WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant social problems

  1. Sociale problemer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Bøggild; Rasmussen, Tove; Bundesen, Peter Verner

    Sociale problemer kan betragtes som selve udgangspunktet for socialt arbejde, hvor ambitionen er at råde bod på problemerne og sikre, at udsatte borgere får en bedre tilværelse. Det betyder også, at diskussionen af sociale problemer er afgørende for den sociale grundfaglighed. I denne bog sætter en...... række fagfolk på tværs af det danske socialfaglige felt fokus på sociale problemer. Det diskuteres, hvad vi overhovedet forstår ved sociale problemer, hvordan de opstår, hvilke konsekvenser de har, og ikke mindst hvordan man som fagprofessionel håndterer sociale problemer i det daglige arbejde. Bogen er...... skrevet som lærebog til professionsuddannelser, hvor sociale problemer udgør en dimension, bl.a. socialrådgiver-, pædagog- og sygeplejerskeuddannelserne....

  2. Addiction is one of the social problems which has a significant role in the spiritual and physical health of the person, family

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshte Jaliliyan

    2009-01-01

    Addiction is one of the social problems which has a significant role in the spiritual and physical health of the person, family, and specially the health of the society. One of the main factors for continuance and intensity of involvement in addiction, is that the individuals, the network positive (healthy) relations is low. There fore, in this study, the role of the network positive (healthy) and the network negative (unhealthy) relations in degree (intensity) of the person’s involvement in ...

  3. Enuresis: A Social Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, James E.

    1978-01-01

    Several theories and treatments of enuresis are described. The authors conclude that enuresis is a social problem (perhaps due to maturational lag, developmental delay or faulty learning) which requires teacher and parental tolerance and understanding. (SE)

  4. SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND ENVIRONMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Tiwari

    2017-01-01

    With ever increasing social and environmental problems, the principles of Socio-Economic Sustainable development have gained prime importance. Human activities and their after-effects, direct and indirect, strongly influence nature and its resources. Keeping the huge role played by mankind in sustaining the glory of nature in mind, development goals need to be shaped in accordance with the parallel development and benefit of nature. India, as a developing nation, has a landmark role to play i...

  5. Sociological interpretation of social problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Katsora

    2015-04-01

    The article considers such sociological approaches to social problems as social pathology, social disorganization, functional and critical approaches, the approach of value conflict, constructionsite approach and the approach of «labelling». Each approach has its own peculiarities of consideration of social problems, that is related with the historical period in which it arose and settled down, and the views of members of a particular sociological approach to social problems. Also, the article discusses the main advantages and disadvantages of sociological approaches to dealing the social problems.

  6. Volunteering as Students significant social activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaitseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the involvement of students in volunteer activities, examines the organization of students volunteer activities and volunteer projects realization at the university. The potential of volunteerism as an effective mechanism for addressing the urgent social problems is revealed.Theauthorstudiesexperience of volunteer services organization the I.A. Bunin State University in Yelets.

  7. Networks in social policy problems

    CERN Document Server

    Scotti, marco

    2012-01-01

    Network science is the key to managing social communities, designing the structure of efficient organizations and planning for sustainable development. This book applies network science to contemporary social policy problems. In the first part, tools of diffusion and team design are deployed to challenges in adoption of ideas and the management of creativity. Ideas, unlike information, are generated and adopted in networks of personal ties. Chapters in the second part tackle problems of power and malfeasance in political and business organizations, where mechanisms in accessing and controlling informal networks often outweigh formal processes. The third part uses ideas from biology and physics to understand global economic and financial crises, ecological depletion and challenges to energy security. Ideal for researchers and policy makers involved in social network analysis, business strategy and economic policy, it deals with issues ranging from what makes public advisories effective to how networks influenc...

  8. Social dominance orientation and opinions about what is America's most serious social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrod, Wendy J

    2005-08-01

    This study tested whether a measure of Social Dominance Orientation was associated with opinions about America's most serious social problem. 150 undergraduates enrolled in social problems classes responded to the 14-item scale and to an open-ended question, "In your opinion, what is the most serious social problem in our country today?". Analysis shows that mean scale scores differed significantly across social problem responses. Correspondence analysis, plotting association between scale scores and social problem responses, was interpreted as support for social dominance theory. Higher scale scores were associated with problems of crime and negative values and lower scores with problems of education and racism.

  9. [The social medicine significance of rheumatic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P

    1989-01-01

    There is no doubt that the various rheumatoid diseases constitute a socio-medical and socio-economic problem of first order. Surely the importance of this problem will even grow till around the turn of the millenium because the share of older people in the total population of the German Federal Republic is continuing to increase. Concerning frequency and duration the rheumatoid diseases figure at the top of all the insurance benefits. The following measures are essentials to a successful combat of this popular disease: Purposive information, prevention, early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a fitting the patient back into the productive process. Among the rheumatoid diseases the degenerative changes are ranking foremost in the range of frequency, unchallenged and at a considerable distance from the primarily inflammatory diseases. Arthroses and spondyloses are by no means a simple "articular detrition" but a disease in which the time factor is not always of decisive importance. There are ascertainable degenerative articular changes to be found in every person virtually by the age of fifty-five although not everybody has physical complaints. As to the increase in frequency observed in the past few years regarding fillings of applications for therapies because of so-called rheumatic complaints, changes of the conditions at someone's workplace alone cannot be blamed for it at all, rather bad posture and unsound stresses in one's leisure time as well as a new kind of consciousness of being sick supervene. A prophylactic healthful conduct depends strongly upon a person's social status and upon socio-cultural conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  11. Global industry with regional significance. Social perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-05-01

    As the world's third largest exporter of oil, Norway is an energy superpower in an international context. 2004 was a record-breaking year on the Norwegian Shelf. Never before did production reach such heights. The oil and gas industry is Norway's largest and most important industry. It is responsible for one-third of the State's revenues, and nearly half of Norway's total export revenues. The report provides an overview of the Norwegian Shelf today, and facts about Norway concerning the economy and standard of living. The industry's role in regional business development is also analysed, as well as expertise and technological development. Aspects on the environment and co-existence at sea are reviewed, with information on emissions to air and discharges to sea. Environmental considerations and technological challenges are briefly reported. The petroleum industry has set the standard within Health, Safety and the Environment (HSE). The work has been based on close cooperation between the authorities and the operating companies, their organizations and the employee organizations on the Shelf. Details on these activities are reported. Finally, responsibility for the community and issues concerning corporate social responsibility are mentioned (ml)

  12. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-11-01

    The main objective of this study was predicting student's mental health using social problem solving- ability. In this correlational. descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson's correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P social problem solving ability and mental health.

  13. Social Promotion: Problem or Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, William G.; Owens, Ray C.

    1976-01-01

    Social promotion is accomplishing what it was intended to do; it is relieving the various grades of over-age, floundering students. If we are to help these potential failures, we must devise new educational systems. (Editor)

  14. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Urban-Rural Problems. Contemporary Social Problems Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lee

    Various social problems are created by migration of low-income rural people into urban areas. These people are classified "low income" because their material level-of-living is often less than that found in urban areas. The dominant national values for material well-being are based upon urban middle class standards, thus creating a social problem…

  16. Social problem solving ability predicts mental health among undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ranjbar

    2013-01-01

    Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t test, and stepwise regression analysis. Results : Data analysis showed significant relationship between social problem solving ability and mental health (P < 0.01. Social problem solving ability was significantly associated with the somatic symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social dysfunction and severe depression (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The results of our study demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between social problem solving ability and mental health.

  17. Problems and challenges in social marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, P N; Novelli, W D

    1981-01-01

    This article reviews the problems that arise when general marketing principles are applied to social programs. Social marketing is conceptualized as the design, implementation, and control of programs seeking to increase the acceptability of a social ideal or practice in a target group. These problems can occur in 8 basic decision-making areas: market analysis, market segmentation, product strategy development, pricing strategy development, channel strategy development, communications strategy development, organizational design and planning, and evaluation. Social marketers find that they have less good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behavior, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketers in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and more difficulty formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing, and controlling distribution channels comprise another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Social marketers also find that their communications options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with use of paid advertisements, pressures not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. Moreover, social marketers must function in organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated, and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effectiveness measures or estimating the contribution their program has made toward the achievement of certain objectives. If all these problems are anticipated and handled creatively, social marketing efforts can succeed.

  18. Networks in Social Policy Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedres, Balázs; Scotti, Marco

    2012-08-01

    1. Introduction M. Scotti and B. Vedres; Part I. Information, Collaboration, Innovation: The Creative Power of Networks: 2. Dissemination of health information within social networks C. Dhanjal, S. Blanchemanche, S. Clemençon, A. Rona-Tas and F. Rossi; 3. Scientific teams and networks change the face of knowledge creation S. Wuchty, J. Spiro, B. F. Jones and B. Uzzi; 4. Structural folds: the innovative potential of overlapping groups B. Vedres and D. Stark; 5. Team formation and performance on nanoHub: a network selection challenge in scientific communities D. Margolin, K. Ognyanova, M. Huang, Y. Huang and N. Contractor; Part II. Influence, Capture, Corruption: Networks Perspectives on Policy Institutions: 6. Modes of coordination of collective action: what actors in policy making? M. Diani; 7. Why skewed distributions of pay for executives is the cause of much grief: puzzles and few answers so far B. Kogut and J.-S. Yang; 8. Networks of institutional capture: a case of business in the State apparatus E. Lazega and L. Mounier; 9. The social and institutional structure of corruption: some typical network configurations of corruption transactions in Hungary Z. Szántó, I. J. Tóth and S. Varga; Part III. Crisis, Extinction, World System Change: Network Dynamics on a Large Scale: 10. How creative elements help the recovery of networks after crisis: lessons from biology A. Mihalik, A. S. Kaposi, I. A. Kovács, T. Nánási, R. Palotai, Á. Rák, M. S. Szalay-Beko and P. Csermely; 11. Networks and globalization policies D. R. White; 12. Network science in ecology: the structure of ecological communities and the biodiversity question A. Bodini, S. Allesina and C. Bondavalli; 13. Supply security in the European natural gas pipeline network M. Scotti and B. Vedres; 14. Conclusions and outlook A.-L. Barabási; Index.

  19. [Health and social problems in the aged].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujić, V; Martinov-Cvejin, M; Ac-Nikolić, E

    1997-01-01

    This study reviews data from a poll conducted in three municipalities of Vojvodina on health and social problems of 60-year old and older people (n = 104). Poverty and illness are the main two problems aged people have to deal with, whereas exhaustion, pains, moving around with difficulty, poor vision, heart and breathing problems, as well as cardiovascular diseases and diseases of the musculoskeletal system are the most frequent health problems. Socializing is poor in the old age. Every third aged person visits nobody, while every fifth aged person is visited by nobody. About 3% of examinees describe their relationships with children as negative. That is why it is necessary to organize a health care of the aged which should maintain health and functional abilities into the old age with adequate social care of both closed and open type as long as possible.

  20. Social Media Use and Conduct Problems in Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galica, Victoria L; Vannucci, Anna; Flannery, Kaitlin M; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2017-07-01

    Social media use has become pervasive in the lives of emerging adults. Although social media may provide individuals with positive opportunities for communication and learning, social media sites also may provide an outlet for youth conduct problems, such as bullying, harassment, and intentional hostility and aggression toward others. Yet, the relationship between social media use and conduct problems remains unclear. This study investigated the association between conduct disorder (CD) symptoms before age 15 and social media use during emerging adulthood in a large, nationally representative sample. Concurrent associations between antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) symptoms and social media use in emerging adults also were examined. Data for this study were based on 567 emerging adults (50.2 percent female; M age  = 20.0 years). Self-report questionnaires were completed online. Results suggested that more childhood CD symptoms were significantly associated with greater daily social media use during emerging adulthood, and that more daily social media use was significantly associated with current ASPD symptoms. Possible directional and cyclical explanations for these findings are explored. Given the pervasiveness of social media in the lives of emerging adults, these results underscore the importance of considering nuanced methods for using social media sites to encourage positive social interactions and to displace the promotion of conduct problems.

  1. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. COMMUNITARIAN DIMENSION OF SOCIAL INTEGRITY PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliia Yu. Brodetskaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose. The article focuses on the study analysis of the theoretical and methodological preconditions of the social integrity phenomenon research. The nature of the modern social and cultural changes discloses a crisis of the social theory that is aimed to study the conditions and mechanisms of the social modernity development. Modern social theory appears against the background of the classical research methodology issues – Aristotle's political philosophy, which interprets sociality as a political aspect. However, modern social theory attempts to overcome the crisis of the rational project by forming a communitarians’ ideology. In order to solve the problem of the social integrity and order, being an alternative to the rationalistic individualism of society liberal theory, the theory of communitarism reveals the potential of communities. The communities are those models of social that can overcome individualism of a modern man and society, destroy the cult of statism. Thus, as a research methodology of the social integrity issues the communitarian approach is used, as it actualizes the potential of the communities. This methodological step reveals the social at a qualitatively different socio-cultural level of analysis, as a certain model of the human relations that base not only on the economic and legal relations (relations, property, division of labor and power, etc., but also, and above all, on the spiritual ones (culture of community, communication, informal regulation of relations, etc.. The scientific novelty of this work is to try to expand the heuristic possibilities of the com munitarian theory in terms of the analysis of the social integrity problems in order to create a comprehensive research methodology of the problem. Conclusions. Thus, the study of the community potential, its mechanisms and the logic of its generation and presentation in the modern society allows to reveal the conditions of the

  3. Lesion mapping of social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbey, Aron K; Colom, Roberto; Paul, Erick J; Chau, Aileen; Solomon, Jeffrey; Grafman, Jordan H

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating neuroscience evidence indicates that human intelligence is supported by a distributed network of frontal and parietal regions that enable complex, goal-directed behaviour. However, the contributions of this network to social aspects of intellectual function remain to be well characterized. Here, we report a human lesion study (n = 144) that investigates the neural bases of social problem solving (measured by the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory) and examine the degree to which individual differences in performance are predicted by a broad spectrum of psychological variables, including psychometric intelligence (measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), emotional intelligence (measured by the Mayer, Salovey, Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test), and personality traits (measured by the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Personality Inventory). Scores for each variable were obtained, followed by voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that working memory, processing speed, and emotional intelligence predict individual differences in everyday problem solving. A targeted analysis of specific everyday problem solving domains (involving friends, home management, consumerism, work, information management, and family) revealed psychological variables that selectively contribute to each. Lesion mapping results indicated that social problem solving, psychometric intelligence, and emotional intelligence are supported by a shared network of frontal, temporal, and parietal regions, including white matter association tracts that bind these areas into a coordinated system. The results support an integrative framework for understanding social intelligence and make specific recommendations for the application of the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory to the study of social problem solving in health and disease. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved

  4. Social behavior and aggressive problems of cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell-Davis, S L; Barry, K; Wolfe, R

    1997-05-01

    Cats form social groups in which individuals recognize each other, and the cohesiveness of the group is maintained by a variety of amicable behaviors. Agonistic behavior may occur between group members and between group members and nongroup members. Within the domestic environment, agonistic behavior may become a problem when it is directed at housemates or humans. Differential diagnosis and treatment of various problems of aggressive behavior are discussed.

  5. Stress, social support and problem drinking among women in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2008-08-01

    Previous studies have found that stress contributes to problem drinking, while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are confined largely to middle-class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time-period. This prospective study used generalized estimating equations (GEE) transition modeling and four annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events increased significantly the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the 'private safety net' of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women's lives.

  6. Computer Hacking as a Social Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Brian

    2018-01-01

    This chapter introduces the ideas and practices of digital technology enthusiasts who fall under the umbrella of “hackers. “We will discuss how their defining activity has been constructed as a social problem and how that construction has been challenged in different ways. The chapter concludes with several policy suggestions aimed at addressing the more problematic aspects of computer hacking.

  7. Can Architecture Design Solve Social Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, S. W.; TSB Darjosanjoto, E.; Sulistyarso, H.

    2017-03-01

    Most of architects and urban designers believe physical design gives impact on our social life. For example, a sign or landmark in the middle of a city makes people find orientation easier. In vice verse, most of social scientists believe it is social dynamic that plays role in shaping our space. How people spend their time moving from real space into cyber space is a proof that life style and IT give impact to space usage. This paper argues that interaction between physical design and social change is a two ways process. Both design aspect and social dynamic influence each other. This paper aims to examine how designing of gated community plays important role in increasing or decreasing segregation, both spatially and socially. The paper explores some architectural design principles applied in a gated community called CitraLand in west Surabaya, Indonesia, and addresses segregation between CitraLanders and outside kampung. We find CitraLand is designed openly and fully accessible for outsiders. It provides public spaces and several accessible gates and streets without walls and fences making all places inside and outside CitraLand spatially integrated. What’s interesting is it still reinforces social segregation due to its policy on prohibiting using the public park. We believe CitraLand’s planning and designing has successfully solved segregation problem spatially not socially.

  8. Corporate social responsibility and the significance of its promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Dobrinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Corporate Social Responsibility is today frequently used concept, as companies to a larger extent are held accountable for what is happening in the society. In their effort to make a contribution on the solution of various societal problems, the companies engage in different corporative social initiatives. To enjoy multiple benefits arising from implementation of CSR practices companies should reaffirm their commitment to issues of wide public interests as well as promote all the activities pursued in diminishing and solving different social and environmental problems. It is very important to make company's social involvement as transparent as possible, which can be, aparat from other ways, enhanced by proper and up-to-date use of the web site. Through the web site company can inform wide public (all relevant stakeholders about its CSR activities - programs, undertaken initiatives, partners involved, results achieved and future plans and goals in CSR domain. Placing these informating represents an efficient way of promoting company's CSR profile. Aparat from that, company can regulary place announcements on its web site about all other ways of promoting its CSR engagement.

  9. Complication amoebic liver abscess still a significant health problem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amoebic liver abscess still poses a serious clinical problem in tropical countries. Here we describe three complicated cases to illustrate the magnitude this disease condition could assume in the tropics. Limited access to health facilities as well as poverty and ignorance result in patients presenting late, often with ...

  10. Social problems on Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherepnin, Yu.S.; Zhdanov, N.A.; Tumenova, B.N.

    2000-01-01

    In the report main stages of National Nuclear Center of Republic of Kazakhstan activity in the field of scientific information obtain about consequences of conducted nuclear tests, radioecological and medical and biological researches, restoration of natural environment and people's health in Republic of Kazakhstan are reflected. Chronicle and results of joint works within frameworks of international programs in these field are given as well. Analysis of up-to-date social problems of population of the region is carried out

  11. Safety: Science and technique in social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smit, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The author describes in a simple and clearly written Dutch text the relationship between scientific and technical knowledge and the social problems concerning the safety of nuclear energy. He begins with the cooling system of reactors and the safety aspects of the associated pumps. He uses this example to illustrate that the quantative determination of failure risks need not necessarily be relevant for judging the acceptance of the risk but is always relevant as a method of judging the effect of technical improvements on safety values. The author then considers the radiological effects of the operation of a nuclear plant by presenting the doses of radioactivity released if a reactor is operating normally, if there are technical problems and in the case of accidents. The corresponding biological effects on man are also presented and in an appendix the radiological consequences of reactor accidents are considered in some detail. He describes a number of models used in such calculations - for metereological distribution, dosimetry for internal radiation, cancer induction - to illustrate the margins of uncertainty in the predictions. According to the author safety aspects should not just be seen as a purely technical problem, starting with the fact that nuclear energy is desirable and then ensuring that all required safety regulations are met. Safety aspects are a social problem and should be considered by first discussing whether nuclear energy is acceptable, taking into consideration such consequences as the effects of possible accidents and the long term effects of reactor operation. (C.F.)

  12. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  13. Erroneous analyses of interactions in neuroscience: a problem of significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuis, S.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2011-01-01

    In theory, a comparison of two experimental effects requires a statistical test on their difference. In practice, this comparison is often based on an incorrect procedure involving two separate tests in which researchers conclude that effects differ when one effect is significant (P < 0.05) but the

  14. The location problem in social ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    Mental, mathematical, and moral facts are difficult to accommodate within an overall worldview due to the peculiar kinds of properties inherent to them. In this paper I argue that a significant class of social entities also presents us with an ontological puzzle that has thus far not been addressed

  15. Neighbourhood and own social housing and early problem behaviour trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Tzatzaki, Konstantina

    2015-02-01

    To explore the roles of proportion of social rented housing in the neighbourhood ('neighbourhood social housing'), own housing being socially rented, and their interaction in early trajectories of emotional, conduct and hyperactivity symptoms. We tested three pathways of effects: family stress and maternal psychological distress, low quality parenting practices, and peer problems. We used data from 9,850 Millennium Cohort Study families who lived in England when the cohort children were aged 3. Children's emotional, conduct and hyperactivity problems were measured at ages 3, 5 and 7. Even after accounting for own social housing, neighbourhood social housing was related to all problems and their trajectories. Its association with conduct problems and hyperactivity was explained by selection. Selection also explained the effect of the interaction between neighbourhood and own social housing on hyperactivity, but not why children of social renter families living in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of social housing followed a rising trajectory of emotional problems. The effects of own social housing, neighbourhood social housing and their interaction on emotional problems were robust. Peer problems explained the association of own social housing with hyperactivity. Neither selection nor the pathways we tested explained the association of own social housing with conduct problems, the association of neighbourhood social housing with their growth, or the association of neighbourhood social housing, own social housing and their interaction with emotional problems. Children of social renter families in neighbourhoods with a low concentration of social renters are particularly vulnerable to emotional problems.

  16. Regularities of socially significant functions formation in pupils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrebniak N.P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article focused on the results of carried out research of the functional state of the pupils’ organism in a process of edu­cational activity. It has been shown that formative influence of activity is manifested on the different levels of develop­ment of socially important functions: the actual developmental zone (priority development of indicators, which have the main significance in the activity and the proximal developmental zone (tendency of activation of the key functions.

  17. Significant Issues in Rebuilding the Social Work Profession in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Cai

    2013-01-01

    The author traces the origin of social work to the Confucian concept of Great Unity and social organization of traditional Chinese society. While professional social work started in 1921, its development was interrupted in 1952, but the practice of social work never stopped. Social work was revived as a discipline and profession in 1979 and has…

  18. The Significant Social Networks of Women Who Have Resided in Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila Krenkel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The social and institutional support networks structured around women who suffer violence are strategic tools when coping with the phenomenon, which is considered a public health problem. This qualitative study was aimed at understanding the relational dynamics of significant social networks of women who have experienced family violence and have resided in a shelter. A group of 12 women participated in the study and data collection was carried out through semi-structured interviews and the social networks map. Data analysis was based on Grounded Theory and performed using the software Atlas.ti 5.0. The results revealed that the significant social networks were important sources of help and support in the process of coping with violence experienced by women. Results also showed that the persons in the social networks develop multiple functions and present an increasing level of relational commitment to women, especially after they leave the shelter.

  19. ECONOMICAL, ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF LOCAL FOOD SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola BAREJA-WAWRYSZUK

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is observed that quality of mass produced and highly processed food forces consumers to change their consumption habits and become more interested in locally available food products. Consumers are becoming aware of negative consequences of global food systems. As an alternative, Local Food Systems are gaining on popularity because short food supply chains offer fresh, healthy and not modified products. The popularity of Local Food Systems is reflected in the need for analysing impact and significance of those systems. Thus, this paper presents main benefits of acting locally. Local Food Systems has been reviewed in case of positive economic, environmental and social influence on the region. What is more, the paper presents consumers’ attitude to Local Food Systems. As a conclusion authors justify significance of development and investment in Local Food Systems as an alternative to agriculture networks.

  20. Significant life events and social connectedness in Australian women’s gambling experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuske Elaine Mary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM - The aim is to examine significant life events and social connections that encourage some women to gamble. Specifically, how do these events and connections described as important for women who develop gambling-related problems differ for women who remain recreational gamblers? DESIGN - 20 women who were electronic gaming machine (EGMs, poker machines, slots players were interviewed using a brief interview guide. They also completed the nine question Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI from the Canadian Problem Gambling Index CPGI. 11 women self-identified as recreational gamblers (RG while 9 had sought and received help for their gambling problems (PG. Using a feminist, qualitative design and an adaptive grounded theory method to analyze their histories, a number of themes emerged indicating a progression to problem gambling for some and the ability to recognise when control over gambling was needed by others. RESULTS - Although both groups (RG and PG reported common gambling motivations differences appeared in the strength of their social support networks and ways of coping with stress, especially stress associated with a significant life event. CONCLUSIONS - The human need for social connectedness and personal bonds with others emphasised the usefulness of using social capital theories in gambling research with women.

  1. Abortion: A significant problem of public health and a determinant of biological reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Todorović Miodrag; Radovanović Olica

    2006-01-01

    Artificial abortion is a very important social-medical, economic and demographic problem. It is not only a problem of public health (disease disability, sterility) and social economy (to lose income and compensation because of absenteeism, increase of expense in health care sector for the treatment of direct, early and late consequences and sterility). It is a very important demographic problem because of the increase in "unrealized fertilities" and lost of descendents. According to the regis...

  2. Mass Media Influences on Public Conceptions of Social Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Jeffrey C.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Explores possible relationships between the mass media of communication and social problems by three-way comparisons between the incidence of social problems suggested in media portrayals, conceptions of the incidence of these problems held by the public, and the relative frequency of such problems reflected in statistics accumulated by official…

  3. Cerebral Palsy: Still A Social Problem

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    Angom Bisharda

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What arc the social aspects of cerebral palsy?Objective: To determine the extent and severity of neuromuscular involvement in cases of cerebral palsy and to find out the associated defects among these children.Study Design: Cross sectional study.Setting: Tertiary care hospital, outdoor patients.Participants: Children in the age group of 0 - 12 years.Sample Size: 120 children suffering from cerebral palsy.Study Variables: Social factors, neuromuscular involvement.Statistical Analysis: By proportionsResult: Out of 120 cases, maximum number of cases (66.6% were in the age group of 1- 4 years. 83 cases ( 69.16% were males. Among the various types, spastic type was the commonest (87.5%. Of these spastic cases, 52 (49.52% had quadriplegia. No case of tremor and rigidity was seen. Delayed milestones was the commonest associated disorder, seen in 107 (89.16% cases, followed by speech defect in 58(48.3% cases, visual defect in 34(28.3% cases and convulsions in 24 (20.0% cases. Hearing defect was seen in 5 cases (4.16% only.Conclusion: More concerted efforts arc required to identify children with cerebral palsy and rehabilitate them for the betterment of society.

  4. Cerebral Palsy: Still A Social Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angom Bisharda

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Research Problem: What arc the social aspects of cerebral palsy? Objective: To determine the extent and severity of neuromuscular involvement in cases of cerebral palsy and to find out the associated defects among these children. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Tertiary care hospital, outdoor patients. Participants: Children in the age group of 0 - 12 years. Sample Size: 120 children suffering from cerebral palsy. Study Variables: Social factors, neuromuscular involvement. Statistical Analysis: By proportions Result: Out of 120 cases, maximum number of cases (66.6% were in the age group of 1- 4 years. 83 cases ( 69.16% were males. Among the various types, spastic type was the commonest (87.5%. Of these spastic cases, 52 (49.52% had quadriplegia. No case of tremor and rigidity was seen. Delayed milestones was the commonest associated disorder, seen in 107 (89.16% cases, followed by speech defect in 58(48.3% cases, visual defect in 34(28.3% cases and convulsions in 24 (20.0% cases. Hearing defect was seen in 5 cases (4.16% only. Conclusion: More concerted efforts arc required to identify children with cerebral palsy and rehabilitate them for the betterment of society.

  5. Professional Training of Social Workers: Development of Professionally Significant Qualities in the Future Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzhanov, Nurlan A.; Ertysbaeva, Gaukhar N.; Abdakimova, Madina K.; Ishanov, Pirmagambet Z.

    2016-01-01

    Today, the traditional approach to professional training is obsolete. This problem has determined the need to create new didactic forms related to the organization of training in the modern education system. The purpose of this study was to analyze possible development of professionally important qualities and abilities in the future social care…

  6. Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social networks (SNs) are social frameworks that form good entry points for business and socio-economic developments. Social networks are important for small-scale, resource-poor farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, who overly rely on informal sources of information. SNs provide opportunities for establishing effective ...

  7. Contemporary Limitations to Religious Solution to Social Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, cultural differences, political pressures, and plurality of values weaken the therapeutic strength of religion as it attends to social problems. Finally, this paper argues that religion as a social capital can reduce the menace of social problems if its institutions can be trusted by the people in the society. Key Words: ...

  8. Learning disabilities and social problem solving skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pina Filippello

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Recent studies showed that children with learning disabilities present significant difficulties in learning as well as in social skills (Siperstein, 2009.Therefore, it was observed how it is difficult for these children to establish adequate relationships, especially to advise coping strategies to face interpersonal conflicts (Oliva & LaGreca, 1988. Accordingly to this argument and with reference to Agaliotis e Kalyva (2004, 2009, this study examines the preferences for strategies to solve an hypothetical conflict on a sample of children with LD in comparison to typical developing peers. They used the method of social story to conduct this research. In fact, researchers asked to the children, after they have listened a short story describing an interpersonal conflict interaction between adult and peers,  which strategies they would have chosen if they were in the same situation and the strategies that would be most appropriate to resolve a conflict. Results obtained from the experiment corroborated literature data and demonstrated that children with LD, in comparison to typical developing peers, use and prefer dysfunctional coping strategies, aggressive or passive, also in relation to the partner interaction (adult or peers to face interpersonal conflict.

  9. Alcohol use and policy formation: an evolving social problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Amir

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the evolutionary course that the social problem of alcohol use has taken in the United States since the Colonial Era. This article utilizes a range of theoretical models to analyze the evolving nature of alcohol use from an unrecognized to a perceived social problem. The models used include critical constructionism (Heiner, 2002), top-down policy model (Dye, 2001) and Mauss'(1975) understanding of social problems and movements. These theoretical constructs exhibit the relative nature of alcohol use as a social problem in regards to a specific time, place, and social context as well as the powerful and influential role that social elites have in defining alcohol asa social problem. Studies regarding the development of alcohol policy formation are discussed to illuminate the different powers, constituents, and factors that play a role in alcohol policy formation.Finally, implications for future study are discussed [corrected].

  10. The problem of "significant risk": exploring the public health impact of criminalizing HIV non-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Using criminal law powers to respond to people living with HIV (PHAs) who expose sexual partners to HIV or transmit the virus to them is a prominent global HIV public policy issue. While there are widespread concerns about the public health impact of HIV-related criminalization, the social science literature on the topic is limited. This article responds to that gap in knowledge by reporting on the results of qualitative research conducted with service providers and PHAs in Canada. The article draws on a studies in the social organization of knowledge perspective and insights from critical criminology and work on the "medico-legal borderland." It investigates the role played by the legal concept of "significant risk" in coordinating criminal law governance and its interface with public health and HIV prevention. In doing so, the article emphasizes that exploring the public health impact of criminalization must move past the criminal law--PHA dyad to address broader social and institutional processes relevant to HIV prevention. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews, this article explores how criminal law governance shapes the activities of providers engaged in HIV prevention counseling, conceptualized as a complex of activities linking clinicians, public health officials, front-line counselors, PHAs, and others. It emphasizes three key findings: (1) the concept of significant risk poses serious problems to risk communication in HIV counseling and contributes to contradictory advice about disclosure obligations; (2) criminalization discourages PHAs' openness about HIV non-disclosure in counseling relationships; and (3) the recontextualization of public health interpretations of significant risk in criminal proceedings can intensify criminalization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prognostic significance of social network, social support and loneliness for course of major depressive disorder in adulthood and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, R H S; Schutter, N; Hanssen, D J C; Elzinga, B M; Rabeling-Keus, I M; Stek, M L; Comijs, H C; Penninx, B W J H; Oude Voshaar, R C

    2018-06-01

    Poor recovery from depressive disorder has been shown to be related to low perceived social support and loneliness, but not to social network size or frequency of social interactions. Some studies suggest that the significance of social relationships for depression course may be greater in younger than in older patients, and may differ between men and women. None of the studies examined to what extent the different aspects of social relationships have unique or overlapping predictive values for depression course. It is the aim of the present study to examine the differential predictive values of social network characteristics, social support and loneliness for the course of depressive disorder, and to test whether these predictive associations are modified by gender or age. Two naturalistic cohort studies with the same design and overlapping instruments were combined to obtain a study sample of 1474 patients with a major depressive disorder, of whom 1181 (80.1%) could be studied over a 2-year period. Social relational variables were assessed at baseline. Two aspects of depression course were studied: remission at 2-year follow-up and change in depression severity over the follow-up period. By means of logistic regression and random coefficient analysis, the individual and combined predictive values of the different social relational variables for depression course were studied, controlling for potential confounders and checking for effect modification by age (below 60 v. 60 years or older) and gender. Multiple aspects of the social network, social support and loneliness were related to depression course, independent of potential confounders - including depression severity - but when combined, their predictive values were found to overlap to a large extent. Only the social network characteristic of living in a larger household, the social support characteristic of few negative experiences with the support from a partner or close friend, and limited feelings of

  12. PRIVACY PROTECTION PROBLEMS IN SOCIAL NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    OKUR, M. Cudi

    2011-01-01

    Protecting privacy has become a major concern for most social network users because of increased difficulties of controlling the online data. This article presents an assessment of the common privacy related risks of social networking sites. Open and hidden privacy risks of active and passive online profiles are examined and increasing share of social networking in these phenomena is discussed. Inadequacy of available legal and institutional protection is demonstrated and the effectiveness of...

  13. The Investigation of Social Problem Solving Abilities of University Students in Terms of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tras, Zeliha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze of university students' perceived social support and social problem solving. The participants were 827 (474 female and 353 male) university students. Data were collected Perceived Social Support Scale-Revised (Yildirim, 2004) and Social Problem Solving (Maydeu-Olivares and D'Zurilla, 1996) translated and…

  14. Social Entrepreneurship in Ukraine: Problems and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodchenko Volodymyr B.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to identify the current trends in the development of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine as a new form of doing business in the context of socio-economic transformations. By analyzing and generalizing scientific works of many scientists, the evolution of the development of social enterprises is considered, the views of researchers on the definition of the concept of “social entrepreneurship” and its key factors are systematized. The modern tendencies, main barriers and opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine are revealed. As a result of the research, differentiation of social enterprises according to the level of social and business activity is proposed. The experience of formation and development of social entrepreneurship in European countries is studied. It is substantiated that under the current conditions of transition from the resource-oriented paradigm of economic development to the value-oriented one, the motivational component of human labor changes: money loses the role of a key motivational factor; possibility of creating economic values for others by implementing own plans and initiatives comes to the fore. A prospect for further research in this area is studying regulatory and legal aspects of the emergence of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine as a driver of sustainable economic development of the country.

  15. Research Paper: Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Behavioral Problems in Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Nesayan

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This research showed that social skills training were not significantly effective on behavioral problems in adolescents with intellectual disability. Although our results were not effective, research evidence shows that people with cognitive delays (such as intellectual disability require social skill training programs that include all of their academic, career, daily life, and social skills. As social skills learning plays a role in personal and social adjustment, it is necessary to pay more attention to these skills.

  16. Social phobia and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumurcu, Tongabay; Cumurcu, Birgul Elbozan; Ozcan, Ozlem; Demirel, Soner; Duz, Cem; Porgalı, Esra; Doganay, Selim

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the rate of social phobia, anxiety, depression, and other psychiatric problems in children with strabismus. Prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. Forty-two children with strabismus and 47 control subjects 8-13 years of age were enrolled in this study. After the ophthalmologist's examination, all cases were assessed by a psychiatrist based on the structured interview technique of Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Aged Children-Present and Lifetime Version (Kiddie-SADS-PL). The Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) was administered to each subject to evaluate social phobia. All participants completed the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Age as well as sex and income were comparable between the strabismus patients and control groups. Social phobia was diagnosed in 8 (19.04%) of the 42 strabismic children and in 1 (2.12%) of the control subjects. The CDI and SCARED (total score, social phobia, separation anxiety) scores of strabismus patients were significantly higher than the control group (p = 0.001, p = 0.004, p = 0.0001, p = 0.05, respectively). A relationship between strabismus in children and social phobia, depression, and anxiety on a symptom basis was underlined by our data. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY - LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The equality in human rights and obligations, the equality of citizens before the law are fundamental categories of the theories on social democracy but also conditions of the lawful state, without which constitutional democracy cannot be conceived. In Romanian Constitution, this principle is consecrated in the form of equality of the citizens before the law and public authorities. There are also particular aspects of this principle consecrated in the Constitution. The constitutional principle of equality requires that equal treatment be applied to equal situations. This social and legal reality implies numerous interferences between the principle of equality and other constitutional principles. In this study, by using theoretical and jurisprudential arguments, we intend to demonstrate that, in relation to contemporary social reality, equality, as a constitutional principle, is a particular aspect of the principle of proportionality. The latter one expresses in essence the ideas of: fairness, justice, reasonableness and fair appropriateness of state decisions to the facts and legitimate aims proposed.

  18. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  19. Cognitive functioning and social problem-solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatashita-Wong, Michi; Smith, Thomas E; Silverstein, Steven M; Hull, James W; Willson, Deborah F

    2002-05-01

    This study examined the relationships between symptoms, cognitive functioning, and social skill deficits in schizophrenia. Few studies have incorporated measures of cognitive functioning and symptoms in predictive models for social problem solving. For our study, 44 participants were recruited from consecutive outpatient admissions. Neuropsychological tests were given to assess cognitive function, and social problem solving was assessed using structured vignettes designed to evoke the participant's ability to generate, evaluate, and apply solutions to social problems. A sequential model-fitting method of analysis was used to incorporate social problem solving, symptom presentation, and cognitive impairment into linear regression models. Predictor variables were drawn from demographic, cognitive, and symptom domains. Because this method of analysis was exploratory and not intended as hierarchical modelling, no a priori hypotheses were proposed. Participants with higher scores on tests of cognitive flexibility were better able to generate accurate, appropriate, and relevant responses to the social problem-solving vignettes. The results suggest that cognitive flexibility is a potentially important mediating factor in social problem-solving competence. While other factors are related to social problem-solving skill, this study supports the importance of cognition and understanding how it relates to the complex and multifaceted nature of social functioning.

  20. Social Context of Drinking and Alcohol Problems among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine how social contexts of drinking are related to alcohol use disorders, other alcohol-related problems, and depression among college students. Methods: Logistic regression models controlling for drinking frequency measured the association between social context and problems, among 728 current drinkers. Results: Drinking for…

  1. Social inhibition sense of belonging and vulnerability to internalizing problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, E.L.; Denollet, J.; Laceulle, O.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to provide a conceptual test of how social inhibition, sense of belonging and internalizing problems are related, and whether sense of belonging moderates or mediates the relation between social inhibition and internalizing problems. Methods Data were used from

  2. Social Problem Solving and Aggression: The Role of Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Yalcin; Kuzucu, Yasar; Koruklu, Nermin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relations among social problem-solving, depression, and aggression, as well as the mediating role of depression in the link between social problem-solving and aggression among Turkish youth. Data for the present study were collected from 413 adolescents. The participants' age…

  3. Do Social Relationships Protect Victimized Children against Internalizing Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averdijk, Margit; Eisner, Manuel; Ribeaud, Denis

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether social relationships protect children against the effects of victimization on internalizing problems. We used data from the Zurich Project on the Social Development of Children and Youths. Victimization at age 8 years was associated with internalizing problems at age 9 years. Victims who had siblings, warm parents, and a…

  4. The Significance of Community to Business Social Responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Terry L.

    1998-01-01

    Interviews with 1008 business owners and managers in 30 small Iowa communities found that the majority were committed to their community and provided support to youth programs, local schools, or community development activities. Business social responsibility was related to operator age, education, success, and perceptions of community collective…

  5. Social Attributions from Faces : Determinants, Consequences, Accuracy, and Functional Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Alexander; Olivola, Christopher Y; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter

    Since the early twentieth century, psychologists have known that there is consensus in attributing social and personality characteristics from facial appearance. Recent studies have shown that surprisingly little time and effort are needed to arrive at this consensus. Here we review recent research

  6. Television and Social Problems: A Case History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, John

    1978-01-01

    Discusses two documentary television movies, "Johnny Go Home" and "Goodbye Longfellow Road," in terms of their resultant social change. Includes consideration of audience, time shown, and previous attitudes to provide evidence for his argument. (JEG)

  7. SOCIAL DIALECTOLOGY: MODERN STATE AND PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solnyshkina Marina Ivanovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article exemplifies the authors' views on the state of affairs in modern Russian social dialectology as a new branch of sociolinguistics, and demonstrates application of expansionism, anthropocentrism, functionalism and explanatoriness as the main principles of the new linguistic paradigm in sociolinguistic research. The paper offers analysis of the advantages of the integrated approach applied in the studies of social dialects of both – high and low – registers of communication. The authors prove that social dialectology possesses its own theoretical foundation and methodological framework, its research methods are described and time-tested, the existing reviews of social dialectological lexicography are full and complete. The intensive growth of social dialectology is viewed by the authors as catalyzed by the change of the linguistic paradigm and caused by utilizing argot, jargons and non-codified forms of professional sublanguages as sociolinguistic research database. The focus of modern Russian social dialectological schools pioneering the research in the area is on the following: institutional communicative practices based on extra-linguistic contexts, institutional discourse analysis, professional societies as discourse-forming community, interpretation of internal determinants of professional communication. Modern functional (anthropocentric paradigm views professional/social communication not only as the process of sending and receiving information conducted by communication partners but a complicated web of discursive practices of professionals (and at discourses junctures those of professionals with laymen, generating common senses and meanings. The suggested taxonomy of social dialects, based on the parameters of openness/closeness of the community and codified/non-codified type of the language used by it, include the following forms of the language: professional sublanguages, codes (ciphers of security services, jargons and

  8. Study on sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes a sociological approach to resolve maintenance related social problems. As a result of consideration, the followings were found. (1) In general, solutions to some kinds of questions can be deduced from basic laws using some theories or methodologies in the field of the natural science or engineering. The approach to resolve maintenance related social problems is similar to the approach in the natural science or engineering. (2) The points of view based on fundamental human rights, market principles and community principles, and so on, are very important in resolving maintenance related social problems and can be placed as theories or tools for resolution. (3) If such theories or tools for resolving maintenance related social problems as described above are systematically prepared, it is estimated that it becomes very much easier to resolve maintenance related social problems. (author)

  9. Social problem-solving in high-functioning schizophrenia: specific deficits in sending skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2009-02-28

    This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.

  10. Age Moderates the Relationship between Social Support and Psychosocial Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segrin, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Examines the association between social support from various sources and psychosocial problems, and how these associations vary over the life span. Finds that perceived social support and contact with social network members appears to have beneficial effects for all participants, as evidenced through reduced symptoms of depression and loneliness.…

  11. Social Problems in Canadian Ice Hockey: An Exploration Through Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogel Curtis A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While celebrated as a highly popular sport in Canada, there are many social problems existing within and around Canadian ice hockey. These problems are often overlooked and rarely depicted in academic and journalistic research on sport. These social problems include, but are not limited to: extreme violence resulting in injuries and death, hazing rituals, multiple types of sexual violence, drug abuse, financial corruption, as well as various forms of prejudice and discrimination. Prompted by pop-cultural depictions in films, this paper further identifies and explores social problems in Canadian ice hockey revealing the realism embedded within various seemingly fictional films.

  12. Cannabis-Related Problems and Social Anxiety: The Mediational Role of Post-Event Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2018-01-02

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the US, and is associated with a range of psychological, social, and physical health-related problems. Individuals who endorse elevated levels of social anxiety are especially at risk for experiencing cannabis-related problems, including cannabis use disorder, despite not using cannabis more often than those with more normative social anxiety. Identification of mechanisms that underlie the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems may inform treatment and prevention efforts. Post-event processing (PEP, i.e., cognitively reviewing past social interactions/performances) is a social anxiety-related phenomenon that may be one such mechanism. The current study sought to test PEP as a mediator of the relationship between social anxiety and cannabis-related problems, adjusting for cannabis use frequency. Cannabis-using (past 3-month) undergraduate students recruited in 2015 (N = 244; 76.2% female; 74.2% Non-Hispanic Caucasian) completed an online survey of cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, social anxiety, and PEP. Bootstrap estimate of the indirect effect of social anxiety through PEP was significant, suggesting PEP is a mediator of the social anxiety-cannabis-related problems relationship. Conclusions/Importance: Treatment and prevention efforts may benefit from targeting PEP among individuals with elevated social anxiety and cannabis-related problems.

  13. editorial note african social work to tackling emerging social problems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    In Malawi, social work training started with a community development certificate in 1964 and later a certificate in social welfare in 1978. .... that his main motivation for writing these memoirs was to recognise those who worked with and helped ...

  14. Not your problem? Exploring the relationship between problem formulation and social responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveinung Jørgensen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between organizationalproblem formulation and social responsibility. Thepurpose of the article is to illuminate how organizationalproblem formulations (1 determine the manner in whichthe organization attempts to solve the problem and (2involve the ascription of significance to a group of stakeholdersseen as relevant for the organization. This has implicationsfor the degree to which they assume responsibilityfor those stakeholders. We discuss three dimensions ofresponsible decision making – rationality in goal attainment,reverence for ethical norms, and respect for stakeholders.Thereby, we arrive at an understanding of how differentorganizations in the same sector conceive of, andattempt to solve fundamental problems in the sector, aswell as how their assumed responsibility is reflected therein.We present and discuss a case that discusses keysimilarities and differences between two organizations inthe drug sector – a pharmaceutical company that producesmedicine for the treatment of drug addiction and a foundationworking with drug rehabilitation. We illuminatehow the two organizations base their activities on divergentformulations of the drug problem and how this ismanifested in their approach to the problem. We argue that this ultimately translates into differences in the inclusion of various stakeholdersin their problem space, and thereby the degree to which they assumeresponsibility for key stakeholders. This contributes to the corporate socialresponsibility literature by providing an in depth account of how problem formulationsshape organizational activities and determine the practical inclusionof stakeholders’ interests in the decisions and activities of organizations.

  15. Social information processing skills in adolescents with traumatic brain injury: Relationship with social competence and behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Nicolay Chertkoff; Yeates, Keith Owen; Wade, Shari L; Mark, Erin

    2009-01-01

    To examine social information processing (SIP) skills, behavior problems, and social competence following adolescent TBI and to determine whether SIP skills were predictive of behavior problems and social competence. Cross-sectional analyses of adolescents with TBI recruited and enrolled in a behavioral treatment study currently in progress. Two tertiary care children's hospitals with Level 1 trauma centers. Adolescents aged 11 to 18 years with severe TBI (n=19) and moderate TBI (n=24) who were injured up to 24 months prior to recruitment. TBI severity, race, maternal education, and age at testing. a measure of SIP skills, Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), Youth Self Report (YSR), and Home and Community Social Behavior Scale (HCSBS). The severe TBI group did not obtain significantly lower scores on the SIP measures than the moderate TBI group. In comparison to adolescents with moderate TBI, those with severe TBI had significantly more parent-reported externalizing behaviors and self-reported weaknesses in social competence. SIP skills were strong predictors of problems and social competence in adolescents with TBI. More specifically, an aggressive SIP style predicted externalizing problems and a passive SIP style predicted internalizing problems. Both passive and aggressive SIP skills were related to social competence and social problems. Adolescents with TBI are at risk for deficits in social and behavioral outcomes. SIP skills are strongly related to behavior problems and social competence in adolescents with TBI. SIP skills, social competence, and behavior problems are important targets for intervention that may be amenable to change and lead to improved functional outcomes following TBI.

