WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant side effects

  1. Statistical Significance and Effect Size: Two Sides of a Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao

    This paper suggests that statistical significance testing and effect size are two sides of the same coin; they complement each other, but do not substitute for one another. Good research practice requires that both should be taken into consideration to make sound quantitative decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment was conducted, and a…

  2. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  3. Medications and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  4. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  5. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  6. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  7. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  8. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  9. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  10. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  11. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  12. Side Effects: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  13. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines, talk to your health care provider about possible side effects. Tell your health care provider about your lifestyle and point out any possible side effects that would be especially hard for you to ...

  14. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  15. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  16. Side Effects and Their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors. Donate Now Subscribe for e-updates Please leave this field empty ... tumors and their treatments bring an array of possible side effects in to a patient’s life. Fatigue, cognitive changes, and mood changes are ...

  17. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  18. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  19. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects...... be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations...

  20. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds Turn this ...

  2. Finasteride and sexual side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, widely used in the medical management of male pattern hairloss, has been reported to cause sexual side effects. This article critically examines the evidence available and makes recommendations as to how a physician should counsel a patient while prescribing the drug.

  3. Warfarin Side Effects: Watch for Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfarin side effects: Watch for interactions Although commonly used to treat blood clots, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) can have dangerous side effects or ... bleeding. Here are precautions to take to avoid warfarin side effects. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you' ...

  4. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  5. Side effects after ambulatory lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Myhr, G.; Stovner, L.J.; Dale, L.G.; Tangerud, A.

    1989-01-01

    Side effect incidences after ambulatory (22G needle and two h bed rest) and after non-ambulatory (22 and 20G needles and 20 h bed rest) lumbar iohexol myelography have been estimated and compared. Headache incidence was significantly greater in ambulatory (50%, n=107) as compared to nonambulatory myelography (26%, n=58). Headaches in the ambulatory group tended to be of shorter duration and the difference between severe headaches in ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups was not significant. Serious adverse reactions did not occur and none of the ambulatory patients required readmission because of side effects. The headache was predominantly postural and occurred significantly earlier in the ambulatory group. Headache incidence was significantly greater after 20G needle myelography (44%, n=97) as compared to 22G needle iohexol myelography (26%, n=58). The results support the hypothesis that CSF leakage is a major cause of headache after lumbar iohexol myelography. (orig.)

  6. Side effects after lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Myhr, G.; Dale, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Side effects of iohexol lumbar myelography have been analyzed with respect to the influence of the type of radiological abnormality, sex and age in a group of 200 patients. Headache, postural headache, nausea and back/leg pain were significantly more frequent in patients without definite radiological abnormalities. Postural headache, nausea, dizziness and mental symptoms were more frequent in women, while headache, postural headache, nausea, dizziness, minor mental symptoms (i.e. anxiety or depression) and pain became less frequent with age. This pattern is similar to that reported after lumbar puncture. Young women without definite clinical signs of nerve root lesions probably have the greatest risk of experiencing side effects after iohexol lumbar myelography. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  8. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  9. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  10. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Bleeding Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Bleeding Problems “My nurse said that chemotherapy could make ... with a clean cloth. Keep pressing until the bleeding stops. If you bruise: Put ice on the ...

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Nausea and Vomiting “I take medicine so I won’t feel sick ...

  14. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and puffy. My nurse helped me understand why I had to stop eating salty ...

  15. Uncommon vancomycin: induced side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha Jaime Luís Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vancomycin has been used with increased frequency during the past 15 years and the most common toxicity with this drug is the "red man syndrome". Other adverse effects include neutropenia, fever, phlebitis, nephrotoxicity, ototoxicity, thrombocytopenia, interstitial nephritis, lacrimation, linear IgA bullous dermatosis, necrotizing cutaneous vasculitis and toxic epidermal necrolysis. Only two cases of vancomycin-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome and one case of pancytopenia have been reported in the medical literature. The treatment for both situations is based on cessation of the vancomycin therapy; in cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome, antihistamine and/or steroid agents can be used. This article reports a case of pancytopenia and a case of erythema major associated with neutropenia.

  16. [Side effects of biologic therapies in psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, A; Augustin, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of biologics has revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Due to the continuous expansion of biological therapies for psoriasis, it is particularly important to acknowledge efficacy and safety of the compounds not only in clinical trials but also in long-term registry-based observational studies. Typical side effects and significant risks of antipsoriatic biologic therapies considering psoriatic control groups are presented. A selective literature search was conducted in PubMed and long-term safety studies of the psoriasis registries PsoBest, PSOLAR and BADBIR were evaluated. To assess the long-term safety of biologics, the evaluation of the course of large patient cohorts in long-term registries is of particular medical importance. Newer biologic drugs seem to exhibit a better safety profile than older ones.

  17. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S

    2000-01-01

    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  18. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  19. Side effects of creatine supplementation in athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Francaux, Marc; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2006-01-01

    Context: Allegations about side effects of creatine supplementation by athletes have been published in the popular media and scientific publications. Purpose: To examine the experimental evidence relating to the physiological effects of creatine supplementation. Results: One of the purported effects of oral creatine supplementation is increased muscle mass. A review of the literature reveals a 1.0% to 2.3% increase in body mass, which is attributed to fat-free mass and, more specifically, to ...

  20. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  1. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  2. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  3. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  4. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bladder cancer Types of Sexual Side Effects For women, the most common sexual side effects include: Loss ...

  5. Side effects after diagnostic lumbar puncture and lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Salvesen, R.; Dale, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study was performed to compare side effect incidences after lumbar iohexol myelography (n=97) and diagnostic lumbar puncture (n=85). No significant side effect incidence differences (iohexol vs. controls) were found regarding number of patients with any side effect (63 vs. 73%), headache (44 vs. 54%), nausea, dizziness, visual, auditory, or psychic symptoms. Early-onset headache occurred significantly more often in the iohexol group (16 vs 5%), while postural headache occurred most frequently after lumbar puncture (25 vs. 41%). These results suggest that apart from the slight early-onset headache, most side effets after lumbar iohexol myelography are related to the puncture per se, not to the contrast agent. (orig.)

  6. Side effects of endobronchial laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkesmann, R.; Huzly, A.

    1985-03-01

    Side effects that have occurred in over 250 endobronchial laser treatments are reported. The laser has been used in severe tracheal and in bronchial obstructions. In two cases significant bleeding had to be treated with tamponade. In one patient an emphysema of the mediastinum developed, in 2 further patients a small pneumothorax. Perforation of the airway was not detected and no special treatment was necessary. Three patients with life-threatening tracheal stenoses and one patient with severe stenosis of both the mainstem bronchi due to metastasis in the bifurcation lymph node had a large defect in the tracheal or bronchial wall with a deep necrosis five to twelve weeks after laser treatment; all these patients had extensive radiotherapy in addition. One patient died due to severe respiratory insufficiency, probably caused by smoke intoxication. After the laser treatment, rubber-like fibrin-rich plaques may develop, which can lead to life-threatening obstructions of the airway. It is recommended that laser bronchoscopy should be performed with the rigid bronchoscope. After treatment of tracheal lesion an endoscopic check must be performed within 24 hours. The combination of laser treatment and radiotherapy seems to involve a certain risk of large defects in the bronchial wall due to necrosis of the tumor.

  7. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting...... General practices and university clinics during the years 2007‑2009 in Scandinavia. Subjects Patients with tooth bleaching as part of the treatment plan. Results The prevalence of experienced tooth sensitivity at first follow-up was independent of bleaching procedure (at-home = 50.3% [n = 143]; in...... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  8. Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, I.; Janssens, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of

  9. Side effects of AAS abuse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Perilli, G; Di Paolo, M; Neri, M; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic - androgenic steroids (AAS) were originally developed to promote growth of skeletal muscle. AAS abuse is commonly associated with bodybuilders, weightlifters, and other athletes. The issue of AAS toxicity is not yet completely understood since the adverse effects outline a varied scenario with side effects reported affecting many organs and systems in humans. The true incidence of AAS related medical problems is not known, due to several drawbacks in human studies. The entity of side effects depends on the sex, the dose, the duration of treatment, whether they are taken during exercise training or under sedentary conditions, and the susceptibility of the individuals themselves to androgen exposure partly depending on genetic factors. Both the acute and the chronic effects can lead to toxicity, but generally the serious and even fatal effects depend on the time and the duration of AAS administration. A limitation of human studies is represented by the fact that information about the intake of steroids are, generally, self reported and it is hardly possible to assess the exact dosage. AAS are often used in combination with other dugs or substances, so it is difficult to separate their toxic effects from those caused by the other drugs abused. Hence experimental studies conducted on animal models are mandatory to investigate the mechanisms underlying to AAS toxicity and the organ alterations due to these substances. Finally, clinicians should be aware of the complex and varied pattern of toxicity so as to be able to perform correct diagnoses and treatments.

  10. The timeliness of patients reporting the side effects of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian; Carey, Mariko; Boyes, Allison; Hall, Alix; Noble, Natasha; Bryant, Jamie; Walsh, Justin; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2018-05-03

    To explore the actions cancer patients reported they would take in response to a range of common side effects of chemotherapy and whether these were considered appropriate based on current guidelines and evidence; and to explore the sociodemographic and cancer-related variables associated with patients selecting the appropriate action (immediate medical attention or reporting) for two potentially life-threatening side effects: fever, and unusual bleeding and bruising. Four hundred thirty-six medical oncology and haematology patients receiving chemotherapy completed two surveys to provide demographic, disease and treatment characteristics, and details on how they would respond if they experienced a range of specified side effects of chemotherapy (for example, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and skin rash or nail changes). The proportion of patients reporting the appropriate action for each side effect was calculated. Multiple logistic regressions examined the patient demographic and cancer characteristics associated with selecting the appropriate action (seeking immediate medical attention) for two potentially life-threatening side effects of chemotherapy: high fever of 38 °C or more, and unusual bleeding or bruising. Two thirds of patients indicated that they would seek immediate medical attention for high fever (67%), but only 41% would seek immediate attention for bleeding or bruising. Cancer type and time since diagnosis were significantly associated with patients indicating that they would seek immediate medical attention for high fever; while time since diagnosis was the only variable significantly associated with patients reporting that they would seek immediate medical attention for unusual bleeding or bruising. For chronic side effects, like skin rash or nail changes, and tingling or numbness, which usually do not require urgent reporting, only between 12 and 16% would report them immediately. A significant proportion of patients reported that they would

  11. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  12. Side effects from intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation...... stacking of 46 J/cm2. Areas were subsequently randomized to no UVR or single solar-simulated UVR exposure of 3 Standard Erythema Dose at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL. Each area had a corresponding control, resulting in 15 treatment sites. Follow-up visits were scheduled up to 4 weeks after IPL. Outcome...... measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. RESULTS: Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL induced...

  13. Not all side effects associated with tricyclic antidepressant therapy are true side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiwan, Syed; Drossman, Douglas A; Morris, Carolyn B; Dalton, Chris; Toner, Brenda B; Diamant, Nicholas E; Hu, J B; Whitehead, William E; Leserman, Jane; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I

    2009-04-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders treated with tricyclic antidepressants sometimes report nongastrointestinal symptoms; it is unclear whether these are drug side effects or reflect a behavioral tendency to report symptoms. We evaluated whether symptoms reported before treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant (desipramine) increased in number or worsened in severity after 2 weeks of treatment and assessed the baseline factors that predispose patients to report symptoms. Female patients in a multicenter National Institutes of Health trial for functional bowel disorders completed a 15-item symptom questionnaire at baseline (before randomization), 2 weeks after they were given desipramine (n = 81) or placebo (n = 40), and at study completion (12 weeks). Patients were asked about the severity and frequency of 15 symptoms. Results were analyzed from 57 patients given desipramine who completed the questionnaires. Symptoms reported as side effects to have occurred more frequently and also worsened at week 2 in the group given desipramine included dizziness, dry mouth/thirstiness, lightheadedness, jittery feelings/tremors, and flushing. Symptoms that did not change in severity or showed improvement at week 2 in the group given desipramine included morning tiredness, nausea, blurred vision, headaches, appetite reduction, and trouble sleeping. Psychologic distress but not desipramine blood level correlated with symptom reporting. Most symptoms often attributed to side effects of desipramine were present before treatment; only a few, related to anticholinergic effects, worsened 2 weeks after treatment, suggesting that most so-called side effects were not associated specifically with desipramine use. Such symptoms might instead be associated with psychologic distress.

  14. The Effect and Side Effect of Dipyridamole in Myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyung In; Lee, Dong Soo; Yeo, Jeong Suk; Bae, Sang Kyun; Choi, Chang Woon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1993-01-01

    Dipyridamole is an agent that may be used to noninvasively evaluate coronary artery disease. The effect of dipyridamole infusion its generally related to its induced peripheral vasodilatory effect. In normal person, heart rate is generally increased slightly while blood pressure decrease, but the achieved double product and related myocardial oxygen consumption have no significant change. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect and side effect of dipyridamole, and to compare different response to dipyridamole among the patients. We evaluated 847 patients who underwent dipyridamole stress myocardial SPECT. 93.6% of them had induced hypotension 0.9% showed no change of blood pressure, 5.5% had increased blood pressure 8.3% had no change of pulse rate more than 10% of basal pulse rate. Among diabetes, 16.9% was not change of pulse rate, 6.7% in non-diabetes. There was no significant correlation between age and rate pressure product rest(RPPr), in patients without perfusion defects on SPECT(y=7.1x+48.4r=0.13 p>0.01). As increasing age, RPPs/RPPr was declined(y=-11.6x+68.9 r=0.17 p<0.01), similar results were obtained in patients with perfusion defect. The size of perfusion defect on myocardial SPECT have no correlation between RPPr and RPPs/RPPr. The side effects of dipyridamole included chest pain and chest tightness, headache, abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, and dyspnea. As increasing age, dipyridamole-induced cardiac work at rest was increased, cardiac response to dipyridamole was decreased.

  15. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth / For Parents / Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation What's in this article? What to ...

  16. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  17. Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Chute, Christopher G; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-12-01

    To extract physician-asserted drug side effects from electronic medical record clinical narratives. Pattern matching rules were manually developed through examining keywords and expression patterns of side effects to discover an individual side effect and causative drug relationship. A combination of machine learning (C4.5) using side effect keyword features and pattern matching rules was used to extract sentences that contain side effect and causative drug pairs, enabling the system to discover most side effect occurrences. Our system was implemented as a module within the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System. The system was tested in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. The rule-based system extracting side effects and causative drugs produced an F score of 0.80 (0.55 excluding allergy section). The hybrid system identifying side effect sentences had an F score of 0.75 (0.56 excluding allergy section) but covered more side effect and causative drug pairs than individual side effect extraction. The rule-based system was able to identify most side effects expressed by clear indication words. More sophisticated semantic processing is required to handle complex side effect descriptions in the narrative. We demonstrated that our system can be trained to identify sentences with complex side effect descriptions that can be submitted to a human expert for further abstraction. Our system was able to extract most physician-asserted drug side effects. It can be used in either an automated mode for side effect extraction or semi-automated mode to identify side effect sentences that can significantly simplify abstraction by a human expert.

  18. Atenolol versus pindolol: side-effects in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, E C; Greminger, P; Siegenthaler, W; Vetter, H; Vetter, W

    1985-01-01

    This randomized crossover out-patient study was designed to compare the antihypertensive effects of atenolol and pindolol. After a wash-out period of two weeks in pretreated cases, 107 patients with essential hypertension were given either atenolol 100 mg once-daily or pindolol 20 mg slow release (SR) once-daily. Both atenolol and pindolol lowered blood pressure over the 24 week period. The diastolic blood pressure reduction was significantly greater (p less than 0.01) with atenolol than with pindolol. Before beta-blocker therapy, many patients had already experienced side-effects such as fatigue, sleep disturbances and dreams. This probably relates to the high sensitivity of the analogue scale used to assess side-effects, and to the high incidence of such symptoms in untreated patients. As the study progressed there was a reduction in the frequency of fatigue (p less than 0.03) and dreams (p less than 0.05) in both groups, whereas sleep disturbances significantly increased under pindolol (p less than 0.05) but decreased under atenolol (p less than 0.05). The only important side-effect difference between the two beta-blockers was the higher incidence of sleep disturbances with pindolol which may be due to the higher lipophilicity of this beta-blocker.

  19. Side effects of retinoid therapy on the quality of vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergler-Czop Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are compounds chemically related to vitamin A, which are frequently used in dermatological practice (1. They are characterized by numerous mechanisms of action leading to normalization of keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. They have anti-seborrhoeic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects (1, 2. A number of side effects to retinoid treatment have been recorded; one group of such side effects relates to eyes and vision. Dry eye syndrome and blepharoconjunctivitis are the most common side effects, appearing in 20-50 % of patients treated with retinoids. They often contribute to the occurrence of other side-effects such as eye discomfort and contact lens intolerance. Due to the widespread use in clinical practice, the adverse effects, including ocular side effects, should be studied. To confirm the variety of adverse effects of retinoids, several case reports of rare side-effects are presented.

  20. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-10-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals.

  1. EFFECT OF SHOULDER SIDE PACK ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL STABILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas ELsayed Mohamed Abutaleb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of balance is a complex motor skill that involves integration of sensory inputs and the planning and execution of flexible movement patterns. Carrying side packs is famous in our society especially shoulder side packs. Most students carry shoulder side packs and they don't care about the way to carry them to be more balanced. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of carrying shoulder side pack on dynamic postural stability and to determine the best way of carrying a shoulder side pack either on the dominant side or non-dominant side that doesn’t affect dynamic postural stability in young healthy female. Methods: Sixty female volunteers aged from 18 to 25 years old participated in the study. Biodex balance system was used to measure the dynamic postural stability in three different occasions (without carrying a shoulder side pack, with carrying a shoulder side pack on the dominant side, and on the non-dominant side with a rest period in between. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test were used to compare dynamic posture balance without carrying and during carrying a shoulder side pack on dominant and non-dominant sides. Analysis revealed that overall, anteroposterior and mediolateral stability indexes reduced significantly (P<0.0001 when carrying shoulder side pack on dominant side in comparison with when carrying shoulder side pack on non-dominant side and without carrying bag. Conclusion: It was concluded that carrying a shoulder side pack on the non-dominant side didn't disturb the postural stability when compared to carrying on the dominant side so, we recommend the students to carry shoulder side packs on the non-dominant side.

  2. Target Essentiality and Centrality Characterize Drug Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiujuan; Thijssen, Bram; Yu, Haiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary The ultimate goal of medical research is to develop effective treatments for disease with minimal side effects. Currently, about 20% of drug candidates failed at clinical trial phases II and III due to safety issues. Therefore, understanding the determining factors of drug side effects is of paramount importance to human health and the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we present the first systematic study to uncover key factors leading to drug side effects within the framework of...

  3. Cutaneous side-effects during therapy of melanoma by vemurafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ankudowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of serine-threonine kinase BRAF used in the treatment of advanced melanoma with BRAF mutation. Effectiveness of this drug was confirmed in a large clinical trial, which led to the increase of its usage. During treatment with vemurafenib, particular attention should be paid to the numerous side effects, including those concerning the skin. Vemurafenib is highly toxic to the skin. Skin lesions occurring during the treatment of melanoma with this medicament can be divided into: early (observed 3 to 6 weeks after beginning treatment, late (observed 6 weeks after beginning treatment and hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib. Objective. Presentation of vemurafenib toxic effects on the skin and side effects that can be caused by this drug. Case report. We present a 58-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma who was treated with vemurafenib. During the course of therapy, numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory tumors, emergence of a number of melanocytic naevi, skin horns, alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and palmar erythrodysesthesia were observed. She was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, an antibiotic, circulation-improving preparations and local moisturizing and keratolytic treatment. The patient remains under the care of oncologists and dermatologists. Conclusions. The new generation anti-cancer drugs bring hope for a cure or prolongation of life, but can also significantly reduce the quality of life by inducing both general and local adverse side effects. Oncological patients should also be taken care of by dermatologists.

  4. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects.

  5. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Coondoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of topical steroids (TS of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia.The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects.

  6. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    OpenAIRE

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effe...

  7. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...

  8. Effects of side lying on lung function in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, F; Dean, E; Ross, J; Abboud, R T

    1999-05-01

    Body positioning exerts a strong effect on pulmonary function, but its effect on other components of the oxygen transport pathway are less well understood, especially the effects of side-lying positions. This study investigated the interrelationships between side-lying positions and indexes of lung function such as spirometry, alveolar diffusing capacity, and inhomogeneity of ventilation in older individuals. Nineteen nonsmoking subjects (mean age=62.8 years, SD=6.8, range=50-74) with no history of cardiac or pulmonary disease were tested over 2 sessions. The test positions were sitting and left side lying in one session and sitting and right side lying in the other session. In each of the positions, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), single-breath pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO/VA), and the slope of phase III (DN2%/L) of the single-breath nitrogen washout test to determine inhomogeneity of ventilation were measured. Compared with measurements obtained in the sitting position, FVC and FEV1 were decreased equally in the side-lying positions, but no change was observed in DLCO/VA or DN2%/L. Side-lying positions resulted in decreases in FVC and FEV1, which is consistent with the well-documented effects of the supine position. These findings further support the need for prescriptive rather than routine body positioning of patients with risks of cardiopulmonary compromise and the need to use upright positions in which lung volumes and capacities are maximized.

  9. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  10. Side effects of vagus nerve stimulation during physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, D.M.; de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; Vosman, I.; Driesse, M.J.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment option in the case of refractory epilepsy. However, several side effects have been reported, including dyspnea, coughing and bradycardias [JCA 2010: 22;213-222]. Although some patients experience hardly any side effects from the stimulation

  11. Side Effects and Interactions of the Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Febuxostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Andreas; Gresser, Ursula

    2018-05-25

    The paper addresses the safety of febuxostat and summarizes reports on side effects and interactions of febuxostat published by the cut-off date (last day of literature search) of 20 March 2018. Publications on side effects and the interactions of febuxostat were considered. Information concerning the occurrence of side effects and interactions in association with the treatment with febuxostat was collected and summarized in the review. The incidence of severe side effects was much less frequent than mild side effects (1.2⁻3.8% to 20.1⁻38.7%). The rate and range of febuxostat side effects are low at doses of up to 120 mg and only increase with a daily dose of over 120 mg. The publications reveal no age-dependent increase in side effects for febuxostat. In patients with impaired renal function, no increase in adverse events is described with a dose of up to 120 mg of febuxostat per day. Patients with impaired liver function had no elevated risk for severe side effects. A known allopurinol intolerance increases the risk of skin reactions during treatment with febuxostat by a factor of 3.6. No correlation between treatment with febuxostat and agranulocytosis has been confirmed. Possible interactions with very few medications (principally azathioprine) are known for febuxostat. Febuxostat is well tolerated and a modern and safe alternative to allopurinol therapy.

  12. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins...... that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause......) is responsible for hyperesthesia in mice, which, in turn, can be prevented by a drug that selectively inhibits HTR7. Taken together, we show that a large fraction of complex drug side effects are mediated by individual proteins and create a reference for such relations....

  13. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult...... to interpret and the correlation with clinically observable or measurable changes not straightforward. The exploitation of the possibilities of highly conformal radiotherapy and multimodality treatment depends on a better understanding of the correlation between dose, volume, modifying factors, and side...

  14. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  15. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  16. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  17. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...

