likely to improve STS recovery. This study aimed to compare STS outcomes from functional strength training, movement performance therapy and conventional therapy. Randomised controlled trial. Acute stroke units. Medically well patients (n=93) with recent (movement performance therapy. Subjects were allocated to groups on a random basis. STS ability, timing, symmetry, co-ordination, smoothness and knee velocity were measured at baseline, outcome (after 6 weeks of intervention) and follow-up (3 months after outcome). No significant differences were found between the groups. All three groups improved their STS ability, with 88% able to STS at follow-up compared with 56% at baseline. Few differences were noted in quality of movement, with only symmetry when rising showing significantly greater improvement in the movement performance therapy group; this benefit was not evident at follow-up. Recovery of the STS movement is consistently good during stroke rehabilitation, irrespective of the type of therapy experienced. Changes in quality of movement did not differ according to group allocation, indicating that the type of therapy is less important. Clinical trial registration number NCT00322192. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of mechanical strength of sintered Mo alloyed steel by optimization of sintering and cold-forging processes with densification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakoshi, Y.; Shohji, I.; Inoue, Y.; Fukuda, S.

    2017-10-01

    Powder metallurgy (P/M) materials have been expected to be spread in automotive industry. Generally, since sintered materials using P/M ones contain many pores and voids, mechanical properties of them are inferior to those of conventional wrought materials. To improve mechanical properties of the sintered materials, densification is effective. The aim of this study is to improve mechanical strength of sintered Mo-alloyed steel by optimizing conditions in sintering and cold-forging processes. Mo-alloyed steel powder was compacted. Then, pre-sintering (PS) using a vacuum sintering furnace was conducted. Subsequently, coldforging (CF) by a backward extrusion method was conducted to the pre-sintered specimen. Moreover, the cold-forged specimen was heat treated by carburizing, tempering and quenching (CQT). Afterwards, mechanical properties were investigated. As a result, it was found that the density of the PS specimen is required to be more than 7.4 Mg/m3 to strengthen the specimen by heat treatment after CF. Furthermore, density and the microstructure of the PS specimen are most important factors to make the high density and strength material by CF. At the CF load of 1200 kN, the maximum density ratio reached approximately 99% by the use of the PS specimen with proper density and microstructure. At the CF load of 900 kN, although density ratio was high like more than 97.8%, transverse rupture strength decreased sharply. Since densification caused high shear stress and stress concentration in the surface layer, microcracks occurred by the damages of inter-particle sintered connection of the surface layer. On the contrary, in case of the CF load of 1200 kN, ultra-densification of the surface layer occurred by a sufficient plastic flow. Such sufficient compressed specimens regenerated the sintered connections by high temperature heat treatment and thus the high strength densified material was obtained. These processes can be applicable to near net shape manufacturing

  19. Millisecond photo-thermal process on significant improvement of supercapacitor’s performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Kui; Wang, Jixiao; Wu, Ying; Zhao, Song; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Shichang

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A high way for charge transfer is created by a millisecond photo-thermal process which could decrease contact resistance among nanomaterials and improve the electrochemical performances. - Highlights: • Improve conductivity among nanomaterials with a millisecond photo-thermal process. • The specific capacitance can increase about 25% with an photo-thermal process. • The circle stability and rate capability can be improved above 10% with photo-thermal process. • Provide a new way that create electron path to improve electrochemical performance. - Abstract: Supercapacitors fabricated with nanomaterials usually have high specific capacitance and excellent performance. However, the small size of nanomaterials renders a considerable limitation of the contact area among nanomaterials, which is harmful to charge carrier transfer. This fact may hinder the development and application of nanomaterials in electrochemical storage systems. Here, a millisecond photo-thermal process was introduced to create a charge carries transfer path to decrease the contact resistance among nanomaterials, and enhance the electrochemical performance of supercapacitors. Polyaniline (PANI) nanowire, as a model nanomaterial, was used to modify electrodes under different photo-thermal process conditions. The modified electrodes were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results were analysed by equivalent circuit simulation. These results demonstrate that the photo-thermal process can alter the morphology of PANI nanowires, lower the charge transfer resistances and thus improve the performance of electrodes. The specific capacitance increase of the modified electrodes is about 25%. The improvement of the circle stability and rate capability are above 10%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt on research the effect of photo-thermal process on the conductivity

  20. Plyometric training improves voluntary activation and strength during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Martin; Mau-Moeller, Anett; Mueller, Karoline; Heise, Sandra; Gube, Martin; Beuster, Nico; Herlyn, Philipp K E; Fischer, Dagmar-C; Bruhn, Sven

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated effects of plyometric training (6 weeks, 3 sessions/week) on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) strength and neural activation of the knee extensors during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions. Twenty-seven participants were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Maximum voluntary torques (MVT) during the different types of contraction were measured at 110° knee flexion (180°=full extension). The interpolated twitch technique was applied at the same knee joint angle during isometric, concentric and eccentric contractions to measure voluntary activation. In addition, normalized root mean square of the EMG signal at MVT was calculated. The twitch torque signal induced by electrical nerve stimulation at rest was used to evaluate training-related changes at the muscle level. In addition, jump height in countermovement jump was measured. After training, MVT increased by 20Nm (95% CI: 5-36Nm, P=0.012), 24Nm (95% CI: 9-40Nm, P=0.004) and 27Nm (95% CI: 7-48Nm, P=0.013) for isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs compared to controls, respectively. The strength enhancements were associated with increases in voluntary activation during isometric, concentric and eccentric MVCs by 7.8% (95% CI: 1.8-13.9%, P=0.013), 7.0% (95% CI: 0.4-13.5%, P=0.039) and 8.6% (95% CI: 3.0-14.2%, P=0.005), respectively. Changes in the twitch torque signal of the resting muscle, induced by supramaximal electrical stimulation of the femoral nerve, were not observed, indicating no alterations at the muscle level, whereas jump height was increased. Given the fact that the training exercises consisted of eccentric muscle actions followed by concentric contractions, it is in particular relevant that the plyometric training increased MVC strength and neural activation of the quadriceps muscle regardless of the contraction mode. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Review of New and Developing Technology to Significantly Improve Mars Sample-Return Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsey, F.; Brophy, J.; Gilmore, M.; Rodgers, D.; Wilcox, B.

    2000-07-01

    A JPL development activity was initiated in FY 1999 for the purpose of examining and evaluating technologies that could materially improve future (i.e., beyond the 2005 launch) Mars sample return missions. The scope of the technology review was comprehensive and end-to-end; the goal was to improve mass, cost, risk, and scientific return. A specific objective was to assess approaches to sample return with only one Earth launch. While the objective of the study was specifically for sample-return, in-situ missions can also benefit from using many of the technologies examined.

  2. Biaxial Testing of High-Strength Fabric Improves Design of Inflatable Radar Domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, David L.; Bartolotta, Paul A.

    2001-01-01

    Large radar installations around the globe continuously watch the skies, unobtrusively providing security to the United States; these systems have been in active use for the past 50 years. Often situated in extreme environments, the radar dishes require shielding from the harsh elements. Air-inflated domes (over 100 ft in diameter) are one structure of choice for providing this essential protection. The radomes are constructed from highstrength fabric that is strong enough to withstand the inflation pressure, high winds, and other environmental loads, yet transparent to the microwave signal to allow precise radar mapping. This fabric is woven from glass fibers for high strength and embedded in a polytetrafluoroethylene resin matrix, akin to the nonstick coatings used on cookware.

  3. Anti-myostatin antibody increases muscle mass and strength and improves insulin sensitivity in old mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporez, João-Paulo G; Petersen, Max C; Abudukadier, Abulizi; Moreira, Gabriela V; Jurczak, Michael J; Friedman, Glenn; Haqq, Christopher M; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Shulman, Gerald I

    2016-02-23

    Sarcopenia, or skeletal muscle atrophy, is a debilitating comorbidity of many physiological and pathophysiological processes, including normal aging. There are no approved therapies for sarcopenia, but the antihypertrophic myokine myostatin is a potential therapeutic target. Here, we show that treatment of young and old mice with an anti-myostatin antibody (ATA 842) for 4 wk increased muscle mass and muscle strength in both groups. Furthermore, ATA 842 treatment also increased insulin-stimulated whole body glucose metabolism in old mice, which could be attributed to increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake as measured by a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Taken together, these studies provide support for pharmacological inhibition of myostatin as a potential therapeutic approach for age-related sarcopenia and metabolic disease.

  4. Handgrip strength shows no improvements in geriatric patients with persistent inflammation during hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norheim, Kristoffer Larsen; Bautmans, Ivan; Kjaer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Hospital-associated deconditioning due to a combination of illness and inactivity is a serious problem for elderly adults. Here we investigate whether persistence in inflammatory status affects changes in physical function during short-term hospitalization. METHODS: This was a prospective...... observational study in elderly medical patients at a geriatric department. Measurements were obtained at admission and one week after admission and included de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) test, 30-second chair stand test (30-s CST), 4-m gait speed (4-m GST) test, handgrip strength, activity levels determined...... with ActivPALs, and concentrations of circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) from blood samples. Only patients with inflammation (C-reactive protein levels ≥10mg·L(-1)) at admission were included in this study. They were divided into those with continued inflammation (CI: CRP remained ≥10mg·L(-1)) and those...

  5. Improving the Quality of Services in Residential Treatment Facilities: A Strength-Based Consultative Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavkov, Thomas W.; Lourie, Ira S.; Hug, Richard W.; Negash, Sesen

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study reports on the positive impact of a consultative review methodology used to conduct quality assurance reviews as part of the Residential Treatment Center Evaluation Project. The study details improvement in the quality of services provided to youth in unmonitored residential treatment facilities. Improvements were…

  6. Maximal power training induced different improvement in throwing velocity and muscle strength according to playing positions in elite male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherif, M; Chtourou, H; Souissi, N; Aouidet, A; Chamari, K

    2016-12-01

    This study was designed to assess the effect of strength and power training on throwing velocity and muscle strength in handball players according to their playing positions. Twenty-two male handball players were assigned to either an experimental group (n=11) or a control group (n=11) (age: 22.1 ± 3.0 years). They were asked to complete (i) the ball throwing velocity test and (ii) the one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests for the half-back squat, the pull-over, the bench press, the developed neck, and the print exercises before and after 12 weeks of maximal power training. The training was designed to improve strength and power with an intensity of 85-95% of the 1RM. In addition to their usual routine handball training sessions, participants performed two sessions per week. During each session, they performed 3-5 sets of 3-8 repetitions with 3 min of rest in between. Then, they performed specific shots (i.e., 12 to 40). Ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001) was higher after the training period in rear line players (RL). The training programme resulted in an improvement of 1RM bench press (p<0.001), 1RM developed neck (p<0.001) and 1RM print (p<0.001) in both front line (FL) and RL. The control group showed a significant improvement only in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.01) and 1RM bench press (p<0.01) in RL. A significantly greater improvement was found in ball-throwing velocity (p<0.001), 1RM bench press (p<0.001), and 1RM half-back squat exercises in players of the central axis (CA) compared to the lateral axis (LA) (p<0.01). The power training programme induced significantly greater increases in ball-throwing velocity and muscle strength in FL than RL and in CA than LA axis players.

  7. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  8. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Okajima, Isa; Nakajima, Shun; Ochi, Moeko; Inoue, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  9. Significant performance improvement obtained in a wireless mesh network using a beamswitching antenna

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lysko, AA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available mesh network operated in a fixed 11 Mbps mode. The throughput improvement in multi-hop communication obtained in the presence of an interferer is tenfold, from 0.2 Mbps to 2 Mbps. Index Terms?antenna, smart antenna, wireless mesh network, WMN... efficiency in the communications, and active research and development of new methods and technologies enabling this at the physical layer, including multiple antenna techniques, such as multiple input multiple output (MIMO) and smart antennas...

  10. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  11. Improvement of linerboard compressive strength by hot-pressing and addition of recovered lignin from spent pulping liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidan Motasem N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the effect of addition of precipitated lignin, from spent pulping black liquor, to a wet single-ply linerboard handsheet followed by hot-pressing at different temperatures, on the improvement of its compressive strength. Linerboard handsheets for testing the effect of lignin addition were prepared so that the lignin-modified sheets would have the same basis weights as the control handsheets. Both the commercial and the black liquor lignin were added as a powder to wet handsheets after couching from the handsheet mold. The experiments and testing of the physical and strength properties of dried handsheets were conducted according to TAPPI test methods. The results revealed that the addition of the recovered lignin (at pH of 2 to the wet handsheet followed by hot-pressing at 150°C increased the compressive strength of linerboard handsheets by 10% to 20% above that for handsheets made without the addition of lignin. The same results were achieved using purchased lignin. However, with a 16% addition to linerboard, purchased lignin would be too expensive. These results indicate that inclusion of kraft lignin in linerboard sheets could be proved as an attractive option to reduce linerboard basis weight.

  12. Laboratory investigation of nanomaterials to improve the permeability and strength of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Concretes containing various supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) such as silica fume, fly ash, and slag have improved properties. Nanomaterials (a nanometer, nm, is 10-9 m), new SCMs with possible applications in concrete, have the smallest p...

  13. Intraoperative Sensorcaine significantly improves postoperative pain management in outpatient reduction mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culliford, Alfred T; Spector, Jason A; Flores, Roberto L; Louie, Otway; Choi, Mihye; Karp, Nolan S

    2007-09-15

    Breast reduction is one of the most frequently performed plastic surgical procedures in the United States; more than 160,500 patients underwent the procedure in 2005. Many outpatient reduction mammaplasty patients report the greatest postoperative discomfort in the first 48 hours. The authors' investigated the effect of intraoperative topical application of the long-acting local anesthetic agent bupivacaine (Sensorcaine or Marcaine) on postoperative pain, time to postanesthesia care unit discharge, and postoperative use of narcotic medication. In a prospective, randomized, single-blind trial, intraoperative use of Sensorcaine versus placebo (normal saline) was compared. Postoperative pain was quantified using the visual analogue scale, and time to discharge from the postanesthesia care unit was recorded. Patients documented their outpatient pain medication usage. Of the 37 patients enrolled in the study, 20 were treated with intraoperative topical Sensorcaine and 17 received placebo. Patients treated with Sensorcaine were discharged home significantly faster (2.9 hours versus 3.8 hours, p = 0.002). The control arm consistently had higher pain scores in the postanesthesia care unit (although not statistically significant) than the Sensorcaine group using the visual analogue scale system. Furthermore, patients receiving Sensorcaine required significantly less narcotic medication while recovering at home (mean, 3.5 tablets of Vicodin) than the control group (mean, 6.4 tablets; p = 0.001). There were no complications resulting from Sensorcaine usage. This prospective, randomized, single-blind study demonstrates that a single dose of intraoperative Sensorcaine provides a safe, inexpensive, and efficacious way to significantly shorten the length of postanesthesia care unit stay and significantly decrease postoperative opioid analgesic use in patients undergoing ambulatory reduction mammaplasty.

  14. Hydroxyapatite-chitosan based bioactive hybrid biomaterials with improved mechanical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zima, A.

    2018-03-01

    Composites consisting of hydroxyapatite (HA) and chitosan (CTS) have recently been intensively studied. In this work, a novel inorganic-organic (I/O) HA/CTS materials in the form of granules were prepared through a simple solution-based chemical method. During the synthesis of these hybrids, the electrostatic complexes between positively charged, protonated amine groups of chitosan and the negative phosphate species (HPO42 - and H2PO4-) were formed. Our biocomposites belong to the class I of hybrids, which was confirmed by FTIR studies. XRD analysis revealed that the obtained materials consisted of hydroxyapatite as the only crystalline phase. Homogeneous dispersion of the components in HA/CTS composites was confirmed. The use of 17 wt% and 23 wt% of chitosan resulted in approximately 12-fold and 16-fold increase in the compressive strength of HA/CTS as compared to the non-modified HA material. During incubation of the studied materials in SBF, pH of the solution remained close to the physiological one. Formation of apatite layer on their surfaces indicated bioactive nature of the developed biomaterials.

  15. Vitamin E improved bone strength and bone minerals in male rats given alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syuhada Zakaria

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Alcohol consumption induces oxidative stress on bone, which in turn increases the risk of osteoporosis. This study determined the effects of vitamin E on bone strength and bone mineral content in alcohol-induced osteoporotic rats. Materials and Methods: Three months old Sprague Dawley male rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: (I control group; (II alcohol (3 g/kg + normal saline; (III alcohol (3 g/kg + olive oil; (IV alcohol (3 g/kg + alpha-tocopherol (60 mg/kg and (V alcohol (3 g/kg + palm vitamin E (60 mg/kg. The treatment lasted for three months. Following sacrifice, the right tibia was subjected to bone biomechanical test while the lumbar (fourth and fifth lumbar and left tibia bones were harvested for bone mineral measurement. Results: Alcohol caused reduction in bone biomechanical parameters (maximum force, ultimate stress, yield stress and Young’s modulus and bone minerals (bone calcium and magnesium compared to control group (P

  16. Therapeutic ion-releasing bioactive glass ionomer cements with improved mechanical strength and radiopacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian eFuchs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive glasses (BG are used to regenerate bone, as they degrade and release therapeutic ions. Glass ionomer cements (GIC are used in dentistry, can be delivered by injection and set in situ by a reaction between an acid-degradable glass and a polymeric acid. Our aim was to combine the advantages of BG and GIC, and we investigated the use of alkali-free BG (SiO2-CaO-CaF2-MgO with 0 to 50% of calcium replaced by strontium, as the beneficial effects of strontium on bone formation are well documented. When mixing BG and poly(vinyl phosphonic-co-acrylic acid, ions were released fast (up to 90% within 15 minutes at pH 1, which resulted in GIC setting, as followed by infrared spectroscopy. GIC mixed well and set to hard cements (compressive strength up to 35 MPa, staying hard when in contact with aqueous solution. This is in contrast to GIC prepared with poly(acrylic acid, which were shown previously to become soft in contact with water. Strontium release from GIC increased linearly with strontium for calcium substitution, allowing for tailoring of strontium release depending on clinical requirements. Furthermore, strontium substitution increased GIC radiopacity. GIC passed ISO10993 cytotoxicity test, making them promising candidates for use as injectable bone cements.

  17. Sclerostin Blockade and Zoledronic Acid Improve Bone Mass and Strength in Male Mice With Exogenous Hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourdi, Elena; Lademann, Franziska; Ominsky, Michael S; Rijntjes, Eddy; Köhrle, Josef; Misof, Barbara M; Roschger, Paul; Klaushofer, Klaus; Hofbauer, Lorenz C; Rauner, Martina

    2017-11-01

    Hyperthyroidism in mice is associated with low bone mass, high bone turnover, and high concentrations of sclerostin, a potent Wnt inhibitor. Here, we explored the effects of either increasing bone formation with sclerostin antibodies (Scl-Ab) or reducing bone turnover with bisphosphonates on bone mass and strength in hyperthyroid mice. Twelve-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were rendered hyperthyroid using l-thyroxine (T4; 1.2 µg/mL added to the drinking water) and treated with 20 mg/kg Scl-Ab twice weekly or 100 µg/kg zoledronic acid (ZOL) once weekly or phosphate-buffered saline for 4 weeks. Hyperthyroid mice displayed a lower trabecular bone volume at the spine (-42%, P hyperthyroid mice increased trabecular bone volume at the spine by threefold and twofold, respectively. Serum bone formation and resorption markers were increased in hyperthyroid mice and suppressed by treatment with ZOL but not Scl-Ab. Trabecular bone stiffness at the lumbar vertebra was 63% lower in hyperthyroid mice (P hyperthyroidism, was increased by Scl-Ab by 71% and ZOL by 22% (both P hyperthyroid mice was restored by treatment with Scl-Ab and ZOL. Thus, bone-forming and antiresorptive drugs prevent bone loss in hyperthyroid mice via different mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  18. Significant Improvements in Pyranometer Nighttime Offsets Using High-Flow DC Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutchenreiter, Mark; Michalski, J.J.; Long, C.N.; Habte, Aron

    2017-05-22

    Accurate solar radiation measurements using pyranometers are required to understand radiative impacts on the Earth's energy budget, solar energy production, and to validate radiative transfer models. Ventilators of pyranometers, which are used to keep the domes clean and dry, also affect instrument thermal offset accuracy. This poster presents a high-level overview of the ventilators for single-black-detector pyranometers and black-and-white pyranometers. For single-black-detector pyranometers with ventilators, high-flow-rate (50-CFM and higher), 12-V DC fans lower the offsets, lower the scatter, and improve the predictability of nighttime offsets compared to lower-flow-rate (35-CFM), 120-V AC fans operated in the same type of environmental setup. Black-and-white pyranometers, which are used to measure diffuse horizontal irradiance, sometimes show minor improvement with DC fan ventilation, but their offsets are always small, usually no more than 1 W/m2, whether AC- or DC-ventilated.

  19. Nitrite addition to acidified sludge significantly improves digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fangzhou; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Batstone, Damien J.; Freguia, Stefano; Pikaar, Ilje

    2016-12-01

    Sludge management is a major issue for water utilities globally. Poor digestibility and dewaterability are the main factors determining the cost for sludge management, whereas pathogen and toxic metal concentrations limit beneficial reuse. In this study, the effects of low level nitrite addition to acidified sludge to simultaneously enhance digestibility, toxic metal removal, dewaterability and pathogen reduction were investigated. Waste activated sludge (WAS) from a full-scale waste water treatment plant was treated at pH 2 with 10 mg NO2--N/L for 5 h. Biochemical methane potential tests showed an increase in the methane production of 28%, corresponding to an improvement from 247 ± 8 L CH4/kg VS to 317 ± 1 L CH4/kg VS. The enhanced removal of toxic metals further increased the methane production by another 18% to 360 ± 6 L CH4/kg VS (a total increase of 46%). The solids content of dewatered sludge increased from 14.6 ± 1.4% in the control to 18.2 ± 0.8%. A 4-log reduction for both total coliforms and E. coli was achieved. Overall, this study highlights the potential of acidification with low level nitrite addition as an effective and simple method achieving multiple improvements in terms of sludge management.

  20. Efficiency improvement of nuclear power plant operation: the significant role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velde Van de, A.; Burtak, F.

    2001-01-01

    Due to the increased liberalisation of the power markets, nuclear power generation is being exposed to high cost reduction pressure. In this paper we highlight the role of advanced nuclear fuel technologies to reduce the fuel cycle costs and therefore increase the efficiency of nuclear power plant operation. The key factor is a more efficient utilisation of the fuel and present developments at Siemens are consequently directed at (i) further increase of batch average burnup, (ii) improvement of fuel reliability, (iii) enlargement of fuel operation margins and (iv) improvement of methods for fuel design and core analysis. As a result, the nuclear fuel cycle costs for a typical LWR have been reduced during the past decades by about US$ 35 million per year. The estimated impact of further burnup increases on the fuel cycle costs is expected to be an additional saving of US$10 - 15 million per year. Due to the fact that the fuel will operate closer to design limits, a careful approach is required when introducing advanced fuel features in reload quantities. Trust and co-operation between the fuel vendors and the utilities is a prerequisite for the common success. (authors)

  1. Significant improvement of mouse cloning technique by treatment with trichostatin A after somatic nuclear transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishigami, Satoshi; Mizutani, Eiji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Hikichi, Takafusa; Thuan, Nguyen Van; Wakayama, Sayaka; Bui, Hong-Thuy; Wakayama, Teruhiko

    2006-01-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is believed to be associated with epigenetic errors including abnormal DNA hypermethylation. Recently, we elucidated by using round spermatids that, after nuclear transfer, treatment of zygotes with trichostatin A (TSA), an inhibitor of histone deacetylase, can remarkably reduce abnormal DNA hypermethylation depending on the origins of transferred nuclei and their genomic regions [S. Kishigami, N. Van Thuan, T. Hikichi, H. Ohta, S. Wakayama. E. Mizutani, T. Wakayama, Epigenetic abnormalities of the mouse paternal zygotic genome associated with microinsemination of round spermatids, Dev. Biol. (2005) in press]. Here, we found that 5-50 nM TSA-treatment for 10 h following oocyte activation resulted in more efficient in vitro development of somatic cloned embryos to the blastocyst stage from 2- to 5-fold depending on the donor cells including tail tip cells, spleen cells, neural stem cells, and cumulus cells. This TSA-treatment also led to more than 5-fold increase in success rate of mouse cloning from cumulus cells without obvious abnormality but failed to improve ES cloning success. Further, we succeeded in establishment of nuclear transfer-embryonic stem (NT-ES) cells from TSA-treated cloned blastocyst at a rate three times higher than those from untreated cloned blastocysts. Thus, our data indicate that TSA-treatment after SCNT in mice can dramatically improve the practical application of current cloning techniques

  2. Ballistic strength training compared with usual care for improving mobility following traumatic brain injury: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gavin; Ada, Louise; Hassett, Leanne; Morris, Meg E; Clark, Ross; Bryant, Adam L; Olver, John

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of disability in young adults aged 15 to 45 years. Mobility limitations are prevalent, and range in severity from interfering with basic day-to-day tasks to restricting participation in higher level social, leisure, employment and sporting activities. Despite the prevalence and severity of physical impairments, such as poor balance and spasticity, the main contributor to mobility limitations following traumatic brain injury is low muscle power generation. Strengthening exercises that are performed quickly are termed 'ballistic' as they are aimed at improving the rate of force production and, hence, muscle power. This is compared with conventional strength training, which is performed slowly and aims to improve maximum force production, yet has limited impact on mobility. In people recovering from traumatic brain injury: (1) is a 12-week ballistic strength-training program targeting the three muscle groups critical for walking more effective than usual care at improving mobility, strength and balance; and (2) does improved mobility translate to better health-related quality of life? A prospective, multi-centre, randomised, single-blind trial with concealed allocation will be conducted. Participants will be patients with a neurologically based movement disorder affecting mobility as a result of traumatic brain injury. Patients will be recruited during the acute phase of rehabilitation (n=166), from brain injury units in large metropolitan hospitals in Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. For 12 weeks, participants in the experimental group will have three 60-minute sessions of usual physiotherapy intervention replaced by three 60-minute sessions of strength training (ballistic strength, gait). The three key muscle groups responsible for forward propulsion will be targeted: ankle plantarflexors, hip flexors and the hip extensors. Initial loads will be low, to facilitate high contraction velocities. Progression to higher loads

  3. The Improvement of Screening the Significant Factors of Oil Blends as Bio lubricant Base Stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noor Hajarul Ashikin Shamsuddin; Rozaini Abdullah; Zainab Hamzah; Siti Jamilah Hanim Mohd Yusof

    2015-01-01

    A new formulation bio lubricant base stock was developed by blending of waste cooking oil (WCO) with Jatropha curcas oil (JCO). The objective of this research is to evaluate significant factors contributing to the production of oil blends for bio lubricant application. The significant factors used in this study were oil ratio (WCO:JCO), agitation times (min) and agitation speed (rpm). The blended oil bio based lubricant was used to determine the saponification, acid, peroxide and iodine values. The experimental design used in this study was the 2 level-factorial design. In this experiment, it was found that the effect of oil ratio and interaction of oil ratio and agitation speed gave the most significant effect in oil blends as bio lubricant base stock. The highest ratio of oil blend 80 %:20 % WCO:JCO, with low agitation speed of 300 rpm and low agitation time of 30 minutes gave the optimum results. The acid, saponification, peroxide and iodine values obtained were 0.517±0.08 mg KOH/ g, 126.23±1.62 mg/ g, 7.5±2.0 m eq/ kg and 50.42±2.85 mg/ g respectively. A higher ratio of waste cooking oil blends was found to be favourable as bio lubricant base stock. (author)

  4. Inpatient rehabilitation improves functional capacity, peripheral muscle strength and quality of life in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José, Anderson; Dal Corso, Simone

    2016-04-01

    Among people who are hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia, does an inpatient exercise-based rehabilitation program improve functional outcomes, symptoms, quality of life and length of hospital stay more than a respiratory physiotherapy regimen? Randomised trial with concealed allocation, intention-to-treat analysis and blinding of some outcomes. Forty-nine adults hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia. The experimental group (n=32) underwent a physical training program that included warm-up, stretching, peripheral muscle strength training and walking at a controlled speed for 15 minutes. The control group (n=17) underwent a respiratory physiotherapy regimen that included percussion, vibrocompression, respiratory exercises and free walking. The intervention regimens lasted 8 days. The primary outcome was the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test, which assesses the time taken to complete a series of functional tasks (eg, rising from a chair, walking, stairs, lifting and bending). Secondary outcomes were distance walked in the incremental shuttle walk test, peripheral muscle strength, quality of life, dyspnoea, lung function, C-reactive protein and length of hospital stay. Measures were taken 1 day before and 1 day after the intervention period. There was greater improvement in the experimental group than in the control group on the Glittre Activities of Daily Living test (mean between-group difference 39 seconds, 95% CI 20 to 59) and the incremental shuttle walk test (mean between-group difference 130 m, 95% CI 77 to 182). There were also significantly greater improvements in quality of life, dyspnoea and peripheral muscle strength in the experimental group than in the control group. There were no between-group differences in lung function, C-reactive protein or length of hospital stay. The improvement in functional outcomes after an inpatient rehabilitation program was greater than the improvement after standard respiratory physiotherapy. The

  5. EASE-Grid 2.0: Incremental but Significant Improvements for Earth-Gridded Data Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H. Savoie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Defined in the early 1990s for use with gridded satellite passive microwave data, the Equal-Area Scalable Earth Grid (EASE-Grid was quickly adopted and used for distribution of a variety of satellite and in situ data sets. Conceptually easy to understand, EASE-Grid suffers from limitations that make it impossible to format in the widely popular GeoTIFF convention without reprojection. Importing EASE-Grid data into standard mapping software packages is nontrivial and error-prone. This article defines a standard for an improved EASE-Grid 2.0 definition, addressing how the changes rectify issues with the original grid definition. Data distributed using the EASE-Grid 2.0 standard will be easier for users to import into standard software packages and will minimize common reprojection errors that users had encountered with the original EASE-Grid definition.