  16. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Clerkin, Elise M.; Sarfan, Laurel D.; Parsons, E. Marie; Magee, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants (N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness...

  17. Teacher Practices with Toddlers during Social Problem Solving Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloeckler, Lissy; Cassell, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This article explores how teachers can foster an environment that facilitates social problem solving when toddlers experience conflict, emotional dysregulation, and aggression. This article examines differences in child development and self-regulation outcomes when teachers engage in problem solving "for" toddlers and problem solving "with"…

  18. Social problem-solving among adolescents treated for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Weidman, Emily G; Jacobs, Rachel H; Reinecke, Mark A; Silva, Susan G; March, John S

    2010-01-01

    Studies suggest that deficits in social problem-solving may be associated with increased risk of depression and suicidality in children and adolescents. It is unclear, however, which specific dimensions of social problem-solving are related to depression and suicidality among youth. Moreover, rational problem-solving strategies and problem-solving motivation may moderate or predict change in depression and suicidality among children and adolescents receiving treatment. The effect of social problem-solving on acute treatment outcomes were explored in a randomized controlled trial of 439 clinically depressed adolescents enrolled in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Measures included the Children's Depression Rating Scale-Revised (CDRS-R), the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire--Grades 7-9 (SIQ-Jr), and the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R). A random coefficients regression model was conducted to examine main and interaction effects of treatment and SPSI-R subscale scores on outcomes during the 12-week acute treatment stage. Negative problem orientation, positive problem orientation, and avoidant problem-solving style were non-specific predictors of depression severity. In terms of suicidality, avoidant problem-solving style and impulsiveness/carelessness style were predictors, whereas negative problem orientation and positive problem orientation were moderators of treatment outcome. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Studies and the Problem of Evil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Explores the issue of whether evil exists in the world and the best ways to confront it. Claims that the ubiquitousness of evil places a responsibility on social studies educators to address it in the classroom. Offers six suggestions for teaching students about the existence and implications of evil. (CMK)

  20. SOCIAL CHANGE AND THE NEGRO PROBLEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROSE, ARNOLD

    A FEW OF THE DYNAMIC FORCES OF CHANGE THAT HAVE BROUGHT ABOUT A NEW SITUATION FOR THE AMERICAN NEGRO ARE PRESENTED. THESE FORCES HAVE OCCURRED WITHOUT A VIOLENT REVOLUTION AND WITHIN MANY INSTITUTIONS, THE FORCES WERE MOST COMPLETE IN THE ECONOMIC SPHERES, LESS SO IN THE LEGAL AND POLITICAL SPHERES, AND LEAST IN THE SPHERE OF SOCIAL RELATIONSHIP.…

  1. Study of Problems of Individual's Social Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duisenbayev, Abay K.; Baltymova, Mira R.; Akzholova, Aktoty T.; Bazargaliyev, Gabit B.; Zhumagaziyev, Arman Zh.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the study of social education of the individual as an integral process covering all stages of human development, supported by factors of modern development of children, adolescents, youth in the conditions of reforming education. Currently, the scientific literature has accumulated a sufficient fund of theoretical knowledge,…

  2. Social problem-solving and social adjustment in paediatric traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Lisa M; Bigler, Erin; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn A; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known regarding the predictors of social deficits that occur following childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI). The current study sought to investigate social problem solving (SPS) and its relationship to social adjustment after TBI. Participants included 8-13 year old children, 25 with severe TBI, 57 with complicated mild-to-moderate TBI and 61 with orthopaedic injuries (OI). Children responded to scenarios involving negative social situations by selecting from a fixed set of choices their causal attribution for the event, their emotional reaction to the event and how they would behave in response. Parent ratings of social behaviours and classmate friendship nominations and sociometric ratings were obtained for a sub-set of all participants. Children with severe TBI were less likely than children with OI to indicate they would attribute external blame or respond by avoiding the antagonist; they were more likely to indicate they would feel sad and request adult intervention. Although several SPS variables had indirect effects on the relationship between TBI and social adjustment, clinical significance was limited. The findings suggest that, while children with TBI display atypical SPS skills, SPS cannot be used in isolation to accurately predict social adjustment.

  3. The Effects of Social Constructivist Approach on the Learnersâ Problem Solving and Metacognitive Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Bay; Birsen Bagceci; Bayram Cetin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Socio-cultural constructivism; stressing the social context, culture and collaborative side of learning, is another kind of constructivism. The social constructivist approach has positive effects on learners. It can be said that in improving problem solving and met cognitive awareness skills, which are amongst basic skills every individual should possess today. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a significant difference in the learnersâ problem sol...

  4. The feasibility Problem in Theorizing Social Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Huzum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available G. A. Cohen and Andrew Mason have recently argued, against many contemporary philosophers, that feasibility is not a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice. Their main argument is that principles of justice are logically independent of issues of feasibility and, consequently, feasibility has no bearing on the correctness of these principles. This article is a critical examination of three attempts to show that Cohen and Mason’s argument is unsound. The examined attempts are those of Harry Brighouse, Collin Farrelly, and David Miller. I argue that all these arguments are based on false, unjustified or implausible, premises and/or assumptions. Consequently, they cannot discredit the soundness of Cohen and Mason’s argument and of the thesis that feasibility is not, in fact, a legitimate constraint in theorizing about social justice.

  5. Nuclear power as a social problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munch, E.

    1981-01-01

    The history of the origin of social opposition to construction and expansion of operating NPP in capitalist countries of Europe and USA is considered. The most important manifestations against NPP construction are indicated. On the basis of the analysis of results of public opinion inquest carried out in different countries it is concluded that the number of opponents to the development of nuclear power engineering in developed western countries does not constitute the majority of the population [ru

  6. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation in young refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Edith; Foldspang, Anders

    2008-01-01

    a mean of 1.8 experiences of discrimination, and the prevalence of five indicators of positive social adaptation was 47–92%. Discrimination, mental problems and social adaptation were strongly mutually associated, without gender difference. Discrimination predicted internalizing behaviour. Improved...... but not externalizing behaviour. The direction of other pathways is ambiguous, suggesting a certain amount of recursive interaction between mental health, discrimination and social adaptation.......Background: Mental problems have been hypothesized to impede social adaptation and vice versa, and discrimination is assumed to interact with both. The available empirical documentation is, however, limited. The objective of this study is to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding...

  7. Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    multi-stakeholder Innovation Platforms (IPs) necessary for catalysing wide adoption of SLM innovations. This paper analyses the significance of SNs in sustainable land management (SLM), focusing on stakeholders' characteristics and their association among agricultural rural communities in central Ethiopia and eastern ...

  8. SOCIAL NETWORK OPTIMIZATION A NEW METHAHEURISTIC FOR GENERAL OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Sherafat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years metaheuristics were studied and developed as powerful technics for hard optimization problems. Some of well-known technics in this field are: Genetic Algorithms, Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing, Ant Colony Optimization, and Swarm Intelligence, which are applied successfully to many complex optimization problems. In this paper, we introduce a new metaheuristic for solving such problems based on social networks concept, named as Social Network Optimization – SNO. We show that a wide range of np-hard optimization problems may be solved by SNO.

  9. Rumination, Social Problem Solving and Suicide Intent Among Egyptians With a Recent Suicide Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaf, Amira Y; Lachine, Ola A; Thompson, Elaine A

    2018-02-01

    The more complex influences of social problem-solving abilities and rumination-specifically brooding and reflection-on suicide intent is not well understood. We hypothesized that social problem solving would moderate the association between reflection and suicide intent, and mediate the influence of brooding on suicide intent. A convenience sample (N=186) of individuals hospitalized for recent suicide attempt was interviewed, assessing suicide intent, social problem solving, brooding, reflection and depression. Brooding and reflection were positively associated with suicide intent. The mediating, but not the moderating, hypothesis was supported. Brooding was not significant (β=0.15, t=1.92, p=0.06) with social problem solving controlled. Interventions to disengage rumination and improve social problem-solving skills are underscored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Associations Between Social Vulnerabilities and Psychosocial Problems in European Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iguacel, Isabel; Michels, Nathalie; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of socioeconomic inequalities on children’s mental health remains unclear. This study aims to explore the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between social vulnerabilities and psychosocial problems, and the association between accumulation of vulnerabilities and psychosocial...

  11. The problem of social opposition to industrial plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malocchi, Andrea

    1996-01-01

    The problem of social opposition to the localization, construction and operation of industrial plants is a major social issue in many industrialized countries where environmental consciousness has rooted deeply in society. This paper proposes a general model for the analysis of the social conflict against the localization and operation of industrial plants. The paper investigates the difference between the 'risk analysis' approach and the 'social acceptability' approach in order to demonstrate the major influence of information and communication between industry and society on social consensus (rather than ordinary technological and environmental factors). In a second part the paper analyses a limit of social acceptability approach highlighting the role of environmental NGO's in the promotion and diffusion of the social protest. As a result of the analysis, a general model for the management of social consensus by companies and public authorities is provided

  12. Social Problem Solving Ability Predicts Mental Health Among Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjbar, Mansour; Bayani, Ali Asghar; Bayani, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background : The main objective of this study was predicting student′s mental health using social problem solving- ability . Methods : In this correlational- descriptive study, 369 (208 female and 161 male) from, Mazandaran University of Medical Science were selected through stratified random sampling method. In order to collect the data, the social problem solving inventory-revised and general health questionnaire were used. Data were analyzed through SPSS-19, Pearson′s correlation, t tes...

  13. Transformations of the Social Policy in Ukraine and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokarskyi Taras B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the background of the transformative processes of the Ukrainian society on the basis of the pro-European strategy for economic and social development of Ukraine in 2002-2011 and further in the subsequent crisis years. The focus is made on the plans regarding the approximation of the state to the norms and standards of developed democracy, as well as on the observed in the civil society failures related to the high level of corruption, violation of social security standards, human and civil rights and freedoms, etc. A special attention is paid to economic approaches and the concepts of the problems of social policy as well as the formation of mechanisms for social protection of the population. There highlighted the most critical problems of the transformation of the social policy, in particular, changes in the pension plan and social benefit program.

  14. Political-social reactor problems at Berkeley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    For better than ten years there was little public notice of the TRIGA reactor at UC-Berkeley. Then: a) A non-student persuaded the Student and Senate to pass a resolution to request Campus Administration to stop operation of the reactor and remove it from campus. b) Presence of the reactor became a campaign-issue in a City Mayoral election. c) Two local residents reported adverse physical reactions before, during, and after a routine tour of the reactor facility. d) The Berkeley City Council began a study of problems associated with radioactive material within the city. e) Friends Of The Earth formally petitioned the NRC to terminate the reactor's license. Campus personnel have expended many man-hours and many pounds of paper in responding to these happenings. Some of the details are of interest, and may be of use to other reactor facilities. (author)

  15. A mediational model of self-esteem and social problem-solving in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Gillian; Power, Kevin; Collin, Paula; Greirson, David; Yellowlees, Alex; Park, Katy

    2011-01-01

    Poor problem-solving and low self-esteem are frequently cited as significant factors in the development and maintenance of anorexia nervosa. The current study examines the multi-dimensional elements of these measures and postulates a model whereby self-esteem mediates the relationship between social problems-solving and anorexic pathology and considers the implications of this pathway. Fifty-five inpatients with a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa and 50 non-clinical controls completed three standardised multi-dimensional questionnaires pertaining to social problem-solving, self-esteem and eating pathology. Significant differences were yielded between clinical and non-clinical samples on all measures. Within the clinical group, elements of social problem-solving most significant to anorexic pathology were positive problem orientation, negative problem orientation and avoidance. Components of self-esteem most significant to anorexic pathology were eating, weight and shape concern but not eating restraint. The mediational model was upheld with social problem-solving impacting on anorexic pathology through the existence of low self-esteem. Problem orientation, that is, the cognitive processes of social problem-solving appear to be more significant than problem-solving methods in individuals with anorexia nervosa. Negative perceptions of eating, weight and shape appear to impact on low self-esteem but level of restriction does not. Finally, results indicate that self-esteem is a significant factor in the development and execution of positive or negative social problem-solving in individuals with anorexia nervosa by mediating the relationship between those two variables. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  16. Social Problems in the Russian Army within the Framework of Social Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Surkova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at describing social problems we find in the Russian Army. The research has allowed us to get a ranging of servicemen`s social problems: housing, material maintenance and hard-earned money, realization of social guarantees, life conditions and problem of relationships within families, time-limit, the regulation of life, restricting the freedom, humiliating treatment of juniors and bullying. Unsolved social problems of servicemen may also cause that people who are going to protect the country from danger, may become threats themselves. The Russian army consumes a great amount of resources. Recently mass media has put these issues on the public agenda. Focus in article is also to give a picture of how social workers work to solve social problems in the Russian Army.

  17. Social networking sites: an adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Indu S; Sharma, Manoj Kumar; Chandra, Prabha S; Thennarasu, K

    2014-07-01

    Social networking is seen as a way to enhance social support and feeling of well-being. The present work explores the potentials of social networking sites as an adjunctive treatment modality for initiating treatment contact as well as for managing psychological problems. Interview schedule, Facebook intensity questionnaire were administered on 28 subjects with a combination of 18 males and 10 females. They were taken from the in-patient and out-patient psychiatry setting of the hospital. Facebook was the most popular sites and used to seek emotional support on the basis of the frequent updates of emotional content that users put in their profile; reconciliations, escape from the problems or to manage the loneliness; getting information about illness and its treatment and interaction with experts and also manifested as problematic use. It has implications for developing social networking based adjunctive treatment modality for psychological problems.

  18. Gambling behavior and problem gambling reflecting social transition and traumatic childhood events among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    Aims: An increase in social pathologies is a key feature in indigenous populations undergoing transition. The Greenland Inuit are a large indigenous population constituting a majority in their own country, which makes it possible to investigate differences within the population. This led us to st...... of social pathologies in Greenland. A significant association between lifetime problem gambling, social transition and traumatic childhood events suggests people caught between tradition and modern ways of life are more vulnerable to gambling problems....... was measured as place of residence and a combination of residence, education and occupation. Findings: The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16% among men and 10% among women (p

  19. Behavior problems and social competence in Brazilian children with specific language impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Leite Puglisi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to investigate the behavior and social profile of Brazilian children with specific language impairment (SLI and explore whether the severity of language deficits was associated with behavioral problems and low social competence. Twenty-four children with SLI aged from 6 to 11 years who showed substantial expressive language problems and were receiving speech-language therapy were assessed through the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Children with SLI showed high rates of behavioral problems and low levels of social competence. With the exception of two subscales (“somatic” and “rule breaker”, the percentage of children with SLI at risk of behavioral problems was significantly higher than the same proportion in the general population; and almost all children with SLI (95.2 % demonstrated problems with social competence. The severity of language deficits was associated with the risk of behavioral problems according to only one criterion. No associations were found between the severity of language problems and social competence. The study provides cross-cultural evidence to support the existence of behavior problems and reduced social competence in children with SLI. Our findings point to the need of using a combination of measures to classify the severity of language problems rather than a single dimension.

  20. The social in scene in significant materiality = O social em cena na materialidade significante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzy Lagazzi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the movies: Tropa de Elite, Tereza and Boca de Lixo, with the aim of providing visibility, in the imbrication of different significant materialities, for the discursive work of textualizing social differences. In the theoretical and methodologicalperspective of the materialistic Discourse Analysis, this text allows us to observe the functioning of the contradiction during the oppositional naturalization that structures most of the relations which organize our society, presenting the resistance as a process of possible displacement.Este artigo reúne análises de Tropa de Elite, Tereza e Boca de Lixo com o objetivo de dar visibilidade, na imbricação de distintas materialidades significantes, ao trabalho discursivo de textualização da diferença no social. Na perspectiva teórico-metodológica da Análise do Discurso materialista, este texto permite-nos observar o funcionamento da contradição em meio à naturalização opositiva que estrutura grande parte das relações que organizam nossa sociedade atual, apresentando a resistência como um processo de deslocamento possível.

  1. Mindfulness Facets, Social Anxiety, and Drinking to Cope with Social Anxiety: Testing Mediators of Drinking Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Elise M; Sarfan, Laurel D; Parsons, E Marie; Magee, Joshua C

    2017-02-01

    This cross-sectional study tested social anxiety symptoms, trait mindfulness, and drinking to cope with social anxiety as potential predictors and/or serial mediators of drinking problems. A community-based sample of individuals with co-occurring social anxiety symptoms and alcohol dependence were recruited. Participants ( N = 105) completed measures of social anxiety, drinking to cope with social anxiety, and alcohol use and problems. As well, participants completed the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire , which assesses mindfulness facets of accepting without judgment, acting with awareness, not reacting to one's internal experiences, observing and attending to experiences, and labeling and describing. As predicted, the relationship between social anxiety symptoms and drinking problems was mediated by social anxiety coping motives across each of the models. Further, the relationship between specific mindfulness facets (acting with awareness, accepting without judgment, and describe) and drinking problems was serially mediated by social anxiety symptoms and drinking to cope with social anxiety. This research builds upon existing studies that have largely been conducted with college students to evaluate potential mediators driving drinking problems. Specifically, individuals who are less able to act with awareness, accept without judgment, and describe their internal experiences may experience heightened social anxiety and drinking to cope with that anxiety, which could ultimately result in greater alcohol-related problems.

  2. Association Between Parental Social Interaction and Behavior Problems in Offspring: a Population-Based Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochi, Manami; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-08-01

    Research in parental social support has chiefly examined received social support. Studies have suggested that provided social support may also be protective for child mental health problems. We aim to investigate the association between parental social interaction (both received and provided social support) and offspring behavior problems. We analyzed the data of 982 households, including 1538 children aged 4 to 16 years, from the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE) survey conducted over 2010-2011. We used a 5-point Likert scale to assess social interaction including parental emotional and instrumental support received from and provided to the spouse, other co-residing family members, non-co-residing family members or relatives, neighbors, and friends. Behavior problems in offspring were assessed using parental responses to the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Associations between parental social interaction and behavior problems were analyzed using ordered logistic regression. We found that higher maternal social interaction is significantly associated with lower odds of both difficult and prosocial behavior problems, while the same associations were not found for paternal social interaction. Further, maternal provided social support showed an independent negative association with prosocial behavior problems in offspring, even when adjusted for received maternal social support and paternal social interaction. This study showed that maternal social interaction, but not paternal social interaction, might have a protective effect on offspring behavior problems. Further study is required to investigate the effect of the intervention to increase social participation among mothers whose children have behavior problems.

  3. Clinically Significant Behavior Problems among Young Children 2 Years after the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Yagi, Junko; Homma, Hiroaki; Mashiko, Hirobumi; Nagao, Keizo; Okuyama, Makiko

    2014-01-01

    Background On March 11, 2011, a massive undersea earthquake and tsunami struck East Japan. Few studies have investigated the impact of exposure to a natural disaster on preschool children. We investigated the association of trauma experiences during the Great East Japan Earthquake on clinically significant behavior problems among preschool children 2 years after the earthquake. Method Participants were children who were exposed to the 2011 disaster at preschool age (affected area, n = 178; unaffected area, n = 82). Data were collected from September 2012 to June 2013 (around 2 years after the earthquake), thus participants were aged 5 to 8 years when assessed. Severe trauma exposures related to the earthquake (e.g., loss of family members) were assessed by interview, and trauma events in the physical environment related to the earthquake (e.g. housing damage), and other trauma exposure before the earthquake, were assessed by questionnaire. Behavior problems were assessed by caregivers using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), which encompasses internalizing, externalizing, and total problems. Children who exceeded clinical cut-off of the CBCL were defined as having clinically significant behavior problems. Results Rates of internalizing, externalizing, and total problems in the affected area were 27.7%, 21.2%, and 25.9%, respectively. The rate ratio suggests that children who lost distant relatives or friends were 2.36 times more likely to have internalizing behavior problems (47.6% vs. 20.2%, 95% CI: 1.10–5.07). Other trauma experiences before the earthquake also showed significant positive association with internalizing, externalizing, and total behavior problems, which were not observed in the unaffected area. Conclusions One in four children still had behavior problems even 2 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake. Children who had other trauma experiences before the earthquake were more likely to have behavior problems. These data will be

  4. Social Capital and Bystander Behavior in Bullying: Internalizing Problems as a Barrier to Prosocial Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N; Fredrick, Stephanie Secord

    2017-04-01

    Theory and research suggests that individuals with greater social capital (i.e., resources and benefits gained from relationships, experiences, and social interactions) may be more likely to be active, prosocial bystanders in bullying situations. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to examine the association of social capital (social support and social skills) with prosocial bystander behavior, and the role of internalizing problems as a potential barrier to this relation among 299 students (45.8% girls, 95% White) in sixth, seventh, and eighth grades. Results indicate a positive relation between social capital and prosocial bystander behavior. In addition, internalizing problems were a significant risk factor that may hinder youth-particularly girls-from engaging in defending behavior. Prosocial bystanders are an essential component to prevent and reduce bullying and further research is needed to better understand how to foster prosocial behavior in bullying situations, perhaps by utilizing social capital, related to school bullying.

  5. Parents' and Teachers' Opinions of Preschool Children's Social Problem-Solving and Behavioural Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasik, László; Gál, Zita

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to shed light on (1) what Hungarian mothers, fathers and teachers of 4-6-year-olds think of these children's social problem-solving (SPS) and their difficulties in terms of problem-solving, adaptability and prosocial behaviour; (2) studying any correlation between the examined aspects and (3) the connection between one's…

  6. The Relationship Between Motor Skills, Social Problems, and ADHD Symptomatology: Does It Vary According to Parent and Teacher Report?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulardins, Juliana B; Rigoli, Daniela; Loh, Pek Ru; Kane, Robert; Licari, Melissa; Hands, Beth; Oliveira, Jorge A; Piek, Jan

    2018-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between motor performance; attentional, hyperactive, and impulsive symptoms; and social problems. Correlations between parents' versus teachers' ratings of social problems and ADHD symptomatology were also examined. A total of 129 children aged 9 to 12 years were included. ADHD symptoms and social problems were identified based on Conners' Rating Scales-Revised: L, and the McCarron Assessment of Neuromuscular Development was used to assess motor skills. After controlling for ADHD symptomatology, motor skills remained a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model but not in the parent model. After controlling for motor skills, inattentive (not hyperactive-impulsive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the parent model, whereas hyperactive-impulsive (not inattentive) symptoms were a significant predictor of social problems in the teacher model. The findings suggested that intervention strategies should consider the interaction between symptoms and environmental contexts.

  7. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  8. Darwinian algorithms and the Wason selection task: a factorial analysis of social contract selection task problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, R D; Griggs, R A

    1993-08-01

    In four experiments with 760 subjects, the present study examined Cosmides' Darwinian algorithm theory of reasoning: specifically, its explanation of facilitation on the Wason selection task. The first experiment replicated Cosmides' finding of facilitation for social contract versions of the selection task, using both her multiple-problem format and a single-problem format. Experiment 2 examined performance on Cosmides' three main social contract problems while manipulating the perspective of the subject and the presence and absence of cost-benefit information. The presence of cost-benefit information improved performance in two of the three problems while the perspective manipulation had no effect. In Experiment 3, the cost-benefit effect was replicated; and performance on one of the three problems was enhanced by the presence of explicit negatives on the NOT-P and NOT-Q cards. Experiment 4 examined the role of the deontic term "must" in the facilitation observed for two of the social contract problems. The presence of "must" led to a significant improvement in performance. The results of these experiments are strongly supportive of social contract theory in that cost-benefit information is necessary for substantial facilitation to be observed in Cosmides' problems. These findings also suggest the presence of other cues that can help guide subjects to a deontic social contract interpretation when the social contract nature of the problem is not clear.

  9. Concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in Finland: a cross-sectional population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Castrén, Sari; Alho, Hannu; Lahti, Tuuli

    2014-04-24

    Problem gambling not only impacts those directly involved, but also the concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers. The aims of this study were to investigate the proportion of male and female CSOs at the population level; to investigate who the CSOs were concerned about; and to investigate sociodemographic factors, gender differences, gambling behaviour, and health and well-being among CSOs and non-CSOs. The data (n = 4484) were based on a cross-sectional population study. Structured telephone interviews were conducted in 2011-2012. The data were weighted based on age, gender and residency. The respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that at least one of their significant others (father, mother, sister/brother, grandparent, spouse, own child/children, close friend) had had gambling problems. Statistical significance was determined by chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression analysis. Altogether, 19.3% of the respondents were identified as CSOs. Most commonly, the problem gambler was a close friend (12.4%) of the CSO. The percentage of close friends having a gambling problem was larger among male CSOs (14.4%) compared with female CSOs (10.3%; p ≤ 0.001), while the percentage of partners with gambling problem was larger among females (2.6%) than among males (0.8%; p ≤ 0.001). In the best fitting model, the odds ratio (95% CI) of being a male CSO was 2.03 (1.24-3.31) for past-year gambling problems, 1.46 (1.08-1.97) for loneliness and 1.78 (1.38-2.29) for risky alcohol consumption. The odds ratio (95% CI) of being a female CSO was 1.51 (1.09-2.08) for past-year gambling involvement, 3.05 (1.18-7.90) for past-year gambling problems, 2.21 (1.24-3.93) for mental health problems, 1.39 (1.03-1.89) for loneliness and 1.97 (1.43-2.71) for daily smoking. CSOs of problem gamblers often experience cumulating problems such as their own risky gambling behaviour, health problems and other addictive disorders. The

  10. Social Problems Of Aged In A Rural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Charan

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What are the social problems of aged persons in a rural population? Objectives: i To study social problems of aged. ii To identify measures to eliminate them. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of Machhra Rural Health & Training Centre attached with Deptt. of SPM, Medical College, Meerut. Participants: Population above 60 years of age. Sample Size: 1000 households from 5 villages, which had 464 participants. Study Variables: Chi- square test. Results: In all, 259 (55.8% aged persons were engaged in productive work while 205 (44.2% were not doing any productive work. Of 376 aged persons living in joint families, 207 (55% were being respected, 71(18.9% were indifferently treated and 98 (26.1% were being neglected by family members. Recommendations: It is a strong case for proper planning to improve the lot of old age population especially for their social problems at the earliest.

  11. Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  12. Gender influences on preschool children's social problem-solving strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sue; Irving, Kym; Berthelsen, Donna

    2002-06-01

    The authors investigated gender influences on the nature and competency of preschool children's social problem-solving strategies. Preschool-age children (N = 179; 91 boys, 88 girls) responded to hypothetical social situations designed to assess their social problem-solving skills in the areas of provocation, peer group entry, and sharing or taking turns. Results indicated that, overall, girls' responses were more competent (i.e., reflective of successful functioning with peers) than those of boys, and girls' strategies were less likely to involve retaliation or verbal or physical aggression. The competency of the children's responses also varied with the gender of the target child. Findings are discussed in terms of the influence of gender-related social experiences on the types of strategies and behaviors that may be viewed as competent for boys and girls of preschool age.

  13. Social problems as sources of opportunity – antecedents of social entrepreneurship opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Żur

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Based on extensive literature review, this paper aims to establish if, why and how, in given environmental and market contexts, social entrepreneurship (SE opportunities are discovered and exploited. It positions social problems as sources of entrepreneurial opportunity. The article presents an integrated process-based view of SE opportunity antecedents and concludes with a dynamic model of SE opportunity. Research Design & Methods: To fulfil its goal, the paper establishes opportunity as unit of research and explores the dynamics of opportunity recognition. To identify the components of SE opportunity through a process-based view, the study follows the steps of critical literature review method. The literature review follows with logical reasoning and inference, which results in the formulation of a model proposition of social entrepreneurship opportunity. Findings: The paper presents a holistic perspective on opportunity antecedents in SE context and introduces social problems, information, social awareness and entrepreneurial mindset  as fundamental components of social entrepreneurship opportunity equation. Implications & Recommendations: It is necessary to remember for policy makers, investors and partners involved within the social sector, that social problems can be the source of entrepreneurial opportunity. Training, assisting and engaging socially aware entrepreneurs is a promising line of development for all communities. Contribution & Value Added: The major contribution of this study lies in extending the existing body of social entrepreneurship research by providing a new perspective, placing social problem as opportunity in the centre of the discussion.

  14. The language of mental health problems in social media

    OpenAIRE

    Gkotsis, George; Oellrich, Anika; Hubbard, Tim; Dobson, Richard JB; Liakata, Maria; Velupillai, Sumithra; Dutta, Rina

    2016-01-01

    Online social media, such as Reddit, has become an important resource to share personal experiences and communicate with others. Among other personal information, some social media users communicate about mental health problems they are experiencing, with the intention of getting advice, support or empathy from other users. Here, we investigate the language of Reddit posts specific to mental health, to define linguistic characteristics that could be helpful for further applications. The latte...

  15. Social Intervention for Adolescents with Autism and Significant Intellectual Disability: Initial Efficacyof Reciprocal Imitation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Brooke; Walton, Katherine; Carlsen, Danielle; Hamlin, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism have difficulty with social skills across the lifespan. Few social interventions have been examined for older individuals with autism who also have significant intellectual disabilities (ID). Previous research suggests that reciprocal imitation training (RIT) improves imitation and social engagement in young children with…

  16. Identification of significant problems related to light water reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-07-01

    Work on the project was divided into three tasks. In Task 1, past surveys of LWR piping system problems and recent Licensee Event Report summaries are studied to identify the significant problems of LWR piping systems and the primary causes of these problems. Pipe cracking is identified as the most recurring problem and is mainly due to the vibration of pipes due to operating pump-pipe resonance, fluid-flow fluctuations, and vibration of pipe supports. Research relevant to the identified piping system problems is evaluated. Task 2 studies identify typical LWR piping systems and the current loads and load combinations used in the design of these systems. Definitions of loads are reviewed. In Task 3, a comparative study is carried out on the use of nonlinear analysis methods in the design of LWR piping systems. The study concludes that the current linear-elastic methods of analysis may not predict accurately the behavior of piping systems under seismic loads and may, under certain circumstances, result in nonconservative designs. Gaps at piping supports are found to have a significant effect on the response of the piping systems

  17. Social phobia and sexual problems: A comparison of social phobic, sexually dysfunctional and normal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Valentina; Stravynski, Ariel

    2010-03-01

    This study sought to test the putative link between social phobia and sexual functioning. Three groups consisting of 106 social phobic, 164 sexually dysfunctional and 111 normal participants were assessed in terms of sexual functioning, social anxiety, social functioning and general psychopathology. Although social phobic men were less sexually active than normal men, they were as sexually satisfied. Social phobic women were alike their normal counterparts in all respects. Overall, social phobic individuals were not more prone to report sexual problems than normal individuals despite reporting the severest levels of social anxiety. Theoretically, our results are best understood as supporting an interpersonal conception of social phobia and a related socio-cultural perspective regarding sexual roles.

  18. Situated, Embodied and Social Problem-Solving in Virtual Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cram, Andrew; Hedberg, John G.; Gosper, Maree; Dick, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary theories of problem-solving highlight that expertise is domain specific, contingent on the social context and available resources, and involves knowledge, skills, attitudes, emotions and values. Developing educational activities that incorporate all of these elements is a challenge. Through case studies, this paper outlines how…

  19. Problem-Based Learning in Social Work Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monrad, Merete; Mølholt, Anne-Kirstine

    2017-01-01

    ’ experiences of PBL. In this article we address this gap by exploring experiences of learning and learning preferences among master’s-level students in a Danish social work education setting where extensive problem-based project work is used. We find a discrepancy between students’ preferred learning and when...

  20. Social Cognition and Conduct Problems: A Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Bonamy R.; Barker, Edward D.; Mandy, William P. L.; Skuse, David H.; Maughan, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To estimate associations between trajectories of conduct problems and social-cognitive competences through childhood into early adolescence. Method: A prospective population-based cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) recruited in the prenatal period (13,988 children alive at 12 months) formed the basis…

  1. Fatherless America: Confronting Our Most Urgent Social Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenhorn, David

    The United States is rapidly becoming a fatherless society. Fatherlessness is the leading cause of declining child well-being, providing the impetus behind social problems such as crime, domestic violence, and adolescent pregnancy. Challenging the basic assumptions of opinion leaders in academia and in the media, this book debunks the prevailing…

  2. The Social Psychology of Potential Problems in Family Vacation Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Paul C.; Russell, Martha G.

    1975-01-01

    Social psychological thinking and the data of an exploratory study are used to illuminate potential problems in family vacation travel. Vacation travel is seen as providing both the opportunity for revitalization and creative change and the opportunity for serious interpersonal difficulties. (Author)

  3. Fostering Authentic Problem Seeking: A Step toward Social Justice Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce-Davis, Micah N.; Gilson, Cindy M.; Matthews, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Because of these learners' potential as future leaders, it is imperative that educators develop gifted students' ability to identify and solve complex social justice problems. Nourishing students' affective traits, including empathy for others, understanding of themselves, and the ability to connect to others in local and global society, will help…

  4. Social strain, couple dynamics and gender differences in gambling problems: evidence from Chinese married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Nicole W T

    2015-02-01

    Knowledge of the influence of couple dynamics on gender differences in gambling behavior remains meager. Building on general strain theory from the sociology of deviance and stress crossover theory from social psychology, we argue that the strain encountered by one partner in a social setting may affect his or her spouse. For instance, the wife of a man under more social strain may experience more strain in turn and thus be at a higher risk of developing disordered gambling than the wife of a man under less social strain. Using community survey data of 1620 Chinese married couples, we performed multilevel dyad analyses to address social strain and couple dynamics, in addition to their roles as predictors of gambling behavior in both spouses. This was a community survey of Hong Kong and therefore was not representative of China. Based on the DSM-IV screen, the rates of probable problem gambling and pathological gambling among male partners (12.8% vs. 2.5%) were twice those among female partners (5.2% vs. 0.3%). We also found that the social strain experienced by a male partner significantly predicted both his and his wife's likelihood of developing gambling problems. Although a female partner's exposure to social strain was a significant correlate of her gambling problem, it had no significant association with her husband's gambling behavior. These results suggest that the cross-spouse transference of social strain may be a gendered process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peer influences on internalizing and externalizing problems among adolescents: a longitudinal social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Janna; van Geel, Mitch; Vedder, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents who like each other may become more similar to each other with regard to internalizing and externalizing problems, though it is not yet clear which social mechanisms explain these similarities. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed four mechanisms that may explain similarity in adolescent peer networks with regard to externalizing and internalizing problems: selection, socialization, avoidance and withdrawal. At three moments during one school-year, we asked 542 adolescents (8th grade, M-age = 13.3 years, 51 % female) to report who they liked in their classroom, and their own internalizing and externalizing problems. Adolescents tend to prefer peers who have similar externalizing problem scores, but no significant selection effect was found for internalizing problems. Adolescents who share the same group of friends socialize each other and then become more similar with respect to externalizing problems, but not with respect to internalizing problems. We found no significant effects for avoidance or withdrawal. Adolescents may choose to belong to a peer group that is similar to them in terms of externalizing problem behaviors, and through peer group socialization (e.g., enticing, modelling, mimicking, and peer pressure) become more similar to that group over time.

  6. Reading the problem family: post-structuralism and the analysis of social problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reekie, G

    1994-01-01

    Post-structuralist theory questions the rational pursuit of an underlying 'truth' that often characterizes social scientific inquiry, proposing instead the simultaneous existence of multiple and often contradictory truths. The problem family can, from this perspective, only be known through the different discourses that produce it. This paper suggests some of the political advantages of developing methods of reading 'problems' related to drugs and alcohol. Without this critical attention to language, we risk perpetuating the ways in which problems are talked about and thought about. Drawing on examples from debates surrounding teenage pregnancy and youth drinking, the paper argues that post-structuralism allows us to analyse the specific ways in which professional discourses write social problems, and hence to own them and to re-write them.

  7. The management of social problems talk in a support group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza Gomes Peretti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The comprehension of the health-disease process from a multifactorial perspective has allowed important transformations in the healthcare practices. In this article, we discuss the use of the support group as a resource for mental health care, analyzing how conversations about social issues are managed in this context. Based on contributions from the social constructionist movement, we analyzed the transcripts of the conversations developed in meetings of a support group offered to patients of a mental health outpatient clinic. The analysis of the process of meaning making indicates that the discourse of the social influence on mental health is not legitimized, due to a predominant individualistic discourse, which psychologizes care and is centered on the emotional analysis of the problems of the quotidian. We argue that this mode of management brings limits to the construction of the group as a device for promoting autonomy and encouraging the social transformation processes.

  8. Violence in Mexico: A social or public health problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas Patiño, Donovan; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra; Salazar Morales, Mario Rodolfo

    2016-03-08

    This article seeks to explain the importance of violence as a social phenomenon and public health, trying to envision this issue not only from a curative approach to health, but from the social determinants of health, such as economics, politics and the administration of justice. Here, the younger population lacks real opportunities with an “absent State” that fails to provide structure. These frameworks play a fundamental role in the manifestation of violence. Thus, the debate for addressing and resolving violence opens the way to new perspectives regarding social factors as part of a public health, which cannot be oblivious to the state of the collective. Thus, the analysis of this situation shows that we cannot keep overlooking the whole picture of the real problem in the social health of our world instead of focusing on its discordant parts.

  9. Medical social consequences of the safety problems of oncological radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilipenko, M.Yi.; Stadnik, L.L.; Shal'opa, O.Yu.; Rigan, M.M.; Skalets'kij, Yu.M.

    2015-01-01

    Actuality of the problem of patient safety in oncoradiology in Ukraine is grounded. The results of international audit TLD (IAEA/WHO) quality during dosimetry procedures cobalt-telegamma vehicles in Ukraine are investigated, as well as legal and regulatory framework providing for the safety of radiotherapy care, scientific publications on patient safety. Methods: statistical, analytical, bibliographical, systematic approach. On the example of radiation therapy using the results of the international program of the IAEA/WHO TLD audit quality dosimetry calibration devices for remote gamma therapy in Ukraine from 1998 to 2014 the attempt to assess the extent of medical and social consequences of underestimating of medical errors in oncoradiology is made. The problems of regulatory nature of medical errors in oncoradiology are preliminary identified. The problem of medical errors in the treatment of cancer radiation methods in Ukraine is extremely important. Usually the problems of errors in oncoradiology are considered in organizational, technical, personnel and technical aspects, while medical and social consequences of problem are not covered. About 10 thousand of cancer patients in year may suffer from errors related only to dose calculation according to the optimistic variant, while the number of patients for the same period on the pessimistic case can reach 15 thousand. There are a number of legal character problems in oncoradiology related to patient safety that require clarification. The first priority for improving the safety of patients in oncoradiology is the recording and analysis of radiation therapy defects and their consequences

  10. Does human body odor represent a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin T Lübke

    Full Text Available Across a wide variety of domains, experts differ from novices in their response to stimuli linked to their respective field of expertise. It is currently unknown whether similar patterns can be observed with regard to social expertise. The current study therefore focuses on social openness, a central social skill necessary to initiate social contact. Human body odors were used as social cues, as they inherently signal the presence of another human being. Using functional MRI, hemodynamic brain responses to body odors of women reporting a high (n = 14 or a low (n = 12 level of social openness were compared. Greater activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus was observed in high socially open individuals compared to individuals low in social openness. With the inferior frontal gyrus being a crucial part of the human mirror neuron system, and the caudate nucleus being implicated in social reward, it is discussed whether human body odor might constitute more of a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness compared to individuals low in social openness process.

  11. Does human body odor represent a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Croy, Ilona; Hoenen, Matthias; Gerber, Johannes; Pause, Bettina M; Hummel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Across a wide variety of domains, experts differ from novices in their response to stimuli linked to their respective field of expertise. It is currently unknown whether similar patterns can be observed with regard to social expertise. The current study therefore focuses on social openness, a central social skill necessary to initiate social contact. Human body odors were used as social cues, as they inherently signal the presence of another human being. Using functional MRI, hemodynamic brain responses to body odors of women reporting a high (n = 14) or a low (n = 12) level of social openness were compared. Greater activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus was observed in high socially open individuals compared to individuals low in social openness. With the inferior frontal gyrus being a crucial part of the human mirror neuron system, and the caudate nucleus being implicated in social reward, it is discussed whether human body odor might constitute more of a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness compared to individuals low in social openness process.

  12. From childhood adversity to problem behaviors: Role of psychological and structural social integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lo-Hsin; Tsai, Meng-Che; Liang, Ya-Lun; Strong, Carol; Lin, Chung-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) is associated with problem behaviors in adolescence, but the mediators, that is, those factors that help build resilience and prevent some children who experience CA from engaging in problem behaviors, await more exploration, including social integration. The aim of this study was to identify the association between CA and adolescent problem behaviors, and to further examine the mediating role of social integration distinctly as psychological and structural integration. Data used were from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey, a core panel of 4,261 students (age 13) surveyed in 2001 and followed for three more waves until age 18. For psychological integration, an average score was calculated to represent adolescents' feelings about their school. Structural integration was constructed using several items about adolescents' school and extracurricular activities. We used structural equation modeling with the diagonally weighted least squares method to examine the effect of CA on the primary outcome: adolescent problem behaviors via social integration. The hypothesized structural equation model specifying the path from CA to adolescent problem behavior had good fit. Respondents with one CA were indirectly linked to problem behaviors via psychological but not structural integration (e.g. the level of participation in school and non-school activities). On mediation analysis, psychological integration significantly mediated the paths from one CA to all six problem behaviors (all P integration; two or more CA were not associated with significant paths to problem behaviors. The contribution of social integration is crucial to an adolescent's development from CA to problem behaviors. To form supportive social relationships to achieve better health, we suggest that those adolescents who have been exposed to CA should be helped to join more teams and take part in more activities, thereby increasing their opportunities for social interaction, and improving

  13. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Social Problems Disguised as Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Many of the diseases seen in the clinic are actually symptoms of social problems. It is often easier for the physician to treat the symptoms than to be a coach and help the patient to assume responsibility in order to improve quality of life, social situation, and relations. If the physician ignores the signs of the disease as a symptom of social problems, and treats the patient with pharmaceuticals, he can give the patient the best justification in the world not to do anything about the situation. It is very important that the physician is not tricked by the games the socially troubled patient, more or less unconsciously, is playing. A firm and wise attitude that confronts the patient with his or her lack of responsibility for solving social problems seems to be a constructive way out. The physician can give holding and support, but the responsibility must remain with the patient. Often it is better for the patient that the physician abstains from giving drugs that can remedy the symptoms and takes the role of a coach instead. Suffering is not necessarily bad, suffering is actually highly motivating and often the most efficient source of learning. Coaching can help the patient canalize his motivation into highly constructive considerations and behavior. A holistic approach thus gives the patient learning and helps him rehabilitate his social reality. Concerning children with recurrent or chronic pain, we have observed an overuse of painkillers, where we believe part is of a psychosomatic nature due to poor thriving in the family. Here the physician has an important job helping the parents to develop as persons, teaching them the basic holding of awareness, respect, care, acknowledgment and acceptance of their child. Most of the chronic pain and discomfort with children can be improved if the physician understands how to use the holistic medical toolbox.

  14. Social impressions while drinking account for the relationship between alcohol-related problems and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Matthews, Russell A

    2012-04-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to experiencing alcohol-related problems; yet we know little about factors that may account for this relationship. One possibility is that socially anxious individuals hold beliefs about the impressions they make on others while drinking and these beliefs play an important role in their drinking behaviors. The present study used exploratory factor analysis among participants with clinically elevated social anxiety (n=166) to develop a measure, the Social Impressions while Drinking Scale (SIDS), to assess beliefs regarding others' impressions of drinking behaviors that may be particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals. A valuations scale was also developed to assess the importance of each belief. Empirically-derived subscales were identified with adequate reliability. Among socially anxious participants, the Gregarious and Sexual Facilitation subscales were uniquely related to drinking problems and frequency respectively. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety achieved higher scores on all SIDS subscales compared to those with lower social anxiety (n=166). Several SIDS scales mediated the relations between social anxiety group status and drinking problems (Interaction Fears, Observation Fears, Aggression, Gregariousness). Results highlight the importance of examining beliefs specific to high-risk populations in assessing their alcohol-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Social balance as a satisfiability problem of computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Vilone, Daniele; Yoon, Sooeyon; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard

    2007-02-01

    Reduction of frustration was the driving force in an approach to social balance as it was recently considered by Antal [T. Antal, P. L. Krapivsky, and S. Redner, Phys. Rev. E 72, 036121 (2005)]. We generalize their triad dynamics to k-cycle dynamics for arbitrary integer k. We derive the phase structure, determine the stationary solutions, and calculate the time it takes to reach a frozen state. The main difference in the phase structure as a function of k is related to k being even or odd. As a second generalization we dilute the all-to-all coupling as considered by Antal to a random network with connection probability wcomputer science. The phase of social balance in our original interpretation then becomes the phase of satisfaction of all logical clauses in the satisfiability problem. In common to the cases we study, the ideal solution without any frustration always exists, but the question actually is as to whether this solution can be found by means of a local stochastic algorithm within a finite time. The answer depends on the choice of parameters. After establishing the mapping between the two classes of models, we generalize the social-balance problem to a diluted network topology for which the satisfiability problem is usually studied. On the other hand, in connection with the satisfiability problem we generalize the random local algorithm to a p-random local algorithm, including a parameter p that corresponds to the propensity parameter in the social balance problem. The qualitative effect of the inclusion of this parameter is a bias towards the optimal solution and a reduction of the needed simulation time.

  16. Social Orientation: Problem Behavior and Motivations Toward Interpersonal Problem Solving Among High Risk Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperminc, Gabriel P.; Allen, Joseph P.

    2006-01-01

    A model of problematic adolescent behavior that expands current theories of social skill deficits in delinquent behavior to consider both social skills and orientation toward the use of adaptive skills was examined in an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of 113 male and female adolescents. Adolescents were selected on the basis of moderate to serious risk for difficulties in social adaptation in order to focus on the population of youth most likely to be targeted by prevention efforts. Structural equation modeling was used to examine cross-sectional data using multiple informants (adolescents, peers, and parents) and multiple methods (performance test and self-report). Adolescent social orientation, as reflected in perceived problem solving effectiveness, identification with adult prosocial values, and self-efficacy expectations, exhibited a direct association to delinquent behavior and an indirect association to drug involvement mediated by demonstrated success in using problem solving skills. Results suggest that the utility of social skill theories of adolescent problem behaviors for informing preventive and remedial interventions can be enhanced by expanding them to consider adolescents’ orientation toward using the skills they may already possess. PMID:16929380

  17. Social Realism and the Problem of the Problem of Knowledge in the Sociology of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Rob

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines from a Social Realist perspective a set of issues in the sociology of education regarding the problem of knowledge. It focuses upon the issue of relativism associated with the constructionist approach that since the time of the New Sociology of Education in the 1970s has constituted in different forms the dominant perspective…

  18. Questioning the significance of the non-identity problem in applied ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawlor, Rob

    2015-11-01

    Authors such as Tony Hope and Julian Savulescu appeal to Derek Parfit's non-identity problem in relation to particular questions in applied ethics, and particularly in reproductive ethics. They argue that the non-identity problem shows that an individual cannot be harmed by being brought into existence, and therefore, we cannot say that the individual is harmed if, for example, we select an embryo in order to have a deaf child. Thus, they argue that an appeal to the non-identity problem blocks (or significantly reduces the force of) objections in a number of cases. I argue that these discussions often give the impression that this is a clear conclusion, shared by most philosophers, and largely beyond dispute. This is particularly significant because these discussions are often in journals or books with an interdisciplinary readership. My concern is that they give the impression of stating: 'philosophers have studied this issue, and this is the conclusion they have reached. Now I will emphasise the implications for medical ethics'. I argue that, far from being the consensus view, the view presented by Hope and Savulescu is rejected by many, including Parfit himself. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. LEARNING BASED ON SOCIAL PROBLEMS FROM AN INTERDISCIPLINARY PERSPECTIVE: ETHICAL DILEMMAS OF SOCIAL INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Miguel Rondón-García

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is inspired by an innovative educational project developed at the University of Malaga (Spain during 2013-2015. Complies with the requirements of the European Higher Education Area, concerning the acquisition of systemic, instrumental and interpersonal skills, an innovative learning experience, inspired by the need for feedback from the social sciences and socialization of knowledge, is proposed from the perspective of the common curriculum. Its main purpose is aimed at ensuring optimum results about learning in Social Work degree in related social disciplines, from a common and creative epistemology. The results have enabled the production of a didactic approach consisting of problem situations, the partner from practice materials. This information has been provided by the professionals involved empirically in practice, in order to generate educational resources, educational and social to scientific knowledge production tools. Welfare cases have been analyzed from all disciplinary perspectives or social sciences related to social work and disseminated for faculty, professional and academic use.