  18. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga + beam etching process

  19. Paediatric radiotherapy: Management and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barare, C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the general overview of management of children undergoing or who have undergone radiation therapy, and the associated effects. since the safe use of ionizing radiation in treatment of some children conditions is inevitable, the immediate and future effects need to be known and better understood for precise and accurate forecasting to benefit verses risk indicators. this is not withstanding the psychological trauma inflicted as some of the manifestations are visibly evident as the children grow

  20. What side effects are problematic for patients prescribed antipsychotic medication? The Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure for antipsychotic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, T; Evans, J; Paton, C; Barnes, T R E; Taylor, D; Bentall, R; Dalton, B; Ruffell, T; Rose, D; Vitoratou, S

    2017-10-01

    Capturing service users' perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications. Aim To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure. An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language. Feasibility and comprehensive psychometric properties were established in two samples (N43 and N50). We investigated whether we could predict the three most important side effects for individuals from their frequency, severity and life impact. MSE is a 53-item measure with good reliability and validity. Poorer mental and physical health, but not psychotic symptoms, was related to side-effect burden. Seventy-nine percent of items were chosen as one of the three most important effects. Severity, impact and distress only predicted 'putting on weight' which was more distressing, more severe and had more life impact in those for whom it was most important. MSE is a self-report questionnaire that identifies reliably the side-effect burden as experienced by patients. Identifying key side effects important to patients can act as a starting point for joint decision making on the type and the dose of medication.

  1. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Ciarimboli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1, the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2, the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1. Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters.

  2. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor ... learn what sexual changes or changes to your fertility you may have. The changes you may have ...

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have ...

  4. Soy and phytoestrogens: possible side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jargin, Sergei V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Phytoestrogens are present in certain edible plants being most abundant in soy; they are structurally and functionally analogous to the estrogens. Phytoestrogens have been applied for compensation of hormone deficiency in the menopause. At the same time, soy products are used in infant food and other foodstuffs. Furthermore, soy is applied as animal fodder, so that residual phytoestrogens and their active metabolites such as equol can remain in meat and influence the hormonal balance of the consumers. There have been only singular reports on modified gender-related behavior or feminization in humans in consequence of soy consumption. In animals, the intake of phytoestrogens was reported to impact fertility, sexual development and behavior. Feminizing effects in humans can be subtle and identifiable only statistically in large populations.

  5. Beyond the technological fix. [Detrimental and unforeseen side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1978-03-01

    Both technological and social fixes are likely to bring with them deterimental and unforeseen side effects. Although the perceived side effects of nuclear energy can undoubtedly be ameliorated by improved technology, a permanent institutional infrastructure will probably also be required. It is pointed out that confinement of nuclear energy to relatively few large sites rather than many small sites may be a first step toward creating this permanent institutional infrastructure.

  6. Elementary affine $lambda$-calculus with multithreading and side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Madet, Antoine; Amadio, Roberto M.

    2011-01-01

    Linear logic provides a framework to control the complexity of higher-order functional programs. We present an extension of this framework to programs with multithreading and side effects focusing on the case of elementary time. Our main contributions are as follows. First, we provide a new combinatorial proof of termination in elementary time for the functional case. Second, we develop an extension of the approach to a call-by-value $lambda$-calculus with multithreading and side effects. Thi...

  7. Side effects during subcutaneous immunotherapy in children with allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophof, Max A; Hermanns, Anne; Adelt, Thomas; Eberle, Peter; Gronke, Christine; Friedrichs, Frank; Knecht, Roland; Mönter, Ernst; Schöpfer, Helmut; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Steinbach, Jörg; Umpfenbach, Hans-Ulrich; Weißhaar, Christian; Wilmsmeyer, Brigitte; Bufe, Albrecht

    2018-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only causal form of therapy for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is considered safe and well tolerated in adults, yet there is less evidence of safety in the pediatric population. A non-interventional prospective observing longitudinal study was carried out to determine the incidence of local and systemic side effects by SCIT, routinely performed in pediatric patients. A total of 581 pediatric patients were observed in 18 study centers between March 2012 and October 2014, recording 8640 treatments and 10 015 injections. A total of 54.6% of the patients experienced immediate local side effects at least once; delayed local side effects were seen in 56.1%. Immediate systemic adverse reactions occurred in 2.2% of patients; 7.4% experienced delayed systemic side effects. However, severe systemic side effects (grade III in the classification of Ring and Messmer) were seen in 0.03% of all treatments, all appearing within 30 minutes after the injections. No grade IV reactions were observed. In addition, many potential risk factors were investigated, yet only a few were found to be associated with the occurrence of side effects. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is a safe form of therapy in pediatric patients, with similar rates of local side effects compared to adult patients and low rates of severe systemic side effects. However, local and systemic reactions occurring later than 30 minutes after injection were observed more often than expected, which makes it essential to be attentive on behalf of pediatricians, patients, and parents. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  8. CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR IMMUNE THERAPY: Systemic Indications and Ophthalmic Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Shields, Carol L; Orloff, Marlana; Sato, Takami; Shields, Jerry A

    2018-06-01

    To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). These medications upregulate the immune system and cause autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmic side effects most frequently manifest as uveitis (1%) and dry eye (1-24%). Other side effects include myasthenia gravis (n = 19 reports), inflammatory orbitopathy (n = 11), keratitis (n = 3), cranial nerve palsy (n = 3), optic neuropathy (n = 2), serous retinal detachment (n = 2), extraocular muscle myopathy (n = 1), atypical chorioretinal lesions (n = 1), immune retinopathy (n = 1), and neuroretinitis (n = 1). Most inflammatory side effects are managed with topical or periocular corticosteroids, but advanced cases require systemic corticosteroids and cessation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors enhance the immune system by releasing inhibition on T cells, with risk of autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmologists should include immune-related adverse events in their differential when examining cancer patients with new ocular symptoms.

  9. Reirradiation on recurrent cervical cancer case: Treatment response and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, M. F.; Supriana, N.; Nuranna, L.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Management of recurrent cervical cancer by reirradiation after radiation treatment remains controversial. In Indonesia, there is currently no data about reirradiation tumor response and side effects. This study aims to assess the tumor response to and side effects of reirradiation, the effect of time interval between first radiation treatment and cancer recurrence on the tumor response and side effects, and the effect of tumor size on tumor response. A cohort retrospective study with no comparison was done with the Radiotherapy Department at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. Participants were recurrent cervical cancer patients undergoing reirradiation. Data was collected from patients’ medical records and follow-up phone calls. Twenty-two patients participated in this study. Nine patients (40.9%) had complete responses, 10 patients (45.5%) had partial responses, 1 patient (4.5%) had a stable response, and 2 patients (9.1%) had tumor progressions. In general, 15 patients (68.2%) had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG) and 7 patients (31.8%) had severe side effects (grade 3-4 RTOG). Four patients (18.1%) had severe gastrointestinal acute side effects, 6 patients (27.3%) had severe gastrointestinal late side effects, 2 patients (9.1%) had severe urogenital side effects, and there were no patients had severe urogenital late side effects. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with time interval between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm. Reirradiation can be considered as a modality in recurrent cervical cancer management since good tumor response was achieved and the majority of patients had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG). This study found no correlation between tumor response, side effects, and time gap between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm.

  10. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  11. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  12. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his s...... semeiotics and his theory of communication, we account for the formal conditions that have to be present for the release of the significance-effect....

  13. Side effects associated with current and prospective antimigraine pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hernández, Abimael; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2018-01-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder. Current acute specific antimigraine pharmacotherapies target trigeminovascular 5-HT 1B/1D , 5-HT 1F and CGRP receptors but, unfortunately, they induce some cardiovascular and central side effects that lead to poor treatment adherence/compliance. Therefore, new antimigraine drugs are being explored. Areas covered: This review considers the adverse (or potential) side effects produced by current and prospective antimigraine drugs, including medication overuse headache (MOH) produced by ergots and triptans, the side effects observed in clinical trials for the new gepants and CGRP antibodies, and a section discussing the potential effects resulting from disruption of the cardiovascular CGRPergic neurotransmission. Expert opinion: The last decades have witnessed remarkable developments in antimigraine therapy, which includes acute (e.g. triptans) and prophylactic (e.g. β-adrenoceptor blockers) antimigraine drugs. Indeed, the triptans represent a considerable advance, but their side effects (including nausea, dizziness and coronary vasoconstriction) preclude some patients from using triptans. This has led to the development of the ditans (5-HT 1F receptor agonists), the gepants (CGRP receptor antagonists) and the monoclonal antibodies against CGRP or its receptor. The latter drugs represent a new hope in the antimigraine armamentarium, but as CGRP plays a role in cardiovascular homeostasis, the potential for adverse cardiovascular side effects remains latent.

  14. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  15. Pharmacogenomic study of side-effects for antidepressant treatment options in STAR*D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S L; Adkins, D E; Aberg, K; Hettema, J M; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-06-01

    Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side-effects is essential to optimize the treatment of depression. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to side-effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1439 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Outcomes included four indicators of side-effects: general side-effect burden, sexual side-effects, dizziness and vision/hearing-related side-effects. Our criterion for genome-wide significance was a prespecified threshold ensuring that, on average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. Thirty-four SNPs satisfied this criterion. The top finding indicated that 10 SNPs in SACM1L mediated the effects of bupropion on sexual side-effects (p = 4.98 × 10(-7), q = 0.023). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs in MAGI2, DTWD1, WDFY4 and CHL1. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that could mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medication.

  16. Personal coping strategies for managing the side effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the burden of side effects from ARV treatment as experienced by a sample of HIV/AIDS patients and identifies the personal strategies they used to cope with ... The most common adverse effects reported were tiredness, nightmares, mood swings, nausea, poor appetite, insomnia, vomiting and dizziness.

  17. Side effects of curative radiotherapy of the prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, F.; Metzger, H.; Huebener, K.H.; Kurtz, B.

    1984-01-01

    The side effects of primary percutaneous radiotherapy in 100 patients with prostatic cancer were evaluated and classified into different degrees of gravity. It was shown that especially chronic side effects are benign in most of all cases. Severe - but not vitally dangerous - complications in bladder and intestine are rare (3%); their percentage corresponds roughly to the average mortality rate of surgical intervention (radical prostatectomy). Contrary to operation, troubles of the sexual function appear only in one third of the patients. Taking into consideration the similar therapeutic results of intervention and radiotherapy, radiotherapy is more favorable with respect to side effects. This essential aspects should be considered when making a decision whether to apply a surgical or radiotherapeutic treatment. (orig.) [de

  18. Effects of small-sided games on physical conditioning and performance in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p performance (p performance were observed (p physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key pointsThree-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games.In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals compared with the six-a-side games.Impairment in endurance and field test performance was observed mainly after three-a-side games.The use of the three-a-side games to develop physical fitness and technique in young soccer players is recommended.

  19. Immediate side effects of stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner-Wasik, Maria; Rudoler, Shari; Preston, Peter E.; Hauck, Walter W.; Downes, Beverly M.; Leeper, Dennis; Andrews, David; Corn, Benjamin W.; Curran, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Despite increased utilization of fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the incidence and nature of immediate side effects (ISE) associated with these treatment techniques are not well defined. We report immediate side effects from a series of 78 patients. Materials and Methods: Intracranial lesions in 78 adult patients were treated with SRT or SRS, using a dedicated linear accelerator. Those lesions included 13 gliomas, 2 ependymomas, 19 metastatic tumors, 15 meningiomas, 12 acoustic neuromas, 4 pituitary adenomas, 1 optic neuroma, 1 chondrosarcoma, and 11 arteriovenous malformations (AVM). SRT was used in 51 and SRS in 27 patients. Mean target volume was 9.0 cc. Eleven patients received prior external-beam radiation therapy within 2 months before SRT/SRS. Any side effects occurring during and up to 2 weeks after the course of radiation were defined as ISE and were graded as mild, moderate, or severe. The incidence of ISE and the significance of their association with several treatment and pretreatment variables were analyzed. Results: Overall, 28 (35%) of 78 patients experienced one or more ISE. Most of the ISE (87%) were mild, and consisted of nausea (in 5), dizziness/vertigo (in 5), seizures (in 6), and new persistent headaches (in 17). Two episodes of worsening neurological deficit and 2 of orbital pain were graded as moderate. Two patients experienced severe ISE, requiring hospitalization (1 seizure and 1 worsening neurological deficit). ISE in 6 cases prompted computerized tomography of the brain, which revealed increased perilesional edema in 3 cases. The incidence of ISE by diagnosis was as follows: 46% (6 of 13) for gliomas, 50% (6 of 12) for acoustic neuromas, 36% (4 of 11) for AVM, 33% (5 of 15) for meningiomas, and 21% (4 of 19) for metastases. A higher incidence of dizziness/vertigo (4 of 12 = 33%) was seen among acoustic neuroma patients than among other patients (p < 0.01). There was no

  20. Genome-wide pharmacogenomic study of citalopram-induced side effects in STAR*D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, D E; Clark, S L; Åberg, K; Hettema, J M; Bukszár, J; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-07-03

    Affecting about 1 in 12 Americans annually, depression is a leading cause of the global disease burden. While a range of effective antidepressants are now available, failure and relapse rates remain substantial, with intolerable side effect burden the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation. Thus, understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side effects will be essential to optimize depression treatment. Here we perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variation influencing susceptibility to citalopram-induced side effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1762 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(*)D) study. Outcomes included five indicators of citalopram side effects: general side effect burden, overall tolerability, sexual side effects, dizziness and vision/hearing side effects. Two SNPs met our genome-wide significance criterion (qeffects of citalopram on vision/hearing side effects (P=3.27 × 10(-8), q=0.026). The second genome-wide significant finding, representing a haplotype spanning ∼30 kb and eight genotyped SNPs in a gene desert on chromosome 13, was associated with general side effect burden (P=3.22 × 10(-7), q=0.096). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs at LAMA1, AOX2P, EGFLAM, FHIT and RTP2. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that potentially mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medications.

  1. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    , targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......% of which can be compared to the frequency under placebo treatment. SIDER furthermore contains a data set of drug indications, extracted from the package inserts using Natural Language Processing. These drug indications are used to reduce the rate of false positives by identifying medical terms that do...

  2. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  4. Dynamics of energy-related CO2 emissions in China during 1980-2002: the relative importance of energy supply-side and demand-side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, Shinji; Matsuoka, Shunji

    2006-01-01

    Based on a newly developed model that integrates energy production, transformation and consumption processes, this paper compares the relative importance of some traditionally recognized factors operating on the energy demand side with a body of newly defined factors on the supply side, in terms of their contribution to trends in China's CO 2 emissions related to the total primary energy supply (C-TPES). Before 1996, changes in China's C-TPES were mainly driven by changes on the energy demand side. Factors operating on the energy supply side played trivial roles. During the period 1996-2000, however, increasing demand-side effects declined dramatically and at the same time decreasing effects from supply side expanded significantly. Such changes resulted directly in a decline in the C-TPES. The decreasing effects from international trade as well as statistical imbalances between supply and demand reinforced the declining trend. The shrinkage of demand side effects mainly arose from the slowdown of economic growth and speed of decrease in energy intensity. The expansion of supply-side effects was principally attributed to the speed of decrease in gross unit consumption in transformation sectors, especially in electricity sector. Therefore, the acceleration of efficiency improvements in end-use and transformation sectors accounted for the decline in the C-TPES over the period 1996-2000. (author)

  5. Statin Therapy: Review of Safety and Potential Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkumar, Satish; Raghunath, Ajay; Raghunath, Sudhakshini

    2016-11-01

    Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins. Major trials and review articles on the safety of statins were identified in a search of the MEDLINE database from 1980 to 2016, which was limited to English articles. Myalgia is the most common side effect of statin use, with documented rates from 1-10%. Rhabdomyolysis is the most serious adverse effect from statin use, though it occurs quite rarely (less than 0.1%). The most common risk factors for statin-related myopathy include hypothyroidism, polypharmacy and alcohol abuse. Derangement in liver function tests is common, affecting up to 1% of patients; however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Some statin drugs are potentially diabetogenic and the risk appears to increase in those patients on higher doses. Pitavastatin has not been associated with increased risk of diabetes. Statins have not been proven to increase the risk of malignancy, dementia, mood disorders or acute interstitial nephritis. However, statins do have multiple drug interactions, primarily those which interact with the cytochrome p450 enzyme group. Overall, statin drugs appear to be safe for use in the vast majority of patients. However, patients with multiple medical co-morbidities are at increased risk of adverse effects from long-term statin use.

  6. Hypertension as risk factor for radiation induced side-effects in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, F.K.; Rhomberg, W.; Doringer, W.

    1992-01-01

    130 breast cancer patients were retrospectively evaluated for side-effects to estimate the influence of arterial hypertension. All were treated with mastecomy and irradiation (telecobalt). 79 patients had normal blood pressure, 51 showed arterial hypertension. Hypertension proved to be the strongest endogeneous factor for the development of side-effects. In contrast to the patients with normal blood pressure those with hypertension showed significant more arm lymphedema (p [de

  7. Patients knowledge about side effects of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Amalia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Disharmonious of dental arrangement can possibly create problems for the patient, such as the masticatory function, esthetical, psychosocial, and also the increased risk of trauma and periodontal disease. These are reasons for a patient to seek orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to know the patient’s knowledge about the side effects possibility that they receive during orthodontic treatment. The side effects include pain experience during orthodontic treatment, the possibility of soft tissue damage, email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders, and relapse. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients who registered at Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia on March-June 2009. The participants of this study were 100 patients, consist of 86 women and 14 men respectively. Twenty-seven questions about the side-effects of orthodontic treatment were used to obtain the patient’s knowledge and the result was categorized into 3 groups, good, average and poor. The result of the study showed that patient’s knowledge about the side effect of pain experience during orthodontic treatment was average and the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of soft tissue damage due to orthodontic treatment was good. However, the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders and relapse due to orthodontic treatment was low.

  8. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridaemia: An underreported and potentially severe side effect

    OpenAIRE

    Tabchi S; Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    A 57 year-old-woman, with no previous history of dyslipedemia, developed severe hypertriglyceridemia while being treated with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer. Capecitabine was not discontinued and serum triglyceride levels were normalized after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridemia, as a rare drug-related side effect, seems to be often overlooked by clinicians.

  9. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridaemia: An underreported and potentially severe side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabchi S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year-old-woman, with no previous history of dyslipedemia, developed severe hypertriglyceridemia while being treated with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer. Capecitabine was not discontinued and serum triglyceride levels were normalized after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridemia, as a rare drug-related side effect, seems to be often overlooked by clinicians.

  10. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included:

  11. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

  12. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional

  13. Side effects of sugammadex use in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Sarı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is accepted that sugammadex show its effectsmore rapidly than the other neuromuscular block antagonistsin many studies, however especially in pediatriccases, it is seen that about its reliability and side effectsare limited in some studies. In our retrospective study,we aimed to present our experiences on sugammadexin terms of its side effects in the pediatric cases in ourhospital for a 1-year period.Methods: The patient files and intraoperative anesthesiarecords, postoperative 24th hour and after postoperative24th hour of the cases that underwent the application ofsugammadex under general anesthesia in pediatric surgeryoperating room in a 1-year period were analyzed.Results: Totally 46 patients received sugammadex; infants(28 days-23 months (n=24, children (2 years-11years (n=16 and adolescent (11-17 years (n=6. Noneof the patients showed hypersensitivity and statisticallysignificant side effects correlated to sugammadex.Conclusion: We think that sugammadex may open newdoors in pediatric patient group with its features. However,more documentation is needed about the safety inpediatric patient group, particularly in infants. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 265-268Key words: Sugammadex, pediatric patient, side effect

  14. Antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects and baseline hyperactivity in children and adolescents with new onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Follansbee-Junger, Katherine; Smith, Aimee W; Combs, Angela; Ollier, Shannon; Hater, Brooke; Modi, Avani C

    2018-01-01

    To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation. A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning at the diagnostic visit and the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire to identify AED behavioral side effects at the 1-month follow-up clinic visit following AED initiation. Children (age = 2-11 years) and adolescents (age = 12-18 years) were examined separately. A total of 380 youths with new onset epilepsy (M age  = 8.9 ± 4.3 years; 83.4% Caucasian; 34.8% focal epilepsy, 41.1% generalized epilepsy, 23.7% unclassified epilepsy) were included. Seventy percent of youths had at-risk or clinically elevated baseline psychological symptoms. Children had significantly greater AED behavioral side effects (M = 25.08 ± 26.36) compared to adolescents (M = 12.36 ± 17.73), regardless of AED. Valproic acid demonstrated significantly greater behavioral side effects compared to all other AEDs, with the exception of levetiracetam. Higher hyperactivity/impulsivity at baseline significantly predicted higher AED behavioral side effects 1 month after AED initiation in both age groups. Younger children seem to be more prone to experience behavioral side effects, and these are likely to be higher if youths with epilepsy have baseline hyperactivity/impulsivity. Baseline psychological screening, specifically hyperactivity, can be used as a precision medicine tool for AED selection. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. The Economic Side Effects of Dangerous Drug Announcements.

    OpenAIRE

    Dranove, David; Olsen, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Immediately prior to the passage of the 1962 Food and Drug Administration Amendments, there were a number of drugs recalled from markets worldwide. Announcements about the dangerous side effects of these drugs were associated with lower-share prices for their manufacturers and the industry as a whole. We perform several analyses to sort out alternative explanations for the observed declines. We find that dangerous drug announcements had no effect on the sales of other drugs and didn't affect ...

  16. Side effects due to irradiation of patients with mammary carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberg, G [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Strahlentherapeutische Klinik; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Klinische Strahlenbiologie)

    1976-09-01

    The essay gives a brief survey of possible side effects occurring in irradiating patients with carinomas of the breast. Special attention is paid to difficulties concerning differential diagnosis and occurring in differentiating radiation reactions from secondary blastomas in the skeleton system. The problems concerning lymphatic oedema in the arm, and changes in the lungs and the effects of radiotherapy on the haematopoictic system are dealt with.