  6. The significance of ultrafine film-like retained austenite in governing very high cycle fatigue behavior in an ultrahigh-strength MN–SI–Cr–C steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, P.; Zhang, B.; Cheng, C.; Misra, R.D K.; Gao, G.; Bai, B.; Weng, Y.

    2015-01-01

    We elucidate here the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior of an ultrahigh-strength medium carbon Mn–Si–Cr–C steel processed using the approach of bainite-based quenching and partitioning (BQ&P). The microstructure of BQ&P process comprised of bainite, carbon-depleted martensite, retained austenite (RA) and small amount of martensite/austenite island (M/A). The tensile strength (R m ) and fatigue limit strength after 10 9 cycles (σ w9 ) and in the non-failed condition were 1688 MPa and 875 MPa, respectively such that σ w9 /R m exceeded conventional steels and was 0.52. Two types of failure modes were observed depending on the surface and microstructure, notably surface-induced failure and non-inclusion-induced failure, where the non-inclusion-induced failure was influenced by the microstructure. Inclusion-induced failure was absent. The study underscores that film-like retained austenite was the underlying reason for superior fatigue properties, hitherto not previously obtained

  7. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A

    2018-01-01

    -dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date...

  8. A patient/family-centered strategic plan can drive significant improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilli, Richard J; Crandall, Wallace V; Berry, Janet C; Stoverock, Linda; Rosen, Kerry; Budin, Lee; Kelleher, Kelly J; Gleeson, Sean P; Davis, J Terrance

    2014-08-01

    The use of a PFCSP, as a road map to operationalize the hospital's vision, has been a compelling paradigm to achieve significant QI results. The framework is simple yet directly aligns with the IOM domains of quality. It has inspired and helped actively engage hospital personnel in the work required to achieve the goals and vision of the hospital system. Five years after initiating this type of plan, activity is flourishing in each of the domains and midterm results are substantial. We think that the nature of this strategic plan has been an important aspect of our success to date.

  9. An integrated PRA module for fast determination of risk significance and improvement effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Chun-Chang; Lin, Jyh-Der

    2004-01-01

    With the widely use of PRA technology in risk-informed applications, to predict the changes of CDF and LERF becomes a standard process for risk-informed applications. This paper describes an integrated PRA module prepared for risk-informed applications. The module contains a super risk engine, a super fault tree engine, an advanced PRA model and a tool for data base maintenance. The individual element of the module also works well for purpose other than risk-informed applications. The module has been verified and validated through a series of scrupulous benchmark tests with similar software. The results of the benchmark tests showed that the module has remarkable accuracy and speed even for an extremely large-size top-logic fault tree as well as for the case in which large amount of MCSs may be generated. The risk monitor for nuclear power plants in Taiwan is the first application to adopt the module. The results predicted by the risk monitor are now accepted by the regulatory agency. A tool to determine the risk significance according to the inspection findings will be the next application to adopt the module in the near future. This tool classified the risk significance into four different color codes according to the level of increase on CDF. Experience of application showed that the flexibility, the accuracy and speed of the module make it useful in any risk-informed applications when risk indexes must be determined by resolving a PRA model. (author)

  10. Inulin significantly improves serum magnesium levels in proton pump inhibitor-induced hypomagnesaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, M W; de Baaij, J H F; Broekman, M; Bisseling, T M; Haarhuis, B; Tan, A; Te Morsche, R; Hoenderop, J G J; Bindels, R J M; Drenth, J P H

    2016-06-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are among the most widely prescribed drugs to treat gastric acid-related disorders. PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia, a defect in intestinal absorption of Mg(2+) , can be a severe side effect of chronic PPI use. To restore serum Mg(2+) concentrations in PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia patients by dietary supplementation with inulin fibres. Eleven patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia and 10 controls were treated with inulin (20 g/day). Each trial consisted of two cycles of 14-day inulin treatment followed by a washout period of 14 days. Patients continued to use their PPI. Serum Mg(2+) levels served as the primary endpoint. Inulin significantly enhanced serum Mg(2+) levels from 0.60 to 0.68 mmol/L in PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia patients, and from 0.84 to 0.93 mmol/L in controls. As a consequence 24 h urinary Mg(2+) excretion was significantly increased in patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia (0.3-2.2 mmol/day). Symptoms related to hypomagnesaemia, including muscle cramps and paraesthesia, were reduced during intervention with inulin. Inulin increases serum Mg(2+) concentrations under PPI maintenance in patients with PPI-induced hypomagnesaemia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A randomized clinical trial comparing pelvic floor muscle training to a Pilates exercise program for improving pelvic muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culligan, Patrick J; Scherer, Janet; Dyer, Keisha; Priestley, Jennifer L; Guingon-White, Geri; Delvecchio, Donna; Vangeli, Margi

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether a Pilates exercise program and a pelvic floor muscle-training (PFMT) program could provide similar improvements in pelvic muscle strength. Sixty-two women with little or no pelvic floor dysfunction were randomized to Pilates or PFMT. Each group had 24 biweekly 1-h sessions with either a physical therapist or Pilates instructor. Strength was measured via perineometry (cmH(2)O). Two questionnaires--pelvic floor distress inventory (PFDI-20) and pelvic floor impact questionnaire (PFIQ-7)--were also collected. At baseline, the Pilates and PFMT groups measured 14.9 +/- 12.5 and 12.5 +/- 10.4 cmH(2)O, respectively (p = 0.41). Both the Pilates and PFMT groups got stronger (6.2 +/- 7.5 cmH(2)O, p = 0.0002 and 6.6 +/- 7.4 cmH(2)O, p = 0.0002, respectively), with no difference between groups p = 0.85. PFIQ and PFDI scores improved from baseline but not between groups. Further study is required to determine if Pilates can actually treat pelvic floor dysfunction.

  12. Improvement in Wood Bonding Strength of Poly (Vinyl Acetate-Butyl Acrylate Emulsion by Controlling the Amount of Redox Initiator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyvinyl acetate emulsion adhesive has been widely used due to its good bonding performance and environmentally friendly properties. Indeed, the bonding performance can be further improved by copolymerizing with other monomers. In this study, the effect of the adjunction of redox initiator (hydrogen peroxide–tartaric acid, H2O2–TA on the properties of the poly (vinyl acetate-butyl acrylate (P (VAc–BA emulsion adhesive was investigated. With increasing dosage, the reaction became more complete and the obtained film was more compact, as identified via SEM. The core-shell structure of the emulsion particles was confirmed via TEM. Results indicate that while the initiator content increased from 0.5 to 1.0%, a clearer core-shell structure was obtained and the bonding strength of the plywood improved from 2.34 to 2.97 MPa. With the further incorporation of H2O2–TA (i.e., 1.5%, the bonding performance deteriorated. The optimum wood bonding strength (2.97 MPa of the prepared P (VAc-BA emulsion adhesive was even better than that (2.55 MPa of a commercial PVAc emulsion adhesive, suggesting its potential application for the wood industry.

  13. Progressive degradation of alloy 690 and the development of a significant improvement in alloy 800CR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staehle, Roger W.; Arioka, Koji; Tapping, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The present most widely used alloys for tubing in steam generators and structural materials in water cooled reactors are Alloy 690 and Alloy 800. However, both alloys, while improved over Alloy 600 may not meet the needs of longer range applications in the range of 80-100 years. Alloy 690 sustains damage resulting from the formation of cavities at grain boundaries which eventually cover about 50% of the area of the grain boundaries with the remainder covering being covered with carbides. The cavities seem to nucleate on the carbides leaving the grain boundaries a structure of cavities and carbides. Such a structure will lead the Alloy 690 to fail completely. Normal Alloy 800 does not produce such cavities and probably retains a large amount of its corrosion resistance but does sustain progressive SCC at low rate. A new alloy, 800CR, has been developed in a collaboration among Arioka, Tapping, and Staehle. This alloy is based on a Cr composition of 23.5-27% with the remainder retaining the previous Alloy 800 composition. 800CR sustains a crack velocity about 100 times less than Alloy 690 and a negligible rate of initiation. The 800CR, alloy is now seeking a patent. (authors)

  14. Significant improvements of electrical discharge machining performance by step-by-step updated adaptive control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ming; Wu, Jianyang; Xu, Xiaoyi; Mu, Xin; Dou, Yunping

    2018-02-01

    In order to obtain improved electrical discharge machining (EDM) performance, we have dedicated more than a decade to correcting one essential EDM defect, the weak stability of the machining, by developing adaptive control systems. The instabilities of machining are mainly caused by complicated disturbances in discharging. To counteract the effects from the disturbances on machining, we theoretically developed three control laws from minimum variance (MV) control law to minimum variance and pole placements coupled (MVPPC) control law and then to a two-step-ahead prediction (TP) control law. Based on real-time estimation of EDM process model parameters and measured ratio of arcing pulses which is also called gap state, electrode discharging cycle was directly and adaptively tuned so that a stable machining could be achieved. To this end, we not only theoretically provide three proved control laws for a developed EDM adaptive control system, but also practically proved the TP control law to be the best in dealing with machining instability and machining efficiency though the MVPPC control law provided much better EDM performance than the MV control law. It was also shown that the TP control law also provided a burn free machining.

  15. Significant improvement of pig cloning efficiency by treatment with LBH589 after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jun-Xue; Li, Suo; Gao, Qing-Shan; Hong, Yu; Jin, Long; Zhu, Hai-Ying; Yan, Chang-Guo; Kang, Jin-Dan; Yin, Xi-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The low success rate of animal cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) associates with epigenetic aberrancy, including the abnormal acetylation of histones. Altering the epigenetic status by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) enhances the developmental potential of SCNT embryos. In the current study, we examined the effects of LBH589 (panobinostat), a novel broad-spectrum HDACi, on the nuclear reprogramming and development of pig SCNT embryos in vitro. In experiment 1, we compared the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with different concentrations of LBH589. Embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for 24 hours showed a significant increase in the rate of blastocyst formation compared with the control or embryos treated with 5 or 500 nM LBH589 (32.4% vs. 11.8%, 12.1%, and 10.0%, respectively, P < 0.05). In experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental competence of nuclear transfer embryos treated with 50 nM LBH589 for various intervals after activation and 6-dimethylaminopurine. Embryos treated for 24 hours had higher rates of blastocyst formation than the other groups. In experiment 3, when the acetylation of H4K12 was examined in SCNT embryos treated for 6 hours with 50 nM LBH589 by immunohistochemistry, the staining intensities of these proteins in LBH589-treated SCNT embryos were significantly higher than in the control. In experiment 4, LBH589-treated nuclear transfer and control embryos were transferred into surrogate mothers, resulting in three (100%) and two (66.7%) pregnancies, respectively. In conclusion, LBH589 enhances the nuclear reprogramming and developmental potential of SCNT embryos by altering the epigenetic status and expression, and increasing blastocyst quality. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. High improvement in trap level density and direct current breakdown strength of block polypropylene by doping with a β-nucleating agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Zha, Jun-Wei; Yan, Hong-Da; Li, Wei-Kang; Dang, Zhi-Min

    2018-02-01

    Polypropylene is one kind of eco-friendly insulating material, which has attracted more attention for use in high voltage direct current (HVDC) insulation due to the long-distance transmission, low loss, and recyclability. In this work, the morphology and thermal and electrical properties of the block polypropylene with various β-nucleating agent (β-NA) contents were investigated. The relative fraction of the β-crystal can reach 64.7% after adding 0.05 wt. % β-NA. The β-NA also greatly reduced the melting point and improved the crystallization temperature. The electrical property results showed that the alternating and direct current breakdown strength and conduction current were obviously improved. In addition, space charge accumulation was significantly suppressed by introducing the β-NA. This work provides an attractive strategy of design and fabrication of polypropylene for HVDC application.

  17. Micaceous Soil Strength And Permeability Improvement Induced By Microbacteria From Vegetable Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, R. C.; Roslan, R.; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Hanafiah, M. I. M.

    2016-11-01

    Green technology method using vegetable waste are introduced in this paper for improvement of phyllite residual soil from UNITEN, Campus. Residual soil from phyllite are known as micaceous soils and it give problem in managing the stability of the slope especially in wet and extensively dry seasons. Micaceous soil are collected using tube sampler technique and mixed with liquid contain microorganism from fermented vegetable waste name as vege-grout to form remolded sample. The remolded sample are classify as 15.0%, 17.5%, 20.00% and 22.5% based on different incremental percentages of vege-grout. The curing time for the sample are 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days before the tests were conducted. Observation of the effect of treatment shows 20.0% of liquid contain Bacillus pasteurii and Bacillus Subtilis with 21 days curing time is the optimum value in strengthening the soil and improve the permeability.

  18. Vagus nerve stimulation during rehabilitative training improves forelimb strength following ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaparast, N; Hays, S A; Sloan, A M; Hulsey, D R; Ruiz, A; Pantoja, M; Rennaker, R L; Kilgard, M P

    2013-12-01

    Upper limb impairment is a common debilitating consequence of ischemic stroke. Physical rehabilitation after stroke enhances neuroplasticity and improves limb function, but does not typically restore normal movement. We have recently developed a novel method that uses vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) paired with forelimb movements to drive specific, long-lasting map plasticity in rat primary motor cortex. Here we report that VNS paired with rehabilitative training can enhance recovery of forelimb force generation following infarction of primary motor cortex in rats. Quantitative measures of forelimb function returned to pre-lesion levels when VNS was delivered during rehab training. Intensive rehab training without VNS failed to restore function back to pre-lesion levels. Animals that received VNS during rehab improved twice as much as rats that received the same rehabilitation without VNS. VNS delivered during physical rehabilitation represents a novel method that may provide long-lasting benefits towards stroke recovery. © 2013.

  19. Silver chlorobromide nanocubes with significantly improved uniformity: synthesis and assembly into photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zheng; Okasinski, John S.; Gosztola, David J.; Ren, Yang; Sun, Yugang

    2015-01-01

    Silver chlorobromide (AgClxBr1-x, 0 < x < 1) nanocubes with a highly uniform size, morphology, and crystallinity have been successfully synthesized through a co-precipitation of Ag+ ions with both Cl- and Br- ions in ethylene glycol containing polyvinyl pyrrolidone at mild temperatures. Compositions of the synthesized nanocubes can be easily tuned by controlling the molar ratio of Cl- to Br- ions in the reaction solutions. The size of the nanocubes is determined by varying a number of parameters including the molar ratio of Cl- to Br- ions, injection rate of Ag+ ions, and reaction temperature. The real-time formation of colloidal AgClxBr1-x nanocubes has been monitored, for the first time, by in situ highenergy synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The time-resolved results reveal that a fast injection rate of Ag+ ions is critical for the formation of AgClxBr1-x nanocubes with a highly pure face-centered cubic crystalline phase. The improved uniformity of the AgClxBr1-x nanocubes is beneficial for assembling them into order superlattices (e.g., photonic crystals) even by simply applying centrifugation forces. The stop band of the resulting photonic crystals can be easily tuned from the ultraviolet to the infrared region by using AgClxBr1-x nanocubes with different sizes. The variation of the dielectric constant of AgClxBr1-x associated with the change of the relative concentration of halide ions provides an additional knob to tune the optical properties of photonic crystals.

  20. Proactive behaviour towards strength use and deficit improvement, hope and efficacy as predictors of life satisfaction amongst first-year university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick W. Stander

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The orientation of this study is towards proactive behaviour towards strength use (PBSU and proactive behaviour towards deficit improvement (PBDI and their relationship with hope, efficacy and life satisfaction of first-year university students. Research purpose: To (1 determine whether PBSU and PBDI predict life satisfaction, (2 determine whether PBSU and PBDI predict hope and efficacy and (3 investigate a structural model where hope and efficacy mediate the relationship between PBSU and PBDI and life satisfaction. Motivation for the study: To validate the use of PBSU and PBDI as resources that will assist first-year university student to attain life satisfaction and to delineate the need for universities to incorporate interventions that promote PBSU and PBDI amongst these students. This supports the case for positive organisational behaviour. Research design, approach and method: A convenience sample of 566 first-year students from a university in Gauteng was used with a cross-sectional research design. Structural equation modelling was used to establish the validity of the measurement model, fit for the structural model and to test the mediating effects. Main findings: The results indicated that PBSU was a significant predictor of hope, efficacy and life satisfaction and that PBDI was a significant predictor of hope and efficacy. Hope mediated the relationship between PBSU, PBDI and life satisfaction. Efficacy mediated the relationship between PBSU and life satisfaction. Practical/managerial implications: Evidence suggests that PBSU was a predictor of life satisfaction. This was not the case with PBDI, which in fact negatively correlated with life satisfaction. Both PBSU and PBDI, however, predicted hope and efficacy. On a practical level this reveals that universities should, in line with positive organisational behaviour, introduce interventions that develop PBSU and PBDI amongst first-year students. It further suggests that

  1. Physical exercise improves strength, balance, mobility, and endurance in people with cognitive impairment and dementia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Freddy Mh; Huang, Mei-Zhen; Liao, Lin-Rong; Chung, Raymond Ck; Kwok, Timothy Cy; Pang, Marco Yc

    2018-01-01

    Does physical exercise training improve physical function and quality of life in people with cognitive impairment and dementia? Which training protocols improve physical function and quality of life? How do cognitive impairment and other patient characteristics influence the outcomes of exercise training? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. People with mild cognitive impairment or dementia as the primary diagnosis. Physical exercise. Strength, flexibility, gait, balance, mobility, walking endurance, dual-task ability, activities of daily living, quality of life, and falls. Forty-three clinical trials (n=3988) were included. According to the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system, the meta-analyses revealed strong evidence in support of using supervised exercise training to improve the results of 30-second sit-to-stand test (MD 2.1 repetitions, 95% CI 0.3 to 3.9), step length (MD 5cm, 95% CI 2 to 8), Berg Balance Scale (MD 3.6 points, 95% CI 0.3 to 7.0), functional reach (3.9cm, 95% CI 2.2 to 5.5), Timed Up and Go test (-1second, 95% CI -2 to 0), walking speed (0.13m/s, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.24), and 6-minute walk test (50m, 95% CI 18 to 81) in individuals with mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Weak evidence supported the use of exercise in improving flexibility and Barthel Index performance. Weak evidence suggested that non-specific exercise did not improve dual-tasking ability or activity level. Strong evidence indicated that exercise did not improve quality of life in this population. The effect of exercise on falls remained inconclusive. Poorer physical function was a determinant of better response to exercise training, but cognitive performance did not have an impact. People with various levels of cognitive impairment can benefit from supervised multi-modal exercise for about 60minutes a day, 2 to 3days a week to improve physical function. [Lam FMH , Huang MZ, Liao LR, Chung RCK, Kwok TCY, Pang MYC

  2. The Strasbourg Large Refractor and Dome: Significant Improvements and Failed Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Founded by the German Empire in the late 19th century, Strasbourg Astronomical Observatory featured several novelties from the start. According to Mueller (1978), the separation of observing buildings from the study area and from the astronomers' residence was a revolution in observatory construction. The instruments were, as much as possible, isolated from the vibrations of the buildings themselves. "Gas flames" and water were used to reduce temperature effects. Thus the Large Dome (ca 11m diameter), housing the Large Refractor (ca 49cm, then the largest in Germany) and covered by zinc over wood, could be cooled down by water running from the top. Reports (including by the French who took over the observatory after World War I) are however somehow nonexistent on the effective usage and actual efficiency of such a system (which must have generated locally a significant amount of humidity). The paper will detail these technical attempts as well as the specificities of the instruments installed in that new observatory intended as a showcase of German astronomy.

  3. Genome-wide linkage scan for maximum and length-dependent knee muscle strength in young men: significant evidence for linkage at chromosome 14q24.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mars, G; Windelinckx, A; Huygens, W; Peeters, M W; Beunen, G P; Aerssens, J; Vlietinck, R; Thomis, M A I

    2008-05-01

    Maintenance of high muscular fitness is positively related to bone health, functionality in daily life and increasing insulin sensitivity, and negatively related to falls and fractures, morbidity and mortality. Heritability of muscle strength phenotypes ranges between 31% and 95%, but little is known about the identity of the genes underlying this complex trait. As a first attempt, this genome-wide linkage study aimed to identify chromosomal regions linked to muscle and bone cross-sectional area, isometric knee flexion and extension torque, and torque-length relationship for knee flexors and extensors. In total, 283 informative male siblings (17-36 years old), belonging to 105 families, were used to conduct a genome-wide SNP-based multipoint linkage analysis. The strongest evidence for linkage was found for the torque-length relationship of the knee flexors at 14q24.3 (LOD = 4.09; p<10(-5)). Suggestive evidence for linkage was found at 14q32.2 (LOD = 3.00; P = 0.005) for muscle and bone cross-sectional area, at 2p24.2 (LOD = 2.57; p = 0.01) for isometric knee torque at 30 degrees flexion, at 1q21.3, 2p23.3 and 18q11.2 (LOD = 2.33, 2.69 and 2.21; p<10(-4) for all) for the torque-length relationship of the knee extensors and at 18p11.31 (LOD = 2.39; p = 0.0004) for muscle-mass adjusted isometric knee extension torque. We conclude that many small contributing genes rather than a few important genes are involved in causing variation in different underlying phenotypes of muscle strength. Furthermore, some overlap in promising genomic regions were identified among different strength phenotypes.

  4. Single-atom catalysts for CO2 electroreduction with significant activity and selectivity improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, Seoin; Lim, Juhyung; Kim, Na-Young; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Jung, Yousung

    2017-02-01

    A single-atom catalyst (SAC) has an electronic structure that is very different from its bulk counterparts, and has shown an unexpectedly high specific activity with a significant reduction in noble metal usage for CO oxidation, fuel cell and hydrogen evolution applications, although physical origins of such performance enhancements are still poorly understood. Herein, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we for the first time investigate the great potential of single atom catalysts for CO 2 electroreduction applications. In particular, we study a single transition metal atom anchored on defective graphene with single or double vacancies, denoted M@sv-Gr or M@dv-Gr, where M = Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Fe, Ir, Ni, Os, Pd, Pt, Rh or Ru, as a CO 2 reduction catalyst. Many SACs are indeed shown to be highly selective for the CO 2 reduction reaction over a competitive H 2 evolution reaction due to favorable adsorption of carboxyl (*COOH) or formate (*OCHO) over hydrogen (*H) on the catalysts. On the basis of free energy profiles, we identified several promising candidate materials for different products; Ni@dv-Gr (limiting potential U L = -0.41 V) and Pt@dv-Gr (-0.27 V) for CH 3 OH production, and Os@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) and Ru@dv-Gr (-0.52 V) for CH 4 production. In particular, the Pt@dv-Gr catalyst shows remarkable reduction in the limiting potential for CH 3 OH production compared to any existing catalysts, synthesized or predicted. To understand the origin of the activity enhancement of SACs, we find that the lack of an atomic ensemble for adsorbate binding and the unique electronic structure of the single atom catalysts as well as orbital interaction play an important role, contributing to binding energies of SACs that deviate considerably from the conventional scaling relation of bulk transition metals.

  5. Factors Related to Significant Improvement of Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rates in Chronic Hepatitis B Patients Receiving Telbivudine Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. The improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFRs in chronic hepatitis B (CHB patients receiving telbivudine therapy is well known. The aim of this study was to clarify the kinetics of eGFRs and to identify the significant factors related to the improvement of eGFRs in telbivudine-treated CHB patients in a real-world setting. Methods. Serial eGFRs were calculated every 3 months using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation. The patients were classified as CKD-1, -2, or -3 according to a baseline eGFR of ≥90, 60–89, or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, respectively. A significant improvement of eGFR was defined as a more than 10% increase from the baseline. Results. A total of 129 patients were enrolled, of whom 36% had significantly improved eGFRs. According to a multivariate analysis, diabetes mellitus (DM (p=0.028 and CKD-3 (p=0.043 were both significantly related to such improvement. The rates of significant improvement of eGFR were about 73% and 77% in patients with DM and CKD-3, respectively. Conclusions. Telbivudine is an alternative drug of choice for the treatment of hepatitis B patients for whom renal safety is a concern, especially patients with DM and CKD-3.

  6. A systematic review of surgeon-patient communication: strengths and opportunities for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinson, Wendy; Hudak, Pamela; Tricco, Andrea C

    2013-10-01

    Effective communication is critical to patient satisfaction, outcomes of care and malpractice prevention. Surgeons need particularly effective communication skills to discuss complicated procedures and help patients make informed choices. We conducted a systematic review of the literature on surgeon-patient communication. Searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Sociological Abstract. Two reviewers screened citations and full-text articles. Quality was appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program tool. Studies were categorized into content of communication, patient satisfaction, relationship of communication to malpractice, and duration of visits. 2794 citations and 74 full-text articles, 21 studies and 13 companion reports were included. Surgeons spent the majority of their time educating patients and helping them to make choices. Surgeons were generally thorough in providing details about surgical conditions and treatments. Surgeons often did not explore the emotions or concerns of patients. Potential areas of improvement included discussing some elements of informed decision making, and expressing empathy. Surgeons can enhance their communication skills, particularly in areas of relative deficiency. Studies in primary care demonstrate communication programs are effective in teaching these skills. These can be adapted to surgical training and ultimately lead to improved outcomes and satisfaction with care. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Susanne G; Beyer, Nina; Hansen, Mette

    2011-01-01

    Petersen SG, Beyer N, Hansen M, Holm L, Aagaard P, Mackey AL, Kjaer M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients.......Petersen SG, Beyer N, Hansen M, Holm L, Aagaard P, Mackey AL, Kjaer M. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug or glucosamine reduced pain and improved muscle strength with resistance training in a randomized controlled trial of knee osteoarthritis patients....