  20. Social context, social abstention, and problem recognition correlated with adult female urinary incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lam, Gitte Wrist; Foldspang, Anders; Elving, Lisbeth Bach

    1992-01-01

    indicated the workplace and 66% the home as principal sites of UI occurrence. Thirty-one percent had experienced UI in specific situations such as during anxiety, sexual intercourse, or sleep. Nineteen percent had abstained from social activities, 17% from non-intimate social activity and 6% from sexual...... with episodes of UI occurring at home and in specific situations such as during anxiety and sleep. The experience of UI during sexual intercourse was related to all types of abstention. The perception of UI as a social or hygienic problem depended on the duration since first UI episode as well as social context...... and abstention. The everyday life consequences of UI are widespread and may cause serious relational problems for the individual. Stress UI manifests itself as a somatic condition leading to abstention from sport and other non-intimate social activities. Urge UI and the role of the experience of UI during sexual...

  1. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gracia; Mª Castillo Fuentes; Fernando García

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent...

  2. Social inequality and the principal-agent problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Barkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social inequality has a lot of reasons. One of them is managerial. Managerial duties are paid so high that it set the stage for discontent not only within individual organizations, but also entire countries. The principles (the people in the state and shareholders in the corporation because the specific structure of their competencies can’t totally control agents (officials and managers. As to agents, the moral imperative to act for the good of the social system and reputation considerations (to be remembered as a good ruler or a genius manager can easily rejected when there is an opportunity to make millions dollars without special efforts. As a result hundreds thousands of people across the globe in the corporate and government structures are enriched through specific solutions to the principal-agent problem, and social inequality becomes an integral inevitable part of the modern economy.

  3. Nuclear safety targets and problems of social acceptability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macgill, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The following are among the factors which make the problem of setting acceptable safety targets for societal protection from possible nuclear accidents one of such formidable proportion: The varied and often conflicting positions among and between the many constituencies with a claim to interest in the problem: local, national and international populations; lay, workplace and professional communities; private and public interests; active environmental lobbies and intentionally passive publics; powerful influences and politically unprivileged classes; press and mass media. To seek 'acceptability' of safety targets through common consensus is problematised by the difficulty in overcoming the immense social and historical forces that give rise to the prevailing contrariety among different people's positions. To seek resolution of differences by some appropriate weighting of the different views of different constituencies is problematised by the lack of unique identification of what the constituencies are, by the difficulty in faithfully representing their views, and by the absence of 'laws of social entitlement' vis-a-vis the weight that should be given to each. In sum, the problem of setting socially acceptable safety targets is itself bound up with inherently open ended questions of democracy and representation. (author)

  4. Modern social life and never-married women's health problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrapan Tamdee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the health problems of never-married women as they relate to modern social life. In-depth interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 45 never-married women aged 30–50 working or living in Bangkok and having health problems. It was found that never-married women in this modern era have experienced a variety of illnesses, such as “office syndrome” symptoms, chronic illnesses, and psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Their social life resulted from the response to the context of modernity and was made through careful thought and deliberation. Whichever choice of social life they make, the consequences may lead them to a state of illness, distress, anxiety, and paranoia. These choices involve work, living conditions/environments, and intimacy aspects of their modern social life. This is the result of procuring by “husky modernity” which seems to be merely a “husk” or superficial modernization and changes so rapidly, but there is no core and it is full of double standards of traditional and new norms that have mixed together and fight against each other. Supporting health-related knowledge and information exchange within the network coupled with experience sharing essential for living in the modern society will enable them to sensibly decide on a path to good health.

  5. Does Neighborhood Social Capital Buffer the Effects of Maternal Depression on Adolescent Behavior Problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Vickie M.; Cochran, Susan D.

    2014-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives. PMID:24659390

  6. Does neighborhood social capital buffer the effects of maternal depression on adolescent behavior problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delany-Brumsey, Ayesha; Mays, Vickie M; Cochran, Susan D

    2014-06-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been shown to impact child well-being. However, it remains unclear how these factors combine with family characteristics to influence child development. The current study helps develop that understanding by investigating how neighborhoods directly impact child and adolescent behavior problems as well as moderate the influence of family characteristics on behavior. Using multilevel linear models, we examined the relationship among neighborhood conditions (poverty and social capital) and maternal depression on child and adolescent behavior problems. The sample included 741 children, age 5–11, and 564 adolescents, age 12–17. Outcomes were internalizing (e.g. anxious/depressed) and externalizing (e.g. aggressive/hyperactive) behavior problems. Neighborhood poverty and maternal depression were both positively associated with behavior problems for children and adolescents. However, while neighborhood social capital was not directly associated with behavior problems, the interaction of social capital and maternal depression was significantly related to behavior problems for adolescents. This interaction showed that living in neighborhoods with higher levels of social capital attenuated the relationship between maternal depression and adolescent behavior problems and confirmed the expectation that raising healthy well-adjusted children depends not only on the family, but also the context in which the family lives.

  7. Connectedness, social support and internalising emotional and behavioural problems in adolescents displaced by the Chechen conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Theresa S.; Salhi, Carmel; Buka, Stephen; Leaning, Jennifer; Dunn, Gillian; Earls, Felton

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated factors associated with internalising emotional and behavioural problems among adolescents displaced during the most recent Chechen conflict. A cross-sectional survey (N=183) examined relationships between social support and connectedness with family, peers and community in relation to internalising problems. Levels of internalising were higher in displaced Chechen youth compared to published norms among non-referred youth in the United States and among Russian children not affected by conflict. Girls demonstrated higher problem scores compared to boys. Significant inverse correlations were observed between family, peer and community connectedness and internalising problems. In multivariate analyses, family connectedness was indicated as a significant predictor of internalising problems, independent of age, gender, housing status and other forms of support evaluated. Sub-analyses by gender indicated stronger protective relationships between family connectedness and internalising problems in boys. Results indicate that family connectedness is an important protective factor requiring further exploration by gender in war-affected adolescents. PMID:22443099

  8. Sleep, Internalizing Problems, and Social Withdrawal: Unique Associations in Clinic-Referred Youth With Elevated Sluggish Cognitive Tempo Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon, Ana T; Hilton, Dane C; Jarrett, Matthew A; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2018-02-01

    We compared clinic-referred youth with ADHD + sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT; n = 34), ADHD Only ( n = 108), and SCT Only ( n = 22) on demographics, co-occurring symptomatology, comorbid diagnoses, and social functioning. In total, 164 youth (age = 6-17 years, M = 9.97) and their parent(s) presented to an outpatient clinic for a psychoeducational assessment. Between-group analyses and regressions were used to examine study variables. SCT groups were older and exhibited more parent-reported internalizing problems, externalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal on the Child Behavior Checklist. No significant differences emerged between groups on the Teacher Report Form. Regression analyses involving multiple covariates revealed that SCT symptoms were uniquely related to social withdrawal but not general social problems. Based on parent report, SCT symptoms have a unique relationship with internalizing problems, sleep problems, and social withdrawal. Future research should explore correlates of SCT in youth using multiple informants.

  9. Adaptation of Social Problem Solving for Children Questionnaire in 6 Age Groups and its Relationships with Preschool Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2013-01-01

    Social Problem Solving for Child Scale is frequently used to determine behavioral problems of children with their own word and to identify ways of conflict encountered in daily life, and interpersonal relationships in abroad. The primary purpose of this study was to adapt the Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test. In order to…

  10. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhuyar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  11. Testing problem-solving capacities: differences between individual testing and social group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikova, Anastasia; Schneider, Jutta M

    2014-09-01

    Testing animals individually in problem-solving tasks limits distractions of the subjects during the test, so that they can fully concentrate on the problem. However, such individual performance may not indicate the problem-solving capacity that is commonly employed in the wild when individuals are faced with a novel problem in their social groups, where the presence of a conspecific influences an individual's behaviour. To assess the validity of data gathered from parrots when tested individually, we compared the performance on patterned-string tasks among parrots tested singly and parrots tested in social context. We tested two captive groups of orange-winged amazons (Amazona amazonica) with several patterned-string tasks. Despite the differences in the testing environment (singly vs. social context), parrots from both groups performed similarly. However, we found that the willingness to participate in the tasks was significantly higher for the individuals tested in social context. The study provides further evidence for the crucial influence of social context on individual's response to a challenging situation such as a problem-solving test.

  12. A fast method for the unit scheduling problem with significant renewable power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osório, G.J.; Lujano-Rojas, J.M.; Matias, J.C.O.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model to the scheduling of power systems with significant renewable power generation is provided. • A new methodology that takes information from the analysis of each scenario separately is proposed. • Based on a probabilistic analysis, unit scheduling and corresponding economic dispatch are estimated. • A comparison with others methodologies is in favour of the proposed approach. - Abstract: Optimal operation of power systems with high integration of renewable power sources has become difficult as a consequence of the random nature of some sources like wind energy and photovoltaic energy. Nowadays, this problem is solved using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) approach, which allows considering important statistical characteristics of wind and solar power production such as the correlation between consecutive observations, the diurnal profile of the forecasted power production, and the forecasting error. However, MCS method requires the analysis of a representative amount of trials, which is an intensive calculation task that increases considerably with the number of scenarios considered. In this paper, a model to the scheduling of power systems with significant renewable power generation based on scenario generation/reduction method, which establishes a proportional relationship between the number of scenarios and the computational time required to analyse them, is proposed. The methodology takes information from the analysis of each scenario separately to determine the probabilistic behaviour of each generator at each hour in the scheduling problem. Then, considering a determined significance level, the units to be committed are selected and the load dispatch is determined. The proposed technique was illustrated through a case study and the comparison with stochastic programming approach was carried out, concluding that the proposed methodology can provide an acceptable solution in a reduced computational time

  13. Problems of social and economic growth in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article author explores the indirect influence of non-economic factors on the growth dynamics of the volume of GDP, including shows the effect of social problems on economic growth. It is proved that the existence of social problems have a negative impact on the pace of the economic dynamics of the country, due to the mutual dependence of key economic and non-economic factors of growth. On the one hand, the level of income of the population affects the purchasing power, which leads to the increase of the acceleration in economic growth. On the other hand, high levels of poverty and a deepening income inequality dictate political and social instability in society, which negatively affects the dynamics of economic growth. It was revealed that the feature of economic growth in the transitional economy is the negative impact of inflation and unemployment rates of economic dynamics, despite the fact that in most Western models, they are not considered as limiting growth factors.

  14. The Effect of Self-Regulation Training on Social Problem Solving of Male and Female Preschoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. Jelvegar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since self-regulation is important for development of cognitive and social skills in children and the role of gender differences in the relation is notable, this study was conducted for this purpose. Initially, 40 children (20 girls and 20 boys from two pre-schools of Meybod city were randomly chosen and assigned to two experimental and control groups. After performing Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test (WCSPD as the pre-test on all the children, a self-regulation training program was taught for 20 hours over a month to the experimental group with techniques of play and story therapy. Wally Child Social Problem-Solving Detective Game Test was then used as the post-test measure. The results of analysis of covariance showed that the difference between the means of the two grpups was significant (p0.0001, that is, the training group did better but the difference between the means of boys and girls in social problem solving was not significant. It was suggested that self-regulatory training during childhood be provided for both boys and girls to promote their social problem solving skills.

  15. [Profile of social problem solving and coping profile in anxious and depressed Chileans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Uwe

    2012-11-01

    According to the Pan American Health Organization and the World Health Organization, in 2020, depression will become the second cause of disability worldwide. In Chile, anxiety and depressive disorders account for almost 28% of the total years of healthy life lost due to illness. This research seeks to explore a profile of social problem solving and coping present in people who suffer from anxious and depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 1179 analogous Chilean participants (55.9% women), with a mean of 22.23 years (range between 18-48 years). The results suggest statistically significant differences for all social problem solving and coping strategies evaluated. Thus, if anxious or depressive symptoms increase, social problem solving or coping strategies become less adaptive.

  16. Organisational Problem Based Learning and Social Communities for SMEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Emma; Hamburg, Ileana

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights reasons for SMEs low uptake of training and argues that current offerings are not suitable for their needs. It highlights the need to leverage the benefits of work based learning through the use of technology. Social media and web 2.0 has significantly changed the way people learn and access knowledge. The body of knowledge…

  17. A Critical Study of Media Profiling on Society-s Social Problems from a British Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cj Gletus Matthews Cn Jacobs; Kogilah Narayanasamy

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the sociological perspectives on social problems and the role of the media which has a delicate role to tread in balancing its duty to the public and the victim Whilst social problems have objective conditions, it is the subjective definition of such problems that ensure which social problem comes to the fore and which doesn-t. Further it explores the roles and functions of policymakers when addressing social problems and the impact of the inception ...

  18. Environmental, social and economic problems in the Borkena plain, Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balcha, Berhanu

    People in Borkena in Ethiopia suffer from a complex interplay of environmental degradation, increasing shortage of land due to population growth, conflicts between different ethnic and religious identities, and social confrontations as a result of such tensions. The most depressing problem...... from the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs and by the Heinrich Böll Foundation in Germany. It was supported as part of a research effort on "Democracy from Below" in Ethiopia, in a cooperation between the Chr. Michelsen Institute, the Forum for Social Studies in Ethiopia and the University of Addis...... Ababa. The author thanks the donors for enabling him to carry out his fieldwork in Northern Shoa, Ethiopia, in Autumn 1999....

  19. Psychological and social correlates of HIV status disclosure: the significance of stigma visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Pryor, John B; Brands, Ronald; Liebregts, Maartje; Schaalma, Herman P

    2011-08-01

    HIV-related stigma, psychological distress, self-esteem, and social support were investigated in a sample comprising people who have concealed their HIV status to all but a selected few (limited disclosers), people who could conceal but chose to be open (full disclosers), and people who had visible symptoms that made concealing difficult (visibly stigmatized). The visibly stigmatized and full disclosers reported significantly more stigma experiences than limited disclosers, but only the visibly stigmatized reported more psychological distress, lower self-esteem, and less social support than limited disclosers. This suggests that having a visible stigma is more detrimental than having a concealable stigma. Differences in psychological distress and self-esteem between the visibly stigmatized and full disclosers were mediated by social support while differences between the visibly stigmatized and limited disclosers were mediated by both social support and stigma. These findings suggest that social support buffers psychological distress in people with HIV.

  20. STUDY OF SOCIAL-ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS IN THE CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Vorobyova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensive urban and economic development leads to changes in functional planning of the territory. Comprehensive study of the existing use and ecology of the urban environment is necessary for making decisions on urban space optimization. This study can detect the negative effects of human impact and solve social and economic problems within the city. The socio-ecological assessment of the urban area within the developing zone carried out on the ground of the GIS, developed and compiled by the authors. The database of GIS consists of six blocks, including cartographic and attribute information with characteristics of the environment, functional planning and socio-demographic features of the territory.

  1. Perceived Social Support and Mental Health Problems Among Pakistani University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibeen, Tahira

    2016-11-01

    Despite the growing number of cross-cultural studies focusing on psychological problems, little is known about social support outside of western civilization, particularly among people in South Asian cultures. This study examined the cultural orientation regarding perceived social support and psychological problems among 912 undergraduate students (age 19-26) studying at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore, Pakistan. The present study supported variance in cultural values regarding the relative prominence of sources of support in collectivist culture indicating that low levels of family support were related to various psychological problems. Further, low levels of peer support were related to depression, anxiety, and interpersonal sensitivity. While familial support played a bigger role than peer support in affecting psychological problems, peer support also had a role to play. The results may help counsellors and researchers to identify more effectively the population of students at high risk for mental illness and develop culturally effective interventions to address this significant and growing public health issue.

  2. Living with psoriasis: prevalence of shame, anger, worry, and problems in daily activities and social life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampogna, Francesca; Tabolli, Stefano; Abeni, Damiano

    2012-05-01

    Psychosocial problems are frequent among patients with psoriasis. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of some specific psychosocial issues. These were evaluated in 936 patients using the emotions and functioning scales of the Skindex-29 questionnaire. The problems most frequently experienced were: shame, anger, worry, difficulties in daily activities and social life. All problems were associated with the severity of psoriasis and with depression or anxiety. Shame, worry and annoyance were more frequent in women than in men, and shame and anger were associated with a low level of education. Impairment in work/hobbies was significantly higher in patients with palmoplantar psoriasis and those with arthro-pathic psoriasis. In conclusion, clinicians could gain important insights about their patients by looking at the single items of a quality of life instrument, to identify patients with high levels of emotional and social problems, in order to improve quality of care.

  3. ADOLESCENTS WITH BEHAVIORAL PROBLEMS: PERSONALITY, QUALITY OF LIFE AND SOCIAL HEALTH CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ya. Volgina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deviant behavior of adolescents is a serious social problem in today's society because of the significant prevalence of this phenomenon. Authors present the results of the study of adolescents with behavioral problems. Aim: optimization of medical and social care for adolescents with behavioral problems. Patients and methods: the authors studied the incidence of this condition among children aged from 15 to 17 years using the software package «SOC/PEDIATRIA-2». The features of the personality structure of adolescents with deviant behavior were revealed using the adopted Russian short version of MMPI-MINI-MULT. Demographic and social characteristics of the families of adolescents were assessed. SF-36 questionnaire was applied for the quality of life assessment of the studied category. Results: increasing morbidity among adolescents was revealed due to various reasons: economic, medical and social. The study allowed to develop personal characteristics of the criteria in order to timely identify adolescents with accentuated and psychopathological features. The characteristics of quality of life were used as criteria of health care for adolescents with behavioral problems. The measures for the prevention and correction of deviant behavior among adolescents were proposed, including intersectoral integration and active participation of family in the process of rehabilitation. Conclusions: it is necessary to identify adolescents with deviant behavior timely, followed by a set of measures to provide them with health and social care to protect their health.

  4. Predicting maternal parenting stress in middle childhood: the roles of child intellectual status, behaviour problems and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C; Baker, B

    2008-12-01

    Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.

  5. Parent’s Mentally Retarded Child Psycho-Social Problems Covered by Welfare Centers Khorramabad 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Malekshahi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background :Mentally retarded child, the family put in a lot of trouble that most of the parents felt. Therefore, understanding and correct identification of problems and related factors are essential to help and support them. Therefore, this study cross sectional analytical descriptive carried out to determine parent’s mentally retarded  child psycho-social problems under covering welfare centers Khorramabad 2013. Materials and Methods: In this study samples were collected from parents of all mental retarded children. The data collection tools were including demographic questionnaires, mental and social problems. 144 questionnaires were completed by every parent. Validity and reliability were got by content validity and were gathered of data in the one stage and data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16. Results: The results showed that all parent had psycho-social problems, but the mothers of the large number of roles in the family had an average of more mother’s emotional and social problems1/46±0/55, 1/54±0/69 and father’s 1/43±0/74, 1/36±0/55. There was significant relationship between parental education and disable child gender. Discussion: The effect of disability on parents depends on their potency and capacity. It seems to reduce of parents of children with mental retarded, they need to services and full support.

  6. SPIRITUALITY AS PHILOSOPHICAL, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL DE-VELOPMENT PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Gromov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to regard the essence and phenomenon of spirituality in connection with ontological foundation of human being existence. The author suggests the concept of new cosmo-theocentric paradigm of human world outlook, as a ground of perspective transformation of social life activity on the contrary to anthropocentric view, which dominates in present society consciousness. The author gives the characteristics of the ideal sage and underlines the importance of spiritual teachers in cultural development of society. Methodology. The method of philosophizing is connected with the unity of mind, sensuality, belief, will in integral body and mental organization of a man. Such point of view takes into consideration not only aspects of objective determination, but includes senses of existence and world outlook ideas in culture on particular and universal levels of social experience. The author considers a special ontological disposition of the human being in the world as a “transcendent project” with “metaphysic responsibility”. Scientific novelty. In the history of social culture the problem of its spiritual attitude towards reality is a basic problem, but now it becomes especially up-to-date and important. Now the survival of the civilization depends on the development of spirituality. From metaphysical point of view it means how spiritual the human being may be. The author connects the consideration of spirituality with particular human being ontological status in the world and provides his reflection with speculative character. Conclusions. The transition of modern civilized society to the cosmo-theocentric paradigm is prepared by contradictions of its technological and cultural development. In historical circumstances when the conscious influence of society on itself is growing, the realization of this process depends on spiritual trend of human beings cultural activity and mental quality of social leaders

  7. The Effect of the Values Education Programme on 5.5-6 Year Old Children's Social Development: Social Skills, Psycho-Social Development and Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli-Iman, Esra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the Values Education Programme (developed for pre-school children) on the children's social skills, psycho-social development, and social problem solving skills. The sample group consisted of 66 children (33 experimental group, 33 control group) attending pre-school. The Values Education Programme…

  8. An Investigation of Maternal Emotion Socialization Behaviors, Children's Self-Perceptions, and Social Problem-Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hurside Kubra; Aksoy, Ayse Belgin

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The present study aims to investigate maternal emotion socialization, children's self-perception, and social problem-solving skills. In addition, this study describes the association between the levels of children's self-perception and social problem-solving skills. Research Methods: This is a quantitative study adopting a relational…

  9. To study the significance of social interaction for former right wing extremists wanting to disengage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tina Wilchen

    2013-01-01

    in investigating the significance of social interaction for former participants in right wing extremist groups, who were in a disengagement process with the help from the organisation Exit in Stockholm, Sweden. As this field involved dealing with people in transition, it also meant dealing with people with very...

  10. The problem of creative activity in of social work research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilka L.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Current Latvian research in the area of social work is not characteristic of a creative and innovative methodological approach. The methodological conservatism derived from general sociology is particularly affecting students in doctoral studies. This proposes a question: should, in the name of scientific novelty, we support research in which the PhD student aims to get rid of his personality behind the shield of authority, sometimes even general sociology textbook truths? Or should we encourage bold challenges to methodological schematism, in which the researcher takes a pose of truly creative research and avoids becoming a representative of scientific marginality lacking one’s personality? The subject of creative activity – the researcher in social work – can best express oneself in the level of philosophic wisdom, identifying only the main guidelines of his creative processes and allowing a large headspace for one’s creative quests. A scientist, also one interested in the problems of social work, can ascertain his/her uniqueness by relying on the concept that any researcher has embarked on an individual journey, circulating on different orbits around one central idea. If the distance between such central idea and the researcher’s activities is increasing, this signifies of either a creatively productive reevaluation of the researcher’s position, or the death of the research process in having lost the original idea. On the other hand, continuous approach towards the central idea either means that the researcher is consistent and determined in his creative research, or there is complete lack of scientific novelty in cases when borrowed foreign ideas are worshipped.

  11. Is Late or Non-Payment a Significant Problem to Malaysian Contractors?

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Che Munaaim; M.S. Mohd Danuri; H. Abdul-Rahman

    2007-01-01

    Some developed countries have drawn lip construction-specific statutory security of payment acts/legislations typically known as Construction Contracts Act to eliminate poor payment practices and to assist continuous uninterrupted construction works. Malaysia too cannot pretend not to have these problems. This paper presents findings of a study conducted amongst Malaysian contractors with the aims to determine the seriousness of late and non- payment problems; to identify the main causes and ...

  12. Role of autobiographical memory in social problem solving and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, L; Dritschel, B; Burton, A

    1996-11-01

    Depressed patients frequently exhibit deficiencies in social problem solving (SPS). A possible cause of this deficit is an impairment in patients' ability to retrieve specific autobiographical memories. A clinically depressed group and a hospital control group performed the Means-End Problem-Solving (MEPS; J. J. Platt & G. Spivack, 1975a) task, during which they were required to attend to the memories retrieved during solution generation. Memories were categorized according to whether they were specific, categoric, or extended and whether the valence of the memories was positive or negative. Results support the general hypothesis that SPS skill is a function of autobiographical memory retrieval as measured by a cuing task and by the types of memories retrieved during the MEPS. However, the dysfunctional nature of categoric memories in SPS, rather than the importance of specific memories, was highlighted in the depressed group. Valence proved to be an unimportant variable in SPS ability. The cyclical links among autobiographical memory retrieval, SPS skills, and depression are discussed.

  13. Exploring the significance of human mobility patterns in social link prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    Link prediction is a fundamental task in social networks. Recently, emphasis has been placed on forecasting new social ties using user mobility patterns, e.g., investigating physical and semantic co-locations for new proximity measure. This paper explores the effect of in-depth mobility patterns. Specifically, we study individuals\\' movement behavior, and quantify mobility on the basis of trip frequency, travel purpose and transportation mode. Our hybrid link prediction model is composed of two modules. The first module extracts mobility patterns, including travel purpose and mode, from raw trajectory data. The second module employs the extracted patterns for link prediction. We evaluate our method on two real data sets, GeoLife [15] and Reality Mining [5]. Experimental results show that our hybrid model significantly improves the accuracy of social link prediction, when comparing to primary topology-based solutions. Copyright 2014 ACM.

  14. Social Maladjustment and Emotional Disturbance: Problems and Positions I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1992-01-01

    Several controversies surround differentiation between socially maladjusted and seriously emotionally disturbed. Central to controversy is interpretation of social maladjustment as restricted to include socialized aggressive and adjudicated delinquents or broadened to include Conduct Disorders, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and antisocial…

  15. Right frontal pole cortical thickness and executive functioning in children with traumatic brain injury: the impact on social problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, Ashley; Black, Garrett; Mietchen, Jonathan; Baxter, Leslie; Brock Kirwan, C; Gale, Shawn D

    2016-12-01

    Cognitive and social outcomes may be negatively affected in children with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). We hypothesized that executive function would mediate the association between right frontal pole cortical thickness and problematic social behaviors. Child participants with a history of TBI were recruited from inpatient admissions for long-term follow-up (n = 23; average age = 12.8, average time post-injury =3.2 years). Three measures of executive function, the Trail Making Test, verbal fluency test, and the Conners' Continuous Performance Test-Second edition (CPT-II), were administered to each participant while caregivers completed the Childhood Behavior Checklist (CBCL). All participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging following cognitive testing. Regression analysis demonstrated right frontal pole cortical thickness significantly predicted social problems. Measures of executive functioning also significantly predicted social problems; however, the mediation model testing whether executive function mediated the relationship between cortical thickness and social problems was not statistically significant. Right frontal pole cortical thickness and omission errors on the CPT-II predicted Social Problems on the CBCL. Results did not indicate that the association between cortical thickness and social problems was mediated by executive function.

  16. Effectiveness of an Online Social Constructivist Mathematical Problem Solving Course for Malaysian Pre-Service Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim-Leong Lai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the effectiveness of an online mathematical problem solving course designed using a social constructivist approach for pre-service teachers. Thirty-seven pre-service teachers at the Batu Lintang Teacher Institute, Sarawak, Malaysia were randomly selected to participate in the study. The participants were required to complete the course online without the typical face-to-face classes and they were also required to solve authentic mathematical problems in small groups of 4-5 participants based on the Polya’s Problem Solving Model via asynchronous online discussions. Quantitative and qualitative methods such as questionnaires and interviews were used to evaluate the effects of the online learning course. Findings showed that a majority of the participants were satisfied with their learning experiences in the course. There were no significant changes in the participants’ attitudes toward mathematics, while the participants’ skills in problem solving for “understand the problem” and “devise a plan” steps based on the Polya Model were significantly enhanced, though no improvement was apparent for “carry out the plan” and “review”. The results also showed that there were significant improvements in the participants’ critical thinking skills. Furthermore, participants with higher initial computer skills were also found to show higher performance in mathematical problem solving as compared to those with lower computer skills. However, there were no significant differences in the participants’ achievements in the course based on gender. Generally, the online social constructivist mathematical problem solving course is beneficial to the participants and ought to be given the attention it deserves as an alternative to traditional classes. Nonetheless, careful considerations need to be made in the designing and implementing of online courses to minimize problems that participants might encounter while

  17. The socialization process and the functional significance of education from vocational education learners’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisko B.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Education is the most significant factor of socialization. Education is the largest sector of modern industry. The socialization functions in education can be defined as availability for work and an ability to make decisions independently so that the individual in his later life period could perform his social roles and integrate in social structures with specific role types. The aim of the publication is to find out what functional significance vocational education learners give to education. The quantitative research method was applied, surveying the respondent groups that comprised 503 vocational education learners from Riga, Liepaja, Daugavpils and Jelgava. According to the research results, most vocational education learners consider that it is necessary to study to get the desired job and be well prepared for the future job, to get a diploma and prestige in society, to ensure better financial situation and personal development, to have a better understanding of global events, to gain respect from friends and acquaintances, to be useful for society and to work abroad. The discussion section of the publication emphasizes that special attention should be paid to the factor that learners in their future vision prefer to work abroad. This can be explained by the current situation of the labour market and considerably high unemployment rate in Latvia.

  18. Is Late or Non-Payment a Significant Problem to Malaysian Contractors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Che Munaaim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Some developed countries have drawn lip construction-specific statutory security of payment acts/legislations typically known as Construction Contracts Act to eliminate poor payment practices and to assist continuous uninterrupted construction works. Malaysia too cannot pretend not to have these problems. This paper presents findings of a study conducted amongst Malaysian contractors with the aims to determine the seriousness of late and non- payment problems; to identify the main causes and effects of late and non-payment; and to identify ways to sustain the payment flows in the Malaysian construction industry. The study focused on contractual payments from the paymaster (government or private to the contractors. The main factors for late and nonpayment in the construction industry identified from the study include: delay in certification, paymaster's poor financial management, local culture/attitude, pay master's failure to implement good governance in business, underpayment of certified amounts by the pay master and the use of 'pay when paid' clauses in contracts. The research findings show that late and non-payment can create cash flow problems, stress and financial hardship on the contractors. Amongst the most appropriate solutions to overcome the problem of late and non-payment faced by local contractors include: a right to regular periodic payment, a right to a defined time frame (or payment and a right to a speedy dispute resolution mechanism. Promptness of submitting, processing, issuing interim payment certificates and honouring the certificates are extremely important issues in relation to progress payment claims. Perhaps, an increased sense of professionalism in construction industry could overcome some of the problems related to late and non- payment issues.

  19. Social participation and healthy ageing: a neglected, significant protective factor for chronic non communicable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low and middle income countries are ageing at a much faster rate than richer countries, especially in Asia. This is happening at a time of globalisation, migration, urbanisation, and smaller families. Older people make significant contributions to their families and communities, but this is often undermined by chronic disease and preventable disability. Social participation can help to protect against morbidity and mortality. We argue that social participation deserves much greater attention as a protective factor, and that older people can play a useful role in the prevention and management of chronic conditions. We present, as an example, a low-cost, sustainable strategy that has increased social participation among elders in Sri Lanka. Discussion Current international policy initiatives to address the increasing prevalence of non-communicable chronic diseases are focused on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, respiratory disease and cancers, responsible for much premature mortality. Interventions to modify their shared risk factors of high salt and fat diets, inactivity, smoking and alcohol use are advocated. But older people also suffer chronic conditions that primarily affect quality of life, and have a wider range of risk factors. There is strong epidemiological and physiological evidence that social isolation, in particular, is as important a risk factor for chronic diseases as the 'lifestyle' risk factors, yet it is currently neglected. There are useful experiences of inexpensive and sustainable strategies to improve social participation among older people in low and lower middle income countries. Our experience with forming Elders' Clubs with retired tea estate workers in Sri Lanka suggests many benefits, including social support and participation, inter-generational contact, a collective voice, and facilitated access to health promotion activities, and to health care and social welfare services. Summary Policies to

  20. The Effectiveness of Social Skills Training on Reducing Autistic Children's Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tahan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of social skills training on reducing the behavioral problems of children with autism and pseudo-experimental. The statistical population of all autistic children is Mashhad. In this research, a goal-based sampling method is used. 30 children were selected from among children with autism and randomly assigned to two experimental groups (15 people and control (n = 15. The Shelli & Sorkab Communication Skills Questionnaire (2004 and Rutter's Behavioral Disorder (1964 Then, independent variable, ie social skills training (ten sessions 60 minutes, was performed on the experimental group, while no intervention was performed on the control group. After collecting data, the data were analyzed using covariance analysis. The results showed that social skills training has a positive and significant effect on reducing the behavioral problems of communication skills improvement in autistic children. Conclusion: Social skills training is a suitable method for reducing behavioral problems and improving communication skills in autistic children. These results can be used by psychologists and counselors.

  1. Socializing problems and low self-esteem enhance interpersonal models of eating disorders: Evidence from a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raykos, Bronwyn C; McEvoy, Peter M; Fursland, Anthea

    2017-09-01

    The present study evaluated the relative clinical validity of two interpersonal models of the maintenance of eating disorders, IPT-ED (Rieger et al., ) and the interpersonal model of binge eating (Wilfley, MacKenzie, Welch, Ayres, & Weissman, ; Wilfley, Pike, & Striegel-Moore, ). While both models propose an indirect relationship between interpersonal problems and eating disorder symptoms via negative affect, IPT-ED specifies negative social evaluation as the key interpersonal problem, and places greater emphasis on the role of low self-esteem as an intermediate variable between negative social evaluation and eating pathology. Treatment-seeking individuals (N = 306) with a diagnosed eating disorder completed measures of socializing problems, generic interpersonal problems, self-esteem, eating disorder symptoms, and negative affect (depression and anxiety). Structural equation models were run for both models. Consistent with IPT-ED, a significant indirect pathway was found from socializing problems to eating disorder symptoms via low self-esteem and anxiety symptoms. There was also a direct pathway from low self-esteem to eating disorder symptoms. Using a socializing problems factor in the model resulted in a significantly better fit than a generic interpersonal problems factor. Inconsistent with both interpersonal models, the direct pathway from socializing problems to eating disorder symptoms was not supported. Interpersonal models that included self-esteem and focused on socializing problems (rather than generic interpersonal problems) explained more variance in eating disorder symptoms. Future experimental, prospective, and treatment studies are required to strengthen the case that these pathways are causal. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others of problem gamblers in Finland: cross-sectional population studies in 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salonen, Anne H; Alho, Hannu; Castrén, Sari

    2015-05-01

    This study compares past-year gambling frequency, gambling problems and concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers in Finland by age, from 2007 and 2011. We used random sample data collected in 2007 (n = 4722) and 2011 (n = 4484). The data were weighted, based on gender, age and region of residence. We measured the past-year gambling frequency using a categorical variable, while gambling severity was measured with the South Oaks Gambling Screen. We identified CSOs by a single question including seven response options. Chi-Squared and Fisher's exact tests were used. Overall, the past-year gambling frequency change was statistically significant between 2007 and 2011. Among 18-64-year-old Finnish people, the proportion of non-gamblers decreased. Yet, among 15-17-year-old respondents, non-gambling increased and gambling problems decreased. Among 18-24 year olds, the proportion of close ones with gambling problems also decreased. On the other hand, the proportion of family members with gambling problems increased among the 50-64 year olds. The increase in adult gambling participation was mainly explained by infrequent gambling. The proportion of gambling problems from the gamblers' and CSOs' perspective remained unchanged, yet significant changes were observed within age groups. The short-term changes in under-age gambling problems were desirable. Future studies should explore the adaptation and access hypotheses alongside gambling problems. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Coping and social problem solving correlates of asthma control and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Sean P; Nezu, Christine M; Nezu, Arthur M; Sherman, Michael; Davey, Adam; Collins, Bradley N

    2014-02-01

    In a sample of adults with asthma receiving care and medication in an outpatient pulmonary clinic, this study tested for statistical associations between social problem-solving styles, asthma control, and asthma-related quality of life. These variables were measured cross sectionally as a first step toward more systematic application of social problem-solving frameworks in asthma self-management training. Recruitment occurred during pulmonology clinic service hours. Forty-four adults with physician-confirmed diagnosis of asthma provided data including age, gender, height, weight, race, income, and comorbid conditions. The Asthma Control Questionnaire, the Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (Short Form), and peak expiratory force measures offered multiple views of asthma health at the time of the study. Maladaptive coping (impulsive and careless problem-solving styles) based on transactional stress models of health were assessed with the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form. Controlling for variance associated with gender, age, and income, individuals reporting higher impulsive-careless scores exhibited significantly lower scores on asthma control (β = 0.70, p = 0.001, confidence interval (CI) [0.37-1.04]) and lower asthma-related quality of life (β = 0.79, p = 0.017, CI [0.15-1.42]). These findings suggest that specific maladaptive problem-solving styles may uniquely contribute to asthma health burdens. Because problem-solving coping strategies are both measureable and teachable, behavioral interventions aimed at facilitating adaptive coping and problem solving could positively affect patient's asthma management and quality of life.

  4. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Neonatal Imitation: Theory, Experimental Design, and Significance for the Field of Social Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincini, Stefano; Jhang, Yuna; Buder, Eugene H; Gallagher, Shaun

    2017-01-01

    Neonatal imitation has rich implications for neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social cognition, but there is little consensus about this phenomenon. The primary empirical question, whether or not neonatal imitation exists, is not settled. Is it possible to give a balanced evaluation of the theories and methodologies at stake so as to facilitate real progress with respect to the primary empirical question? In this paper, we address this question. We present the operational definition of differential imitation and discuss why it is important to keep it in mind. The operational definition indicates that neonatal imitation may not look like prototypical imitation and sets non-obvious requirements on what can count as evidence for imitation. We also examine the principal explanations for the extant findings and argue that two theories, the arousal hypothesis and the Association by Similarity Theory, which interprets neonatal imitation as differential induction of spontaneous behavior through similarity, offer better explanations than the others. With respect to methodology, we investigate what experimental design can best provide evidence for imitation, focusing on how differential induction may be maximized and detected. Finally, we discuss the significance of neonatal imitation for the field of social cognition. Specifically, we propose links with theories of social interaction and direct social perception. Overall, our goals are to help clarify the complex theoretical issues at stake and suggest fruitful guidelines for empirical research.

  6. Significance of Perceived Social Expectation and Implications to Conservation Education: Turtle Conservation as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Alex Y.; Chow, Alex T.; Cheung, Sze Man

    2012-11-01

    The likelihood of participating in wildlife conservation programs is dependent on social influences and circumstances. This view is validated by a case study of behavioral intention to support conservation of Asian turtles. A total of 776 college students in China completed a questionnaire survey designed to identify factors associated with their intention to support conservation. A regression model explained 48 % of variance in the level of intention. Perceived social expectation was the strongest predictor, followed by attitudes toward turtle protection and perceived behavioral control, altogether explaining 44 %. Strong ethics and socio-economic variables had some statistical significant impacts and accounted for 3 % of the variance. The effects of general environmental awareness, trust and responsibility ascription were modest. Knowledge about turtles was a weak predictor. We conclude that perceived social expectation is a limiting factor of conservation behavior. Sustained interest and commitment to conservation can be created by enhancing positive social influences. Conservation educators should explore the potential of professionally supported, group-based actions that can nurture a sense of collective achievement as part of an educational campaign.

  7. Neonatal Imitation: Theory, Experimental Design, and Significance for the Field of Social Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Vincini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal imitation has rich implications for neuroscience, developmental psychology, and social cognition, but there is little consensus about this phenomenon. The primary empirical question, whether or not neonatal imitation exists, is not settled. Is it possible to give a balanced evaluation of the theories and methodologies at stake so as to facilitate real progress with respect to the primary empirical question? In this paper, we address this question. We present the operational definition of differential imitation and discuss why it is important to keep it in mind. The operational definition indicates that neonatal imitation may not look like prototypical imitation and sets non-obvious requirements on what can count as evidence for imitation. We also examine the principal explanations for the extant findings and argue that two theories, the arousal hypothesis and the Association by Similarity Theory, which interprets neonatal imitation as differential induction of spontaneous behavior through similarity, offer better explanations than the others. With respect to methodology, we investigate what experimental design can best provide evidence for imitation, focusing on how differential induction may be maximized and detected. Finally, we discuss the significance of neonatal imitation for the field of social cognition. Specifically, we propose links with theories of social interaction and direct social perception. Overall, our goals are to help clarify the complex theoretical issues at stake and suggest fruitful guidelines for empirical research.

  8. Mental Health, School Problems, and Social Networks: Modeling Urban Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a mediation model of the relationship with school problems, social network quality, and substance use with a primary care sample of 301 urban adolescents. It was theorized that social network quality (level of risk or protection in network) would mediate the effects of school problems, accounting for internalizing problems and…

  9. TO THE PROBLEM OF CORRELATION OF SOCIAL AND OTHER KINDS OF INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    E. V. Grib

    2017-01-01

    The article considers the problem of the relationship of three types of intelligence: social, emotional and logical. Interest in social intelligence (SI) is determined by the need of society to reveal the "social capacity" of a person and develop them. Social intelligence is seen as a necessary condition for successful mastering of professional skills and adapt in a professional environment. Development of social intelligence becomes an important part of the educational process. Social intell...

  10. Comparison of 5 health care professionals’ratings of the clinical significance of drug related problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Christine; Hojsted, Jette; Kjeldsen, Lene Juel

    2014-01-01

    to a mutual agreement on the level of clinical significance. However, to what degree does the panel agree?Purpose To compare the agreement between different health care professionals who have evaluated the clinical significance of DRPs.Materials and methods DRPs were identified in 30 comprehensive medicines...... reviews conducted by a clinical pharmacist. Two hospital pharmacists, a general practitioner and two specialists in pain management from hospital care (the Panel) evaluated each DRP considering the potential clinical outcome for the patient. The DRPs were rated either nil, low, minor, moderate or highly...... clinically significant. Agreement was analysed using Kappa statistics. A Kappa value of 0.8 to 1.0 indicated nearly perfect agreement between ratings of the Panel members.Results The Panel rated 45 percent of the total 162 DRPs as of moderate clinical significance. However, the overall kappa score was 0...

  11. Parental Depression, Overreactive Parenting, and Early Childhood Externalizing Problems: Moderation by Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taraban, Lindsay; Shaw, Daniel S; Leve, Leslie D; Natsuaki, Misaki N; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M

    2018-02-20

    This study used a large (N = 519), longitudinal sample of adoptive families to test overreactive parenting as a mediator of associations between parental depressive symptoms and early childhood externalizing, and parents' social support satisfaction as a moderator. Maternal parenting (18 months) mediated the association between maternal depressive symptoms (9 months) and child externalizing problems (27 months). Paternal parenting was not a significant mediator. Unexpectedly, we found a cross-over effect for the moderating role of social support satisfaction, such that partners' social support satisfaction reduced the strength of the association between each parent's own depressive symptoms and overreactive parenting. Results point to the importance of accounting for broader family context in predicting early childhood parenting and child outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Child Development © 2018 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  13. Social Problems in Athletics; Essays in the Sociology of Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Daniel M., Ed.

    This book is an outgrowth of a conference on "Sport and Social Deviance," attended by people interested in the newly emerging interdisciplinary area concerned with the social scientific analysis of sport, play, and games. This anthology, which has contributions from many different authors, is intended to provide social scientists, physical…

  14. Social Inequalities and Gender Differences in the Experience of Alcohol-Related Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Aims: To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Methods: Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals’ education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Results: Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. Conclusion: The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event. PMID:22542707

  15. Social inequalities and gender differences in the experience of alcohol-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grittner, Ulrike; Kuntsche, Sandra; Graham, Kathryn; Bloomfield, Kim

    2012-01-01

    To examine the influence of country-level characteristics and individual socio-economic status (SES) on individual alcohol-related consequences. Data from 42,655 men and women collected by cross-sectional surveys in 25 countries of the Gender, Alcohol and Culture: An International Study study were used. The individual SES was measured by the highest attained educational level. Alcohol-related consequences were defined as the self-report of at least one internal or one external consequence in the last year. The relationship between individuals' education and alcohol-related consequences was examined by meta-analysis. In a second step, the individual level data and country data were combined in multilevel models. As country-level indicators, we used the purchasing power parity of the gross national income (GNI), the Gini coefficient and the Gender Gap Index. Lower educated men and women were more likely to report consequences than higher educated men and women even after controlling for drinking patterns. For men, this relation was significant for both internal and external problems. For women, it was only significant for external problems. The GNI was significantly associated with reporting external consequences for men such that in lower income countries men were more likely to report social problems. The fact that problems accrue more quickly for lower educated persons even if they drink in the same manner can be linked to the social or environmental dimension surrounding problems. That is, those of fewer resources are less protected from the experience of a problem or the impact of a stressful life event.

  16. Violência urbana: um problema social Urban violence: a social problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro de Aquino e Silva Gullo

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo reúne um conjunto de reflexões sobre diversos aspectos em que se manifesta a violência social. Essas reflexões, apresentadas em momentos diferentes, como aulas, debates e num congresso, foram agrupadas sob o título de Violência Urbana porque concorrem para a compreensão da violência cotidiana enquanto problema da sociedade urbana. Dos cursos regulares, registro a concepção inicial, tomada da antropologia social, que leva à caracterização da violência na sociedade rural para fundamentar a gênese do problema na sociedade contemporânea de classes sociais, focalizado na perspectiva da marginalidade estrutural. Dos debates sucitados por acontecimentos traumáticos envolvendo o aparato policial, resultou uma discussão sobre as causas da violência inerente ao desempenho da função institucional atribuída às polícias militar e civil. Da participação em congresso sobre o novo Código de Trânsito Brasileiro, resultou a parte final deste artigo que discute o papel e, particularmente, o significado dos símbolos sociais divulgados pelos meios de comunicação de massa, como fatores responsáveis pela crescente violência no trânsito.This article contains some reflections on how social violence expresses itself. These reflections, presented in former moments as lectures, public debates and at a congress, have been gathered under the title of Urban Violence because they all try to comprehend everyday violence as a problem of urban society. Based on the lectures I have formulated the first part of this article, which deals with a conception taken from social anthropology: the characterization of violence in rural society under the perspective of structural marginality, in order to explain the genesis of this problem in the actual social class society. The debates, that took place because of traumatic happenings related to the police apparatus, have brought about a discussion of the causes of violence inherent to the

  17. Significance of being kept informed of teachers in the problem of the Chernobyl accident response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majdan, V.A.; Novozhilov, G.N.; Greben'ko, S.V.; Lavrent'ev, I.A.