  17. Side effects of intraoral devices for OSAS treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andressa Otranto de Britto; Andrade, Ana Luiza Ladeia; Almeida, Rhita Cristina da Cunha; Almeida, Marco Antonio de Oliveira

    2017-10-14

    Intraoral devices have increasingly assumed a key role in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, but there are limitations to their indication and side effects that result from their continuous use, as well as the use of the continuous positive airway pressure device. To evaluate the changes in dental positioning caused by the continuous use of mandibular advancement devices. A prospective longitudinal study with a sample of 15 patients, with evaluation of complete documentation after a mean time of 6.47 months, assessed changes in dental positioning due to the use of the Twin Block oral device for the treatment of patients with apnea. The following variables were evaluated: overjet, overbite, upper and lower intermolar distances, upper and lower intercanine distances, Little's irregularity index and the incisor mandibular plane angle. An intraclass correlation test was performed and a correlation index>0.08 was accepted. After verifying the normal sample distribution (Shapiro-Wilks), a parametric test was used (t test), with a significance level set at 5%. There was a decrease in the values of overjet, overbite and Little's irregularity index, whereas there was an increase in the lower intercanine distance and IMPA values. All these variables are influenced, at different levels, by the forward inclination of the lower incisors, an action that can be expected due to the force applied by the device on the dentition. The other variables did not show statistically significant differences. After a mean time of 6.47 months of use of the mandibular advancement device, there were statistically significant changes in the dental positioning, but they were not clinically relevant. However, it is relevant that this device is commonly in use over long periods of time, making the monitoring of these patients of the utmost importance for the duration of their therapy. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia C

  18. Steam inhalation therapy: severe scalds as an adverse side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baartmans, Martin; Kerkhof, Evelien; Vloemans, Jos; Dokter, Jan; Nijman, Susanne; Tibboel, Dick; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Background Steam inhalation therapy is often recommended in the treatment of a common cold. However, it has no proven benefit and may in fact have serious adverse side effects in terms of burn injuries. Aim To quantify the human and economic costs of steam inhalation therapy in terms of burn injury. Design and setting A prospective database study of all patients admitted to the burn centres (Beverwijk, Groningen, Rotterdam) and the hospital emergency departments in the Netherlands. Method Number and extent of burn injuries as a result of steam inhalation therapy were analysed, as well as an approximation made of the direct costs for their medical treatment. Results Annually, on average three people are admitted to in one of the Dutch burn centres for burns resulting from steam inhalation therapy. Most victims were children, and they needed skin grafting more often than adults. The total direct medical costs for burn centre and emergency department treatment were €115 500 (£93 000), emotional costs are not reflected. Conclusion As steam inhalation therapy has no proven benefit and the number and extent of complications of this therapy in terms of burn injury are significant, especially in children, steam inhalation therapy should be considered a dangerous procedure and not recommended anymore in professional guidelines and patient brochures. PMID:22781995

  19. Link between diet and chemotherapy related gastrointestinal side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Mardas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To evaluate an association between food products consumption, dietary intake and the incidence of selected gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and methods : Fifty six women receiving chemotherapy for ovarian cancer were eligible for the study. Anthropometrical measurements were assessed. The dietary intake was evaluated by 24-hours food records. The association between the consumption of selected food products and gastrointestinal symptoms incidences was assessed by modified semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire including 77-different food items that was developed and applied in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Results : BMI values indicated 9%, 45%, 30% and 16% of patients as underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese respectively. Only 23% and 32% of patients never experienced nausea and constipation when 43% and 45% never experienced vomiting and diarrhea. Nausea was promoted by oils, constipation by chocolate and chocolate products and diarrhea by dairy products, stone fruit and apple. Significant inverse correlations were found between vomiting and the intake of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates, B groups vitamins, vitamin D, phosphorus and zinc. The difference in energy intake between marginal values of vomiting incidence exceeded 400 kcal. Conclusions : Dietary intake as well as specific food products influence on gastrointestinal side effect of chemotherapy in cancer patients. The dietary approach based on either exclusion or limited intake of selected food products and improvement of diet could reduce and prevent chemotherapy induced gastrointestinal symptoms therefore should be taken under consideration in clinical practice.

  20. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, S.

    2004-01-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs

  1. Supply shortage forecast in Ontario: The significance of demand-side management (DSM); its tools and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, S.

    2004-06-01

    Aspects of the recent report by the Ontario Electricity Conservation and Supply Task Force and Independent Market Operator which forecasts acute power supply shortages in Ontario, are discussed. Immediate action is recommended to avert the problem. The principal recommendation concerns the adoption of Demand Side Management as a tool to reduce the widening gap between supply and demand, citing supply shortage, imports, high prices, deregulated market and environmental concerns as the driving forces which push for the adoption of DSM. It is claimed that DSM, through its tools such as Demand/Load Response Programs and Time-of-Use rates has the capacity to create the necessary balance between supply and demand more efficiently, and in a more timely fashion than supply side management. The demand for adoption of DSM is justified on the basis of a careful examination of the magnitude and significance of each of the driving forces affecting the electricity supply in Ontario, as well as the benefits and techniques of DSM designed to manage power shortages. Energy Conservation and Efficiency and Demand/Load Response Programs are discussed as the principal DSM techniques, while Dynamic/Real Time Pricing, Time-of-Use Rates, Automated /Smart Metering, Web-based/Communication Systems, Reliability-based Programs, Market/Price-based programs, and Types of Load Control are described as the principal tools used by DSM. DSM program approaches and strategies are also reviewed, along with a brief list of successful examples of DSM applications. 3 figs.

  2. Polyglycerol-opioid conjugate produces analgesia devoid of side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Sara; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Gupta, Shilpi; Walker, Karolina A; Zhang, Xuejiao; Spahn, Viola; Labuz, Dominika; Rodriguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Schmelz, Martin; Joseph, Jan; Parr, Maria K; Machelska, Halina; Haag, Rainer; Stein, Christoph

    2017-07-04

    Novel painkillers are urgently needed. The activation of opioid receptors in peripheral inflamed tissue can reduce pain without central adverse effects such as sedation, apnoea, or addiction. Here, we use an unprecedented strategy and report the synthesis and analgesic efficacy of the standard opioid morphine covalently attached to hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG-M) by a cleavable linker. With its high-molecular weight and hydrophilicity, this conjugate is designed to selectively release morphine in injured tissue and to prevent blood-brain barrier permeation. In contrast to conventional morphine, intravenous PG-M exclusively activated peripheral opioid receptors to produce analgesia in inflamed rat paws without major side effects such as sedation or constipation. Concentrations of morphine in the brain, blood, paw tissue, and in vitro confirmed the selective release of morphine in the inflamed milieu. Thus, PG-M may serve as prototype of a peripherally restricted opioid formulation designed to forego central and intestinal side effects.

  3. Intranasal corticosteroids topical characteristics: side effects, formulation, and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, David A; Blaiss, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines from throughout the world recommend intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) as first-line treatment for most patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis. In general, limited comparative studies between different INSs have not indicated that one particular steroid moiety is more effective than another in controlling symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, there are numerous formulations available with different ingredients that may influence a patient's adherence to treatment. This article looks at topical features with these agents, specifically, formulations, vehicles (aqueous vs aerosol), and side effects such as epistaxis and nasal septal perforation. Topical side effects are minimal with INSs with the exception of epistaxis. There are major differences in formulations, volumes, and vehicles between INSs, which could affect adherence. Physicians need to be aware of the different INS attributes to try to match patients' preferences in order to achieve better adherence and improve outcomes in sufferers of allergic rhinitis.

  4. Ketamine for Pain Management-Side Effects & Potential Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Cheryl A; Ivester, Julius R

    2017-12-01

    An old anesthetic agent, ketamine is finding new use in lower doses for analgesic purposes. There are concerns stemming from its potential side effects-specifically psychomimetic effects. These side effects are directly related to dose amount. The doses used for analgesic purposes are much lower than those used for anesthesia purposes. A literature review was performed to ascertain potential side effects and/or adverse events when using ketamine for analgesia purposes. The search included CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid using the search terms "ketamine," "ketamine infusion," "pain," "adverse events," "practice guideline," and "randomized controlled trial." Searches were limited to full-text, peer-reviewed articles and systematic reviews. Initially 1,068 articles were retrieved. The search was then narrowed by using the Boolean connector AND with various search term combinations. After adjusting for duplication, article titles and abstracts were reviewed, leaving 25 articles for an in-depth analysis. Specific exclusion criteria were then applied. The literature supports the use of ketamine for analgesic purposes, and ketamine offers a nonopioid option for the management of some pain conditions. Because ketamine is still classified as an anesthetic agent, health care institutions should develop their own set of policies and protocols for the administration of ketamine. By using forethought and understanding of the properties of ketamine, appropriate care may be planned to mitigate potential side effects and adverse events so that patients are appropriately cared for and their pain effectively managed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Late side effects of Ruthenium 106 therapy for uveal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Faulborn, J.; Poier, E.

    1994-01-01

    When effectiveness is evaluated in brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 special emphasis has to be put on tumor destruction and late side effects responsible for the definite functional results. We evaluated the late side effects of 22 uveal melanomas, which had been treated with 106 Ruthenium plaques. The tumor prominences ranged from 3 to 10 mm, the diameter from 4 to 9 disc diameters. In 4 patients the tumor involved the posterior pole, 14 melanomas were located in the midperiphery of the fundus, 4 tumors were ciliary body melanomas. The total radiation dose of the apex ranged from 100 to 240 Gy with a corresponding dose to the sclera between 540 to 1000 Gy. Because of the short half life of the plaque we have been using different dose rates (1.6-11 Gy/h). In 17/22 eyes adequate regression could be achieved by Ruthenium therapy alone. In one case additional laser treatment of the macular part of the melanoma had to be performed, Gamma Knife therapy was necessary in another melanoma with 10 mm tumor prominence. 3 recurrences led to enucleation. The mean follow up was 4.8 years ranging from 1 to 7 years. In 2/22 patients opticopathy caused severe visual impairment, in another 2 patients radiation maculopathy and opticopathy was observed. 7/22 developed vasculopathy with neovascularization treated by photocoagulation. In one case of focal radiation maculopathy laser treatment could prevent further visual impairment. The following factors are responsible for a higher incidence of late side effects: 1. High dose rate of the plaques in combination with a high radiation dose to the sclera 2. Location of the tumor within a minimum distance of 2 disc diameters to the optic nerve or macula 3. Tumor location at the ciliary body Laser treatment in case of neovascularization and focal radiation maculopathy is the only effective treatment with regard to late side effects. Ischemic maculopathy and radiation opticopathy are responsible for late visual impairment. (authors)

  6. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  7. Nanomedicinal products: a survey on specific toxicity and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand W

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Walter Brand,1,* Cornelle W Noorlander,1,* Christina Giannakou,2,3 Wim H De Jong,2 Myrna W Kooi,1 Margriet VDZ Park,2 Rob J Vandebriel,2 Irene EM Bosselaers,4 Joep HG Scholl,5 Robert E Geertsma2 1Centre for Safety of Substances and Products, 2Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, 3Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 4Section Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Medicines Evaluation Board (CBG-MEB, Utrecht, 5Research & Analysis Department, Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Due to their specific properties and pharmacokinetics, nanomedicinal products (NMPs may present different toxicity and side effects compared to non-nanoformulated, conventional medicines. To facilitate the safety assessment of NMPs, we aimed to gain insight into toxic effects specific for NMPs by systematically analyzing the available toxicity data on approved NMPs in the European Union. In addition, by comparing five sets of products with the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in a conventional formulation versus a nanoformulation, we aimed to identify any side effects specific for the nano aspect of NMPs. The objective was to investigate whether specific toxicity could be related to certain structural types of NMPs and whether a nanoformulation of an API altered the nature of side effects of the product in humans compared to a conventional formulation. The survey of toxicity data did not reveal nanospecific toxicity that could be related to certain types of structures of NMPs, other than those reported previously in relation to accumulation of iron nanoparticles (NPs. However, given the limited data for some of the product groups or toxicological end points in the analysis, conclusions with regard to (a lack of potential nanomedicine-specific effects need to be

  8. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  9. May disordered protein cause serious drug side effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Weng Ieong; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-04-01

    Insomnia is a self-reported disease where patients lose their ability to initiate and maintain sleep, leading to daytime performance impairment. Several drug targets to ameliorate insomnia symptoms have been discovered; however, these drug targets lead to serious side effects. Thus, we characterize the structural properties of these sleep-related receptors and the clock complex and discuss a possible drug design that will reduce side effects. Computational prediction shows that disordered property is shared. Over 30% of the structure of CLOCK, PER1/2/3, BMAL-1, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-M1, melatonin receptor and casein kinase I are structurally disordered (the remaining proteins represent insomnia drugs might be closely related to the protein architecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Side effects of cancer therapies. International classification and documentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The publication presents and explains verified, international classification and documentation systems for side effects induced by cancer treatments, applicable in general and clinical practice and clinical research, and covers in a clearly arranged manner the whole range of treatments, including acute and chronic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery, or combined therapies. The book fills a long-felt need in tumor documentation and is a major contribution to quality assurance in clinical oncology in German-speaking countries. As most parts of the book are bilingual, presenting German and English texts and terminology, it satisfies the principles of interdisciplinarity and internationality. The tabulated form chosen for presentation of classification systems and criteria facilitate the user's approach as well as application in daily work. (orig./CB) [de

  11. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  12. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  13. Effect of side chain position on solar cell performance in cyclopentadithiophene-based copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Seo, Jung Hwa; Cho, Nam Sung; Cho, Shinuk

    2012-01-01

    The photovoltaic properties of a series of low band-gap conjugated copolymers, in which alkyl side chains were substituted at various positions, were investigated using donor–acceptor (D–A) conjugated copolymers consisting of a cyclopentadithiophene derivative and dithienyl-benzothiadiazole. The base polymer, which has no alkyl side chains, yielded promising power conversion efficiency of 3.8%. Polymers with alkyl side chains, however, exhibited significantly decreased performance. In addition, the effects of processing additive became negligible. The results indicate that substituted side chains, which were introduced to improve solubility, critically affected the optical and electronic properties of D–A conjugated copolymers. Furthermore, the position of the side chain was also very important for controlling the morphological properties of the D–A conjugated copolymers. - Highlights: ► Effect of side chain position on solar cell performance was investigated. ► Polymer without alkyl chains yielded promising power conversion efficiency of 3.8%. ► Position of side chains critically affected the optical and electronic properties.

  14. Immediate side effects of stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner-Wasik, Maria; Rudoler, Shari; Preston, Peter E.; Downes, Beverly M.; Andrews, David; Corn, Benjamin W.; Rosenstock, Jeffrey; Curran, Walter J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Despite increased utilization of fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the incidence and nature of immediate side effects (ISE) associated with these treatment techniques is not well defined. Materials and Methods: Intracranial lesions in 78 adult patients were treated with SRT or SRS, using a dedicated linear accelerator. They comprised 13 gliomas, 2 ependymomas, 19 metastatic tumors, 15 meningiomas, 12 acoustic neuromas, 4 pituitary adenomas, 1 optic neuroma, 1 chondrosarcoma and 11 arteriovenous malformations (AVM). SRT was used in 51 and SRS in 27 patients. Mean target volume was 9.0 cc. Eleven patients received prior external beam radiation therapy within 2 months before SRT/SRS. Any side effects occurring during and up to two weeks after radiation course were defined as ISE and were graded as mild, moderate or severe. The incidence of ISE and the significance of their association with several pretreatment variables were analyzed. Results: Overall, (28(78)) (35%) patients experienced one or more ISE. Most of ISE (87%) were mild and consisted of nausea (5), dizziness/vertigo (5), seizures (7) and new persistent headaches (17). Two episodes of worsening neurological deficit and 2 of orbital pain were graded as moderate. Two patients experienced severe ISE, requiring hospitalization (1 seizure and 1 worsening neurological deficit). ISE in 5 cases prompted computerized tomography of the brain which revealed increased perilesional edema in 3 cases. The incidence of ISE by diagnosis was as follows: 46% ((6(13))) for gliomas, 50% ((6(12))) for acoustic neuromas, 36% ((4(11))) for AVM, 33% ((5(15))) for meningiomas and 21% ((4(19))) for metastases. Increasing dose to the margin and increasing maximum dose were associated with a higher incidence of ISE (p=0.02 and 0.005, respectively). Prior recent conventional external beam radiation therapy, target volume, number of isocenters, collimator size, dose

  15. EFFECTS OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES ON PHYSICAL CONDITIONING AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Katis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a 30m sprint, b throw-in for distance, c Illinois Agility Test, d dribbling the ball and e horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05. The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05 while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05. After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05, while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05. The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended

  16. Effect of Rotational Speed on the Stability of Two Rotating Side-by-side Circular Cylinders at Low Reynolds Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Huashu; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Hui; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kinoue, Yoichi

    2018-04-01

    Flow around two rotating side-by-side circular cylinders of equal diameter D is numerically studied at the Reynolds number 40≤ Re ≤200 and various rotation rate θ i . The incoming flow is assumed to be two-dimensional laminar flow. The governing equations are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the finite volume method (FVM). The ratio of the center-to-center spacing to the cylinder diameter is T/D=2. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of rotational speed and Reynolds number on the stability of the flow. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data and a good agreement is achieved. The stability of the flow is analyzed by using the energy gradient theory, which produces the energy gradient function K to identify the region where the flow is the most prone to be destabilized and the degree of the destabilization. Numerical results reveal that K is the most significant at the separated shear layers of the cylinder pair. With Re increases, the length of the wake is shorter and the vortex shedding generally exhibits a symmetrical distribution for θ i < θ crit . It is also shown that the unsteady vortex shedding can be suppressed by rotating the cylinders in the counter-rotating mode.

  17. Cutaneous Side-effects of Immunomodulators in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, C; Bertagna, M; Cohen, M

    2011-09-01

    Local skin reactions to subcutaneous injections of interferon beta (IFNB) or glatiramer acetate (GA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are frequent, while severe cutaneous toxicity is rare. Both IFNB and GA are immunomodulatory drugs that have excellent safety profiles and are currently used for treatment of MS. They are administered by SC injection every other day for IFNB-1b, three times a week for IFNB-1a or daily for 20 mg for GA. The most common adverse effects, which occur in approximately 20-60% of patients, include pain, inflammation and induration at the injection sites. Another adverse effect is frank panniculitis followed by localized lipoatrophy at the injection sites, which has been described in half of the patients receiving GA injections but is also described with Subcutaneous IFNB-1b. No guidelines have yet been established for the treatment of skin reactions, which is a frequent point for discussion between neurologists and dermatologists. In addition, no treatment has been found for established lipoatrophy. The prevention and management of cutaneous side-effects include patient education, regular examination and manual palpation of all injection sites. Non-steroid antiinflammatory gels, local corticosteroids or endermology can help patients to resolve side-effects and to continue immunomodulatory treatment.

  18. Foreknowledge, Caring, and the Side-Effect Effect in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults often judge that the side effects of the actions of an uncaring story agent have been intentional if the effects are harmful but not if these are beneficial, creating an asymmetrical "side-effect" effect. The authors report 3 experiments involving 4- and 5-year-olds (N = 188) designed to clarify the role of foreknowledge and…

  19. Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education: an overview of empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, Inge F.; Janssens, F.J.G.

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of

  20. Major side-effect of metrizamide. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Akimasa; Ohtsuka, Tadahiro; Takaki, Shuichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1987-10-01

    We have presented a case showing a major side-effect following metrizamide CT cisternography. The patient was a 68-year-old woman who developed anaphylactic shock and a disturbance of consciousness 6 hours after metrizamide CT cisternography with a dose of 850 mg of iodine. In spite of vigorous therapy, she died 60 hours after the shock. Examples of anaphylactic shock by metrizamide administered intrathecally have been reported very rarely. The pathogenesis of this case was presumably due to anaphylactic shock, but other etiological factors, such as a hypothalamic dysfunction due to a disturbed glucose metabolism of the brain, may also be suspected.

  1. Framing effects on expectations, decisions, and side effects experienced: the case of influenza immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Pennie, R A; Dales, R E

    1996-11-01

    To examine the effects of using positive or negative frames to describe influenza vaccine benefits and side effects on patients' expectations, decisions, decisional conflict, and reported side effects. 292 previously unimmunized patients with chronic respiratory or cardiac disease were randomly assigned to receive benefit/risk information that was framed: (1) positively as the percentage who remain free of influenza and have no vaccine side effects, or (2) negatively as the percentage who acquire influenza and have vaccine side effects. Questionnaires elicited expectations, decisions, and decisional conflict. Vaccines were telephoned 3 days later for a self-report of local and systemic side effects and work absenteeism. Both groups had similar immunization rates and decisional conflict scores. The positive frame group had lower and more realistic expectations of vaccine side effects, fewer systemic side effects, and less work absenteeism (p framing did not influence patients' decisions, possibly due to the patients' awareness of their higher risk of influenza complications and greater desire to follow recommendations. The common practice of using negative frames when describing probabilities of side effects may need to be reexamined, considering its deleterious influence on self-reported side effects and work absenteeism.

  2. Experimental research on end-to-side anastomosis of peripheral nerves and effect of FK506 on end-to-side anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L M; Wu, Y X; Zhang, X P; Li, X H

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of end-to-side anastomosis of initially-denatured nerves at different times. 60 male Wistar albino rats were used to fabricate animal models for the experiment on end-to-side anastomosis of peripheral nerves and 50 female Wistar albino rats were used to fabricate animal models for the experiment on the effect of FK506 on end-to-side anastomosis. Bilateral common peroneal nerve, tibialis anterior muscle electrophysiological and histological examinations, tibialis anterior muscle wet muscle weight determination, and motor end plate examination were performed 3 months after operation. All recovery rates of action potential, single muscle contraction force and tetanic contraction force of the FK506 experimental group are significantly higher than those of the control group and the sectional area of muscle fiber is also higher than that of the control group of normal saline. The best time for end-to-side anastomosis of nerves should be controlled within 2 weeks and the effect of end-to-side anastomosis of nerves will gradually become unsatisfactory. FK506 plays a role in promoting functional rehabilitation following nerve end-to-side anastomosis (Tab. 7, Fig. 4, Ref. 31).

  3. Unintended Side Effects of Digital Transition: Perspectives of Japanese Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sugiyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The core of the digital transition is the representation of all kinds of real-world entities and processes and an increasing number of cognitive processes by digital information and algorithms on computers. These allow for seemingly unlimited storage, operation, retrieval, and transmission capacities that make digital tools economically available for all domains of society and empower human action, particularly combined with real-world interfaces such as displays, robots, sensors, 3D printers, etc. Digital technologies are general-purpose technologies providing unprecedented potential benefits for sustainability. However, they will bring about a multitude of potential unintended side effects, and this demands a transdisciplinary discussion on unwanted societal changes as well as a shift in science from analog to digital modeling and structure. Although social discourse has begun, the topical scope and regional coverage have been limited. Here, we report on an expert roundtable on digital transition held in February 2017 in Tokyo, Japan. Drawing on a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, our discussions highlight the importance of cultural contexts and the need to bridge local and global conversations. Although Japanese experts did mention side effects, their focus was on how to ensure that AI and robots could coexist with humans. Such a perspective is not well appreciated everywhere outside Japan. Stakeholder dialogues have already begun in Japan, but greater efforts are needed to engage a broader collection of experts in addition to stakeholders to broaden the social debate.

  4. Local Side Effects of Sublingual and Oral Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly used worldwide, and several products have been recently registered as drugs for respiratory allergy by the European Medicine Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. Concerning inhalant allergens, the safety of SLIT is overall superior to that of subcutaneous immunotherapy in terms of systemic adverse events. No fatality has been ever reported, and episodes of anaphylaxis were described only exceptionally. Looking at the historical and recent trials, most (>90%) adverse events are "local" and confined to the site of administration. For this reason, a specific grading system has been developed by the World Allergy Organization to classify and describe local adverse events. There is an increasing amount of literature concerning oral desensitization for food allergens, referred to as oral immunotherapy. Also, in this case, local side effects are predominant, although systemic adverse events are more frequent than with inhalant allergens. We review herein the description of local side effects due to SLIT, with a special focus on large trials having a declared sample size calculation. The use of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities nomenclature for adverse events is mentioned in this context, as recommended by regulatory agencies. It is expected that a uniform classification/grading of local adverse events will improve and harmonize the surveillance and reporting on the safety of SLIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported .

  6. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, Lidewij T.; van den Akker, Erica L. T.; Aarsen, Femke K.; Bierings, Marc B.; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sassen, Sebastiaan D. T.; Veening, Margreet A.; Zwaan, Christian M.; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied

  7. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Antiarrhythmic Medications: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Waseem; Qureshi, Waqas; Farooq, Ali; Sohail, Umair; Khatoon, Salma; Pervaiz, Sarah; Narra, Pratyusha; Hasan, Syeda M; Ali, Farman; Ullah, Aman; Guttmann, Steven

    2017-09-03

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are commonly prescribed cardiac drugs. Due to their receptor mimicry with several of the gastrointestinal tract receptors, they can frequently lead to gastrointestinal side effects. These side effects are the most common reasons for discontinuation of these drugs by the patients. Knowledge of these side effects is important for clinicians that manage antiarrhythmic drugs. This review focuses on the gastrointestinal side effects of these drugs and provides a detailed up-to-date literature review of the side effects of these drugs. The review provides case reports reported in the literature as well as possible mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal side effects.

  8. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  9. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In

  10. Tripeptide tyroserleutide plus doxorubicin: therapeutic synergy and side effect attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Zhi-feng; Yao, Zhi; Chen, Li-juan; Lu, Rong; Jia, Jing; Liang, Yu; Xu, Qiong; Zhou, Chun-lei; Wang, Li; Wang, Song

    2008-01-01

    Tripeptide tyroserleutide (YSL) is a novel small molecule anti-tumor polypeptide that has been shown to inhibit the growth of human liver cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of YSL plus doxorubicin on the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 cells that had been transplanted into nude mice. Nude mice bearing human hepatocellular carcinoma BEL-7402 tumors were treated with successive intraperitoneal injections of saline; low-, mid-, or high-dose doxorubicin; or low-, mid-, or high-dose doxorubicin plus YSL. Effects on the weight and volume of the tumors were evaluated. Co-administration of YSL and high-dose doxorubicin (6 mg/kg every other day) prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice as compared to high-dose doxorubicin alone. As well, the anti-tumor effects of mid- and low-dose doxorubicin (2 and 0.7 mg/kg every other day, respectively) were enhanced when supplemented with YSL; the tumor growth inhibition rates for YSL plus doxorubicin were greater than the inhibition rates for the same dosages of doxorubicin alone. The combination of YSL and doxorubicin decreased chemotherapy-associated weight loss, leukocyte depression, and heart, liver, and kidney damage as compared to doxorubicin alone. The combination of YSL plus doxorubicin enhances the anti-tumor effect and reduces the side effects associated with doxorubicin chemotherapy

  11. Clinically insubstantial cognitive side effects of bitemporal electroconvulsive therapy at 0.5 msec pulse width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, Ronald L; Swartz, Conrad M; Thomson, Alice

    2011-11-01

    We measured cognitive side effects from bitemporal electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) using stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width 900 milliamperes (mA). Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21) were rated within 36 hours before and 36 hours after a series of 6 bitemporal ECT sessions on 15 patients age ≥45. MMSE remained high after ECT (pre-ECT mean 29, standard deviation [SD] 1.60, post-ECT mean 28.53, SD 1.36) with no significant change. The mean HRSD-21 fell from 27.5 to 16.3. Post-ECT MMSE was significantly and markedly higher than in previous studies of bitemporal ECT; all had used ECT stimuli of pulse width at least 1 msec. With stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA, 6 bitemporal ECTs did not decrease MMSE score. This result leaves no opportunity for further decrease in basic cognitive side effects, and complements published reports of stronger physiological effects with stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA. ECT stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA are more desirable than wider pulse widths. Six bitemporal ECT sessions using these stimuli generally will not have more cognitive side effects than treatments with other placements, allowing maintenance of full efficacy with clinically insubstantial side effects.

  12. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use.

  13. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI group. It is found that BMI does not have much

  14. The Significance of Effective Leadership in Organisations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽闻

    2017-01-01

    This essay will study leadership by critically analysing several key theories; it will begin with the concept of leadership to facility an understanding of the subject. Initially, the description of leadership in organisations will be explored to present the development of leadership, and simultaneously identify the purpose of effective leadership. Subse-quently, the demand for good leaders in current business environment will be discussed in order to identify the importance of effective lead-ership. Finally, an empirical case will be discussed to reveal how well the key theories help leaders to address various issues in organisations.

  15. Side effects of ionizing radiation on healthy tissues and organs at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ionizing radiations induce cell death, causing deterministic or stochastic side-effects. This paper briefly summarizes the biological mechanisms of early and late side-effects of ionizing radiations on healthy tissue. (author)

  16. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  17. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: An observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurneysen André

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care

  18. Do the emotional side-effects of hormonal contraceptives come from pharmacologic or psychological mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephen A; Dowell, Matt; Pedulla, Dominic; McCauley, Larry

    2004-01-01

    reveal no significant differences. Women who were given an OCP placebo experienced a similar side effect profile of OCP users. Different hormonal concentrations and combinations made no significant difference in the side effect profile. A study of women who were given either "weak female hormones" or a placebo failed to duplicate the side effect profile found in all of the other studies where the hormones were labeled as contraceptives. The evidence suggests that most of the side effects of hormonal contraception are a result of a psychological response to the practice of contraception. More study is warranted to further understand this psychological phenomenon, especially now that an effective non-contraceptive method of fertility regulation and more reliable psychological instruments are available. Furthermore, it is reasonable to hypothesize, given the present data, that contraceptive activity itself is inherently damaging to women.

  19. Interindividual testing of water-soluble oral contrast media in respect of diagnostic ranking, side effects and taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Fink, U.; Siuda, S.; Neville, S.

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of patients (n = 55, 52 and 54) were examined with the X-ray contrast media Gastrografin, Peritrast-Oral GI, and Telebrix Gastro to assess the diagnostic ranking, side effects and taste of watersoluble oral contrast media. No significant differences were seen in respect of diagnostic ranking and side effects. Side effects were exclusively abdominal symptoms; there was no difference with regard to laxative action. Telebrix Gastroas accepted significantly better in respect of taste than Gastrografin and Peritrast-Oral GI. (orig.) [de

  20. Short-term side effects and patient-reported outcomes of bleomycin sclerotherapy in vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Joana M; Richter, Gresham T; Becton, David; Salem, Omar; Hill, Sarah E M; Crary, Shelley E

    2018-06-01

    Vascular malformations (VM) are congenital lesions that can be debilitating and cause significant aesthetic and functional limitations. The chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin has been utilized as a sclerosant, directly injected percutaneously into the VM. Unfortunately, little is known about the benefits and short-term side effects of bleomycin with intralesional injections. An IRB approved, retrospective chart review was performed on patients with VM who had been treated with intralesional bleomycin. Data included type of VM, number of treatments, total bleomycin dose per m², and adverse effects. A questionnaire was administered to available patients to assess subjective outcomes and side effects. Forty-six patients were treated with 141 procedures of bleomycin sclerotherapy for VM. Patient ages ranged from 1 to 20 years (median age 10 years). The median cumulative bleomycin dose was 16.3 units/m²/person (range of 1.7-97.0 units/m²/person). Sixty-three percent of patients were reached for a questionnaire to assess short-term side effects. Ninety percent of patients surveyed were satisfied to very satisfied with the results from the procedure. About 24% of patients experienced transient nausea, vomiting and/or local hyperpigmentation. Bleomycin sclerotherapy can be an effective treatment of VM with repeat exposure with minor risk of short-term side effects, however, long-term risks are of great concern. Further studies are required to assess systemic absorption and long-term risks. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A unified frame of predicting side effects of drugs by using linear neighborhood similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yue, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Chen, Yanlin; Tu, Shikui; Zhang, Xining

    2017-12-14

    Drug side effects are one of main concerns in the drug discovery, which gains wide attentions. Investigating drug side effects is of great importance, and the computational prediction can help to guide wet experiments. As far as we known, a great number of computational methods have been proposed for the side effect predictions. The assumption that similar drugs may induce same side effects is usually employed for modeling, and how to calculate the drug-drug similarity is critical in the side effect predictions. In this paper, we present a novel measure of drug-drug similarity named "linear neighborhood similarity", which is calculated in a drug feature space by exploring linear neighborhood relationship. Then, we transfer the similarity from the feature space into the side effect space, and predict drug side effects by propagating known side effect information through a similarity-based graph. Under a unified frame based on the linear neighborhood similarity, we propose method "LNSM" and its extension "LNSM-SMI" to predict side effects of new drugs, and propose the method "LNSM-MSE" to predict unobserved side effect of approved drugs. We evaluate the performances of LNSM and LNSM-SMI in predicting side effects of new drugs, and evaluate the performances of LNSM-MSE in predicting missing side effects of approved drugs. The results demonstrate that the linear neighborhood similarity can improve the performances of side effect prediction, and the linear neighborhood similarity-based methods can outperform existing side effect prediction methods. More importantly, the proposed methods can predict side effects of new drugs as well as unobserved side effects of approved drugs under a unified frame.

  2. Decreasing the Burden of Side Effects Through Positive Message Framing: an Experimental Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Marcel; Rief, Winfried; Doering, Bettina K

    2018-05-21

    Informing patients about treatment side effects increases the occurrence and intensity of side effects. Since the obligatory informed consent procedure in drug treatments requires transparency and nocebo research suggests that the informed consent of a drug leads to an increased occurrence of the mentioned side effects, the aim of this proof of concept study was to determine the effect of two different framings of informed consent on the occurrence, intensity, and perceived threat of side effects. Healthy male participants (n = 80) were randomized to one of two framing groups. The positive framing group was informed that the common side effect dizziness was a sign that the drug had started to work, while the neutral framing group was told that dizziness is an unpleasant but well-known side effect. Side effects were measured after the administration of metoprolol, an antihypertensive agent. Post hoc moderator analyses investigated the effect of pre-existing negative beliefs about the general harm of medication on the framing manipulation. Metoprolol-specific drug-attributed side effects were rated significantly less threatening in the positive framing group. The between-group effect size (Cohen's d) was small (d = 0.38, p = 0.049). Exploratory post hoc moderator analyses suggest that participants who believed that medication is a source of harmful effects benefited from positive framing, compared to neutral framing of drug-attributed side effects. Positive framing was partially effective in decreasing specific side effect measures, particularly among participants with a tendency to believe that medicine is harmful. Informed consent procedures should therefore be personalized, focusing on patients with negative treatment beliefs.

  3. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, T; Christrup, L L; Højsted, J; Villesen, H H; Albjerg, T H; Ravn-Nielsen, L V; Sjøgren, P

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment. We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics. patients treated with either opioids and/or adjuvant analgesics were asked to report their symptoms spontaneously, followed by a 41-item investigator-developed symptom checklist. A control group also filled in the checklist. a total of 62 patients and 64 controls participated in the study. The numbers of symptoms reported by the patients (9.9 ± 5.9) were significantly higher than those reported by the controls (3.2 ± 3.9) (Pside effects due to analgesics was: (1) Dry mouth (42%); (2) Sweating (34%); (3) Weight gain (29%); (4) Memory deficits (24%); (5) Fatigue (19%); and (6) Concentration deficits (19%). the number of symptoms reported using systematic assessment was eightfold higher than those reported voluntarily. Fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, dry mouth, sweating and weight gain were the most frequently reported. The patients reported the side effects of their analgesics to contribute substantially to the reported symptoms. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  4. Effects of yoga on cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprod, Lisa K; Fernandez, Isabel D; Janelsins, Michelle C; Peppone, Luke J; Atkins, James N; Giguere, Jeffrey; Block, Robert; Mustian, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of cancer survivors are 65years of age or older. Cancer and its treatments lead to cancer-related fatigue and many other side effects, in turn, creating substantial global side-effect burden (total burden from all side effects) which, ultimately, compromises functional independence and quality of life. Various modes of exercise, such as yoga, reduce cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in younger cancer survivors, but no studies have specifically examined the effects of yoga on older cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 4-week yoga intervention (Yoga for Cancer Survivors: YOCAS©®) on overall cancer-related fatigue, and due to its multidimensional nature, the subdomains of cancer-related fatigue (general, physical, emotional, and mental) and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors. We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a multicenter phase III randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 arms (standard care and standard care plus a 4-week YOCAS©® intervention). The sample for this secondary analysis was 97 older cancer survivors (≥60years of age), between 2months and 2years post-treatment, who participated in the original trial. Participants in the YOCAS©® intervention arm reported significantly lower cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden than participants in the standard care arm following the 4-week intervention period (peffective standardized yoga intervention for reducing cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden among older cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Risperidone-Induced Renal Damage and Metabolic Side Effects: The Protective Effect of Resveratrol

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    Sedat Bilgiç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective qualities of resveratrol (RSV against the side effects of risperidone (RIS in an experimental model in rat kidneys with histologic and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods. Experimental procedures were performed on 35 female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, untreated rats (n=7 were in group 1; group 2 was given 2 mg/kg/day RIS (n=7; group 3 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 20 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; group 4 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 40 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; and group 5 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 80 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7. All treatments were administered for two weeks by gavage. On treatment day 15, kidney tissues were removed for analysis. Results. The results showed that RSV treatment reduced weight gain induced by RIS. In addition, RSV increased the total antioxidant status (TAS and decreased serum creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, oxidative stress index (OSI, and total oxidant status (TOS levels significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study revealed that treatment with RSV might protect kidney tissues against the side effects of RIS. RSV could be an effective course of therapy to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

  6. Impact of side-effects of atypical antipsychotics on non-compliance, relapse and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, A; Williams, P; Meddis, D

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics generally have milder side-effects than conventional antipsychotics, but also differ among themselves in this respect. This study aimed to compare the impact of different side-effect profiles of individual atypical antipsychotics on non-compliance, relapse and cost in schizophrenia. A state-transition model was built using literature data supplemented by expert opinion. The model found that quetiapine and ziprasidone were similar in estimated non-compliance and relapse rates. Olanzapine and risperidone had higher estimated non-compliance and relapse rates, and incremental, 1-year, per-patient direct costs, using US-based cost data, of approximately $530 (95% confidence interval [CI] approximately $275, $800), and approximately $485 (95% CI approximately $235, $800), respectively, compared with quetiapine. Incremental costs attributable to different side-effect profiles were highly significant. This study shows that differing side-effect profiles of the newer antipsychotic agents are likely to lead to different compliance rates, and consequent variation in relapse rates. The cost implications of these heterogenous clinical outcomes are substantial.

  7. Clinical application and side effects of non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast media: Iopromide (Ultavist)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Suh, Jung Ho; Suh, Jin Suk; Lee, Yeon Hee

    1988-01-01

    Generally non-ionic, water-soluble contrast media has been known to be considerably better than the conventional ionic contrast agents, because of its physiochemical properties which are more hydrophilic, lower in osmolality than the ionic agents of equivalent iodine concentration. It means that the non-ionic agent has less side reaction and better general tolerance. Iopromide (Ultavist) is a newly developed non-ionic contrast media that is suitable for angiography. Some non-ionic contrast media such as Metrizamide and lopamidol were clinically introduced and proved tobe the most compromising agents for neuroradiographic study, but lopromide is not yet freely available in the vascular study. In order to evaluate the clinical fitness and its side effects of lopromide for angiography various type of angiography were done in 136 patients using lopromide and 51 received Diatrizoate meglumine (DTM). Similar volumes of the contrast media was administered at similar rate to both groups. The results were as the follows: 1. In celiac angiography of 31 patients with lopromide (Ultravist 370) and 18 with DTM 60, there were observed 9.7% mild pain and 25.8% mild heat sensation in lopromide. In DTM 60 mild pain was approximately 3 times more frequently observed than lopromide. Heat sensation is mild and similar in frequency of both groups. There was no clinically significant side effects related to the osmolality and its difference between two groups. 2. In peripheral angiography of 47 patients with lopromide 300 and 24 with DTM 60, there were observed 19.1% mild, 6.4 moderate in pain and 46.8% mild, 1% moderate heat sensation in lopromide. But in DTM there were 33.3% mild, 58.3% moderate and 8.3% severe pain, and also 70.8% mild and 16.7% moderate heat sensation in DTM were observed. lopromide is more advantageous and better contrast agents than the DTM for peripheral vascular study on the point of low side effect related to osmolality. 3. In renal angiography, there was no

  8. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  9. Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Borgia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic Therapy (PDT is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations.

  10. Treatment of neuroblastoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine: results and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treuner, J.; Klingebiel, T.; Bruchelt, G.; Feine, U.; Niethammer, D.

    1987-01-01

    Between April 1984 and December 1985 we treated ten children suffering from neuroblastoma in a total of 25 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) courses. Five had had a relapse of neuroblastoma stage III or IV, three had never achieved a remission in spite of intensive chemotherapy, and two were treated with an unstable remission. The children were each administered from 1 to 5 courses with a dosage per course of between 1295 and 9065 MBq. The sum of the single doses during the whole course of therapy ranged between 3145 and 21,904 MBq per child. Five of five children suffering from bone pain and fever became free of complaints during the first three treatment days. Six of eight children with manifest tumor at onset of therapy responded well to the treatment: response extended from transitory decrease in elevated catecholamine levels in serum and urine to complete disappearance of large abdominal tumor masses. We also observed a decrease in bone marrow involvement and a stabilization of osteolytic lesions. Seven of these eight children died in spite of a good response from 55 to 350 days after the first MIBG treatment course. The only side effect we witnessed was a reversible bone marrow depression. In three children we combined the MIBG therapy with bone marrow transplantation

  11. The Glasgow antipsychotic side-effects scale for clozapine in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović Ristić, Dragana; Cohen, Dan; Obradović, Andrea; Nikić-Đuričić, Katarina; Drašković, Marija; Hinić, Darko

    2018-02-01

    The inconsistency in clinician and patient ratings of clozapine-induced side effects underscore the need to supplement clinician-based estimates of side effects with patient-reported ones. The main aims of the study are validation of the Glasgow antipsychotic side-effects scale for clozapine (GASS-C) in Serbian inpatients/outpatients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder and recommendations for its future use, based on common and rare clozapine-associated side-effects. The GASS-C was administered to 95 outpatients/inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or chronic psychotic disorder. The scale showed good overall reliability, with an internal consistency coefficient of α = 0.84, an average retest coefficient of rho = 0.76, and a Spearman-Brown coefficient of validity of 0.81. Side effects were absent or mild in 64.2% of the patients, moderate in 31.6%, severe in 4.2%; 14% of the subjects considered their symptoms distressing. The most commonly reported side-effects were drowsiness, thirst, frequent urination, and dry mouth. Women reported more side effects than men, and patients not in a relationship reported significantly fewer side effects than patients in a relationship. Results indicate a weak positive correlation (rho = 0.231; p = .025) between severity of side effects and clozapine dose. The GASS-C showed good psychometric characteristics in clinical population of patients on clozapine. In future studies, clozapine serum concentrations should be measured when using the GASS-C to monitor side effects.

  12. Side Effect Perceptions and Their Impact on Treatment Decisions in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Pachur, Thorsten; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    Side effects prompt some patients to forego otherwise-beneficial therapies. This study explored which characteristics make side effects particularly aversive. We used a psychometric approach, originating from research on risk perception, to identify the factors (or components) underlying side effect perceptions. Women ( N = 149) aged 40 to 74 years were recruited from a patient registry to complete an online experiment. Participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which an effective and necessary medication conferred a small risk of a single side effect (e.g., nausea, dizziness). They rated a broad range of side effects on several characteristics (e.g., embarrassing, treatable). In addition, we collected 4 measures of aversiveness for each side effect: choosing to take the medication, willingness to pay to avoid the side effect (WTP), negative affective attitude associated with the side effect, and how each side effect ranks among others in terms of undesirability. A principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify the components underlying side effect perceptions. Then, for each aversiveness measure separately, regression analyses were used to determine which components predicted differences in aversiveness among the side effects. The PCA revealed 4 components underlying side effect perceptions: affective challenge (e.g., frightening), social challenge (e.g., disfiguring), physical challenge (e.g., painful), and familiarity (e.g., common). Side effects perceived as affectively and physically challenging elicited the highest levels of aversiveness across all 4 measures. Understanding what side effect characteristics are most aversive may inform interventions to improve medical decisions and facilitate the translation of novel biomedical therapies into clinical practice.

  13. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  14. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  15. Effects of utility demand-side management programs on uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, E.

    1994-01-01

    Electric utilities face a variety of uncertainties that complicate their long-term resource planning. These uncertainties include future economic and load growths, fuel prices, environmental and economic regulations, performance of existing power plants, cost and availability of purchased power, and the costs and performance of new demand and supply resources. As utilities increasingly turn to demand-side management (DSM) programs to provide resources, it becomes more important to analyze the interactions between these programs and the uncertainties facing utilities. This paper uses a dynamic planning model to quantify the uncertainty effects of supply-only vs DSM + supply resource portfolios. The analysis considers four sets of uncertainties: economic growth, fuel prices, the costs to build new power plants, and the costs to operate DSM programs. The two types of portfolios are tested against these four sets of uncertainties for the period 1990 to 2010. Sensitivity, scenario, and worst-case analysis methods are used. The sensitivity analyses show that the DSM + supply resource portfolio is less sensitive to unanticipated changes in economic growth, fuel prices, and power-plant construction costs than is the supply-only portfolio. The supply-only resource mix is better only with respect to uncertainties about the costs of DSM programs. The base-case analysis shows that including DSM programs in the utility's resource portfolio reduces the net present value of revenue requirements (NPV-RR) by 490 million dollars. The scenario-analysis results show an additional 30 million dollars (6%) in benefits associated with reduction in these uncertainties. In the worst-case analysis, the DSM + supply portfolio again reduces the cost penalty associated with guessing wrong for both cases, when the utility plans for high needs and learns it has low needs and vice versa. 20 refs

  16. Choreatic Side Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anteromedial Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Anne E P; Leentjens, Albert F G; Schruers, Koen; Duits, Annelien; Ackermans, Linda; Temel, Yasin

    2017-08-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are potential candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS). The anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (STN) is among the most commonly used targets for DBS in OCD. We present a patient with a 30-year history of treatment-resistant OCD who underwent anteromedial STN-DBS. Despite a clear mood-enhancing effect, stimulation caused motor side effects, including bilateral hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, and sudden large amplitude choreatic movements of arms and legs when stimulating at voltages greater than approximately 1.5 V. DBS at lower amplitudes and at other contact points failed to result in a significant reduction of obsessions and compulsions without inducing motor side effects. Because of this limitation in programming options, we decided to reoperate and target the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS), which resulted in a substantial reduction in key obsessive and compulsive symptoms without serious side effects. Choreatic movements and hemiballismus have previously been linked to STN dysfunction and have been incidentally reported as side effects of DBS of the dorsolateral STN in Parkinson disease (PD). However, in PD, these side effects were usually transient, and they rarely interfered with DBS programming. In our patient, the motor side effects were persistent, and they made optimal DBS programming impossible. To our knowledge, such severe and persistent motor side effects have not been described previously for anteromedial STN-DBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The side-effects to CPAP treatment inventory: the development and initial validation of a new tool for the measurement of side-effects to CPAP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Arestedt, Kristofer Franzén; Nilsen, Per; Strömberg, Anna; Ulander, Martin; Svanborg, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side-effects are common. No validated self-rating scale measuring side-effects to CPAP treatment exists today. The aim was to develop the side-effects to CPAP treatment inventory (SECI), and investigate the validity and reliability of the instrument among patients with OSAS. SECI was developed on the basis of: (1) in-depth interviews with 23 patients; (2) examination of the scientific literature and (3) consensus agreement of a multi-professional expert panel. This yielded 15 different types of side-effects related to CPAP treatment. Each side-effect has three sub-questions (scales): perceived frequency (a) and magnitude (b) of the side-effect, as well as its perceived impact on CPAP use (c). A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 329 patients with OSAS with an average use of CPAP treatment for 39 months (2 weeks to 182 months) were recruited. Data were collected with SECI, and obtained from medical records (clinical variables and data related to CPAP treatment). Construct validity was confirmed with factor analysis (principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation). A logical two-factor solution, the device subscale and symptom subscale, emerged across all three scales. The symptom subscale describing physical and psychological side-effects and the device subscale described mask and device-related side-effects. Internal consistency reliability of the three scales was good (Cronbach's α = 0.74-0.86) and acceptable for the subscales (Cronbach's α = 0.62-0.86). The satisfactory measurement properties of this new instrument are promising and indicate that SECI can be used to measure side-effects to CPAP treatment. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  18. Bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with interstitial lung diseases: side effects and factors affecting fluid recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, D P; Haslam, P L; Townsend, P J; Primett, Z; Collins, J V; Turner-Warwick, M

    1986-05-01

    One hundred and seventy patients with interstitial lung diseases undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were contrasted with 51 patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy alone to define the factors which predispose to post-lavage side-effects. Transient post-bronchoscopy fall in the peak expired flow (PEF) greater than or equal to 20% occurred in both groups (24% and 23% respectively), and thus was probably related to the bronchoscopy procedure. Post-lavage pyrexia (greater than or equal to 1 degree C) occurred only in the patients undergoing BAL (26%), p less than 0.001. Only 4% with pyrexia required antibiotics, and only 2% with falls in PEF needed bronchodilator therapy. The only significant clinical association was more frequent pyrexia in patients on treatment with prednisolone, particularly in women (p less than 0.01). Pyrexia was also associated with higher lavage fluid introduction volumes (greater than 240 ml). Side effects did not relate to the percentages of lavage fluid recovered, although smokers had lower recoveries and, recoveries tended to be higher in sarcoidosis than cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Serial lavages in 25 patients caused no significant increase in side effects.