  8. Omega-3 fatty acid therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation, however, did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Pyung Chun; Koh, Kwang Kon; Sakuma, Ichiro; Lim, Soo; Lee, Yonghee; Lee, Seungik; Lee, Kyounghoon; Han, Seung Hwan; Shin, Eak Kyun

    2014-10-20

    Experimental studies demonstrate that higher intake of omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 FA) improves insulin sensitivity, however, we reported that n-3 FA 2g therapy, most commonly used dosage did not significantly improve insulin sensitivity despite reducing triglycerides by 21% in patients. Therefore, we investigated the effects of different dosages of n-3 FA in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This was a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel study. Age, sex, and body mass index were matched among groups. All patients were recommended to maintain a low fat diet. Forty-four patients (about 18 had metabolic syndrome/type 2 diabetes mellitus) in each group were given placebo, n-3 FA 1 (O1), 2 (O2), or 4 g (O4), respectively daily for 2 months. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and triglycerides/HDL cholesterol and improved flow-mediated dilation, compared with placebo (by ANOVA). However, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly decrease high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and fibrinogen, compared with placebo. O1 significantly increased insulin levels and decreased insulin sensitivity (determined by QUICKI) and O2 significantly decreased plasma adiponectin levels relative to baseline measurements. Of note, when compared with placebo, each n-3 FA therapy did not significantly change insulin, glucose, adiponectin, glycated hemoglobin levels and insulin sensitivity (by ANOVA). We observed similar results in a subgroup of patients with the metabolic syndrome. n-3 FA therapy dose-dependently and significantly decreased triglycerides and improved flow-mediated dilation. Nonetheless, n-3 FA therapy did not significantly improve acute-phase reactants and insulin sensitivity in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, regardless of dosages. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Heat and corrosion resistant cast CN-12 type stainless steel with improved high temperature strength and ductility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazias, Philip J.; McGreevy, Tim; Pollard,Michael James; Siebenaler, Chad W.; Swindeman, Robert W.

    2007-08-14

    A cast stainless steel alloy and articles formed therefrom containing about 0.5 wt. % to about 10 wt. % manganese, 0.02 wt. % to 0.50 wt. % N, and less than 0.15 wt. % sulfur provides high temperature strength both in the matrix and at the grain boundaries without reducing ductility due to cracking along boundaries with continuous or nearly-continuous carbides. Alloys of the present invention also have increased nitrogen solubility thereby enhancing strength at all temperatures because nitride precipitates or nitrogen porosity during casting are not observed. The solubility of nitrogen is dramatically enhanced by the presence of manganese, which also retains or improves the solubility of carbon thereby providing additional solid solution strengthening due to the presence of manganese and nitrogen, and combined carbon. Such solution strengthening enhances the high temperature precipitation-strengthening benefits of fine dispersions of NbC. Such solid solution effects also enhance the stability of the austenite matrix from resistance to excess sigma phase or chrome carbide formation at higher service temperatures. The presence of sulfides is substantially eliminated.

  10. Improving resistance of high strength concrete (HSC) bridge beams to frost and defrosting salt attack by application of hydrophobic agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolisko, Jiri; Balík, Lukáš; Kostelecka, Michaela; Pokorný, Petr

    2017-09-01

    HSC (High Strength Concrete) is increasingly used for bearing bridge structures nowadays. Bridge structures in the Czech Republic are exposed to severe conditions in winter time and durability of the concrete is therefore a crucial requirement. The high strength and low water absorption of HSC suggests that the material will have high durability. However, the situation may not be so straightforward. We carried out a study of the very poor durability of HSC concrete C70/85 used to produce prestresed beams 37.1 m in length to build a 6-span highway bridge. After the beams were cast, a production control test indicated some problems with the durability of the concrete. There was a danger that 42 of the beams would not be suitable for use. All participants in the bridge project finally decided, after extensive discussions, to attempt to improve the durability of the concrete by applying a hydrophobic agent. Paper will present the results of comparative tests of four hydrophobic agents in order to choose one for real application and describes this application on construction site.

  11. Experimental investigation and empirical modelling of FDM process for compressive strength improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop K. Sood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fused deposition modelling (FDM is gaining distinct advantage in manufacturing industries because of its ability to manufacture parts with complex shapes without any tooling requirement and human interface. The properties of FDM built parts exhibit high dependence on process parameters and can be improved by setting parameters at suitable levels. Anisotropic and brittle nature of build part makes it important to study the effect of process parameters to the resistance to compressive loading for enhancing service life of functional parts. Hence, the present work focuses on extensive study to understand the effect of five important parameters such as layer thickness, part build orientation, raster angle, raster width and air gap on the compressive stress of test specimen. The study not only provides insight into complex dependency of compressive stress on process parameters but also develops a statistically validated predictive equation. The equation is used to find optimal parameter setting through quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization (QPSO. As FDM process is a highly complex one and process parameters influence the responses in a non linear manner, compressive stress is predicted using artificial neural network (ANN and is compared with predictive equation.

  12. Mechanism of improvement on strength and toughness of H13 die steel by nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Lai; Huo, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    The mechanism of nitrogen addition to AISI H13 die steel is proposed and supported using thermodynamic calculations in addition to observed changes in precipitate, microstructure, crystal structure, and macroproperties. The results indicate that the average impact toughness ak of the novel nitrogen H13 steel is maximally 17.6 J cm −2 and minimally 13.4 J cm −2 . These values result in die steel that reaches premium grade and approximate the superior grade as specified in NADCA#207-2003, additionally the hardness is improved 3–5HRC. Experimental findings indicate that the residual V(C,N) particles undissolved during nitrogen H13 steel austenitizing by quenching helps to suppress growth of original austenitic crystal grains, this in turn results in finer martensitic structures after quenching. In the subsequent tempering process all N atoms are dissolved in the solid state matrix a result of C atoms displacing N atoms in V(C,N). Solid dissolution of N atoms produces a distorted lattice of Fe matrix which results in an increase in the hardness of the steel. Additionally this displacement reaction is important for slow growth of secondary particles in nitrogen H13 steel during the tempering process which helps to increase impact toughness compared to its nitrogen-free counterpart given the same condition of heat-treatment

  13. In hip osteoarthritis, Nordic Walking is superior to strength training and home based exercise for improving function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bieler, T.; Siersma, Volkert; Magnusson, S. P.

    2017-01-01

    in 60+-year-old persons (n = 152) with hip osteoarthritis (OA) not awaiting hip replacement. Functional performance [i.e., 30-s chair stand test (primary outcome), timed stair climbing, and 6-min walk test] and self-reported outcomes (i.e., physical function, pain, physical activity level, self-efficacy......This observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial compared the short- and long-term effects of 4 months of supervised strength training (ST) in a local fitness center, supervised Nordic Walking (NW) in a local park, and unsupervised home-based exercise (HBE, control) on functional performance...... activity and to both ST and HBE for improving (P exercise modality compared with ST and HBE....

  14. Cross accumulative roll bonding—A novel mechanical technique for significant improvement of stir-cast Al/Al2O3 nanocomposite properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardakani, Mohammad Reza Kamali; Amirkhanlou, Sajjad; Khorsand, Shohreh

    2014-01-01

    Lightweight metal-matrix nanocomposites (MMNCs—metal matrix with nanosized ceramic particles) can be of significance for automobile, aerospace, and numerous other applications. There are some problems in obtaining suitable mechanical properties of MMNCs, including weak bonding between reinforcement and matrix, non-uniformity of reinforcement nanoparticles and high porosity content. In this study, aluminum/alumina nanocomposite was fabricated by stircasting method. Subsequently, cross accumulative roll bonding (CARB) process was used as an effective method for refinement of microstructure and improvement of mechanical properties. The microstructural evolution and the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites during various CARB cycles were examined by the Archimedes method, X-ray defractometer, scanning electron microscopy and tensile testing. The results showed that the microstructure of the nanocomposite after eight cycles of CARB had an excellent distribution of alumina nanoparticles in aluminum matrix without any remarkable porosity. The X-ray diffraction results showed that the crystallite size of the nanocomposite was 71 nm by employing eight cycles of CARB technique. Mechanical experiment also indicated that the ultimate tensile strength and the elongation of the nanocomposite increased as the number of CARB cycles increased. After eight CARB cycles, ultimate tensile strength and the elongation values reached 344 MPa and 6.4%, which were 3.13 and 3.05 times greater than those of as-cast nanocomposites, respectively

  15. Lower limb progressive resistance training improves leg strength but not gait speed or balance in Parkinson's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Alex; Muthalib, Makii; Hendy, Ashlee M; Johnson, Liam G; Rantalainen, Timo; Kidgell, Dawson J; Enticott, Peter G; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The use of progressive resistance training (PRT) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb functions such as gait, balance, and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the effect sizes between experimental and control groups and I (2) statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. In total, seven studies were identified consisting of 172 participants (experimental n = 84; control n = 88). The pooled results showed a moderate but significant effect of PRT on leg strength (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.464-2.376); however, no significant effects were observed for gait speed (SMD 0.418, 95% CI -0.219 to 1.055). No significant effects were observed for balance measures included in this review. In conclusion, our results showed no discernable effect of PRT on gait and balance measures, although this is likely due to the lack of studies available. It may be suggested that PRT be performed in conjunction with balance or task-specific functional training to elicit greater lower limb functional benefits in people with PD.

  16. Lower Limb Progressive Resistance Training Improves Leg Strength but Not Gait Speed or Balance in Parkinson’s Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Alex; Muthalib, Makii; Hendy, Ashlee M.; Johnson, Liam G.; Rantalainen, Timo; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Enticott, Peter G.; Teo, Wei-Peng

    2015-01-01

    The use of progressive resistance training (PRT) to improve gait and balance in people with Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an emerging area of interest. However, the main effects of PRT on lower limb functions such as gait, balance, and leg strength in people with PD remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the meta-analysis is to evaluate the evidence surrounding the use of PRT to improve gait and balance in people with PD. Five electronic databases, from inception to December 2014, were searched to identify the relevant studies. Data extraction was performed by two independent reviewers and methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. Standardized mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of fixed and random effects models were used to calculate the effect sizes between experimental and control groups and I2 statistics were used to determine levels of heterogeneity. In total, seven studies were identified consisting of 172 participants (experimental n = 84; control n = 88). The pooled results showed a moderate but significant effect of PRT on leg strength (SMD 1.42, 95% CI 0.464–2.376); however, no significant effects were observed for gait speed (SMD 0.418, 95% CI −0.219 to 1.055). No significant effects were observed for balance measures included in this review. In conclusion, our results showed no discernable effect of PRT on gait and balance measures, although this is likely due to the lack of studies available. It may be suggested that PRT be performed in conjunction with balance or task-specific functional training to elicit greater lower limb functional benefits in people with PD. PMID:25852550

  17. A novel coating strategy towards improving interfacial adhesion strength of Cu–Sn alloy coated steel with vulcanized rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Atanu [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur 831001 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Dutta, Monojit [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur 831001 (India); Bysakh, Sandip [Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700032 (India); Bhowmick, Anil K. [Rubber Technology Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Laha, Tapas, E-mail: laha@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We propose a double layer Cu–Sn alloy coating strategy on steel to improve adhesion. • Uniform coating with adequate penetration inside micro-roughness was observed. • XPS and GDOES study revealed improved substrate surface coverage by coating. • TEM investigation confirmed compact, uniform and micro-porosity free interface. • Peel test with vulcanized rubber confirmed improved adhesion with cohesive fracture. - Abstract: A comparative assessment in terms of uniformity, coating coverage and coating deposition mechanism has been carried out for two different types of Cu–Sn coatings on steel substrate with varying Sn composition (2–6.5 wt%) deposited via immersion technique, viz. (i) single layer Cu–Sn coating and (ii) double layer coating consisting of a thin Cu strike layer followed by a Cu–Sn layer. Coating morphology, surface coverage, coating-substrate interface, and coating composition at surface and along the depth were studied using laser confocal microscope (OLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quantitative depth profiling using GDOES and surface compositional analysis via XPS suggested improvement in surface coverage in the case of double layer coatings. SEM-EDS and TEM analysis confirmed that the coating deposition was more uniform with sufficient coating penetration inside the deep roughness troughs resulting in compact and micro-porosity free interface for this type of coatings. Better adhesion strength with less variation in peel force and cohesive mode of fracture within the rubber was observed for the double layer coated samples during the peel test carried out on coated steel samples vulcanized with rubber. On the other hand, the single layer coated samples showed large variation in peel force with adhesive

  18. A novel coating strategy towards improving interfacial adhesion strength of Cu–Sn alloy coated steel with vulcanized rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Atanu; Dutta, Monojit; Bysakh, Sandip; Bhowmick, Anil K.; Laha, Tapas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a double layer Cu–Sn alloy coating strategy on steel to improve adhesion. • Uniform coating with adequate penetration inside micro-roughness was observed. • XPS and GDOES study revealed improved substrate surface coverage by coating. • TEM investigation confirmed compact, uniform and micro-porosity free interface. • Peel test with vulcanized rubber confirmed improved adhesion with cohesive fracture. - Abstract: A comparative assessment in terms of uniformity, coating coverage and coating deposition mechanism has been carried out for two different types of Cu–Sn coatings on steel substrate with varying Sn composition (2–6.5 wt%) deposited via immersion technique, viz. (i) single layer Cu–Sn coating and (ii) double layer coating consisting of a thin Cu strike layer followed by a Cu–Sn layer. Coating morphology, surface coverage, coating-substrate interface, and coating composition at surface and along the depth were studied using laser confocal microscope (OLS), scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS), glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Quantitative depth profiling using GDOES and surface compositional analysis via XPS suggested improvement in surface coverage in the case of double layer coatings. SEM-EDS and TEM analysis confirmed that the coating deposition was more uniform with sufficient coating penetration inside the deep roughness troughs resulting in compact and micro-porosity free interface for this type of coatings. Better adhesion strength with less variation in peel force and cohesive mode of fracture within the rubber was observed for the double layer coated samples during the peel test carried out on coated steel samples vulcanized with rubber. On the other hand, the single layer coated samples showed large variation in peel force with adhesive

  19. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mattioli

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.

  20. Treatment with soluble activin type IIB-receptor improves bone mass and strength in a mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakkainen, Tero; Ma, Hongqian; Kainulainen, Heikki; Pasternack, Arja; Rantalainen, Timo; Ritvos, Olli; Heikinheimo, Kristiina; Hulmi, Juha J; Kiviranta, Riku

    2017-01-19

    Inhibition of activin/myostatin pathway has emerged as a novel approach to increase muscle mass and bone strength. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a neuromuscular disorder that leads to progressive muscle degeneration and also high incidence of fractures. The aim of our study was to test whether inhibition of activin receptor IIB ligands with or without exercise could improve bone strength in the mdx mouse model for DMD. Thirty-two mdx mice were divided to running and non-running groups and to receive either PBS control or soluble activin type IIB-receptor (ActRIIB-Fc) once weekly for 7 weeks. Treatment of mdx mice with ActRIIB-Fc resulted in significantly increased body and muscle weights in both sedentary and exercising mice. Femoral μCT analysis showed increased bone volume and trabecular number (BV/TV +80%, Tb.N +70%, P treatment of mdx mice with the soluble ActRIIB-Fc results in a robust increase in bone mass, without any additive effect by voluntary running. Thus ActRIIB-Fc could be an attractive option in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders.

  1. Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: three case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Erin M; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2008-01-01

    Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, often occurs secondary to conditions such as stroke, head injury or progressive disease, many of which increase in frequency with advancing age. Sarcopenia, the gradual loss of muscle bulk and strength, can place older individuals at greater risk for dysphagia. Data are reported for three older participants in a pilot trial of a tongue-pressure training therapy. During the experimental therapy protocol, participants performed isometric strength exercises for the tongue as well as tongue pressure accuracy tasks. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI), an instrument that measures tongue pressure. Treatment outcome measures show increased isometric tongue strength, improved tongue pressure generation accuracy, improved bolus control on videofluoroscopy, and improved functional dietary intake by mouth. These preliminary results indicate that, for these three adults with dysphagia, tongue-pressure training was beneficial for improving both instrumental and functional aspects of swallowing. The experimental treatment protocol holds promise as a rehabilitative tool for various dysphagia populations.

  2. Improvement in the long term creep rupture strength of SUS 316 steel for fast breeder reactors by nitrogen addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Takanori; Abo, Hideo; Tanino, Mitsuru; Komatsu, Hazime; Tashimo, Masanori; Nishida, Takashi.

    1989-01-01

    Improvement of creep fatigue property of structural materials for fast breeder reactors. In order to improve the resistance to creep fatigue of SUS 316 steels, the effects of nitrogen, carbon, and molybdenum on creep properties have been investigated, under the concept that creep fatigue endurance is correspond to creep rupture ductility. Creep rupture tests and slow strain rate tensile tests were conducted at 550degC and extensive microstructural works were performed. The strengthening by nitrogen is much greater than carbon. Moreover, while carbon reduces rupture ductility, nitrogen does not change it. The addition of carbon results in coarse carbide formation on grain boundaries during creep, but with nitrogen very fine Fe 2 Mo particles precipitate on grain boundaries. The difference between the effects of nitrogen and carbon on creep properties is arise from the different morphology of precipitation. Strengthening by molybdenum brings about a slight decrease in rupture ductility. On the basis of these results, 0.01%C-0.07%N-11%Ni-16.5%Cr-2%Mo steel is selected as a promising material for fast breeder reactors. This steel has higher rupture ductility and strength than SUS 316 steel. It is also confirmed that this steel has a higher resistance to creep fatigue. (author)

  3. Virtual Reality-Based Wii Fit Training in Improving Muscle Strength, Sensory Integration Ability, and Walking Abilities in Patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yi Liao

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: VRWii training is as beneficial as TE in improving walking abilities, sensory integration ability, and muscle strength in patients with PD, and such improvements persisted for at least for 1 month. VRWii training is thus suggested to be implemented in patients with PD.

  4. A 9-Week Aerobic and Strength Training Program Improves Cognitive and Motor Function in Patients with Dementia : A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, Willem J. R.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Boersma, Froukje; Hortobagyi, Tibor; Scherder, Erik J. A.; van Heuvelen, Marieke J. G.

    Objective: To compare training and follow-up effects of combined aerobic and strength training versus aerobic-only training on cognitive and motor function in institutionalized patients with dementia and to explore whether improved motor function mediates improved cognitive function. Methods: Using

  5. Combining areal DXA bone mineral density and vertebrae postero-anterior width improves the prediction of vertebral strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taton, Grzegorz; Rokita, Eugeniusz [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Biophysics, Krakow (Poland); Wrobel, Andrzej [Jagiellonian University, Institute of Physics, Krakow (Poland); Korkosz, Mariusz [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Internal Medicine and Gerontology, Division of Rheumatology, Krakow (Poland)

    2013-12-15

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is an important determinant of bone strength (BS), despite the fact that the correlation between aBMD and BS is relatively weak. Parameters that describe BS more accurately are desired. The aim of this study was to determine whether the geometrical corrections applied to aBMD would improve its ability for BS prediction. We considered new parameters, estimated from a single DXA measurement, as well as BMAD (bone mineral apparent density) reported in the literature. In vitro studies were performed with the L3 vertebrae from 20 cadavers, which were studied with DXA and quantitative computed tomography (QCT). A mechanical strength assessment was carried out. Two new parameters were introduced: vBMD{sub min} = (aBMD)/(W{sub PA}{sup min}) and vBMD{sub av} = (aBMD)/(W{sub PA}{sup av}) (W{sub PA}{sup min} - minimal vertebral body width in postero-anterior (PA) view, W{sub PA}{sup av} - average PA vertebral body width). Volumetric BMD measured by QCT (vBMD), aBMD, BMAD, vBMD{sub min}, and vBMD{sub av} were correlated to ultimate load and ultimate stress (P{sub max}) to find the best predictor of vertebrae BS. The coefficients of correlation between P{sub max} and vBMD{sub min}, vBMD{sub av}, as well as BMAD, were r = 0.626 (p = 0.005), r = 0.610 (p = 0.006) and r = 0.567 (p = 0.012), respectively. Coefficients for vBMD and aBMD are r = 0.648 (p = 0.003) and r = 0.511 (p = 0.03), respectively. Our results showed that aBMD normalized by vertebrae dimensions describes vertebrae BS better than aBMD alone. The considered indices vBMD{sub av}, vBMD{sub min}, and BMAD can be measured in routine PA DXA and considerably improve BS variability prediction. vBMD{sub min} is superior compared to vBMD{sub av} and BMAD. (orig.)

  6. Ballistic strength training compared with usual care for improving mobility following traumatic brain injury: protocol for a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Williams

    2016-07-01

    Discussion: Strength training in neurological rehabilitation is highly topical because muscle weakness has been identified as the primary impairment leading to mobility limitations in many neurological populations. This project represents the first international study of ballistic strength training after traumatic brain injury. The novelty of ballistic strength training is that the exercises attempt to replicate how lower limb muscles work, by targeting the high angular velocities attained during walking and higher level activities.

  7. Significant clinical improvement in radiation-induced lumbosacral poly-radiculopathy by a treatment combining pentoxifylline, tocopherol, and clodronate (Pentoclo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delanian, S. [Hop St Louis, Serv Oncol Radiotherapie, APHP, F-75010 Paris, (France); Lefaix, J.L. [CEA-LARIA, CIRIL-GANIL, Caen, (France); Maisonobe, T. [Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Federat Neurophysiol Clin, APHP, Paris, (France)

    2008-07-01

    Radiation-induced (RI) peripheral neuropathy is a rare and severe delayed complication of radiotherapy that is spontaneously irreversible, with no standard of treatment. We previously developed a successful antioxidant treatment in RI fibrosis and necrosis. Two patients with progressive worsening RI lumbosacral poly-radiculopathy experienced over several years a significant clinical improvement in their neurological sensorimotor symptoms with long-term pentoxifylline-tocopherol-clodronate treatment, and good safety. (authors)

  8. The cumulative effect of small dietary changes may significantly improve nutritional intakes in free-living children and adults

    OpenAIRE

    Bornet , Francis; Paineau , Damien; Beaufils , François; Boulier , Alain; Cassuto , Dominique-Adèle; Chwalow , Judith; Combris , Pierre; Couet , Charles; Jouret , Béatrice; Lafay , Lionel; Laville , Martine; Mahé , Sylvain; Ricour , Claude; Romon , Monique; Simon , Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background/Objectives: The ELPAS study was an 8-month randomized controlled dietary modification trial designed to test the hypothesis that family dietary coaching would improve nutritional intakes and weight control in 2026 free-living children and parents (Paineau et al., 2008). It resulted in significant nutritional changes, with beneficial effects on body mass index in adults. In these ancillary analyses, we investigated dietary changes throughout the intervention. ...

  9. Acid or erythromycin stress significantly improves transformation efficiency through regulating expression of DNA binding proteins in Lactococcus lactis F44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Binbin; Zhang, Huawei; Liang, Dongmei; Hao, Panlong; Li, Yanni; Qiao, Jianjun

    2017-12-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a gram-positive bacterium used extensively in the dairy industry and food fermentation, and its biological characteristics are usually improved through genetic manipulation. However, poor transformation efficiency was the main restriction factor for the construction of engineered strains. In this study, the transformation efficiency of L. lactis F44 showed a 56.1-fold increase in acid condition (pH 5.0); meanwhile, erythromycin stress (0.04 μg/mL) promoted the transformation efficiency more significantly (76.9-fold). Notably, the transformation efficiency of F44e (L. lactis F44 harboring empty pLEB124) increased up to 149.1-fold under the synergistic stresses of acid and erythromycin. In addition, the gene expression of some DNA binding proteins (DprA, RadA, RadC, RecA, RecQ, and SsbA) changed correspondingly. Especially for radA, 25.1-fold improvement was detected when F44e was exposed to pH 5.0. Overexpression of some DNA binding proteins could improve the transformation efficiency. The results suggested that acid or erythromycin stress could improve the transformation efficiency of L. lactis through regulating gene expression of DNA binding proteins. We have proposed a simple but promising strategy for improving the transformation efficiency of L. lactis and other hard-transformed microorganisms. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving the de-agglomeration and dissolution of a poorly water soluble drug by decreasing the agglomerate strength of the cohesive powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahham, Ayman; Stewart, Peter J; Das, Shyamal C

    2013-11-30

    Influence of ternary, poorly water-soluble components on the agglomerate strength of cohesive indomethacin mixtures during dissolution was studied to explore the relationship between agglomerate strength and extent of de-agglomeration and dissolution of indomethacin (Ind). Dissolution profiles of Ind from 20% Ind-lactose binary mixtures, and ternary mixtures containing additional dibasic calcium phosphate (1% or 10%; DCP), calcium sulphate (10%) and talc (10%) were determined. Agglomerate strength distributions were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation of particle size, work of cohesion and packing fraction distributions. The agglomerate strength of Ind decreased from 1.19 MPa for the binary Ind mixture to 0.84 MPa for 1DCP:20Ind mixture and to 0.42 MPa for 1DCP:2Ind mixture. Both extent of de-agglomeration, demonstrated by the concentration of the dispersed indomethacin distribution, and extent of dispersion, demonstrated by the particle size of the dispersed indomethacin, were in descending order of 1DCP:2Ind>1DCP:20Ind>binary Ind. The addition of calcium sulphate dihydrate and talc also reduced the agglomerate strength and improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of indomethacin. While not definitively causal, the improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug by poorly water soluble components was related to the agglomerate strength of the cohesive matrix during dissolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Improved strength of silk fibers in Bombyx mori trimolters induced by an anti-juvenile hormone compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Kaiyu; Dong, Zhaoming; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Dandan; Tang, Muya; Zhang, Xiaolu; Xia, Qingyou; Zhao, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibers with thin diameters have advantages of lightness and crease-resistance. Many studies have used anti-juvenile hormones to induce trimolters in order to generate thin silk; however, there has been comparatively little analysis of the morphology, structure and mechanical properties of trimolter silk. This study induced two kinds of trimolters by appling topically anti-juvenile hormones and obtained thin diameter silk. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), FTIR analysis, tensile mechanical testing, chitin staining were used to reveal that the morphology, conformation and mechanical property of the trimolter silk. Cocoon of trimolters were highly densely packed by thinner fibers and thus had small apertures. We found that the conformation of trimolter silk fibroin changed and formed more β-sheet structures. In addition, analysis of mechanical parameters yielded a higher Young's modulus and strength in trimolter silk than in the control. By chitin staining of silk gland, we postulated that the mechanical properties of trimolters' silk was enhanced greatly during to the structural changes of silk gland. We induced trimolters by anti-juvenile hormones and the resulting cocoons were more closely packed and had smaller silk fiber diameters. We found that the conformation of trimolters silk fibroin had a higher content of β-sheet structures and better mechanical properties. Our study revealed the structures and mechanical properties of trimolter silk, and provided a valuable reference to improve silk quality by influencing molting in silkworms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Improving significantly the failure strain and work hardening response of LPSO-strengthened Mg-Y-Zn-Al alloy via hot extrusion speed control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xinghe; Chee, Winston; Chan, Jimmy; Kwok, Richard; Gupta, Manoj

    2017-07-01

    The effect of hot extrusion speed on the microstructure and mechanical properties of MgY1.06Zn0.76Al0.42 (at%) alloy strengthened by the novel long-period stacking ordered (LPSO) phase was systematically investigated. Increase in the speed of extrusion accelerated dynamic recrystallization of α-Mg via particle-stimulated nucleation and grain growth in the alloy. The intensive recrystallization and grain growth events weakened the conventional basal texture and Hall-Petch strengthening in the alloy which led to significant improvement in its failure strain from 4.9% to 19.6%. The critical strengthening contribution from LPSO phase known for attributing high strength to the alloy was observed to be greatly undermined by the parallel competition from texture weakening and the adverse Hall-Petch effect when the alloy was extruded at higher speed. Absence of work hardening interestingly observed in the alloy extruded at lower speed was discussed in terms of its ultra-fine grained microstructure which promoted the condition of steady-state defect density in the alloy; where dislocation annihilation balances out the generation of new dislocations during plastic deformation. One approach to improve work hardening response of the alloy to prevent unstable deformation and abrupt failure in service is to increase the grain diameter in the alloy by judiciously increasing the extrusion speed.

  13. An initiative to improve the management of clinically significant test results in a large health care network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Christopher L; Rothschild, Jeffrey M; Dighe, Anand S; Schiff, Gordon D; Graydon-Baker, Erin; Lenoci-Edwards, Jennifer; Dwyer, Cheryl; Khorasani, Ramin; Gandhi, Tejal K

    2013-11-01

    The failure of providers to communicate and follow up clinically significant test results (CSTR) is an important threat to patient safety. The Massachusetts Coalition for the Prevention of Medical Errors has endorsed the creation of systems to ensure that results can be received and acknowledged. In 2008 a task force was convened that represented clinicians, laboratories, radiology, patient safety, risk management, and information systems in a large health care network with the goals of providing recommendations and a road map for improvement in the management of CSTR and of implementing this improvement plan during the sub-force sequent five years. In drafting its charter, the task broadened the scope from "critical" results to "clinically significant" ones; clinically significant was defined as any result that requires further clinical action to avoid morbidity or mortality, regardless of the urgency of that action. The task force recommended four key areas for improvement--(1) standardization of policies and definitions, (2) robust identification of the patient's care team, (3) enhanced results management/tracking systems, and (4) centralized quality reporting and metrics. The task force faced many challenges in implementing these recommendations, including disagreements on definitions of CSTR and on who should have responsibility for CSTR, changes to established work flows, limitations of resources and of existing information systems, and definition of metrics. This large-scale effort to improve the communication and follow-up of CSTR in a health care network continues with ongoing work to address implementation challenges, refine policies, prepare for a new clinical information system platform, and identify new ways to measure the extent of this important safety problem.