    1993-01-01

    Teachers as a social group are engaged in the formation of public opinion and it brings up the necessity to carry out studies concerning the reference level of the Bryansk region teachers as to the effect of the ionizing radiation on the health, the cause-and-effect relations between the level of their mental-and-emotional stress and information about the true risk for health in the present radiation situation in the region. The degree of the effect of chronical stress on the subjective estimation of people's health, on their manner of life and nature of nourishment was studied, as well. Anonymous questionnaire of teachers within the age brackets ranging from 18-60 was conducted. The obtained data were processed statistically with elaboration of the mathematical models and determination of the contribution of the main factors. The presented results demonstrate the necessity to introduce the course for the Fundamentals of the radiation hygienics and radioecology into the training system designed for students of teacher-training colleges

  18. Using Facebook to deliver a social norm intervention to reduce problem drinking at university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridout, Brad; Campbell, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    University students usually overestimate peer alcohol use, resulting in them 'drinking up' to perceived norms. Social norms theory suggests correcting these inflated perceptions can reduce alcohol consumption. Recent findings by the current authors show portraying oneself as 'a drinker' is considered by many students to be a socially desirable component of their Facebook identity, perpetuating an online culture that normalises binge drinking. However, social networking sites have yet to be utilised in social norms interventions. Actual and perceived descriptive and injunctive drinking norms were collected from 244 university students. Ninety-five students screened positive for hazardous drinking and were randomly allocated to a control group or intervention group that received social norms feedback via personalised Facebook private messages over three sessions. At 1 month post-intervention, the quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed by intervention group during the previous month had significantly reduced compared with baseline and controls. Reductions were maintained 3 months post-intervention. Intervention group perceived drinking norms were significantly more accurate post-intervention. This is the first study to test the feasibility of using Facebook to deliver social norms interventions. Correcting misperceptions of peer drinking norms resulted in clinically significant reductions in alcohol use. Facebook has many advantages over traditional social norms delivery, providing an innovative method for tackling problem drinking at university. These results have implications for the use of Facebook to deliver positive messages about safe alcohol use to students, which may counter the negative messages regarding alcohol normally seen on Facebook. © 2014 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  19. Meta-analyses triggered by previous (false-)significant findings : Problems and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Roes, Kit C B; Mol, Ben W J; Kwee, Anneke; Moons, Karel G M; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses are typically triggered by a (potentially false-significant) finding in one of the preceding primary studies. We studied consequences of meta-analysis investigating effects when primary studies that triggered such meta-analysis are also included. METHODS: We analytically

  20. Significance of iodine radioactive isotopes in the problem of radiation safety of nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malenchenko, A.F.; Mironov, V.P.

    1979-01-01

    The data on actual wastes of nuclear-power plants, environmental distribution and biological effects of iodine radioactive isotopes have been analyzed. Dose-response relationship is estimated as well as its significance for struma maligna development under ionizing radiation and the contribution of iodine radionuclides resulted from nuclear power engineering to this process

  1. Problem trap final repository. Social challenges concerning nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnengraeber, Achim

    2016-01-01

    How is it possible that there is still no final storage facility in the entire world for highly radioactive waste from nuclear power stations? How is it possible that electricity has been generated by industrial-scale nuclear installations for decades without the issue of the disposal of nuclear waste having been resolved? The events in Chernobyl in 1986 and Fukushima in 2011 have made it blatantly obvious how risky this technology is and how important it is to keep humans and the environment at a safe distance from radioactivity. This anthology examines the technological, political, social and economic dimensions of the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. It provides an insight into the emergence of the problem and the people involved and their interests. It describes and analyses the changes that are taking place in Germany (for instance, in relation to the government's commission on nuclear repositories) and other countries with regard to how they handle nuclear waste. The book deals with both questions related to socio-technical aspects of the permanent disposal of nuclear waste and calls for the democratic need for participation and new ways of doing so, without which the search for a permanent disposal site will not bear fruit. This anthology presents a comprehensive discussion of the disposal of nuclear waste and the search for a permanent repository for it. Not only will students and teachers find it extremely useful, but so will any readers who are interested in its subject matter and wish to gain a more in-depth insight into it.

  2. The social competence and behavioral problem substrate of new- and recent-onset childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almane, Dace; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Seidenberg, Michael; Hermann, Bruce P

    2014-02-01

    This study examined patterns of syndrome-specific problems in behavior and competence in children with new- or recent-onset epilepsy compared with healthy controls. Research participants consisted of 205 children aged 8-18, including youth with recent-onset epilepsy (n=125, 64 localization-related epilepsy [LRE] and 61 idiopathic generalized epilepsy [IGE]) and healthy first-degree cousin controls (n=80). Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist for children aged 6-18 (CBCL/6-18) from the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Dependent variables included Total Competence, Total Problems, Total Internalizing, Total Externalizing, and Other Problems scales. Comparisons of children with LRE and IGE with healthy controls were examined followed by comparisons of healthy controls with those having specific epilepsy syndromes of LRE (BECTS, Frontal/Temporal Lobe, and Focal NOS) and IGE (Absence, Juvenile Myoclonic, and IGE NOS). Children with LRE and/or IGE differed significantly (pcompetence (Total Competence including School and Social). Similarly, children with specific syndromes of LRE and IGE differed significantly (pcompetence (Total Competence including School). Only on the Thought Problems scale were there syndrome differences. In conclusion, children with recent-onset epilepsy present with significant behavioral problems and lower competence compared with controls, with little syndrome specificity whether defined broadly (LRE and IGE) or narrowly (specific syndromes of LRE and IGE). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Significance and problems of the dynamic CT scan for the diagnosis and treatment of cerebral infarctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Akio; Teraoka, Akira

    1985-01-01

    Dynamic CT scan is a very useful method for the diagnosis of cerebral infarctions and other ischemic disorders. We have used this method for 1) the ultra-early stage diagnosis of major infarctions, 2) the detection of the recanalization and the disruption of the blood-brain barrier, and 3) the detection of latent ischemic lesions. In this report we discussed the clinical cases and the usual use of this dynamic CT scan. We used a GE CT/T8800 scanner for dynamic CT scanning. Manual bolus-contrast-medium injection was done simultaneously with the first scanning, and 6 sequential scannings (scan time: 4.8 s; scan interval: 1.4 s) were done on the same slice level. Especially in major infarctions (e.g., MCA occlusion), OM 40 was the most preferred slice. In cases of ultra-early stage infarctions (i.e., no abnormal lesions in non-enhanced CT), we used this dynamic CT scan immediately after the non-enhanced CT; we could thus obtain information on the ischemic lesions and the ischemic degree. After that we repeated this examination on Days 3, 7, and 14 for the evaluation of the recanalization and blood-brain-barrier disruption. In the cases of TIA and impending or progressing strokes, dynamic CT scan could disclose latent ischemic lesions; in there instances, we treated the patients with intensive to prevent the prognosis from worsening. These benefits and also some problems were discussed. (author)

  4. Technological significances to reduce the material problems. Feasibility of heat flux reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Shimada, Michiya.

    1994-01-01

    For a divertor plate in a fusion power reactor, a high temperature coolant must be used for heat removal to keep thermal efficiency high. It makes the temperature and thermal stress of wall materials higher than the design limits. Issues of the coolant itself, e.g. burnout of high temperature water, will also become a serious problem. Sputtering erosion of the surface material will be a great concern of its lifetime. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce the heat and particle loads to the divertor plate technologically. The feasibility of some technological methods of heat reduction, such as separatrix sweeping, is discussed. As one of the most promising ideas, the methods of radiative cooling of the divertor plasma are summarized based on the recent results of large tokamaks. The feasibility of remote radiative cooling and gas divertor is discussed. The ideas are considered in recent design studies of tokamak power reactors and experimental reactors. By way of example, conceptual designs of divertor plate for the steady state tokamak power reactor are described. (author)

  5. The concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in a national representative sample in Sweden - a 1 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla; Shepherdson, Emma

    2013-11-21

    Research into the impact of problem gambling on close social networks is scarce with the majority of studies only including help-seeking populations. To date only one study has examined concerned significant others (CSOs) from an epidemiological perspective and it did not consider gender. The aim of this study is to examine the health, social support, and financial situations of CSOs in a Swedish representative sample and to examine gender differences. A population study was conducted in Sweden in 2008/09 (n = 15,000, response rate 63%). Respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that someone close to them currently or previously had problems with gambling. The group of CSOs was further examined in a 1-year follow up (weighted response rate 74% from the 8,165 respondents in the original sample). Comparisons were also made between those defined as CSOs only at baseline (47.7%, n = 554) and those defined as CSOs at both time points. In total, 18.2% of the population were considered CSOs, with no difference between women and men. Male and female CSOs experienced, to a large extent, similar problems including poor mental health, risky alcohol consumption, economic hardship, and arguments with those closest to them. Female CSOs reported less social support than other women and male CSOs had more legal problems and were more afraid of losing their jobs than other men. One year on, several problems remained even if some improvements were found. Both male and female CSOs reported more negative life events in the 1 year follow-up. Although some relationships are unknown, including between the CSOs and the individuals with gambling problems and the causal relationships between being a CSO and the range of associated problems, the results of this study indicate that gambling problems not only affect the gambling individual and their immediate close family but also the wider social network. A large proportion of the population can be defined as a CSO, half of whom are

  6. From outer space to Earth-The social significance of isolated and confined environment research in human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Koji; Tachibana, Shoichi; Inoue, Natsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    underground after a mining accident (Section 3). Based on these case studies, we illustrate the further social utility of such knowledge through a discussion of potential applications in other situations in Japan. Focusing on Japan for its geographical and social features in being an earthquake-prone archipelago and having the world's preeminent aging society, we show that refugees living in evacuation centers and people in an elderly-elderly homecare situation pose socially problematic situations specific to Japan. We then argue that space behavioral scientific knowledge can be applied to support people under these and other isolated and confined environments in various ways (Section 4). Finally, we demonstrate that such an application can be understood as an ethical contribution to Japanese society and that this contribution can be embedded in Japan's space policy (Section 5). We conclude that human space exploration can be a socially significant and cost-effective endeavor that is worthy of tax revenue expenditures because space behavioral science is highly likely to provide unique and useful knowledge to help address various social problems concerning terrestrial isolated and confined environments and support people in sufferings there.

  7. An Effective Recommender Algorithm for Cold-Start Problem in Academic Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vala Ali Rohani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abundance of information in recent years has become a serious challenge for web users. Recommender systems (RSs have been often utilized to alleviate this issue. RSs prune large information spaces to recommend the most relevant items to users by considering their preferences. Nonetheless, in situations where users or items have few opinions, the recommendations cannot be made properly. This notable shortcoming in practical RSs is called cold-start problem. In the present study, we propose a novel approach to address this problem by incorporating social networking features. Coined as enhanced content-based algorithm using social networking (ECSN, the proposed algorithm considers the submitted ratings of faculty mates and friends besides user’s own preferences. The effectiveness of ECSN algorithm was evaluated by implementing it in MyExpert, a newly designed academic social network (ASN for academics in Malaysia. Real feedbacks from live interactions of MyExpert users with the recommended items are recorded for 12 consecutive weeks in which four different algorithms, namely, random, collaborative, content-based, and ECSN were applied every three weeks. The empirical results show significant performance of ECSN in mitigating the cold-start problem besides improving the prediction accuracy of recommendations when compared with other studied recommender algorithms.

  8. Are there cross-cultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśniewska Aneta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing and social problem-solving are important for mental well-being. For example, impaired emotional processing is linked with depression and psychosomatic problems. However, little is known about crosscultural differences in emotional processing and social problem-solving and whether these constructs are linked. This study examines whether emotional processing and social problem-solving differs between Western (British and Eastern European (Polish cultures. Participants (N = 172 completed questionnaires assessing both constructs. Emotional processing did not differ according to culture, but Polish participants reported more effective social problem-solving abilities than British participants. Poorer emotional processing was also found to relate to poorer social problem-solving. Possible societal reasons for the findings and the implications of the findings for culture and clinical practice are discussed.

  9. Incorporating Social Anxiety Into a Model of College Problem Drinking: Replication and Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Ham, Lindsay S.; Hope, Debra A.

    2006-01-01

    Although research has found an association between social anxiety and alcohol use in noncollege samples, results have been mixed for college samples. College students face many novel social situations in which they may drink to reduce social anxiety. In the current study, the authors tested a model of college problem drinking, incorporating social anxiety and related psychosocial variables among 228 undergraduate volunteers. According to structural equation modeling (SEM) results, social anxi...

  10. What is the Problem? Where is the Work? Getting to the Bottom of Social Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    social constructionism ) – and what they do (their actions’) reflects those meanings. ‘ Social problems’ have to do with ‘ social action’ and how...MSA MORS SSUCO 10-10 “What is the problem? Where is the work? Getting to the bottom of social action” Mark Addleson School of Public Policy, George...Mason University Military Operations Research Society Symposium Social Sciences Underpinnings of Complex Operations October 20, 2010 Report

  11. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Vincent O; Rigoli, Daniela; Heritage, Brody; Roberts, Lynne D; Piek, Jan P

    2016-01-01

    Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive) symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills had an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years). Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other), depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables. Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  12. Clinically significant discrepancies between sleep problems assessed by standard clinical tools and actigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti Marie Blytt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sleep disturbances are widespread among nursing home (NH patients and associated with numerous negative consequences. Identifying and treating them should therefore be of high clinical priority. No prior studies have investigated the degree to which sleep disturbances as detected by actigraphy and by the sleep-related items in the Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory – Nursing Home version (NPI-NH provide comparable results. Such knowledge is highly needed, since both questionnaires are used in clinical settings and studies use the NPI-NH sleep item to measure sleep disturbances. For this reason, insight into their relative (disadvantages is valuable. Method Cross-sectional study of 83 NH patients. Sleep was objectively measured with actigraphy for 7 days, and rated by NH staff with the sleep items in the CSDD and the NPI-NH, and results were compared. McNemar's tests were conducted to investigate whether there were significant differences between the pairs of relevant measures. Cohen's Kappa tests were used to investigate the degree of agreement between the pairs of relevant actigraphy, NPI-NH and CSDD measures. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were conducted for each of the pairs, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC curves were designed as a plot of the true positive rate against the false positive rate for the diagnostic test. Results Proxy-raters reported sleep disturbances in 20.5% of patients assessed with NPI-NH and 18.1% (difficulty falling asleep, 43.4% (multiple awakenings and 3.6% (early morning awakenings of patients had sleep disturbances assessed with CSDD. Our results showed significant differences (p<0.001 between actigraphy measures and proxy-rated sleep by the NPI-NH and CSDD. Sensitivity and specificity analyses supported these results. Conclusions Compared to actigraphy, proxy-raters clearly underreported NH patients' sleep disturbances as assessed

  13. Study Of Social Problems And Correlates Of Child Labourers In Slums Of Nagpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambadekar Nitin N

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What are the social and work related problems of child labourers? Objectives:1.To study social problems of child labourers. 2. To study some work related problems of child labourers. 3. To study some factors associated with child labourers. Study design: cross sectional study with comparison group. Setting: shivankarnagar & Hasanbagh slums under field practice area of PSM deptt., Govt. Medical College, Nagapur. Participants: 223 child labourers and 223 randomly selected controls from same area aged upto 15 years, sex matched and group matched for age. Results: Prevalence of child labourers in study areas was 21.3%, 43(19.3 females and 180 (80.7% males. Lower socio-economic status, large family size(>6, parental illiteracy and single parenthood were significantly associated with child labour. They were working in varied occupations â€" majority (32.7% being in garage and workshops. Inadequate family income (74.4% and parental compulsion (20.6% were the common reasons cited by child labourers for their jobs â€" school drop â€" outs 173(78.3%, bad habits 56(25.1%, prolonged working hours (mean-8.5+4.5, no holidays and rest hours, inadequate daily wages, verbal (29% & physical abuse (2.7% were the common problems of child labourers, observed in the present study.

  14. Replacing gasoline with corn ethanol results in significant environmental problem-shifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Bae, Junghan; Kim, Junbeum; Suh, Sangwon

    2012-04-03

    Previous studies on the life-cycle environmental impacts of corn ethanol and gasoline focused almost exclusively on energy balance and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and largely overlooked the influence of regional differences in agricultural practices. This study compares the environmental impact of gasoline and E85 taking into consideration 12 different environmental impacts and regional differences among 19 corn-growing states. Results show that E85 does not outperform gasoline when a wide spectrum of impacts is considered. If the impacts are aggregated using weights developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), overall, E85 generates approximately 6% to 108% (23% on average) greater impact compared with gasoline, depending on where corn is produced, primarily because corn production induces significant eutrophication impacts and requires intensive irrigation. If GHG emissions from the indirect land use changes are considered, the differences increase to between 16% and 118% (33% on average). Our study indicates that replacing gasoline with corn ethanol may only result in shifting the net environmental impacts primarily toward increased eutrophication and greater water scarcity. These results suggest that the environmental criteria used in the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) be re-evaluated to include additional categories of environmental impact beyond GHG emissions.

  15. Does social capital help solving real world collective action problems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nannestad, Peter

    2007-01-01

    A growing number of empirical macro-level studies show that social capital has various beneficial economic and political consequences. At the micro-level these beneficial effects are normally ascribed to the positive effects of social capital on transaction costs and/or the ability to solve colle...

  16. Moonrise: Sampling the South Pole-Aitken Basin to Address Problems of Solar System Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Jolliff, B. L.; Korotev, R. L.; Shearer, C. K.

    2016-01-01

    A mission to land in the giant South Pole-Aitken (SPA) Basin on the Moon's southern farside and return a sample to Earth for analysis is a high priority for Solar System Science. Such a sample would be used to determine the age of the SPA impact; the chronology of the basin, including the ages of basins and large impacts within SPA, with implications for early Solar System dynamics and the magmatic history of the Moon; the age and composition of volcanic rocks within SPA; the origin of the thorium signature of SPA with implications for the origin of exposed materials and thermal evolution of the Moon; and possibly the magnetization that forms a strong anomaly especially evident in the northern parts of the SPA basin. It is well known from studies of the Apollo regolith that rock fragments found in the regolith form a representative collection of many different rock types delivered to the site by the impact process (Fig. 1). Such samples are well documented to contain a broad suite of materials that reflect both the local major rock formations, as well as some exotic materials from far distant sources. Within the SPA basin, modeling of the impact ejection process indicates that regolith would be dominated by SPA substrate, formed at the time of the SPA basin-forming impact and for the most part moved around by subsequent impacts. Consistent with GRAIL data, the SPA impact likely formed a vast melt body tens of km thick that took perhaps several million years to cool, but that nonetheless represents barely an instant in geologic time that should be readily apparent through integrated geochronologic studies involving multiple chronometers. It is anticipated that a statistically significant number of age determinations would yield not only the age of SPA but also the age of several prominent nearby basins and large craters within SPA. This chronology would provide a contrast to the Imbrium-dominated chronology of the nearside Apollo samples and an independent test of

  17. The role of social frailty in explaining the association between hearing problems and mild cognitive impairment in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seongryu; Lee, Sangyoon; Lee, Sungchul; Jung, Songee; Makino, Keitaro; Park, Hyuntae; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2018-06-01

    We examined the role of social frailty in the association between hearing problems and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and investigated which cognitive impairment domains are most strongly involved. Participants were 4251 older adults (mean age 72.5 ± 5.2 years, 46.1% male) who met the study inclusion criteria. Hearing problems were measured using the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly. Social frailty was identified using responses to five questions. Participants were divided into four groups depending on the presence of social frailty and hearing problems: control, social frailty, hearing problem, and co-occurrence. We assessed memory, attention, executive function, and processing speed using the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Functional Assessment Tool. Participants were categorized into normal cognition, single- and multiple-domain MCI, depending on the number of impaired cognitive domains. Participants with multiple-domain MCI exhibited the highest odds ratios (OR) of the co-occurrence group (OR: 3.89, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.96-7.72), followed by the social frailty (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.49-4.67), and hearing problem (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.08-3.34) groups, compared with the control group. However, single-domain MCI was not significantly associated with any group. Cognitive domain analysis revealed that impaired executive function and processing speed were associated with the co-occurrence, hearing problem, and social frailty groups, respectively. Social frailty and hearing problems were independently associated with multiple-domain MCI. Comorbid conditions were more strongly associated with multiple-domain MCI. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the causal role of social frailty in the association between hearing impairment and MCI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenaes, Ingeborg; Egeland, Jens; Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa

    2015-01-01

    Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) and social phobia (SP) are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients. This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group) to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group). The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse. The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.

  19. Solutions to the Problem of Diminished Social Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Peter K. Jonason; Gregory D. Webster; A. Elizabeth Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Social animals, like humans, need to interact with others, but this is not always possible. When genuine social interaction is lacking, individuals may seek out or use sources of interaction that co-opt agency detection mechanisms vis-à-vis the human voice and images of people, called social snacking. Study 1 (N = 240) found that ratings of how alone participants felt were correlated with frequency of talking to themselves and using the TV for company. Study 2 (N = 66) was a daily diary study...

  20. Personality and Social Problem-Solving: The Mediating Role of Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruklu, Nermin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine direct and indirect relationships among personality, selfesteem and social problem-solving, as well as the mediating role of self-esteem in the link between personality and social problem-solving among Turkish youth. The study utilized a cross-sectional design comprising several self-reports. Data…

  1. Longitudinal associations between depressive problems, academic performance, and social functioning in adolescent boys and girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, C.E.; Sijtsema, J.J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Ormel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between

  2. Longitudinal Associations Between Depressive Problems, Academic Performance, and Social Functioning in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verboom, Charlotte E.; Sijtsema, Jelle J.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Ormel, Johan

    Depressive problems and academic performance, social well-being, and social problems in adolescents are strongly associated. However, longitudinal and bidirectional relations between the two remain unclear, as well as the role of gender. Consequently, this study focuses on the relation between

  3. The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

  4. Identification of the main problems in social work with low-income families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bánovčinová A.

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is a social problem that negatively affects all dimensions of family system functioning. In order to provide effective help and intervention to the family, it is essential that the social worker is able to correctly identify problem areas and appropriately choose methods and procedures aimed at restoration of family functioning.

  5. Friendship Moderates Prospective Associations between Social Isolation and Adjustment Problems in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated prospective links between social isolation and adjustment problems among 166 (77 girls, 89 boys) Finnish children ages 7 to 9. Peer nominations for social engagement and self-reports of internalizing and externalizing problems were collected in the spring of the 1st and 2nd grade. Friendship moderated…

  6. Social Problems as a Mediator of the Link between Reactive Aggression and Withdrawn/Depressed Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Rathert, Jamie L.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined whether social problems accounted for the relation between reactive aggression and withdrawn/depressed symptoms in a sample of 147 children (54.4% male) ranging from 5 to 13 years of age (M = 8.22 years) who attended a community based after-school program. Findings suggested that indeed social problems mediated the link…

  7. How Activists and Media Frame Social Problems: Critical Events versus Performance Trends for Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on the process by which a social problem is redefined in response to a critical events, such as economic depressions, environmental disasters, intense physical confrontations, or strategic initiatives by a social movement organization. Examines a conservative movement's attempt to redefine "the problem" of the schools at the time…

  8. Social Problem-Solving Skills of Children in Terms of Maternal Acceptance-Rejection Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepeli, Kezban; Yilmaz, Elif

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to find an answer to the question of "Do social problem-solving skills of 5-6 years old children differentiate depending on the levels of maternal acceptance rejection?" The participants of the study included 359 5-6 years old children and their mothers. Wally Social Problem-Solving Test and PARQ (Parental…

  9. Social participation of people with cognitive problems and their caregivers: a feasibility evaluation of the Social Fitness Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, H.W.; Veen, D.J. van der; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Sanden, M.W. van der; Graff, M.J.L.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We developed a tailor-made intervention aimed at improving social participation of people with cognitive problems and their caregivers. This programme consists of an integration of healthcare and welfare interventions: occupational therapy, physiotherapy and guidance by a welfare

  10. Solidarity and solidarism as a social and research problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara V. Popkova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Article analyzes the treatment of the notions of "solidarity” and "solidarism” at various stages of social thought development. It provides arguments for the importance of the solidarist strategy for the modern society.

  11. Avoidant personality problems--their association with somatic and mental health, lifestyle, and social network. A community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssøn, Ingrid; Dahl, Alv A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the associations between the presence of avoidant personality problems (APPs) and 5 areas of impairment: demography, somatic issues, mental health, lifestyle, and social issues. Avoidant personality problem was defined by confirmation of the 2 avoidant personality disorder items of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen and and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) short version (MINI-SPIN) screening assessment for generalized social anxiety disorder sum score of 6 or more. The questionnaires were administered in a Norwegian population survey (the Oslo Health Study-HUBRO). Cases consisted of 280 individuals with APP and 5 randomly selected controls without APP (n = 1400). The APP group more frequently reported living alone, lower level of education, and lower income than controls. Poor self-rated health, presence of somatic disease, muscular pain, frequent use of analgesics, and visits at a general practitioner were significantly more common in the APP group than among controls. The APP group had significantly higher proportion of caseness of mental distress, low general self-efficacy, and insomnia, and this result held up in multivariate analyses. The APP group showed statistically significant higher proportions of physical inactivity, obesity, daily smoking, and alcohol problems compared with controls. As for social impairment, a significantly higher proportion of the APP group reported "not having enough good friends," "high powerlessness," and low community activism, and the 2 former variables held up in multivariate analyses. In this population-based study, we found that high levels of APP, defined closely to avoidant personality disorder, were significantly associated with demographic, somatic, and mental impairment; low general self-efficacy; and insomnia affecting work ability. In addition, APP showed associations with negative lifestyle, alcohol problems, and social impairment reporting lack of good friends and lack of

  12. Light phase testing of social behaviors: not a problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Yang

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rich repertoire of mouse social behaviors makes it possible to use mouse models to study neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by social deficits. The fact that mice are naturally nocturnal animals raises a critical question of whether behavioral experiments should be strictly conducted in the dark phase and whether light phase testing is a major methodologically mistake. Although mouse social tasks have been performed in both phases in different laboratories, there seems to be no general consensus on whether testing phase is a critical factor or not. A recent study from our group showed remarkably similar social scores obtained from inbred mice tested in the light and the dark phase, providing evidence that light phase testing could yield reliable results as robust as dark phase testing for the sociability test. Here we offer a comprehensive review on mouse social behaviors measured in light and dark phases and explain why it is reasonable to test laboratory mice in experimental social tasks in the light phase.

  13. Exploring the significance of human mobility patterns in social link prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alharbi, Basma Mohammed; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2014-01-01

    Link prediction is a fundamental task in social networks. Recently, emphasis has been placed on forecasting new social ties using user mobility patterns, e.g., investigating physical and semantic co-locations for new proximity measure. This paper

  14. Relations of social problem solving with interpersonal competence in Japanese students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumi, Katsunori

    2011-12-01

    To clarify the relations of the dimensions of social problem solving with those of interpersonal competence in a sample of 234 Japanese college students, Japanese versions of the Social Problem-solving Inventory-Revised and the Social Skill Scale were administered. Pearson correlations between the two sets of variables were low, but higher within each set of subscales. Cronbach's alpha was low for four subscales assessing interpersonal competence.

  15. Problems, acceptance and social inequality: a study of the deformed leprosy patients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopparty, S N

    1995-09-01

    Though the impact of social inequality on health conditions is widely known, its impact on the chronic and stigmatized disease, leprosy, has received little attention. Deformity sometimes leads to disabilities and to handicaps causing problems to the patient and his family. In this paper an attempt has been made to understand the impact of social inequality, prevalent in the form of the caste system in India on the deformed leprosy patients and on their families. This impact was examined in terms of the problems faced by the patients. A sample of 150 deformed patients and their families, drawn from two districts in Tamil Nadu, was selected for the study. About 57% of the deformed patients experienced their deformity as a handicap which caused social and economic problems while the rest did not. Of the three caste groups, the Lower Caste group experienced more severe economic problems while the Upper Caste group faced more social problems. The extent of acceptance of deformed patients in their family varied significantly among those facing and not facing problems due to their deformity. The deformed patients without any handicap were accepted in a large majority of their families (82%) regardless of their caste status. In contrast the deformed but handicapped patients were accepted differentially among the three caste groups with the Upper group accepting them in most of their families (80%) while in the Lower group much less number of families (54%) did. All the families of the deformed but not handicapped patients desired to keep their patients till their death irrespective of their caste status. On the contrary, while all the families in the Upper Caste group expressed their willingness to keep their handicapped patients in the family till their death, 10% in the Middle and 22% in the Lower Caste groups did not want to do so. This suggests the gradual marginalization, rejection and dehabilitation of the affected. Thus, one's caste status can be a broad indicator

  16. Unpacking the public stigma of problem gambling: The process of stigma creation and predictors of social distancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing, Nerilee; Russell, Alex M T; Gainsbury, Sally M

    2016-09-01

    Background and aims Public stigma diminishes the health of stigmatized populations, so it is critical to understand how and why stigma occurs to inform stigma reduction measures. This study aimed to examine stigmatizing attitudes held toward people experiencing problem gambling, to examine whether specific elements co-occur to create this public stigma, and to model explanatory variables of this public stigma. Methods An online panel of adults from Victoria, Australia (N = 2,000) was surveyed. Measures were based on a vignette for problem gambling and included demographics, gambling behavior, perceived dimensions of problem gambling, stereotyping, social distancing, emotional reactions, and perceived devaluation and discrimination. A hierarchical linear regression was conducted. Results People with gambling problems attracted substantial negative stereotypes, social distancing, emotional reactions, and status loss/discrimination. These elements were associated with desired social distance, as was perceived that problem gambling is caused by bad character, and is perilous, non-recoverable, and disruptive. Level of contact with problem gambling, gambling involvement, and some demographic variables was significantly associated with social distance, but they explained little additional variance. Discussion and conclusions This study contributes to the understanding of how and why people experiencing gambling problems are stigmatized. Results suggest the need to increase public contact with such people, avoid perpetuation of stereotypes in media and public health communications, and reduce devaluing and discriminating attitudes and behaviors.

  17. Independent and Interactive Effects of Neighborhood Disadvantage and Social Network Characteristics on Problem Drinking after Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericle, Amy A; Kaskutas, Lee A; Polcin, Doug L; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2018-01-01

    Socioecological approaches to public health problems like addiction emphasize the importance of person-environment interactions. Neighborhood and social network characteristics may influence the likelihood of relapse among individuals in recovery, but these factors have been understudied, particularly with respect to conceptualizing social network characteristics as moderators of neighborhood disadvantage. Drawing from a larger prospective study of individuals recruited from outpatient treatment (N=451) and interviewed 1, 3, 5, and 7 years later, the aim of this study was to examine the independent and interactive effects of neighborhood and social network characteristics on continued problem drinking after treatment. Models using generalized estimating equations controlling for demographic and other risk factors found the number of heavy drinkers in one's network increases risk of relapse, with the effects being significantly stronger among those living in disadvantaged neighborhoods than among those in non-disadvantaged neighborhoods. No independent effects were found for neighborhood disadvantage or for the number of network members supporting reduced drinking. Future research is needed to examine potential protective factors in neighborhoods which may offset socioeconomic disadvantage as well as to investigate the functions that network members serve in helping to improve long-term treatment outcomes.

  18. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. The construction of the Baby Boomer generation as a social problem in Britain.

    OpenAIRE

    Bristow, Jennie

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis investigates how the ‘Baby Boomer generation’ has become constructed as a social problem in Britain. I begin by outlining the theoretical orientation of the research, which is grounded in Mannheim’s understanding that the problem of generations is to do with the interaction between generational location and wider social forces. The subsequent chapters present the\\ud results of a qualitative media analysis of the Baby Boomer problem, using a sample of Brit...

  20. Wounded Healers: A Multistate Study of Licensed Social Workers' Behavioral Health Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straussner, Shulamith Lala Ashenberg; Senreich, Evan; Steen, Jeffrey T

    2018-04-01

    Studies indicate that helping professionals are disproportionately affected by behavioral health problems. Among social workers, the nature and scope of these problems are understudied. This article reports the findings of a 2015 survey of 6,112 licensed social workers in 13 states regarding their problems with mental health; alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs; and gambling. To ascertain whether these problems preceded or developed during their social work careers, the periods of time when these issues were experienced were identified. Results indicate that 40.2 percent of respondents reported mental health problems before becoming social workers, increasing to 51.8 percent during their social work career, with 28 percent currently experiencing such problems. Nearly 10 percent of the sample experienced substance use problems before becoming social workers, decreasing to 7.7 percent during their career. Analyses by race or ethnicity, sex, and age identified between-group differences in the prevalence of these problems. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications for the social work profession.

  1. 161 ETHICAL PROBLEMS OF RAPE AS A SOCIAL CANKERWORM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    violence that involves intercourse without consent or against someone being willing ... Rape is a global problem with women and children being mostly vulnerable .... allows their wards to spend too much time watching television where sex is ...

  2. Avoidant personality disorder versus social phobia: the significance of childhood neglect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingeborg Eikenaes

    Full Text Available Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD and social phobia (SP are common disorders both in the community and in clinical settings. Whether the two disorders represent different severity levels of social anxiety disorder is currently in dispute. The relationship between AvPD and SP is probably more complex than previously assumed. Several environmental, temperamental, and constitutional factors may play a role in the etiology of AvPD and SP. Better knowledge about childhood experiences may shed light on similarities and differences between the two disorders. The aim of this study was to compare self-reported childhood experiences in AvPD and SP patients.This is a cross-sectional multi-site study of 91 adult patients with AvPD and/ or SP. We compared patients with AvPD with and without SP (AvPD group to patients with SP without AvPD (SP group.The patients were examined using structured diagnostic interviews and self-report measures, including Child Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument, and Adult Temperament Questionnaire.Both AvPD and SP were associated with negative childhood experiences. AvPD patients reported more severe childhood neglect than patients with SP, most pronounced for physical neglect. The difference between the disorders in neglect remained significant after controlling for temperamental factors and concurrent abuse.The study indicates that childhood neglect is a risk factor for AvPD and may be one contributing factor to phenomenological differences between AvPD and SP.

  3. Psychological and social problems in primary care patients - general practitioners' assessment and classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Kaj Sparle; Moth, Grete

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the frequency of psychological and social classification codes employed by general practitioners (GPs) and to explore the extent to which GPs ascribed health problems to biomedical, psychological, or social factors. A cross-sectional survey based on questionnaire data from GPs. Setting. Danish primary care. 387 GPs and their face-to-face contacts with 5543 patients. GPs registered consecutive patients on registration forms including reason for encounter, diagnostic classification of main problem, and a GP assessment of biomedical, psychological, and social factors' influence on the contact. The GP-stated reasons for encounter largely overlapped with their classification of the managed problem. Using the International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC-2-R), GPs classified 600 (11%) patients with psychological problems and 30 (0.5%) with social problems. Both codes for problems/complaints and specific disorders were used as the GP's diagnostic classification of the main problem. Two problems (depression and acute stress reaction/adjustment disorder) accounted for 51% of all psychological classifications made. GPs generally emphasized biomedical aspects of the contacts. Psychological aspects were given greater importance in follow-up consultations than in first-episode consultations, whereas social factors were rarely seen as essential to the consultation. Psychological problems are frequently seen and managed in primary care and most are classified within a few diagnostic categories. Social matters are rarely considered or classified.

  4. Research Advances of Social Security Problems in China —Visualization Research based on Bibliometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵琳

    2016-01-01

    This article summarized the research progress and characteristics of Chinese social security issues from 2000 papers, which record in CNKI. We find that, the topic in the field of social security is board and dispersion. Due to the huge system and complex problem of social security, there is no central theme. Through cluster analysis, multi dimensional scaling analysis and social network analysis, we got the high frequency keywords atlas. Then, we summarized the research topic to six parts. They are rural social security, urban and rural social security co-ordination, vulnerable group social security, social security fund management, the social insurance system, and social security system and government responsibility. It summed up the theme of the module, meanwhile, combined the practice analysis.

  5. Marijuana Effect Expectancies: Relations to Social Anxiety and Marijuana Use Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Buckner, Julia D.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2008-01-01

    High social anxiety is related to marijuana problems, yet the nature of this relation remains unclear. We examined relations between marijuana effect expectancies, social anxiety, and marijuana among undergraduates (N=337). Social anxiety was related positively to negative expectancies and negatively to Tension Reduction Expectancies. Among socially anxious individuals, greater belief that marijuana produces cognitive/behavioral impairment was associated with greater marijuana use rates. Nega...

  6. The functional implications of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and social problem-solving states in Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Liew, Charles; Gluhm, Shea; Goldstein, Jody; Cronan, Terry A; Corey-Bloom, Jody

    2013-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor, cognitive, and psychiatric dysfunction. In HD, the inability to solve problems successfully affects not only disease coping, but also interpersonal relationships, judgment, and independent living. The aim of the present study was to examine social problem-solving (SPS) in well-characterized HD and at-risk (AR) individuals and to examine its unique and conjoint effects with motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states on functional ratings. Sixty-three participants, 31 HD and 32 gene-positive AR, were included in the study. Participants completed the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised: Long (SPSI-R:L), a 52-item, reliable, standardized measure of SPS. Items are aggregated under five scales (Positive, Negative, and Rational Problem-Solving; Impulsivity/Carelessness and Avoidance Styles). Participants also completed the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale functional, behavioral, and cognitive assessments, as well as additional neuropsychological examinations and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90R). A structural equation model was used to examine the effects of motor, cognitive, psychiatric, and SPS states on functionality. The multifactor structural model fit well descriptively. Cognitive and motor states uniquely and significantly predicted function in HD; however, neither psychiatric nor SPS states did. SPS was, however, significantly related to motor, cognitive, and psychiatric states, suggesting that it may bridge the correlative gap between psychiatric and cognitive states in HD. SPS may be worth assessing in conjunction with the standard gamut of clinical assessments in HD. Suggestions for future research and implications for patients, families, caregivers, and clinicians are discussed.

  7. Social Networking Sites, Literacy, and the Authentic Identity Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmons, Royce

    2014-01-01

    Current interest in social media for educational purposes has led many to consider the importance of literacy development in online spaces (e.g., new media literacies, digital literacies, etc.). Relying heavily upon New Literacy Studies (NLS) as a base, these approaches treat literacy expansively to include socio-cultural factors beyond mere skill…

  8. Social security, dynamic efficiency and self-control problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucciol, A.

    2008-01-01

    We develop an OLG model with uncertainty on labor income and death age to study the welfare implications of unfunded Social Security programs in an economy where agents are affected by temptation à la Gul and Pesendorfer (2001, Econometrica 69, 1403). Tempted agents give additional value to the

  9. Violence in Mexico: A social or public health problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan Casas Patiño

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo pretende explicar la importancia de la violencia como fenómeno social y de salud pública, al tratar de vislumbrar este problema no sólo desde el enfoque curativo de la salud, sino desde los determinantes sociales en salud como lo económico, político, jurídico y demográfico, donde jóvenes carecen de oportunidades reales con un Estado en fuga. Todos estos son entramados que juegan un papel fundamental en la manifestación del hecho implícito de la violencia. Es así que el debatir respecto al abordaje y resolución de la violencia abre el camino a nuevas miradas respecto a lo social, como parte de una salud pública que no se puede alejar por completo de la situación real de los colectivos. Así, la entrada a esta situación demuestra que no podemos seguir mirando en forma discordante los problemas reales en salud social de nuestra sociedad.

  10. Rising Prevalence and Neighborhood, Social, and Behavioral Determinants of Sleep Problems in US Children and Adolescents, 2003–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined trends and neighborhood and sociobehavioral determinants of sleep problems in US children aged 6–17 between 2003 and 2012. The 2003, 2007, and 2011-2012 rounds of the National Survey of Children’s Health were used to estimate trends and differentials in sleep problems using logistic regression. Prevalence of sleep problems increased significantly over time. The proportion of children with <7 days/week of adequate sleep increased from 31.2% in 2003 to 41.9% in 2011-2012, whereas the prevalence of adequate sleep <5 days/week rose from 12.6% in 2003 to 13.6% in 2011-2012. Prevalence of sleep problems varied in relation to neighborhood socioeconomic and built-environmental characteristics (e.g., safety concerns, poor housing, garbage/litter, vandalism, sidewalks, and parks/playgrounds. Approximately 10% of children in neighborhoods with the most-favorable social environment had serious sleep problems, compared with 16.2% of children in neighborhoods with the least-favorable social environment. Children in neighborhoods with the fewest health-promoting amenities or the greatest social disadvantage had 37%–43% higher adjusted odds of serious sleep problems than children in the most-favorable neighborhoods. Higher levels of screen time, physical inactivity, and secondhand smoke exposure were associated with 20%–47% higher adjusted odds of sleep problems. Neighborhood conditions and behavioral factors are important determinants of sleep problems in children.

  11. The Portrayal of Indonesian Image in 2007 Kompas Selected Short Stories: Social Problems, Criticisms and Hopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akun Akun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Article aimed at exploring social problems reflected in 15 selected short stories printed in Kompas during 2007 both explicitly and implicitly. Specifically, this research is focused on the mapping of dominant social problems raised by the short stories, the social criticisms strongly voiced by the authors and the hopes of a better situation implicitly reflected in these interesting short stories. This study applies the Defamiliarization Effect promoted by Bertolt Brecht and Negative Dialectics or Negative Knowledge by Theodor Adorno, specifically in analyzing the literary works as a criticism tool. The result of the research shows that phenomena of social problems current lately in Indonesian context like identity, poverty, corruption, religious tensions, moral degradation, politics dirtiness, minority group problems, social security, natural disasters and the like are clearly seen and teased in these writings.

  12. Multisystemic Therapy for social, emotional, and behavioral problems in youth aged 10-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, J H; Popa, M; Forsythe, B

    2005-07-20

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is an intensive, home-based intervention for families of youth with social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Masters-level therapists engage family members in identifying and changing individual, family, and environmental factors thought to contribute to problem behavior. Intervention may include efforts to improve communication, parenting skills, peer relations, school performance, and social networks. Most MST trials were conducted by program developers in the USA; results of one independent trial are available and others are in progress. To provide unbiased estimates of the impacts of MST on restrictive out-of-home living placements, crime and delinquency, and other behavioral and psychosocial outcomes for youth and families. Electronic searches were made of bibliographic databases including the Cochrane Library, C2-SPECTR, PsycINFO, Science Direct and Sociological Abstracts) as well as government and professional websites, from 1985 to January 2003. Reference lists of articles were examined, and experts were contacted. Studies where youth (age 10-17) with social, emotional, and/or behavioral problems were randomised to licensed MST programs or other conditions (usual services or alternative treatments). Two reviewers independently reviewed 266 titles and abstracts; 95 full-text reports were retrieved, and 35 unique studies were identified. Two reviewers independently read all study reports for inclusion. Eight studies were eligible for inclusion. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality and extracted data from these studies.Significant heterogeneity among studies was identified (assessed using Chi-square and I(2)), hence random effects models were used to pool data across studies. Odds ratios were used in analyses of dichotomous outcomes; standardised mean differences were used with continuous outcomes. Adjustments were made for small sample sizes (using Hedges g). Pooled estimates were weighted with inverse variance

  13. Social problem solving strategies and posttraumatic stress disorder in the aftermath of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Catherine M; Blackwell, Náthali; Simmons, Catherine A; Beck, J Gayle

    2015-05-01

    Social factors are often associated with the development or maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the aftermath of interpersonal traumas. However, social problem solving strategies have received little attention. The current study explored the role of social problem solving styles (i.e., rational approaches, impulsive/careless strategies, or avoidance strategies) as intermediary variables between abuse exposure and PTSD severity among intimate partner violence survivors. Avoidance problem solving served as an intermediating variable for the relationship between three types of abuse and PTSD severity. Rational and impulsive/careless strategies were not associated with abuse exposure. These findings extend the current understanding of social problem solving among interpersonal trauma survivors and are consistent with more general avoidance coping research. Future research might examine whether avoidance problem solving tends to evolve in the aftermath of trauma or whether it represents a longstanding risk factor for PTSD development. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. EMPLOYMENT OF YOUTH: PROBLEMS, PLACE IN SYSTEM OF SOCIAL VALUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Nikolaevich Gostev

    2016-01-01

    The study found that good employment – the main purpose of life of the general population. For the mechanism of the strategic management of the employment of human productive capacity is essential willingness to work professional graduate school, which has a complex structure, including cognitive, motivational, volitional, and other elements, each of which is able to destroy the whole system. Employed – the foundation of all social and moral values of young people, the condition is stable order, civic responsibility and political activity, patriotism, national unity, national security. This social phenomenon in terms of increase of the number of threats to national security is becoming a priority in government policy. Employed young people and their moral values are in direct relation.

  15. PROBLEMS OF MODERN DOCUMENTAL COMMUNICATION (cultural-and-social aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Petrovich Kushneruk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some results of the official-and-business texts’ qualities revealed on communication level are presented in this article. The system of axes used for national-and-social evaluations of the business communicative instruments is under analysis. The influences of unstable social-and-cultural conditions on technological and organizational circumstances of document-oriented communication are analyzed. Some results of the out-of-officinal factors origin’ and level’s evaluation in their influence on unified forms and textual peculiarities of communicative acts in the forms of “business papers” are presented.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-7-44

  16. Social psychological approach to the problem of threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayachi, Kazuya

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses the threshold of carcinogen risk from the viewpoint of social psychology. First, the results of a survey suggesting that renunciation of the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) hypothesis would have no influence on the public acceptance (PA) of nuclear power plants are reported. Second, the relationship between the adoption of the LNT hypothesis and the standardization of management for various risks are discussed. (author)

  17. Homelessness as social and individual problem – possibilities and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Piechowicz

    2012-01-01

    This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in t...

  18. HUMANIST VALUES OF SPORT AND THE PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL GLOBALIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lyubov SHEREMET

    2015-01-01

    The article is dedicated to the consideration of sport activity under the perspective of social philosophy, with special attention given to core values of the contemporary sport manifested particularly by the Olympic movement. It is argued that the main intellectual source of the Olympism is the translation of liberal ideology into the sphere of sport, with the idea of dialogue as a norm of interpersonal relation serving as a pivotal in socio-cultural foundations of the contemporary Olympic m...

  19. About Problems of Decision Making in Social and Economic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Voloshyn, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The reasons of a restricted applicability of the models of decision making in social and economic systems. 3 basic principles of growth of their adequacy are proposed: "localization" of solutions, direct account of influencing of the individual on process of decision making ("subjectivity of objectivity") and reduction of influencing of the individual psychosomatic characteristics of the subject (" objectivity of subjectivity ") are offered. The principles are illustrated on mathe...