  19. Daily-diary evaluated side-effects of conformal versus conventional prostatic cancer radiotherapy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmark, A.; Fransson, P.; Franzen, L.; Littbrand, B.; Henriksson, R.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional 4-field box radiotherapy technique induces high morbidity for patients with localized prostatic cancer. Using a patient daily diary, the present study compared side-effects after conventional radiotherapy with conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Fifty-eight patients treated with the conventional technique (with or without sucralfate) were compared with 72 patients treated with conformal technique. The patient groups were compared with an age-matched control population. Patients treated with conformal technique were also evaluated regarding acute and late urinary problems. Results showed that patients treated with conformal technique reported significantly fewer side-effects as compared with conventional technique. Patients treated with sucralfate also showed slightly decreased intestinal morbidity in comparison to non-sucralfate group. Acute and late morbidity evaluated by the patients was decreased after conformal radiotherapy as compared with the conventional technique. Sucralfate may be of value if conformal radiotherapy is used for dose escalation in prostatic cancer patients. (orig.)

  20. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  1. Side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Karin Riisager; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    or/and stomach pain during antibiotic treatment. 48% reported their child to be eating little during antibiotic treatment and of these 87% were reporting diarrhoea or/and stomach pain. Half of the children with diarrhoea or/and stomach pain got treatment for the side effects. Conclusion: Most...... of the small children with CF suffered from side effect of antibiotics, but only half of them got treatment for the side effects....

  2. Effects of surgical side and site on mood and behavior outcome in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N Andresen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy have a high rate of mood and behavior problems yet few studies consider the emotional and behavioral impact of surgery. No study to date has been sufficiently powered to investigate effects of both side (left/right and site (temporal/frontal of surgery. One hundred patients (aged 6-16 and their families completed measures of depression, anxiety and behavioral function as part of neuropsychological evaluations before and after surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Among children who had left-sided surgeries (frontal=16; temporal=38, there were significant interactions between time (pre to postoperative neuropsychological assessment and resection site (frontal/temporal on Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Withdrawn/Depressed scales. Patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE endorsed greater presurgical anhedonia and social anxiety than patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, with scores normalizing following surgery. While scores on the Withdrawn/Depressed scale were similar between groups before surgery, the FLE group showed greater symptom improvement after surgery. In children who underwent right-sided surgeries (FLE=20; TLE=26 main effects of time (patients in both groups improved and resection site (caregivers of FLE patients endorsed greater symptoms than those with TLE were observed primarily on behavior scales. Individual data revealed that a greater proportion of children with left FLE demonstrated clinically significant improvements in Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Aggressive Behavior than children with TLE. This is the first study to demonstrate differential effects of both side and site of surgery in children with epilepsy at group and individual levels. Results suggest that children with FLE have greater emotional and behavioral dysfunction before surgery, but show marked improvement after surgery. Overall, most children had good emotional and behavioral outcomes, with most scores remaining stable or improving.

  3. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  4. Patient-provider communication and hormonal therapy side effects in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jenny J; Chao, Jennifer; Bickell, Nina A; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2017-09-01

    Side effects from hormonal therapy (HT) for breast cancer treatment occur frequently and are associated with worse quality of life and HT non-adherence. Whether improved patient-physician communication is associated with patients' reporting of side effects is unknown. We undertook this study to assess factors associated with women's reports of HT side effects. Between December 2012 and April 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of breast cancer patients undergoing HT in an urban medical center. Descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate associations. Of the 100 participants, 67% reported having HT side effects. However, when prompted, an additional 9% reported experiencing specific HT-related symptoms. Despite very high communication scores, one-third of participants reported they had not discussed side effects with providers. Multivariate analysis showed that after controlling for age, education, race, and medication beliefs, women who had difficulty asking providers for more information were more likely to report side effects (odds ratio 8.27, 95% confidence interval 1.01-69.88). Although HT side effects often occur and are bothersome, patient-provider discussions about side effects remain suboptimal. Providers should actively ask patients about medication side effects so that they can be addressed to improve quality of life and potentially, medication adherence.

  5. "There is a chain of connections": using syndemics theory to understand HIV treatment side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2018-07-01

    Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects. Two main categories were identified in the data: side effects as a product and side effects as a risk factor. The first category suggests that side effects are not just the product of taking antiretroviral drugs. They are also the product of particular conditions and tend to cluster with other health problems. The second category puts forward the idea that side effects can act as a syndemic risk factor by exposing PLWH to a greater risk of developing health problems and creating conditions in which psychosocial issues are more likely to emerge. The paper concludes by calling for more research on the complex nature of side effects and for the development of comprehensive approaches for the assessment and management of side effects.

  6. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  7. Does sucralfate reduce early side effects of pelvic radiation? A double-blind randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellamans, Karin; Lievens, Yolande; Lambin, Philippe; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Scalliet, Pierre; Hutsebaut, Liesbeth; Haustermans, Karin

    2002-11-01

    STUDY AND METHODS: A double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized 108 patients to investigate the effect of sucralfate on gastrointestinal side effects of pelvic radiation. Overall, pelvic radiation with the administered doses and fields and performed according to nowadays technical standards, was well tolerated. Comparison of the mean scores and the peak reactions for radiotherapy discomfort, diarrhoea and number of stools per day in the 80 evaluable patients showed no statistically significant difference between sucralfate and placebo. Based on these results, the use of sucralfate can not be recommended as standard practice.

  8. Does sucralfate reduce early side effects of pelvic radiation? A double-blind randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellamans, Karin; Lievens, Yolande; Lambin, Philippe; Van den Weyngaert, Danielle; Van den Bogaert, Walter; Scalliet, Pierre; Hutsebaut, Liesbeth; Haustermans, Karin

    2002-01-01

    Study and methods: A double-blind placebo-controlled study randomized 108 patients to investigate the effect of sucralfate on gastrointestinal side effects of pelvic radiation. Results: Overall, pelvic radiation with the administered doses and fields and performed according to nowadays technical standards, was well tolerated. Comparison of the mean scores and the peak reactions for radiotherapy discomfort, diarrhoea and number of stools per day in the 80 evaluable patients showed no statistically significant difference between sucralfate and placebo. Conclusion: Based on these results, the use of sucralfate can not be recommended as standard practice

  9. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  10. Hormonal contraception and physiology: a research-based theory of discontinuation due to side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J; Ringheim, Karin

    2005-03-01

    Side effects influence the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives. Counseling the client about the management of side effects is a principal approach advocated for increasing continuation. Evidence of a biological basis for variation in women's tolerance of hormonal contraceptives argues, however, that greater attention should be given to altering the product rather than principally attempting to alter a woman's ability to deal with the product. Discontinuation rates for hormonal contraceptives, largely attributable to side effects and health concerns, are high in nearly all less-developed countries for which Demographic and Health Survey data are available. Oral contraceptives appear to be particularly problematic for Latin American women, most notably in Bolivia. Clinical trials suggest substantial variation in the physiological response to exogenous hormones, and new evidence confirms the hypothesis that the normal hormonal profiles of Bolivian women are significantly lower than those of women in the United States. These findings suggest a need for more population-specific physiological research linked to analyses of the possible association between endogenous hormone differences and contraceptive continuation. Appropriately adjusting the level of the steroid delivered may benefit women's health and improve the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives.

  11. Calcium vitamin D3 supplementation in clinical practice: side effect and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei, Maryam; Banasiri, Mohammad; Shafiee, Gita; Rostami, Mahsa; Alizad, Saba; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort (500 mg calcium and 400 I.U. of vitamin D3) usage. A total 186 people were participated with range age from 18 to 65 years old. Each participant received 1 pack that contains 60 OsteoCalVitFort tablet and used two tablet OsteoCalVitFort daily (1 tablet after breakfast and 1 after dinner). By a phone call, side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort were assessed. The rate of constipating (8.0 %) and bloating (12.5 %) were decreased significantly after OsteoCalVitFort supplement intake (1.2 %, and 0.6 %, respectively). Similar results were observed in metallic taste in mouth, tiredness, weakness, loss of appetite, bone/muscle pain and mental/mood change after Calcium Vitamin D3 supplementation intake. Totally, 94 % of patients were satisfied about OsteoCalVitFort usage. The results of the research indicate despite the high quality of OsteoCalVitFort supplement, there are no side effects which have been seen in other supplements.

  12. Side effects affected my daily activities a lot”: a qualitative exploration of the impact of contraceptive side effects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aparna Jain,1 Laura Reichenbach,1 Iqbal Ehsan,2 Ubaidur Rob2 1Evidence Project, Population Council, Washington, DC, USA; 2Evidence Project, Population Council, Dhaka, Bangladesh Purpose: In a country like Bangladesh that has made great progress in contraceptive use with one of the lowest levels of fertility and highest levels of contraceptive use, understanding what factors influence women’s decisions to discontinue a contraceptive method and not switch to a new method is critical in designing interventions and programs that will help enable Bangladesh to reach its FP2020 goals. Research on side effects has focused on physical manifestations like headaches, moodiness, abdominal pain, and menstrual irregularities. While physical effects alone may stop women from continuing a contraceptive method, less is known about how side effects influence women’s daily activities and lives. The purpose of this study is to understand the ways that side effects affect Bangladeshi women’s participation in different social settings.Methods: Thirty-five in-depth interviews with married women who recently discontinued or switched to a different contraceptive method were conducted in Sylhet and Khulna Divisions. Interviews explored reasons for discontinuation including experience of side effects and impact of side effects on women’s lives.Results: Key themes emerged including that side effects are not only experienced physically but are barriers to women’s participation in many aspects of their lives. The spheres of life that most commonly appeared to be influenced by side effects include religion, household, and sexual intimacy irrespective of method used or residence.Conclusion: Family planning providers need to be aware of these additional consequences associated with contraceptive side effects to provide tailored counseling that recognizes these issues and helps women to mitigate them. For Bangladesh to achieve its FP2020 goals, understanding the

  13. The outbreak fingolimod cardiovascular side effects in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patient: A longitudinal study in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Abdar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fingolimod (FTY-720 has shown efficacy in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS, while some side effects of this drug have been recognized that the most important is cardiovascular side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular side effects of FTY-720. However, the effect of fingolimod on cardiac has not been well recognized. This study was designed to evaluate the cardiovascular side effects of fingolimod in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patient in an Iranian population. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial study was performed on 200 RRMS patients. The patients received a single daily oral dose of fingolimod 0.5 mg. During the first 6 hours after the first fingolimod dose, the patients’ vital signs and electrocardiographic traces were continuously monitored. Moreover, the patients followed up over 6 months after receiving fingolimod. RESULTS: The results showed that pulse rate (P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure (BP (P < 0.001, and diastolic BP (P < 0.001 were decreased significantly during 6 hours after receiving the first dose of fingolimod. The most reduction in vital sign was observed in 3 hours. Arrhythmia, bradycardia, and dizziness were the other complications of fingolimod, which were detected in our study. CONCLUSION: All the side effects such as hypotension and bradycardia were happened in first 3 hours after receiving the fingolimod. Indeed, we advise clinicians to monitor the patients for first 6 hours after initiation of fingolimod to decrease worse side effects

  14. Study of ageing side effects in the DELPHI HPC calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Bonivento, W

    1997-01-01

    The readout proportional chambers of the HPC electromagnetic calorimeter in the DELPHI experiment are affected by large ageing. In order to study the long-term behaviour fo the calorimeter, one HPC module was extracted from DELPHI in 1992 and was brought to a test area where it was artificially aged during a period of two years; an ageing level exceeding the one expected for the HPC at the end of the LEP era was reached. During this period the performance of the module was periodically tested by means of dedicated beam tests whose results are discussed in this paper. These show that ageing has no significant effects on the response linearity and on the energy resolution for electromagnetic showers, once the analog response loss is compensated for by increasing the chamber gain through the anode voltage.

  15. CAN MELATONIN BE EFFECTIVELY USED TO DIMINISH SIDE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AND ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Aleksandrovich Bekker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study and summarize the existing evidence base for the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, and to provide the reader with relevant conclusions. Methodology. The authors have searched for the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, using the PubMed and Google Scholar as a search tool. Then the authors thoroughly reviewed the data they found. The resulting review is presented in this article. Results. The data we have obtained from this review of the literature indicate that melatonin can be effectively used both in monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutic means in order to reduce several different side effects of psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy. Melatonin also deserves further study in this regard. The evidence base for its use in this manner is very variable in quality for different side effects. For now, the greatest evidence base exists regarding the potential effectiveness of melatonin in the prevention and treatment of drug-induced insomnia, memory and cognitive impairment, akathisia, tardive dyskinesias, and metabolic syndrome. Practical implications. The results we have obtained can be widely applied in psychiatry, neurology and addiction medicine, as well as in all those areas of general medicine, which make use of psychotropic drugs.

  16. 15 CFR 971.602 - Significant adverse environmental effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Environmental Effects § 971.602 Significant adverse environmental effects. (a) Determination of significant adverse environmental effects. The Administrator will determine the potential for or the occurrence of any significant adverse environmental effect or impact (for the purposes of sections 103(a)(2)(D), 105(a)(4), 106...

  17. Pretreatment with divided doses of steroids strongly decreases side effects of OKT3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, F. J.; Buysmann, S.; Surachno, J.; Wilmink, J. M.; Schellekens, P. T.; ten Berge, I. J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to attenuate side effects of OKT3 by variation of the time interval between administration of corticosteroids and OKT3 in renal allograft recipients. In view of a maximal lymphocytopenia at six hours following MPNS, we postulated a greater preventive action on side effects

  18. Comparison of the Efficacy and Side Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses with (Hexidine and without (Epimax Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Epimax mouthwash did not show any side effects, it was less suitable and caused more dental stain. Ethanol-free Hexidine mouthwash seems to be more proper for gingivitis, but its side effects are required to be taken into consideration.

  19. Underreporting of side effects of standard first-line ART in the routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal; 23(4): 116-118 December 2011. Side effects of standard first line in ART 116. Underreporting of side effects of standard first-line. ART in the routine setting in Blantyre, Malawi. Abstract. Introduction. In the Malawi ART programme, 92% of 250,000 patients are using the standard first-line regime of ...

  20. A hierarchical anatomical classification schema for prediction of phenotypic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Somin; Gupta, Aishwarya; Dokania, Shubham; Kanji, Rakesh; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Prediction of adverse drug reactions is an important problem in drug discovery endeavors which can be addressed with data-driven strategies. SIDER is one of the most reliable and frequently used datasets for identification of key features as well as building machine learning models for side effects prediction. The inherently unbalanced nature of this data presents with a difficult multi-label multi-class problem towards prediction of drug side effects. We highlight the intrinsic issue with SIDER data and methodological flaws in relying on performance measures such as AUC while attempting to predict side effects.We argue for the use of metrics that are robust to class imbalance for evaluation of classifiers. Importantly, we present a 'hierarchical anatomical classification schema' which aggregates side effects into organs, sub-systems, and systems. With the help of a weighted performance measure, using 5-fold cross-validation we show that this strategy facilitates biologically meaningful side effects prediction at different levels of anatomical hierarchy. By implementing various machine learning classifiers we show that Random Forest model yields best classification accuracy at each level of coarse-graining. The manually curated, hierarchical schema for side effects can also serve as the basis of future studies towards prediction of adverse reactions and identification of key features linked to specific organ systems. Our study provides a strategy for hierarchical classification of side effects rooted in the anatomy and can pave the way for calibrated expert systems for multi-level prediction of side effects.

  1. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. The efficacy of hyoscine hydrobromide in reducing side-effects induced during immersion in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, E C; Ramsey, A D

    1996-03-01

    Regan and Price (1994) investigated the frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of using an immersion virtual reality system in 150 subjects: 61% of the subjects reported symptoms of malaise at some point during a 20-min immersion and 10-min post-immersion period. This paper describes a double-blind placebo-controlled study that investigated whether 300 microgram of hyoscine/scopolamine hydrobromide administered to subjects prior to immersion in virtual reality was effective in reducing side-effects experienced during immersion. It was hypothesized that the hyoscine hydrobromide would cause a significant reduction in reported symptoms. We administered 300 micrograms of hyoscine hydrobromide to 19 subjects, and 20 subjects were administered a placebo compound 40 min prior to a 20-min immersion in VR. Data on malaise were collected using a simulator sickness questionnaire and a malaise scale. A 2 x 2 Chi-square analysis comparing the numbers of subjects reporting no symptoms on the malaise scale with those reporting some symptoms in the placebo and hyoscine conditions showed the differences between the two groups to be statistically significant at the 0.01 level (Chi-square = 7.392 with 1 df, p = 0.007). This difference was clearly in the direction of fewer symptoms being reported in the hyoscine condition. The results of the study showed that the hyoscine was effective in reducing symptoms that are commonly observed during immersion in virtual reality.

  3. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  4. Side Effects of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Patients With Testicular Seminoma Stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamulin, M.; Grgic, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the side effects of adjuvant radiotherapy of testicular seminoma stage I patients were followed up in the period between 13 to 84 months (median 28 months). The most frequent side effects in these patients during radiotherapy were gastrointestinal problems (nausea/vomiting), psychologic and cognitive problems and minor sexual problems. The reported side effects were treated by antimmimetics and anxiolytics. After radiotherapy, the side effects persisted in 6 % of patients but therapy was needed only in few. Healthy children were born to 76 % of patients in the age group 18 - 39 years after radiotherapy. The present study shows that adjuvant irradiation of paraaortal lymph nodes with total a dose of 24 Gy in 16 daily fractions in testicular seminoma patients causes acceptable side effects with acceptable quality of life and fertility, however in conditions of individual approach and family consulting. (author)

  5. Side effects of permanent I125 prostate seed implants in 667 patients treated in Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, David; Ash, Dan; Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Carey, Brendan; Joseph, Joji; St Clair, Shaun; Gould, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report the side effects and complications after I-125 seeds prostate implant after 8.5 years experience. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixty seven (667) patients were treated between March 1995 and December 2001. The median follow up is 31 months with a maximum of 98.2 months. Morbidity data were collected from a review of patient case-notes. Patients also provided prospective data on urinary symptoms using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) scoring chart before treatment and at regular follow up. Patients were also sent a questionnaire detailing symptoms and side effects following their brachytherapy. This enabled them to record urinary, bowel and sexual function side effects independently. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the risk of catheterisation in relation to the pre-implant prostate volume and potential implant factors such as the number of seeds and needles and implant dose. Result: The urinary symptom score rises in the first few months after implantation and returns to within one or two points of the pre-treatment score within one year. Nine patients reported incontinence prior to treatment and 15, 12 and 10 patients reported incontinence 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment, respectively. Catheterisation was reported in 97 (14.5%) patients. At six months 84.9% of patients reported no change in bowel function and 78.9% at 12 months. 6.4% of patients complained of some increased bowel frequency at 6 months and 5.7% at 12 months. 402 (77.2%) patients reported being fully potent before treatment and that this fell to 32.4% after treatment. Logistic regression showed that the most significant factors which correlate with the probability of catheterisation are the pre-treatment prostate volume and the number of seeds and needles implanted. Conclusion: The side effects and complications after prostate brachytherapy as reported here and elsewhere confirm that the treatment is not only convenient but also

  6. Parental Expectation of Side Effects Following Vaccination Is Self-fulfilling: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise E; Weinman, John; Amlôt, Richard; Yiend, Jenny; Rubin, G James

    2018-06-02

    One of the major factors contributing to parental refusal of vaccinations is the perception that vaccines cause side effects. Although symptoms are commonly reported following vaccinations, their causes are not always straightforward. Although some may be directly attributable to the vaccine itself, others may reflect pre-existing or coincidental symptoms that are misattributed to the vaccine. To investigate psychological factors associated with parental report of side effects following vaccination with the child influenza vaccine, and parental intention to re-vaccinate one's child the following year. A prospective cohort study was run in primary care practices in London in the 2016-2017 influenza season (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02909855). Two hundred seventy parents from 14 practices completed a questionnaire before their child's vaccination. Follow-up questionnaires were completed 3 days after vaccination and one month after vaccination. Parental report of side effects and vaccination intention for the subsequent year were measured. Parental report of side effects was strongly associated with pre-vaccination expectation of side effects. Suggestions received from the media, National Health Service (NHS) vaccination leaflet, and health care workers, as well as uncertainty-related beliefs, perceived sensitivity of the child to medicines, pessimism, and anxiety were also associated with reporting side effects. Side effect report was associated with lower vaccination intention for the following influenza season. Side effect perception following vaccination is influenced by psychological factors, in particular expectations. Perceiving side effects reduces future vaccination intention. Future public health communications should aim to decrease unrealistic expectations of side effects to increase vaccine uptake.