  14. The SGLT2 Inhibitor Dapagliflozin Significantly Improves the Peripheral Microvascular Endothelial Function in Patients with Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Seigo; Jinnouchi, Hideaki; Kurinami, Noboru; Hieshima, Kunio; Yoshida, Akira; Jinnouchi, Katsunori; Nishimura, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Tomoko; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouchi, Tomio

    2018-03-30

    Objective Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce cardiovascular events and decrease the body fat mass in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined whether or not the SGLT2-inhibitor dapagliflozin can improve the endothelial function associated with a reduction in abdominal fat mass. Methods We prospectively recruited patients with uncontrolled (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] >7.0%) T2DM who were not being treated by SGLT2 inhibitors. Patients were treated with add-on dapagliflozin (5 mg/day) or non-SGLT2 inhibitor medicines for 6 months to improve their HbA1c. We measured the peripheral microvascular endothelial function as assessed by reactive hyperemia peripheral arterial tonometry (RH-PAT) and calculated the natural logarithmic transformed value of the RH-PAT index (LnRHI). We then investigated changes in the LnRHI and abdominal fat area using computed tomography (CT). Results The subjects were 54 patients with uncontrolled T2DM (72.2% men) with a mean HbA1c of 8.1%. The HbA1c was significantly decreased in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. Dapagliflozin treatment, but not non-SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, significantly increased the LnRHI. The changes in the LnRHI were significantly greater in the dapagliflozin group than in the non-SGLT2 inhibitor group. Dapagliflozin treatment, but not non-SGLT2 inhibitor treatment, significantly decreased the abdominal visceral fat area, subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and total fat area (TFA) as assessed by CT and significantly increased the plasma adiponectin levels. The percentage changes in the LnRHI were significantly correlated with changes in the SFA, TFA, systolic blood pressure, and adiponectin. Conclusion Add-on treatment with dapagliflozin significantly improves the glycemic control and endothelial function associated with a reduction in the abdominal fat mass in patients with uncontrolled T2DM.

  15. Strength-balance supplemented with computerized cognitive training to improve dual task gait and divided attention in older adults: a multicenter randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van het Reve, Eva; de Bruin, Eling D

    2014-12-15

    Exercise interventions often do not combine physical and cognitive training. However, this combination is assumed to be more beneficial in improving walking and cognitive functioning compared to isolated cognitive or physical training. A multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted to compare a motor to a cognitive-motor exercise program. A total of 182 eligible residents of homes-for-the-aged (n = 159) or elderly living in the vicinity of the homes (n = 23) were randomly assigned to either strength-balance (SB) or strength-balance-cognitive (SBC) training. Both groups conducted similar strength-balance training during 12 weeks. SBC additionally absolved computerized cognitive training. Outcomes were dual task costs of walking, physical performance, simple reaction time, executive functions, divided attention, fear of falling and fall rate. Participants were analysed with an intention to treat approach. The 182 participants (mean age ± SD: 81.5 ± 7.3 years) were allocated to either SB (n = 98) or SBC (n = 84). The attrition rate was 14.3%. Interaction effects were observed for dual task costs of step length (preferred walking speed: F(1,174) = 4.94, p = 0.028, η2 = 0.027, fast walking speed: F(1,166) = 6.14, p = 0.009, η2 = 0.040) and dual task costs of the standard deviation of step length (F(1,166) = 6.14, p = 0.014, η2 = 0.036), in favor of SBC. Significant interactions in favor of SBC revealed for in gait initiation (F(1,166) = 9.16, p = 0.003, η2 = 0.052), 'reaction time' (F(1,180) = 5.243, p = 0.023, η² = 0.028) & 'missed answers' (F(1,180) = 11.839, p = 0.001, η² = 0.062) as part of the test for divided attention. Within-group comparison revealed significant improvements in dual task costs of walking (preferred speed; velocity (p = 0.002), step time (p = 0.018), step length (p = 0.028), fast speed; velocity (p

  16. Spontaneous Resolution of Long-Standing Macular Detachment due to Optic Disc Pit with Significant Visual Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikakis, Efstratios A; Chatziralli, Irini P; Peponis, Vasileios G; Karagiannis, Dimitrios; Stratos, Aimilianos; Tsiotra, Vasileia A; Mitropoulos, Panagiotis G

    2014-01-01

    To report a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing serous macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, leading to significant visual improvement. A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of blurred vision and micropsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in the left eye, and fundoscopy revealed serous macular detachment associated with optic disc pit, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The patient was offered vitrectomy as a treatment alternative, but she preferred to be reviewed conservatively. Three years after initial presentation, neither macular detachment nor subretinal fluid was evident in OCT, while the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction line was intact. Her visual acuity was improved from 6/24 to 6/12 in her left eye, remaining stable at the 6-month follow-up after resolution. We present a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit with significant visual improvement, postulating that the integrity of the IS/OS junction line may be a prognostic factor for final visual acuity and suggesting OCT as an indicator of visual prognosis and the probable necessity of a surgical management.

  17. Spontaneous Resolution ofLong-Standing Macular Detachment due to Optic Disc Pit with Significant Visual Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efstratios A. Parikakis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing serous macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, leading to significant visual improvement. Case Presentation: A 63-year-old female presented with a 6-month history of blurred vision and micropsia in her left eye. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 6/24 in the left eye, and fundoscopy revealed serous macular detachment associated with optic disc pit, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography (OCT. The patient was offered vitrectomy as a treatment alternative, but she preferred to be reviewed conservatively. Three years after initial presentation, neither macular detachment nor subretinal fluid was evident in OCT, while the inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS junction line was intact. Her visual acuity was improved from 6/24 to 6/12 in her left eye, remaining stable at the 6-month follow-up after resolution. Conclusion: We present a case of spontaneous resolution of a long-standing macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit with significant visual improvement, postulating that the integrity of the IS/OS junction line may be a prognostic factor for final visual acuity and suggesting OCT as an indicator of visual prognosis and the probable necessity of a surgical management.

  18. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villiger, Michael; Liviero, Jasmin; Awai, Lea; Stoop, Rahel; Pyk, Pawel; Clijsen, Ron; Curt, Armin; Eng, Kynan; Bolliger, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI) include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject's treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR)-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised) is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI) and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16-20 sessions of 30-45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go (TUG), Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment), high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients' Global Impression of Change). Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P  = 0.008), balance (BBS, P  = 0.008), and functional mobility (TUG, P  = 0.007). At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2-3 months after treatment), functional mobility (TUG) remained significantly improved ( P  = 0.005) in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial functional

  19. Home-Based Virtual Reality-Augmented Training Improves Lower Limb Muscle Strength, Balance, and Functional Mobility following Chronic Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Villiger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Key factors positively influencing rehabilitation and functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI include training variety, intensive movement repetition, and motivating training tasks. Systems supporting these aspects may provide profound gains in rehabilitation, independent of the subject’s treatment location. In the present study, we test the hypotheses that virtual reality (VR-augmented training at home (i.e., unsupervised is feasible with subjects with an incomplete SCI (iSCI and that it improves motor functions such as lower limb muscle strength, balance, and functional mobility. In the study, 12 chronic iSCI subjects used a home-based, mobile version of a lower limb VR training system. The system included motivating training scenarios and combined action observation and execution. Virtual representations of the legs and feet were controlled via movement sensors. The subjects performed home-based training over 4 weeks, with 16–20 sessions of 30–45 min each. The outcome measures assessed were the Lower Extremity Motor Score (LEMS, Berg Balance Scale (BBS, Timed Up and Go (TUG, Spinal Cord Independence Measure mobility, Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury II, and 10 m and 6 min walking tests. Two pre-treatment assessment time points were chosen for outcome stability: 4 weeks before treatment and immediately before treatment. At post-assessment (i.e., immediately after treatment, high motivation and positive changes were reported by the subjects (adapted Patients’ Global Impression of Change. Significant improvements were shown in lower limb muscle strength (LEMS, P = 0.008, balance (BBS, P = 0.008, and functional mobility (TUG, P = 0.007. At follow-up assessment (i.e., 2–3 months after treatment, functional mobility (TUG remained significantly improved (P = 0.005 in contrast to the other outcome measures. In summary, unsupervised exercises at home with the VR training system led to beneficial

  20. Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide G de Sousa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does 4 weeks of active functional electrical stimulation (FES cycling in addition to usual care improve mobility and strength more than usual care alone in people with a sub-acute acquired brain injury caused by stroke or trauma? Design: Multi centre, randomised, controlled trial. Participants: Forty patients from three Sydney hospitals with recently acquired brain injury and a mean composite strength score in the affected lower limb of 7 (SD 5 out of 20 points. Intervention: Participants in the experimental group received an incremental, progressive, FES cycling program five times a week over a 4-week period. All participants received usual care. Outcome measures: Outcome measures were taken at baseline and at 4 weeks. Primary outcomes were mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb. Mobility was measured with three mobility items of the Functional Independence Measure and strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. Secondary outcomes were strength of the knee extensors of the unaffected lower limb, strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb and spasticity of the affected plantar flexors. Results: All but one participant completed the study. The mean between-group differences for mobility and strength of the knee extensors of the affected lower limb were –0.3/21 points (95% CI –3.2 to 2.7 and 7.5 Nm (95% CI –5.1 to 20.2, where positive values favoured the experimental group. The only secondary outcome that suggested a possible treatment effect was strength of key muscles of the affected lower limb with a mean between-group difference of 3.0/20 points (95% CI 1.3 to 4.8. Conclusion: Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve mobility in people with acquired brain injury and its effects on strength are unclear. Trial registration: ACTRN12612001163897. [de Sousa DG, Harvey LA, Dorsch S, Leung J, Harris W (2016 Functional electrical stimulation cycling does not improve

  1. Reconstruction of metabolic module with improved promoter strength increases the productivity of 2-phenylethanol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyue; Jiang, Mingyue; Guo, Xuena; Liu, Zhaozheng; He, Xiuping

    2018-04-11

    2-phenylethanol (2-PE) is an important aromatic compound with a lovely rose-like scent. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a desirable microbe for 2-PE production but its natural yield is not high, and one or two crucial genes' over-expression in S. cerevisiae did not improve 2-PE greatly. A new metabolic module was established here, in which, permease Gap1p for L-phenylalanine transportation, catalytic enzymes Aro8p, Aro10p and Adh2p in Ehrlich pathway respectively responsible for transamination, decarboxylation and reduction were assembled, besides, glutamate dehydrogenase Gdh2p was harbored for re-supplying another substrate 2-oxoglutarate, relieving product glutamate repression and regenerating cofactor NADH. Due to different promoter strengths, GAP1, ARO8, ARO9, ARO10, ADH2 and GDH2 in the new modularized YS58(G1-A8-A10-A2)-GDH strain enhanced 11.6-, 15.4-, 3.6-, 17.7-, 12.4- and 7.5-folds respectively, and crucial enzyme activities of aromatic aminotransferases and phenylpyruvate decarboxylase were 4.8- and 7-folds respectively higher than that of the control. Under the optimum medium and cell density, YS58(G1-A8-A10-A2)-GDH presented efficient 2-PE synthesis ability with ~ 6.3 g L -1 of 2-PE titer in 5-L fermenter reaching 95% of conversation ratio. Under fed-batch fermentation, 2-PE productivity at 24 h increased 29% than that of single-batch fermentation. Metabolic modularization with promoter strategy provides a new prospective for efficient 2-PE production.

  2. Improvement in upper leg muscle strength underlies beneficial effects of exercise therapy in knee osteoarthritis: secondary analysis from a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, J.; Steultjens, M.P.M.; Roorda, L.D.; Lems, W.F.; van der Esch, M.; Thorstensson, C.A.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bierma-Zeinstra, S.M.A.; van der Leeden, M.; Dekker, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Although exercise therapy is effective for reducing pain and activity limitations in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study aimed to evaluate if improvements in neuromuscular factors (i.e. upper leg muscle strength and knee

  3. Improvements in tongue strength and pressure-generation precision following a tongue-pressure training protocol in older individuals with dysphagia: Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Yeates

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Erin M Yeates1, Sonja M Molfenter1, Catriona M Steele1,2,3,41Toronto Rehabilitation Institute, Toronto, Canada; 2Department of Speech-Language Pathology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 3Canadian Institutes of Health Research New Investigator in Aging; 4Bloorview Kids Rehab, Toronto, CanadaAbstract: Dysphagia, or difficulty swallowing, often occurs secondary to conditions such as stroke, head injury or progressive disease, many of which increase in frequency with advancing age. Sarcopenia, the gradual loss of muscle bulk and strength, can place older individuals at greater risk for dysphagia. Data are reported for three older participants in a pilot trial of a tongue-pressure training therapy. During the experimental therapy protocol, participants performed isometric strength exercises for the tongue as well as tongue pressure accuracy tasks. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI, an instrument that measures tongue pressure. Treatment outcome measures show increased isometric tongue strength, improved tongue pressure generation accuracy, improved bolus control on videofluoroscopy, and improved functional dietary intake by mouth. These preliminary results indicate that, for these three adults with dysphagia, tongue-pressure training was beneficial for improving both instrumental and functional aspects of swallowing. The experimental treatment protocol holds promise as a rehabilitative tool for various dysphagia populations.Keywords: speech-language pathology, dysphagia, rehabilitation, aging, strength, accuracy

  4. Improved Maximum Strength, Vertical Jump and Sprint Performance after 8 Weeks of Jump Squat Training with Individualized Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderka Marián, Longová Katarína, Olasz Dávid, Krčmár Matúš, Walker Simon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of jump squat training on isometric half squat maximal force production (Fmax and rate of force development over 100ms (RFD100, countermovement jump (CMJ and squat jump (SJ height, and 50 m sprint time in moderately trained men. Sixty eight subjects (~21 years, ~180 cm, ~75 kg were divided into experimental (EXP; n = 36 and control (CON, n = 32 groups. Tests were completed pre-, mid- and post-training. EXP performed jump squat training 3 times per week using loads that allowed all repetitions to be performed with ≥90% of maximum average power output (13 sessions with 4 sets of 8 repetitions and 13 sessions with 8 sets of 4 repetitions. Subjects were given real-time feedback for every repetition during the training sessions. Significant improvements in Fmax from pre- to mid- (Δ ~14%, p<0.001, and from mid- to post-training (Δ ~4%, p < 0.001 in EXP were observed. In CON significantly enhanced Fmax from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~3.5%, p < 0.05 was recorded, but no other significant changes were observed in any other test. In RFD100 significant improvements from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~27%, p < 0.001, as well as from mid- to post-training (Δ ~17%, p < 0.01 were observed. CMJ and SJ height were significantly enhanced from pre- to mid-training (Δ ~10%, ~15%, respectively, p < 0.001 but no further changes occurred from mid- to post-training. Significant improvements in 50 m sprint time from pre- to mid-training (Δ -1%, p < 0.05, and from mid- to post-training (Δ -1.9%, p < 0.001 in EXP were observed. Furthermore, percent changes in EXP were greater than changes in CON during training. It appears that using jump squats with loads that allow repetitions to be performed ≥90% of maximum average power output can simultaneously improve several different athletic performance tasks in the short-term.

  5. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy

    2013-01-01

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  6. Performance of the Sellick maneuver significantly improves when residents and trained nurses use a visually interactive guidance device in simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, Christopher W; Saffary, Roya; Feliz, Eddy [Department of Anesthesiology Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-15

    We examined the proper performance of the Sellick maneuver, a maneuver used to reduce the risk of aspiration of stomach contents during induction of general anesthesia, using a novel device that measures and visualizes the force applied to the cricoid cartilage using thin-film force sensitive resistors in a form suitable for in vivo use. Performance was tested in three stages with twenty anaesthesiology residents and twenty trained operating room nurses. Firstly, subjects applied force to the cricoid cartilage as was customary to them. Secondly, subjects used the device to guide the application of that force. Thirdly, subjects were again asked to perform the manoeuvre without visual guidance. Each test lasted 1 min and the amount of force applied was measured throughout. Overall, the Sellick maneuver was often not applied properly, with large variance between individual subjects. Performance and inter-subject consistency improved to a very highly significant degree when subjects were able to use the device as a visual guide (p < 0.001). Subsequent significant improvements in performances during the last, unguided test demonstrated that the device initiated learning. (paper)

  7. Overcoming the Fundamental Challenges in Improving the Impact Strength and Crystallinity of PLA Biocomposites: Influence of Nucleating Agent and Mold Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Vidhya; Zhang, Kunyu; Misra, Manjusri; Mohanty, Amar K

    2015-06-03

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA), one of the widely studied renewable resource based biopolymers, has yet to gain a strong commercial standpoint because of certain property limitations. This work is a successful attempt in achieving PLA biocomposites that showed concurrent improvements in impact strength and heat deflection temperature (HDT). Biocomposites were fabricated from a super toughened ternary blend of PLA, poly(ether-b-amide) elastomeric copolymer and ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate and miscanthus fibers. The effects of varying the processing parameters and addition of various nucleating agents were investigated. Crystallinity was controlled by optimizing the mold temperature and cycle time of the injection process. With the addition of 1 wt % aromatic sulfonate derivative (Lak-301) as a nucleating agent at a mold temperature of 110 °C, PLA biocomposites exhibited dramatic reduction in crystallization half time to 1.3 min with crystallinity content of 42%. Mechanical and thermal properties assessment for these biocomposites revealed a 4-fold increase in impact strength compared to neat PLA. The HDT of PLA biocomposites increased to 85 °C from 55 °C compared to neat PLA. Crystallization behavior was studied in detail using differential scanning calorimetry and was supported with observations from wide-angle X-ray diffraction profiles and polarized optical microscopy. The presence of a nucleating agent did not alter the crystal structure of PLA; however, a significant difference in spherulite size, crystallization rate and content was observed. Fracture surface morphology and distribution of nucleating agent in the PLA biocomposites were investigated through scanning electron microscopy.

  8. Coupling Effect of Intruding Water and Inherent Gas on Coal Strength Based on the Improved (Mohr-Coulomb Failure Criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiyu Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When employing hydraulic processes to increase gas drainage efficiency in underground coal mines, coal seams become a three-phase medium, containing water intruding into the coal pores with the inherent occurrence of gas. This can change the stress state of the coal and cause instability. This work studied the mechanical properties of coal containing water and gas and derived an appropriate failure criterion. Based on mixture theory of unsaturated porous media, the effective stress of coal, considering the interaction of water and gas, was analyzed, and the failure criterion established by combining this with the Mohr–Coulomb criterion. By introducing the stress factor of matrix suction and using fitted curves of experimentally determined matrix suction and moisture content, the relationships between coal strength, gas pressure, and moisture content were determined. To verify the established strength theory, a series of triaxial compression strength tests of coal containing water and gas were carried out on samples taken from the Songzao, Pingdingshan, and Tashan mines in China. The experimental results correlated well with the theoretical predictions. The results showed a linear decrease in the peak strength of coal with increasing gas pressure and an exponential reduction in peak strength with increasing moisture content. The strength theory of coal containing water and gas can become an important part of multiphase medium damage theory.

  9. Combination of blood tests for significant fibrosis and cirrhosis improves the assessment of liver-prognosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, J; Brochard, C; Bertrais, S; Michalak, S; Gallois, Y; Fouchard-Hubert, I; Oberti, F; Rousselet, M-C; Calès, P

    2014-07-01

    Recent longitudinal studies have emphasised the prognostic value of noninvasive tests of liver fibrosis and cross-sectional studies have shown their combination significantly improves diagnostic accuracy. To compare the prognostic accuracy of six blood fibrosis tests and liver biopsy, and evaluate if test combination improves the liver-prognosis assessment in chronic hepatitis C (CHC). A total of 373 patients with compensated CHC, liver biopsy (Metavir F) and blood tests targeting fibrosis (APRI, FIB4, Fibrotest, Hepascore, FibroMeter) or cirrhosis (CirrhoMeter) were included. Significant liver-related events (SLRE) and liver-related deaths were recorded during follow-up (started the day of biopsy). During the median follow-up of 9.5 years (3508 person-years), 47 patients had a SLRE and 23 patients died from liver-related causes. For the prediction of first SLRE, most blood tests allowed higher prognostication than Metavir F [Harrell C-index: 0.811 (95% CI: 0.751-0.868)] with a significant increase for FIB4: 0.879 [0.832-0.919] (P = 0.002), FibroMeter: 0.870 [0.812-0.922] (P = 0.005) and APRI: 0.861 [0.813-0.902] (P = 0.039). Multivariate analysis identified FibroMeter, CirrhoMeter and sustained viral response as independent predictors of first SLRE. CirrhoMeter was the only independent predictor of liver-related death. The combination of FibroMeter and CirrhoMeter classifications into a new FM/CM classification improved the liver-prognosis assessment compared to Metavir F staging or single tests by identifying five subgroups of patients with significantly different prognoses. Some blood fibrosis tests are more accurate than liver biopsy for determining liver prognosis in CHC. A new combination of two complementary blood tests, one targeted for fibrosis and the other for cirrhosis, optimises assessment of liver-prognosis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Efficacy of manual versus free-weight training to improve maximal strength and performance for microgravity conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, Michael; Schüren, Thomas; McCourt, Molly; Mester, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We tested a simple and compact device designed for manual resistance training in conditions of microgravity (Self-Powered Rope Trainer Duo (SPoRT Duo)) to increase muscle performance. Twenty-four participants (20.8 ± 2.1 years) were randomly assigned to a manual resistance group (n = 12) and a free-weight group (n = 12). Participants performed eight exercises (three sets; 8-12 efforts) either with free weights or the SPoRT Duo twice a week for 6 weeks. Maximal isometric force of trunk flexion, back extension and chest press increased (P at least 0.01, d at least 0.52) both in the manual resistance group (18.4% ± 15.0%; 32.7% ± 22.7%; 15.3% ± 9.7%) and free-weight group (18.0% ± 13.9%; 26.6% ± 28.9%; 13.3% ± 7.6%). The change in maximal isometric force of wide grip row in both groups (d at best 0.38) did not reach statistical significance (P at best 0.08). The squat one-repetition-maximum increased in the manual resistance group (29.8% ± 22.1%) and the free-weight group (32.4% ± 26.6%). Jump height, determined by a jump-and-reach test, increased in the free-weight group (9.8% ± 13.2%) but not in the manual resistance group (2.0% ± 8.5%). Manual resistance training was equally effective in increasing strength as traditional resistance training with free weights. This apparatus is a useful addition to current in-flight exercise systems.

  11. Induction Based Training leads to Highly Significant Improvements of Objective and Subjective Suturing Ability in Junior Doctors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Garry

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Simulation based training has shown to be of benefit in the education of medical students. However, the impact of induction based clinical simulation on surgical ability of qualified doctors remains unclear.The aim of this study was to establish if a 60 minute teaching session integrated into an Emergency Medicine speciality induction program produces statistically significant improvements in objective and subjective suturing abilities of junior doctors commencing an Emergency Medicine rotation.Methods: The objective suturing abilities of 16 Foundation Year Two doctors were analysed using a validated OSATs scale prior to a novel teaching intervention. The doctors then undertook an intensive hour long workshop receiving one to one feedback before undergoing repeat OSATs assessment.Subjective ability was measured using a 5 point likert scale and self-assessed competency reporting interrupted suturing before and after the intervention. Photographs of wound closure before and after the intervention were recorded for further blinded assessment of impact of intervention. A survey regarding continued ability was repeated at four months following the intervention. The study took place on 7/12/16 during the Belfast Health and Social Care Trust Emergency Medicine induction in the Royal Victoria Hospital Belfast. The hospital is a regional level 1 trauma centre that has annual departmental attendances in excess of 200,000.All new junior doctors commencing the Emergency Medicine rotation were invited to partake in the study. All 16 agreed. The group consisted of a mixture of undergraduate and postgraduate medicaldoctors who all had 16 months experience working in a variety of medical or surgical jobs previously.Results: Following the teaching intervention objective and subjective abilities in interrupted suturing showed statistically significant improvement (P>0.005. Self-reporting of competency of independently suturingwounds improved from 50

  12. Improved methods for testing bond and intrinsic strength and fatigue of thermally sprayed metallic and ceramic coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, K.K.; Ziehl, M.H.; Schwaminger, C.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional bond strength tests for thermally sprayed coatings represent only a rough means of obtaining overall strength values, with no differentiation between adhesion at the interface and intrinsic coating properties. In order to obtain information about the influence of substrate surface preparation on the adhesion of a Tribaloy T700 coating, tensile bond strength and modified crack-opening displacement (COD) specimens were tested by deliberate crack initiation at the interface. Crack initiation was achieved by weakening of the interface at the outer diameter in the case of bond strength specimens or at the notch root in the case of COD specimens. This made it possible to look at the influence of surface roughness and grit contamination on the coating adhesion separately. Modified COD specimens with the notch in the centre of the coating were used to determine crack-opening energies and critical stress intensity factors of atmospheric plasma-sprayed NiAl and low pressure plasma-sprayed CoNiCrAlY bond coatings and a ZrO 2 7Y 2 O 3 thermal barrier coating (TBC). Additionally, bond strength specimens were stressed dynamically, and it could be demonstrated that Woehler (S/N) diagrams can be established for a metallic NiAl bond coating and even for a ceramic ZrO 2 7Y 2 O 3 TBC. (orig.)

  13. The European Academy laparoscopic “Suturing Training and Testing’’ (SUTT) significantly improves surgeons’ performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleiman, Z.; Tanos, V.; Van Belle, Y.; Carvalho, J.L.; Campo, R.

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of suturing training and testing (SUTT) model by laparoscopy was evaluated, measuring the suturingskill acquisition of trainee gynecologists at the beginning and at the end of a teaching course. During a workshop organized by the European Academy of Gynecological Surgery (EAGS), 25 participants with three different experience levels in laparoscopy (minor, intermediate and major) performed the 4 exercises of the SUTT model (Ex 1: both hands stitching and continuous suturing, Ex 2: right hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 3: left hand stitching and intracorporeal knotting, Ex 4: dominant hand stitching, tissue approximation and intracorporeal knotting). The time needed to perform the exercises is recorded for each trainee and group and statistical analysis used to note the differences. Overall, all trainees achieved significant improvement in suturing time (p psychomotor skills, surgery, teaching, training suturing model. PMID:26977264

  14. High-intensity interval training (swimming) significantly improves the adverse metabolism and comorbidities in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Victor F; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-DE-Lacerda, Carlos A

    2016-05-01

    Controlling obesity and other comorbidities in the population is a challenge in modern society. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) combines short periods of high-intensity exercise with long recovery periods or a low-intensity exercise. The aim was to assess the impact of HIIT in the context of diet-induced obesity in the animal model. C57BL/6 mice were fed one of the two diets: standard chow (lean group [LE]) or a high-fat diet (obese group [OB]). After twelve weeks, the animals were divided into non-trained groups (LE-NT and OB-NT) and trained groups (LE-T and OB-T), and began an exercise protocol. For biochemical analysis of inflammatory and lipid profile, we used a colorimetric enzymatic method and an automatic spectrophotometer. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis of the experimental groups with Holm-Sidak post-hoc Test. Two-way ANOVA analyzed the interactions between diet and HIIT protocol. HIIT leads to significant reductions in body mass, blood glucose, glucose tolerance and hepatic lipid profile in T-groups compared to NT-groups. HIIT was able to reduce plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines. Additionally, HIIT improves the insulin immunodensity in the islets, reduces the adiposity and the hepatic steatosis in the T-groups. HIIT improves beta-oxidation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha and reduces lipogenesis and PPAR-gamma levels in the liver. In skeletal muscle, HIIT improves PPAR-alpha and glucose transporter-4 and reduces PPAR-gamma levels. HIIT leads to attenuate the adverse effects caused by a chronic ingestion of a high-fat diet.