  20. The Problem is People, Social Studies: 6425.07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratchford, Frank

    Population education is the focus of this quinmester curriculum guide for secondary students. By examining and comparing past population theories of Malthus and Marx with present theories students will better understand the present situation, cultural attitudes toward the problems, and the ecological consequences of overpopulation. Objectives are…

  1. Coleman's problem with institutional design : neglect of social rationality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenberg, S

    2003-01-01

    This paper tries to answer the question how it is possible that such a giant of sociology as James Coleman produced so little of what he considered the most important work for sociologists : good institutional design. I argue that the answer lies in the fact that the most serious problem for which

  2. Recht und Sozialtheorie: Drei Probleme / Law and Social Theory: Three Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunther Teubner

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Drei Theoriekatastrophen sind dafür verantwortlich, dass nach anfänglich hoher Theorieaffinität die deutsche Rechtsdogmatik sich heute gegenüber Sozialtheorien weitgehend immunisiert hat. Der Beitrag diskutiert die Alternative eines distanzierten Umgangs mit Sozialtheorien. Dieser kann in der Begegnung von Sozialtheorie und Recht einen rechtsdogmatischen Mehrwert dann erzeugen, wenn es der Rechtsdogmatik gelingt, dem prekären Verhältnis von Autonomie und Interdependenz in drei unterschiedlichen Dimensionen gerecht zu werden: (1 Theoriekonkurrenz: Wie soll das Recht eine Auswahl treffen, wenn konkurrierende Sozialtheorien miteinander nicht kompatible Analysen von Sozialphänomenen liefern? (2 Wissenstransfer: Wie lassen sich Konstrukte der Sozialtheorien in das Recht übertragen? (3 Und schliesslich die heikelste Frage nach der Normativität von Sozialtheorien: Lassen sich aus wissenschaftlichen Theorien normative Kriterien für die Rechtspraxis gewinnen? Antworten zu diesen Fragen werden am Beispiel der horizontalen Grundrechtswirkung in halb-privaten Netzwerken der Medizinforschung formuliert. Three theory disasters are responsible for the fact that, after an initial close affinity to theory, German legal doctrine has now become largely immunised against social theories. This paper discusses the alternative of a distanced approach to social theories. At the point where social theory comes into contact with law, this approach is able to generate added value for legal doctrine, if legal doctrine is able to take into account the precarious relationship between autonomy and interdependence in three different dimensions: (1 competition between theories: how is the law to make a selection, when competing social theories provide mutually incompatible analyses of social phenomena? (2 knowledge transfer: how can constructs of social theories be transferred to the law? (3 and, finally, the highly complex issue of the normativity of social theories

  3. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  4. [Problems encountered by hospital pharmacists with information systems: Analysis of exchanges within social networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpiat, B; Mille, F; Fombeur, P; Machon, J; Zawadzki, E; Bobay-Madic, A

    2018-05-21

    The development of information systems in French hospitals is mandatory. The aim of this work was to analyze the content of exchanges carried out within social networks, dealing with problems encountered with hospital pharmacies information systems. Messages exchanged via the mailing list of the Association pour le Digital et l'Information en Pharmacie and abstracts of communications presented at hospital pharmacists trade union congresses were analyzed. Those referring to information systems used in hospital pharmacies were selected. From March 2015 to June 2016, 122 e-mails sent by 80 pharmacists concerned information systems. From 2002 to 2016, 45 abstracts dealt with this topic. Problems most often addressed in these 167 documents were "parameterization and/or functionalities" (n=116), interfaces and complexity of the hospital information systems (n=52), relationship with health information technologies vendors and poor reactivity (n=32), additional workload (n=32), ergonomics (n=30), insufficient user training (n=22). These problems are interdependent, lead to errors and in order to mitigate their consequences, they compel pharmacy professionals to divert a significant amount of working hours to the detriment of pharmaceutical care and dispensing and preparing drugs. Hospital pharmacists are faced with many problems of insecurity and inefficiency generated by information systems. Researches are warranted to determine their cost, specify their deleterious effects on care and identify the safest information systems. Copyright © 2018 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Social problems and territorial experiences from closing down Tihange NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizin, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The town of Huy, better known by the name of the NPP Tihange, which is the nearby village, accounts to 50,000 inhabitants including the surrounding region. An Advisory Committee at a community level was set up concerned with the emergency services and the NPP related problems. One of the outstanding problems is the planned interim storage for radioactive waste. The unsolved question of long term storage in Belgium resulted in the fact that general situation is not promising for launching the debate on the future of nuclear energy. The mission of the delegation from Huy visited Tokaimura with the aim to measure the scale of real responsibilities and the concern against nuclear power that the accident created in the population

  6. The Relationship between Motor Skills, Perceived Social Support, and Internalizing Problems in a Community Adolescent Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Oreste Mancini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor motor skills are associated with a range of psychosocial consequences, including internalizing (anxious and depressive symptoms. The Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis provides a causal framework to explain this association. The framework posits that motor skills impact internalizing problems through an indirect effect via perceived social support. However, empirical evaluation is required. We examined whether motor skills has an indirect effect on anxious and depressive symptoms via perceived family support domains. Methods: This study used a community sample of 93 adolescents (12-16 years. Participants completed measures of motor skills, perceived social support across three dimensions (family, friend, and significant other, depressive symptoms, and anxious symptoms. Age, gender, verbal IQ, and ADHD symptoms were included as control variables.Results: Regression analysis using PROCESS revealed that motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support, but not by perceived friend support or significant other support. The negative association between motor skills and anxious symptoms was not mediated by any perceived social support domain. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with previous literature indicating an association between motor skills and internalizing problems. However, we identified a different pattern of relationships across anxious and depressive symptoms. While anxiety and depressive symptoms were highly correlated, motor skills had an indirect effect on depressive symptoms via perceived family support only. Our findings highlight the importance of family support as a potential protective factor in the onset of depressive symptoms. This study provides partial support for the Elaborated Environmental Stress Hypothesis, however further research is required.

  7. Adolescent Personality in Social Contexts: Pals, Partners, and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, R.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current dissertation was to show how adolescent personality was linked to youths’ developmental outcomes. Our findings suggest that adolescent personality has concurrent and predictive relations to a variety of important developmental outcomes. Specifically, adolescent personality was associated with internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors at an individual level. Also, adolescent personality was related to conflict frequency and conflict resolution strategies as well ...

  8. THE SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF CONSUMPTION: PROBLEMS AND EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor K. Beliaevskiy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of study and estimation ofsocial efficiency of consumption, namely, the results of satisfaction of needs throughboth the mediation of market and non-market channels is considered in this article. The concept and content of these phenomena and processes are unveiled,the specific features of formation of their results and effectiveness are revealed. The materials of state statistics treated by the author were used for the purposesof this study.

  9. Homelessness as social and individual problem – possibilities and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Piechowicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article consists of several parts. The first part includes definitional considerations over the notion of homelessness. It also describes social situation of the homeless, whereas the second part concentrates on both the analysis of causes and effects of homelessness and on the attempt to show the scale of this phenomenon. The last part of the article focuses on the prevention of homelessness. It emphasizes the importance of interdisciplinarity of preventive and compensatory actions in the scope of the discussed phenomenon.

  10. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan

    2012-08-01

    There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3-6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents' attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents' attitude to school were not significant. A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school.

  11. Reducing child conduct problems and promoting social skills in a middle-income country: cluster randomised controlled trial†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, Helen; Scott, Stephen; Jones, Kelvyn; Walker, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need for effective, affordable interventions to prevent child mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Aims To determine the effects of a universal pre-school-based intervention on child conduct problems and social skills at school and at home. Method In a cluster randomised design, 24 community pre-schools in inner-city areas of Kingston, Jamaica, were randomly assigned to receive the Incredible Years Teacher Training intervention (n = 12) or to a control group (n = 12). Three children from each class with the highest levels of teacher-reported conduct problems were selected for evaluation, giving 225 children aged 3–6 years. The primary outcome was observed child behaviour at school. Secondary outcomes were child behaviour by parent and teacher report, child attendance and parents’ attitude to school. The study is registered as ISRCTN35476268. Results Children in intervention schools showed significantly reduced conduct problems (effect size (ES) = 0.42) and increased friendship skills (ES = 0.74) through observation, significant reductions to teacher-reported (ES = 0.47) and parent-reported (ES = 0.22) behaviour difficulties and increases in teacher-reported social skills (ES = 0.59) and child attendance (ES = 0.30). Benefits to parents’ attitude to school were not significant. Conclusions A low-cost, school-based intervention in a middle-income country substantially reduces child conduct problems and increases child social skills at home and at school. PMID:22500015

  12. Interrupciones de embarazo en adolescentes. Problemática social y humanística Abortion in adolescence, a social and humanistic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Fonseca León

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio observacional, analítico y transversal para evaluar el comportamiento del aborto en adolescentes y su significado como problema social y humanístico en el Hospital Materno Infantil Ana Betancourt de Mora de la ciudad de Camagüey desde el 2001 al 2008. De un universo constituido por 31 876 interrupciones de embarazos, 9 952 fueron en adolescentes las cuales representan el 31,2 por ciento constituyendo la muestra del estudio. La edad de la primera relación sexual fue entre los 14 y 17 años. El factor de riesgo más frecuente fue la infección vaginal en 6 478 casos. El olvido y el exceso de confianza los motivos para no usar métodos anticonceptivos en 5 639 jóvenes. Las complicaciones más usuales fueron la endometritis y los restos ovulares con 265 y 73 respectivamente. Las fuentes de educación sexual suelen ser los padres, amigos y los programas escolares. La prevención del aborto en la adolescencia constituye un pilar importante en la disminución de sus complicaciones como problema social y biológico.We carried out a cross-sectional, analytic, observational study to assess abortion behavior in adolescents and its significance as a social and humanistic problem at Camagüey’s Ana Betancourt de Mora Maternal Hospital from 2001 to 2008. Out of a universe comprised by 31 876 abortions, we selected a sample of 9 952 cases of adolescents having firstly experienced sex at ages 14 to 17, representing 31, 2 percent. Vaginitis was the most frequent risk factor with 6 478 cases. Oversight and overconfidence motivated lack of contraception use in 5 639 cases. Endometritis and ovular remnants were the most common complications with 265 and 73, respectively. Usually, parents, friends, and school programs are the sources of sex education. Prevention is an important pillar to reduce social and biological complications.

  13. Stunden abstract. Der Einsatz von Nachrichten im Leistungskurs "Social Problems" (Class-Hour Plan. The Introduction of News in the Honors Course "Social Problems")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegler, Klaus

    1977-01-01

    Gives a detailed ESL (English as a second language) class-hour plan for using a BBC radio news program on vandalism as a social problem. Teaching goals, teaching materials and methodology are discussed. The working texts are appended; the news tests are available free from the author. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  14. The Development of an Internet-Based Treatment for Problem Gamblers and Concerned Significant Others: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anders; Magnusson, Kristoffer; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard; Gumpert, Clara Hellner

    2018-06-01

    Problem gambling creates significant harm for the gambler and for concerned significant others (CSOs). While several studies have investigated the effects of individual cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for problem gambling, less is known about the effects of involving CSOs in treatment. Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) has shown promising results when working with substance use disorders by involving both the user and a CSO. This pilot study investigated BCT for problem gambling, as well as the feasibility of performing a larger scale randomized controlled trial. 36 participants, 18 gamblers and 18 CSOs, were randomized to either BCT or individual CBT for the gambler. Both interventions were Internet-delivered self-help interventions with therapist support. Both groups of gamblers improved on all outcome measures, but there were no differences between the groups. The CSOs in the BCT group lowered their scores on anxiety and depression more than the CSOs of those randomized to the individual CBT group did. The implications of the results and the feasibility of the trial are discussed.

  15. Ayn Rand phenomenon in contemporary social and ethical problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Korobko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to give a general outline of the phenomenon of well­known American writer and philosopher Ayn Rand in contemporary social and ethical space. Application to the research of life, literary and philosophical heritage of the writer makes it possible to assess its impact on the current situation in politics and philosophy. Review of Ayn Rand’s artistic positions confirms her role as a landmark figure, who represented at that time the actual socio­cultural request of active man in contemporary philosophy and politics, “putting down” in literary form complex of philosophical questions to the level of the ordinary man. Ayn Rand is the focus of the social practices in which she was formed, lived and worked. The ideas of almost all philosophical subjects are presented in her works in a simple way, but they are fundamentally different from conventional notions of ethics, politics and philosophy in general, even the ideas of philosophers, whom she honored, such as Aristotle. That’s why modern philosophers are interested in studying her works now. After all, still there has no comprehensive academic analysis of her philosophical and scientific works of art.

  16. Factors affecting the social problem-solving ability of baccalaureate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Ying

    2014-01-01

    The hospital environment is characterized by time pressure, uncertain information, conflicting goals, high stakes, stress, and dynamic conditions. These demands mean there is a need for nurses with social problem-solving skills. This study set out to (1) investigate the social problem-solving ability of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students in Macao and (2) identify the association between communication skill, clinical interaction, interpersonal dysfunction, and social problem-solving ability. All nursing students were recruited in one public institute through the census method. The research design was exploratory, cross-sectional, and quantitative. The study used the Chinese version of the Social Problem Solving Inventory short form (C-SPSI-R), Communication Ability Scale (CAS), Clinical Interactive Scale (CIS), and Interpersonal Dysfunction Checklist (IDC). Macao nursing students were more likely to use the two constructive or adaptive dimensions rather than the three dysfunctional dimensions of the C-SPSI-R to solve their problems. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that communication ability (ß=.305, pproblem-solving after controlling for covariates. Macao has had no problem-solving training in its educational curriculum; an effective problem-solving training should be implemented as part of the curriculum. With so many changes in healthcare today, nurses must be good social problem-solvers in order to deliver holistic care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Some significant but buried studies of embodiment and materiality in social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nevile, Maurice Richard

    When preparing a recent review on rising interest in ‘embodiment’ in EM CA research on social interaction (Nevile 2015) (e.g. gesture, body, mobility; cf. ‘multimodality’), considering over 500 studies, I was delighted to be reminded of, or often ‘discover’, some less-well-known-and-cited studies...... some to highlight from the prominent journal Research on Language and Social Interaction. The paper argues that active recognition of the contribution of the body-in-interaction might be relatively recent, but scholarly awareness of it is not (in EM CA and beyond). My aim is to resurrect some early...... discussion of doing CA and EM as a research community. Goodwin, C. (2000) Action and embodiment within situated human interaction. Journal of Pragmatics, 32, 1489–1522. Nevile, M. (2015) The embodied turn in research on language and social interaction. Research on Language and Social Interaction. 48,2: 121...

  18. [The nurse's thought for a significant social contribution by the production and use of scientific knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pépin, Jacinthe

    2015-06-01

    The social contribution of nurses to the health of the population is mainly defined by the knowledge supporting their actions. Conceptualization in nursing guides the production and utilisation of scientific knowledge within the discipline. The purpose of this paper is to present the recent thoughts on nursing theory and to provide some strategies to integrate them within the activities of knowledge mobilization, in practice, research, and education. When nurses are engaged in mobilizing theoretical and empirical knowledge in answering nursing practice questions and in discussing social health issues, they participate in persons, families, and communities health improvement, while affirming their disciplinary and social identity. Called to be change agents in health care systems, with other professional team members, it is important that nurses be prepared to mobilize knowledge and to engage in critical reasoning, and ethical conduct. Their social contribution will be as strong as the value they assign to nursing knowledge and their participation in producing it.

  19. Parental background, social disadvantage, public "care," and psychological problems in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, A; Ten Brinke, J; Flouri, E

    2000-11-01

    To assess whether the structure of the parental background (birth, restructured, widowed, single) or the context (severe social disadvantage or care) in childhood is associated with psychological problems in adolescence and adulthood. Data on 8,441 cohort members of the National Child Development Study were used to explore the impact of parental background on maladjustment at age 16, as assessed by the Rutter A Health and Behaviour Checklist, and psychological distress at age 33, as assessed by the Malaise Inventory. Restructured parenting (without disadvantage or care) was not a risk factor for maladjustment at age 16. Rather, a childhood experience of care or social disadvantage was significantly related to psychosocial problems at age 16. Psychological distress at age 33 was associated with maladjustment at age 16. A childhood experience of care was associated with a tendency to adult psychological distress in men, as was growing up with a single parent. It is not the structure of the family background but the context that is more strongly associated with maladjustment in adolescence. A childhood experience of single parenthood and an experience of care predicted adult psychological distress in men but not in women.

  20. The relationship between self-esteem and problem behaviour, social and academic competence

    OpenAIRE

    Theie, Steinar

    2007-01-01

    This study analyses the relationship between low self-esteem and problem behaviour, social competence and academic achievement among students in lower secondary schools in Norway. 2164 students in 11 lower secondary schools filled in a self-evaluation scale on self-esteem (Harter 1999). Teachers evaluated the same students using the problem-behaviour-scale, social competence scale and academic achievement scale developed by Gresham and Elliott (1990). Correlations were computed between each f...

  1. Attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Toshimasa; Kawachi, Yousuke; Abe, Chihiro; Otomo, Yuki; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2017-04-04

    Effective social problem-solving abilities can contribute to decreased risk of poor mental health. In addition, physical activity has a favorable effect on mental health. These previous studies suggest that physical activity and social problem-solving ability can interact by helping to sustain mental health. The present study aimed to determine the association between attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students. Information on physical activity and social problem-solving was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. We analyzed data from 185 students who participated in the questionnaire surveys and psychological tests. Social problem-solving as measured by the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) (median score 10.85) was the dependent variable. Multiple logistic regression analysis was employed to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for higher SPSI-R according to physical activity categories. The multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the ORs (95% CI) in reference to participants who said they never considered exercising were 2.08 (0.69-6.93), 1.62 (0.55-5.26), 2.78 (0.86-9.77), and 6.23 (1.81-23.97) for participants who did not exercise but intended to start, tried to exercise but did not, exercised but not regularly, and exercised regularly, respectively. This finding suggested that positive linear association between physical activity and social problem-solving ability (p value for linear trend social problem-solving ability.

  2. Mapping of Junior High School Students’ Social Relation Problem and the Needed Assisting Model

    OpenAIRE

    Arbin Janu Setiyowati; Marthen Pali; Bambang Budi Wiyono; Triyono

    2017-01-01

    This research aims to describe Junior High School students’ social relation problem and the needed assisting model. This research used descriptive design with survey method. The subjects of this research were Junior High School students in the three cities in East Java. This research used purposive sampling as well. The data was collected by using questionnaire. The data analysis was conducted descriptively. This research found that Junior High School students’ social relation problems includ...

  3. Children’s social self-concept and internalizing problems: the influence of peers and teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilt, Jantine L; van Lier, Pol A C; Leflot, Geertje; Onghena, Patrick; Colpin, Hilde

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children’s social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social self-concept, and teacher-reported internalizing problems were assessed longitudinally in the fall and spring of Grades 2 and 3. Teacher reports of support to the child were assessed in Grade 2. Results showed that peer rejection impeded children’s social self-concept, which in turn affected the development of internalizing problems. Partial support was found for individual (but not classroom-level) teacher support to buffer the adverse effects of peer problems on children’s self-concept, thereby mitigating its indirect effects on internalizing problems.

  4. Excel 2016 for social work statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    This text is a step-by-step guide for students taking a first course in statistics for social work and for social work managers and practitioners who want to learn how to use Excel to solve practical statistics problems in in the workplace, whether or not they have taken a course in statistics. There is no other text for a first course in social work statistics that teaches students, step-by-step, how to use Excel to solve interesting social work statistics problems. Excel 2016 for Social Work Statistics explains statistical formulas and offers practical examples for how students can solve real-world social work statistics problems. This book leaves detailed explanations of statistical theory to other statistics textbooks and focuses entirely on practical, real-world problem solving. Each chapter briefly explains a topic and then demonstrates how to use Excel commands and formulas to solve specific social work statistics problems.  This book gives practice in using Excel in two different ways:  (1) writing ...

  5. [Social problems encountered during prenatal care in a Paris maternity ward].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguler, A; Alfaro, C; Bonniaus, G; Renders, P; Blot, P; Brodin, M; Lombrail, P

    1998-06-01

    In 1993, about 2,600 children are born in Robert Debré Hospital (RDH), a hospital specialized in pediatrics and obstetrics located in Paris. One hundred and seventy nine of the mothers contacted the hospital social service during pregnancy. The main goal of this study was to describe the social problems encountered by these women and the solutions proposed by the social service of RDH. The second aim was to describe the socio-demographic profile and medical problems of this population. At first contact, 45% of the women had no social coverage, and only 18% had a steady job. Most social problems were related to administrative procedures. Financial and housing problems were more difficult to solve in this context. These figures reflect the growing problem of precarity, with its consequences. A hospital social service is not the right place to solve these very complex problems. The most worrisome point is that the living conditions of newborn children are often unknown after delivery.

  6. Children's social self-concept and internalizing problems: The influence of peers and teachers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spilt, J.L.; van Lier, P.A.C.; Leflot, G.; Onghena, P.; Colpin, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to understand how relationships with peers and teachers contribute to the development of internalizing problems via children's social self-concept. The sample included 570 children aged 7 years 5 months (SD = 4.6 months). Peer nominations of peer rejection, child-reported social

  7. Social Information Processing in Preschool Children: Relations to Sociodemographic Risk and Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Yair; Sorongon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Using a multicomponent, process-oriented approach, the links between social information processing during the preschool years and (a) sociodemographic risk and (b) behavior problems in preschool were examined in a community sample of 196 children. Findings provided support for our initial hypotheses that aspects of social information processing in…

  8. Interparental Conflict and Children's Social Problems: Insecurity and Friendship Affiliation as Cascading Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Patrick T.; Martin, Meredith J.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2018-01-01

    Although social difficulties have been identified as sequelae of children's experiences with interparental conflict and insecurity, little is known about the specific mechanisms underlying their vulnerability to social problems. Guided by emotional security theory, this study tested the hypothesis that children's emotional insecurity mediates…

  9. Academic and social integration and study progress in problem based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.E. Severiens (Sabine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe present study explores the effects of problem-based learning (PBL) on social and academic integration and study progress. Three hundred and five first-year students from three different psychology curricula completed a questionnaire on social and academic integration. Effects of a

  10. Education Technologies in Addressing the Problem of Forming the Socially Active Individual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Irina N.

    2016-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of technological support of the educational process in solving the problem of forming the socially active individual. The authors studied the value of the category "social activity" and analyzed educational technologies that have an impact on its formation. The obtained results gave the possibility…

  11. Medico-social problems of teenage hawkers in Sabon-Gari Local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medico-social problems of teenage hawkers in Sabon-Gari Local Government Area, Kaduna, North-West Nigeria. ... Two hundred and seven (207) respondents were interviewed through interviewer-administered questionnaires and data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software.

  12. Identification of Social-Emotional Problems among Young Children in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H.; Conn, Anne-Marie; Szilagyi, Peter G.; Blumkin, Aaron; Baldwin, Constance D.; Szilagyi, Moira A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how best to implement behavioral screening recommendations in practice, especially for children in foster care, who are at risk for having social-emotional problems. Two validated screening tools are recommended for use with young children: the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE) identifies…

  13. Mob justice in Tanzania: a medico-social problem | Ng'walali ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate the magnitude of mob justice and associated factors. Background: Mob justice is a social and public health problem that has grown in Tanzania in recent decades that has negative effects on social and health of the country, communities, and families. Materials and Methods: A four-year autopsy ...

  14. Predicting Depression, Social Phobia, and Violence in Early Adulthood from Childhood Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, W. Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J. David; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study examined childhood behavior problems at ages 10 and 11 years as predictors of young adult depression, social phobia, and violence at age 21 years. Method: Data were collected as part of the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal study of 808 elementary school students from high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle.…

  15. Primary health care physicians' treatment of psychosocial problems: implications for social work.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, R.; Rabinowitz, J.; Feldman, D.; Boerma, W.

    1996-01-01

    This study explores the extent to which primary care physicians serve as gatekeepers for the treatment of psychosocial problems and the extent to which they have contact with social workers. We also attempted to identify physician variables related to gatekeeping and amount of contact with social

  16. Incorporating social and cultural significance of large old trees in conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicharska, Malgorzata; Mikusiński, Grzegorz

    2014-12-01

    In addition to providing key ecological functions, large old trees are a part of a social realm and as such provide numerous social-cultural benefits to people. However, their social and cultural values are often neglected when designing conservation policies and management guidelines. We believe that awareness of large old trees as a part of human identity and cultural heritage is essential when addressing the issue of their decline worldwide. Large old trees provide humans with aesthetic, symbolic, religious, and historic values, as well as concrete tangible benefits, such as leaves, branches, or nuts. In many cultures particularly large trees are treated with reverence. Also, contemporary popular culture utilizes the image of trees as sentient beings and builds on the ancient myths that attribute great powers to large trees. Although the social and cultural role of large old trees is usually not taken into account in conservation, accounting for human-related values of these trees is an important part of conservation policy because it may strengthen conservation by highlighting the potential synergies in protecting ecological and social values. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  17. Suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social function in adolescents with eczema: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Jon A; Lien, Lars; Dalgard, Florence; Bjertness, Espen; Stern, Robert S

    2014-07-01

    There are few studies on psychosocial problems in adolescents with eczema. We performed a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study to explore the relationship of suicidal ideation, mental health problems, and social functioning with eczema. A total of 4,744 adolescents (18-19 years) were invited for the study, of whom 3,775 (80%) participated. The overall prevalence of current eczema was 9.7%. Among those with current eczema, 15.5% reported suicidal ideation compared with 9.1% among those without eczema, significantly associated in a multivariate model (odds ratio 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.31-2.68). In a subgroup analyses, the prevalence of suicidal ideation in those with both eczema and itch was 23.8%, and was significantly associated, compared with those without eczema (3.57, 2.46-5.67). Eczema was associated with mental health problems assessed by the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (1.72, 1.21-2.45) and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist 10 (1.63, 1.23-2.16). Five questions assessed social function: feeling attached to family and friends; thriving at school; experiencing bullying; and romantic relationships. Boys with current eczema were less likely to have had romantic relationships (1.93, 1.21-3.08). Eczema in late adolescence is associated with suicidal ideation and mental health problems but rarely with social problems. Our findings point to the importance of addressing mental health issues in adolescents with eczema.

  18. Significance of light and social cues in the maintenance of temporal organization in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winget, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Ogawa, K. H.; Holley, D. C.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of light:darkness (LD) cycles and social interaction on the response to long-term confinement (105 days) were investigated experimentally in three groups of three male subjects aged 20-24 years. Data from measurements of physiological parameters indicating changes in circadian rhythms are presented in graphs and analyzed; it is found that the LD-induced rhythm changes observed in previous studies of subjects isolated singly do not appear when subjects are confined in groups of three, suggesting a positive adaptive effect of social contact. In one subject who was transferred to a different group at day 84, hostile social interactions and poor circadian-rhythm entrainment were observed; the possible reasons for this response are considered.

  19. The proliferation of sexual health: Diverse social problems and the legitimation of sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Steven; Mamo, Laura

    2017-09-01

    Especially since the 1990s, the term sexual health has flourished in professional, commercial, and lay domains. Yet the more the phrase has become visible, the greater the mutability in its meanings. These developments matter for an understanding of healthism-the idea that modern individuals are enjoined to recognize a moral obligation to maximize their health. Theorists of healthism have paid relatively little attention to sexuality and its frequent rendering as controversial, illegitimate, or stigmatizing. We argue that because pairing "sexual" with "health" serves to legitimize and sanitize sexuality, the framing of sexual issues as matters of sexual health is widely appealing across multiple social arenas, and this appeal helps to explain both the proliferation of the term and the diversification of its uses. Secondly, we argue that while the polysemy of sexual health might suggest that the phrase lacks a clear meaning, in another sense the term is quite meaningful: content analysis of journal articles, newspaper articles, and websites shows that the semantics of sexual health can be categorized into six social problem niches, within which sexuality and health are construed in distinctive ways. For each social problem framing, we identify the implied meanings of both sexuality and health, the "opposite" of sexual health, the institutional action plans, the individual injunctions, and the presumed ontologies of bodies and selves. By focusing on how the conjoining of "sexual" and "health" changes the meanings of both terms, our analysis adds nuance to discussions of healthism: it challenges a singular conception of healthism and points to the need for clearer consideration of its different forms. At the same time, we call attention to the significance of "sexual healthism" as a particular example of the "will to health" while also highlighting implications of characterizing sexual issues as matters of health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relevance of Spiritual Principles for Resolving Social Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Society unknowingly follows the course of spiritual evolution. Spirituality is the quest for self-existent order and harmonious perfection. The evolution of society is driven by an irrepressible aspiration for the values that are the translation and embodiment of that order. The history of civilization is a record of its progressive emergence. Spirituality is the quest for a unifying reality that transcends all limitations, distinctions and differences; an inner oneness that unites rather than divides us; a faith in and quest for perfection in all its myriad forms; and a power accessible to human beings to overcome impossible obstacles and achieve the inconceivable. It is founded on the principles of absolute freedom, equality and unity. In the modern era, faith in spirit is embodied in the realization of the intrinsic value, extraordinary endowments and unmanifest potentials of the human being. We find expressions of it in the idealism and power released by revolutionary social change. We revere its power in great individuals. The aspiration for perfection in any form or field of endeavor is spiritual. So also we recognize expressions of spirit in the movements of the masses. Spirituality is not confined to pursuit of the otherworldly or unattainable. It is a living power for the transformation of human consciousness and the solution to the compelling challenges confronting humanity.

  1. Effects of traumatic brain injury on a virtual reality social problem solving task and relations to cortical thickness in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanten, Gerri; Cook, Lori; Orsten, Kimberley; Chapman, Sandra B; Li, Xiaoqi; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Schnelle, Kathleen P; Levin, Harvey S

    2011-02-01

    Social problem solving was assessed in 28 youth ages 12-19 years (15 with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 13 uninjured) using a naturalistic, computerized virtual reality (VR) version of the Interpersonal Negotiations Strategy interview (Yeates, Schultz, & Selman, 1991). In each scenario, processing load condition was varied in terms of number of characters and amount of information. Adolescents viewed animated scenarios depicting social conflict in a virtual microworld environment from an avatar's viewpoint, and were questioned on four problem solving steps: defining the problem, generating solutions, selecting solutions, and evaluating the likely outcome. Scoring was based on a developmental scale in which responses were judged as impulsive, unilateral, reciprocal, or collaborative, in order of increasing score. Adolescents with TBI were significantly impaired on the summary VR-Social Problem Solving (VR-SPS) score in Condition A (2 speakers, no irrelevant information), p=0.005; in Condition B (2 speakers+irrelevant information), p=0.035; and Condition C (4 speakers+irrelevant information), p=0.008. Effect sizes (Cohen's D) were large (A=1.40, B=0.96, C=1.23). Significant group differences were strongest and most consistent for defining the problems and evaluating outcomes. The relation of task performance to cortical thickness of specific brain regions was also explored, with significant relations found with orbitofrontal regions, the frontal pole, the cuneus, and the temporal pole. Results are discussed in the context of specific cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying social problem solving deficits after childhood TBI. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Apoc Social: A Mobile Interactive and Social Learning Platform for Collaborative Solving of Advanced Problems in Organic Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievertsen, Niels; Carreira, Erick M

    2018-02-01

    Mobile devices such as smartphones are carried in the pockets of university students around the globe and are increasingly cheap to come by. These portable devices have evolved into powerful and interconnected handheld computers, which, among other applications, can be used as advanced learning tools and providers of targeted, curated content. Herein, we describe Apoc Social (Advanced Problems in Organic Chemistry Social), a mobile application that assists both learning and teaching college-level organic chemistry both in the classroom and on the go. With more than 750 chemistry exercises available, Apoc Social facilitates collaborative learning through discussion boards and fosters enthusiasm for complex organic chemistry.

  3. The Significance of Social Welfare Attitudes in Young People’s Entrepreneurial Intentions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teemu Rantanen

    2015-05-01

    According to main recommendation, influencing young people’s confidence in their abilities and skills is more important than trying to influence general attitudes about entrepreneurship. Thus, entrepreneurship education has a key role in supporting young people’s entrepreneurship. National differences in intentions and in appreciation of entrepreneurship can be explained by societal and historical factors. Entrepreneurial intention is typically explained by psychological, economic, and cultural factors, and by social capital. Study results show that social political factors are also important in explaining entrepreneurial intentions.

  4. College drinking problems and social anxiety: The importance of drinking context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H; Buckner, Julia D

    2014-06-01

    Social anxiety more than quadruples the risk of developing an alcohol use disorder, yet it is inconsistently linked to heavy alcohol use. Elucidation of the relation between social anxiety and alcohol use is an important next step in treating and preventing risky drinking. College students routinely face potentially anxiety-provoking social situations (e.g., meeting new people) and socially anxious undergraduates are especially vulnerable to alcohol-related impairment. Drinking to cope with social anxiety is thought to reinforce alcohol use, yet research on coping-motivated drinking among socially anxious students has yielded inconsistent findings. Further, undergraduate drinking varies by drinking context, yet the role of context in drinking behaviors among socially anxious individuals remains unclear. The current study sought to examine the relationship of social anxiety and drinking quantity in specific drinking contexts among undergraduates (N = 611). We also evaluated whether relevant drinking contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and alcohol-related problems. Clinically elevated social anxiety was related to heavier consumption in negative emotion (e.g., feeling sad or angry) and personal/intimate (e.g., before sexual intercourse) contexts, but not social/convivial contexts (e.g., parties, bars). Quantity of alcohol consumed in negative emotion and personal/intimate contexts mediated the relationship between social anxiety and drinking problem severity. Drinking in personal/intimate contexts demonstrated a unique mediational role. Findings suggest that heavy drinking in particular contexts (especially personal/intimate and negative emotion) may play an important role in drinking problems among socially anxious individuals.

  5. THE REALIZATION PROBLEMS OF SOME SOCIALLY VULNERABLE GROUPS' OF POPULATION POTENTIAL IN THE OUTLYING DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patimat Alieva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the consideration and analysis of the main problems, concerning the realization of socially vulnerable groups' of the population potential. The problem of women and youth employment development takes on a special acuteness and actualite in the outlying district with a labour redundant labour market.

  6. The Construction of Elder Abuse as a Social Problem: A Canadian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux, Thomas G.; Petrunik, Michael

    This paper focuses on the referral structure (and the primary definers within this structure) in terms of which elder abuse is being defined as a social problem in Canada and interest groups are being mobilized to deal with the alleged problem. Preliminary research indicates that the major impetus is, in the main, not coming from organizations of…

  7. Fear perception and social behavioral problems in children with epilepsy: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Ceciel; Brouwer, O.F.; Veenstra, Wencke S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Nassau and Drotar (1997) state that children with epilepsy often show emotional and behavioral problems. They also hypothesize that these problems may be caused by impaired social competences. Golouboff et al. (2008) show that in children with temporal lobe epilepsy, impaired

  8. Social Issues and Problem-Based Learning in Sociology: Opportunities and Challenges in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglitis, Daina S.; Buntman, Fran L.; Alexander, Dameon V.

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses the use of problem-based learning (PBL) in the undergraduate sociology classroom. PBL shifts students from the role of passive listeners and learners to active knowledge builders and communicators through the use of concise and engaging social problem cases. PBL creates opportunities for building substantive area knowledge,…

  9. Sexual Orientation Disclosure to Parents: Problem Solving and Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavech, April; And Others

    A study of gay men and their experiences of "coming out" to their parents found that both the mother's and father's reported level of education and religious orthodoxy significantly predicted the relationship change between the mother or the father and the self-disclosing son. This study sought to broaden the available database by sampling both…

  10. HUMANIST VALUES OF SPORT AND THE PROBLEMS OF SOCIAL GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov SHEREMET

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the consideration of sport activity under the perspective of social philosophy, with special attention given to core values of the contemporary sport manifested particularly by the Olympic movement. It is argued that the main intellectual source of the Olympism is the translation of liberal ideology into the sphere of sport, with the idea of dialogue as a norm of interpersonal relation serving as a pivotal in socio-cultural foundations of the contemporary Olympic movement. The current crisis of sport is described in the paper in terms of further commercialization and professionalization that corrupts its immanent original ideal used to manifest the humanistic and universal values of sport for all the humankind in general. The contemporary market economy is demonstrated as the one which has transformed sport into means for achieving business success, individualistic ‘record’ prestige and anthropological representation. It is stated that the denoted trend could be opposed by the humanization of sport, its main criterion being the role of the dialogue: sport is humane as far as it is discursive. The author argues that to preserve discourse in sport is to perform the task for humanism movement best defined by the principle ‘sport for human person, and not human person for sport’. VALORILE UMANISTE ALE SPORTULUI ŞI PROBLEMELE GLOBALIZĂRII SOCIALEAcest articol are ca subiect activitatea sportivă cercetată din perspectiva filosofiei sociale, o atenţie deosebită fiind acordată valorilor de bază ale sportului contemporan manifestate, în special, în mişcarea olimpică. Se susţine că sursa intelectua­lă de bază a olimpismului este ideologia liberală implementată în sfera sportului, promovând ideea că dialogul, ca o normă a relaţiilor inter­personale, serveşte în calitate de fundaţie socioculturală a mişcării olimpice contemporane. Criza actuală a sportului este descrisă în lucrare

  11. Illuminating the Dark Matter of Social Neuroscience: Considering the Problem of Social Interaction from Philosophical, Psychological, and Neuroscientific Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa ePrzyrembel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people’s mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despites its importance to the human condition, there are still quite a few debates about how we actually solve the problem of understanding other peoples’ actions, feelings and thoughts. Here we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review we show that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary levels of analysis are premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to simulation theories, online social cognition or shared neural networks underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto theory-theory accounts of other agents mental states, offline social cognition or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind. We further propose that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interaction of two independent agents whose unpredictable behaviour requires a continual updating of models of their partner internal state. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behaviour and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the unpredictability of their partners behaviour. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect the processes unique to social interaction because much real social behaviour may reflect the use of basic cognitive and emotional process in a novel and unique manner. Given the role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of social interaction will help to shed new light on the dark matter of social

  12. [Child labour: a social problem that we are committed to].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutri, Adrián; Hammermüller, Erica; Zubieta, Ana; Müller Opet, Beatriz; Miguelez, Lilia

    2012-08-01

    Child labor is a complex problem that violates the fundamental rights of children and affects their psychophysical development. Child labor affects 215 million children in the world and 115 million perform activities defined as the "worst forms of child labor". Most child labor is in agriculture (60%), where the majority are unpaid family workers, compared to 26% in services and 7% in industry. Argentina has adopted the abolitionist position, promoting prevention and eradication within an inclusive public policy aimed to all children can exercise their rights. The Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría endorses this approach and proposes a course of action: the health team training, and dissemination of the risks of child labor and occupational teenager safety standards. As pediatricians we must be involved in defending children rights, and be able to detect any situation of child labor, and protect the health of children and adolescents. The joint interaction with family, community and other sectors of society will strengthen the network needed to implement child labor eradication policies.

  13. Examining How Overweight Adolescents Process Social Information: The Significance of Friendship Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Spencer, Sarah V.; Salvy, Sarah-Jeanne

    2010-01-01

    The current study examines the social information processing and coping styles (SIP) of overweight and average weight adolescents, and whether the associations between friendship quality and SIP differ for these two groups (N = 156, M age = 12.79). On the basis of height and weight assessments, overweight (n = 70) and average weight (n = 86)…

  14. Beyond Social Constructionism: A Structural Analysis of the Cultural Significance of the Child Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Jane

    2009-01-01

    This article challenges the dominance of social constructionist theories of childhood by presenting a structural analysis of the child star as a recurrent, universal feature in the myths and legends of the world. The article argues that by conceptualising our understanding of children and childhood as being due solely to the socio-historical…

  15. The path of Brazilian social assistance policy post-1988: the significance of institutions and ideas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Guimarães Duarte Sátyro

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the construction of the social assistance policy at the federal level in Brazil over the last two decades. It focuses on the Federal Constitution of 1988 and subsequent infra-constitutional legislation, especially that enacted during the Fernando Henrique Cardoso (FHC and Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula administrations, which showed very different conceptions of social policy. For both administrations, we analyze the consequences of the institutional changes and legal framework introduced as well as the social policy ideas that informed them. It is argued that the construction of social assistance in Brazil demanded much more than the constitutional provisions enacted in 1988. It included the entire set of subsequent constitutional legislation, a process in which the ruling party played a critical role. Categories of neo-institutionalism and the method of process tracing, plus in-depth interviews with relevant actors, were employed. Our findings point to the impact of the interaction between institutional structures, like constitutions and policy legacies, and the political projects of governing parties. Constitutional provisions, even if not bound to a policy, can prevent setbacks and anchor the action of pressure groups. They can also allow progressive administration to change the status quo.

  16. The Under-Recognition of the Significance of Social Class Conceptions of Education in Piketty's "Capital"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Piketty's "Capital" has created enormous interest around the world, not least in educational circles. One reason for this may be his readiness to refer, in a book largely focused on economic history, to the ways that education has, and might, contribute to better and more equal social outcomes. This article welcomes this approach, but…

  17. Reducing Children’s Behavior Problems through Social Capital: A Causal Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Turley, Ruth N.; Gamoran, Adam; McCarty, Alyn Turner; Fish, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Behavior problems among young children have serious detrimental effects on short and long-term educational outcomes. An especially promising prevention strategy may be one that focuses on strengthening the relationships among families in schools, or social capital. However, empirical research on social capital has been constrained by conceptual and causal ambiguity. This study attempts to construct a more focused conceptualization of social capital and aims to determine the causal effects of social capital on children’s behavior. Using data from a cluster randomized trial of 52 elementary schools, we apply several multilevel models to assess the causal relationship, including intent to treat and treatment on the treated analyses. Taken together, these analyses provide stronger evidence than previous studies that social capital improves children’s behavioral outcomes and that these improvements are not simply a result of selection into social relations but result from the social relations themselves. PMID:27886729

  18. Sociodemographic variables and social values: relationship with work-attendance problems in Brunei public- and private-sector employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Zakaria, Gamal Abdul Nasir; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study investigated the degree to which selected sociodemographic variables and social values were related to work-attendance problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public- and private-sector employees and the nature of this relationship. Materials and methods This quantitative study used the field-survey approach to administer research instruments directly to participants. This enabled the researchers to help participants who needed assistance in completing the measures properly, so as to increase the number of usable returns. Results Two sociodemographic variables (seeking help from a counselor/psychologist and marital status) correlated significantly with work attendance. Private-sector employees were more likely to have work-attendance problems than government workers. Both single and married employees and the chief wage earner in the household were more likely to have work-attendance issues to deal with compared to their counterparts. However, employees who sought help from a counselor/psychologist were far less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to those who did not get such help. The most significant social-value correlates with work-attendance problems were interpersonal communication, employer–employee relationship, work-stress problems, self-presentation, self-regulation, self-direction, and interpersonal trust. Self-regulation, self-direction, and satisfaction with work-related achievements significantly predicted work-attendance problems positively, while interpersonal communication problems and work-stress problems predicted work-attendance problems negatively. Low scorers on self-regulation and self-direction, as well as on satisfaction with work-related achievements, were more likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high scorers. However, low scorers on interpersonal communication and work-stress problems were less likely to have work-attendance problems compared to high-scoring peers. Conclusion Ample

  19. Excel 2016 for social science statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    This book shows the capabilities of Microsoft Excel in teaching social science statistics effectively. Similar to the previously published Excel 2013 for Social Sciences Statistics, this book is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical social science problems. If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you. Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in social science courses. Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past. However, Excel 2016 for Social Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in ...

  20. A Social-Ecological Approach to Addressing Emotional and Behavioral Problems in Schools: Focusing on Group Processes and Social Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trach, Jessica; Lee, Matthew; Hymel, Shelley

    2018-01-01

    A substantial body of evidence verifies that social-emotional learning (SEL) can be effectively taught in schools and can reduce the prevalence and impact of emotional and behavioral problems (EBP) among children and youth. Although the positive effects of SEL on individual student's emotional, behavioral, and academic outcomes have been…

  1. How do Rumination and Social Problem Solving Intensify Depression? A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Akira; Kunisato, Yoshihiko; Morimoto, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Haruki; Matsuda, Yuko

    2018-01-01

    In order to examine how rumination and social problem solving intensify depression, the present study investigated longitudinal associations among each dimension of rumination and social problem solving and evaluated aspects of these constructs that predicted subsequent depression. A three-wave longitudinal study, with an interval of 4 weeks between waves, was conducted. Japanese university students completed the Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition, Ruminative Responses Scale, Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised Short Version, and Interpersonal Stress Event Scale on three occasions 4 weeks apart ( n  = 284 at Time 1, 198 at Time 2, 165 at Time 3). Linear mixed models were analyzed to test whether each variable predicted subsequent depression, rumination, and each dimension of social problem solving. Rumination and negative problem orientation demonstrated a mutually enhancing relationship. Because these two variables were not associated with interpersonal conflict during the subsequent 4 weeks, rumination and negative problem orientation appear to strengthen each other without environmental change. Rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were associated with subsequent depressive symptoms, after controlling for the effect of initial depression. Because rumination and impulsivity/carelessness style were not concurrently and longitudinally associated with each other, rumination and impulsive/careless problem solving style appear to be independent processes that serve to intensify depression.

  2. Social support, problem solving, and the longitudinal course of newlywed marriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kieran T; Pasch, Lauri A; Johnson, Matthew D; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2010-04-01

    Married couples (N = 172) were observed as newlyweds and observed again 1 year later while engaging in 2 problem-solving and 2 personal support discussions. Microanalytic coding of these conversations was used to examine associations between problem-solving and social support behaviors for 1 year and their relative contributions to 10-year trajectories of self-reported relationship satisfaction and dissolution. Results demonstrated that initially lower levels of positive support behaviors and higher levels of negative support behaviors predicted 1-year increases in negative emotion displayed during problem-solving conversations. Emotions coded from the initial problem-solving conversations did not predict 1-year changes in social support behaviors. Controlling for emotions displayed during problem-solving interactions eliminated or reduced associations between initial social support behaviors and (a) later levels of satisfaction and (b) relationship dissolution. These findings corroborate models that prioritize empathy, validation, and caring as key elements in the development of intimacy (e.g., Reis & Shaver, 1988) and suggest that deficits in these domains foreshadow deterioration in problem solving and conflict management. Implications for integrating support and problem solving in models of relationship change are outlined, as are implications for incorporating social support in education programs for developing relationships.

  3. Social Problem Solving and Depressive Symptoms Over Time: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy, Brief Supportive Psychotherapy, and Pharmacotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel N.; Leon, Andrew C.; Li, Chunshan; D’Zurilla, Thomas J.; Black, Sarah R.; Vivian, Dina; Dowling, Frank; Arnow, Bruce A.; Manber, Rachel; Markowitz, John C.; Kocsis, James H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Depression is associated with poor social problem-solving, and psychotherapies that focus on problem-solving skills are efficacious in treating depression. We examined the associations between treatment, social problem solving, and depression in a randomized clinical trial testing the efficacy of psychotherapy augmentation for chronically depressed patients who failed to fully respond to an initial trial of pharmacotherapy (Kocsis et al., 2009). Method Participants with chronic depression (n = 491) received Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), which emphasizes interpersonal problem-solving, plus medication; Brief Supportive Psychotherapy (BSP) plus medication; or medication alone for 12 weeks. Results CBASP plus pharmacotherapy was associated with significantly greater improvement in social problem solving than BSP plus pharmacotherapy, and a trend for greater improvement in problem solving than pharmacotherapy alone. In addition, change in social problem solving predicted subsequent change in depressive symptoms over time. However, the magnitude of the associations between changes in social problem solving and subsequent depressive symptoms did not differ across treatment conditions. Conclusions It does not appear that improved social problem solving is a mechanism that uniquely distinguishes CBASP from other treatment approaches. PMID:21500885

  4. A new concept of relatedness and its significance to the theory of social evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Drummond

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Data on primitively social groups of Hymenoptera have been somewhat contradictory with respect to kin recognition, degree of relatedness and social evolution. This study presents a new concept of "relatedness coefficient". Called "aggregated relatedness", the hypothesis here introduced proposes that genes shared by any two individuals affect formation of family units to an extent dependent on their frequency and manner of dispersion in neighboring populations.Dados de campo de espécies de Hymenoptera primitivamente sociais têm se mostrado contraditórios quanto ao papel do reconhecimento de parentes e do grau de parentesco na evolução social. Nesse trabalho um novo conceito de "coeficiente de parentesco" foi desenvolvido. Esta nova hipótese foi chamada de "parentesco agregado". Nesse conceito, genes compartilhados por dois indivíduos quaisquer têm importância significativa na formação das unidades familiares, dependendo de suas freqüências e da forma como estão distribuídos na população circunvizinha a esta unidade familiar.