  7. Perceptions of health status, medication side effects and depression after successful renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, F.; Masood, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the perceptions of health status and depression among Renal Transplant Recipients (RTRs). Stydy Design: A longitudinal research design was used. Methods: Recipients’ perceived health status (PHS) was measured by a self-developed questionnaire that reflected the symptom severity and frequency of common immunosuppressant side effects. Depression levels were assessed using Beck Depression Inventory B.D.I II) .The sample population comprised of RTRs with a successful and healthy renal transplant recruited from private and government sector renal units in Lahore, Pakistan. Results: Recipients with poorer perceptions of health status tend to be more depressed as indicated by significant negative correlations between PHS and depression. However, further regression analysis found both constructs as significant predictors of each other, raising a question of causal direction. A cross lagged correlation analysis indicated that PHS appears to be a stronger predictor of depression comparatively. Most recipients tend to have positive perceptions of their health status (M = 30.84, S.D = 3.64) with minimum to moderate level of depression (M = 9.50, S.D = 4.00), It is found that a positive perception of health status is associated with lowered depression. Conclusion: Most recipients’ with a healthy kidney transplant tend to report a positive perception of their health status despite adverse medication side effects. However, the perceived health status is significantly associated with consequent feeling of depression. The study confirms the efficacy and positive health outcomes of renal transplantation in Pakistan. (author)

  8. The effect of Daikenchuto on postoperative intestinal motility in patients with right-side colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Matsuda, Michihiro Koizumi Akihisa; Shinji, Seiichi; Yokoyama, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Goro; Iwai, Takuma; Takeda, Kouki; Ohta, Keiichiro; Uchida, Eiji

    2017-07-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT) has a stimulant effect on intestinal motility and reportedly has a positive effect on postoperative intestinal motility in patients with sigmoid colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of DKT in patients with right-side colon cancer. This retrospective study included 88 patients with right-side colon cancer. We orally administered 7.5 g of DKT in the DKT group and did not administer any DKT to patients in the no-DKT group. All patients ingested radiopaque markers 2 h before surgery, which were used to assess intestinal motility. The postoperative intestinal motility was radiologically assessed by counting the numbers of residual markers in the large and small intestines. The DKT and no-DKT groups showed no marked differences in the total number of residual markers or number of residual markers in the small intestine. However, in the elderly subgroup, the total number of residual markers in the DKT group was significantly less than in the no-DKT group. Although DKT had some small effect on the postoperative intestinal motility for most patients, it may have positive effects in elderly patients.

  9. Assessment side light effects in patients after implantation of different models IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chuprov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the side effects of light in patients after implantation of IOLs of different models.Methods: the study involved 192 patients (216 eyes operated for cataract (3 groups of patients. the average age of patients was 63±0.78 years. Follow-up was 12 months. the first group included 63 patients (72 eyes after cataract extraction and implantation of the national refractive-diffractive trifocal IOL MIOL-Record 3. the second group included 64 patients (70 eyes after cataract extraction and implantation of domestic bifocal IOL refractive-diffractive MIOL-Acсord. the third group consisted of 65 patients (74 eyes after cataract extraction and IOL implantation domestic monofocal MIOL-2. the postoperative questionnaire (using a detailed oral interview was conducted after 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. the patient is asked about the presence of these light effects: flashes of light, circles of light scatter at the sight of the light source, flash, glitter, glimmer, blindingly bright light.Results: At 2.77% (2 patients of cases in patients with MIOL-Record 3 in a detailed survey in the postoperative period revealed light effects. In patients with MIOL-Accord and MIOL-2 light effects were 2.85% (2 patients and 1.35% (1 patient. the difference between the groups was not statistically reliable.Conclusion: this study found no statistically significant increase of side light effects in patients with multifocal IOLs comparedwith monofocal IOLs.

  10. Assessment side light effects in patients after implantation of different models IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chuprov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the side effects of light in patients after implantation of IOLs of different models.Methods: the study involved 192 patients (216 eyes operated for cataract (3 groups of patients. the average age of patients was 63±0.78 years. Follow-up was 12 months. the first group included 63 patients (72 eyes after cataract extraction and implantation of the national refractive-diffractive trifocal IOL MIOL-Record 3. the second group included 64 patients (70 eyes after cataract extraction and implantation of domestic bifocal IOL refractive-diffractive MIOL-Acсord. the third group consisted of 65 patients (74 eyes after cataract extraction and IOL implantation domestic monofocal MIOL-2. the postoperative questionnaire (using a detailed oral interview was conducted after 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. the patient is asked about the presence of these light effects: flashes of light, circles of light scatter at the sight of the light source, flash, glitter, glimmer, blindingly bright light.Results: At 2.77% (2 patients of cases in patients with MIOL-Record 3 in a detailed survey in the postoperative period revealed light effects. In patients with MIOL-Accord and MIOL-2 light effects were 2.85% (2 patients and 1.35% (1 patient. the difference between the groups was not statistically reliable.Conclusion: this study found no statistically significant increase of side light effects in patients with multifocal IOLs comparedwith monofocal IOLs.

  11. Side effects of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients : The Internet as an information source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, S; Käsmann, L; Fahlbusch, F B; Rades, D; Vordermark, D

    2018-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women necessitating adjuvant radiotherapy. As the Internet has become a major source of information for cancer patients, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of websites giving information on side effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. A patients' search for the English terms "breast cancer - radiotherapy - side effects" and the corresponding German terms "Brustkrebs - Strahlentherapie - Nebenwirkungen" was carried out twice (5 months apart) using the search engine Google. The first 30 search results each were evaluated using the validated 16-question DISCERN Plus instrument, the Health on the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria. The overall quality (DISCERN score) of the retrieved websites was further compared to queries via Bing and Yahoo search engines. The DISCERN score showed a great range, with the majority of websites ranking fair to poor. Significantly superior results were found for English websites, particularly for webpages run by hospitals/universities and nongovernmental organizations (NGO), when compared to the respective German categories. In general, only a minority of websites met all JAMA benchmarks and was HONcode certified (both languages). We did not determine a relevant temporal change in website ranking among the top ten search hits, while significant variation occurred thereafter. Mean overall DISCERN score was similar between the various search engines. The Internet can give breast cancer patients seeking information on side effects of radiotherapy an overview. However, based on the currently low overall quality of websites and the lack of transparency for the average layperson, we emphasize the value of personal contact with the treating radio-oncologist in order to integrate and interpret the information found online.

  12. Side effects of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. The Internet as an information source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, S.; Kaesmann, L.; Rades, D.; Fahlbusch, F.B.; Vordermark, D.

    2018-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women necessitating adjuvant radiotherapy. As the Internet has become a major source of information for cancer patients, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of websites giving information on side effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. A patients' search for the English terms ''breast cancer - radiotherapy - side effects'' and the corresponding German terms ''Brustkrebs - Strahlentherapie - Nebenwirkungen'' was carried out twice (5 months apart) using the search engine Google. The first 30 search results each were evaluated using the validated 16-question DISCERN Plus instrument, the Health on the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria. The overall quality (DISCERN score) of the retrieved websites was further compared to queries via Bing and Yahoo search engines. The DISCERN score showed a great range, with the majority of websites ranking fair to poor. Significantly superior results were found for English websites, particularly for webpages run by hospitals/universities and nongovernmental organizations (NGO), when compared to the respective German categories. In general, only a minority of websites met all JAMA benchmarks and was HONcode certified (both languages). We did not determine a relevant temporal change in website ranking among the top ten search hits, while significant variation occurred thereafter. Mean overall DISCERN score was similar between the various search engines. The Internet can give breast cancer patients seeking information on side effects of radiotherapy an overview. However, based on the currently low overall quality of websites and the lack of transparency for the average layperson, we emphasize the value of personal contact with the treating radio-oncologist in order to integrate and interpret the information found online. (orig.) [de

  13. A self-rating scale for patient-perceived side effects of inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Antoon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-reported side effect questionnaires offer a simple method for the systematic measurement of drug-related side effects. In order to measure patients' inhaled corticosteroids (ICS related side effect perceptions the 14-day retrospective Inhaled Corticosteroid Questionnaire (ICQ was developed. In this research we aim to assess the construct validity and reliability of the ICQ and test its responsiveness to dose changes in adult asthma patients. Methods In a cross-sectional study, current inhaler users with asthma completed the ICQ (27 with non ICS inhaler; 61 BDP equivalent daily ICS low dose ≤400 μg; 62 mid dose 401–800 μg; and 105 with high dose >800 μg. We generated 3 construct validity hypotheses: 1 a hierarchical dose-response pattern for scoring of the individual items on the ICQ, and statistically significant differences in the scores of each of the 15 ICQ domains by ICS dose group 2 an association between ICS dose and ICQ scoring after adjusting for appropriate confounders in multiple regression; 3 greater convergence between local side effect domains than between systemic and local domains of the scale. Test-retest reliability was assessed on a randomly selected subgroup of patients (n = 73 who also completed the ICQ a second time after 7 days. In a separate longitudinal study, 61 patients with asthma completed the ICQ at baseline and after changing their daily ICS dose, at 2- and 6- months, in order to test the ICQ's responsiveness. Results All three construct validity hypotheses were well supported: 1 a statistically significant difference existed in scores for 14 domains, the high ICS dose group scoring highest; 2 ICS dose independently predicted ICQ scoring after adjusting for confounders; 3 greater convergence existed between local ICQ domains than between local and systemic domains. The ICQ had good reproducibility: test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients were ≥0.69 for all but the 'Facial

  14. Impact of scaling voltage and size on the performance of Side-contacted Field Effect Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchaei, Behnam Jafari; Manavizadeh, Negin

    2018-05-01

    Side-contacted Fild Effect Diode (S-FED), with low leakage current and high Ion/Ioff ratio, has been recently introduced to suppress short channel effects in nanoscale regime. The voltage and size scalability of S-FEDs and effects on the power consumption, propagation delay time, and power delay product have been studied in this article. The most attractive properties are related to channel length to channel thickness ratio in the S-FED which reduces in comparison with MOSFET significantly, while gates control over the channel improve and the off-state current reduces dramatically. This promising advantage is not only capable to improve important S-FED's characteristics such as subthreshold slope but also eliminate Latch-up and floating body effect.

  15. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects of antiepileptic drugs in adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baibing; Choi, Hyunmi; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Katz, Austen; Legge, Alexander; Buchsbaum, Richard; Detyniecki, Kamil

    2017-11-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral side effects (PBSEs) are common, undesirable effects associated with antiepileptic drug (AED) use. The objective of the study was to compare the PBSE profiles of older and newer AEDs in a large specialty practice-based sample of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. As part of the Columbia and Yale AED Database Project, we reviewed patient records including demographics, medical history, AED use, and side effects for 4085 adult patients (age: 18 years) newly started on an AED regimen. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects were determined by patient or physician report in the medical record, which included depressive mood, psychosis, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, irritability, aggression, and tantrum. Significant non-AED predictors of PBSE rate were first determined from 83 variables using logistic regression. Predictors were then controlled for in the comparison analysis of the rate of PBSEs and intolerable PBSEs (PBSEs that led to dosage reduction or discontinuation) between 18 AEDs. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects occurred in 17.2% of patients and led to intolerability in 13.8% of patients. History of psychiatric condition(s), secondary generalized seizures, absence seizures, and intractable epilepsy were associated with increased incidence of PBSE. Levetiracetam (LEV) had the greatest PBSE rate (22.1%). This was statistically significant when compared with the aggregate of the other AEDs (P<0.001, OR=6.87). Levetiracetam was also significantly (P<0.001) associated with higher intolerability rate (17.7%), dose decreased rate (9.4%), and complete cessation rate (8.3%), when compared with the aggregate of the other AEDs. Zonisamide (ZNS) was also significantly associated with a higher rate of PBSE (9.7%) and IPBSE (7.9%, all P<0.001). On the other hand, carbamazepine (CBZ), clobazam (CLB), gabapentin (GBP), lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC), phenytoin (PHT), and valproate (VPA) were significantly associated with a decreased PBSE

  16. Clinical Significance of Lymph Node Metastasis in the Mesentery of the Terminal Ileum in Patients With Right-sided Colon Tumors at Different Locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung Il; Kim, Duck-Woo; Shin, Eun; Kim, Myung Jo; Son, Il Tae; Oh, Heung-Kwon; Kang, Sung-Bum

    2018-06-01

    There are limited reports on peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer, and little is known about their clinical significance. This study aimed to examine the role of tumor location in the prevalence and clinical significance of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in patients with right-sided colon cancer. This is a retrospective study from a prospective cohort database. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral hospital. Patients with right-sided colon cancer treated with radical surgery in a hospital between May 2006 and September 2016 were included. The frequency of peri-ileal lymph node metastasis in the study cohort and the role of tumor location and the clinical characteristics of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis were determined. We examined 752 cases with right-sided colon cancer including 82 cecal, 554 ascending colon, and 116 hepatic flexure cancer. Twenty patients (2.7%) had peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. The incidence of metastasis to peri-ileal lymph nodes was 7.3% (6/82) in patients with cecal cancer, 2.2% (12/554) in patients with ascending colon cancer, and 1.7% (2/116) in patients with hepatic flexure cancer. Three patients had stage III cancer and 17 had stage IV. All 3 patients with positive peri-ileal lymph nodes and stage III cancer had cecal tumors. In contrast, all patients with ascending colon or hepatic flexure cancer and positive peri-ileal lymph nodes had stage IV cancer. The results were limited by the retrospective design of the study and the small number of patients with peri-ileal lymph node metastasis. Peri-ileal lymph node metastasis was rare even in right-sided colon cancer and occurred mainly in stage IV. However, it occurred in some patients with locally advanced cecal cancer. These results suggest that optimal resection of the mesentery of the terminal ileum might have clinical benefit, especially in curative surgery for cecal cancer. See Video Abstract at http

  17. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Methods Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Results Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose that the occasional side effects in humans may be related to these changes as were observed in our rat model, and like talc, oxytetracycline must be used cautiously in patients

  18. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  19. Movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with and without intellectual disability: UK population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Horsfall, Laura; Strydom, André; Osborn, David; Walters, Kate; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-08-03

    To measure the incidence of movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with intellectual disability and compare rates with adults without intellectual disability. Cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network. UK primary care. Adults with intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs matched to a control group of adults without intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs. New records of movement side effect including acute dystonias, akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinaesia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 9013 adults with intellectual disability and a control cohort of 34 242 adults without intellectual disability together contributed 148 709 person-years data. The overall incidence of recorded movement side effects was 275 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 256 to 296) in the intellectual disability group and 248 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 237 to 260) in the control group. The incidence of any recorded movement side effect was significantly greater in people with intellectual disability compared with those without (incidence rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.42, pmovement side effects between the groups were not due to differences in the proportions prescribed first and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. This study provides evidence to substantiate the long-held assumption that people with intellectual disability are more susceptible to movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs. Assessment for movement side effects should be integral to antipsychotic drug monitoring in people with intellectual disability. Regular medication review is essential to ensure optimal prescribing in this group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Prognosis after acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. [Side effects of radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howarth, C B

    1975-04-01

    Following chemotherapy of lymphoblastic leukemia in children with folic acid antagonists, remission is achieved in 94 percent of patients. After chemotherapy has been stopped the risk of relapse is greatest during the first year, but relapses do occur. Sequelae of radiotherapy include bone growth impairment, brain cell damage, radioinduced neoplasms, and immunosuppression. Adverse effects of chemotherapy include hepatic fibrosis, impaired gonadal development, and oncogenic effects. (HLW)

  1. Factors associated with the perception of side-effects relating to the use of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Erasmus

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done in South Africa regarding the incidence of side-effects and perceptions of these among users of contraceptives. Numerous knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys have been conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (Erasmus 1981a; Erasmus 1981b; Erasmus 1982 ; Groenewald 1978 ; Lótter, Van Tonder 1976; Mostert, Malherbe 1974; Mostert 1974; Strydom 1981; Van der Merwe 1982 and in some of these studies questions concerning side-effects were included to determine reasons for discontinuation of specific contraceptive methods. The literature concerning research on side-effects related to contraceptive use usually pertains either to clinical studies

  2. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, J

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  3. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  4. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gundogdu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine.

  5. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Zuhal; Seyhogullari, Mualla

    2010-01-01

    We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. PMID:21209734

  6. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p < .05). Brief CBT training may reduce fatigue and nausea in patients with HIV undergoing ART. Copyright © 2016 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Side Effects of Nitrification Inhibitors on Non Target Microbial Processes in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Carl Gottlieb Ottow; Gero Benckiser; Ferisman Tindaon

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals have been used extensively in modern agriculture and toxicological studies suggest a great potential for inducing undesirable effects on non target organisms. A model experiment was conducted in order to determine side effects of three nitrification inhibitors (NIs, 3,4dimethylpyrazolephosphate = DMPP, 4-Chlormethylpyrazole phosphate = ClMPP and dicyandiamide = DCD) on non target microbial processes in soils. Side effects and dose response curve of three NIs were quanti...

  8. Backreaction effects on the matter side of Einstein's field equations

    CERN Document Server

    Floerchinger, Stefan; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2015-01-01

    Recently, we have derived a novel and compact expression for how perturbations in the matter fields of the cosmological fluid can lead to deviations from the standard Friedmann equations. Remarkably, the dissipative damping of velocity perturbations by bulk and shear viscosity in the dark sector can modify the expansion history of the universe on arbitrarily large scales. In universes in which this effect is sufficiently sizeable, it could account for the acceleration of the cosmological expansion. But even if dark matter should be less viscous and if the effect would be correspondingly smaller, it may have observable consequences in the era of precision cosmology. Here, we review the origin of this backreaction effect and possibilities to constrain it further.

  9. Correlation effects in side-coupled quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitko, R; Bonca, J

    2007-01-01

    Using Wilson's numerical renormalization group (NRG) technique, we compute zero-bias conductance and various correlation functions of a double quantum dot (DQD) system. We present different regimes within a phase diagram of the DQD system. By introducing a negative Hubbard U on one of the quantum dots, we simulate the effect of electron-phonon coupling and explore the properties of the coexisting spin and charge Kondo state. In a triple quantum dot (TQD) system, a multi-stage Kondo effect appears where localized moments on quantum dots are screened successively at exponentially distinct Kondo temperatures

  10. Side effects of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus infection-sarcoidosis - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, D; Teodor, Andra; Grigore, Lucia; Jugănariu, Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela; Miftode, Egidia; Azoicăi, Doina

    2012-01-01

    Standard therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection is still a combination of peginterferon alfa2a/2b and ribavirin for 48 weeks. As of side effects, there are organic side effects, such as hematologic disorders, and functional side effects, reflected in the quality of life of hepatitis C patients. Up to 30% of the patients develop specific side effects such as headache, fever, fatigue. Sarcoidosis, known as a granulomatous disease of uncertain cause, is an uncommon finding in this category of patients. This cause-effect relation is accounted for by the convergent action of peginterferon and ribavirin of stimulating type 1 T helper cells and reducing type 2 helper T cells activation. We present the case of male patient known with chronic hepatitis C who developed pulmonary sarcoidosis following antiviral therapy. The first manifestation of the disease was unexplained fever accompanied by pulmonary tract disease. The diagnosis was established by immunophenotyping in bronchial aspirate

  11. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  12. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-03-22

    This review highlights selected effects of untreated pain and of widely used analgesics such as opioids, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and antipyretics, to illustrate the relevance of carefully planned, appropriate and controlled analgesia for greater reproducibility in animal experiments involving laboratory rodents.

  13. Using evidence to improve satisfaction with medication side-effects education on a neuro-medical surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Susan L; Wirges, Ashley M

    2013-10-01

    Patient satisfaction is viewed as a significant indicator of quality of care. More specifically, improving patient satisfaction related to communication about medications and potential side effects can improve healthcare outcomes. Patient satisfaction scores related to medication side effects on a neuro-medical surgical unit were monitored following a quality improvement program. These patients frequently experience cognitive impairment and functional difficulties that can affect the way they understand and handle medications. The purpose of this quality improvement practice change was to (a) develop an educational approach for post acute neurosurgical patients and (b) evaluate whether the use of the approach is successful in improving patient satisfaction scores related to medication education on side effects. The quality improvement program interventions included (a) patient informational handouts inserted into admission folders, (b) nurse education about the importance of providing education on side effects to patient and discussion of their involvement with the program, (c) unit flyers with nurse education, and (d) various communications with bedside nurses through personal work mail and emails. The primary focus was for nurses to employ the "teach back" method to review and reinforce the medication side-effect teaching with patients. Evaluation of the data showed an increase in patient satisfaction after the implementation of the "Always Ask" program.

  14. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant in working patients with MDD.

  15. Weight Gain: A Possible Side Effect of All Antiretrovirals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Elena; Menzaghi, Barbara; Orofino, Giancarlo; Passerini, Simone; Madeddu, Giordano; Martinelli, Canio Vito; De Socio, Giuseppe Vittorio; Squillace, Nicola; Rusconi, Stefano; Bonfanti, Paolo; Di Biagio, Antonio; Quirino, T; Bonfanti, P; Ricci, E; Bellacosa, C; Maggi, P; Calza, L; Abeli, C; Menzaghi, B; Celesia, B M; Grosso, C; Stagno, A; Vichi, F; Mazzotta, F; Martinelli, C; Penco, G; Cassola, G; Di Biagio, A; Taramasso, L; Nicolini, L A; Dentone, C; Molteni, C; Palvarini, L; Scalzini, A; Carenzi, L; Rizzardini, G; Valsecchi, L; Cordier, L; Rusconi, S; Colombo, V; Galli, M; Franzetti, M; De Socio, G V; Mazzotta, E; Parruti, G; Madeddu, G; Bagella, P; S. Mura, M; Libertone, R; Antinori, A; Di Giambenedetto, S; Orofino, G; Guastavigna, M; Caramell, P

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Weight gain and body mass index (BMI) increase are central issues in patients living with HIV who need to minimize the risk of metabolic disease. Information collected through the SCOLTA cohort revealed significant 1-year BMI increase in patients treated with dolutegravir (P = .004), raltegravir (P = .0004), elvitegravir (P = .004), darunavir (P = .0006), and rilpivirine (P = .029). BMI gain correlated with low baseline BMI (P = .002) and older age (P = .0007) in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stages A/B, with lower BMI (P = .005) and CD4+ T-cell count (P = .007) at enrollment in stage C. PMID:29255735

  16. Being green on sulphur: Targets, measures and side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Panagakos, George; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    to sea to reduce congestion, and might ultimately (under certain circumstances) increase the overall level of CO2 emissions along the entire supply chain. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the potential effect of sulphur regulations on the share of cargo transported by the waterborne mode vis......Green House Gas (GHG) emissions are not the only emissions of concern to the international transport community. SOx emissions are non-GHG emissions that are caused by the presence of sulphur in the fuel. As the maximum percentage of sulphur in automotive and aviation fuels is strictly regulated...

  17. The frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of immersion virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, E C; Price, K R

    1994-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become increasingly well-known over the last few years. However, little is known about the side-effects of prolonged immersion in VR. This study set out to investigate the frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of using an immersion VR system. Out of 146 subjects, 61% reported symptoms of malaise at some point during a 20-min immersion and 10-min post-immersion period. These ranged from symptoms such as dizziness, stomach awareness, headaches, eyestrain and lightheadedness to severe nausea. These symptoms caused 5% of the subjects to withdraw from the experiment before completing their 20-min immersion period. Further research needs to be conducted that attempts to identify those factors that play a causative role in the side-effects of the VR system, and that looks for methods of reducing these side-effects.

  18. Side effects and risks of radioiodine treatment of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Hohenberger, W.; Wolf, F.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine treatment is considered to be the treatment of choice in benign thyroid diseases because of its very low side effects. Real and hypothetic risks and side effects have to be differentiated. Both may occur early and late after the treatment. Radioiodinethyroiditis in small volumes at high doses is very rare. Exacerbation of a thyroid storm (0.34%) as well as local compressions accompanied with reactive edema of the thyroid are early real side effects of radioiodine treatment. Late real side effects are failure of treatment (7-30% of thyrotoxicosis) and induction of hypothyroidism (4-20% of functional autonomy and increasing frequency in Graves' diseases with time). Late hypothetic risks are somatic (1-9/10000 bis 1-9/100000) or genetic (1-9/100000). An early risk might be the misdiagnosis of an additional thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  19. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq

  20. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Irrigation with isoproterenol diminishes increases in pelvic pressure without side-effects during ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, H U; Jakobsen, J S; Mortensen, J

    2007-01-01

    Objective. Recently, we showed that endoluminally administered isoproterenol (ISO) inhibits muscle function of the pyeloureter in swine. This may be of value in managing increases in pelvic pressure during upper urinary tract endoscopy. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect...... groups: p=0.425 and p=0.166, respectively. Conclusions. ISO (0.1 microg/ml) added to irrigation fluid significantly reduces the increase in pelvic pressure during ureterorenoscopy in pigs, without concomitant side-effects....... of endoluminally administered ISO on increases in pelvic pressure and cardiovascular function during flexible ureterorenoscopy. Material and methods. The study was performed in anaesthetized female pigs. In terms of endoscopic procedures, the pigs were randomized as follows: Group 1, irrigation with 0.1 microg...