  15. Codon Optimization Significantly Improves the Expression Level of α-Amylase Gene from Bacillus licheniformis in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Rong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase as an important industrial enzyme has been widely used in starch processing, detergent, and paper industries. To improve expression efficiency of recombinant α-amylase from Bacillus licheniformis (B. licheniformis, the α-amylase gene from B. licheniformis was optimized according to the codon usage of Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris and expressed in P. pastoris. Totally, the codons encoding 305 amino acids were optimized in which a total of 328 nucleotides were changed and the G+C content was increased from 47.6 to 49.2%. The recombinants were cultured in 96-deep-well microplates and screened by a new plate assay method. Compared with the wild-type gene, the optimized gene is expressed at a significantly higher level in P. pastoris after methanol induction for 168 h in 5- and 50-L bioreactor with the maximum activity of 8100 and 11000 U/mL, which was 2.31- and 2.62-fold higher than that by wild-type gene. The improved expression level makes the enzyme a good candidate for α-amylase production in industrial use.

  16. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  17. Combat-related intradural gunshot wound to the thoracic spine: significant improvement and neurologic recovery following bullet removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwes, Thijs M; Ward, William H; Lee, Kendall H; Freedman, Brett A

    2015-02-01

    The vast majority of combat-related penetrating spinal injuries from gunshot wounds result in severe or complete neurological deficit. Treatment is based on neurological status, the presence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistulas, and local effects of any retained fragment(s). We present a case of a 46-year-old male who sustained a spinal gunshot injury from a 7.62-mm AK-47 round that became lodged within the subarachnoid space at T9-T10. He immediately suffered complete motor and sensory loss. By 24-48 hours post-injury, he had recovered lower extremity motor function fully but continued to have severe sensory loss (posterior cord syndrome). On post-injury day 2, he was evacuated from the combat theater and underwent a T9 laminectomy, extraction of the bullet, and dural laceration repair. At surgery, the traumatic durotomy was widened and the bullet, which was laying on the dorsal surface of the spinal cord, was removed. The dura was closed in a water-tight fashion and fibrin glue was applied. Postoperatively, the patient made a significant but incomplete neurological recovery. His stocking-pattern numbness and sub-umbilical searing dysthesia improved. The spinal canal was clear of the foreign body and he had no persistent CSF leak. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed contusion of the spinal cord at the T9 level. Early removal of an intra-canicular bullet in the setting of an incomplete spinal cord injury can lead to significant neurological recovery following even high-velocity and/or high-caliber gunshot wounds. However, this case does not speak to, and prior experience does not demonstrate, significant neurological benefit in the setting of a complete injury.

  18. Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) significantly improve diagnostic accuracy in patients undergoing prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdonà, Sisto; Bruzzese, Dario; Ferro, Matteo; Autorino, Riccardo; Marino, Ada; Mazzarella, Claudia; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Oliva, Andrea; De Sio, Marco; Damiano, Rocco; Altieri, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2013-02-15

    Prostate health index (phi) and prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) have been recently proposed as novel biomarkers for prostate cancer (PCa). We assessed the diagnostic performance of these biomarkers, alone or in combination, in men undergoing first prostate biopsy for suspicion of PCa. One hundred sixty male subjects were enrolled in this prospective observational study. PSA molecular forms, phi index (Beckman coulter immunoassay), PCA3 score (Progensa PCA3 assay), and other established biomarkers (tPSA, fPSA, and %fPSA) were assessed before patients underwent a 18-core first prostate biopsy. The discriminating ability between PCa-negative and PCa-positive biopsies of Beckman coulter phi and PCA3 score and other used biomarkers were determined. One hundred sixty patients met inclusion criteria. %p2PSA (p2PSA/fPSA × 100), phi and PCA3 were significantly higher in patients with PCa compared to PCa-negative group (median values: 1.92 vs. 1.55, 49.97 vs. 36.84, and 50 vs. 32, respectively, P ≤ 0.001). ROC curve analysis showed that %p2PSA, phi, and PCA3 are good indicator of malignancy (AUCs = 0.68, 0.71, and 0.66, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model consisting of both the phi index and PCA3 score allowed to reach an overall diagnostic accuracy of 0.77. Decision curve analysis revealed that this "combined" marker achieved the highest net benefit over the examined range of the threshold probability. phi and PCA3 showed no significant difference in the ability to predict PCa diagnosis in men undergoing first prostate biopsy. However, diagnostic performance is significantly improved by combining phi and PCA3. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patient safety climate profiles across time: Strength and level of safety climate associated with a quality improvement program in Switzerland—A cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascherek, Anna C.

    2017-01-01

    Safety Climate has been acknowledged as an unspecific factor influencing patient safety. However, studies rarely provide in-depth analysis of climate data. As a helpful approach, the concept of “climate strength” has been proposed. In the present study we tested the hypotheses that even if safety climate remains stable on mean-level across time, differences might be evident in strength or shape. The data of two hospitals participating in a large national quality improvement program were analysed for differences in climate profiles at two measurement occasions. We analysed differences on mean-level, differences in percent problematic response, agreement within groups, and frequency histograms in two large hospitals in Switzerland at two measurement occasions (2013 and 2015) applying the Safety Climate Survey. In total, survey responses of 1193 individuals were included in the analyses. Overall, small but significant differences on mean-level of safety climate emerged for some subgroups. Also, although agreement was strong at both time-points within groups, tendencies of divergence or consensus were present in both hospitals. Depending on subgroup and analyses chosen, differences were more or less pronounced. The present study illustrated that taking several measures into account and describing safety climate from different perspectives is necessary in order to fully understand differences and trends within groups and to develop interventions addressing the needs of different groups more precisely. PMID:28753633

  20. Improving the standard of the standard for glass ionomers: an alternative to the compressive fracture strength test for consideration?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dowling, Adam H

    2012-03-01

    Three strength tests (compressive, three point flexure and biaxial) were performed on three glass ionomer (GI) restoratives to assess the most appropriate methodology in terms of validity and reliability. The influence of mixing induced variability on the data sets generated were eliminated by using encapsulated GIs.

  1. Improvement of compressive strength of segmentation of zeolites as absorber of Sr-90 liquid waste using coconut fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasmudin; Kusnanto

    2002-01-01

    The use of the coconut fibres to increase compressive strength of segmentation of zeolites as absorber of Sr-90 liquid waste was studied. The purpose of this research was to find the optimum content and length of fibres that give maximum compressive strength. This research was done with mortar-zeolites specimen of cylinder 2,2 cm diameter and 4,4 cm high, the content of zeolites was 13% volume of specimen, weight ratio of water and cement 0,3, length of fibres 1,5 cm, 2 cm, 2,5 cm, and 3 cm (aspect ratio ± 60, ± 80, ± 100 and ± 120) with the fibres content of each fibre 0%, 0,5%, 0,10%, 0,25%, 0,50%, 0,75%, and 1,00%. Addition of fibres was done with a direction of orientation longitudinal to the specimen. The specimens were tested on 28 days old test specimens. The result showed that addition of coconut fibres until certain content would increase compressive strength. The optimum size of fibres with 92,313 N/MM 2 of compressive strength or increased 119,21% of no fibres specimen were 0,50% of volume and 3 cm in length

  2. A new stable GIP-Oxyntomodulin hybrid peptide improved bone strength both at the organ and tissue levels in genetically-inherited type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Sity Aishah; Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Flatt, Peter R; Bouvard, Beatrice; Chappard, Daniel; Irwin, Nigel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) progress worldwide with detrimental effects on several physiological systems including bone tissue mainly by affecting bone quality. Several gut hormones analogues have been proven potent in ameliorating bone quality. In the present study, we used the leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice as a model of obesity and severe T2DM to assess the extent of bone quality alterations at the organ and tissue levels. We also examined the beneficial effects of gut hormone therapy in this model by using a new triple agonist ([d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm) active at the GIP, GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. As expected, db/db mice presented with dramatic alterations of bone strength at the organ level associated with deterioration of trabecular and cortical microarchitectures and an augmentation in osteoclast numbers. At the tissue level, these animals presented also with alterations of bone strength (reduced hardness, indentation modulus and dissipated energy) with modifications of tissue mineral distribution, collagen glycation and collagen maturity. The use of [d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm considerably improved bone strength at the organ level with modest effects on trabecular microarchitecture. At the tissue level, [d-Ala(2)]GIP-Oxm ameliorated bone strength reductions with positive effects on collagen glycation and collagen maturity. This study provides support for including gut hormone analogues as possible new therapeutic strategies for improving bone quality in bone complications associated to T2DM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  4. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon D Angus

    -effecitive means of significantly improving clinical efficacy.

  5. A matter of timing: identifying significant multi-dose radiotherapy improvements by numerical simulation and genetic algorithm search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Simon D; Piotrowska, Monika Joanna

    2014-01-01

    of significantly improving clinical efficacy.

  6. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  7. DEVELOPING MEASURES TO IMPROVE STRENGTH INDICES OF SUPPORTING STRUCTURES FOR HEAD CARS OF DIESEL TRAINS DR1A ON THE BASIS OF EXPERIMENTAL-AND-THEORETICAL WORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Bondarev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective is to determine the stress-strain state of supporting structures of the head car body and the traction transmission unit, which can be created in the operation of emergency situations, and to develop the measures aimed at improving the stress-strain state of these elements. Methodology. In order to achieve this objective, in performing the work an experimental determination of efforts and stress levels in the most loaded elements of supporting structures as well as the traction transmission units was conducted; design models for the theoretical determination of stress and effort levels were developed. Findings. Based on the analysis of the calculation results the best options for the upgrades, which have been put into the basis of proposals aimed at improving the strength indices, were revealed. Originality. Based on the experimental and theoretical studies, scientific monitoring of development works on modernization and improvement of strength indices of supporting structures of head cars of diesel trains DR1A was performed. Practical value. The technical solution to the measures, which are to be carried out beyond the limits of assigned operation lifetime for diesel train of the series specified was developed and transferred to the Ukrzaliznytsia experts to introduce the proposed measures on improving the strength indices.

  8. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis—a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Design: Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. Subjects: 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Methods: Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). Results: In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Conclusion: Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group. PMID:14644853

  9. Does hydrotherapy improve strength and physical function in patients with osteoarthritis--a randomised controlled trial comparing a gym based and a hydrotherapy based strengthening programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, A; Halbert, J; Hewitt, T; Crotty, M

    2003-12-01

    To compare the effects of a hydrotherapy resistance exercise programme with a gym based resistance exercise programme on strength and function in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Single blind, three arm, randomised controlled trial. 105 community living participants aged 50 years and over with clinical OA of the hip or knee. Participants were randomised into one of three groups: hydrotherapy (n = 35), gym (n = 35), or control (n = 35). The two exercising groups had three exercise sessions a week for six weeks. At six weeks an independent physiotherapist unaware of the treatment allocation performed all outcome assessments (muscle strength dynamometry, six minute walk test, WOMAC OA Index, total drugs, SF-12 quality of life, Adelaide Activities Profile, and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Scale). In the gym group both left and right quadriceps significantly increased in strength compared with the control group, and right quadriceps strength was also significantly better than in the hydrotherapy group. The hydrotherapy group increased left quadriceps strength only at follow up, and this was significantly different from the control group. The hydrotherapy group was significantly different from the control group for distance walked and the physical component of the SF-12. The gym group was significantly different from the control group for walk speed and self efficacy satisfaction. Compliance rates were similar for both exercise groups, with 84% of hydrotherapy and 75% of gym sessions attended. There were no differences in drug use between groups over the study period. Functional gains were achieved with both exercise programmes compared with the control group.

  10. Flavonol-rich dark cocoa significantly decreases plasma endothelin-1 and improves cognitive responses in urban children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian eCalderon-Garciduenas

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution exposures are linked to systemic inflammation, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and mortality, neuroinflammation and neuropathology in young urbanites. In particular, most Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA children exhibit subtle cognitive deficits, and neuropathology studies show 40% of them exhibiting frontal tau hyperphosphorylation and 51% amyloid-β diffuse plaques (compared to 0% in low pollution control children. We assessed whether a short cocoa intervention can be effective in decreasing plasma endothelin 1 (ET-1 and/or inflammatory mediators in MCMA children. Thirty g of dark cocoa with 680 mg of total flavonols were given daily for 10.11± 3.4 days (range 9 to 24 days to 18 children (10.55yrs, SD =1.45; 11F/7M. Key metabolite ratios in frontal white matter and in hippocampus pre and during cocoa intervention were quantified by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. ET-1 significantly decreased after cocoa treatment (p=0.0002. Fifteen children (83% showed a marginally significant individual improvement in one or both of the applied simple short memory tasks. Endothelial dysfunction is a key feature of exposure to particulate matter and decreased endothelin-1 bioavailability is likely useful for brain function in the context of air pollution. Our findings suggest that cocoa interventions may be critical for early implementation of neuroprotection of highly exposed urban children. Multi-domain nutraceutical interventions could limit the risk for endothelial dysfunction, cerebral hypoperfusion, neuroinflammation, cognitive deficits, structural volumetric detrimental brain effects, and the early development of the neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases.

  11. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  12. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    KAUST Repository

    Shervin, Shahab; Oh, Seung Kyu; Park, Hyun Jung; Lee, Keon Hwa; Asadirad, Mojtaba; Kim, Seung Hwan; Kim, Jeomoh; Pouladi, Sara; Lee, Sung-Nam; Li, Xiaohang; Kwak, Joon-Seop; Ryou, Jae-Hyun

    2018-01-01

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  13. Flexible deep-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes for significant improvement of quantum efficiencies by external bending

    KAUST Repository

    Shervin, Shahab

    2018-01-26

    Deep ultraviolet (DUV) light at the wavelength range of 250‒280 nm (UVC spectrum) is essential for numerous applications such as sterilization, purification, sensing, and communication. III-nitride-based DUV light-emitting diodes (DUV LEDs), like other solid-state lighting sources, offer a great potential to replace the conventional gas-discharged lamps with short lifetimes and toxic-element-bearing nature. However, unlike visible LEDs, the DUV LEDs are still suffering from low quantum efficiencies (QEs) and low optical output powers. In this work, reported is a new route to improve QEs of AlGaN-based DUV LEDs using mechanical flexibility of recently developed bendable thin-film structures. Numerical studies show that electronic band structures of AlGaN heterostructures and resulting optical and electrical characteristics of the devices can be significantly modified by external bending through active control of piezoelectric polarization. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is enhanced higher than three times, when the DUV LEDs are moderately bent to induce in-plane compressive strain in the heterostructure. Furthermore, efficiency droop at high injection currents is mitigated and turn-on voltage of diodes decreases with the same bending condition. The concept of bendable DUV LEDs with a controlled external strain can provide a new path for high-output-power and high-efficiency devices.

  14. Novel ventilation design of combining spacer and mesh structure in sports T-shirt significantly improves thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Au, Joe Sau-chuen; Fan, Jintu; Zheng, Rong

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports on novel ventilation design in sports T-shirt, which combines spacer and mesh structure, and experimental evidence on the advantages of design in improving thermal comfort. Evaporative resistance (Re) and thermal insulation (Rc) of T-shirts were measured using a sweating thermal manikin under three different air velocities. Moisture permeability index (i(m)) was calculated to compare the different designed T-shirts. The T-shirts of new and conventional designs were also compared by wearer trials, which were comprised of 30 min treadmill running followed by 10 min rest. Skin temperature, skin relative humidity, heart rate, oxygen inhalation and energy expenditure were monitored, and subjective sensations were asked. Results demonstrated that novel T-shirt has 11.1% significant lower im than control sample under windy condition. The novel T-shirt contributes to reduce the variation of skin temperature and relative humidity up to 37% and 32%, as well as decrease 3.3% energy consumption during exercise. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Significant improvement of thermal stability of glucose 1-dehydrogenase by introducing disulfide bonds at the tetramer interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haitao; Gao, Fen; Liu, Danfeng; Li, Zeli; Xu, Xiaohong; Wu, Min; Zhao, Yuhua

    2013-12-10

    Rational design was applied to glucose 1-dehydrogenase (LsGDH) from Lysinibacillus sphaericus G10 to improve its thermal stability by introduction of disulfide bridges between subunits. One out of the eleven mutants, designated as DS255, displayed significantly enhanced thermal stability with considerable soluble expression and high specific activity. It was extremely stable at pH ranging from 4.5 to 10.5, as it retained nearly 100% activity after incubating at different buffers for 1h. Mutant DS255 also exhibited high thermostability, having a half-life of 9900min at 50°C, which was 1868-fold as that of its wild type. Moreover, both of the increased free energy of denaturation and decreased entropy of denaturation of DS255 suggested that the enzyme structure was stabilized by the engineered disulfide bonds. On account of its robust stability, mutant DS255 would be a competitive candidate in practical applications of chiral chemicals synthesis, biofuel cells and glucose biosensors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Imparting improvements in electrochemical sensors: evaluation of different carbon blacks that give rise to significant improvement in the performance of electroanalytical sensing platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicentini, Fernando Campanhã; Ravanini, Amanda E.; Figueiredo-Filho, Luiz C.S.; Iniesta, Jesús; Banks, Craig E.; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2015-01-01

    Three different carbon black materials have been evaluated as a potential modifier, however, only one demonstrated an improvement in the electrochemical properties. The carbon black structures were characterised with SEM, XPS and Raman spectroscopy and found to be very similar to that of amorphous graphitic materials. The modifications utilised were constructed by three different strategies (using ultrapure water, chitosan and dihexadecylphosphate). The fabricated sensors are electrochemically characterised using N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-para-phenylenediamine and both inner-sphere and outer-sphere redox probes, namely potassium ferrocyanide(II) and hexaammineruthenium(III) chloride, in addition to the biologically relevant and electroactive analytes, dopamine (DA) and acetaminophen (AP). Comparisons are made with an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite and glassy-carbon electrode and the benefits of carbon black implemented as a modifier for sensors within electrochemistry are explored, as well as the characterisation of their electroanalytical performances. We reveal significant improvements in the electrochemical performance (excellent sensitivity, faster heterogeneous electron transfer rate (HET)) over that of a bare glassy-carbon and edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode and thus suggest that there are substantial advantages of using carbon black as modifier in the fabrication of electrochemical based sensors. Such work is highly important and informative for those working in the field of electroanalysis where electrochemistry can provide portable, rapid, reliable and accurate sensing protocols (bringing the laboratory into the field), with particular relevance to those searching for new electrode materials

  17. Can nature's design be improved upon? High strength, transparent nacre-like nanocomposites with double network of sacrificial cross links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsiadlo, Paul; Kaushik, Amit K; Shim, Bong Sup; Agarwal, Ashish; Tang, Zhiyong; Waas, Anthony M; Arruda, Ellen M; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2008-11-20

    The preparation of a high-strength and highly transparent nacre-like nanocomposite via layer-by-layer assembly technique from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and Na+-montmorillonite clay nanosheets is reported in this article. We show that a high density of weak bonding interactions between the polymer and the clay particles: hydrogen, dipole-induced dipole, and van der Waals undergoing break-reform deformations, can lead to high strength nanocomposites: sigmaUTS approximately 150 MPa and E' approximately 13 GPa. Further introduction of ionic bonds into the polymeric matrix creates a double network of sacrificial bonds which dramatically increases the mechanical properties: sigmaUTS approximately 320 MPa and E' approximately 60 GPa.

  18. The Potential of Self-Tempered Martensite and Bainite in Improving the Fatigue Strength of Thermomechanically Processed Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupp Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to a two-stage hardening and tempering process, the definition of optimized cooling routes after hot working of low-alloy Cr steel allows the adjustments of high-strength microstructures with a sufficient degree of ductility at the same time without any additional heat-treatment. While compressed air cooling after hot forging of micro-alloyed steel grades leads to the formation of lower bainite with finedispersed cementite platelets, quenching by water spray down to the martensite start temperature results in the formation of martensite, that is self-tempered during the subsequent slow-cooling in air. The precipitation of nano-sized cementite precipitates result in superior mechanical properties with respect to impact and tensile testing. Cyclic deformation and crack propagation tests being carried out using resonance testing (100Hz and ultrasonic fatigue testing (20kHz systems revealed a pronounced increase in fatigue strength by about 150MPa of the self-tempered martensite condition as compared to the bainitic modification. For the latter one, a steady decrease of the fatigue strength is observed rather than the existence of a real fatigue limit.

  19. Alignment of Boron Nitride Nanofibers in Epoxy Composite Films for Thermal Conductivity and Dielectric Breakdown Strength Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengdong; Liu, Jingya; Cheng, Yonghong; Chen, Siyu; Yang, Mengmeng; Huang, Jialiang; Wang, Hongkang; Wu, Guanglei; Wu, Hongjing

    2018-04-15

    Development of polymer-based composites with simultaneously high thermal conductivity and breakdown strength has attracted considerable attention owing to their important applications in both electronic and electric industries. In this work, boron nitride (BN) nanofibers (BNNF) are successfully prepared as fillers, which are used for epoxy composites. In addition, the BNNF in epoxy composites are aligned by using a film casting method. The composites show enhanced thermal conductivity and dielectric breakdown strength. For instance, after doping with BNNF of 2 wt%, the thermal conductivity of composites increased by 36.4% in comparison with that of the epoxy matrix. Meanwhile, the breakdown strength of the composite with 1 wt% BNNF is 122.9 kV/mm, which increased by 6.8% more than that of neat epoxy (115.1 kV/mm). Moreover, the composites have maintained a low dielectric constant and alternating current conductivity among the range of full frequency, and show a higher thermal decomposition temperature and glass-transition temperature. The composites with aligning BNNF have wide application prospects in electronic packaging material and printed circuit boards.

  20. Deer Antler Extract Improves Fatigue Effect through Altering the Expression of Genes Related to Muscle Strength in Skeletal Muscle of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Chyun Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer antler is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine used in Asian countries for the tonic and the improvement of aging symptoms. The present study was designed to investigate the antifatigue effect and mechanism of Formosan sambar deer tip antler extract (FSDTAE. The swimming times to exhaustion of mice administered FSDTAE (8.2 mg/day for 28 days were apparently longer than those of the vehicle-treated mice in forced swim test. However, the indicators of fatigue, such as the reduction in glucose level and the increases in blood urea nitrogen and lactic acid levels, were not significantly inhibited by FSDTAE. Therefore, microarray analysis was further used to examine the anti-fatigue mechanism of FSDTAE. We selected genes with fold changes >2 or <−2 in skeletal muscle for pathway analysis. FSDTAE-affected genes were involved in 9 different signaling pathways, such as GnRH signaling pathway and insulin signaling pathway. All of the significantly expressed genes were classified into 8 different categories by their functions. The most enriched category was muscular system, and 6 upregulated genes, such as troponin I, troponin T1, cysteine and glycine-rich protein 2, myosin heavy polypeptide 7, tropomyosin 2, and myomesin family member 3, were responsible for the development and contraction of muscle. Real-time PCR analysis indicated that FSDTAE increased troponins mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. In conclusion, our findings suggested that FSDTAE might increase the muscle strength through the upregulation of genes responsible for muscle contraction and consequently exhibited the anti-fatigue effect in mice.

  1. High-frequency, low-intensity vibrations increase bone mass and muscle strength in upper limbs, improving autonomy in disabled children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M Loreto; Hernández, Marta; Holmgren, Luz J; Sanhueza, Enrique; Escobar, Raúl G

    2011-08-01

    Disuse osteoporosis in children is a progressive disease that can affect quality of life. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration (HFLMV) acts as an anabolic signal for bone and muscle. We undertook a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial to assess the efficacy and safety of regional HFLMV in disabled children. Sixty-five children 6 to 9 year of age were randomized into three groups: placebo, 60 Hz, and 90 Hz. In the two active groups, a 0.3-g mechanical vibration was delivered to the radii and femurs for 5 minutes each day. After 6 months, the main endpoint was bone mineral density (BMD) at the ultradistal radius (UDR), 33% radii (33%R), and femoral necks (FN). Secondary endpoints were area and bone mineral content (BMC) at the UDR, 33%R, and FN; grip force of the upper and lower limbs; motor function; and PedsQL evaluation. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Fifty-seven children (88%) completed the protocol. A significant increase was observed in the 60-Hz group relative to the other groups in BMD at the UDR (p = .011), in grip force of the upper limbs (p = .035), and in the "daily activities item" (p = .035). A mixed model to evaluate the response to intervention showed a stronger effect of 60 Hz on patients with cerebral palsy on the UDR and that between-subject variability significantly affected the response. There were no reported side effects of the intervention. This work provides evidence that regional HFLMV is an effective and safe strategy to improve bone mass, muscle strength, and possibly independence in children with motor disabilities. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  2. Microstructural and strength improvements through the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in a cementless Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated Class F fly ash system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Dongho; Jun, Yubin; Jeong, Yeonung; Oh, Jae Eun, E-mail: ohjaeeun@unist.ac.kr

    2015-01-15

    This study explores the beneficial effects of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as an additive for microstructural and strength improvements in a Ca(OH){sub 2}-activated fly ash system. NaOH-activated fly ash samples were also tested to compare the effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Compressive strength testing, XRD, SEM/BSE/EDS, {sup 29}Si/{sup 27}Al MAS-NMR, MIP and TGA were performed. The testing results indicate that the use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} for Ca(OH){sub 2}-activation led to a noticeable improvement in strength and microstructure, primarily due to (1) more dissolution of raw fly ash at an early age, (2) more formation of C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)], (3) porosity reduction, and (4) pore-size refinement. We also found that (1) an early high alkalinity from the NaOH formation was not a major cause of strength, (2) geopolymer was not formed despite the early NaOH formation, and (3) no visible pore-filling action of CaCO{sub 3} was observed. However, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} did not produce any improvement in strength for NaOH-activated fly ash. -- Highlights: •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} significantly improved strength and microstructure. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} induced more dissolution of raw fly ash at early ages. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted more C–S–H [or C–S–H(I)] formation. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} reduced total porosity and refined pore-size distribution. •The use of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} produced neither geopolymer formations nor pore-filling actions from CaCO{sub 3}.

  3. Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients in southern Ethiopia: significance of improved HIV-related care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimelis, Techalew; Tassachew, Yayehyirad; Lambiyo, Tariku

    2016-05-10

    Intestinal parasitic infections are known to cause gastroenteritis, leading to higher morbidity and mortality, particularly in people living with HIV/AIDS. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasitic infections among HIV patients receiving care at a hospital in Ethiopia where previous available baseline data helps assess if improved HIV-related care has reduced infection rates. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Hawassa University Hospital in southern Ethiopia from May, 2013 to March, 2014. A consecutive sample of 491 HIV- infected patients with diarrhea or a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasites. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Hawassa University. Physicians managed participants found to be infected with any pathogenic intestinal parasite. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the study population was 35.8 %. The most prevalent parasites were Cryptosporidium (13.2 %), followed by Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.2 %), and Giardia lamblia (7.9 %). The rate of single and multiple infections were 25.5 and 10.3 %, respectively. Patients with a CD4 T cell count intestinal parasitic infection or cryptosporidiosis compared to those with counts ≥ 200 cells/μl, but with some type of diarrhea. The study shows high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in the study population. However, the results in the current report are significantly lower compared to previous findings in the same hospital. The observed lower infection rate is encouraging and supports the need to strengthen and sustain the existing intervention measures in order to further reduce intestinal parasitic infections in people living with HIV/AIDS.