  5. Spouses of older adults with late-life drinking problems: health, family, and social functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H; Brennan, Penny L; Schutte, Kathleen K; Moos, Bernice S

    2010-07-01

    This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits.

  6. Spouses of Older Adults With Late-Life Drinking Problems: Health, Family, and Social Functioning*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Moos, Bernice S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study focuses on the health, family, and social functioning of spouses of late-life remitted and continuing problem drinkers, and on predictors of spouses' alcohol-related functioning and depressive symptoms. Method: Three groups of spouses were compared at baseline and a 10-year follow-up: (a) spouses (n = 73) of older adults who had no drinking problems at baseline or follow-up, (b) spouses (n = 25) of older adults who had drinking problems at baseline but not follow-up, and (c) spouses (n = 69) of older adults who had drinking problems at both baseline and follow-up. At each contact point, spouses completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol-related, health, family, and social functioning. Results: At baseline, compared with spouses of problem-free individuals, spouses of older adults whose drinking problems later remitted reported more alcohol consumption, poorer health, more depressive symptoms, and less involvement in domestic tasks and social and religious activities. At the 10-year follow-up, spouses of remitted problem drinkers were comparable to spouses of problem-free individuals, but spouses of continuing problem drinkers consumed more alcohol, incurred more alcohol-related consequences, and had friends who approved more of drinking. Overall, spouses whose friends approved more of drinking and whose partners consumed more alcohol and had drinking problems were likely to consume more alcohol and to have drinking problems themselves. Conclusions: Spouses of older adults whose late-life drinking problems remit can attain normal functioning; however, spouses of older adults with continuing late-life drinking problems experience some ongoing deficits. PMID:20553658

  7. Experiences of physical and relational victimization in children with ADHD: The role of social problems and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuade, Julia D; Breslend, Nicole L; Groff, Destin

    2018-04-16

    The social risk factors for physical and relational peer victimization were examined within a mixed-gender sample of children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were 124 children (ages 8-12 years; 48% boys), with 47% exhibiting sub-clinical or clinical elevations in ADHD symptoms. ADHD and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptom counts were assessed based on parent- and teacher-reports; parents rated children's social problems and teachers rated children's use of physical and relational aggression and experiences of physical and relational victimization. A multiple mediator model was used to test whether there were indirect effects of ADHD or ODD symptoms on physical and relational victimization through social problems, physical aggression, or relational aggression. At the bivariate level, ADHD and ODD symptoms were both significantly associated with higher rates of physical and relational victimization. In the mediational model, there were significant indirect effects of ADHD symptoms on relational victimization via social problems, of ODD on relational victimization via relational aggression, and of ODD symptoms on physical victimization via physical aggression. Results suggest that there are distinct risk factors implicated in the physical and relational victimization of youth with ADHD and that the co-occurrence of ODD symptoms is important to assess. Clinical implications for addressing victimization in children with ADHD are discussed. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multimodal Analysis of Estimated and Observed Social Competence in Preschoolers With/Without Behavior Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Pereira Dias

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Social skills compete with behavior problems, and the combination of these aspects may cause differences in social competence. This study was aimed at assessing the differences and similarities in the social competence of 26 preschoolers resulting from: (1 groups which they belonged to, being one with social skills and three with behavior problems (internalizing, externalizing and mixed; (2 types of assessment, considering the estimates of mothers and teachers, as well as direct observation in a structured situation; (3 structured situations as demands for five categories of social skills. Children’s performance in each situation was assessed by judges and estimated by mothers and teachers. There was a similarity in the social competence estimated by mothers, teachers and in the performance observed. Only the teachers distinguished the groups (higher social competence in the group with social skills and lower in the internalizing and mixed groups. Assertiveness demands differentiated the groups. The methodological aspects were discussed, as well as the clinical and educational potential of the structured situations to promote social skills.

  9. The clinical profile of employees with mental health problems working in social firms in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Alyssa; Parsons, Nicholas; Morant, Nicola; Gilbert, Eleanor; Johnson, Sonia; Fisher, Adrian; Singh, Swaran; Cunliffe, Di; Marwaha, Steven

    2015-08-01

    UK social firms are under-researched but are a potentially important vocational option for people with mental health problems. To describe the clinical profile, satisfaction levels and experiences of social firms employees with mental health problems. Clinical, work and service use characteristics were collected from social firms' employees with mental health problems in England and Wales. Workplace experience and satisfaction were explored qualitatively. Predominantly, social firms' employees (N = 80) report that they have a diagnosis of depression (56%) and anxiety (41%). People with schizophrenia (20%) or bipolar disorder (5%) were a minority. Respondents had low symptom and disability levels, high quality of life and job satisfaction and experienced reductions in secondary mental health service use over time. High-workplace satisfaction was related to flexibility, manager and colleague support and workplace accommodations. The clinical profile, quality of life and job satisfaction level of employees with mental health problems suggest social firms could be a useful addition to UK vocational services for some people. Current employees mainly have common mental disorders, and social firms will need to shift their focus if they are to form a substantial pathway for the vocational recovery of people currently using community mental health teams.

  10. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Paola P; Pan, Pedro M; Hoffmann, Mauricio S; Wakschlag, Lauren S; Rohde, Luis A; Miguel, Euripedes C; Pine, Daniel S; Manfro, Gisele G; Salum, Giovanni A

    2017-01-01

    To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA)/item response theory (IRT) and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  11. The impact of perceived self-efficacy on mental time travel and social problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam D; Dorfman, Michelle L; Marmar, Charles R; Bryant, Richard A

    2012-03-01

    Current models of autobiographical memory suggest that self-identity guides autobiographical memory retrieval. Further, the capacity to recall the past and imagine one's self in the future (mental time travel) can influence social problem solving. We examined whether manipulating self-identity, through an induction task in which students were led to believe they possessed high or low self-efficacy, impacted episodic specificity and content of retrieved and imagined events, as well as social problem solving. Compared to individuals in the low self efficacy group, individuals in the high self efficacy group generated past and future events with greater (a) specificity, (b) positive words, and (c) self-efficacious statements, and also performed better on social problem solving indices. A lack of episodic detail for future events predicted poorer performance on social problem solving tasks. Strategies that increase perceived self-efficacy may help individuals to selectively construct a past and future that aids in negotiating social problems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Memory functioning and negative symptoms as differential predictors of social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Joseph; Tom, Shelley R; Jetton, Chris; Kern, Robert S

    2013-02-01

    Neurocognition in general, and memory functioning in particular, as well as symptoms have all been shown to be related to social problem solving (SPS) in schizophrenia. However, few studies have directly compared the relative contribution of neurocognition vs. psychiatric symptoms to the components of SPS. Sixty outpatients (aged 21-65) who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered a broad battery of memory tests and assessed for severity of positive and negative symptoms as part of a baseline assessment of a study of psychiatric rehabilitation. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the contribution of memory functioning vs. symptoms on receiving, processing, and sending skill areas of social problem solving ability. An index of verbal learning was the strongest predictor of processing skills whereas negative symptoms were the strongest predictor of sending skills. Positive symptoms were not related to any of the three skill areas of social problem solving. Memory functioning and psychiatric symptoms differentially predict selected areas of social problem solving ability in persons with schizophrenia. Consistent with other reports, positive symptoms were not related to social problem solving. Consideration of both neurocognition and negative symptoms may be important to the development of rehabilitation interventions in this area of functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific and social fears in children and adolescents: separating normative fears from problem indicators and phobias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola P. Laporte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To distinguish normative fears from problematic fears and phobias. Methods: We investigated 2,512 children and adolescents from a large community school-based study, the High Risk Study for Psychiatric Disorders. Parent reports of 18 fears and psychiatric diagnosis were investigated. We used two analytical approaches: confirmatory factor analysis (CFA/item response theory (IRT and nonparametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve. Results: According to IRT and ROC analyses, social fears are more likely to indicate problems and phobias than specific fears. Most specific fears were normative when mild; all specific fears indicate problems when pervasive. In addition, the situational fear of toilets and people who look unusual were highly indicative of specific phobia. Among social fears, those not restricted to performance and fear of writing in front of others indicate problems when mild. All social fears indicate problems and are highly indicative of social phobia when pervasive. Conclusion: These preliminary findings provide guidance for clinicians and researchers to determine the boundaries that separate normative fears from problem indicators in children and adolescents, and indicate a differential severity threshold for specific and social fears.

  14. Social Economy a Potential Solution to the New Problems in the Social Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Achiţei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the context in which social economy appeared as a topic of interest and a priority on the public agenda in different countries around the world and the incipient stages in which it exists in Romania, especially with respect to development and legislation in the field. Despite the fact that social economy in Romania is not a priority for the development, several private initiatives have begun to take shape and to create patterns for compensating the need for financing of the social sector and especially for creating workplaces for deprived categories. We hope that these patterns, constituted and financed especially through the European Social Fund, will constitute the practical and professional experience necessary for creating a correct and “friendly” legislative frame for the sector. Considering the economical, social and political crisis that Romania is going through, we need more than ever that social economy becomes a topic for discussion on the public agenda. There is urgent need for a national strategy in the field, a coherent legislative framework allowing sustained and durable development through fiscal benefits; social economy needs to be financed / subsidized by local authorities, it needs to allow access to public agreements and to be the object of the public – private partnership. There are samples of best practices, but they need to be supported and replicated in order to create as many chances as possible in the process of insertion, especially for creating workplaces for deprived categories of people. The “Alături de Voi” Romania Foundation developed such a pattern in its centers in Iasi, Constanta and Tg. Mureş. The foundation’s activity in the field of social economy can be viewed on the online store www.utildeco.ro

  15. The economic and social significance of RCA regional co-operative projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    The regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA) is an established and valuable instrument between the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Member States in South Asia, Southeast Asia and the Pacific or Far East for assisting in the transfer of modern technology to areas having economic and social importance to the region. The purpose of this review is to identify on-going or planned work which is designed to help achieve this goal. Currently approved RCA Regional Co-operative Research Projects are listed

  16. Is self-generated thought a means of social problem solving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruby, Florence J. M.; Smallwood, Jonathan; Sackur, Jerome; Singer, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate social problem solving constitutes a critical skill for individuals and may rely on processes important for self-generated thought (SGT). The aim of the current study was to investigate the link between SGT and social problem solving. Using the Means-End Problem Solving task (MEPS), we assessed participants' abilities to resolve daily social problems in terms of overall efficiency and number of relevant means they provided to reach the given solution. Participants also performed a non-demanding choice reaction time task (CRT) and a moderately-demanding working memory task (WM) as a context in which to measure their SGT (assessed via thought sampling). We found that although overall SGT was associated with lower MEPS efficiency, it was also associated with higher relevant means, perhaps because both depend on the capacity to generate cognition that is independent from the hear and now. The specific content of SGT did not differentially predict individual differences in social problem solving, suggesting that the relationship may depend on SGT regardless of its content. In addition, we also found that performance at the WM but not the CRT was linked to overall better MEPS performance, suggesting that individuals good at social processing are also distinguished by their capacity to constrain attention to an external task. Our results provide novel evidence that the capacity for SGT is implicated in the process by which solutions to social problems are generated, although optimal problem solving may be achieved by individuals who display a suitable balance between SGT and cognition derived from perceptual input. PMID:24391621

  17. Direct and indirect associations between social anxiety and nicotine dependence and cessation problems: multiple mediator analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Farris, Samantha G; Schmidt, Norman B; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Little empirical work has evaluated why socially anxious smokers are especially vulnerable to more severe nicotine dependence and cessation failure. Presumably, these smokers rely on cigarettes to help them manage their chronically elevated negative affect elicited by a wide array of social contexts. The current study examined the direct and indirect effects of social anxiety cross-sectionally in regard to a range of smoking processes among 466 treatment-seeking smokers. Negative affect and negative affect reduction motives were examined as mediators of the relations of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems. Social anxiety was directly and robustly associated with perceived barriers to smoking cessation and problems experienced during past quit attempts. Social anxiety was also associated with greater nicotine dependence and smoking inflexibility indirectly through negative affect and negative affect smoking motives. Negative affect and smoking to reduce negative affect mediated these relations. These findings document the important role of negative affect and negative affect reduction motives in the relationships of social anxiety with nicotine dependence and cessation problems.

  18. Desistance from Delinquency through Social Encounters with Significant Others: Case Studies of Japanese Juvenile Criminals

    OpenAIRE

    SHIRAI, Toshiaki; SATOMI, Akira; KONDO, Junya

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify how young people stop delinquency, we conducted life history analysis, survey study and case studies. The findings indicate that, first, the encounter with significant persons can make them stop delinquency through the capacity to tolerate their depression and, second, the psychologists can play a role of the significant other using the framework of rehabilitation institutions. The encounter with significant others offers intrinsic motivation and the readiness for their pe...

  19. Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition

  20. Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw parallels across these complementary disciplines is premature: The second-person perspective does not map directly to Interaction or Simulation theories, online social cognition, or shared neural network accounts underlying action observation or empathy. Nor does the third-person perspective map onto Theory-Theory (TT), offline social cognition, or the neural networks that support Theory of Mind (ToM). Moreover, we argue that important qualities of social interaction emerge through the reciprocal interplay of two independent agents whose unpredictable behavior requires that models of their partner's internal state be continually updated. This analysis draws attention to the need for paradigms in social neuroscience that allow two individuals to interact in a spontaneous and natural manner and to adapt their behavior and cognitions in a response contingent fashion due to the inherent unpredictability in another person's behavior. Even if such paradigms were implemented, it is possible that the specific neural correlates supporting such reciprocal interaction would not reflect computation unique to social interaction but rather the use of basic cognitive and emotional processes combined in a unique manner. Finally, we argue that given the crucial role of social interaction in human evolution, ontogeny, and every-day social life, a more theoretically and methodologically nuanced approach to the study of real social interaction will nevertheless help the field of social cognition

  1. Examining ecological validity in social interaction: problems of visual fidelity, gaze, and social potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reader, Arran T; Holmes, Nicholas P

    2016-01-01

    Social interaction is an essential part of the human experience, and much work has been done to study it. However, several common approaches to examining social interactions in psychological research may inadvertently either unnaturally constrain the observed behaviour by causing it to deviate from naturalistic performance, or introduce unwanted sources of variance. In particular, these sources are the differences between naturalistic and experimental behaviour that occur from changes in visual fidelity (quality of the observed stimuli), gaze (whether it is controlled for in the stimuli), and social potential (potential for the stimuli to provide actual interaction). We expand on these possible sources of extraneous variance and why they may be important. We review the ways in which experimenters have developed novel designs to remove these sources of extraneous variance. New experimental designs using a 'two-person' approach are argued to be one of the most effective ways to develop more ecologically valid measures of social interaction, and we suggest that future work on social interaction should use these designs wherever possible.

  2. Social participation of people with cognitive problems and their caregivers: a feasibility evaluation of the Social Fitness Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkers, H W; van der Veen, D J; Vernooij-Dassen, M J; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M W G; Graff, M J L

    2017-12-01

    We developed a tailor-made intervention aimed at improving social participation of people with cognitive problems and their caregivers. This programme consists of an integration of healthcare and welfare interventions: occupational therapy, physiotherapy and guidance by a welfare professional. This article describes the feasibility evaluation of this Social Fitness Programme. Feasibility in terms of acceptability, demand, implementation, practicability and limited efficacy was evaluated based on experiences from professionals (programme deliverers), people with cognitive problems and their caregivers (programme recipients). We used qualitative research methods (focus group discussions, interviews, collection of treatment records) and applied thematic analyses. The intervention was feasible according to stakeholders, and limited efficacy showed promising results. However, we found feasibility barriers. First, an acceptability barrier: discussing declined social participation was difficult, hindering recruitment. Second, a demand barrier: some people with cognitive problems lacked motivation to improve declined social participation, sometimes in contrast to their caregivers' wishes. Third, implementation and practicability barriers: shared decision-making, focusing the intervention and interdisciplinary collaboration between healthcare and welfare professionals were suboptimal during implementation. Although this intervention builds upon scientific evidence, expert opinions and stakeholder needs, implementation was challenging. Healthcare and welfare professionals need to overcome obstacles in their collaboration and focus on integrated intervention delivery. Also, they need to find ways to (empower caregivers to) motivate people with cognitive problems to participate socially. After modifying the intervention and additional training of professionals, a consecutive pilot study to assess feasibility of the research design and outcome measures is justified. Copyright

  3. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. RESULTS: Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated......OBJECTIVES: Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet...... communication are associated with young people's social relations. METHODS: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89 %, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming...

  4. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen

    2014-03-04

    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  5. Overlapping genetic and environmental influences among men's alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvatore, J E; Prom-Wormley, E; Prescott, C A; Kendler, K S

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol consumption and problems are associated with interpersonal difficulties. We used a twin design to assess in men the degree to which genetic or environmental influences contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and problems, romantic quality and social support. The sample included adult male-male twin pairs (697 monozygotic and 487 dizygotic) for whom there were interview-based data on: alcohol consumption (average monthly alcohol consumption in the past year); alcohol problems (lifetime alcohol dependence symptoms); romantic conflict and warmth; friend problems and support; and relative problems and support. Key findings were that genetic and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol consumption and romantic conflict; genetic factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and romantic conflict; and common and unique environmental factors contributed to the covariance between alcohol problems and friend problems. Recognizing and addressing the overlapping genetic and environmental influences that alcohol consumption and problems share with romantic quality and other indicators of social support may have implications for substance use prevention and intervention efforts.

  6. Approaching the social control of drugs, I: Construction of the problem

    OpenAIRE

    Radulović Dragan

    2008-01-01

    The paper aims at outlining the social process whereby drug use has been defined as a major problem of contemporary society. The beginning of profane use of drugs is located in modern industrial society, while their global spread and the establishment of the prohibition system took place in the second half of 20th century. The generalized notion of drugs has dissolved into three different groups: some substances (coffee, tea, alcohol, tobacco) are socially accepted; others, like barbiturates ...

  7. The problem of social exclusion diminishing in the context of European parliament recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvydas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available European Parliament is one of the most significant EU institutions which are responsible for the tasks of social dimension‘s aims declaration and implementation. One of the most actual tasks, solved by European Parliament, is social security measures fitness to real minimal subsistence level and social inequality and exclusion diminishing in the member states. Strengthening of social dimension and lessening of social exclusion can also suffer from economic difficulties, which appeared in the member states after 2008–2009 economic crisis – when there is still no breaking with the crisis past and the new downfall is still possible. In the article the impact of crisis for social exclusion diminishing is analyzed in the context of European Parliament recommendations. Social security measures had only limited impact for stabilization in the member states, however, the author argues and the European Parliament documents prove, that social security measures are not the burden, but the reserve for development in the member states. In this case, European Parliament together with International Labour Organization, according the author, are the most socially exposed organizations in the world. In the end of the article there is suggested the significant social reintegration indicator for the measurement of social security‘s efficiency and effectiveness.

  8. Perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet use are associated with poorer social relations in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Mette; Meilstrup, Charlotte Riebeling; Bendtsen, Pernille; Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Nielsen, Line; Madsen, Katrine Rich; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2015-02-01

    Young people's engagement in electronic gaming and Internet communication have caused concerns about potential harmful effects on their social relations, but the literature is inconclusive. The aim of this paper was to examine whether perceived problems with computer gaming and Internet communication are associated with young people's social relations. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey in 13 schools in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, in 2009. Response rate 89%, n = 2,100 students in grades 5, 7, and 9. Independent variables were perceived problems related to computer gaming and Internet use, respectively. Outcomes were measures of structural (number of days/week with friends, number of friends) and functional (confidence in others, being bullied, bullying others) dimensions of student's social relations. Perception of problems related to computer gaming were associated with almost all aspects of poor social relations among boys. Among girls, an association was only seen for bullying. For both boys and girls, perceived problems related to Internet use were associated with bullying only. Although the study is cross-sectional, the findings suggest that computer gaming and Internet use may be harmful to young people's social relations.

  9. Participation in activities outside of school hours in relation to problem behavior and social skills in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Lajeana D; Lukacs, Susan L; Pastor, Patricia N; Reuben, Cynthia A; Mendola, Pauline

    2010-03-01

    Research has shown that participating in activities outside of school hours is associated with lower dropout rates, enhanced school performance, improved social skills, and reduced problem behaviors. However, most prior studies have been limited to small populations of older children (>12 years). This analysis focuses on children aged 6 to 11 to assess the potential association between participation in activities outside of school hours and behavior in middle childhood in a nationally representative survey. Estimates were based on 25,797 children from the 2003-2004 National Survey of Children's Health. Outside of school activity was defined as participating in sports teams/lessons, clubs/organizations, or both at least once in the past year. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the differences in behavior problems and social skills adjusting for sociodemographic factors, among children classified by participation in outside of school activities. Seventy-five percent of children participated in outside of school activities: 23% in sports, 16% in clubs, and 36% in both clubs and sports. Activity participation differed by gender, race/ethnicity, type of school, poverty status, family structure, household education, and school and community safety. Children participating in both sports and clubs had higher social skills index scores, but no significant difference in problem behavior scores compared with children who did not participate in any outside of school activity. Children participating in both sports and clubs had greater social competence during middle childhood compared with children who did not participate in any outside of school activities.

  10. Neurocognitive and behavioral predictors of social problems in ADHD: A Bayesian framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Harmon, Sherelle L; Aduen, Paula A; Day, Taylor N; Austin, Kristin E; Spiegel, Jamie A; Irwin, Lauren; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-03-01

    Social problems are a key area of functional impairment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and converging evidence points to executive dysfunction as a potential mechanism underlying ADHD-related social dysfunction. The evidence is mixed, however, with regard to which neurocognitive abilities account for these relations. A well-characterized group of 117 children ages 8-13 (M = 10.45, SD = 1.53; 43 girls; 69.5% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) with ADHD (n = 77) and without ADHD (n = 40) were administered multiple, counterbalanced tests of neurocognitive functioning and assessed for social skills via multi-informant reports. Bayesian linear regressions revealed strong support for working memory and cross-informant interfering behaviors (inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity) as predictors of parent- and teacher-reported social problems. Working memory was also implicated in social skills acquisition deficits, performance deficits, and strengths based on parent and/or teacher report; inattention and/or hyperactivity showed strong correspondence with cross-informant social problems in all models. There was no evidence for, and in most models strong evidence against, effects of inhibitory control and processing speed. The ADHD group was impaired relative to the non-ADHD group on social skills (d = 0.82-0.88), visuospatial working memory (d = 0.89), and phonological working memory (d = 0.58). In contrast, the Bayesian ANOVAs indicated that the ADHD and non-ADHD groups were equivalent on processing speed, IQ, age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES). There was no support for or against group differences in inhibition. These findings confirm that ADHD is associated with impaired social performance, and implicate working memory and core ADHD symptoms in the acquisition and performance of socially skilled behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Gambling Behavior and Problem Gambling Reflecting Social Transition and Traumatic Childhood Events Among Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christina Viskum Lytken; Curtis, Tine; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    gambling behavior and problem gambling among Greenland Inuit in relation to the ongoing social transition and traumatic events during childhood. A large representative cross-sectional study was conducted among Greenland Inuit (n = 2,189). Data was collected among adults (18+) in 9 towns and 13 villages...... in Greenland from 2005 to 2010. Problem gambling, gambling behavior and traumatic childhood events were measured through a self-administered questionnaire. The lie/bet screen was used to identify past year and lifetime problem gambling. Social transition was measured as place of residence and a combination...... of residence, education and occupation. The lifetime prevalence of problem gambling was 16 % among men and 10 % among women (p ...

  12. Handling social problems in the courts: repercussions for social assistants in the Judiciary Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Gershenson Aguinsky

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the civilizing conquests of human rights are undeniable, their recognition and enactment have required, in addition to increasingly intense historic struggles, the involvement of the Judicial Branch. The judicial treatment of social issues overlaps the responsibilities of the Judiciary with other public institutions. Access to justice takes place, as a rule, individually and by a select group of subjects – those who know how to access this legal channel. But the effective enactment of rights depends on other factors that include not only its recognition, but the capacity to attend to and finance the demand presented. Given this situation, this paper discusses the process of the effective enactment of rights, which by increasingly emphasizing judicial channels, leads to a reduced commitment of the State as a whole, to face social issues and toward the depoliticization of the public sphere. This adverse situation challenges social assistants to take an ethical-political direction in their professional responses to the demands of judicialization of the social question that is presented daily to the Judicial Branch.

  13. ABOLISHING AND ESTABLISHING OPERATION ANALYSES OF SOCIAL ATTENTION AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT FOR PROBLEM BEHAVIOR

    OpenAIRE

    McGinnis, Molly A; Houchins-Juárez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L; Kennedy, Craig H

    2010-01-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition of an analogue functional analysis. The results showed establishing operation conditions increased problem behavior during tests and that abolishin...

  14. Associations between loneliness and perceived social support and outcomes of mental health problems: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyi; Mann, Farhana; Lloyd-Evans, Brynmor; Ma, Ruimin; Johnson, Sonia

    2018-05-29

    The adverse effects of loneliness and of poor perceived social support on physical health and mortality are established, but no systematic synthesis is available of their relationship with the outcomes of mental health problems over time. In this systematic review, we aim to examine the evidence on whether loneliness and closely related concepts predict poor outcomes among adults with mental health problems. We searched six databases and reference lists for longitudinal quantitative studies that examined the relationship between baseline measures of loneliness and poor perceived social support and outcomes at follow up. Thirty-four eligible papers were retrieved. Due to heterogeneity among included studies in clinical populations, predictor measures and outcomes, a narrative synthesis was conducted. We found substantial evidence from prospective studies that people with depression who perceive their social support as poorer have worse outcomes in terms of symptoms, recovery and social functioning. Loneliness has been investigated much less than perceived social support, but there is some evidence that greater loneliness predicts poorer depression outcome. There is also some preliminary evidence of associations between perceived social support and outcomes in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders. Loneliness and quality of social support in depression are potential targets for development and testing of interventions, while for other conditions further evidence is needed regarding relationships with outcomes.

  15. Psychiatric morbidity and people's experience of and response to social problems involving rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Nigel J; Pleasence, Pascoe; Buck, Alexy

    2010-11-01

    Psychiatric morbidity has been shown to be associated with the increased reporting of a range of social problems involving legal rights ('rights problems'). Using a validated measure of psychiatric morbidity, this paper explores the relationship between psychiatric morbidity and rights problems and discusses the implications for the delivery of health and legal services. New representative national survey data from the English and Welsh Civil and Social Justice Survey (CSJS) surveyed 3040 adults in 2007 to explore the relationship between GHQ-12 scores and the self reported incidence of and behaviour surrounding, rights problems. It was found that the prevalence of rights problems increased with psychiatric morbidity, as did the experience of multiple problems. It was also found the likelihood of inaction in the face of problems increased with psychiatric morbidity, while the likelihood of choosing to resolve problems without help decreased. Where advice was obtained, psychiatric morbidity was associated with a greater tendency to obtain a combination of 'legal' and 'general' support, rather than 'legal' advice alone. The results suggest that integrated and 'outreach' services are of particular importance to the effective support of those facing mental illness. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. [Regulation of Positive and Negative Emotions as Mediator between Maternal Emotion Socialization and Child Problem Behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fäsche, Anika; Gunzenhauser, Catherine; Friedlmeier, Wolfgang; von Suchodoletz, Antje

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated five to six year old children's ability to regulate negative and positive emotions in relation to psychosocial problem behavior (N=53). It was explored, whether mothers' supportive and nonsupportive strategies of emotion socialization influence children's problem behavior by shaping their emotion regulation ability. Mothers reported on children's emotion regulation and internalizing and externalizing problem behavior via questionnaire, and were interviewed about their preferences for socialization strategies in response to children's expression of negative affect. Results showed that children with more adaptive expression of adequate positive emotions had less internalizing behavior problems. When children showed more control of inadequate negative emotions, children were less internalizing as well as externalizing in their behavior. Furthermore, results indicated indirect relations of mothers' socialization strategies with children's problem behavior. Control of inadequate negative emotions mediated the link between non-supportive strategies on externalizing problem behavior. Results suggest that emotion regulatory processes should be part of interventions to reduce the development of problematic behavior in young children. Parents should be trained in dealing with children's emotions in a constructive way.

  17. Problems, perceptions and actions: An interdependent process for generating informal social control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, John R; Wickes, Rebecca

    2018-07-01

    Using two waves of survey data for residents in neighborhoods in Brisbane, this study explores the interdependent relationship between residents' perceptions of neighboring, cohesion, collective efficacy, neighborhood disorder, and the actions they take to address these problems. Our longitudinal results show that residents' perceived severity of a problem helps explain engaging in activity to address the problem. People loitering appeared to be the most galvanizing problem for residents, but had particularly deleterious effects on perceptions of cohesion and collective efficacy. We also find that residents who perceive more neighboring in their local area engage in more public and parochial social control activity and residents who live in collectively efficacious neighborhoods are more likely to engage in parochial social control action. Furthermore, residents who themselves perceive more collective efficacy in the neighborhood engage in more parochial or public social control during the subsequent time period. Importantly, we find strong evidence that residents update their sense of collective efficacy. Perceiving more problems in the neighborhood, and perceiving that these problems are increasing, reduced perceptions of neighboring and collective efficacy over time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Illuminating the dark matter of social neuroscience: Considering the problem of social interaction from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Przyrembel, Marisa; Smallwood, Jonathan; Pauen, Michael; Singer, Tania

    2012-01-01

    Successful human social interaction depends on our capacity to understand other people's mental states and to anticipate how they will react to our actions. Despite its importance to the human condition, the exact mechanisms underlying our ability to understand another's actions, feelings, and thoughts are still a matter of conjecture. Here, we consider this problem from philosophical, psychological, and neuroscientific perspectives. In a critical review, we demonstrate that attempts to draw ...

  19. Future role and significance of space activities in reflection of global social, technological and economic trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, Andreas; Richarz, Hans.-Peter

    The paper describes the interrelation of space activities and global socio-economic trends like "globalisation of markets" and "renaissance of fine arts". The interrelation reveals the economic strategic, technological and scientific dimension of space activities and their benefits to mankind. Then, the significance and perspectives of space activities in these dimensions are examined in more detail. The paper calls (1) for a more visible initiative to employ space activities to tackle urgent questions of global change and development, and (2) for a stronger impetus to secure European economic position in space sector as a key industry of the 21st century.

  20. Enhancing social inclusion of children with externalizing problems through classroom seating arrangements: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Stoltz, S.E.M.J.

    2018-01-01

    Inclusive education has brought new challenges for teachers, including the search for a suitable place in the classroom for children with externalizing problems. In the current study, we examined whether a careful rearrangement of the classroom seats could promote social acceptance and more

  1. Social Problem-Solving among Disadvantaged and Non-Disadvantaged Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasik, László; Balázs, Fejes József; Guti, Kornél; Gáspár, Csaba; Zsolnai, Anikó

    2018-01-01

    The study examined the differences of social problem-solving (SPS) among 12-, 14- and 16-year-old Hungarian disadvantaged and non-disadvantaged adolescents (N = 382) and investigated the relationship between SPS and family background (FB). SPS was measured through students' own and their teachers' evaluations by an adapted questionnaire (Social…

  2. Problem solving or social change? The Applegate and Grand Canyon Forest Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Moseley; Brett KenCairn

    2001-01-01

    Natural resource conflicts have resulted in attempts at better collaboration between public and private sectors. The resulting partnerships approach collaboration either by problem solving through better information and management, or by requiring substantial social change. The Applegate Partnership in Oregon and the Grand Canyon Forest Partnership in Arizona...

  3. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  4. Participation in Organized Activities and Conduct Problems in Elementary School: The Mediating Effect of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denault, Anne-Sophie; Déry, Michèle

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test a mediation model in which social skills mediate the relationship between participation in organized activities and conduct problems among elementary school children. Two moderators of these associations were also examined, namely, gender and reception of special education services. A total of 563 children (45%…

  5. Social comparison as a mediator between health problems and subjective health evaluations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Zee, K.I.; Buunk, Abraham (Bram); Sanderman, R.

    The role of social comparison in mediating the relation between 'objective' health status and subjective health evaluations was examined. In a random population sample (N = 361) it was shown that health problems were related to psychological distress, which in turn induced a downward comparison

  6. Examination of a Social Problem-Solving Intervention to Treat Selective Mutism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Reilly, M.F.; McNally, D.; Sigafoos, J.; Lancioni, G.E.; Green, V.A.; Edrisinha, C.; Machalicek, W.A.; Sorrells, A.; Didden, H.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized

  7. Examination of a Social Problem-Solving Intervention to Treat Selective Mutism

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Mark; McNally, Deirdre; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio E.; Green, Vanessa; Edrisinha, Chaturi; Machalicek, Wendy; Sorrells, Audrey; Lang, Russell; Didden, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the use of a social problem-solving intervention to treat selective mutism with 2 sisters in an elementary school setting. Both girls were taught to answer teacher questions in front of their classroom peers during regular classroom instruction. Each girl received individualized instruction from a therapist and was taught to…

  8. When Religion Becomes Deviance: Introducing Religion in Deviance and Social Problems Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Robin D.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on teaching new religious movements (NRMs), or cults, within deviance or social problems courses. Provides information about the conceptions and theories of deviance. Includes three illustrations of how to use deviant religions in a deviance course and offers insights into teaching religion as deviance. Includes references. (CMK)

  9. Abolishing and Establishing Operation Analyses of Social Attention as Positive Reinforcement for Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinnis, Molly A.; Houchins-Juarez, Nealetta; McDaniel, Jill L.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2010-01-01

    Three participants whose problem behavior was maintained by contingent attention were exposed to 45-min presessions in which attention was withheld, provided on a fixed-time (FT) 15-s schedule, or provided on an FT 120-s schedule. Following each presession, participants were then tested in a 15-min session similar to the social attention condition…

  10. Life Satisfaction among High School Students with Social, Emotional, and Behavioral Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    State, Talida M.; Kern, Lee

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in measuring life satisfaction among children and adolescents as an indicator of broad well-being and happiness. Although limited, existing research with students with social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems indicates they experience lower life satisfaction compared with their…

  11. Psychological and social problems in primary care patients - general practitioners' assessment and classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendal, Marianne; Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Kaj Sparle

    2013-01-01

    I almen praksis får 11 % af patienterne en diagnose, der vedrører psykisk sygdom. Heraf har halvdelen en depression eller en belastningstilstand. Kun 18 af de 43 tilgængelige diagnoser i ICPC anvendes regelmæssigt. Sociale problemer angives sjældent som primær problemstilling (0,5 %). Uafhængigt ...

  12. Parental Interpersonal Sensitivity and Youth Social Problems: A Mediational Role for Child Emotion Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suveg, Cynthia; Jacob, Marni L.; Payne, Mary

    2010-01-01

    We examined the relations between parental interpersonal sensitivity and youth social problems and explored the mediational role of child emotion dysregulation. Mothers (N = 42; M age = 39.38) and fathers (N = 41; M age = 39.38) of youth aged 7-12 (N = 42; M age = 9.12) completed measures of their own interpersonal sensitivity and reported on…

  13. Scaffolding Teachers Integrate Social Media into a Problem-Based Learning Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buus, Lillian

    2012-01-01

    At Aalborg University (AAU) we are known to work with problem-based learning (PBL) in a particular way designated "The Aalborg PBL model." In PBL the focus is on participant control, knowledge sharing, collaboration among participants, which makes it interesting to consider the integration of social media in the learning that takes…

  14. Family Business or Social Problem? The Cost of Unreported Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Scott E.; Hoekstra, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Social interest in problems such as domestic violence is typically motivated by concerns regarding equity, rather than efficiency. However, we document that taking steps to reduce domestic violence by reporting it yields substantial benefits to external parties. Specifically, we find that although children exposed to as-yet-unreported domestic…

  15. Social Skills, Problem Behaviors and Classroom Management in Inclusive Preschool Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Esra G.; Tufan, Mumin

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine preschool teachers' classroom management skills and investigate the relationships between teachers' classroom management skills and inclusion students' social skills and problem behaviors. Relational screening model was used as the research method. Study group consisted of 42 pre-school teachers working in Kocaeli…

  16. Emotional Behavior Problems, Parent Emotion Socialization, and Gender as Determinants of Teacher-Child Closeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardack, Sarah; Obradovic´, Jelena

    2017-01-01

    Research Findings: Drawing from a diverse community sample of 89 children, ages 4-6, their primary caregivers and teachers, this study examined the interplay of child emotional behavior problems, parent emotion socialization practices, and gender in predicting teacher-child closeness. Teachers reported on perceptions of closeness with children.…

  17. Classroom quality at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and

  18. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L.; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we

  19. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L.; Naguib, Marc; Oers, Van Kees

    2016-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated

  20. Problematic Alcohol Use and Problem Gambling: Associations to Structural and Functional aspects of Social Ties in a Finnish Population Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordmyr Johanna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available AIMS – This study aims to explore associations between structural and functional aspects of social networks and relationships (here labelled social ties among individuals exhibiting problematic alcohol use and problem gambling, respectively.

  1. The social conditions of instrumental action: Problems in the sociological understanding of rational choice theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Sciberras de Carvalho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article critically analyzes new sociological approaches to the rational choice theory which - beyond examining political or economic practices - link the notion of instrumental rationality to social issues and themes. The article begins by highlighting the issue of trust, indicating the functionality of certain social arrangements in collective problem-solving. The paper goes on to demonstrate that problems emerge with the theory when it attempts to explain the feasibility of social norms in impersonal, comprehensive contexts. Thus, the fundamental point that appears to be missing from rational choice theory is the perception that individual decisions and instrumental conduct itself incorporate dispositions that in a sense are beyond the actors' control.

  2. Framing a 'social problem': Emotion in anti-abortion activists' depiction of the abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntontis, Evangelos; Hopkins, Nick

    2018-02-27

    Social psychological research on activism typically focuses on individuals' social identifications. We complement such research through exploring how activists frame an issue as a social problem. Specifically, we explore anti-abortion activists' representation of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists so as to recruit support for the anti-abortion cause. Using interview data obtained with UK-based anti-abortion activists (N = 15), we consider how activists characterized women having abortions, pro-abortion campaigners, and anti-abortion campaigners. In particular, we consider the varied ways in which emotion featured in the representation of these social actors. Emotion featured in different ways. Sometimes, it was depicted as constituting embodied testament to the nature of reality. Sometimes, it was depicted as blocking the rational appraisal of reality. Our analysis considers how such varied meanings of emotion shaped the characterization of abortion and the abortion debate's protagonists such that anti-abortion activists were construed as speaking for women and their interests. We discuss how our analysis of the framing of issues as social problems complements and extends social psychological analyses of activism. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  3. Considering Family and Significant Others in the Faculty Recruitment Process: A Study of Social Work Recruiting Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael E. Sherr

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important facets of quality social work education is the recruitment and retention of faculty. This mixed methods study uses findings from an on-line survey of 106 recent (within three years faculty hires and their (n=24 spouse/partner/significant others (S/P/SO to determine the degree to which family- integrative recruitment strategies were being used in recruiting social work faculty and the impact with which the presence or absence of these strategies have on retention. A majority of respondents reported that S/P/SO were excluded from the recruitment process.Though the few respondents who felt included were pleased with their current position and planned to pursue tenure to stay with the school, a significant number of faculty whose S/P/SO were not involved were already contemplating their next position.The authors suggest family integrative strategies that help S/P/SO connect with the community may give social work programs the competitive edge they need to attract and retain the best and brightest social work faculty.

  4. How Do Young Adolescents Cope with Social Problems? An Examination of Social Goals, Coping with Friends, and Social Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Huiyoung; Ryan, Allison M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated individual differences in sixth-grade students (N = 181; 47% girls, ethnically diverse) use of friends as a coping resource when dealing with a social stressor with another peer at school. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized three factor structure of coping with friends: mastery, avoidance, and…

  5. SOCIAL INCLUSION OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES AND THE PROBLEM OF HUMAN DIGNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Aleksandrovna Afonkina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in the article is the analysis of the concepts of disability in the context of inclusive processes in the Russian society and identification of scientific and theoretical approaches to the development of the concept of human dignity as correlating with the principles of social inclusion.The case study of disability problem realizes integrative and inclusive approach, which assumes that the value of human society does not depend on its characteristics and limitations, but it is determined by its inclusion in social practices.The novelty of the work is determined by the fact that it justifies the necessity to develop the concept of disability in Sociology in relation to the principles of inclusion, provides the interpretation of existing concepts of disability in inclusive context substantiates the concept of «human dignity» as basic for the development of inclusive practices of persons with disabilities.The author believes that successful social inclusion of persons with disabilities is determined social conditions to meet their basic human needs, uniting the human community.The results can be used to construct social models and programs of social inclusion of persons with disabilities, as well within the framework of the courses in «Social Rehabilitation», «Sociology of Disability».

  6. The Unintended Consequences of Social Media in Healthcare: New Problems and New Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hors-Fraile, S; Atique, S; Mayer, M A; Denecke, K; Merolli, M; Househ, M

    2016-11-10

    Social media is increasingly being used in conjunction with health information technology (health IT). The objective of this paper is to identify some of the undesirable outcomes that arise from this integration and to suggest solutions to these problems. After a discussion with experts to elicit the topics that should be included in the survey, we performed a narrative review based on recent literature and interviewed multidisciplinary experts from different areas. In each case, we identified and analyzed the unintended effects of social media in health IT. Each analyzed topic provided a different set of unintended consequences. Most relevant consequences include lack of privacy with ethical and legal issues, patient confusion in disease management, poor information accuracy in crowdsourcing, unclear responsibilities, misleading and biased information in the prevention and detection of epidemics, and demotivation in gamified health solutions with social components. Using social media in healthcare offers several benefits, but it is not exempt of potential problems, and not all of these problems have clear solutions. We recommend careful design of digital systems in order to minimize patient's feelings of demotivation and frustration and we recommend following specific guidelines that should be created by all stakeholders in the healthcare ecosystem.

  7. Health and social problems of the elderly: A cross-sectional study in Udupi Taluk, Karnataka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Change in socio-economic status and various health problems adversely affect an individual′s way of life during old age. Objectives: To study the health and social problems of the elderly and their attitude towards life. Materials and Methods : Descriptive study carried out in the Field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine in South India. A total of 213 elderly patients (60 years old and above who attended the outreach clinics were interviewed using a pre-tested schedule. Findings were described in terms of proportions and percentages to study the socio-economic status of the samples and its correlation to social problems. Results: Around 73% of the patients belonged to the age group of 60-69 years old. Nearly half of the respondents were illiterate. Around 48% felt they were not happy in life. A majority of them had health problems such as hypertension followed by arthritis, diabetes, asthma, cataract, and anemia. About 68% of the patients said that the attitude of people towards the elderly was that of neglect. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that there is a need for geriatric counseling centers that can take care of their physical and psychological needs. The stringent rules for eligibility to social security schemes should be made more flexible to cover a larger population.

  8. The Effect of Social Skills Training Program on the Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Adolescent Girls in a High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alavi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n  "nObjective: "nSchool-based interventions (such as life skills training have become the mainstay for prevention of some behavioral problems. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a social skills training program on a group of students who were in the first grade of high school in an urban area of Tehran, Iran "n  "n  "nMethod: "nIn a before-after study, a kind of social skill education program named Right Choices" was used for high school female students. The entire students of a class in a high school participated in the study. The students' age  ranged from 14-16 years. All of the participants lived in an urban area. Demographic characteristics were recorded in a designed questionnaire and included the name, age, educational level of the students and their parents, and prior history of psychiatric and medical condition. The total problem score and each of the subscale scores of the students before and after the study were calculated and compared. "n  "n  "nResults: "nThe mean age of the 33 participants in the study whose SDQ answer sheets were completed was equal to 15.15±6.2 years (14 to 17 years. The mean total problem score of the participants in the beginning of the program was equal to 14.3±5. After the program, the students' total problem score and all of the subscale scores improved, however, the differences between pre- and post intervention scores were not statistically significant. "n  "n  "nConclusion: "nSocial skills training program may impact the problem behaviors of the adolescent girls.

  9. The problem of suffering as a driving force of rationalization and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Iain

    2013-03-01

    This article documents and analyses a reconstructed Weberian conception of the problem of suffering. In this setting a focus is brought to how the problem of suffering is constituted in the dynamic interplay between, on the one hand, the compulsion to impose rational sense and order on the world, and on the other, the necessity to find a means to satiate charismatic needs. The discussion highlights Weber's account of the tendency for problems of suffering to increase in volume and scale along with the intensification and spread of modern processes of rationalization. It offers a case for the development of further sociological inquiries into the role played by experiences of the problem of suffering within the dynamics of social and cultural change. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  10. Relationship of Non-Structural Forms of Social Interaction with Problems of Social and Psychological Adaptation of Students Prone to Chemical Addictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilemkhanova, Elvira N.

    2016-01-01

    The changes in contemporary social and cultural environment determine the necessity to increase the efficiency of adaptive mechanisms, especially for those categories of people who are subject to social risks. One of those categories is students prone to chemical addictions. To study the relationship of forms of social interaction with problems of…

  11. Do Children Do What They Say? Responses to Hypothetical and Real-Life Social Problems in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities and Behaviour Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M.; Bijman, E. R.; Lamberix, I. C. W.; Wijnroks, L.; de Castro, B. Orobio; Vermeer, A.; Matthys, W.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: Background Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Method: In the present study, the spontaneous…

  12. Do children do what they say? Responses to hypothetical and real-life social problems in children with mild intellectual disabilities and behaviour problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Bijman, ER; Lamberix, ICW; Wijnroks, L; de Castro, BO; Vermeer, A; Matthys, W

    Background Most research on children's social problem-solving skills is based on responses to hypothetical vignettes. Just how these responses relate to actual behaviour in real-life social situations is, however, unclear, particularly for children with mild intellectual disabilities (MID). Method

  13. Adolescent peer relationships and behavior problems predict young adults' communication on social networking websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Allen, Joseph P; Evans, Meredyth A; Hare, Amanda L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined online communication on social networking web pages in a longitudinal sample of 92 youths (39 male, 53 female). Participants' social and behavioral adjustment was assessed when they were ages 13-14 years and again at ages 20-22 years. At ages 20-22 years, participants' social networking website use and indicators of friendship quality on their web pages were coded by observers. Results suggested that youths who had been better adjusted at ages 13-14 years were more likely to be using social networking web pages at ages 20-22 years, after statistically controlling for age, gender, ethnicity, and parental income. Overall, youths' patterns of peer relationships, friendship quality, and behavioral adjustment at ages 13-14 years and at ages 20-22 years predicted similar qualities of interaction and problem behavior on their social networking websites at ages 20-22 years. Findings are consistent with developmental theory asserting that youths display cross-situational continuity in their social behaviors and suggest that the conceptualization of continuity may be extended into the online domain. Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Social and economic burden of walking and mobility problems in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pike James

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic progressive neurological disease and the majority of patients will experience some degree of impaired mobility. We evaluated the prevalence, severity and burden of walking and mobility problems (WMPs in 5 European countries. Methods This was a cross-sectional, patient record-based study involving 340 neurologists who completed detailed patient record forms (PRF for patients (>18 years attending their clinic with MS. Patients were also invited to complete a questionnaire (PSC. Information collected included demographics, disease characteristics, work productivity, quality of life (QoL; EuroQol-5D and Hamburg Quality of Life Questionnaire Multiple Sclerosis [HAQUAMS] and mobility (subjective patient-reported and objectively measured using the timed 25 foot walk test [T25FW]. Relationships between WMPs and disease and other characteristics were examined using Chi square tests. Analysis of variance was used to examine relationships between mobility measures and work productivity. Results Records were available for 3572 patients of whom 2171 also completed a PSC. WMPs were regarded as the most bothersome symptom by almost half of patients who responded (43%; 291/683. There was a clear, independent and strong directional relationship between severity of WMPs (subjective and objective and healthcare resource utilisation. Patients with longer T25FW times (indicating greater walking impairment were significantly more likely to require additional caregiver support (p Conclusions In Europe, WMPs in MS represent a considerable personal and social burden both financially and in terms of quality of life. Interventions to improve mobility could have significant benefits for patients and society as a whole.