  2. Cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol, metrizamide, and amidotrizoate after intracoronary and left ventricular injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schraeder, R.; Wolpers, H.G.; Hoeft, A.; Korb, H.; Hellige, G.

    1984-05-01

    The acute cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol, metrizamide, and amidotrizoate during coronary arteriography and left ventriculography have been compared in anesthetized closed-chest dogs. The influence of these contrast media on hemodynamics, coronary circulation, ECG and physicochemical properties of coronary sinus blood were evaluated. Following intracoronary injection, iopamidol and metrizamide cause positive inotropism while amidotrizoate initially induces cardiodepression. All contrast solutions lead to marked increase of myocardial blood flow. Electrocardiographic changes are greater after amidotrizoate. A fall of cationic content in coronary sinus blood is seen after each contrast medium. Amidotrizoate leads to more decrease of potassium and both ionized and total calcium. Increase of osmolality and hydrogen ionic content is greater after amidotrizoate than after iopamidol and metrizamide. Following left ventricular injection, marked peripheral vasodilation, as seen after amidotrizoate, does not occur after low osmolality compounds. There are no significant differences between iopamidol and metrizamide in spite of the slightly higher osmolality of the former. Thus, both contrast materials should be equivalent with respect to their acute cardiovascular side effects under clinical conditions. Advantages of low osmolality radiological contrast media are discussed.

  3. All I have is a void: women's perceptions of the benefits and side effects of ECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejaredar, Maede; Hagen, Brad

    2013-01-01

    Recent reviews of the benefits and risks associated with electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have often reported mixed and conflicting results. Although there are very few qualitative studies on ECT, qualitative research offers the advantage of in-depth explorations into how people perceive and experience ECT. The objective of this qualitative study was to explore women's experiences and perceptions of the benefits and side effects associated with having ECT. The authors used narrative inquiry and in-depth interviews to obtain nine women's accounts and stories of ECT, focusing particularly on their accounts of perceived benefits and side effects associated with ECT. Qualitative thematic analysis of the interviews with nine women resulted in four main themes emerging from the interviews: "it's sort of like housecleaning," "I don't remember the wedding," made me stupider," and "putting them in a cage with a bear." Three of the women were able to articulate some perceived benefit arising from ECT, although these women also acknowledged the benefits did not last more than two weeks. The majority of women complained of significant and persistent autobiographical memory loss, cognitive deficits, and fear of the procedure.

  4. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    ARL-CR-0822 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event...Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event prepared by Danielle Abell SURVICE...Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-16-D-0014 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  5. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    OpenAIRE

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients...

  6. Self-Limited Kleptomania Symptoms as a Side Effect of Duloxetine

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Christopher W. T.; Gallagher, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists, frequently used in neurodegenerative conditions affecting the nigrostriatal pathway. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine) have dose-dependent differential affinity for monoaminergic transporters, inhibiting the dopamine transporter at higher doses, thus increasing availability of synaptic dopamine, with the potential for similar impulse control side effects. Cas...

  7. An Elementary affine λ-calculus with multithreading and side effects (extended version)

    OpenAIRE

    Madet, Antoine; Amadio, Roberto M.

    2011-01-01

    Linear logic provides a framework to control the complexity of higher-order functional programs. We present an extension of this framework to programs with multithreading and side effects focusing on the case of elementary time. Our main contributions are as follows. First, we provide a new combinatorial proof of termination in elementary time for the functional case. Second, we develop an extension of the approach to a call-by-value $lambda$-calculus with multithreading and side effects. Thi...

  8. Side effects are incompletely reported among systematic reviews in gastroenterology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahady, Suzanne E; Schlub, Timothy; Bero, Lisa; Moher, David; Tovey, David; George, Jacob; Craig, Jonathan C

    2015-02-01

    Systematic reviews are an integral component of evidence-based health care. However, little is known on how well they report the potential harms of interventions. We assessed the reporting of harms in recently published systematic reviews of interventions relevant to clinical gastroenterology. We identified all systematic reviews of randomized trials of gastroenterology interventions published from 2008 to 2012 in highly cited gastroenterology and general medical journals. We adapted the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines for harms and assessed qualitative and quantitative parameters of harms reporting. Regression analyses determined predictors of more comprehensive harms reporting. In total, 78 systematic reviews were identified, with 72 published in gastroenterology journals and six in general medical journals. Overall, one in three systematic reviews (26/78, 33%) did not refer to harms of the intervention anywhere in the article. Less than half of the studies included adverse events as an outcome measure, and data on absolute rates of adverse events were only provided in 28%. Most (65%) did not include any figures or tables on adverse event; however, all included these on efficacy outcomes (mean, 3 and range, 1-7). Regression analyses indicated that the use of reporting guidelines was significantly associated with better harms reporting (P = 0.04). The reporting of harms in gastroenterology systematic reviews is largely inadequate and highly asymmetrical compared with the reporting of benefits. We suggest that review authors routinely assess both efficacy and harms outcomes of an intervention and that reporting guidelines specifically targeting harms reporting be developed. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Spontaneous mental associations with the words "side effect": Implications for informed and shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Sonya; Pachur, Thorsten; Wheeler, Courtney; McGuire, Jaclyn; Waters, Erika A

    2017-10-01

    To gain insight into patients' medical decisions by exploring the content of laypeople's spontaneous mental associations with the term "side effect." An online cross-sectional survey asked 144 women aged 40-74, "What are the first three things you think of when you hear the words 'side effect?"' Data were analyzed using content analysis, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. 17 codes emerged and were grouped into 4 themes and a Miscellaneous category: Health Problems (70.8% of participants), Decision-Relevant Evaluations (52.8%), Negative Affect (30.6%), Practical Considerations (18.1%) and Miscellaneous (9.7%). The 4 most frequently identified codes were: Risk (36.1%), Health Problems-Specific Symptoms (35.4%), Health Problems-General Terms (32.6%), and Negative Affect-Strong (19.4%). Code and theme frequencies were generally similar across demographic groups (ps>0.05). The term "side effect" spontaneously elicited comments related to identifying health problems and expressing negative emotions. This might explain why the mere possibility of side effects triggers negative affect for people making medical decisions. Some respondents also mentioned decision-relevant evaluations and practical considerations in response to side effects. Addressing commonly-held associations and acknowledging negative affects provoked by side effects are first steps healthcare providers can take towards improving informed and shared patient decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Image-guided conformation arc therapy for prostate cancer: Early side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soete, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; Michielsen, Dirk; Rappe, Bernard; Keuppen, Frans; Storme, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate early side effects in prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided conformation arc therapy (IGCAT) using a minimultileaf collimator and daily X-ray-assisted patient positioning. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2004, 238 cT1-T3N0M0 tumors were treated with doses of 70 or 78 Gy. Seventy patients also received neoadjuvant or concurrent hormonal treatment. Median follow-up is 18 months (range, 4-55 months). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity scoring system was used to evaluate early side effects. Results: Grade 1, 2, and >2 acute side effects occurred in 19, 6, and 0% (gastrointestinal) and 37, 16, and 0% (genitourinary) of the patients. No relation between radiation dose and early side effects was observed. Conclusion: Patients treated with image-guided conformation arc therapy experience a low rate of Grade 2 (i.e., requiring medication) early side effects. The definitive evaluation of late side effects and biochemical control requires further follow-up

  11. The effect of cigarette smoking on cancer treatment-related side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppone, Luke J; Mustian, Karen M; Morrow, Gary R; Dozier, Ann M; Ossip, Deborah J; Janelsins, Michelle C; Sprod, Lisa K; McIntosh, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cigarette smoking has long been implicated in cancer development and survival. However, few studies have investigated the impact of smoking on symptom burden in cancer survivors during treatment and at survivorship stage. This study examines the influence of cigarette smoking on side effects among 947 cancer patients during and 6 months following treatment. Patients diagnosed with cancer and scheduled to receive chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy reported on current smoking status (yes, no) and total symptom burden [the sum of 12 common symptoms (fatigue, hair loss, memory, nausea, depression, sleep, pain, concentration, hot flashes, weight loss, skin problems, and dyspnea) scored on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 = "not present" to 10 = "as bad as you can imagine"] during treatment and at 6-month follow-up. The adjusted mean total symptom burden by smoking status was determined by analysis of covariance controlling for age, gender, race, education, occupation, treatment, cancer site, and Karnofsky performance score. During treatment, smokers (S) had a significantly higher total symptom burden than nonsmokers (NS) (S = 46.3 vs. NS = 41.2; p < 0.05). At 6-month follow-up, smokers continued to report a higher total symptom burden than nonsmokers (S = 27.7 vs. NS = 21.9; p < 0.05). Participants who quit smoking before treatment levels had a total symptom burden similar to nonsmokers. Smoking was associated with an increased symptom burden during and following treatments for cancer. Targeted cessation efforts for smokers to decrease symptom burden may limit the likelihood of treatment interruptions and increase quality of life following treatment.

  12. Cardiac Side-effects From Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C W; Kirby, A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy reduces the risk of cancer recurrence and death. However, it usually involves some radiation exposure of the heart and analyses of randomised trials have shown that it can increase the risk of heart disease. Estimates of the absolute risks of radiation-related heart disease are needed to help oncologists plan each individual woman's treatment. The risk for an individual woman varies according to her estimated cardiac radiation dose and her background risk of ischaemic heart disease in the absence of radiotherapy. When it is known, this risk can then be compared with the absolute benefit of the radiotherapy. At present, many UK cancer centres are already giving radiotherapy with mean heart doses of less than 3 Gy and for most women the benefits of the radiotherapy will probably far outweigh the risks. Technical approaches to minimising heart dose in breast cancer radiotherapy include optimisation of beam angles, use of multileaf collimator shielding, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, treatment in a prone position, treatment in deep inspiration (including the use of breath-hold and gating techniques), proton therapy and partial breast irradiation. The multileaf collimator is suitable for many women with upper pole left breast cancers, but for women with central or lower pole cancers, breath-holding techniques are now recommended in national UK guidelines. Ongoing work aims to identify ways of irradiating pan-regional lymph nodes that are effective, involve minimal exposure of organs at risk and are feasible to plan, deliver and verify. These will probably include wide tangent-based field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy or arc radiotherapy techniques in combination with deep inspiratory breath-hold, and proton beam irradiation for women who have a high predicted heart dose from intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Pilates Exercise on Range of Motion and Edema of Upper Limb in Mastectomy Side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ghorbani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : The surgery of breast cancer like any other surgeries may bring about some problems and complications, which the knowledge of these problems may be an effective way for prevention or dealing with the complications. The motor and sensory impairments in the upper limb of the surgery side necessitate the utilization of the rehabilitation methods. The main purpose of this research was to show the effect of Pilates exercise on range of motion and edema of upper limb in females suffering from breast cancer after going through surgery.   Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted on 25 patients randomly chosen among the patients referring to Cancer Institute. The designed exercise included five "Mat Pilates" moves which were done for 15 sessions until the patient reached fatigue borderlines. Meantime, the control group was doing routine active exercises in physiotherapy center. The range of motion and edema of upper limb was measured before and after applying the designed exercise. For describing the data, the mean and standard deviation, and for inferential analysis, the correlated T-tests and one way analysis of variance were used in level of significance of 5%, to compare the variants before and after applying the designed exercise.   Results: The results showed a significant difference between the flexion, extension, and internal, external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, flexion, extension, supination deviation and pronation deviation of the wrist and forearm before and after experiment in Pilates group. While in the control group, flexion, extension, internal and external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, and flexion of wrist showed a significant difference before and after the experiment.   Conclusion: The use of Pilates exercise after mastectomy surgery can increase the range of motion of the upper limb in the involved side of the patients, and decrease the edema

  14. Effects of Environmental Context on Physiological Response During Team Handball Small Sided Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bělka, Jan; Hulka, Karel; Machová, Iva; Šafář, Michal; Weisser, Radim; Bellar, David M; Hoover, Donald L; Judge, Lawrence W

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the distance covered and physiological effects of altering the number of players during small-sided games (SSG) in team handball. Twelve professional female handball players [24.6±3.7 years, 172±6.2 cm, 68.2 ± 9.9kg, 22.7 ± 2 kg/m 2 ] participated in this study. The SSG were played, first with five on each side (SSG 5), then four (SSG 4), then three (SSG 3). Each game was four minutes long, followed by three minutes of rest. The distance covered and time spent in four speed zones (based on player movement speed) were selected for analysis: Zone 1 (0-1.4 m/s), Zone 2 (1.5-3.4 m/s), Zone 3 (3.5-5.2 m/s), and Zone 4 (>5.2 m/s). Statistically significant differences were found in Zone 2, between conditions SSG 3 and SSG 4 (p=.049,ω 2 = .32). The highest average heart rate (HR) occurred during SSG 3. Average HR between SSG 3 (89.7 % HRmax) and SSG 5 (87.8 % HRmax) (p= .04, ω2= .26) were also significantly different. Participant HR response between the speed zones was not statistically significant. HR response was negatively correlated with the number of players within the SSG condition. Statistically significant results were found for RPE between SSG 3 and the other two SSG conditions (SSG 4, p = .01, and SSG 5, p = .00). These results indicate that changing the number of SSG players can be used to manipulate the physiological response during handball training.

  15. Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.girst@unibw.de [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Siebenwirth, Christian [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zlobinskaya, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Walsh, Dietrich W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Ilicic, Katarina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel [Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Oberschleißheim (Germany); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model. Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm{sup 2}) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm{sup 2}, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area. Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields. Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

  16. A mixture of honey bee products ameliorates the genotoxic side effects of cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Aly Fahmy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the protective role of a mixture of honey bee products (honey, royal jelly and pollen grains against the genotoxicity induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CP. Methods: The study included chromosomal aberration analysis in mice bone marrow cells, induction of morphological sperm abnormalities, DNA fragmentation and histopathological changes induced in liver cells of mice. CP was injected intraperitoneally at the dose of 20 mg/ kg body weight. The mixture of honey bee products was administrated orally for different periods of time 5, 10 and 15 days with a dose exactly equivalent to the daily intake of human beings. Results: The results revealed that honey mixture ameliorated the genotoxic side effects of CP. For chromosomal aberrations the percentage reached 25.20 ± 1.30 for CP treated group, while it reached half of that value 12.30 ± 0.54 in CP-group pretreated with honey mixture for 15 days. Breaks, fragments and multiple aberrations were the most pronounced types of aberrations induced after CP treatment and honey mixture reduced these types of abnormalities. CP induced significant percentage of sperm abnormalities 8.52 ± 0.17 compared to control 3.10 ± 0.10. The percentage of sperm abnormalities reached nearly to the control value in CP- mice treated with honey mixture for 15 days. Honey also reduced the incidence of liver DNA damage induced by CP. The results also indicated that CP had a marked damaging effect on liver tissue including severe dilatation, congestion of main blood vessels and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells with irregular general pattern of the tissue. These effects were greatly ameliorated by using oral administration of honey mixture for different periods of time. Conclusions: The results concluded that honey bee mixture can be used as chemopreventive agent for minimizing the genotoxic side effects of the anticancer drug CP and open the field for its use in many applications.

  17. The Effects of popcorn time on Netflix in a two–sided market

    OpenAIRE

    Ghini, Matteo Blomberg

    2016-01-01

    My thesis discusses the effects on legal streaming agents of entry of free, but illegal, substitutes, in a two–sided video streaming market. Legal streaming agents rely on support from two very different, but inevitably linked, groups: studios and consumers, while their free counterparts rely on support only from consumers. As a result, the pricing decisions for legal streaming agents are far more complex than those of firms operating in regular single–sided markets and of firms ...

  18. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  19. Effect of levomepromazine on EEG and on clinical side effects after lumbar myelography with metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standnes, B.; Oftedal, S.-I.; Weber, H.

    1982-01-01

    In patients with lumbago-sciatica levomepromazine is a potent supplement to analgetics in pain treatment. The hypothesis that neuroleptics increase the risk of epileptic seizures after metrizamide myelography was not comfirmed in a series of 77 patients, 26 with and 51 without levomepromazine medication, before and after lumbar metrizamide myelography. No differences existed between the groups with regard to the appearance of EEG abnormalities such as slow waves or spikes. Mild side effects were more frequent in the levomepromazine group, except nausea and vomiting. Lumbar metrizamide epidurography in 30 patients did not cause any abnormal EEG. (Auth.)

  20. Effect of levomepromazine on EEG and on clinical side effects after lumbar myelography with metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, B.; Oftedal, S.I.; Weber, H. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1982-01-01

    In patients with lumbago-sciatica levomepromazine is a potent supplement to analgesics in pain treatment. The hypothesis that neuroleptics increase the risk of epileptic seizures after metrizamide myelography was not comfirmed in a series of 77 patients, 26 with and 51 without levomepromazine medication, before and after lumbar metrizamide myelography. No differences existed between the groups with regard to the appearance of EEG abnormalities such as slow waves or spikes. Mild side effects were more frequent in the levomepromazine group, except nausea and vomiting. Lumbar metrizamide epidurography in 30 patients did not cause any abnormal EEG.

  1. Side-effects of cowpea treatment with botanical insecticides on two parasitoids of Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Almeida, de R.P.; Boer, de P.W.M.; Jeong, G.S.; Kossou, D.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the protective effect of botanical products against pest insects have infrequently been extended to side-effects on natural enemies. Indirect effects of botanicals on the storability of seeds could occur through their possible negative impact on biological control agents. Four plant

  2. Efficacy and cognitive side effects of tiagabine and topiramate in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, N; Glogau, S; Hoffmann, J; Rademacher, M; Elger, C E; Helmstaedter, C

    2005-05-01

    Whereas the efficacy of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is well established, there remain questions regarding their cognitive side effects. Therefore, we performed a comparative open randomized trial with TPM and TGB as add-on therapy, with particular consideration of cognition, mood, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Forty-one patients with refractory epilepsy were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups (TPM vs TGB) and received neuropsychological testing at baseline (T1), after titration (3 months, T2), and during the maintenance phase (another 3 months, T3). Tests included measures of intelligence, attention, working memory, episodic memory, language, and self-report questionnaires regarding mood and HRQOL. Twenty patients (8 TPM, 12 TGB) discontinued the trial for different reasons (no group difference). Seizure outcome (intention-to-treat analysis) was comparably good in both groups (8.1% seizure free, 29.7% seizure reduction>50%). From baseline to after the titration paired sample t tests revealed significant deterioration in verbal fluency, language comprehension, working memory, and visual block tapping under TPM and a deterioration in verbal memory (delayed free recall) in the TGB group. These functions remained stable in the maintenance phase. Self-report measures initially indicated concerns about AED side effects in both groups and concerns about worse cognitive functioning and depression under TPM. In the maintenance phase the TGB group reported feeling a lack of energy, whereas patients on TPM demonstrated improvement on all QOLIE scales on a descriptive level. This study demonstrates the comparable efficacy of TPM and TGB. Consistent with previous reports, TPM but not TGB appears to be associated with persistent negative cognitive side effects on frontal lobe-associated functions, the degree of which may be estimated by the fact that this effect was observed with a very small sample size. In contrast, in patients taking

  3. Muscle-related side-effects of statins: from mechanisms to evidence-based solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-06-01

    This article highlights the recent findings regarding statin-associated muscle side effects, including mechanisms and treatment as well as the need for more comprehensive clinical trials in statin myalgia. Statin myalgia is difficult to diagnose and treat, as major clinical trials have not routinely assessed muscle side-effects, there are few clinically relevant biomarkers and assessment tools for the symptoms, many apparent statin-related muscle symptoms may be nonspecific and related to other drugs or health conditions, and prevalence estimates vary widely. Data thus suggest that only 30-50% of patients with self-reported statin myalgia actually experience muscle pain on statins during blinded, placebo-controlled trials. In addition, evidence to date involving mechanisms underlying statin myalgia and its range of symptoms and presentations supports the hypothesis that there are multiple, interactive and potentially additive mechanisms underlying statin-associated muscle side-effects. There are likely multiple and interactive mechanisms underlying statin myalgia, and recent studies have produced equivocal data regarding prevalence of statin-associated muscle side-effects, contributing factors and effectiveness of common interventions. Therefore, more clinical trials on statin myalgia are critical to the field, as are systematic resources for quantifying, predicting and reporting statin-associated muscle side-effects.

  4. Association of Type D personality to perceived side effects and adherence in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Mårtensson, Jan; Ulander, Martin; Harder, Lena; Svanborg, Eva

    2007-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side effects are common and long-term adherence low. The Type D (distressed) personality is defined as a combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The association of Type D personality with adherence has not been studied in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of Type D personality in OSAS patients with CPAP treatment longer than 6 months and the association with self-reported side effects and adherence. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 247 OSAS patients with a mean use of CPAP treatment for 55 months (6-182 months) were included. Data collection was achieved by two questionnaires; the Type D scale 14 (DS14) (Type D personality), SECI (side effects of CPAP), as well as from medical records (clinical variables and objective adherence to CPAP treatment). Type D personality occurred in 30% of the patients with OSAS and significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) increased the perceived frequency and severity of a broad range of side effects. The objective adherence was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for OSAS patients with Type D compared to OSAS patients without Type D, both with regard to a mean use of 4 h per night and 85% of the self-rated sleep time per night. The additional effect of a Type D personality on perceived side effects and adherence to CPAP treatment found in this study could be used by healthcare personnel when evaluating patients waiting for treatment.

  5. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Corvino

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers small-sided handball games (each repeated twice. The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE. Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s-1 highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70 and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73 and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51 speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69 with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities, the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m, a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES. The rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher during the drill with the 32×16m court compared with the 24

  6. Side effects and complications of intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María-José; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2012-05-01

    To analyze the side effects and complications following intraosseous anesthesia (IA), comparing them with those of the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two operations were similar and affected the same two teeth in opposite quadrants. Heart rate was recorded in all cases before injection of the anesthetic solution and again 30 seconds after injection. The complications observed after anesthetic administration were recorded. A total of 200 oral anesthetic procedures were carried out in 100 patients. Both IA and conventional anesthesia resulted in a significant increase in heart rate, though the increase was greater with the latter technique. Incidents were infrequent with either anesthetic technique, with no significant differences between them. Regarding the complications, there were significant differences in pain at the injection site, with more intense pain in the case of IA (x2=3.532, p=0.030, Φ2=0.02), while the limitation of oral aperture was more pronounced with conventional anesthesia (x2=5.128, panesthesia. Post-anesthetic biting showed no significant differences between the two techniques.

  7. Side effects of rational dose iodine-131 therapy for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Neutze, J.; Atkins, F.