  4. Extended-release niacin/laropiprant significantly improves lipid levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus irrespective of baseline glycemic control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bays HE

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Harold E Bays,1 Eliot A Brinton,2 Joseph Triscari,3 Erluo Chen,3 Darbie Maccubbin,3 Alexandra A MacLean,3 Kendra L Gibson,3 Rae Ann Ruck,3 Amy O Johnson-Levonas,3 Edward A O’Neill,3 Yale B Mitchel3 1Louisville Metabolic & Atherosclerosis Research Center (L-MARC, Louisville, KY, USA; 2Utah Foundation for Biomedical Research, Salt Lake City, UT, USA; 3Merck & Co, Inc., Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA Background: The degree of glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM may alter lipid levels and may alter the efficacy of lipid-modifying agents. Objective: Evaluate the lipid-modifying efficacy of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT in subgroups of patients with T2DM with better or poorer glycemic control. Methods: Post hoc analysis of clinical trial data from patients with T2DM who were randomized 4:3 to double-blind ERN/LRPT or placebo (n=796, examining the lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT in patients with glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting plasma glucose levels above and below median baseline levels. Results: At Week 12 of treatment, ERN/LRPT significantly improved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein (a, compared with placebo, with equal efficacy in patients above or below median baseline glycemic control. Compared with placebo, over 36 weeks of treatment more patients treated with ERN/LRPT had worsening of their diabetes and required intensification of antihyperglycemic medication, irrespective of baseline glycemic control. Incidences of other adverse experiences were generally low in all treatment groups. Conclusion: The lipid-modifying effects of ERN/LRPT are independent of the degree of baseline glycemic control in patients with T2DM (NCT00485758. Keywords: lipid-modifying agents, hyperglycemia, LDL, HDL, triglycerides

  5. Delayed administration of recombinant human parathyroid hormone improves early biomechanical strength in a rat rotator cuff repair model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchman, Kyle R; Goetz, Jessica E; Uribe, Bastian U; Amendola, Andrew M; Barber, Joshua A; Malandra, Allison E; Fredericks, Douglas C; Hettrich, Carolyn M

    2016-08-01

    Despite advances in intraoperative techniques, rotator cuff repairs frequently do not heal. Recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH) has been shown to improve healing at the tendon-to-bone interface in an established acute rat rotator cuff repair model. We hypothesized that administration of rhPTH beginning on postoperative day 7 would result in improved early load to failure after acute rotator cuff repair in an established rat model. Acute rotator cuff repairs were performed in 108 male Sprague-Dawley rats. Fifty-four rats received daily injections of rhPTH beginning on postoperative day 7 until euthanasia or a maximum of 12 weeks postoperatively. The remaining 54 rats received no injections and served as the control group. Animals were euthanized at 2 and 16 weeks postoperatively and evaluated by gross inspection, biomechanical testing, and histologic analysis. At 2 weeks postoperatively, rats treated with rhPTH demonstrated significantly higher load to failure than controls (10.9 vs. 5.2 N; P = .003). No difference in load to failure was found between the 2 groups at 16 weeks postoperatively, although control repairs more frequently failed at the tendon-to-bone interface (45.5% vs. 22.7%; P = .111). Blood vessel density appeared equivalent between the 2 groups at both time points, but increased intracellular and extracellular vascular endothelial growth factor expression was noted in the rhPTH-treated group at 2 weeks. Delayed daily administration of rhPTH resulted in increased early load to failure and equivalent blood vessel density in an acute rotator cuff repair model. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cr-W-V bainitic/ferritic steel with improved strength and toughness and method of making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klueh, R.L.; Maziasz, P.J.

    1994-03-08

    This work describes a high strength, high toughness bainitic/ferritic steel alloy comprising about 2.75% to 4.0% chromium, about 2.0% to 3.5% tungsten, about 0.10% to 0.30% vanadium, and about 0.1% to 0.15% carbon with the balance iron, wherein the percentages are by total weight of the composition, wherein the alloy having been heated to an austenitizing temperature and then cooled at a rate sufficient to produce carbide-free acicular bainite. 15 figures.

  7. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaindoa, Emmanuel W; Matowo, Nancy S; Ngowo, Halfan S; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O

    2017-01-01

    An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south-eastern Tanzania.

  8. Interventions that effectively target Anopheles funestus mosquitoes could significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matowo, Nancy S.; Ngowo, Halfan S.; Mkandawile, Gustav; Mmbando, Arnold; Finda, Marcelina; Okumu, Fredros O.

    2017-01-01

    An. arabiensis (44.1%). Though An. arabiensis is still the most abundant vector species here, the remaining malaria transmission is predominantly mediated by An. funestus, possibly due to high insecticide resistance and high survival probabilities. Interventions that effectively target An. funestus mosquitoes could therefore significantly improve control of persistent malaria transmission in south–eastern Tanzania. PMID:28542335

  9. The Effect of CaO and MgO as Expanding Additives to Improve Cement Isolation Strength under HPHT Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Rubiandini

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Cementing is one of the most important parts in oil-well drilling. Recent development in oil-well drilling technology has led to a more problematic case in cementing. High temperature cementing is one of the problems. High temperature cementing may cover steam recovery wells, geothermal wells and ultra deep wells.The use of expanding cements as an effort to improve the sealing efficacy of annulus cementing has been considered for a long time as a promising solution to the existing problems. CaO and MgO have been proposed as two of the most effective additives to create excellent expanding cement. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of adding up burnt pure CaO and MgO to the value of compressive strength and shear bond strength of API class G cement in high pressure and high temperature condition. The method that we used within this research is an evaluation of the data taken from a simulator that simulated within temperature range of 100 – 250oC and pressure of 2000 psi.The conclusion is taken according to the results which saying that the addition of burnt pure CaO and MgO would increase the shear bond strength and the compressive strength on specific condition up to 200oC temperature. The addition won’t be effective for the condition of 250oC temperature. The behavior of cement strength was also influenced by the length of curing time.Further more, research on expanding cement needs to be developed and extended whether to vary its compositions, temperatures, or curing time conditions. The compatibility when mixed with other additives together with silica flour has not yet been figured out.

  10. Vii. New Kr IV - VII Oscillator Strengths and an Improved Spectral Analysis of the Hot, Hydrogen-deficient Do-type White Dwarf RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Richter, P.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2016-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (SN) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. New Krivvii oscillator strengths for a large number of lines enable us to construct more detailed model atoms for our NLTEmodel-atmosphere calculations. This enables us to search for additional Kr lines in observed spectra and to improve Kr abundance determinations. Methods. We calculated Krivvii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Kr lines that are exhibited in high-resolution and high SN ultraviolet (UV)observations of the hot white dwarf RE 0503.

  11. Functional High-Intensity Circuit Training Improves Body Composition, Peak Oxygen Uptake, Strength, and Alters Certain Dimensions of Quality of Life in Overweight Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperlich, Billy; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Zinner, Christoph; Von Stauffenberg, Valerie; Losert, Helena; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2017-01-01

    The effects of circuit-like functional high-intensity training (Circuit HIIT ) alone or in combination with high-volume low-intensity exercise (Circuit combined ) on selected cardio-respiratory and metabolic parameters, body composition, functional strength and the quality of life of overweight women were compared. In this single-center, two-armed randomized, controlled study, overweight women performed 9-weeks (3 sessions·wk -1 ) of either Circuit HIIT ( n = 11), or Circuit combined ( n = 8). Peak oxygen uptake and perception of physical pain were increased to a greater extent ( p body mass, body-mass-index, waist-to-hip ratio, fat mass, and enhanced fat-free mass; decreased ratings of perceived exertion during submaximal treadmill running; improved the numbers of push-ups, burpees, one-legged squats, and 30-s skipping performed, as well as the height of counter-movement jumps; and improved physical and social functioning, role of physical limitations, vitality, role of emotional limitations, and mental health to a similar extent (all p training can be employed to improve body composition, selected variables of functional strength, and certain dimensions of quality of life in overweight women. However, Circuit HIIT improves peak oxygen uptake to a greater extent, but with more perception of pain, whereas Circuit combined results in better perception of general health.

  12. Improving the prediction of strength and rigidity of structural timber by combining ultrasound techniques with visual grading parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermoso Prieto, E.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explores the possibility of using longitudinal ultrasound transmission to evaluate the bending strength and modulus of elasticity in structural timber made from the two species most commonly found in Spanish construction and rehabilitation works: Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. and Laricio pine (Pinus nigra Arn.. An analysis of 1305 Scots pine and 852 Laricio pine beams shows that ultrasound transmission velocity alone can predict neither the bending strength nor the modulus of elasticity and that other predictive variables are required.A series of models are proposed based on ultrasound transmission velocity measurements, the relative size of the largest face and edge knots, length and density. After running models for each species individually and for the two jointly, a single model is found to be suitable for both. The models proposed explain from 63 to 73 per cent of bending strength and modulus of elasticity variability.Se analiza la posibilidad de aplicar la técnica de transmisión longitudinal de ultrasonidos para la evaluación de la resistencia y módulo de elasticidad a flexión de la madera estructural de las dos especies de mayor interés constructivo y más amplia presencia en obras de rehabilitación: el pino silvestre (Pinus sylvestris L. y el pino laricio (Pinus nigra Arn.. Trabajando sobre un total de 1.305 vigas de pino silvestre y 852 de pino laricio se concluye que por sí sola la velocidad de transmisión de ultrasonidos no es un buen predictor ni de la resistencia ni del módulo de elasticidad en flexión, necesitando el complemento de otras variables predictoras. Se proponen diversos modelos basados en la medición de la velocidad de transmisión de ultrasonidos, de los diámetros relativos del nudo máximo de cara y de canto, de la longitud y de la densidad. Los modelos se proponen tanto a nivel especie como global, comprobándose que es posible emplear un modelo único para ambas especies. Los modelos

  13. Significant survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer in the periods 2001-2008 vs. 1992-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishimura Sumiko

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether individualized treatments based on biological factors have improved the prognosis of recurrent breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the survival improvement of patients with recurrent breast cancer after the introduction of third generation aromatase inhibitors (AIs and trastuzumab. Methods A total of 407 patients who received first diagnosis of recurrent breast cancer and treatment at National Kyushu Cancer Center between 1992 and 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. As AIs and trastuzumab were approved for clinical use in Japan in 2001, the patients were divided into two time cohorts depending on whether the cancer recurred before or after 2001. Cohort A: 170 patients who were diagnosed between 1992 and 2000. Cohort B: 237 patients who were diagnosed between 2001 and 2008. Tumor characteristics, treatments, and outcome were compared. Results Fourteen percent of cohort A and 76% of cohort B received AIs and/or trastuzumab (P Conclusions The prognosis of patients with recurrent breast cancer was improved over time following the introduction of AIs and trastuzumab and the survival improvement was apparent in HR- and/or HER-2-positive tumors.

  14. Significant Improvement in Sleep in People with Intellectual Disabilities Living in Residential Settings by Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hylkema, T.; Vlaskamp, C.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Although about 15 to 50 percent of people with intellectual disabilities (ID) living in residential settings suffer from sleep problems, scant attention is paid to these problems. Most available studies focus on pharmaceutical solutions. In this study we focus on improving sleep in people with intellectual disabilities living in…

  15. Brief Communication: Upper Air Relaxation in RACMO2 Significantly Improves Modelled Interannual Surface Mass Balance Variability in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, W. J.; Medley, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Regional Atmospheric Climate Model (RACMO2) has been a powerful tool for improving surface mass balance (SMB) estimates from GCMs or reanalyses. However, new yearly SMB observations for West Antarctica show that the modelled interannual variability in SMB is poorly simulated by RACMO2, in contrast to ERA-Interim, which resolves this variability well. In an attempt to remedy RACMO2 performance, we included additional upper-air relaxation (UAR) in RACMO2. With UAR, the correlation to observations is similar for RACMO2 and ERA-Interim. The spatial SMB patterns and ice-sheet-integrated SMB modelled using UAR remain very similar to the estimates of RACMO2 without UAR. We only observe an upstream smoothing of precipitation in regions with very steep topography like the Antarctic Peninsula. We conclude that UAR is a useful improvement for regional climate model simulations, although results in regions with steep topography should be treated with care.

  16. Improvement of Strength and Energy Absorption Properties of Porous Aluminum Alloy with Aligned Unidirectional Pores Using Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomonori; Muto, Daiki; Tamai, Tomoya; Suzuki, Shinsuke

    2018-06-01

    Porous aluminum alloy with aligned unidirectional pores was fabricated by dipping A1050 tubes into A6061 semi-solid slurry. The porous aluminum alloy was processed through Equal-channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) while preventing cracking and maintaining both the pore size and porosity by setting the insert material and loading back pressure. The specific compressive yield strength of the sample aged after 13 passes of ECAE was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of the solid-solutionized sample without ECAE. Both the energy absorption E V and energy absorption efficiency η V after four passes of ECAE were approximately 1.2 times higher than that of the solid-solutionized sample without ECAE. The specific yield strength was improved via work hardening and precipitation following dynamic aging during ECAE. E V was improved by the application of high compressive stress at the beginning of the compression owing to work hardening via ECAE. η V was improved by a steep increase of stress at low compressive strain and by a gradual increase of stress in the range up to 50 pct of compressive strain. The gradual increase of stress was caused by continuous shear fracture in the metallic part, which was due to the high dislocation density and existence of unidirectional pores parallel to the compressive direction in the structure.

  17. Improvement of Strength and Energy Absorption Properties of Porous Aluminum Alloy with Aligned Unidirectional Pores Using Equal-Channel Angular Extrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Tomonori; Muto, Daiki; Tamai, Tomoya; Suzuki, Shinsuke

    2018-04-01

    Porous aluminum alloy with aligned unidirectional pores was fabricated by dipping A1050 tubes into A6061 semi-solid slurry. The porous aluminum alloy was processed through Equal-channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) while preventing cracking and maintaining both the pore size and porosity by setting the insert material and loading back pressure. The specific compressive yield strength of the sample aged after 13 passes of ECAE was approximately 2.5 times higher than that of the solid-solutionized sample without ECAE. Both the energy absorption E V and energy absorption efficiency η V after four passes of ECAE were approximately 1.2 times higher than that of the solid-solutionized sample without ECAE. The specific yield strength was improved via work hardening and precipitation following dynamic aging during ECAE. E V was improved by the application of high compressive stress at the beginning of the compression owing to work hardening via ECAE. η V was improved by a steep increase of stress at low compressive strain and by a gradual increase of stress in the range up to 50 pct of compressive strain. The gradual increase of stress was caused by continuous shear fracture in the metallic part, which was due to the high dislocation density and existence of unidirectional pores parallel to the compressive direction in the structure.

  18. Improving winter leaf area index estimation in evergreen coniferous forests and its significance in carbon and water fluxes modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Chen, J. M.; Luo, X.

    2016-12-01

    Modeling of carbon and water fluxes at the continental and global scales requires remotely sensed LAI as inputs. For evergreen coniferous forests (ENF), severely underestimated winter LAI has been one of the issues for mostly available remote sensing products, which could cause negative bias in the modeling of Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and evapotranspiration (ET). Unlike deciduous trees which shed all the leaves in winter, conifers retains part of their needles and the proportion of the retained needles depends on the needle longevity. In this work, the Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) was used to model GPP and ET at eight FLUXNET Canada ENF sites. Two sets of LAI were used as the model inputs: the 250m 10-day University of Toronto (U of T) LAI product Version 2 and the corrected LAI based on the U of T LAI product and the needle longevity of the corresponding tree species at individual sites. Validating model daily GPP (gC/m2) against site measurements, the mean RMSE over eight sites decreases from 1.85 to 1.15, and the bias changes from -0.99 to -0.19. For daily ET (mm), mean RMSE decreases from 0.63 to 0.33, and the bias changes from -0.31 to -0.16. Most of the improvements occur in the beginning and at the end of the growing season when there is large correction of LAI and meanwhile temperature is still suitable for photosynthesis and transpiration. For the dormant season, the improvement in ET simulation mostly comes from the increased interception of precipitation brought by the elevated LAI during that time. The results indicate that model performance can be improved by the application the corrected LAI. Improving the winter RS LAI can make a large impact on land surface carbon and energy budget.

  19. Gastrocnemius recession leads to medial shift of gait line, impairment of muscle strength and improved dorsal extension in forefoot overload syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, Hagen; Walther, Markus; Hirschmüller, Anja

    2018-01-01

    . A strength power analysis of plantar flexors and a pedobarography was performed. Clinical outcome was measured by Foot Function Index (FFI). RESULTS: Plantarflexors are impaired about 40% six weeks and around 10% 24 weeks following GR compared to the contralateral side. Patients experienced a pain relief...... and an improvement of ankle dorsiflexion from 2° to 15°. An increased contact time of the heel (15%) and a shift of metatarsal plantar pressure from lateral to medial could be demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that GR leads to pain reduction by an increase in heel contact time and a shift of gait line...

  20. TGF-β1 Improves Biomechanical Strength by Extracellular Matrix Accumulation Without Increasing the Number of Tenogenic Lineage Cells in a Rat Rotator Cuff Repair Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimura, Hitoshi; Shukunami, Chisa; Tokunaga, Takuya; Karasugi, Tatsuki; Okamoto, Nobukazu; Taniwaki, Takuya; Sakamoto, Hidetoshi; Mizuta, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Yuji

    2017-08-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) positively regulates the tenogenic marker genes scleraxis ( Scx) and tenomodulin ( Tnmd) in mesenchymal progenitors in vitro. However, little is known about the effect of TGF-β1 on the expression of tenogenic markers during rotator cuff (RC) healing in rats. TGF-β1 improves the biomechanical properties and histological maturity of reparative tissue in a rat RC repair model by stimulating the growth of tenogenic cells. Controlled laboratory study. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (N = 180) underwent unilateral supraspinatus tendon-to-bone surgical repair and were randomly treated with a gelatin hydrogel presoaked in TGF-β1 (100 ng) or phosphate-buffered saline. The effects of TGF-β1 on RC healing were investigated at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 weeks postoperatively by immunostaining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen, by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization or immunostaining for enthesis-related markers (SRY-box containing gene 9 [ Sox9], Scx, and Tnmd), and by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining for type I and III collagen. At 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively, biomechanical testing, micro-computed tomography, and biochemical analysis were also performed. At 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively, mesenchymal stem cell-related markers, phospho-Smad2, and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13 were assessed by immunostaining. The TGF-β1-treated group had significantly higher ultimate load to failure and tissue volume at 6 and 12 weeks postoperatively and a higher collagen content at 12 weeks compared with the saline group. Tendon-related gene expression, histological maturity, cell proliferation, and mesenchymal stem cell-related marker immunoreactivity were not affected by exogenously administrated TGF-β1 at all time points. In the TGF-β1-treated group, the percentage of phospho-Smad2-positive cells within the healing tissue increased

  1. Improving data analysis in herpetology: Using Akaike's information criterion (AIC) to assess the strength of biological hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazerolle, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In ecology, researchers frequently use observational studies to explain a given pattern, such as the number of individuals in a habitat patch, with a large number of explanatory (i.e., independent) variables. To elucidate such relationships, ecologists have long relied on hypothesis testing to include or exclude variables in regression models, although the conclusions often depend on the approach used (e.g., forward, backward, stepwise selection). Though better tools have surfaced in the mid 1970's, they are still underutilized in certain fields, particularly in herpetology. This is the case of the Akaike information criterion (AIC) which is remarkably superior in model selection (i.e., variable selection) than hypothesis-based approaches. It is simple to compute and easy to understand, but more importantly, for a given data set, it provides a measure of the strength of evidence for each model that represents a plausible biological hypothesis relative to the entire set of models considered. Using this approach, one can then compute a weighted average of the estimate and standard error for any given variable of interest across all the models considered. This procedure, termed model-averaging or multimodel inference, yields precise and robust estimates. In this paper, I illustrate the use of the AIC in model selection and inference, as well as the interpretation of results analysed in this framework with two real herpetological data sets. The AIC and measures derived from it is should be routinely adopted by herpetologists. ?? Koninklijke Brill NV 2006.

  2. Strength training for a child with suspected developmental coordination disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Stacy M; Hatten, Kristin; Grant-Beuttler, Marybeth

    2013-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) demonstrate difficulty with feedforward motor control and use varied compensatory strategies. To examine gross motor function changes following strength training in a child with motor control difficulties. A girl aged 6 years 11 months, with apraxia and hypotonia, and demonstrating motor delays consistent with DCD. Twenty-four strength training sessions were completed using a universal exercise unit. Postintervention scores significantly improved on the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, second edition, and the Canadian occupational performance measure scores and raised the developmental coordination disorder questionnaire, revised 2007, scores above the range where DCD is suspected. Nonsignificant changes in strength were observed. Improved function and significant gains in manual coordination were observed following blocked practice of isolated, simple joint movements during strength training. Improved motor skills may be because of effective use of feedforward control and improved stabilization. Strength training does not rehearse skills using momentum, explaining nonsignificant changes in locomotor or locomotion areas.

  3. Incubating Isolated Mouse EDL Muscles with Creatine Improves Force Production and Twitch Kinetics in Fatigue Due to Reduction in Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Stewart I.; Greenaway, Bronwen; Chan, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Background Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. Methods and Results The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12–14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i) before fatigue; (ii) immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii) after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. Conclusion Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation. PMID:21850234

  4. Incubating isolated mouse EDL muscles with creatine improves force production and twitch kinetics in fatigue due to reduction in ionic strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart I Head

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Creatine supplementation can improve performance during high intensity exercise in humans and improve muscle strength in certain myopathies. In this present study, we investigated the direct effects of acute creatine incubation on isolated mouse fast-twitch EDL muscles, and examined how these effects change with fatigue. METHODS AND RESULTS: The extensor digitorum longus muscle from mice aged 12-14 weeks was isolated and stimulated with field electrodes to measure force characteristics in 3 different states: (i before fatigue; (ii immediately after a fatigue protocol; and (iii after recovery. These served as the control measurements for the muscle. The muscle was then incubated in a creatine solution and washed. The measurement of force characteristics in the 3 different states was then repeated. In un-fatigued muscle, creatine incubation increased the maximal tetanic force. In fatigued muscle, creatine treatment increased the force produced at all frequencies of stimulation. Incubation also increased the rate of twitch relaxation and twitch contraction in fatigued muscle. During repetitive fatiguing stimulation, creatine-treated muscles took 55.1±9.5% longer than control muscles to lose half of their original force. Measurement of weight changes showed that creatine incubation increased EDL muscle mass by 7%. CONCLUSION: Acute creatine application improves force production in isolated fast-twitch EDL muscle, and these improvements are particularly apparent when the muscle is fatigued. One likely mechanism for this improvement is an increase in Ca(2+ sensitivity of contractile proteins as a result of ionic strength decreases following creatine incubation.

  5. The single-leg Roman chair hold is more effective than the Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance in Gaelic footballers with previous hamstring injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Ben; O'Neill, John; Pollock, Noel; Van Hooren, Bas

    2018-03-06

    Poor hamstring strength-endurance is a risk factor for hamstring injuries. This study investigated the effectiveness of the single-leg Roman hold and Nordic hamstring curl in improving hamstring strength-endurance. Twelve Gaelic footballers (mean ± standard deviation age, height and mass were 25.17 ± 3.46 years, 179.25 ± 5.88 cm, 85.75 ± 4.75 kilo) with a history of hamstring injury were randomized into 2 groups that performed 6 weeks of either Nordic hamstring curl, or single-leg Roman chair hold training. The single-leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) was measured pre- and post- intervention. The Roman chair group showed a very likely moderate magnitude improvement on SLHB performance for both legs (23.7% for the previously injured leg [90% confidence interval 9.6% to 39.6%] and 16.9% for the non-injured leg [6.2% to 28.8%]). The Nordic curl group showed a likely trivial change in SLHB performance for the non-injured leg (-2.1% [-6.7% to 2.6%]) and an unclear, but possibly trivial change for the previously injured leg (0.3% [-5.6% to 6.6%]). The Roman chair group improved very likely more with a moderate magnitude in both the non-injured (19.5% [8.0% to 32.2%]) and the previously injured leg (23.3% [8.5% to 40.0%]) compared to the Nordic curl group. This study demonstrated that 6-weeks single-leg Roman chair training substantially improved SLHB performance, suggesting that it may be an efficacious strategy to mitigate hamstring (re-) injury risk. Conversely, 6-weeks Nordic curl training did not substantially improve SLHB performance, suggesting this may not be the intervention of choice for modifying this risk factor.

  6. Migration ability and Toll-like receptor expression of human mesenchymal stem cells improves significantly after three-dimensional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Panpan; Liu, Zilin; Li, Xue; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Xiaoyuan; Lan, Jing; Shi, Qing; Li, Dong; Ju, Xiuli

    2017-09-16

    While the conventional two-dimensional (2D) culture protocol is well accepted for the culture of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), this method fails to recapitulate the in vivo native three-dimensional (3D) cellular microenvironment, and may result in phenotypic changes, and homing and migration capacity impairments. MSC preparation in 3D culture systems has been considered an attractive preparatory and delivery method recently. We seeded human umbilical cord-derived MSCs (hUCMSCs) in a 3D culture system with porcine acellular dermal matrix (PADM), and investigated the phenotypic changes, the expression changes of some important receptors, including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) when hUCMSCs were transferred from 2D to 3D systems, as well as the alterations in in vivo homing and migration potential. It was found that the percentage of CD105-positive cells decreased significantly, whereas that of CD34- and CD271-positive cells increased significantly in 3D culture, compared to that in 2D culture. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR6, and CXCR4 in hUCMSCs were increased significantly upon culturing with PADM for 3 days, compared to the levels in 2D culture. The numbers of migratory 3D hUCMSCs in the heart, liver, spleen, and bone marrow were significantly greater than the numbers of 2D hUCMSCs, and the worst migration occurred in 3D + AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) hUCMSCs. These results suggested that 3D culture of hUCMSCs with PADM could alter the phenotypic characteristics of hUCMSCs, increase their TLR and CXCR4 expression levels, and promote their migratory and homing capacity in which CXCR4 plays an important role. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Nicholas F

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle strength is important for young people with Down syndrome as they make the transition to adulthood, because their workplace activities typically emphasise physical rather than cognitive skills. Muscle strength is reduced up to 50% in people with Down syndrome compared to their peers without disability. Progressive resistance training improves muscle strength and endurance in people with Down syndrome. However, there is no evidence on whether it has an effect on work task performance or physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate if a student-led community-based progressive resistance training programme can improve these outcomes in adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome. Methods A randomised controlled trial will compare progressive resistance training with a control group undertaking a social programme. Seventy adolescents and young adults with Down syndrome aged 14-22 years and mild to moderate intellectual disability will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group using a concealed method. The intervention group will complete a 10-week, twice a week, student-led progressive resistance training programme at a local community gymnasium. The student mentors will be undergraduate physiotherapy students. The control group will complete an arts/social programme with a student mentor once a week for 90 minutes also for 10 weeks to control for the social aspect of the intervention. Work task performance (box stacking, pail carry, muscle strength (1 repetition maximum for chest and leg press and physical activity (frequency, duration, intensity over 7-days will be assessed at baseline (Week 0, following the intervention (Week 11, and at 3 months post intervention (Week 24 by an assessor blind to group allocation. Data will be analysed using ANCOVA with baseline measures as covariates. Discussion This paper outlines the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial on the

  8. The patient's safety - For a dynamics of improvement. Nr 3. How to analyze your significant radiation protection events?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this publication is to present event analysis methods which are the most frequently used by radiotherapy departments. After an indication of key figures concerning radiotherapy patients, sessions and events, the document indicates the objectives and steps of an event analysis. It presents various analysis methods: Ishikawa diagram (or 5M method or causes-effects diagram), the cause tree, the ALARM method (association of litigation and risk management), the ORION method. It proposes a comparison between these five methods, their possibilities, their limits. Good practices are outlined in terms of data acquisition, method choice, event analysis, and improvement actions. The use of the cause tree analysis is commented by members of the Limoges hospital radiotherapy department, and that of the Ishikawa method by a member of the Beauvais hospital

  9. Different surgical strategies for chronic pancreatitis significantly improve long-term outcome: a comparative single center study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hildebrand P

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective In general, chronic pancreatitis (CP primarily requires conservative treatment. The chronic pain syndrome and complications make patients seek surgical advice, frequently after years of progression. In the past, surgical procedures involving drainage as well as resection have been employed successfully. The present study compared the different surgical strategies. Patients and Methods From March 2000 until April 2005, a total of 51 patients underwent surgical treatment for CP at the Department of surgery, University of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Lübeck. Out of those 51 patients, 39 (76.5% were operated according to the Frey procedure, and in 12 cases (23.5% the Whipple procedure was performed. Patient data were documented prospectively throughout the duration of the hospital stay. The evaluation of the postoperative pain score was carried out retrospectively with a validated questionnaire. Results Average operating time was 240 minutes for the Frey group and 411 minutes for the Whipple group. The medium number of blood transfusions was 1 in the Frey group and 4.5 in the Whipple group. Overall morbidity was 21% in the Frey group and 42% in the Whipple group. 30-day mortality was zero for all patients. During the median follow-up period of 50 months, an improvement in pain score was observed in 93% of the patients of the Frey group and 67% of the patients treated according to the Whipple procedure. Conclusion The results show that both the Frey procedure as well as partial pancreaticoduodenectomy are capable of improving chronic pain symptoms in CP. As far as later endocrine and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is concerned, however, the extended drainage operation according to Frey proves to be advantageous compared to the traditional resection procedure by Whipple. Accordingly, the Frey procedure provides us with an organ-preserving surgical procedure which treats the complications of CP sufficiently, thus being an

  10. Significant improvement of bone mineral density by denosumab treatment in Japanese osteoporotic patients following breast cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Y

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Yukio Nakamura,1,2 Mikio Kamimura,3 Akio Morikawa,4 Akira Taguchi,5 Takako Suzuki,1 Hiroyuki Kato1 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, Matsumoto, 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, 3Center for Osteoporosis and Spinal Disorders, Kamimura Orthopaedic Clinic, Matsumoto, 4Department of Surgery, Showa-Inan General Hospital, Komagane, 5Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Matsumoto Dental University, Shiojiri, Japan Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of denosumab in patients with osteoporosis (OP and non-metastatic breast cancer following treatment of 1 surgery, 2 surgery and aromatase inhibitors, and 3 surgery, aromatase inhibitors, and anti-cancer agents, compared with those in primary OP patients. Patients and methods: In this retrospective 24-month study, patients were divided into the primary OP group (34 cases or OP receiving breast cancer treatment group (breast cancer group; 17 cases. We measured serum calcium, whole parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1,25OH2D3, bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b, and bone mineral density (BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral total hips (H-BMD for 24 months. Results: The percent changes of serum calcium in the breast cancer group were significantly lower than those in the primary OP group at 1 week, 1 and 12 months. The percent changes of whole PTH in the primary OP group were significantly lower than those in the breast cancer group at 2 and 4 months. Significant differences were found between the groups at 18 months (-34.5% in the primary OP group and -52.6% in the breast cancer group, respectively for the percent changes of BAP. Significant differences were found between the groups at 12, 18, and 24 months (-39.7% in the primary OP group and -64.0% in the breast cancer group at 24 months, respectively for the percent

  11. A best practice fall prevention exercise program to improve balance, strength / power, and psychosocial health in older adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gschwind, Yves J; Kressig, Reto W; Lacroix, Andre; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Pfenninger, Barbara; Granacher, Urs

    2013-10-09

    . (actual training time). One intervention group will complete an extensive supervised training program, while the other intervention group will complete a short version ('3 times 3') that is home-based and controlled by weekly phone calls. Post-tests will be conducted right after the intervention period. Additionally, detraining effects will be measured 12 weeks after program cessation. The control group / waiting group will not participate in any specific intervention during the experimental period, but will receive the extensive supervised program after the experimental period. It is expected that particularly the supervised combination of balance and strength / power training will improve performance in variables of balance, strength / power, body composition, cognitive function, psychosocial well-being, and falls self-efficacy of older adults. In addition, information regarding fall risk assessment, dose-response-relations, detraining effects, and supervision of training will be provided. Further, training-induced health-relevant changes, such as improved performance in activities of daily living, cognitive function, and quality of life, as well as a reduced risk for falls may help to lower costs in the health care system. Finally, practitioners, therapists, and instructors will be provided with a scientifically evaluated feasible, safe, and easy-to-administer exercise program for fall prevention.