  15. Technological Solutions to Social and Citizen Problems. The Case of Civic and Public Challenges in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Adalberto TENA-ESPINOZA-DE-LOS-MONTEROS

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process of civic innovation that, based on technological solutions and open initiatives, the civic society’s organization Codeando México suggests for the attention and solution of social and civic problems in Mexico. The Retos Cívicos (Civic Challenges and Retos Públicos (Public Challenges initiatives are addressed and described as experiences of innovation in the implementation of technological strategies for the solution of social and civic problems. A reflection is made on the civic appropriation of the ICTs and its irruption in the processes of innovation, as well as on the impact that the ICTs have in the conformation of a new civic ecosystem. Last, the strategies of Hacking cívico (Civic Hacking and Comunidades Cívicas (Civic Communities that the Codeando México organization promotes as a model for the linkage and civic participation within the frame of civic innovation, are mentioned.

  16. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  17. The Use of Social Marketing to Influence the Development of Problem Gambling in the UK: Implications for Public Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jane E.; Tapp, Alan J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the authors present and debate the theoretical case for the use of social marketing to help reduce problem gambling in the public health context of the UK. Is triangulated between the key theories and principles of social marketing, the key literature and its theoretical application to the debate about reducing problem gambling in…

  18. Mothers' and Fathers' Responsive Problem Solving with Early Adolescents: Do Gender, Shyness, and Social Acceptance Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Scott R.; Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma M.

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the extent to which youths' (n = 231) shyness and social acceptance in preadolescence were associated with parents' responsive problem solving 1 year later after controlling for initial levels of parents' problem solving. Teachers (n = 176) completed assessments of youths' shyness and social acceptance, and parents (n = 231 married…

  19. A Comparison of Children with and without Learning Disabilities on Social Problem-Solving Skill, School Behavior, and Family Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toro, Paul A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of 86 learning-disabled children, aged 7-11, and 86 age-matched controls found that subjects were able to generate fewer alternatives for solving social problems, showed less adaptive assertiveness and tolerance for frustration, exhibited more classroom behavior problems, displayed less personal and social competence, and had more…

  20. Research problems and trends of the pharmaceutical market Sudan as social oriented structure of the country

    OpenAIRE

    Олена Миколаївна Євтушенко; Осама Абузаїд Мохамед Нур Ахмед

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The research object was the definition of problems and tendencies of pharmaceutical market development of Sudan as the country which in recent years tries to pull through the consequence of political and economic crisis and to build the socially oriented model of the state.Methods: In the researches it has been used the marketing and economic analysis methods as well as the historical, logical, comparative and graphic methods.Results: The authors represented the marketing analysis result...

  1. Social problem solving among depressed adolescents is enhanced by structured psychotherapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Laura J.; Marshal, Michael P.; Burton, Chad M.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kolko, David; Duffy, Jamira N.; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Changes in adolescent interpersonal behavior before and after an acute course of psychotherapy were investigated as outcomes and mediators of remission status in a previously described treatment study of depressed adolescents. Maternal depressive symptoms were examined as moderators of the association between psychotherapy condition and changes in adolescents’ interpersonal behavior. Method Adolescents (n = 63, mean age = 15.6 years, 77.8% female, 84.1% Caucasian) engaged in videotaped interactions with their mothers before randomization to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), systemic behavior family therapy (SBFT), or nondirective supportive therapy (NST), and after 12–16 weeks of treatment. Adolescent involvement, problem solving and dyadic conflict were examined. Results Improvements in adolescent problem solving were significantly associated with CBT and SBFT. Maternal depressive symptoms moderated the effect of CBT, but not SBFT, on adolescents’ problem solving; adolescents experienced increases in problem solving only when their mothers had low or moderate levels of depressive symptoms. Improvements in adolescents’ problem solving were associated with higher rates of remission across treatment conditions, but there were no significant indirect effects of SBFT on remission status through problem solving. Exploratory analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of CBT on remission status through changes in adolescent problem solving, but only when maternal depressive symptoms at study entry were low. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary support for problem solving as an active treatment component of structured psychotherapies for depressed adolescents and suggest one Pathway by which maternal depression may disrupt treatment efficacy for depressed adolescents treated with CBT. PMID:24491077

  2. Utilizing Social Stories to Increase Prosocial Behavior and Reduce Problem Behavior in Young Children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A. Wright

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a Social Story intervention on the behavior rates of 4 young children with autism using a multiple-baseline across participants design. The results of this paper indicate that the Social Story was modestly effective in increasing prosocial behavior rates in 3 of the 4 participants, though none of the participants reached the prosocial behavior rates of age and gender-matched peers. The problem behaviors of the participants modestly decreased with the intervention. Maintenance of skills over a 1-month period was demonstrated for all of the participants. The variable and inconsistent results of the research add to the current literature base in support of the use of Social Stories for some children with autism.

  3. ORGANIC PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS IN CONTEXT OF SOCIAL ORIENTED ENTEPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Chornous

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Practical realization of sustainable development general conception is passing to the organic production, that allows to satisfy society problems, not putting health and future generations' existence under a threat. At this entrepreneurs, which work in the consumer products' field, must displace accents from economic oriented to social oriented entrepreneurship. The article is dedicated to research negative and positive factors that influence on social oriented Ukrainian enterprises in the sphere of organic goods production. The special attention is attended to the analysis of foodstuffs producers' activity, the results of which have considerable direct influence on consumers' health. The value of informative influences on consumers and producers is analyzed. State support directions of organic goods production, creation of internal market ecologically safe products infrastructure are defined. Recommendations are given according to research results in relation to stimulation social responsibility of businessmen and model forming, which combines interests of consumers and producers, environmental preservation, population health refinement and ecological situation improvement.

  4. Constructing abortion as a social problem: “Sex selection” and the British abortion debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering “feminised” re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about “gendercide” as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of “medical power” in the light of what took place. PMID:28367000

  5. Constructing abortion as a social problem: "Sex selection" and the British abortion debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ellie

    2017-02-01

    Between February 2012 and March 2015, the claim that sex selection abortion was taking place in Britain and that action needed to be taken to stop it dominated debate in Britain about abortion. Situating an analysis in sociological and social psychological approaches to the construction of social problems, particularly those considering "feminised" re-framings of anti-abortion arguments, this paper presents an account of this debate. Based on analysis of media coverage, Parliamentary debate and official documents, we focus on claims about grounds (evidence) made to sustain the case that sex selection abortion is a British social problem and highlight how abortion was problematised in new ways. Perhaps most notable, we argue, was the level of largely unchallenged vilification of abortion doctors and providers, on the grounds that they are both law violators and participants in acts of discrimination and violence against women, especially those of Asian heritage. We draw attention to the role of claims made by feminists in the media and in Parliament about "gendercide" as part of this process and argue that those supportive of access to abortion need to critically assess both this aspect of the events and also consider arguments about the problems of "medical power" in the light of what took place.

  6. Examining of the social problem solving skills in preschool children in terms of different variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şuheda Bozkurt Yükçü

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine preschool children's social problem solving skills in terms of various variables. The population of the study consisted of parents and their children between the ages four-six years who attend independent kindergartens located in Çankaya county of Ankara during the 2015-2016 academic year. The sample of the study selected by simple random sampling method, consisted of 240 parents and their children between the ages four-six years who attend independent kindergartens located in Çankaya counties of Ankara during the 2015-2016 academic year. In this study conducted by descriptive screenning model, General Information Form and Wally Child Social Problem Solving Detective Game Test were used. Kruskal Wallis-H Test, Independent Groups T Test, One Way Anova were used to analyze of data. According to the results of this study, social problem solving skills of children differ based on child’s age but do not differ based on gender, number of siblings, montly income, parents’s age, educational status and working status. The findings were discussed and interpreted within the scope of the literature.

  7. Excel 2013 for social sciences statistics a guide to solving practical problems

    CERN Document Server

    Quirk, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    This is the first book to show the capabilities of Microsoft Excel to teach social science statistics effectively.  It is a step-by-step exercise-driven guide for students and practitioners who need to master Excel to solve practical social science problems.  If understanding statistics isn’t your strongest suit, you are not especially mathematically-inclined, or if you are wary of computers, this is the right book for you.  Excel, a widely available computer program for students and managers, is also an effective teaching and learning tool for quantitative analyses in social science courses.  Its powerful computational ability and graphical functions make learning statistics much easier than in years past.  However, Excel 2013 for Social Science Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems is the first book to capitalize on these improvements by teaching students and managers how to apply Excel to statistical techniques necessary in their courses and work. Each chapter explains statistical formul...

  8. Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as Moderators of the Relation Between Social Withdrawal and Internalizing Problems in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly A; Barstead, Matthew G; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2017-04-01

    Social withdrawal, or refraining from social interaction in the presence of peers, places adolescents at risk of developing emotional problems like anxiety and depression. The personality traits of neuroticism and conscientiousness also relate to emotional difficulties. For example, high conscientiousness predicts lower incidence of anxiety disorders and depression, while high neuroticism relates to greater likelihood of these problems. Based on these associations, socially withdrawn adolescents high in conscientiousness or low in neuroticism were expected to have lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Participants included 103 adolescents (59 % female) who reported on their personality traits in 8th grade and their anxiety and depressive symptoms in 9th grade. Peer ratings of social withdrawal were collected within schools in 8th grade. A structural equation model revealed that 8th grade withdrawal positively predicted 9th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms controlling for 8th grade anxiety and depressive symptoms, but neuroticism did not. Conscientiousness moderated the relation of withdrawal with depressive symptoms but not anxiety, such that high levels of conscientiousness attenuated the association between withdrawal and depressive symptoms. This buffering effect may stem from the conceptual relation between conscientiousness and self-regulation. Conscientiousness did not, however, moderate the association between withdrawal and anxiety, which may be partly due to the role anxiety plays in driving withdrawal. Thus, a conscientious, well-regulated personality partially protects withdrawn adolescents from the increased risk of emotional difficulties.

  9. An Improved Routing Optimization Algorithm Based on Travelling Salesman Problem for Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naixue Xiong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A social network is a social structure, which is organized by the relationships or interactions between individuals or groups. Humans link the physical network with social network, and the services in the social world are based on data and analysis, which directly influence decision making in the physical network. In this paper, we focus on a routing optimization algorithm, which solves a well-known and popular problem. Ant colony algorithm is proposed to solve this problem effectively, but random selection strategy of the traditional algorithm causes evolution speed to be slow. Meanwhile, positive feedback and distributed computing model make the algorithm quickly converge. Therefore, how to improve convergence speed and search ability of algorithm is the focus of the current research. The paper proposes the improved scheme. Considering the difficulty about searching for next better city, new parameters are introduced to improve probability of selection, and delay convergence speed of algorithm. To avoid the shortest path being submerged, and improve sensitive speed of finding the shortest path, it updates pheromone regulation formula. The results show that the improved algorithm can effectively improve convergence speed and search ability for achieving higher accuracy and optimal results.

  10. Social worker involvement in identifying problems and needs of families with mentally ill members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalčíková N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to explore the impact of schizophrenia on the life of the patient and his family, in particular, which problems people with schizophrenia and their families face. We applied a qualitative research strategy and method of semi-structured interview. Qualitative analysis of the data demonstrated barriers in the working and financial areas of life of people with schizophrenia. In addition, schizophrenia negatively affects social interactions of patients which lead to their social isolation which is also derived from barriers at work. Families with this kind of patient suffer mainly in the economic sphere of life with the necessity to leave the job and take care of an ill member. These families also suffer from isolation, restriction of social contacts, reduction of free-time activities, and many other problems included within the barriers in social interactions. Family members suffer psychological stress and they badly cope with the situation if the ill member is hospitalized. In addition, the family meets with the structural discrimination in the form of lack of information about the disease, lack of day care centres network and similar barriers in communication with physicians and the other professionals.

  11. Can the sociology of social problems help us to understand and manage 'lifestyle drift'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Gemma; Malbon, Eleanor; Crammond, Brad; Pescud, Melanie; Baker, Philip

    2017-08-01

    Lifestyle drift is increasingly seen as a barrier to broad action on the social determinants of health. The term is currently used in the population health literature to describe how broad policy initiatives for tackling inequalities in health that start off with social determinants (upstream) approach drift downstream to largely individual lifestyle factors, as well as the general trend of investing a the individual level. Lifestyle drift occurs despite the on-going efforts of public health advocates, such as anti-obesity campaigners, to draw attention to the social factors which shape health behavior and outcomes. In this article, we explore whether the sociology of social problems can help understand lifestyle drift in the context of obesity. Specifically, we apply Jamrozik and Nocella's residualist conversion model to the problem of obesity in order to explore whether such an approach can provide greater insight into the processes that underpin lifestyle drift and inform our attempts to mitigate it. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pre-Service Teachers' Problems of Improvisation of Instructional Materials in Social Studies in Ekiti State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu-Raheem, B. O.; Oluwagbohunmi, M. F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined problems of improvisation of instructional materials in Social Studies by pre-service teachers in Ekiti State University. The population for the study comprised all Social Studies pre-service teachers in the Faculty of Education. The sample consisted of 90 Social Studies pre-service teachers selected from 200, 300 and 400…

  13. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents with Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L.; Huber, Heartley B.; Carter, Erik W.; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137…

  14. Promoting Social Inclusion: A Structured Intervention for Enhancing Interpersonal Problem-Solving Skills in Children with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachou, Anastasia; Stavroussi, Panayiota

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in providing students with disabilities, who are at risk of social isolation, with opportunities to develop social competence and self-determination. Specifically, the provision of opportunities for teaching these students to promote social problem-solving skills is potentially useful for facilitating their…

  15. Do social support, stigma, and social problem-solving skills predict depressive symptoms in people living with HIV? A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Worawan; Grant, Joan S; Pryor, Erica R; Keltner, Norman L; Vance, David E; Raper, James L

    2012-01-01

    Social support, stigma, and social problem solving may be mediators of the relationship between sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms in people living with HIV (PLWH). However, no published studies have examined these individual variables as mediators in PLWH. This cross-sectional, correlational study of 150 PLWH examined whether social support, stigma, and social problem solving were mediators of the relationship between HIV-related sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms. Participants completed self-report questionnaires during their visits at two HIV outpatient clinics in the Southeastern United States. Using multiple regression analyses as a part of mediation testing, social support, stigma, and social problem solving were found to be partial mediators of the relationship between sign and symptom severity and depressive symptoms, considered individually and as a set.

  16. Use of a brief standardized screening instrument in a primary care setting to enhance detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jee, Sandra H; Halterman, Jill S; Szilagyi, Moira; Conn, Anne-Marie; Alpert-Gillis, Linda; Szilagyi, Peter G

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether systematic use of a validated social-emotional screening instrument in a primary care setting is feasible and improves detection of social-emotional problems among youth in foster care. Before-and-after study design, following a practice intervention to screen all youth in foster care for psychosocial problems using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), a validated instrument with 5 subdomains. After implementation of systematic screening, youth aged 11 to 17 years and their foster parents completed the SDQ at routine health maintenance visits. We assessed feasibility of screening by measuring the completion rates of SDQ by youth and foster parents. We compared the detection of psychosocial problems during a 2-year period before systematic screening to the detection after implementation of systematic screening with the SDQ. We used chart reviews to assess detection at baseline and after implementing systematic screening. Altogether, 92% of 212 youth with routine visits that occurred after initiation of screening had a completed SDQ in the medical record, demonstrating high feasibility of systematic screening. Detection of a potential mental health problem was higher in the screening period than baseline period for the entire population (54% vs 27%, P youth had 2 or more significant social-emotional problem domains on the SDQ. Systematic screening for potential social-emotional problems among youth in foster care was feasible within a primary care setting and doubled the detection rate of potential psychosocial problems. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A LOOK AT SOME OF THE EUROPEAN UNION’S MAJOR SOCIAL PROBLEMS AND THEIR ECONOMIC IMPACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Moraliyska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The EU's economy accounts for a significant share of the world economy. Measured in terms of GDP, it is still the biggest in the world. In addition to that, being a single market of 28 countries, the EU has been a major trading player accounting for around 20% of global exports and imports. However, EU’s trade was hit by the global recession. It is additionally hindered by the attempts of its economic policy to provide for a sustainable growth by investing in transport, energy and research in order to minimize the impact of further economic development on the environment. The most serious problems of the EU are connected with the unstable and comparatively low employment, continuing energy dependence, demographic change and population’s aging, as well as the persisting economic and social disparities within member states and between European regions in the North and South, West and East. The migration crisis adds to the problem with the lack of coherent solution, unsuccessful integration, growing inequalities and fragile multilateralism, having both – their social and economic effects. This paper aims to explore the most pressing challenges before the European Union’s economy today and in the years to come – aging population and social disparities.

  18. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse and Social Network Patterns on Social Media: Associations With Alcohol Use and Problems Among Young Adult Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.

  19. Defense Mechanisms of Pregnant Mothers Predict Attachment Security, Social-Emotional Competence, and Behavior Problems in Their Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Huth-Bocks, Alissa; Huprich, Steven K; Richardson, Laura

    2016-02-01

    For at-risk (single parent, low income, low support) mothers, healthy adaptation and the ability to manage stress have clear implications for parenting and the social-emotional well-being of their young offspring. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine associations between defense mechanisms in pregnant women and their toddlers' attachment security, social-emotional, and behavioral adjustment. Participants were 84 pregnant women during their last trimester of pregnancy, recruited from community agencies primarily serving low-income families. Women were followed prospectively from pregnancy through 2 years after birth and completed several multimethod assessments during that period. Observations of mother-child interactions were also coded after the postnatal visits. Multiple regression analyses revealed that mothers' defense mechanisms were significantly associated with several toddler outcomes. Mature, healthy defenses were significantly associated with greater toddler attachment security and social-emotional competence and fewer behavior problems, and less mature defenses (disavowal in particular) were associated with lower levels of attachment security and social-emotional competence. Associations remained significant, or were only slightly attenuated, after controlling for demographic variables and partner abuse during pregnancy. The study findings suggest that defensive functioning in parents preparing for and parenting toddlers influences the parent-child attachment relationship and social-emotional adjustment in the earliest years of life. Possible mechanisms for these associations may include parental attunement and mentalization, as well as specific caregiving behavior toward the child. Defensive functioning during times of increased stress (such as the prenatal to postnatal period) may be especially important for understanding parental influences on the child.

  20. La mujer como sujeto social ante el problema ambiental desde la realidad cubana./The woman as a social subject to the environmental problem from the Cuban reality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Carrión Cabrera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El análisis de la mujer como sujeto social ante el problema ambiental en el contexto cubano, se convierte en una necesidad para alcanzar el desarrollo sostenible, para dicho análisis se discuten acerca de los cuatro ejes que facilitan la valoración de los procesos sociales en su vínculo con el medio ambiente (lo ambiental como problemática en la producción filosófica en el contexto cubano y su relación con la mujer como sujeto social; el desequilibrio en las condiciones de existencia en los espacios privados (familiar; los problemas ambientales y su impacto en la mujer y el papel creciente de la actividad social del sujeto, a partir de sus tipos y proyecciones sociales para el logro del desarrollo sostenible. ABSTRACT The analysis of women as social subject to the environmental problem in the Cuban context, it becomes a necessity for sustainable development, for this analysis are discussed on the four axes that facilitate the assessment of social processes in its link with the environment (environmental and philosophical problems in production in the Cuban context and its relationship with the woman as a social subject, the imbalance in living conditions in the private sphere (family environmental problems and their impact on women and the increasing role of the social activity of the subject, based on their types and social implications for the achievement of sustainable development.

  1. Nice or effective? Social problem solving strategies in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Patrizia; Schmidt, Tobias; Juckel, Georg; Norra, Christine; Suchan, Boris

    2015-08-30

    Our study addressed distinct aspects of social problem solving in 28 hospitalized patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 28 matched healthy controls. Three scenario-based tests assessed the ability to infer the mental states of story characters in difficult interpersonal situations, the capacity to freely generate good strategies for dealing with such situations and the ability to identify the best solutions among less optimal alternatives. Also, standard tests assessing attention, memory, executive function and trait empathy were administered. Compared to controls, MDD patients showed impaired interpretation of other peoples' sarcastic remarks but not of the mental states underlying other peoples' actions. Furthermore, MDD patients generated fewer strategies that were socially sensitive and practically effective at the same time or at least only socially sensitive. Overall, while the free generation of adequate strategies for difficult social situations was impaired, recognition of optimal solutions among alternatives was spared in MDD patients. Higher generation scores were associated with higher trait empathy and cognitive flexibility scores. We suggest that this specific pattern of impairments ought to be considered in the development of therapies addressing impaired social skills in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Problems in education, employment and social integration of hard of hearing artists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Šestić Marina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the problems in education (primary, secondary and undergraduate academic studies, employment and social integration of hard of hearing artists based on a multiple case study. The sample consisted of 4 examinees of both genders, aged between 29 and 54, from the field of visual arts (a painter, a sculptor, a graphic designer, and an interior designer. The structured interview consisted of 30 questions testing three areas: the first area involved family, primary and secondary education; the second area was about the length of studying and socio-emotional problems of the examinees; the third area dealt with problems in employment and job satisfaction of our examinees. Research results indicate the existence of several problems which more or less reflect the success in education, employment and social integration of hard of hearing artists. One of the problems which can influence the development of language abilities, socioemotional maturity, and better educational achievement of hard of hearing artists in general, is prolongation in diagnosing hearing impairments, amplification and auditory rehabilitation. Furthermore, parents of hard of hearing artists have difficulties in adjusting to their children's hearing impairments and ignore the language and culture of the Deaf, i.e. they tend to identify their children with typically developing population. Another problem are negative attitudes of teachers/professors/employers and typically developing peers/ colleagues towards the inclusion of hard of hearing people into the regular education/employment system. Apart from that, unmodified instruction, course books, information, school and working area further complicate the acquisition of knowledge, information, and the progress of hard of hearing people in education and profession.

  3. Reaching out: Social Support and Mental Health Problems of Bosnian Immigrants in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvira Draganović

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A state of well being in which one realizes own potentials, can cope with every day stressors, can work productively and is able to constructively contribute to community is called mental health. Many stressful and negative events can interfere with these abilities and thus endanger someone’s mental health. Migration is one of them. With its’ pre and post phases/stages, migration represents great sources of stress and stressors. Immigrants need good personal and social resource in order to lessen down negative effects of migration on their mental health. The aim of this study is to explore presence of mental health problems in non clinical population of Bosnian immigrants (N=101, F=48, M=53 in Switzerland. It was assumed that migration stress acts negatively on immigrant’s mental health. General health questionnaire was used to test this hypothesis. Participants mean score results on total GHQ28 questionnaire were M=51.06, S.D. =14.30, its subscales on depression M=10.12 S.D.=3.75, somatic complaints M=13.04 S.D.=4.5, anxiety/insomnia M=13.34 S.D. 4.8, and social dysfunction M=14.37 S.D.=3.5. This indicates presence of mental health problems among Bosnian immigrants. At the same time, the study shows presence of social support seeking (N=83 subjects listed family and friends as primary coping strategy used by Bosnian immigrants while dealing with difficulties and problems rather than seeking professional help (N=3 subjects listed professional help seeking. Thus, social support seeking acts positively on mental health of Bosnian immigrants.

  4. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomoike, Toshio

    1994-01-01

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.)

  5. Psychological problems of atomic bomb survivors from the medical social worker`s standpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomoike, Toshio [Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Mental data from 80 A-bomb survivors were available during a 20-year period 1973-1992. Types of A-bomb survivors were classified into (1) directly exposed A-bomb survivors, (2) A-bomb survivors living in the United States, (3) those living in prefectures other than Nagasaki, (4) ex-soldiers, (5) A-bomb survivors having family problems and others, (6) the demented elderly, (7) the alcoholic, and (8) others. Mental problems were judged as psychogenic, endogenous, and exogenous. Mental problems were most frequently associated with Type 1 (34.9%), followed by Type 8 (21.0%), Type 2 (18.6%), and Type 3 (7.0%). Noticeable finding was that Type 1 A-bomb survivors suffered from psychogenic and exogenous mental problems in an extremely high incidence, as compared with the non-exposed group (66.3% vs 24%). The incidence of both exogenous and endogenous problems was higher in the non-exposed group (32.6% and 24.5%) than the exposed group (23.2% and 10.5%). There was no significant gender difference in the development of mental problems. According to types of A-bomb survivors, both psychogenic and exogenous mental problems were most common for Type 1. The incidence of psychogenic problems was 2.85 times higher than that of exogenous problems. (N.K.).

  6. Beyond behavior modification: Benefits of social-emotional/self-regulation training for preschoolers with behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Paulo A; Hart, Katie

    2016-10-01

    The current study evaluated the initial efficacy of three intervention programs aimed at improving school readiness in preschool children with externalizing behavior problems (EBP). Participants for this study included 45 preschool children (76% boys; Mage=5.16years; 84% Hispanic/Latino background) with at-risk or clinically elevated levels of EBP. During the summer between preschool and kindergarten, children were randomized to receive three newly developed intervention packages. The first and most cost effective intervention package was an 8-week School Readiness Parenting Program (SRPP). Families randomized into the second and third intervention packages received not only the weekly SRPP, but children also attended two different versions of an intensive kindergarten summer readiness class (M-F, 8a.m.-5p.m.) that was part of an 8-week summer treatment program for pre-kindergarteners (STP-PreK). One version included the standard behavioral modification system and academic curriculum (STP-PreK) while the other additionally contained social-emotional and self-regulation training (STP-PreK Enhanced). Baseline, post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up data were collected on children's school readiness outcomes including parent, teacher, and objective assessment measures. Analyses using linear mixed models indicated that children's behavioral functioning significantly improved across all groups in a similar magnitude. Children in the STP-PreK Enhanced group, however, experienced greater growth across time in academic achievement, emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and executive functioning compared to children in the other groups. These findings suggest that while parent training is sufficient to address children's behavioral difficulties, an intensive summer program that goes beyond behavioral modification and academic preparation by targeting socio-emotional and self-regulation skills can have incremental benefits across multiple aspects of school readiness

  7. Relationship between children's intelligence and their emotional/behavioral problems and social competence: gender differences in first graders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Lian; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tanaka, Emiko; Watanabe, Taeko; Onda, Yoko; Kawashima, Yuri; Yato, Yuko; Yamakawa, Noriko; Koeda, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiraku; Terakawa, Shinako; Seki, Ayumi; Anme, Tokie

    2010-01-01

    The present study examines gender differences in the correlations between intelligence and developmental problems as well as social competence in first graders. Ninety parent-child dyads participated in this study. The children comprised 7-year-olds recruited from the first grade of an elementary school. All the children were administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III), Parent-child Interaction Rating Scale (IRS), and the parent report version of Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). The findings clarified that the processing speed of boys significantly correlated with their peer relationship. On the other hand, the emotional symptoms exhibited by girls had a more common association with their intellectual abilities. The correlations between parenting and intellectual abilities differed in boys and girls. Children's gender should be taken into account when assessing the diversity in their intellectual abilities and developmental problems. Moreover, parenting also influences the development of children in various ways.

  8. Meta-Analysis of the Association of Alcohol-Related Social Media Use with Alcohol Consumption and Alcohol-Related Problems in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brenda L; Lookatch, Samantha J; Ramo, Danielle E; McKay, James R; Feinn, Richard S; Kranzler, Henry R

    2018-06-01

    Despite the pervasive use of social media by young adults, there is comparatively little known about whether, and how, engagement in social media influences this group's drinking patterns and risk of alcohol-related problems. We examined the relations between young adults' alcohol-related social media engagement (defined as the posting, liking, commenting, and viewing of alcohol-related social media content) and their drinking behavior and problems. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies evaluating the association of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems with alcohol-related social media engagement. Summary baseline variables regarding the social media platform used (e.g., Facebook and Twitter), social media measures assessed (e.g., number of alcohol photographs posted), alcohol measures (e.g., Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Timeline Follow back Interview), and the number of time points at which data were collected were extracted from each published study. We used the Q statistic to examine heterogeneity in the correlations between alcohol-related social media engagement and both drinking behavior and alcohol-related problems. Because there was significant heterogeneity, we used a random-effects model to evaluate the difference from zero of the weighted aggregate correlations. We used metaregression with study characteristics as moderators to test for moderators of the observed heterogeneity. Following screening, 19 articles met inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. The primary findings indicated a statistically significant relationship and moderate effect sizes between alcohol-related social media engagement and both alcohol consumption (r = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.44, p social media engagement and drinking behavior or these were measured on different occasions and (ii) whether measurements were taken by self-report or observation of social media engagement. We found moderate-sized effects across the 19

  9. Solving problems in social-ecological systems: definition, practice and barriers of transdisciplinary research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelstam, Per; Andersson, Kjell; Annerstedt, Matilda; Axelsson, Robert; Elbakidze, Marine; Garrido, Pablo; Grahn, Patrik; Jönsson, K Ingemar; Pedersen, Simen; Schlyter, Peter; Skärbäck, Erik; Smith, Mike; Stjernquist, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Translating policies about sustainable development as a social process and sustainability outcomes into the real world of social-ecological systems involves several challenges. Hence, research policies advocate improved innovative problem-solving capacity. One approach is transdisciplinary research that integrates research disciplines, as well as researchers and practitioners. Drawing upon 14 experiences of problem-solving, we used group modeling to map perceived barriers and bridges for researchers' and practitioners' joint knowledge production and learning towards transdisciplinary research. The analysis indicated that the transdisciplinary research process is influenced by (1) the amount of traditional disciplinary formal and informal control, (2) adaptation of project applications to fill the transdisciplinary research agenda, (3) stakeholder participation, and (4) functional team building/development based on self-reflection and experienced leadership. Focusing on implementation of green infrastructure policy as a common denominator for the delivery of ecosystem services and human well-being, we discuss how to diagnose social-ecological systems, and use knowledge production and collaborative learning as treatments.

  10. THE PROBLEM OF SOCIAL CONFLICTS REGULATION IN THE REGION: THE DISPOSITION OF THE ESTABLISHMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksei Eduardovich Ushamirskiy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the specificity of the perception of the problem of social conflicts` regulation by the representatives of the regional establishment is analyzed on the basis of the results of sociological research conducted in the Volgograd region in 2014 by the method of a questionnaire survey on multi-stage, quota sampling (500 respondents. It is concluded that the representatives of the elite associate the main causes of social conflicts with the low political culture of the population, the mutual exclusion of power and population, corruption, social stratification and lack of tolerance. However, they are inadequate to resolve them in terms of technology. Despite the high subjective self-assessment, as a rule, the representatives of the establishment have the lack of knowledge and experience. The analysis gives the grounds to assert that the establishment in the regions hasn`t managed to form the system of regulation of conflicts yet.The solution to this problem requires the institutionalization of conflict mediating in public and municipal authorities; development and implementation of the mechanism of involvement in the conflict mediating of civil society institutions, first of all, the civic chambers of regions; organization of training of specialists in conflictology in universities.

  11. Distinct emotion regulation skills explain psychopathology and problems in social relationships following childhood emotional abuse and neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzenski, Sara R

    2018-03-22

    Efforts to differentiate between the developmental sequelae of childhood emotional abuse and childhood emotional neglect are critical to both research and practice efforts. As an oft-identified mechanism of the effects of child maltreatment on later adjustment, emotion dysregulation represents a key potential pathway. The present study explored a higher order factor model of specific emotion regulation skills, and the extent to which these skill sets would indicate distinct developmental pathways from unique emotional maltreatment experiences to multidomain adjustment. A sample of 500 ethnoracially diverse college students reported on their experiences. A two-factor model of emotion regulation skills based on subscales of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale was revealed. Significant indirect effects of childhood emotional abuse on psychopathology and problems in social relationships were found through response-focused difficulties in emotion regulation, whereas a significant indirect effect of childhood emotional neglect on problems in social relationships was found through antecedent-focused difficulties in emotion regulation. These results are consistent with theoretical models and empirical evidence suggesting differential effects of childhood emotional abuse and emotional neglect, and provide an important indication for developing targeted interventions focusing on specific higher order emotion dysregulation skill clusters.

  12. Significance of coagulase negative Staphylococcus from blood cultures: persisting problems and partial progress in resource constrained settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Shailpreet K; Malhotra, Sita; Devi, Pushpa; Tuli, Arpandeep K

    2016-12-01

    Coagulase negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) is frequently isolated from blood cultures but their significance is difficult to interpret. CoNS bacteria which are often previously dismissed as culture contaminants are attracting greater importance as true pathogens in the past decades. Clinical evaluation of these isolates suggests that although there is a relative increase of CoNS associated bloodstream infections in recent years, the microorganisms still remain the most common contaminants in blood cultures. The objective of this study was to determine the significance of CoNS isolated from blood cultures. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the rate of contamination in blood cultures in a tertiary care hospital. The paired specimens of blood were cultured using conventional culture methods and the isolates of coagulase negative staphylococci were identified by standard methodology. Clinical data, laboratory indices, microbiological parameters and patient characteristics were analyzed. Of 3503 blood samples, CoNS were isolated from blood culture of 307 patients (8.76%). The isolates were reported as true pathogens of bloodstream infections in only 74 out of 307 cases (24.1%). In the vast majority, 212 of 307 (69.0%), they were mere blood culture contaminants and reported as insignificant/contaminant. Determining whether a growth in the blood culture is a pathogen or a contaminant is a critical issue and multiple parameters have to be considered before arriving at a conclusion. Ideally, the molecular approach is for the most part a consistent method in determining the significant isolates of CoNS. However, in countries with inadequate resources, species identification and antibiogram tests are recommended when determining significance of these isolates.

  13. Trust, Privacy, and Frame Problems in Social and Business E-Networks, Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Buechner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Privacy issues in social and business e-networks are daunting in complexity—private information about oneself might be routed through countless artificial agents. For each such agent, in that context, two questions about trust are raised: Where an agent must access (or store personal information, can one trust that artificial agent with that information and, where an agent does not need to either access or store personal information, can one trust that agent not to either access or store that information? It would be an infeasible task for any human being to explicitly determine, for each artificial agent, whether it can be trusted. That is, no human being has the computational resources to make such an explicit determination. There is a well-known class of problems in the artificial intelligence literature, known as frame problems, where explicit solutions to them are computationally infeasible. Human common sense reasoning solves frame problems, though the mechanisms employed are largely unknown. I will argue that the trust relation between two agents (human or artificial functions, in some respects, is a frame problem solution. That is, a problem is solved without the need for a computationally infeasible explicit solution. This is an aspect of the trust relation that has remained unexplored in the literature. Moreover, there is a formal, iterative structure to agent-agent trust interactions that serves to establish the trust relation non-circularly, to reinforce it, and to “bootstrap” its strength.

  14. The effects of anticipated regret on risk preferences of social and problem gamblers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Tochkov

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Anticipated regret is an important determinant in risky decision making, however only a few studies have explored its role in problem gambling. This study tested for differences in the anticipation of regret among social and problem gamblers and examined how these differences affect risk preferences in a gambling task. The extent of problem gambling was assessed using the South Oaks Gambling Screen and participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions. In the risky feedback condition, the feeling of regret was avoided by choosing the risky gamble, whereas in the safe feedback condition the safe gamble was the regret-minimizing option. Problem gambling was associated with the choice of the risky gamble in both conditions indicating less sensitivity to anticipated regret. It was also associated with risk seeking across feedback conditions when the stakes of winning and loosing were higher. These findings suggest that less regret or the poor anticipation of regret might contribute to excessive gambling and thus need to be addressed in cognitive treatments of problem gambling.

  15. LONELINESS IN THE AGE OF ADOLESCENCE AS A SOCIAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Zheleznyakova

    2013-03-01

    A teenager acquires social experience in the course of establishing various social relations. The  development  of  individualization,  weakening  of  relationships  with  the  primary  group, intensi?cation of the social mobility within a society and the general instability provoke the growth of the subjective loneliness. The number of teenagers suffering from subjective loneliness grows in the contemporary society. This feeling, as a rule, leads to deviations in behavior and brings about such dangerous consequences as depression, abuse of drugs and alcohol, gambling addiction  and  even  suicide  attempts.  Thus,  loneliness  results  in  serious  problems.  Parental neglect and lack of parental support seem to be the main reasons which stimulate the feelings of loneliness in teenagers. Positive feedback in the families where teenagers experience the lack of parental support is very weak and inadequate, which cause the stagnation of the subsequent socialization of teenagers.

  16. The problem of windfarm location: A social multi-criteria evaluation framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, Gonzalo; Munda, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Although wind energy has the green image, the location of windfarms is always a source of local conflicts. Opposition may depend on the extensive land use of windfarms, their possible impacts on tourism or their visual impact, as well as NIMBY (Never In My Back-Yard) behavior. On the other hand, some social actors are normally in favor of wind parks because they perceive them as a possibility of development or simply a source of income. In these situations, the management of the energy policy process involves many layers and kinds of decisions, and requires the construction of a dialogue process among many social actors, individual and collective, formal and informal, local and non-local. This implies that the political and social framework must find a place in evaluation exercises. This is the objective of social multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE). In this article, SMCE is proposed as a general framework for dealing with the problem of wind park location. The major strength of SMCE is the possibility of integrating both socio-economic and technical dimensions inside a coherent framework. A real-world case study is used as an illustrative example

  17. "But-He'll Fall!": Children with Autism, Interspecies Intersubjectivity, and the Problem of 'Being Social'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Olga

    2015-06-01

    'Being autistic' or 'having Autism Spectrum Disorder' implies a limited range of 'being social,' but the in situ organization of interaction, what Maynard and Marlaire (Qual Soc 15(2):177-202, 1992) call the 'interactional substrate,' within which this delimitation enfolds is usually hidden from sight. Analysis of processes constituting different 'interactional substrates' provides a view of how one comes to be known by and to self and others as a certain kind of being who is available (or not) for acting and feeling in certain ways. People diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 2013) are often described as 'being' impaired in intersubjective understanding of others. But the story of ASD as an impairment of sociality and intersubjectivity becomes more complicated when animals enter into the picture. I consider two interactional substrates: a psychological interview in a mental health clinic, and an animal-assisted activity in a child's neighborhood. I aim to elucidate the practical problems of 'being social' encountered by two children with ASD, both nine-year-old girls, within these two very differently organized interactional substrates. I consider ways in which 'being with' therapy animals provides a way of 'being social' through "sensory modalities of knowing" (Haraway, When species meet, 2008:371).

  18. Parents' Social Comparisons of Siblings and Youth Problem Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Alexander C; McHale, Susan M; Pond, Amanda M

    2018-06-18

    Parents compare their children to one another; those comparisons may have implications for the way mothers and fathers treat their children, as well as their children's behavior. Data were collected annually for three years with parents, firstborns, and secondborns from 385 families (Time 1 age: firstborns, 15.71, SD = 1.07, 52% female; secondborns, 13.18, SD = 1.29, 50% female). Parents' beliefs that one child was better behaved predicted differences in siblings' reports of parent-child conflict. Additionally, for siblings close in age, mothers' comparisons at Time 1 predicted youth's problem behavior at Time 3 through siblings' differential conflict with mothers. The results support and extend tenets from Social Comparison and Expectancy Value theories in regards to social comparison within families.

  19. Diabetes mellitus type 1 as a health, nutriotial and social problem for children up to 18 years of age.

    OpenAIRE

    FRIDRICHOVSKÁ, Pavlína

    2011-01-01

    Work specifies the problems of children with diabetes mellitus type 1 - of site for health, in nutrition and social problems. The theoretical part is characterized by diabetes mellitus type 1, its causes, symptoms, treatment with diet and takes into account the specific problems arising from this condition for age. The practical part comprises the results of the questionnaire survey, which focuses on the problems of diabetes mellitus type 1 in childhood, and the level of knowledge about diabe...

  20. Existing contradictions and problems in China's current economic and social development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Tongsan

    2014-01-01

    Since the 18th National Congress of Communist Party of China (CPC),China has made important achievements and headway in economic and social development.However,now more than ever the focus should be on the conflicts and problems that continue to exist in China's economy.This paper examines six of them:(1) lack of a firm foundation for sustaining steady economic growth;(2) risks and hidden dangers in the financial,banking,and real estate sectors and massive overcapacity in some industries;(3) increasing difficulty in increasing agricultural production and raising rural incomes;(4) severe air,water,and soil pollution in certain regions and the arduous task of energy conservation and emissions reduction;(5) major structural problems constraining employment;and (6) issues of people's livelihood that have been the source of dissatisfaction for many Chinese citizens.

  1. The Problem of Privacy in Capitalism and the Alternative Social Networking Site Diaspora*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Sevignani

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, l examine the alternative social networking site Diaspora* from a Marxist standpoint. The investigation focuses on privacy, and contributes to a better understanding of this issue within the context of capitalism in general. First, I describe Diaspora*’s way of production by pointing out its alternative character as part of the free software and copyleft movement. Second, dominant theories of privacy related to individual control, exclusion, and property are introduced. Third, the problem of privacy in capitalism is described wherein dominant concepts of privacy will be contextualised on behalf of a critical political economy analysis that refers to the Marxian concept of ideology critique, Marx’s differentiation between a societal sphere of production and a societal sphere of circulation, and his analysis of capitalist fetishisms. Fourth, taking into account the problem of privacy in capitalism, the alternative potential of Diaspora* is evaluated. Finally, a brief outline of a Marxist theory of privacy is proposed.

  2. The construction of the social problem of violence in brazilian football: domination and resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Tavares Paes Lopes

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I aimed to answer the following question: how the claims-makers of the social problem of violence in Brazilian football symbolically construct the conditions of this problem, the actors involved in it and their solutions and how these symbolic constructions reinforce or, on the contrary, undermine relations of domination? Therefore, I referred to research findings that I have been developing since 2008. Besides, I considered my experiences during my participation in the public debate about violence in Brazilian football. Among other things, I concluded that some of these symbolic constructions have kept the organized group of supporters and the poor supporters under a condition of domination. At the same time, I indicated that they have motivated practices of resistance, such as the creation of representative associations of organized group of supporters.

  3. The Wicked Problem of Climate Change: A New Approach Based on Social Mess and Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazhe Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century has been the warmest period on record since 1880, making the problem of climate change a central issue in the global political arena. While most approaches to climate change emphasize setting and imposing thresholds for greenhouse gas emissions, this paper argues that the issue of climate change and its solutions should be viewed in a more dynamic and complex way, involving social messes and the fragmentation of industries and organizations. In this context, learning models can offer a starting point to understand the reasons why organizations engage in certain types of corporate environmental strategies with regard to climate change, and can help in the search for solutions to the problem of climate change.

  4. The Effect of Montessori Method Supported by Social Skills Training Program on Turkish Kindergarten Children's Skills of Understanding Feelings and Social Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayili, Gökhan; Ari, Ramazan

    2016-01-01

    The current research was conducted with the purpose of analyzing the effect of Montessori method supported by Social Skills Training Program on kindergarten children's skills of understanding feelings and social problem solving. 53 children attending Ihsan Dogramaci Applied Nursery School affiliated to Selcuk University, Faculty of Health Sciences…

  5. Evaluation of an early detection tool for social-emotional and behavioral problems in toddlers: The Brief Infant Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment - A cluster randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Kruizinga (Ingrid); W. Jansen (Wilma); A.S. Carter (Alice); H. Raat (Hein)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of social-emotional and behavioral problems is estimated to be 8 to 9% among preschool children. Effective early detection tools are needed to promote the provision of adequate care at an early stage. The Brief Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment

  6. The Role of Organizational Humanistic Social Support in Decreasing the Interference of Work Problems on Employees’ Family Conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite an increased interest in humanistic touch in global organizational support, the nature of helping processes rendered by supervisor and coworkers is still vague. The study was performed to examine the relationship between organizational humanistic social support and work interference with family conflict using 100 usable questionnaires gathered from academic staff in a Malaysian public institution of higher learning in Borneo. The findings of SmartPLS path model indicated that humanistic touch in term of supervisory support significantly correlated with work interference with family conflict. Similarly, humanistic touch of coworker support significantly correlated with work interference with family conflict. This result shows that the readiness of supervisors and coworkers to amply offer material and moral support in performing task have reduced the intrusion of work problems in employees’ family affairs and enriched their skills to decrease family conflicts. In addition, discussion, implications and conclusion are elaborated.

  7. The roles of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the relationship between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Yeung, Jerf W K; Low, Andrew Y T; Lo, Herman H M; Tam, Cherry H L

    2015-06-01

    The study investigated the relationship among physical abuse, positive psychological factors including emotional competence and social problem-solving, and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China. The possible moderating effects of emotional competence and social problem-solving in the association between physical abuse and adolescent suicidal ideation were also studied. A cross-sectional survey employing convenience sampling was conducted and self-administered questionnaires were collected from 527 adolescents with mean age of 14 years from the schools in Shanghai. Results showed that physical abuse was significantly and positively related to suicidal ideation in both male and female adolescents. Emotional competence was not found to be significantly associated with adolescent suicidal ideation, but rational problem-solving, a sub-scale of social problem-solving, was shown to be significantly and negatively associated with suicidal ideation for males, but not for females. However, emotional competence and rational problem-solving were shown to be a significant and a marginally significant moderator in the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation in females respectively, but not in males. High rational problem-solving buffered the negative impact of physical abuse on suicidal ideation for females. Interestingly, females with higher empathy and who reported being physically abused by their parents have higher suicidal ideation. Findings are discussed and implications are stated. It is suggested to change the attitudes of parents on the concept of physical abuse, guide them on appropriate attitudes, knowledge and skills in parenting, and enhance adolescents' skills in rational problem-solving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Social marketing campaign significantly associated with increases in syphilis testing among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Jorge A; Kent, Charlotte K; Rotblatt, Harlan; McCright, Jacque; Kerndt, Peter R; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2005-07-01

    Between 1999 and 2002, San Francisco experienced a sharp increase in early syphilis among gay and bisexual men. In response, the San Francisco Department of Public Health launched a social marketing campaign to increase testing for syphilis, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men. A convenience sample of 244 gay and bisexual men (18-60 years of age) were surveyed to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign. Respondents were interviewed to elicit unaided and aided awareness about the campaign, knowledge about syphilis, recent sexual behaviors, and syphilis testing behavior. After controlling for other potential confounders, unaided campaign awareness was a significant correlate of having a syphilis test in the last 6 months (odds ratio, 3.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-7.97) compared with no awareness of the campaign. A comparison of respondents aware of the campaign with those not aware also revealed significant increases in awareness and knowledge about syphilis. The Healthy Penis 2002 campaign achieved its primary objective of increasing syphilis testing, and awareness and knowledge about syphilis among gay and bisexual men in San Francisco.

  9. Social networking sites and mental health problems in adolescents: The mediating role of cyberbullying victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, H; Hamilton, H A

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has suggested an association between the use of social networking sites (SNSs) and mental health problems such as psychological distress, suicidal ideation and attempts in adolescents. However, little is known about the factors that might mediate these relationships. The present study examined the link between the use of social networking sites and psychological distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, and tested the mediating role of cyberbullying victimization on these associations in adolescents. The sample consisted of a group of 11-to-20-year-old individuals (n=5126, 48% females; mean±SD age: 15.2±1.9 years) who completed the mental health portion of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS) in 2013. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to test the mediation models. After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, subjective socioeconomic status (SES), and parental education, use of SNSs was associated with psychological distress (adjusted odds ratio, 95% confidence interval=2.03, 1.22-3.37), suicidal ideation (3.44, 1.54-7.66) and attempts (5.10, 1.45-17.88). Cyberbullying victimization was found to fully mediate the relationships between the use of SNSs with psychological distress and attempts; whereas, it partially mediated the link between the use of SNSs and suicidal ideation. Findings provide supporting evidence that addressing cyberbullying victimization and the use of SNSs among adolescents may help reduce the risk of mental health problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Personality-dependent differences in problem-solving performance in a social context reflect foraging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandberg, Lies; Quinn, John L; Naguib, Marc; van Oers, Kees

    2017-01-01

    Individuals develop innovative behaviours to solve foraging challenges in the face of changing environmental conditions. Little is known about how individuals differ in their tendency to solve problems and in their subsequent use of this solving behaviour in social contexts. Here we investigated whether individual variation in problem-solving performance could be explained by differences in the likelihood of solving the task, or if they reflect differences in foraging strategy. We tested this by studying the use of a novel foraging skill in groups of great tits (Parus major), consisting of three naive individuals with different personality, and one knowledgeable tutor. We presented them with multiple, identical foraging devices over eight trials. Though birds of different personality type did not differ in solving latency; fast and slow explorers showed a steeper increase over time in their solving rate, compared to intermediate explorers. Despite equal solving potential, personality influenced the subsequent use of the skill, as well as the pay-off received from solving. Thus, variation in the tendency to solve the task reflected differences in foraging strategy among individuals linked to their personality. These results emphasize the importance of considering the social context to fully understand the implications of learning novel skills. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Formula: see text]Executive functions and social information processing in adolescents with severe behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nieuwenhuijzen, M; Van Rest, M M; Embregts, P J C M; Vriens, A; Oostermeijer, S; Van Bokhoven, I; Matthys, W

    2017-02-01

    One tradition in research for explaining aggression and antisocial behavior has focused on social information processing (SIP). Aggression and antisocial behavior have also been studied from the perspective of executive functions (EFs), the higher-order cognitive abilities that affect other cognitive processes, such as social cognitive processes. The main goal of the present study is to provide insight into the relation between EFs and SIP in adolescents with severe behavior problems. Because of the hierarchical relation between EFs and SIP, we examined EFs as predictors of SIP. We hypothesized that, first, focused attention predicts encoding and interpretation, second, inhibition predicts interpretation, response generation, evaluation, and selection, and third, working memory predicts response generation and selection. The participants consisted of 94 respondents living in residential facilities aged 12-20 years, all showing behavior problems in the clinical range according to care staff. EFs were assessed using subtests from the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test battery. Focused attention was measured by the Flanker task, inhibition by the GoNoGo task, and working memory by the Visual Spatial Sequencing task. SIP was measured by video vignettes and a structured interview. The results indicate that positive evaluation of aggressive responses is predicted by impaired inhibition and selection of aggressive responses by a combination of impaired focused attention and inhibition. It is concluded that different components of EFs as higher-order cognitive abilities affect SIP.

  12. Reviewing the relation between the problem solving skills of school of health students and their social skill levels

    OpenAIRE

    Gül Ergün; Buket Şimşek Arslan

    2017-01-01

    This research aims at reviewing the relation between the problem solving skills of health high school students and their social skill levels.  It was planned to be descriptive. The universe of the research was composed of nursing students in the health high school. The sample was determined to be the whole of the universe. A written permission was taken from the management of the health high school regarding the research. Problem Solving Inventory and Social Skill Inventory; the form towards ...

  13. Countering Recommendation from CICR on Social Impact of FDI in Liberia: Strategies for Sime Darby to Overcome the Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Rizal Mohd Yusof; Zarina Othman; A.B. Shamsul; Mohamed Abu Bakar Kassim

    2014-01-01

    Liberia has initiated a paradigm shift to develop its agriculture sector through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). An investment from Sime Darby Plantations has created social impact towards the local, culture and land use. Center for International Conflict Resolution or CICR has seen these problems as a threat to social development in Liberia. Eleven recommendations have been delivered to Sime Darby as a solution to cater all problems that should conserve the local, culture and the land use. ...

  14. A comparison of the effectiveness of problem solving training and of cognitive-emotional rehabilitation on neurocognition, social cognition and social functioning in people with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltro, Franco; Mazza, Monica; Vendittelli, Nicola; Alberti, Mirella; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2011-01-01

    Social cognition and Problem Solving (PS) impairments are common characteristics in patients with schizophrenia. Experimental neuropsychological findings support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is characterized by a broad range of heterogeneous cognitive impairments. Since that time Problem Solving Training has been employed as a core strategy in a wide variety of therapeutic settings. Renewed interest in cognitive functioning, including social Problem Solving skills and social cognition in schizophrenia, has led us to reconsider the potential value of metacognitive strategy as a rehabilitation strategy. The present study reports the results obtained by 24 persons with schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to one of two training session groups: Cognitive-Emotional Rehabilitation (REC) vs Problem Solving Training (PST). Both treatments were administered to small groups composed of subjects suffering from schizophrenic disorders over a 12 months period: primary measures of clinical, social outcomes and secondary measures of cognitive and Problem Solving functions were conducted at 0, and 12 months. Results showed that both training methods were found to be effective in psychopathological measures and in social functioning. On cognitive function improvements were specific to the rehabilitative approach. PST are mainly improved capacities for planning and memory, while the REC improved measures such as social cognition Theory of mind and emotion recognition. The results confirmed that it is no necessary to divide the rehabilitation training in treatments directed to specific domains. The conceptualization and applicability of PST and REC its implications for persons with schizophrenia, and future studies in this research area have also been discussed.

  15. Assessing the Social Skills and Problem Behaviors of Adolescents With Severe Disabilities Enrolled in General Education Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Gregory L; Huber, Heartley B; Carter, Erik W; Chen, Rui; Asmus, Jennifer M

    2016-07-01

    Although enhancing the social competence of students with severe disabilities has long remained a prominent focus of school-based intervention efforts, relatively little attention has focused on identifying the most critical social and behavioral needs of students during high school. We examined the social skills and problem behaviors of 137 adolescents with severe disabilities from the vantage point of both special educators and parents. We sought to identify areas of potential intervention need, explore factors associated with social skill and problem behavior ratings, and examine the extent to which teachers and parents converged in their assessments of these needs. Our findings indicate teachers and parents of high school students with severe disabilities rated social skills as considerably below average and problem behaviors as above average. In addition, lower social skills ratings were evident for students with greater support needs, lower levels of overall adaptive behavior, and a special education label of autism. We found moderate consistency in the degree to which teachers and parents aligned in their assessments of both social skills and problem behavior. We offer recommendations for assessment and intervention focused on strengthening the social competence of adolescents with severe disabilities within secondary school classrooms, as well as promising avenues for future research.

  16. Social Skills and Problem Behaviours in School Aged Children with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, Kathleen; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    The social skills and problem behaviours of children with high-functioning autism and Asperger's Disorder were compared using parent and teacher reports on the Social Skills Rating System. The participants were 20 children with high-functioning autism, 19 children with Asperger's Disorder, and 17 typically developing children, matched on…

  17. Social Goals and Conflict Strategies of Individuals with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities Who Present Problems of Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pert, C.; Jahoda, A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A few recent studies have adopted a social cognitive perspective to explore how individuals with intellectual disabilities (IDs), who present problems of aggression, view their social world. The focus has mainly been on participants' perceptions of others' behaviour within conflict situations. The present exploratory study aims to…

  18. Developing Information Technology for Vocational Education in Contiguous Destitute Areas Significance, Problems, and Countermeasures: The Case of the Wuling Mountain Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Xu, Fenghua

    2014-01-01

    Using the Wuling Mountain area as a case study, the authors discuss the significance as well as five problems of developing information technology for vocational education in contiguous destitute areas. Recommendations are provided at the end of the article. [Translated by Michelle LeSourd.

  19. Factor structure and item level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form in traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A; Heaton, Shelley C

    2016-01-01

    Social problem-solving deficits characterise individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), and poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised: Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S was performed. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem-solving orientation and skills; and negative problem-solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. It was concluded that the total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population.

  20. Factor Structure and Item Level Psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory Revised-Short Form in Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chih-Ying; Waid-Ebbs, Julia; Velozo, Craig A.; Heaton, Shelley C.

    2016-01-01

    Primary Objective Social problem solving deficits characterize individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Poor social problem solving interferes with daily functioning and productive lifestyles. Therefore, it is of vital importance to use the appropriate instrument to identify deficits in social problem solving for individuals with TBI. This study investigates factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised Short Form (SPSI-R:S), for adults with moderate and severe TBI. Research Design Secondary analysis of 90 adults with moderate and severe TBI who completed the SPSI-R:S. Methods and Procedures An exploratory factor analysis (EFA), principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis examined the factor structure and item-level psychometrics of the SPSI-R:S. Main Outcomes and Results The EFA showed three dominant factors, with positively worded items represented as the most definite factor. The other two factors are negative problem solving orientation and skills; and negative problem solving emotion. Rasch analyses confirmed the three factors are each unidimensional constructs. Conclusions The total score interpretability of the SPSI-R:S may be challenging due to the multidimensional structure of the total measure. Instead, we propose using three separate SPSI-R:S subscores to measure social problem solving for the TBI population. PMID:26052731

  1. Social stigma in diabetes : a framework to understand a growing problem for an increasing epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabert, Jasmin; Browne, Jessica L; Mosely, Kylie; Speight, Jane

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the social and psychological impact of diabetes mellitus is important for informing policy and practice. One potentially significant, yet under-researched, issue is the social stigma surrounding diabetes. This narrative review draws on literature about health-related stigma in diabetes and other chronic conditions in order to develop a framework for understanding diabetes-related stigma. Our review of the literature found that people who do not have diabetes assume that diabetes is not a stigmatized condition. In contrast, people with diabetes report that stigma is a significant concern to them, experienced across many life domains, e.g., in the workplace, in relationships. The experience of diabetes-related stigma has a significant negative impact on many aspects of psychological well-being and may also result in sub-optimal clinical outcomes for people with diabetes. We propose a framework that highlights the causes (attitudes of blame, feelings of fear and disgust, and the felt need to enforce social norms and avoid disease), experiences (being judged, rejected, and discriminated against), and consequences (e.g., distress, poorer psychological well-being, and sub-optimal self-care) of diabetes-related stigma and also identifies potential mitigating strategies to reduce diabetes-related stigma and/or enhance coping and resilience amongst people with diabetes. The systematic investigation of the experiences, causes, and consequences of diabetes-related stigma is an urgent research priority.

  2. Complex problems require complex solutions: the utility of social quality theory for addressing the Social Determinants of Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Paul R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve the health of the most vulnerable groups in society, the WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health (CSDH called for multi-sectoral action, which requires research and policy on the multiple and inter-linking factors shaping health outcomes. Most conceptual tools available to researchers tend to focus on singular and specific social determinants of health (SDH (e.g. social capital, empowerment, social inclusion. However, a new and innovative conceptual framework, known as social quality theory, facilitates a more complex and complete understanding of the SDH, with its focus on four domains: social cohesion, social inclusion, social empowerment and socioeconomic security, all within the same conceptual framework. This paper provides both an overview of social quality theory in addition to findings from a national survey of social quality in Australia, as a means of demonstrating the operationalisation of the theory. Methods Data were collected using a national random postal survey of 1044 respondents in September, 2009. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Statistical analysis revealed that people on lower incomes (less than $45000 experience worse social quality across all of the four domains: lower socio-economic security, lower levels of membership of organisations (lower social cohesion, higher levels of discrimination and less political action (lower social inclusion and lower social empowerment. The findings were mixed in terms of age, with people over 65 years experiencing lower socio-economic security, but having higher levels of social cohesion, experiencing lower levels of discrimination (higher social inclusion and engaging in more political action (higher social empowerment. In terms of gender, women had higher social cohesion than men, although also experienced more discrimination (lower social inclusion. Conclusions Applying social quality theory allows

  3. Sustainable Corporate Social Media Marketing Based on Message Structural Features: Firm Size Plays a Significant Role as a Moderator

    OpenAIRE

    Moon Young Kang; Byungho Park

    2018-01-01

    Social media has been receiving attention as a cost-effective tool to build corporate brand image and to enrich customer relationships. This phenomenon calls for more attention to developing a model that measures the impact of structural features, used in corporate social media messages. Based on communication science, this study proposes a model to measure the impact of three essential message structural features (interactivity, formality, and immediacy) in corporate social media on customer...

  4. Citizenship as practice: Handling communication problems in encounters between persons with dementia and social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jh, Österholm; L-C, Hydén

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of the study was to investigate if and how persons with dementia were able to take part in negotiations for formal support, as cases of citizenship as practice The transcripts used for analysis were from 11 assessment meetings conducted in Sweden, in which the formal applicant was a person with dementia. The findings suggest that the actual participation of persons with dementia in assessment meetings varies. Communication problems were found in the meetings to different degrees and were dealt with differently and with various consequences. For those persons with dementia contributing at the same levels as the other participants, there was an attempt at mutual understanding. For those making fewer contributions, the other interlocutors took over the initiative and thus affected the practice of citizenship by persons with dementia in a negative way. The practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on all participants. When the person with dementia is able to participate in the conversation, social workers can facilitate for them to overcome communication problems by giving them more time and signaling acceptance. If the person with dementia has great problems in participating, the other participants can find different strategies to at least involve her or him in the conversation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. The relation of emotion recognition and social behavioral problems in children with neurofibromatosis type 1: An explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike; Aarnoudse, Cecilia; Boon, Maartje; Veenstra, Wencke

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often show cognitive and behavioral problems (Martin et al., 2011). Huijbregts et al. (2010) investigated cognitive problems in children with NF1 focusing on social information processing. They found that bottom-up as well as top-down processes

  6. Being admired or being liked : Classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldehinkel, A.J.; Rosmalen, J.G.M.; Veenstra, R.; Dijkstra, J.K.; Ormel, Johan

    This study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 +/- 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer nominations. We

  7. Being admired or being liked: Classroom social status and depressive problems in early adolescent girls and boys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Oldehinkel (Albertine); J.G.M. Rosmalen (Judith); R. Veenstra (René); J.K. Dijkstra (Jan); J. Ormel (Johan Hans)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates associations between depressive problems and classroom social status in a large population cohort of Dutch early adolescents (N = 1046, age 13.52 ± 0.51, 52.4% girls). Depressive problems were assessed by parent and self-reports and classroom status by peer

  8. Project-Based Learning Using Discussion and Lesson-Learned Methods via Social Media Model for Enhancing Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewpanich, Chaiwat; Piriyasurawong, Pallop

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to 1) develop the project-based learning using discussion and lesson-learned methods via social media model (PBL-DLL SoMe Model) used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student, and 2) evaluate the PBL-DLL SoMe Model used for enhancing problem solving skills of undergraduate in education student.…

  9. Problem of Structure Planning of the Russian National-Civilizational Identity: Social - Pedagogical Aspect of the Cossacks Pedagogics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadezhda K. Andrienko

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important problems of modern nation building in Russia is to reduce the level of disintegrational potential of ethnic and religious differences in Russian society. In this regard, the Russian scientific discourse has actualized the problem of the formation in Russia a national-civilizational identity capable of overcoming ethnic and confessional contradictions in the society. In the socio-pedagogical interpretation of this problem, the actual direction is the search for appropriate socio-cultural phenomena, the creation of pedagogical concepts and models based on the successive transfer of socio-cultural experience. One of such phenomena is the culture of the Russian Cossacks, which is the expression of the socially significant values of Russian culture that are in demand today and reflect the image of Russia as a Eurasian and Russian civilization. In the article, the culture of educational potential of the Russian Cossacks as a sociocultural phenomenon of the Russian civilization, which has transethnic foundation, is analyzed. As an up-to-date tendency is presented the modern conception of sociocultural education – the Cossacks pedagogics, which is based on successive transfer of sociocultural experience and which realizes national and cultural traditions of civilizational unity of the Russian community in the Russian educational paradigm.

  10. Family stressors, home demands and responsibilities, coping resources, social connectedness, and Thai older adult health problems: examining gender variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Ambika; Narine, Lutchmie; Soonthorndhada, Amara; Thianlai, Kanchana

    2015-03-01

    To examine gender variations in the linkages among family stressors, home demands and responsibilities, coping resources, social connectedness, and older adult health problems. Data were collected from 3,800 elderly participants (1,654 men and 2,146 women) residing in Kanchanaburi province, Thailand. Findings indicated gender variations in the levels of these constructs and in the mediational pathways. Thai women indicated greater health problems than men. Emotional empathy was the central variable that linked financial strain, home demands and responsibilities, and older adult health problems through social connectedness. Financial strain (and negative life events for women) was associated with lowered coping self-efficacy and increased health problems. The model indicated greater strength in predicting female health problems. Findings support gender variations in the relationships between ecological factors and older adult health problems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Social problem solving, autobiographical memory, trauma, and depression in women with borderline personality disorder and a history of suicide attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurex, Liselotte; Lekander, Mats; Nilsonne, Asa; Andersson, Eva E; Asberg, Marie; Ohman, Arne

    2010-09-01

    The primary aim of this study was to compare the retrieval of autobiographical memory and the social problem-solving performance of individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and a history of suicide attempts, with and without concurrent diagnoses of depression and/or post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to that of controls. Additionally, the relationships between autobiographical memory, social problem-solving skills, and various clinical characteristics were examined in the BPD group. Individuals with BPD who had made at least two suicide attempts were compared to controls with regard to specificity of autobiographical memory and social problem-solving skills. Autobiographical memory specificity and social problem-solving skills were further studied in the BPD group by comparing depressed participants to non-depressed participants; and autobiographical memory specificity was also studied by comparing participants with and without PTSD. A total of 47 women with a diagnosis of BPD and 30 controls completed the Autobiographical Memory Test, assessing memory specificity, and the means-end problem solving-procedure, measuring social problem-solving skills. The prevalence of suicidal/self-injurious behaviour, and the exposure to violence, was also assessed in the BPD group. Compared to controls, participants with BPD showed reduced specificity of autobiographical memory, irrespective of either concurrent depression, previous depression, or concurrent PTSD. The depressed BPD group displayed poor problem-solving skills. Further, an association between unspecific memory and poor problem-solving was displayed in the BPD group. Our results confirmed that reduced specificity of autobiographical memory is an important characteristic of BPD individuals with a history of suicide attempt, independent of depression, or PTSD. Reduced specificity of autobiographical memory was further related to poor social problem-solving capacity in the BPD group.

  12. The Educational and Political Significance of the New Social Media: A Dialogue with Linda Herrera and Michael A. Peters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Linda; Peters, Michael A.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2010 was named the Year of Social Media, a technology of communication and for creating and exchanging "User Generated Content". The year 2010 also marked the start of the Arab revolts where, in Tunisia and Egypt, social media served as a critical platform for expressing dissent, organizing, and providing citizen media accounts…

  13. Differential susceptibility effects: the interaction of negative emotionality and sibling relationship quality on childhood internalizing problems and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Judith K; Shaw, Daniel S; Olino, Thomas M

    2012-08-01

    Whereas socialization influences in early childhood have been linked to children's emerging internalizing problems and prosocial behavior, relatively few studies have examined how NE might moderate such associations in both advantageous and maladaptive ways. Furthermore, more research is needed to evaluate the impact of sibling relationships as an influential socialization influence on these child outcomes. In the current study we examined how NE might differentially moderate the associations between quality of relationships with siblings and both internalizing problems and social skills at school entry. NE moderated the effects of positive and destructive sibling relationship quality on child internalizing problems. Specifically, for boys high on NE, more positive sibling relationship quality predicted fewer internalizing problems, but more destructive sibling conflict predicted more internalizing problems. NE also moderated the effects of destructive sibling conflict on child social skills. For boys high on NE, destructive sibling conflict predicted fewer social skills. Boys high on NE appear to show greater susceptibility to the effects of sibling socialization on child outcomes, relative to boys low on NE. The implications of these interactions are discussed with respect to differential susceptibility theory.

  14. [Quality of life in patients with age-related macular degeneration - medical and social problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzyka-Woźniak, Maria; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Wesolowska, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of blindness over the age of 50 in western countries. People with AMD are suffering from serious vision-related disability and their social life is compromised. The aim of our study was to assess quality of life (QoL) in patients with exudative AMD. The study group was 100 patients treated for AMD, the control group were 30 age and sex matched subjects without ophthalmic disorders. Patients were treated with anti-VEGF therapy, by means of National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25). As well as visual function, the NEI-VFQ investigates social functioning, mental health and dependency. There was statistically significant difference in QoL overall score between study group and control group. Patients with AMD obtained 51.1 (+/- 20.5 ) overall score, control group reached 83.7 (+/- 11.7) overall score, p = 0.001. Detailed analysis of study group revealed low acceptance of the disease and strong dependency. QoL in patients with AMD assessed with NEI VFQ-25, is significantly impaired. Low quality of life and difficulties in performing daily activities point at the need of formal psychological and social care.

  15. Social withdrawal at 1 year is associated with emotional and behavioural problems at 3 and 5 years: the Eden mother-child cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedeney, Antoine; Pingault, Jean-Baptiste; Thorr, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to examine how social withdrawal in infants aged 12 months predicted emotional and behavioural problems at ages 3 and 5 years. The sample included 1,586 infants from the French Eden Mother-Child Cohort Study who had a measure of social withdrawal with the Alarm Distress BaBy scale at age 1 year; among these children, emotional and behavioural difficulties were rated by mothers using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ) at 3 years for 1,257 (79 %) children and at 5 years for 1,123 (72 %) children. Social withdrawal behaviour at age 1 year was significantly associated with the SDQ behavioural disorder scale at 3 years, independently of a host of familial and child temperament confounders. The association with the relational disorder, prosocial and total difficulty scales was close to significance at 3 years after taking into account familial and temperament confounders. Social withdrawal significantly predicted the three aforementioned scales when measured at 5 years. No significant predictivity of the emotional scale and hyperactivity scale was detected at any age. This study made with a large longitudinal sample confirms the negative effects on development of social withdrawal behaviour, shedding light on the unfolding of behavioural disorders and relational difficulties in children; this calls for early detection of sustained social withdrawal behaviour, as it seems to hamper emotional development.

  16. An Analyses and Solution Proposals Toward Social Gender Equality Problems in Business Life at Work Place in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Kocabacak; Cumali Kalkan

    2015-01-01

    Gender inequality is a problem in the World as well as in Turkey. What is referred by this problem here is the gender discrimination and thus inequality and injustice in opportunities that women face in a society. It appears in different forms in business life or at work place (inequalities in employment, wages, social benefits and education as well as obstacles in career rise, easy dismissal or layoff, sexual harassment / persecution / mobbing, etc.). In this study, this problem is investiga...

  17. Pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric clinics: a multilevel study of the significance of ethnicity and neighbourhood social characteristics on source of referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rydelius Per-Anders

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Swedish society, as in many other societies, many children and adolescents with mental health problems do not receive the help they need. As the Swedish society becomes increasingly multicultural, and as ethnic and economic residential segregation become more pronounced, this study utilises ethnicity and neighbourhood context to examine referral pathways to child and adolescent psychiatric (CAP clinics. Methods The analysis examines four different sources of referrals: family referrals, social/legal agency referrals, school referrals and health/mental health referrals. The referrals of 2054 children aged 11-19 from the Stockholm Child-Psychiatric Database were studied using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Results indicate that ethnicity played an important role in how children and adolescents were referred to CAP-clinics. Family referrals were more common among children and adolescents with a Swedish background than among those with an immigrant background. Referrals by social/legal agencies were more common among children and adolescents with African and Asian backgrounds. Children with Asian or South American backgrounds were more likely to have been referred by schools or by the health/mental health care sector. A significant neighbourhood effect was found in relation to family referrals. Children and adolescents from neighbourhoods with low levels of socioeconomic deprivation were more likely to be referred to CAP-clinics by their families in comparison to children from other neighbourhoods. Such differences were not found in relation in relation to the other sources of referral. Conclusions This article reports findings that can be an important first step toward increasing knowledge on reasons behind differential referral rates and uptake of psychiatric care in an ethnically diverse Swedish sample. These findings have implications for the design and evaluation of community mental health outreach

  18. Application possibilities of mind map in social skills training of children with behavioural problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Kirilova-Moutafova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available What impresses in clinical practice when dealing with children with antisocial destructive behaviours are the difficulties they have to foresee the impact of their own actions; and with some children, to such an extent that it is even impossible to track their behaviour in the time to come. This is a significant aspect and a goal of the training of children with behavioural issues: developing skills for action planning; foreseeing the outcome in the future and making the right choices, especially in conflict situation. Training by using mind map techniques in this study is based on an objective assessment of the real needs of a child and the goal of the training is to translate the acquired social skills into real-life situations. This study provides the results of twelve months of monitoring of runaways from Correctional Boarding Schools (CBS and Social-Educational Boarding Schools (SEBS of 50 children trained by using the mind map technique.

  19. Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Meier, Madeline H.; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Hogan, Sean; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-01-01

    With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18–38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence. PMID:28008372

  20. A Systematic Review of the Physical, Mental, Social, and Economic Problems of Immigrant Women in the Perinatal Period in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Sachiko; Minatani, Mariko; Hikita, Naoko; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi

    2015-12-01

    The perinatal mortality of immigrants in Japan is higher than that of Japanese women. However, details of the problems of immigrant perinatal women that contribute to worsening of their health are still unknown. This review describes the physical, psychological, social, and economic problems of immigrant women during the perinatal period in Japan. Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Igaku-Chuo Zasshi were searched and 36 relevant articles were reviewed. The related descriptions were collected and analyzed by using content analysis. The results showed that immigrant perinatal women in Japan experienced the following problems: language barriers, a problematic relationship with a partner, illegal residency, emotional distress, physical distress, adjustment difficulties, lack of utilization of services, social isolation, lack of support, lack of information, low economic status, unsatisfactory health care, and discrimination. These results indicated that multilingual services, strengthening of social and support networks, and political action are necessary to resolve their problems.

  1. Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-02-12

    Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences

  2. SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS OF URBAN MANAGEMENT IN PALMAS (TO

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    Gustavo Muller Gonçalves Moura

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to meet the urban environmental management in Palmas and establish consistency with the socio-environmental problems and needs and their efficiency in monitoring and controlling the environment. Palmas, the newest planned city in Brazil is facing conflicts that urban planning could not prevent the peripheral expansion and separation of social classes determined the absence or little coverage of basic infrastructure services like water supply, sewerage, collection and disposal of garbage and the deficiency in the management and maintenance of green areas. From this backdrop, we carried out analysis on the institutions and the environmental reality of the city and proposed a model for the municipal environment, based on the Statute of the city, and also suggestions to formulate public policies and proposals for immediate action, aimed at improve the quality of life of Palmas.

  3. Commons problems, common ground: Earth-surface dynamics and the social-physical interdisciplinary frontier

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    Lazarus, E.

    2015-12-01

    In the archetypal "tragedy of the commons" narrative, local farmers pasture their cows on the town common. Soon the common becomes crowded with cows, who graze it bare, and the arrangement of open access to a shared resource ultimately fails. The "tragedy" involves social and physical processes, but the denouement depends on who is telling the story. An economist might argue that the system collapses because each farmer always has a rational incentive to graze one more cow. An ecologist might remark that the rate of grass growth is an inherent control on the common's carrying capacity. And a geomorphologist might point out that processes of soil degradation almost always outstrip processes of soil production. Interdisciplinary research into human-environmental systems still tends to favor disciplinary vantages. In the context of Anthropocene grand challenges - including fundamental insight into dynamics of landscape resilience, and what the dominance of human activities means for processes of change and evolution on the Earth's surface - two disciplines in particular have more to talk about than they might think. Here, I use three examples - (1) beach nourishment, (2) upstream/downstream fluvial asymmetry, and (3) current and historical "land grabbing" - to illustrate a range of interconnections between physical Earth-surface science and common-pool resource economics. In many systems, decision-making and social complexity exert stronger controls on landscape expression than do physical geomorphological processes. Conversely, human-environmental research keeps encountering multi-scale, emergent problems of resource use made 'common-pool' by water, nutrient and sediment transport dynamics. Just as Earth-surface research can benefit from decades of work on common-pool resource systems, quantitative Earth-surface science can make essential contributions to efforts addressing complex problems in environmental sustainability.

  4. Social acceptability: Towards a definition and shared understanding of its significance and contribution to decision-making

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    Cote, Gilles; Perusse, Martin

    2010-09-15

    Social acceptability is increasingly described in the discourse of social players as a sine qua non condition for projects to be carried out. It is referred to as an approach (participation in the decision-making process) and as an outcome (citizens' concurrence with the decision). The application of this new concept generated considerable expectations. In our opinion, social acceptability must pass through three complementary stages: i) discussing material (downstream) and structural (upstream) issues; ii) establishing a transparent and equitable consultation process; and iii) ensuring that a legitimate decision-making process occurs.

  5. Responsive parenting: establishing early foundations for social, communication, and independent problem-solving skills.

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    Landry, Susan H; Smith, Karen E; Swank, Paul R

    2006-07-01

    Mothers whose infants varied in early biological characteristics (born at term, n = 120; born at very low birth weight [VLBW], n = 144) were randomized to a target group (n = 133) or developmental feedback comparison group (n = 131) to determine whether learning responsive behaviors would facilitate infant development. The target condition included videotaped examples, problem-solving activities, and mothers' critique of their own behaviors through video procedures across 10 home visits. All target versus comparison mothers showed greater increases across multiple responsiveness behaviors observed in 4 assessments conducted across 6-13 months of age; changes in emotionally supportive behaviors were strongest for target mothers of infants born at VLBW. Increased maternal responsiveness facilitated greater growth in target infants' social, emotional, communication, and cognitive competence, supporting a causal role for responsiveness on infant development. Although benefits were generally comparable across risk groups, aspects of social and emotional skills showed greater change for those born at VLBW. Evidence for responsiveness as a multidimensional construct was provided as well as the importance of different aspects of responsiveness mediating the effect of the intervention on different infant skill domains.

  6. Problems and social policy priorities sustainable development of rural territories (on the Republic Komi example

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    Vitaliy Nikolaevich Lazhentsev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the concept of term «sustainable development» of rural areas. Social problems of rural development of the republic of Komi are identified. An intra-rural typology creation is performed. An increasing differentiation in the development of rural areas is concluded. Rural settlements in the republic are characterized by low population density and a rare network of settlements. Low level and quality of rural life (low rural incomes, poor living conditions and high unemployment and better living conditions in urban areas adversely affect migration processes of the village. Characteristic features of modern rural labour market are: inconsistency of supply and demand of labour in vocational and qualification angle, seasonality of production and temporary nature of the proposed work, low wages, low competitiveness of the youth labour market, high level of registered unemployment and even higher — of unregistered. Analytical material allowed the authors to determine the direction of social policy for sustainable development of rural areas according to the conditions of the North.

  7. Mechanisms to solve the problems of social-ecological adaptation of students of higher school

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    Lobanov V.G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose: studying of educational opportunities of sports tourism in processes of early social adaptation of students and gender features of ecological knowledge of students of higher education institutions of various profiles. Material and methods. Questioning of students of 2 and 3 courses of agrarian (n=147and medical (n=147 of universities of Saratov age till 21 year in a gender ratio 1:1 is conducted. Results. Low ecological literacy of students of agrarian and medical universities, and also very "vague" ecological outlook is revealed. Gender distinctions in perception of environmental problems have been established. So, girls of medical university are more ecologically competent, than young men. Girls of both higher education institutions are more concerned about an ecological situation on the planet, but in too time a peculiar social and psychological mimicry which was shown in lack of correlation between the correct answers to questions of endoecology and value of a healthy lifestyle and a conduct of life of students was observed. Research has shown the high importance of occupations by physical culture and sport. The way of increase of popularity of tourism as sport is offered. Are given a work experience of section of sports tourism. Conclusion. The received results indicate the need of enhancement of methodology of teaching ecological bases of the higher school taking into account gender features of students.

  8. Regional action plan handling of social welfare problem in nganjuk regency

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    Zain, IM; Utami, WS; Setyawan, KG

    2018-01-01

    Local action plans are expected to ensure a social protection for vulnerable and disadvantaged groups or PMKS. The method used in this research is by primary survey and secondary survey. The condition of the people who still belong to PMKS requires the state to come to the community to solve the problems faced. Stakeholders should be involved to handle PMKS. The activities presented should also receive periodic monitoring and evaluation so that there is progress reporting at any time. Implementable poverty reduction strategies and policies are social protection strategies, opportunity expansion strategies, resource capacity building strategies, community empowerment strategies and partnership strategies. The flow of PMKS is the validation and updating of data, the fulfillment of the basic needs of the PMKS family, the development of PMKS human resources, the improvement of the quality of life for poor families, the institutions of poverty alleviation stakeholders and the unemployed at the base level. The Regional Action Plan (RAP) is prepared as a reference in the context of carrying out PMKS mitigation which is expected to serve as a guide for managers and program implementers with relevant agencies that are conducted jointly and continuously for the period of time specified.

  9. What constitutes a health-enabling neighborhood? A grounded theory situational analysis addressing the significance of social capital and gender.

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    Eriksson, Malin; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-11-01

    Variations in health between neighborhoods are well known and the conceptualization of social capital has contributed to an understanding of how contextual factors influence these differences. Studies show positive health-effects from living in high social capital areas, at least for some population sub-groups. The aim of this qualitative study was to understand what constitutes a 'health-enabling' neighborhood. It follows up results from a social capital survey in northern Sweden indicating that the health effects of living in a high social capital neighborhood is gendered in favor of women. A grounded theory situational analysis of eight focus group discussions--four with men and four with women--illustrated similar and different positions on how neighborhood characteristics influence health. A neighborhood, where people say hi to each other ("hi-factor") and where support between neighbors exist, were factors perceived as positive for health by all, as was a good location, neighborhood greenness and proximity to essential arenas. Women perceived freedom from demands, feeling safe and city life as additional health enabling factors. For men freedom to do what you want, a sense of belonging, and countryside life were important. To have burdensome neighbors, physical disturbances and a densely living environment were perceived as negative for health in both groups while demands for a well styled home and feeling unsafe were perceived as negative for health among women. Neighborhood social capital, together with other elements in the living environment, has fundamental influence on people's perceived health. Our findings do not confirm that social capital is more important for women than for men but that distinctive form of social capital differ in impact. Investing in physical interventions, such as planning for meeting places, constructing attractive green areas, and making neighborhoods walking-friendly, may increase human interactions that is instrumental for

  10. Problems of spatial planning and urban development: social-philosophical aspect

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    Mezentsev Sergey Dmitrievich

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article examines social and philosophical problems of spatial planning and urban development from the 1920's until the present. From the historical point of view there are three phases: the 1920s, 1930-1980s, 1990-2010s. In the 1920s two approaches were used in the development of the country: technical and economic and personalistics. The first meant not only the development of power engineering but also of the economy in the whole country. The second lies in stimulation of active creative work, disclosure of worker’s personal potential. On the one hand, it was turned to economic and technical modernization on the basis of the State Plan of the Electrification of Russia; on the other, it was relied on "diligent farmer". In the 1930-1980s the technical and economic approach was dominating. In the 1990-2010s the market approach was widely extended. According to the latter, the development of the national economy should be executed depending on the law of demand and supply. In Russia the realization of the market economy based on demand and supply was reduced to development of exclusively highly profitable business. In the article the author uses the methods of historical knowledge, analysis and comparison and provides suggestions on solving problems of spatial planning and urban development. Special emphasis is placed on the Soviet experience of the 1920s, when the market relations have not been completely destroyed.

  11. Flooding and poverty: Two interrelated social problems impacting rural development in Tsholotsho district of Matabeleland North province in Zimbabwe

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    Ernest Dube

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding and poverty are the two social problems that have coexisted within the rural communities of Tsholotsho district. As a result, both problems have negatively affected and disrupted the everyday pattern of lives of people living in the district. This study sought to highlight how the two problems combine to impact human societies. The objectives that the study sought to fulfil were to establish the impact of flooding on the development of rural communities, to analyse how poverty manifests itself in rural communities, to analyse the relationship that exists between flooding and poverty and to suggest ways for dealing with the two problems. A qualitative research approach, using interviews and observations, was used to gather data from the research participants. The study findings were that flooding impeded development through shifting of human populations, destruction of crops, shelter and livestock. Floods also affected human capital through causing injuries to members of the community. Poverty manifested itself in three ways – as a development barrier, a vulnerability amplifier and a non-discriminatory agent. The study further found that a strong relationship exists between flooding and poverty because of the fact that flooding causes or worsens poverty, whereas poverty increases flood vulnerability. The study concluded that the poor need government assistance to reconstruct shelter destroyed by floods. Furthermore, programs aimed at improving livelihoods of the poor are an indispensable imperative. This study informs policymakers and offers a methodological significance to development and disaster practitioners. It also adds to the body of literature on flooding and poverty.

  12. Leveraging socially networked mobile ICT platforms for the last-mile delivery problem.

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    Suh, Kyo; Smith, Timothy; Linhoff, Michelle

    2012-09-04

    Increasing numbers of people are managing their social networks on mobile information and communication technology (ICT) platforms. This study materializes these social relationships by leveraging spatial and networked information for sharing excess capacity to reduce the environmental impacts associated with "last-mile" package delivery systems from online purchases, particularly in low population density settings. Alternative package pickup location systems (PLS), such as a kiosk on a public transit platform or in a grocery store, have been suggested as effective strategies for reducing package travel miles and greenhouse gas emissions, compared to current door-to-door delivery models (CDS). However, our results suggest that a pickup location delivery system operating in a suburban setting may actually increase travel miles and emissions. Only once a social network is employed to assist in package pickup (SPLS) are significant reductions in the last-mile delivery distance and carbon emissions observed across both urban and suburban settings. Implications for logistics management's decades-long focus on improving efficiencies of dedicated distribution systems through specialization, as well as for public policy targeting carbon emissions of the transport sector are discussed.

  13. The anatomy of urban social networks and its implications in the searchability problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Yagüe, C.; Schneider, C. M.; Couronné, T.; Smoreda, Z.; Benito, R. M.; Zufiria, P. J.; González, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of large geolocated communication datasets has recently increased our understanding of how social networks relate to their physical space. However, many recurrently reported properties, such as the spatial clustering of network communities, have not yet been systematically tested at different scales. In this work we analyze the social network structure of over 25 million phone users from three countries at three different scales: country, provinces and cities. We consistently find that this last urban scenario presents significant differences to common knowledge about social networks. First, the emergence of a giant component in the network seems to be controlled by whether or not the network spans over the entire urban border, almost independently of the population or geographic extension of the city. Second, urban communities are much less geographically clustered than expected. These two findings shed new light on the widely-studied searchability in self-organized networks. By exhaustive simulation of decentralized search strategies we conclude that urban networks are searchable not through geographical proximity as their country-wide counterparts, but through an homophily-driven community structure. PMID:26035529

  14. The Evaluation of Significant Figures in the History of Social Psychology: A Class Exercise in the Teaching of Introductory Social Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, John Michael; Chambers, Timothy Peter

    2017-01-01

    In teaching social psychology, the process of identifying a particular theorist can lead to an enhanced understanding of the theories associated with that individual. Employing this process into a summative assessment, this article outlines an exercise that facilitated the teaching of introductory social psychology to 147 undergraduate students.…

  15. The youth of Russia and Serbia: Social trust and key generational problems

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    U V Šuvaković

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Sociological Laboratory of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia has conducted a number of comparative studies using the method of mass surveys on the representative samples of student youth in different countries and different regions within them. The results of these surveys were presented in the articles in both Russian and foreign scientific journals, and we hope to establish a kind of tradition to publish two types of articles based on the comparative research data: in 2015 we focused mainly on methodological and technical issues to identify key problems of the comparative analysis in cross-cultural studies that become evident only if you conduct an empirical research yourself - from the first step of setting the problem and approving it by all the sides involved to the last step of interpreting and comparing the data obtained. From 2016 to the end of the Russian Foundation for Humanities’ support in 2017 we will focus on the results of our comparative studies together with our colleagues that participate in the project and conduct surveys on the student samples in their countries using the same questionnaire (with the inevitable and predictable changes as we do. The authors present only a small part of the empirical data revealing the perception of the Serbian and Russian student youth of their own situation through the identification of the key problems of the younger generations and the trust to the basic social institutions. This is a deliberate decision of the authors - to leave other topics (and corresponding questions out in order to address them more thoroughly later in the further analysis and publications. The article considers the results of the empirical studies conducted on the representative samples of students of two Serbian universities - University of Belgrade and University of Pristina with the head-office in Kosovska Mitrovica, and on the representative sample of Moscow students (a part of the sample was

  16. Evaluating age differences in coping motives as a mediator of the link between social anxiety symptoms and alcohol problems.

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    Clerkin, Elise M; Werntz, Alexandra J; Magee, Joshua C; Lindgren, Kristen P; Teachman, Bethany A

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether coping motives mediate the relationship between self-reported symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems across different age groups, building on previous research conducted among emerging adults. This study focuses on adult drinkers, including emerging adults (aged 18-25 years; n = 148), young adults (aged 26-39 years; n = 68), and middle-aged adults (aged 40-65 years; n = 51). All participants completed measures of social anxiety symptoms, alcohol problems, and coping motives, administered via the Web. Invariance tests using structural equation modeling suggested that among emerging adults (and to some degree middle-aged adults), coping motives mediated the positive relationship between symptoms of social anxiety and alcohol problems. Interestingly, coping motives appeared to suppress a negative relationship between social anxiety and alcohol problems in young adults. Results suggest that it is critical to consider age differences when attempting to understand the relationships between symptoms of social anxiety, alcohol problems, and coping motives.

  17. Schizophrenia, Narrative, and Neurocognition: The Utility of Life-Stories in Understanding Social Problem-Solving Skills.

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    Moe, Aubrey M; Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Bourassa, Kyle J; Gallagher, Colin J; Shakeel, Mohammed K; Docherty, Nancy M

    2018-01-22

    Schizophrenia researchers have focused on phenomenological aspects of the disorder to better understand its underlying nature. In particular, development of personal narratives-that is, the complexity with which people form, organize, and articulate their "life stories"-has recently been investigated in individuals with schizophrenia. However, less is known about how aspects of narrative relate to indicators of neurocognitive and social functioning. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association of linguistic complexity of life-story narratives to measures of cognitive and social problem-solving abilities among people with schizophrenia. Thirty-two individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia completed a research battery consisting of clinical interviews, a life-story narrative, neurocognitive testing, and a measure assessing multiple aspects of social problem solving. Narrative interviews were assessed for linguistic complexity using computerized technology. The results indicate differential relationships of linguistic complexity and neurocognition to domains of social problem-solving skills. More specifically, although neurocognition predicted how well one could both describe and enact a solution to a social problem, linguistic complexity alone was associated with accurately recognizing that a social problem had occurred. In addition, linguistic complexity appears to be a cognitive factor that is discernible from other broader measures of neurocognition. Linguistic complexity may be more relevant in understanding earlier steps of the social problem-solving process than more traditional, broad measures of cognition, and thus is relevant in conceptualizing treatment targets. These findings also support the relevance of developing narrative-focused psychotherapies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Internet-delivered cognitive-behavioural therapy for concerned significant others of people with problem gambling: study protocol for a randomised wait-list controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, Kristoffer; Nilsson, Anders; Hellner Gumpert, Clara; Andersson, Gerhard; Carlbring, Per

    2015-12-09

    About 2.3% of the adult population in Sweden are considered to suffer from problem gambling, and it is estimated that only 5% of those seek treatment. Problem gambling can have devastating effects on the economy, health and relationship, both for the individual who gambles and their concerned significant other (CSO). No empirically supported treatment exists for the CSOs of people with problem gambling. Consequently, the aim of this study is to develop and evaluate a programme aimed at CSOs of treatment-refusing problem gamblers. The programme will be based on principles from cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and motivational interviewing. To benefit as many CSOs as possible, the programme will be delivered via the internet with therapist support via encrypted email and short weekly conversations via telephone. This will be a randomised wait-list controlled internet-delivered treatment trial. A CBT programme for the CSOs of people with problem gambling will be developed and evaluated. The participants will work through nine modules over 10 weeks in a secure online environment, and receive support via secure emails and over the telephone. A total of 150 CSOs over 18 years of age will be included. Measures will be taken at baseline and at 3, 6 and 12 months. Primary outcomes concern gambling-related harm. Secondary outcomes include the treatment entry of the individual who gambles, the CSO's levels of depression, anxiety, as well as relationship satisfaction and quality of life. The protocol has been approved by the regional ethics board of Stockholm, Sweden. This study will add to the body of knowledge on how to protect CSOs from gambling-related harm, and how to motivate treatment-refusing individuals to seek professional help for problem gambling. NCT02250586. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. The social aspects in the identification of children’s mental health problems in two health services in Paris, France

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    Eunice Nakamura

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Children’s mental health problems were analyzed from a sociological approach addressing two questions: what are the main children’s behaviors identified and considered to be mental health problems, and what are the consequences of this classification for the debate on children’s problems in contemporary societies. This quantitative and qualitative study analyzed 275 patients’ records from two child mental health services (CMHS in the northeast area of Paris, France. The majority of children were boys from six to 11 years old; requests were presented mainly by schools and parents; the main problems were behavioural problems, cognitive difficulties and relational problems (boys, and affective or emotional problems (girls. There is an interdependence of a great number of actors who worry about children’s behavior and a system of expectations seems to be collectively woven by them as social classifications.

  20. Low adolescent self-esteem leads to multiple interpersonal problems: a test a social-adaptation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, L R; Kulka, R A; Klingel, D M

    1980-09-01

    This article reports the results of a study that annually monitored the self-esteem and interpersonal problems of over 100 boys during their sophomore, junior, and senior years of high school. Cross-lagged panel correlation differences show that low self-esteem leads to interpersonal problems in all three time lags when multiple interpersonal problems constitute the dependent variable but not when single interpersonal problem criteria constitute the dependent variable. These results are interpreted as supporting social-adaptation theory rather than self-perception theory. Implications for the conceptual status of personality variables as causal antecedents and for the assessment of individual differences are discussed.