  12. Significant Improvement Selected Mediators of Inflammation in Phenotypes of Women with PCOS after Reduction and Low GI Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szczuko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers suggest an increased risk of atherosclerosis in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In the available literature, there are no studies on the mediators of inflammation in women with PCOS, especially after dietary intervention. Eicosanoids (HETE and HODE were compared between the biochemical phenotypes of women with PCOS (normal and high androgens and after the 3-month reduction diet. Eicosanoid profiles (9(S-HODE, 13(S-HODE, 5(S-HETE, 12(S-HETE, 15(S-HETE, 5(S-oxoETE, 16(R-HETE, 16(S-HETE and 5(S, 6(R-lipoxin A4, 5(S, 6(R, 15(R-lipoxin A4 were extracted from 0.5 ml of plasma using solid-phase extraction RP-18 SPE columns. The HPLC separations were performed on a 1260 liquid chromatograph. No significant differences were found in the concentration of analysed eicosanoids in phenotypes of women with PCOS. These women, however, have significantly lower concentration of inflammatory mediators than potentially healthy women from the control group. Dietary intervention leads to a significant (p<0.01 increase in the synthesis of proinflammatory mediators, reaching similar levels as in the control group. The development of inflammatory reaction in both phenotypes of women with PCOS is similar. The pathways for synthesis of proinflammatory mediators in women with PCOS are dormant, but can be stimulated through a reduction diet. Three-month period of lifestyle change may be too short to stimulate the pathways inhibiting inflammatory process.

  13. A mixed exercise training programme is feasible and safe and may improve quality of life and muscle strength in multiple myeloma survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveldt, Lara; Mein, Gill; Garrod, Rachel; Jewell, Andrew P; Someren, Ken Van; Stephens, Richard; D’Sa, Shirley P; Yong, Kwee L

    2013-01-01

    Exercise programmes are beneficial for cancer patients however evidence is limited in patients with multiple myeloma (MM), a cancer that is characterised by osteolytic bone disease, giving rise to high levels of bone morbidity including fractures and bone pain. We conducted a single arm phase 2 study of an exercise programme (EP) as rehabilitation for treated MM patients, to evaluate feasibility, effects on QOL and physiological parameters. Patients were given individualised programmes, comprising stretching, aerobic and resistance exercises, carried out under supervision for 3 months then at home for a further 3 months. Study uptake was high, 60 of 75 (80%) patients approached consented to the study. Screen failures (11, due to fracture risk and disease relapse) and patient withdrawals (12) resulted in a final 37 patients enrolling on the programme. These 37 patients demonstrated high attendance rates in the supervised classes (87%), and high levels of adherence in home exercising (73%). Patients reported better QOL following the EP, with improvement in FACT-G and Fatigue scores over time from baseline (p<0.01 for both, one-way repeated measures ANOVA) to 6 months. Upper and lower limb strength also improved on the EP, from baseline to 6 months (p<0.01 for both). There were no adverse reactions. An EP in MM patients is feasible and safe, with high attendance and adherence. Benefits in QOL, fatigue and muscle strength await confirmation in randomized studies, prompting urgent evaluation of the benefits of EP in the rehabilitation of MM patients

  14. Enhanced Wnt signaling improves bone mass and strength, but not brittleness, in the Col1a1(+/mov13) mouse model of type I Osteogenesis Imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Christina M; Schwartz, Marissa A; Roberts, Heather J; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Spevak, Lyudmila; Boskey, Adele L; Zurakowski, David; Robling, Alexander G; Warman, Matthew L

    2016-09-01

    Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) comprises a group of genetic skeletal fragility disorders. The mildest form of OI, Osteogenesis Imperfecta type I, is frequently caused by haploinsufficiency mutations in COL1A1, the gene encoding the α1(I) chain of type 1 collagen. Children with OI type I have a 95-fold higher fracture rate compared to unaffected children. Therapies for OI type I in the pediatric population are limited to anti-catabolic agents. In adults with osteoporosis, anabolic therapies that enhance Wnt signaling in bone improve bone mass, and ongoing clinical trials are determining if these therapies also reduce fracture risk. We performed a proof-of-principle experiment in mice to determine whether enhancing Wnt signaling in bone could benefit children with OI type I. We crossed a mouse model of OI type I (Col1a1(+/Mov13)) with a high bone mass (HBM) mouse (Lrp5(+/p.A214V)) that has increased bone strength from enhanced Wnt signaling. Offspring that inherited the OI and HBM alleles had higher bone mass and strength than mice that inherited the OI allele alone. However, OI+HBM and OI mice still had bones with lower ductility compared to wild-type mice. We conclude that enhancing Wnt signaling does not make OI bone normal, but does improve bone properties that could reduce fracture risk. Therefore, agents that enhance Wnt signaling are likely to benefit children and adults with OI type 1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A study to determine whether targeted education significantly improves the perception of human torture in medical students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Munawwar; Ghaffar, Usama B; Usmani, Jawed Ahmad; Rivzi, Shameem Jahan

    2010-08-01

    This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge of torture in MBBS students. A fair comparison was done by selecting two groups of medical students; one, to whom torture was not taught ie, pretaught group (PrTG, n = 125), and second, to whom torture was taught in classroom ie, post-taught group (PoTG, n = 110) in more than one sessions. The topic on torture was taught under many headings maximising the effort to cover as much as possible; namely, definition, geographical distribution, types of torture (physical, psychological and sexual), post-torture sequelae, sociopolitical environment prevailing in the country, doctors' involvement in torture, rehabilitation of torture victims and the UNO's role in containment of torture. In all a questionnaire was designed having MCQ types on these aspects. It was found that significant level of difference in perception and knowledge about torture existed amongst the groups, and this was further accentuated in medical and non-medical intratopics. 'P' value of each question was computed separately. It was found that the study was statistically significant and reestablished the need of fortifying the gossameric firmament of education specific to torture.

  16. Drilling for improvement : Statoil and Halliburton report significant cost savings and more accurate well placement at the Leismer demonstration project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaremko, D.

    2010-07-15

    This article discussed new improvements in steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) made by Statoil and Halliburton at the Leismer demonstration project. The Leismer project is Statoil's inaugural project in oil sands development, and will have a capacity to produce 10,000 barrels per day through 4 separate well pads with 23 well pairs. Challenges to the project included the long lateral sections required for the well pairs to remain parallel to each other while remaining within the target formation. An azimuthal deep resistivity (ADR) tool was used to detect the proximity of the wellbore to shale and water zones. Use of the tool allowed operators to modify the planned well trajectory in order to optimize placements within the reservoir. A rotary steerable system (RSS) was used increase injection times. The project was completed 6 to 8 weeks ahead of schedule. Applications have now been filed for a further 10 phases that will produce 240,000 barrels per day. 1 fig.

  17. Icariin combined with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells significantly improve the impaired kidney function in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Wang, Li; Chu, Xiaoqian; Cui, Huantian; Bian, Yuhong

    2017-04-01

    At present, the main therapy for chronic renal failure (CRF) is dialysis and renal transplantation, but neither obtains satisfactory results. Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (huMSCs) are isolated from the fetal umbilical cord which has a high self-renewal and multi-directional differentiation potential. Icariin (ICA), a kidney-tonifying Chinese Medicine can enhance the multipotency of huMSCs. Therefore, this work seeks to employ the use of ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of chronic renal failure. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine (Cr) analyses showed amelioration of functional parameters in ICA-treated huMSCs for the treatment of CRF rats at 3, 7, and 14 days after transplantation. ICA-treated huMSCs can obviously increase the number of cells in injured renal tissues at 3, 7, and 14 days after transplantation by optical molecular imaging system. Hematoxylin-eosin staining demonstrated that ICA-treated huMSCs reduced the levels of fibrosis in CRF rats at 14 days after transplantation. Superoxide dismutase and Malondialdehyde analyses showed that ICA-treated huMSCs reduced the oxidative damage in CRF rats. Moreover, transplantation with ICA-treated huMSCs decreased inflammatory responses, promoted the expression of growth factors, and protected injured renal tissues. Taken together, our findings suggest that ICA-treated huMSCs could improve the kidney function in CRF rats.

  18. Improvement of the galvanized coating quality of high strength dual phase steels by pre-electroplating nickel layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, N. [Institute of Marine Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Maritime University, Shanghai 200135 (China); Zhang, K. [Institute of Concrete Pumps Machinery R and D, Sany Heavy Industry Co., Ltd. 410100 (China); Li, J. [Baoshan Iron and Steel Co., Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China); Hu, W.B. [State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2011-03-15

    Galvanized dual phase steel sheets are used extensively in the industrial applications because of their excellent mechanical properties and superior corrosion resistance, but the segregation of alloying elements and the formation of oxides on the steel surface often have a deleterious effect on coating adhesion during the galvanizing process. In order to improve the coating quality, a nickel layer was pre-electroplated on the steel substrate before galvanizing and it's found that there is an improvement in the coating quality. The coating microstructures were investigated by scanning electron microscopy together with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope, glow discharge optical emission spectroscope and X-ray diffractions. The experimental results show that the compact Ni{sub 3}Zn{sub 22} intermetallic layer formed at the zinc/nickel interface during the galvanizing process, prohibiting the nucleation and the growth of the {zeta}-Zn phase layer and resulting in the improvement of the zinc coating adhesion. (Copyright copyright 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Improvement of Fabry Disease-Related Gastrointestinal Symptoms in a Significant Proportion of Female Patients Treated with Agalsidase Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilcox, William R; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Martins, Ana Maria

    2018-01-01

    of organ involvement. Although variable, gastrointestinal symptoms are among the most common and significant early clinical manifestations; they tend to persist into adulthood if left untreated. To further understand the effects of sustained enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with agalsidase beta......Fabry disease, an X-linked inherited lysosomal storage disorder, is caused by mutations in the gene encoding α-galactosidase, GLA. In patients with Fabry disease, glycosphingolipids accumulate in various cell types, triggering a range of cellular and tissue responses that result in a wide spectrum...... on gastrointestinal symptoms in heterozygotes, a data analysis of female patients enrolled in the Fabry Registry was conducted. To be included, females of any age must have received agalsidase beta (average dose 1.0 mg/kg every 2 weeks) for at least 2.5 years. Measured outcomes were self-reported gastrointestinal...

  20. Towards an improved prediction of the free radical scavenging potency of flavonoids: the significance of double PCET mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amić, Ana; Marković, Zoran; Dimitrić Marković, Jasmina M; Stepanić, Višnja; Lučić, Bono; Amić, Dragan

    2014-01-01

    The 1H(+)/1e(-) and 2H(+)/2e(-) proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) processes of free radical scavenging by flavonoids were theoretically studied for aqueous and lipid environments using the PM6 and PM7 methods. The results reported here indicate that the significant contribution of the second PCET mechanism, resulting in the formation of a quinone/quinone methide, effectively discriminates the active from inactive flavonoids. The predictive potency of descriptors related to the energetics of second PCET mechanisms (the second O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE2) related to hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism, and the second electron transfer enthalpy (ETE2) related to sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanism) are superior to the currently used indices, which are related to the first 1H(+)/1e(-) processes, and could serve as primary descriptors in development of the QSAR (quantitative structure-activity relationships) of flavonoids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The combination of structural parameters and areal bone mineral density improves relation to proximal femur strength. An in vitro study with high resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Stinus; Beck Nielsen, Jens-Erik; Ahrberg, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    , volumetric BMD (vBMD), and microarchitectural parameters were obtained. In addition, aBMD by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at conventional hip regions and maximal compressive strength (MCS) was determined in a side-impact biomechanical test. Twelve cervical and 19 trochanteric...... fractures were confirmed. Geometry, vBMD, microarchitecture, and aBMD correlated significantly with MCS, with Spearman's correlation coefficients up to 0.77, 0.89, 0.90, and 0.85 (P ...

  2. Pt-decorated GaN nanowires with significant improvement in H2 gas-sensing performance at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Q N; Yam, F K; Hassan, Z; Bououdina, M

    2015-12-15

    Superior sensitivity towards H2 gas was successfully achieved with Pt-decorated GaN nanowires (NWs) gas sensor. GaN NWs were fabricated via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) route. Morphology (field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) and crystal structure (high resolution X-ray diffraction) characterizations of the as-synthesized nanostructures demonstrated the formation of GaN NWs having a wurtzite structure, zigzaged shape and an average diameter of 30-166nm. The Pt-decorated GaN NWs sensor shows a high response of 250-2650% upon exposure to H2 gas concentration from 7 to 1000ppm respectively at room temperature (RT), and then increases to about 650-4100% when increasing the operating temperature up to 75°C. The gas-sensing measurements indicated that the Pt-decorated GaN NWs based sensor exhibited efficient detection of H2 at low concentration with excellent sensitivity, repeatability, and free hysteresis phenomena over a period of time of 100min. The large surface-to-volume ratio of GaN NWs and the catalytic activity of Pt metal are the most influential factors leading to the enhancement of H2 gas-sensing performances through the improvement of the interaction between the target molecules (H2) and the sensing NWs surface. The attractive low-cost, low power consumption and high-performance of the resultant decorated GaN NWs gas sensor assure their uppermost potential for H2 gas sensor working at low operating temperature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrholz, Jan; Pohl, Marcus; Platz, Thomas; Kugler, Joachim; Elsner, Bernhard

    2015-11-07

    Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training devices are used in rehabilitation, and may help to improve arm function after stroke. To assess the effectiveness of electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for improving activities of daily living, arm function, and arm muscle strength in people after stroke. We also assessed the acceptability and safety of the therapy. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group's Trials Register (last searched February 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 3), MEDLINE (1950 to March 2015), EMBASE (1980 to March 2015), CINAHL (1982 to March 2015), AMED (1985 to March 2015), SPORTDiscus (1949 to March 2015), PEDro (searched April 2015), Compendex (1972 to March 2015), and Inspec (1969 to March 2015). We also handsearched relevant conference proceedings, searched trials and research registers, checked reference lists, and contacted trialists, experts, and researchers in our field, as well as manufacturers of commercial devices. Randomised controlled trials comparing electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training for recovery of arm function with other rehabilitation or placebo interventions, or no treatment, for people after stroke. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, assessed trial quality and risk of bias, and extracted data. We contacted trialists for additional information. We analysed the results as standardised mean differences (SMDs) for continuous variables and risk differences (RDs) for dichotomous variables. We included 34 trials (involving 1160 participants) in this update of our review. Electromechanical and robot-assisted arm training improved activities of daily living scores (SMD 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.11 to 0.64, P = 0.005, I² = 62%), arm function (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.51, P arm muscle strength (SMD 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.70, P = 0.04, I² = 72%), but the quality of the evidence was low to very low

  4. Amphoteric Ion-Exchange Membranes with Significantly Improved Vanadium Barrier Properties for All-Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibel, Olga; Rojek, Tomasz; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, Lorenz

    2017-07-10

    All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) have attracted considerable interest as promising energy-storage devices that can allow the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. The membrane, which separates the porous electrodes in a redox flow cell, is one of the key components in VRBs. High rates of crossover of vanadium ions and water through the membrane impair the efficiency and capacity of a VRB. Thus, membranes with low permeation rate of vanadium species and water are required, also characterized by low resistance and stability in the VRB environment. Here, we present a new design concept for amphoteric ion-exchange membranes, based on radiation-induced grafting of vinylpyridine into an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene base film and a two-step functionalization to introduce cationic and anionic exchange sites, respectively. During long-term cycling, redox flow cells containing these membranes showed higher efficiency, less pronounced electrolyte imbalance, and significantly reduced capacity decay compared to the cells with the benchmark material Nafion 117. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. flexural improvement of plain concrete beams strengthened

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Muhammad Nura Isa

    Results show significant improvement in both stiffness and load bearing capacity of plain concrete ... Various methods have been developed to increase their strength capacity by using .... obtained by carrying out uniaxial direct tensile strength.

  6. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terryn, Sanne; Francart, Aurélie; Rommelaere, Heidi; Stortelers, Catelijne; Van Gucht, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days) and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate), when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP. PMID:27483431

  7. Post-exposure Treatment with Anti-rabies VHH and Vaccine Significantly Improves Protection of Mice from Lethal Rabies Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Terryn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP against rabies infection consists of a combination of passive immunisation with plasma-derived human or equine immune globulins and active immunisation with vaccine delivered shortly after exposure. Since anti-rabies immune globulins are expensive and scarce, there is a need for cheaper alternatives that can be produced more consistently. Previously, we generated potent virus-neutralising VHH, also called Nanobodies, against the rabies glycoprotein that are effectively preventing lethal disease in an in vivo mouse model. The VHH domain is the smallest antigen-binding functional fragment of camelid heavy chain-only antibodies that can be manufactured in microbial expression systems. In the current study we evaluated the efficacy of half-life extended anti-rabies VHH in combination with vaccine for PEP in an intranasal rabies infection model in mice. The PEP combination therapy of systemic anti-rabies VHH and intramuscular vaccine significantly delayed the onset of disease compared to treatment with anti-rabies VHH alone, prolonged median survival time (35 versus 14 days and decreased mortality (60% versus 19% survival rate, when treated 24 hours after rabies virus challenge. Vaccine alone was unable to rescue mice from lethal disease. As reported also for immune globulins, some interference of anti-rabies VHH with the antigenicity of the vaccine was observed, but this did not impede the synergistic effect. Post exposure treatment with vaccine and human anti-rabies immune globulins was unable to protect mice from lethal challenge. Anti-rabies VHH and vaccine act synergistically to protect mice after rabies virus exposure, which further validates the possible use of anti-rabies VHH for rabies PEP.

  8. Peel strength of LDPE/ethylene-1-butene copolymer film crosslinked by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nho, Young Chang; Kim, Jeong Il; Kang, Phil Hyun

    2003-01-01

    In this study, ethylene-1-butene copolymer(EBP) was blended with LDPE to improve the mechanical properties as the packaging materials. After they were irradiated by an electron beam, their physical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, modulus, peel strength, DSC, and DMA were examined. The results showed that the addition of EBP to LDPE exerted significant effects on the mechanical properties such as the tensile strength and peel strength. The addition of EBP led to a maximum increase in peel strength of ∼ 430%. The addition of 10-25w% EBP in LDPE was sufficient to enhance the peel strength significantly

  9. Nutrient-rich dairy proteins improve appendicular skeletal muscle mass and physical performance, and attenuate the loss of muscle strength in older men and women subjects: a single-blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemán-Mateo H

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heliodoro Alemán-Mateo,1 Virginia Ramírez Carreón,1 Liliana Macías,1 Humberto Astiazaran-García,1 Ana Cristina Gallegos-Aguilar,1 José Rogelio Ramos Enríquez2 1Coordinación de Nutrición, Centro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo, A.C., 2Laboratorio de Análisis Clínicos e Investigación, Departamento de Ciencias Químico Biológicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Mexico Background: At present, it is unknown whether the use of nutrient-rich dairy proteins improves the markers of sarcopenia syndrome. Therefore, our proposal was to investigate whether ­adding 210 g of ricotta cheese daily would improve skeletal muscle mass, handgrip strength, and ­physical performance in non-sarcopenic older subjects.Subjects and methods: This was a single-blind randomized clinical trial that included two homogeneous, randomized groups of men and women over 60 years of age. Participants in the intervention group were asked to consume their habitual diet but add 210 g of ricotta cheese (IG/HD + RCH, while the control group was instructed to consume only their habitual diet (CG/HD. Basal and 12-week follow-up measurements included appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, handgrip strength by a handheld dynamometer, and physical performance using the short physical performance battery (SPPB and the stair-climb power test (SCPT. The main outcomes were relative changes in ASMM, strength, SPPB, and SCPT.Results: ASMM increased in the IG/HD + RCH (0.6±3.5 kg, but decreased in the CG/HD (–1.0±2.6. The relative change between groups was statistically significant (P=0.009. The relative change in strength in both groups was negative, but the loss of muscle strength was more pronounced in CG/HD, though in this regard statistical analysis found only a tendency (P=0.07. The relative change in the balance-test scores was positive for the IG/HD + RCH, while in the CG/HD it was negative, as those individuals had

  10. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-11-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1-T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20-30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  11. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A

    2017-08-01

      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  12. Robotics and gaming to improve ankle strength, motor control, and function in children with cerebral palsy--a case study series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdea, Grigore C; Cioi, Daniel; Kale, Angad; Janes, William E; Ross, Sandy A; Engsberg, Jack R

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of game-based robotic training of the ankle in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The design was a case study, 12 weeks intervention, with no follow-up. The setting was a university research laboratory. The participants were a referred sample of three children with cerebral palsy, age 7-12, all male. All completed the intervention. Participants trained on the Rutgers Ankle CP system for 36 rehabilitation sessions (12 weeks, three times/week), playing two custom virtual reality games. The games were played while participants were seated, and trained one ankle at-a-time for strength, motor control, and coordination. The primary study outcome measures were for impairment (DF/PF torques, DF initial contact angle and gait speed), function (GMFM), and quality of life (Peds QL). Secondary outcome measures relate to game performance (game scores as reflective of ankle motor control and endurance). Gait function improved substantially in ankle kinematics, speed and endurance. Overall function (GMFM) indicated improvements that were typical of other ankle strength training programs. Quality of life increased beyond what would be considered a minimal clinical important difference. Game performance improved in both games during the intervention. This feasibility study supports the assumption that game-based robotic training of the ankle benefits gait in children with CP. Game technology is appropriate for the age group and was well accepted by the participants. Additional studies are needed however, to quantify the level of benefit and compare the approach presented here to traditional methods of therapy.

  13. An automated design and fabrication pipeline for improving the strength of 3D printed artifacts under tensile loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al, Can Mert; Yaman, Ulas

    2018-05-01

    In the scope of this study, an alternative automated method to the conventional design and fabrication pipeline of 3D printers is developed by using an integrated CAD/CAE/CAM approach. It increases the load carrying capacity of the parts by constructing heterogeneous infill structures. Traditional CAM software of Additive Manufacturing machinery starts with a design model in STL file format which only includes data about the outer boundary in the triangular mesh form. Depending on the given infill percentage, the algorithm running behind constructs the interior of the artifact by using homogeneous infill structures. As opposed to the current CAM software, the proposed method provides a way to construct heterogeneous infill structures with respect to the Von Misses stress field results obtained from a finite element analysis. Throughout the work, Rhinoceros3D is used for the design of the parts along with Grasshopper3D, an algorithmic design tool for Rhinoceros3D. In addition, finite element analyses are performed using Karamba3D, a plug-in for Grasshopper3D. According to the results of the tensile tests, the method offers an improvement of load carrying capacity about 50% compared to traditional slicing algorithms of 3D printing.

  14. Improvement of the T-peel Strength of Polypropylene Adhesion Joints by Surface Photografting Pre-Treatment with Methyl Methacrylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balart, R.; Sánchez-Nácher, L.; Balart, J.; Fombuena, V.; España, J. M.

    2010-06-01

    Although polypropylene is one of the most used polymers at industrial level due to good balanced properties, it presents some restrictions in applications that require good adhesion properties as well as coating and painting. These restrictions are related to its non polar nature which leads to low wetting properties. So that, in most cases, it is necessary a previous surface pre-treatment in order to improve adhesion properties. These surface treatments could be physical or chemical. Among the wide variety of physical processes, plasma technologies are useful from both technical and environmental points of view. If we take into account economic considerations, chemical processes are interesting due to low cost equipment and procedures. In particular, we have used photografting of methyl methacrylate (MMA) monomer on polypropylene substrates with UV radiation and initiators. This process is useful to promote chemical modification of polypropylene surface by grafting MMA monomers into polypropylene polymer chains. Due to polarity of some groups in MMA monomers, it is possible to increase surface wettability thus promoting a remarkable increase in adhesion properties of polypropylene. In this work, changes in wettability of polypropylene surfaces in terms of the exposure time to UV radiation in presence of MMA monomers and initiators has been investigated. Furthermore, chemical changes have been characterized by FTIR analysis and mechanical performance of adhesion joints has been evaluated by T-peel tests.

  15. Does vitamin-D intake during resistance training improve the skeletal muscle hypertrophic and strength response in young and elderly men? – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jakob; Trøstrup, Jeanette; Uth, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    analyzed for fiber type morphology changes and mRNA expression of vitamin-D receptor (VDR), cytochrome p450 27B1 (CYP27B1) and Myostatin. RESULTS: In the vitamin-D groups, serum 25(OH)D concentration increased significantly and at week 12 was significantly different from placebo in both young men (71.6 vs.......0001) with no difference between vitamin-D and placebo groups. Vitamin-D intake and resistance training increased strength/CSA in elderly compared to young (p = 0.008). In the young vitamin-D group, the change in fiber type IIa percentage was greater after 12 weeks training (p = 0.030) and Myostatin mRNA expression lower...

  16. Lymphocytic Esophagitis in Non-Achalasia Primary Esophageal Motility Disorders: Improved Criteria, Prevalence, Strength of Association and Natural History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Juan; Muller, Kristen E.; Hussain, Zilla H.; Parker, Siddhartha; Gabbard, Scott; Brickley, Elizabeth B.; Lacy, Brian E.; Rothstein, Richard; Lisovsky, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    Lymphocytic esophagitis (LE) is a histologic pattern with no established clinical correlates in the majority of patients. The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between non-achalasia primary esophageal motility disorders (PMED) and LE. Sixty-nine patients with PMED and esophageal biopsies, including 22 with nutcracker esophagus, 33 with ineffective motility and 14 with diffuse spasm, constituted the study group. The control group consisted of 70 patients with severe dysmotility-negative gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) requiring referral for Nissen fundoplication. To improve the criteria for LE, a lymphocyte reference range at different esophageal levels was first established in 17 healthy volunteers. The cutoffs for normal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), defined as lymphocyte levels not exceeding mean level + 2 standard deviations, were set at 62, 46, and 41 lymphocytes per high power field at 0 to 2 cm, 5 cm, and 10 cm above the gastroesophageal junction, respectively. Predominantly focal peripapillary LE was observed in approximately 40% of patients with nutcracker esophagus or diffuse spasm and 20% of patients with ineffective motility, in comparison to 4% of patients with dysmotility-negative GERD (P < 0.035 versus any subtype of PMED). Overall, LE was strongly associated with PMED in multivariate analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 7.93; 95% CI: 2.26, 27.9; P=0.001). LE had a chronic course in 56% of the patients with follow-up biopsies. In conclusion, LE has a strong association with PMED, suggesting utility of LE in raising the possibility of PMED. PMID:27526295

  17. The Strengths of Wisdom Provide Unique Contributions to Improved Leadership, Sustainability, Inequality, Gross National Happiness, and Civic Discourse in the Face of Contemporary World Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Grossmann

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence for the strengths of the intellectual virtues that philosophers and behavioral scientists characterize as key cognitive elements of wisdom. Wisdom has been of centuries-long interest for philosophical scholarship, but relative to intelligence largely neglected in public discourse on educational science, public policy, and societal well-being. Wise reasoning characteristics include intellectual humility, recognition of uncertainty, consideration of diverse viewpoints, and an attempt to integrate these viewpoints. Emerging scholarship on these features of wisdom suggest that they uniquely contribute to societal well-being, improve leadership, shed light on societal inequality, promote cooperation in Public Goods Games and reduce political polarization and intergroup-hostility. We review empirical evidence about macro-cultural, ecological, situational, and person-level processes facilitating and inhibiting wisdom in daily life. Based on this evidence, we speculate about ways to foster wisdom in education, organizations, and institutions.

  18. Effectiveness of various isometric exercises at improving bone strength in cortical regions prone to distal tibial stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florio, C S

    2018-06-01

    A computational model was used to compare the local bone strengthening effectiveness of various isometric exercises that may reduce the likelihood of distal tibial stress fractures. The developed model predicts local endosteal and periosteal cortical accretion and resorption based on relative local and global measures of the tibial stress state and its surface variation. Using a multisegment 3-dimensional leg model, tibia shape adaptations due to 33 combinations of hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and the direction of a single or sequential series of generated isometric resultant forces were predicted. The maximum stress at a common fracture-prone region in each optimized geometry was compared under likely stress fracture-inducing midstance jogging conditions. No direct correlations were found between stress reductions over an initially uniform circular hollow cylindrical geometry under these critical design conditions and the exercise-based sets of active muscles, joint angles, or individual muscle force and local stress magnitudes. Additionally, typically favorable increases in cross-sectional geometric measures did not guarantee stress decreases at these locations. Instead, tibial stress distributions under the exercise conditions best predicted strengthening ability. Exercises producing larger anterior distal stresses created optimized tibia shapes that better resisted the high midstance jogging bending stresses. Bent leg configurations generating anteriorly directed or inferiorly directed resultant forces created favorable adaptations. None of the studied loads produced by a straight leg was significantly advantageous. These predictions and the insight gained can provide preliminary guidance in the screening and development of targeted bone strengthening techniques for those susceptible to distal tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  20. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  1. Improved Stress Corrosion Cracking Resistance and Strength of a Two-Step Aged Al-Zn-Mg-Cu Alloy Using Taguchi Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianghua; Liu, Zhiyi; Ying, Puyou; Liu, Meng

    2015-12-01

    Multi-step heat treatment effectively enhances the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance but usually degrades the mechanical properties of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys. With the aim to enhance SCC resistance as well as strength of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys, we have optimized the process parameters during two-step aging of Al-6.1Zn-2.8Mg-1.9Cu alloy by Taguchi's L9 orthogonal array. In this work, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to find out the significant heat treatment parameters. The slow strain rate testing combined with scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope was employed to study the SCC behaviors of Al-Zn-Mg-Cu alloy. Results showed that the contour map produced by ANOVA offered a reliable reference for selection of optimum heat treatment parameters. By using this method, a desired combination of mechanical performances and SCC resistance was obtained.

  2. High alkaline tolerant electrolyte membrane with improved conductivity and mechanical strength via lithium chloride/dimethylacetamide dissolved microcrystalline cellulose for Zn-Air batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yuansong; Li, Cong; Cai, Xiaoxia; Yao, Jinshui; Li, Mei; Zhang, Xian; Liu, Qinze

    2016-01-01

    LiCl/DMAc (dimethylacetamide) solution dissolved microcrystalline cellulose (LD-MCC) showed potential benefits to the alkaline solid polymer electrolyte (ASPE). High alkali tolerance (up to 70 wt% KOH loading), remarkable improvements in ionic conductivity (from 0.018 S cm −1 to 0.153 S cm −1 ) and mechanical properties (3-fold increase in tensile strength from 0.28 MPa to 0.76 MPa) were achieved just via an incorporation of 5 wt% of LD-MCC into the ASPE matrix. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction indicated that LD-MCC entrapped KOH and hindered its aggregation. X-ray Energy Dispersive Spectrometer revealed that K + was preferentially located on the LD-MCC surfaces rather than the polymeric matrix. Scanning Electron Microscopy of freeze-dry sample demonstrated a submicro-porous morphology with reduced average pore size (175 nm) after the incorporation of LD-MCC in ASPE matrix. The incorporated LD-MCC acted as KOH stabilizer, hydrophilicity agent and OH − transport media. Distinct micro-structures before and after the incorporation of LD-MCC were investigated to reveal the special role of LD-MCC in the performance improvement of ASPE membrane.

  3. Laser Weldability of High-Strength Al-Zn Alloys and Its Improvement by the Use of an Appropriate Filler Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enz, Josephin; Riekehr, Stefan; Ventzke, Volker; Huber, Norbert; Kashaev, Nikolai

    2016-06-01

    Heat-treatable Al-Zn alloys are promising candidates for use as structural lightweight materials in automotive and aircraft applications. This is mainly due to their high strength-to-density ratio in comparison to conventionally employed Al alloys. Laser beam welding is an efficient method for producing joints with high weld quality and has been established in the industry for many years. However, it is well known that aluminum alloys with a high Zn content or, more precisely, with a high (Zn + Mg + Cu) content are difficult to fusion weld due to the formation of porosity and hot cracks. The present study concerns the laser weldability of these hard-to-weld Al-Zn alloys. In order to improve weldability, it was first necessary to understand the reasons for weldability problems and to identify crucial influencing factors. Based on this knowledge, it was finally possible to develop an appropriate approach. For this purpose, vanadium was selected as additional filler material. Vanadium exhibits favorable thermophysical properties and, thereby, can improve the weldability of Al-Zn alloys. The effectiveness of the approach was verified by its application to several Al-Zn alloys with differing amounts of (Zn + Mg + Cu).

  4. Five-year results from a prospective multicentre study of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation demonstrate sustained removal of significant pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow tract obstruction and improved quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hager, Alfred; Schubert, Stephan; Ewert, Peter

    2017-01-01

    . The EQ-5D quality of life utility index and visual analogue scale scores were both significantly improved six months post PPVI and remained so at five years. CONCLUSIONS: Five-year results following PPVI demonstrate resolved moderate or severe pulmonary regurgitation, improved right ventricular outflow...

  5. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age ( χ̄ = 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age ( χ̄ = 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  6. Addition of 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline results in significantly improved anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, Ana; Sosič, Izidor; Kos, Špela; Tratar, Urša Lampreht; Breznik, Barbara; Kranjc, Simona; Mirković, Bojana; Gobec, Stanislav; Lah, Tamara; Serša, Gregor; Kos, Janko

    2017-08-29

    Lysosomal cysteine peptidase cathepsin B, involved in multiple processes associated with tumor progression, is validated as a target for anti-cancer therapy. Nitroxoline, a known antimicrobial agent, is a potent and selective inhibitor of cathepsin B, hence reducing tumor progression in vitro and in vivo . In order to further improve its anti-cancer properties we developed a number of derivatives using structure-based chemical synthesis. Of these, the 7-aminomethylated derivative (compound 17 ) exhibited significantly improved kinetic properties over nitroxoline, inhibiting cathepsin B endopeptidase activity selectively. In the present study, we have evaluated its anti-cancer properties. It was more effective than nitroxoline in reducing tumor cell invasion and migration, as determined in vitro on two-dimensional cell models and tumor spheroids, under either endpoint or real time conditions. Moreover, it exhibited improved action over nitroxoline in impairing tumor growth in vivo in LPB mouse fibrosarcoma tumors in C57Bl/6 mice. Taken together, the addition of a 2-(ethylamino)acetonitrile group to nitroxoline at position 7 significantly improves its pharmacological characteristics and its potential for use as an anti-cancer drug.

  7. A mixed exercise training programme is feasible and safe and may improve quality of life and muscle strength in multiple myeloma survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groeneveldt Lara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise programmes are beneficial for cancer patients however evidence is limited in patients with multiple myeloma (MM, a cancer that is characterised by osteolytic bone disease, giving rise to high levels of bone morbidity including fractures and bone pain. Methods We conducted a single arm phase 2 study of an exercise programme (EP as rehabilitation for treated MM patients, to evaluate feasibility, effects on QOL and physiological parameters. Patients were given individualised programmes, comprising stretching, aerobic and resistance exercises, carried out under supervision for 3 months then at home for a further 3 months. Results Study uptake was high, 60 of 75 (80% patients approached consented to the study. Screen failures (11, due to fracture risk and disease relapse and patient withdrawals (12 resulted in a final 37 patients enrolling on the programme. These 37 patients demonstrated high attendance rates in the supervised classes (87%, and high levels of adherence in home exercising (73%. Patients reported better QOL following the EP, with improvement in FACT-G and Fatigue scores over time from baseline (p Conclusions An EP in MM patients is feasible and safe, with high attendance and adherence. Benefits in QOL, fatigue and muscle strength await confirmation in randomized studies, prompting urgent evaluation of the benefits of EP in the rehabilitation of MM patients.

  8. Pilates improves lower limbs strength and postural control during quite standing in a child with hemiparetic cerebral palsy: A case report study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Adriana Neves; Serikawa, Simoni Sayuri; Rocha, Nelci Adriana Cicuto Ferreira

    2016-08-01

    To verify the effect of Pilates exercises in a child with cerebral palsy (CP) with mild functional impairment. We evaluated average peak torque of ankle and knee extensors/flexors using a Biodex System, using concentric active-assisted test. We also evaluated amplitude of anterior-posterior and of medial-lateral displacement of the CoP and area of oscillation during quite standing with a BERTEC platform. We applied Pilates exercises for eight weeks. Peak torque/body weight of ankle and knee extensors/flexors of both affected and unaffected limbs increased after Pilates. Also, all kinetic variables decreased after Pilates' intervention. After one-month follow-up, isokinetic variable values were higher while kinetic variable values were lower than baseline values. Pilates may be an important rehabilitation technique for children with CP that present mild deficits in motor structures and high functional level, especially when the aims are to improve muscle strength and postural control during quite standing.

  9. Improving RF Transmit Power and Received Signal Strength in 2.4 GHz ZigBee Based Active RFID System with Embedded Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Po'ad, F. A.; Ismail, W.; Jusoh, J. F.

    2017-08-01

    This paper describes the experiments and analysis conducted on 2.4 GHz embedded active Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) - Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based system that has been developed for the purposes of location tracking and monitoring in indoor and outdoor environments. Several experiments are conducted to test the effectiveness and performance of the developed system and two of them is by measuring the Radio Frequency (RF) transmitting power and Received Signal Strength (RSS) to prove that the embedded active RFID tag is capable to generate higher transmit power during data transmission and able to provide better RSS reading compared to standalone RFID tag. Experiments are carried out on two RFID tags which are active RFID tag embedded with GPS and GSM (ER2G); and standalone RFID tag communicating with the same active RFID reader. The developed ER2G contributes 12.26 % transmit power and 6.47 % RSS reading higher than standalone RFID tag. The results conclude that the ER2G gives better performance compared to standalone RFID tag and can be used as guidelines for future design improvements.

  10. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na+/H+) antiporter that transports Na+ into the vacuole and exports H+ into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na+/H+ antiporter that exports Na+ to the extracellular space and imports H+ into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na+ out of the cell or to sequester Na+ into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na+ in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. PMID:26985021

  11. Co-overexpressing a Plasma Membrane and a Vacuolar Membrane Sodium/Proton Antiporter Significantly Improves Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Arabidopsis Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Necla; Sun, Li; Jarrett, Philip; Yang, Xiaojie; Mishra, Neelam; Chen, Lin; Kadioglu, Asim; Shen, Guoxin; Zhang, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The Arabidopsis gene AtNHX1 encodes a vacuolar membrane-bound sodium/proton (Na(+)/H(+)) antiporter that transports Na(+) into the vacuole and exports H(+) into the cytoplasm. The Arabidopsis gene SOS1 encodes a plasma membrane-bound Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that exports Na(+) to the extracellular space and imports H(+) into the plant cell. Plants rely on these enzymes either to keep Na(+) out of the cell or to sequester Na(+) into vacuoles to avoid the toxic level of Na(+) in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of AtNHX1 or SOS1 could improve salt tolerance in transgenic plants, but the improved salt tolerance is limited. NaCl at concentration >200 mM would kill AtNHX1-overexpressing or SOS1-overexpressing plants. Here it is shown that co-overexpressing AtNHX1 and SOS1 could further improve salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants, making transgenic Arabidopsis able to tolerate up to 250 mM NaCl treatment. Furthermore, co-overexpression of AtNHX1 and SOS1 could significantly reduce yield loss caused by the combined stresses of heat and salt, confirming the hypothesis that stacked overexpression of two genes could substantially improve tolerance against multiple stresses. This research serves as a proof of concept for improving salt tolerance in other plants including crops. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists.

  12. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be

  13. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  14. Vitamin D and Calcium Addition during Denosumab Therapy over a Period of Four Years Significantly Improves Lumbar Bone Mineral Density in Japanese Osteoporosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Suzuki

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether or not vitamin D and calcium supplementation affected bone metabolism and bone mineral density (BMD over a period of four years of denosumab therapy in patients with primary osteoporosis. Patients were divided into a denosumab monotherapy group (22 cases or a denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium supplementation group (combination group, 21 cases. We measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (BAP, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP-5b, urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type-I collagen (NTX, and BMD of the lumbar 1–4 vertebrae (L-BMD and bilateral hips (H-BMD at baseline and at 12, 24, 36, and 48 months of treatment. There were no significant differences in patient background. Serum BAP, TRACP-5b, and urinary NTX were significantly and comparably inhibited in both groups from 12 to 48 months versus baseline values. L-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in both groups, while H-BMD was significantly increased at every time point in the combination group only. There were significant differences between the groups for L-BMD at 24, 36, and 48 months (P < 0.05 and for H-BMD at 12 months (P < 0.05. Compared with denosumab monotherapy, combination therapy of denosumab plus vitamin D and calcium significantly increased H-BMD at 12 months and L-BMD from 24 to 48 months. These findings indicate that continuous vitamin D and calcium supplementation is important, especially for 12 months to improve H-BMD and from 24 to 48 months to improve L-BMD.

  15. Significant improvement of olfactory performance in sleep apnea patients after three months of nasal CPAP therapy - Observational study and randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Boerner

    Full Text Available The olfactory function highly impacts quality of life (QoL. Continuous positive airway pressure is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and is often applied by nasal masks (nCPAP. The influence of nCPAP on the olfactory performance of OSA patients is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the sense of smell before initiation of nCPAP and after three months treatment, in moderate and severe OSA patients.The sense of smell was assessed in 35 patients suffering from daytime sleepiness and moderate to severe OSA (apnea/hypopnea index ≥ 15/h, with the aid of a validated test battery (Sniffin' Sticks before initiation of nCPAP therapy and after three months of treatment. Additionally, adherent subjects were included in a double-blind randomized three weeks CPAP-withdrawal trial (sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.Twenty five of the 35 patients used the nCPAP therapy for more than four hours per night, and for more than 70% of nights (adherent group. The olfactory performance of these patients improved significantly (p = 0.007 after three months of nCPAP therapy. When considering the entire group of patients, olfaction also improved significantly (p = 0.001. In the randomized phase the sense of smell of six patients deteriorated under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure (p = 0.046 whereas five patients in the maintenance CPAP group showed no significant difference (p = 0.501.Olfactory performance improved significantly after three months of nCPAP therapy in patients suffering from moderate and severe OSA. It seems that this effect of nCPAP is reversible under sub-therapeutic CPAP pressure.ISRCTN11128866.

  16. Effects of a community scorecard on improving the local health system in Eastern Democratic Republic of Congo: qualitative evidence using the most significant change technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lara S; Labrecque, Guillaume; Batonon, Isatou; Salsi, Viviana; Ratnayake, Ruwan

    2015-01-01

    More than a decade of conflict has weakened the health system in the Democratic Republic of Congo and decreased its ability to respond to the needs of the population. Community scorecards have been conceived as a way to increase accountability and responsiveness of service providers, but there is limited evidence of their effects, particularly in fragile and conflict-affected contexts. This paper describes the implementation of community scorecards within a community-driven reconstruction project in two provinces of eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Between June 2012 and November 2013, 45 stories of change in the health system were collected from village development committee, health committee, community members (20 men and 18 women) and healthcare providers (n = 7) in 25 sites using the Most Significant Change technique. Stories were analyzed qualitatively for content related to the types and mechanisms of change observed. The most salient changes were related to increased transparency and community participation in health facility management, and improved quality of care. Quality of care included increased access to services, improved patient-provider relationships, improved performance of service providers, and improved maintenance of physical infrastructure. Changes occurred through many different mechanisms including provider actions in response to information, pressure from community representatives, or supervisors; and joint action and improved collaboration by health facility committees and providers. Although it is often assumed that confrontation is a primary mechanism for citizens to change state-provided services, this study demonstrates that healthcare providers may also be motivated to change through other means. Positive experiences of community scorecards can provide a structured space for interface between community members and the health system, allowing users to voice their opinions and preferences and bridge information gaps for both

  17. Effects of sand compaction pile (SCP) driving on the strength of clay outside the improved area; Sand compaction pile no dasetsu ga jiban kairyo ikigai no nendo jiban no kyodo ni oyobosu eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, H. [Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi (Japan); Takahashi, S. [Ministry of Transport, Tokyo (Japan); Fujiwara, K. [Penta-Ocean Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kitayama, N. [Fukken Co. Ltd., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1998-06-21

    This paper describes effects of the disturbance by the sand compaction pile (SCP) driving operations on the shear strength of clay outside the improved area and the border of region affected by the SCP driving. About 1,400 soil specimens were taken before and after the SCP driving inside and outside the improved area during the foundation improvement at Tokuyama-Shimomatsu Port in Yamaguchi Prefecture. Soil test data of the specimens and strength characteristics of disturbed clay specimens were investigated through the laboratory experiments. The results obtained are as follows. According to the multi-directional simple shear test results, the shear strength immediately after the cyclic shear decreased in 10 to 30% compared with that before the cyclic shear. When recompaction was conducted before the cyclic shear, however, it increased in 50% compared with that before the cyclic shear. The strength of clay decreased by the SCP driving even outside the improved area. When the internal frictional angle of clay, friction coefficient of the improved boundary and driving depth of SCP were determined, it was possible to estimate an area affected by the SCP driving using a combined sliding plane. 21 refs., 18 figs.

  18. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  19. Adaptations in athletic performance after ballistic power versus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; McGuigan, Michael R; Newton, Robert U

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether the magnitude of improvement in athletic performance and the mechanisms driving these adaptations differ in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training. Relatively weak men (n = 24) who could perform the back squat with proficient technique were randomized into three groups: strength training (n = 8; ST), power training (n = 8; PT), or control (n = 8). Training involved three sessions per week for 10 wk in which subjects performed back squats with 75%-90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM; ST) or maximal-effort jump squats with 0%-30% 1RM (PT). Jump and sprint performances were assessed as well as measures of the force-velocity relationship, jumping mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural drive. Both experimental groups showed significant (P training with no significant between-group differences evident in either jump (peak power: ST = 17.7% +/- 9.3%, PT = 17.6% +/- 4.5%) or sprint performance (40-m sprint: ST = 2.2% +/- 1.9%, PT = 3.6% +/- 2.3%). ST also displayed a significant increase in maximal strength that was significantly greater than the PT group (squat 1RM: ST = 31.2% +/- 11.3%, PT = 4.5% +/- 7.1%). The mechanisms driving these improvements included significant (P force-velocity relationship, jump mechanics, muscle architecture, and neural activation that showed a degree of specificity to the different training stimuli. Improvements in athletic performance were similar in relatively weak individuals exposed to either ballistic power training or heavy strength training for 10 wk. These performance improvements were mediated through neuromuscular adaptations specific to the training stimulus. The ability of strength training to render similar short-term improvements in athletic performance as ballistic power training, coupled with the potential long-term benefits of improved maximal strength, makes strength training a more effective training modality for relatively weak individuals.

  20. A facile template method to synthesize significantly improved LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4 using corn stalk as a bio-template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guiyang; Kong, Xin; Sun, Hongyan; Wang, Baosen; Yi, Zhongzhou; Wang, Quanbiao

    2014-01-01

    In order to simplify the template method for the synthesis of cathode materials for lithium ion batteries, a facile template method using plant stalks as bio-templates has been introduced. Based on this method, LiNi 0.5 Mn 1.5 O 4 spinel with a significantly improved electrochemical performance has been synthesized using corn stalk as a template. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared pectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) have been used to investigate the phase composition and micro-morphologies of the products. Charge-discharge measurements in lithium cells, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been used to study the electrochemical performance of the products. The results indicate that the templated product exhibits higher crystallinity than that of non-templated product. Both of the templated product and the non-templated product are combination of the ordered space group P4 3 32 and the disordered Fd-3 m. The specific BET surface area of the templated product is about twice larger than that of the non-templated product. Moreover, the electrochemical performances of the templated product including specific capacity, cycling stability and rate capability are significantly improved as compared with the non-templated product, due to its higher crystallinity, larger Li + diffusion coefficient and lower charge transfer resistance

  1. Arthroscopic Debridement for Primary Degenerative Osteoarthritis of the Elbow Leads to Significant Improvement in Range of Motion and Clinical Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Kyle R; Jack, Robert A; Hirase, Takashi; McCulloch, Patrick C; Lintner, David M; Liberman, Shari R; Harris, Joshua D

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether arthroscopic debridement of primary elbow osteoarthritis results in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in (1) elbow range of motion and (2) clinical outcomes with (3) low complication and reoperation rates. A systematic review was registered with PROSPERO and performed using PRISMA guidelines. Databases were searched for studies that investigated the outcomes of arthroscopic debridement for the treatment of primary osteoarthritis of the elbow in adult human patients. Study methodological quality was analyzed. Studies that included post-traumatic arthritis were excluded. Elbow motion and all elbow-specific patient-reported outcome scores were eligible for analysis. Comparisons between preoperative and postoperative values from each study were made using 2-sample Z-tests (http://in-silico.net/tools/statistics/ztest) using a P value osteoarthritis results in statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement in elbow range of motion and clinical outcomes with low complication and reoperation rates. Systematic review of level IV studies. Copyright © 2017 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Transplantation of N-Acetyl Aspartyl-Glutamate Synthetase-Activated Neural Stem Cells after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury Significantly Improves Neurological Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Li

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Neural stem cells (NSCs hold considerable potential as a therapeutic tool for repair of the damaged nervous system. In the current study, we examined whether transplanted N-acetyl aspartyl-glutamate synthetase (NAAGS-activated NSCs (NAAGS/NSCs further improve neurological recovery following traumatic brain injury (TBI in Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: Animals received TBI and stereotactic injection of NSCs, NAAGS/NSCs or phosphate buffered saline without cells (control into the injured cortex. NAAGS protein expression was detected through western blot analysis. Dialysate NAAG levels were analyzed with radioimmunoassay. Cell apoptosis was detected via TUNEL staining. The expression levels of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: Groups with transplanted NSCs and NAAGS/NSCs displayed significant recovery of the motor behavior, compared to the control group. At 14 and 21 days post-transplantation, the motor behavior in NAAGS/NSC group was significantly improved than that in NSC group (pConclusion: Our results collectively demonstrate that NAAGS/NSCs provide a more powerful autoplastic therapy for the injured nervous system.

  3. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G.; Young, James D.; Whitten, Joseph H. D.; Reid, Jonathan C.; Quigley, Patrick J.; Low, Jonathan; Li, Yimeng; Lima, Camila D.; Hodgson, Daniel D.; Chaouachi, Anis; Prieske, Olaf; Granacher, Urs

    2017-01-01

    Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics), there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass) and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training) on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with the unilateral

  4. Effectiveness of Traditional Strength vs. Power Training on Muscle Strength, Power and Speed with Youth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. Behm

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous national associations and multiple reviews have documented the safety and efficacy of strength training for children and adolescents. The literature highlights the significant training-induced increases in strength associated with youth strength training. However, the effectiveness of youth strength training programs to improve power measures is not as clear. This discrepancy may be related to training and testing specificity. Most prior youth strength training programs emphasized lower intensity resistance with relatively slow movements. Since power activities typically involve higher intensity, explosive-like contractions with higher angular velocities (e.g., plyometrics, there is a conflict between the training medium and testing measures. This meta-analysis compared strength (e.g., training with resistance or body mass and power training programs (e.g., plyometric training on proxies of muscle strength, power, and speed. A systematic literature search using a Boolean Search Strategy was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed, SPORT Discus, Web of Science, and Google Scholar and revealed 652 hits. After perusal of title, abstract, and full text, 107 studies were eligible for inclusion in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The meta-analysis showed small to moderate magnitude changes for training specificity with jump measures. In other words, power training was more effective than strength training for improving youth jump height. For sprint measures, strength training was more effective than power training with youth. Furthermore, strength training exhibited consistently large magnitude changes to lower body strength measures, which contrasted with the generally trivial, small and moderate magnitude training improvements of power training upon lower body strength, sprint and jump measures, respectively. Maturity related inadequacies in eccentric strength and balance might influence the lack of training specificity with

  5. How Good Is Good: Improved Tracking and Managing of Safety Goals, Performance Indicators, Production Targets and Significant Events Using Learning Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, Rommey B.; Saull, John W.

    2002-01-01

    We show a new way to track and measure safety and performance using learning curves derived on a mathematical basis. When unusual or abnormal events occur in plants and equipment, the regulator and good management practice requires they be reported, investigated, understood and rectified. In addition to reporting so-called 'significant events', both management and the regulator often set targets for individual and collective performance, which are used for both reward and criticism. For almost completely safe systems, like nuclear power plants, commercial aircraft and chemical facilities, many parameters are tracked and measured. Continuous improvement has to be demonstrated, as well as meeting reduced occurrence rates, which are set as management goals or targets. This process usually takes the form of statistics for availability of plant and equipment, forced or unplanned maintenance outage, loss of safety function, safety or procedural violations, etc. These are often rolled up into a set of so-called 'Performance Indicators' as measures of how well safety and operation is being managed at a given facility. The overall operating standards of an industry are also measured. A whole discipline is formed of tracking, measuring, reporting, managing and understanding the plethora of indicators and data. Decreasing occurrence rates and meeting or exceeding goals are seen and rewarded as virtues. Managers and operators need to know how good is their safety management system that has been adopted and used (and paid for), and whether it can itself be improved