    1986-01-01

    Benua, Leeper, and others (BEL) have advocated the estimation of radiation exposure to the blood to select a more rational maximum safe dose of radioiodine (dosimetry) to treat metastatic functioning well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. After adopting the BEL dosimetry approach, we reviewed the immediate (during hospitalization) and intermediate (from discharge up to 3 mo) side effects after our initial 15 therapies in ten patients. The doses ranged from 51 mCi (1887 MBq) to 450 mCi (16.65 GBq). Immediate side effects were observed in 12/15 (80%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 10/15, salivary 9/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 2/15, pulmonary 0/15. Intermediate side effects were observed in 10/15 (67%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 0/15, salivary 3/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 3/15, nasal complaints 2/15, transient bone marrow suppression 9/10, pulmonary 0/15. No patient required blood transfusions or had complications secondary to reduced blood counts. All patient complaints resolved; however, several patients may have reduced baseline blood counts one year after therapy. No other long-term side effect has been noted but the mean follow-up has been only 15 mo. In our opinion, we have not observed any side effect to date which would contraindicate the continued use and evaluation of the BEL dosimetry approach

  8. Side effects of rational dose iodine-131 therapy for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Neutze, J.; Atkins, F.

    1986-10-01

    Benua, Leeper, and others (BEL) have advocated the estimation of radiation exposure to the blood to select a more rational maximum safe dose of radioiodine (dosimetry) to treat metastatic functioning well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. After adopting the BEL dosimetry approach, we reviewed the immediate (during hospitalization) and intermediate (from discharge up to 3 mo) side effects after our initial 15 therapies in ten patients. The doses ranged from 51 mCi (1887 MBq) to 450 mCi (16.65 GBq). Immediate side effects were observed in 12/15 (80%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 10/15, salivary 9/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 2/15, pulmonary 0/15. Intermediate side effects were observed in 10/15 (67%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 0/15, salivary 3/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 3/15, nasal complaints 2/15, transient bone marrow suppression 9/10, pulmonary 0/15. No patient required blood transfusions or had complications secondary to reduced blood counts. All patient complaints resolved; however, several patients may have reduced baseline blood counts one year after therapy. No other long-term side effect has been noted but the mean follow-up has been only 15 mo. In our opinion, we have not observed any side effect to date which would contraindicate the continued use and evaluation of the BEL dosimetry approach.

  9. Managing the oral side-effects of medications used to treat multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, N; Pateman, K; Taing, M W; Pradhan, A; Ford, P J

    2017-09-01

    Many medications used to manage multiple sclerosis (MS) affect oral health. This review aimed to identify the oral side-effects of the current drugs recommended in Australia to treat MS and make dental practitioners aware of the range of symptoms. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat MS. For each medication, the generic name, class, route of administration, dosage and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMs) database. Meyler's Side-effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify any additional oral adverse reactions to medications used to treat MS. Fourteen drugs were identified for the treatment of MS progression and 13 drugs for the treatment of MS symptoms. For these medications, 18 oral side-effects were documented: xerostomia was the most common, followed by dysgeusia, dysphagia, mouth ulceration and sinusitis. Anticholinergic drugs caused xerostomia while immunosuppressants resulted in more infection-related side-effects. Dental practitioners should be aware of the range of symptoms likely to be reported by this population. Clinicians are encouraged to continue providing dental care for their patients who develop MS and refer complex cases to specialists. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Cataplexy as a side effect of modafinil in a patient without narcolepsy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Eduardo; Pereira, Danielle; da Silva Behrens, Nilce Sanny Costa; de Almeida Fonseca, Hassana; Calvancanti, Paola Oliveira; de Araújo Lima, Taís Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Castro, Juliana; Tufik, Sergio; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho Santos

    2014-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a disease in which there is diurnal excessive sleepiness with sleep attacks and a prevalence in the general population of 1/4000 individuals. Classically, it is characterized by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and fragmented sleep. The use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy is the first option of treatment for diurnal excessive sleepiness. Although considered a safe drug for use in patients with narcolepsy, being utilized for more than 20 years, modafinil possesses a series of side effects, some of them still not fully researched or described. Side effects such as headache, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, lumbago, diarrhea, dyspepsia, rhinitis and vertigo are the most frequent. However, the clinical follow-up of patients under treatment with modafinil must be intensive and the side effects ought to be noted and evaluated. The under-response to treatment or the unexpected side effects must always be directed to differential diagnostics. The objective of this article is to describe an unexpected side effect of the use of modafinil in a patient with incorrect diagnosis of narcolepsy. PMID:26483900

  11. Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B.; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n=115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of patients (89%) would be willing to use hypnosis to control side effects associated with cancer treatment. Mean intention levels did not differ by gender, ethnicity, education or age. These results indicate that in the general public, there is a willingness to consider the use of hypnosis, and that willingness is not determined by demographic factors. This broad acceptance of hypnosis argues for more widespread dissemination. PMID:21049742

  12. Side-effects in ascending cervical myelography using iopamidol and metrizamide - a double blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockenheimer, S.; Eichenlaub, H.

    1986-01-01

    A double blind study was performed to examine the side-effects of Metrizamide (group 1) and of Jopamidol (group 2) in ascending cervical myelography. Both groups were compared to a control group (group 3) comprising patients who had undergone lumbar puncture only. EEG was taken of the patients in groups 1 and 2 before as well as 6 and 24 h after intervention. Side-effects were collected by means of a questionnaire. Response time, concentration, memory and mood were examined psychometrically. Training effects or defensive attitudes in the multiple test examinations were checked against another control group of patients (group 4) which had no myelographic nor lumbar-puncture-induced impairment. Statistical findings corroborated our clinical impression that side-effects occurred after Metrizamide administration at a more than simply random rate. (orig.) [de

  13. The effect of depression and side effects of antiepileptic drugs on injuries in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur-Ozmen, S; Mula, M; Agrawal, N; Cock, H R; Lozsadi, D; von Oertzen, T J

    2017-09-01

    People with epilepsy are at increased risk of accidents and injuries but, despite several studies on this subject, data regarding preventable causes are still contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between injuries, side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and depression. Data from a consecutive sample of adult patients with epilepsy attending the outpatient clinics at St George's University Hospital in London were included. All patients were asked if they had had any injury since the last clinic appointment and completed the Liverpool Adverse Event Profile (LAEP) and Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy. Among 407 patients (243 females, mean age 43.1 years), 71 (17.4%) reported injuries since the last appointment. A two-step cluster analysis revealed two clusters with the major cluster (53.5% of the injured group) showing a total score for LAEP ≥45, a positive Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy screening and presence of AED polytherapy. A total score for LAEP ≥45 was the most important predictor. Antiepileptic drug treatment should be reviewed in patients reporting injuries in order to evaluate the potential contribution and burden of AED side effects. © 2017 EAN.

  14. Mechanical properties and osteocompatibility of novel biodegradable alanine based polyphosphazenes: Side group effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethuraman, Swaminathan; Nair, Lakshmi S; El-Amin, Saadiq; Nguyen, My-Tien; Singh, Anurima; Krogman, Nick; Greish, Yaser E; Allcock, Harry R; Brown, Paul W; Laurencin, Cato T

    2010-06-01

    The versatility of polymers for tissue regeneration lies in the feasibility to modulate the physical and biological properties by varying the side groups grafted to the polymers. Biodegradable polyphosphazenes are high-molecular-weight polymers with alternating nitrogen and phosphorus atoms in the backbone. This study is the first of its kind to systematically investigate the effect of side group structure on the compressive strength of novel biodegradable polyphosphazene based polymers as potential materials for tissue regeneration. The alanine polyphosphazene based polymers, poly(bis(ethyl alanato) phosphazene) (PNEA), poly((50% ethyl alanato) (50% methyl phenoxy) phosphazene) (PNEA(50)mPh(50)), poly((50% ethyl alanato) (50% phenyl phenoxy) phosphazene) (PNEA(50)PhPh(50)) were investigated to demonstrate their mechanical properties and osteocompatibility. Results of mechanical testing studies demonstrated that the nature and the ratio of the pendent groups attached to the polymer backbone play a significant role in determining the mechanical properties of the resulting polymer. The compressive strength of PNEA(50)PhPh(50) was significantly higher than poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (85:15 PLAGA) (p<0.05). Additional studies evaluated the cellular response and gene expression of primary rat osteoblast cells on PNEA, PNEA(50)mPh(50) and PNEA(50)PhPh(50) films as candidates for bone tissue engineering applications. Results of the in vitro osteocompatibility evaluation demonstrated that cells adhere, proliferate, and maintain their phenotype when seeded directly on the surface of PNEA, PNEA(50)mPh(50), and PNEA(50)PhPh(50). Moreover, cells on the surface of the polymers expressed type I collagen, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin, and bone sialoprotein, which are characteristic genes for osteoblast maturation, differentiation, and mineralization. Copyright 2009 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of microstructure and mechanical properties of alloys 600 an 690 on secondary side SCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaillant, F.; Buisine, D.; Prieux, B.; Fournel, J.C.; Gelpi, A.

    1996-03-01

    Modeling for secondary side cracking is needed to understand the behaviour of alloy 600 in plants. They require a comprehensive understanding of the various influences of the material properties on Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), based on field experience and laboratory data. In an attempt to predict the materials effects on SCC behaviour of new steam generators, laboratory corrosion data of alloy 690 were overviewed. French field experience with steam generators equipped with drilled tube support plates (TSPs) has demonstrated that the lower the yield stress (YS) and the carbon content, the higher the susceptibility t secondary side cracking of mill-annealed (MA) alloy 600. Also heat treated (700 deg. C x 16 h) tubing has been shown to have a much better resistance, but this excellent resistance could not be attributed only to the material properties. In laboratory environments, particularly in caustics, results have confirmed several of the above mentioned key findings on alloy 600: in caustic environments and under constant loading, tubes fabricated from MA alloy 600 with low YS have exhibited the worst resistance to initiation; YS was found to be the most accurate parameter to account for the behaviour of MA alloy 600. A heat treatment at 700 deg. C appeared to reduce the propagation rates of cracks in alloy 600. The best IGSCC resistance of alloy 690 was obtained for tubes with intergranular precipitation of carbides. TT (700 deg. C) significantly improved the propagation resistance of alloy 690; in acidic and neutral sulfate environments, IGSCC of alloy 600 was not strongly dependent on the microstructure in the MA condition, but sensitization was detrimental. When alloy 600 and particularly alloy 690 were thermally treated at 700 deg. C x 16 h, the resistance to IGSCC was significantly improved. Tests performed on alloy 690 have shown a better resistance to IGSCC initiation and propagation than alloy 600, in NaOH and acidic sulfate environments. (authors

  16. Side effects of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. The Internet as an information source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janssen, S. [Medical Practice for Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Hannover (Germany); University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); Kaesmann, L.; Rades, D. [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiation Oncology, Luebeck (Germany); Fahlbusch, F.B. [Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Erlangen (Germany); Vordermark, D. [University Hospital Halle (Saale), Department of Radiation Oncology, Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer type among women necessitating adjuvant radiotherapy. As the Internet has become a major source of information for cancer patients, this study aimed to evaluate the quality of websites giving information on side effects of radiotherapy for breast cancer patients. A patients' search for the English terms ''breast cancer - radiotherapy - side effects'' and the corresponding German terms ''Brustkrebs - Strahlentherapie - Nebenwirkungen'' was carried out twice (5 months apart) using the search engine Google. The first 30 search results each were evaluated using the validated 16-question DISCERN Plus instrument, the Health on the Net Code of Conduct (HONcode) certification and the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) benchmark criteria. The overall quality (DISCERN score) of the retrieved websites was further compared to queries via Bing and Yahoo search engines. The DISCERN score showed a great range, with the majority of websites ranking fair to poor. Significantly superior results were found for English websites, particularly for webpages run by hospitals/universities and nongovernmental organizations (NGO), when compared to the respective German categories. In general, only a minority of websites met all JAMA benchmarks and was HONcode certified (both languages). We did not determine a relevant temporal change in website ranking among the top ten search hits, while significant variation occurred thereafter. Mean overall DISCERN score was similar between the various search engines. The Internet can give breast cancer patients seeking information on side effects of radiotherapy an overview. However, based on the currently low overall quality of websites and the lack of transparency for the average layperson, we emphasize the value of personal contact with the treating radio-oncologist in order to integrate and interpret the information found online. (orig.) [German

  17. Radiotherapy and 'new' drugs-new side effects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Maihoefer, Cornelius; Krause, Mechthild; Rödel, Claus; Budach, Wilfried; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to address the open question in regard to efficacy, early and late toxicity

  18. Sexual side effects of serotonergic antidepressants: mediated by inhibition of serotonin on central dopamine release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Chan, Johnny S W; Olivier, Berend; Veening, Jan G; Millan, Mark J; Waldinger, Marcel D; Oosting, Ronald S

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction adversely affects the quality of life of antidepressant users and reduces compliance with treatment. Animal models provide an instructive approach for examining potential sexual side effects of novel drugs. This review discusses the stability and reproducibility of our standardized test procedure that assesses the acute, subchronic and chronic effects of psychoactive compounds in a 30 minute mating test. In addition, we present an overview of the effects of several different (putative) antidepressants on male rat sexual behavior, as tested in our standardized test procedure. By comparing the effects of these mechanistically distinct antidepressants (paroxetine, venlafaxine, bupropion, buspirone, DOV 216,303 and S32006), this review discusses the putative mechanism underlying sexual side effects of antidepressants and their normalization. This review shows that sexual behavior is mainly inhibited by antidepressants that increase serotonin neurotransmission via blockade of serotonin transporters, while those that mainly increase the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline are devoid of sexual side effects. Those sexual disturbances cannot be normalized by simultaneously increasing noradrenaline neurotransmission, but are normalized by increasing both noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmission. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be mediated by their inhibitory effects on dopamine signaling in sex brain circuits. Clinical development of novel antidepressants should therefore focus on compounds that simultaneously increase both serotonin and dopamine signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  20. Age-related differences in renal side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe improved life-expectancy of cancer patient has brought to light late sequelae of oncology therapy. This is especially true for pediatric patients. Renal damage is one of the adverse side-effects of anti-tumor therapy that may occur. Studies conceming damaging effects of

  1. Deleterious genetic variants in ciliopathy genes increase risk of ritodrine-induced cardiac and pulmonary side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Heewon; Kwon, Eun Jin; You, Young-Ah; Park, Yoomi; Min, Byung Joo; Yoo, Kyunghun; Hwang, Han-Sung; Kim, Ju Han; Kim, Young Ju

    2018-01-24

    Ritodrine is a commonly used tocolytic to prevent preterm labour. However, it can cause unexpected serious adverse reactions, such as pulmonary oedema, pulmonary congestion, and tachycardia. It is unknown whether such adverse reactions are associated with pharmacogenomic variants in patients. Whole-exome sequencing of 13 subjects with serious ritodrine-induced cardiac and pulmonary side-effects was performed to identify causal genes and variants. The deleterious impact of nonsynonymous substitutions for all genes was computed and compared between cases (n = 13) and controls (n = 30). The significant genes were annotated with Gene Ontology (GO), and the associated disease terms were categorised into four functional classes for functional enrichment tests. To assess the impact of distributed rare variants in cases with side effects, we carried out rare variant association tests with a minor allele frequency ≤ 1% using the burden test, the sequence Kernel association test (SKAT), and optimised SKAT. We identified 28 genes that showed significantly lower gene-wise deleteriousness scores in cases than in controls. Three of the identified genes-CYP1A1, CYP8B1, and SERPINA7-are pharmacokinetic genes. The significantly identified genes were categorized into four functional classes: ion binding, ATP binding, Ca 2+ -related, and ciliopathies-related. These four classes were significantly enriched with ciliary genes according to SYSCILIA Gold Standard genes (P side effects may be associated with deleterious genetic variants in ciliary and pharmacokinetic genes.

  2. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Andreas; Thieme, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Side effects of anabolic steroids with relevance in forensic medicine are mainly due to life-threatening health risks with potential fatal outcome and cases of uncertain limitations of criminal liability after steroid administration. Both problems are typically associated with long-term abuse and excessive overdose of anabolic steroids. Side effects may be due to direct genomic or nongenomic activities (myotrophic, hepatotoxic), can result from down-regulation of endogenous biosynthesis (antiandrogenic) or be indirect consequence of steroid biotransformation (estrogenic).Logically, there are no systematic clinical studies available and the number of causally determined fatalities is fairly limited. The following compilation reviews typical abundant observations in cases where nonnatural deaths (mostly liver failure and sudden cardiac death) were concurrent with steroid abuse. Moreover, frequent associations between structural characteristics and typical side effects are summarized.

  3. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  4. Do the benefits outweigh the side effects of colorectal cancer surveillance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augestad, Knut Magne; Rose, Johnie; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory; Delaney, Conor

    2014-05-15

    Most patients treated with curative intent for colorectal cancer (CRC) are included in a follow-up program involving periodic evaluations. The survival benefits of a follow-up program are well delineated, and previous meta-analyses have suggested an overall survival improvement of 5%-10% by intensive follow-up. However, in a recent randomized trial, there was no survival benefit when a minimal vs an intensive follow-up program was compared. Less is known about the potential side effects of follow-up. Well-known side effects of preventive programs are those of somatic complications caused by testing, negative psychological consequences of follow-up itself, and the downstream impact of false positive or false negative tests. Accordingly, the potential survival benefits of CRC follow-up must be weighed against these potential negatives. The present review compares the benefits and side effects of CRC follow-up, and we propose future areas for research.

  5. [Randomised study on histaminelike side-effects of 5 common plasmasubstitutes in orthopedic surgery (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, B; Koch, H

    1975-12-01

    Preceding anaesthesia 750 randomised patients, sub-divided into 5 different age groups, were given 500 ml of a standard plasma-substitute at a flow rate of 25-30 ml/min. There was direct correlation (p=0.1%) of the frequency of side-effects to the substance used; none, however, to the age or general surgical risk. Side-effects were observed in 21.3% with derivates of gelatin as compared to 3.7% with Macrodex and Plasmasteril combined. The rate of more serious anaphylactoid reactions was 6% with Haemaccel, 1.3% with Gelifundol-S, 0.67% with Macrodex and less than 0.67% with Neo-Plasmagel. The study reveals that serious side-effects may be expected in orthopaedictic patients after application of plasma substitutes. As a prophylactic procedure for those patients we recommend, therefore, the application of these substances only after careful consideration of the indications for their use.

  6. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  7. Clozapine-Induced Cardiovascular Side Effects and Autonomic Dysfunction: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica W. Y. Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and has minimal risk for extrapyramidal symptoms. Therapeutic benefits, however, are accompanied by a myriad of cardiometabolic side-effects. The specific reasons for clozapine's high propensity to cause adverse cardiometabolic events remain unknown, but it is believed that autonomic dysfunction may play a role in many of these.Objective: This systematic review summarizes the literature on autonomic dysfunction and related cardiovascular side effects associated with clozapine treatment.Method: A search of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, and EBM Cochrane databases was conducted using the search terms antipsychotic agents, antipsychotic drug*, antipsychotic*, schizophrenia, schizophren*, psychos*, psychotic*, mental ill*, mental disorder*, neuroleptic*, cardiovascular*, cardiovascular diseases, clozapine*, clozaril*, autonomic*, sympathetic*, catecholamine*, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, epinephrine, adrenaline.Results: The search yielded 37 studies that were reviewed, of which only 16 studies have used interventions to manage cardiovascular side effects. Side effects reported in the studies include myocarditis, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. These were attributed to sympathetic hyperactivity, decreased vagal contribution, blockade of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, reduced heart rate variability and elevated catecholamines with clozapine use. Autonomic neuropathy was identified by monitoring blood pressure and heart rate changes in response to stimuli and by spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Metoprolol, lorazepam, atenolol, propranolol, amlodipine, vasopressin and norepinephrine infusion were used to treat tachycardia and fluctuations in blood pressure, yet results were limited to case reports.Conclusion: The results indicate there is a lack of clinical studies investigating autonomic dysfunction and a limited use of interventions to manage

  8. Comparison of side effects of pentagastrin test and calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration: the gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Philipp; Gincu, Tatiana; Keilani, Mohammad; Ponhold, Lothar; Crevenna, Richard; Niederle, Bruno; Hacker, Marcus; Li, Shuren

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side effects of the pentagastrin test and the calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration, especially the gender-specific differences of side effects. A total of 256 patients (123 females and 133 males, mean age of 56 ± 27 years, range 21-83 years) had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests. All patients filled in a questionnaire regarding the side effects within 30 min after completion of the stimulation tests. The differences of side effects between female and male patients as well as between the pentagastrin stimulation test and the calcium stimulation test were evaluated. Warmth feeling was the most frequent occurring side effect in all patients who had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests, followed by nausea, altered gustatory sensation, and dizziness. The incidences of urgency to micturate (p stimulation test. Significant higher incidences of urgency to micturate (p stimulation test as compared with those by pentagastrin test in female patients. The incidences of nausea (p stimulation test than by calcium stimulation test. There is a significant gender-specific difference in side effects induced by calcium stimulation test. Female patients have fewer side effects by pentagastrin test than by calcium stimulation test. Male patients may tolerate the calcium stimulation test better than the pentagastrin test.

  9. Common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor side effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Pollock, Bruce G; Kristjansson, Sean D; Doré, Peter M; Lenze, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram. Adults (N = 177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Side effects were assessed using the Udvalg fur Kliniske Undersøgelser side-effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR [L/S + rs25531], HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found: increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea, and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- versus low-transcription genotype groupings revealed six pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing serotonin transporter genotypes, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the 1A receptor low-transcription genotype. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more by high-expressing genotypes in the serotonin transporter, 1A, or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Genetic variation in the serotonin system may predict who develops common SSRI side effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Common SSRI side-effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: Data from a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Doré, Peter M.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antidepressant side-effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation and in rare cases significant harm. This is especially relevant for older adults, who assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side-effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side-effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the SSRI escitalopram. Method Adults (n=177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12-weeks. Side-effects were assessed using the UKU side effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR (L/S + rs25531), HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Results Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found, including increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- vs low-transcription genotype groupings revealed 6 pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing genotypes of the serotonin transporter, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the low-transcription genotype of the 1A receptor. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more in those with high-expressing genotype and either the serotonin transporter, 1A or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side-effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Conclusion Genetic variation in the 5HT system may predict who develops common SSRI side-effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. PMID:24021217

  11. Anti-Stigma HIV-Related Social Advertising: No Evidence for Side Effects on Condom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Hauck, Patricia; Mayr, Johanna; Negwer, Flavia

    2017-10-17

    Recent campaigns try to reduce social stigma associated with persons living with HIV. For example, a German campaign raised awareness that infection is unlikely in low-risk day-to-day interactions. Research has yet to show that there are no harmful side effects. This is essential because such messages promote a less threatening picture of HIV and thus may unintentionally increase complacency. We tested the possible side effects on the willingness to have sex without condoms. An experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to anti-stigma messages or not. Anti-stigma messages did not elicit an increase in the willingness to have sex without condoms.

  12. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...project is to better understand the relationship between autism and obesity. It is not clear if obesity is co-occurring with autism or is related to

  13. Calcium vitamin D3 supplementation in clinical practice: side effect and satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaei, Maryam; Banasiri, Mohammad; Shafiee, Gita; Rostami, Mahsa; Alizad, Saba; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort (500?mg calcium and 400 I.U. of vitamin D3) usage. Methods A total 186 people were participated with range age from 18 to 65?years old. Each participant received 1 pack that contains 60 OsteoCalVitFort tablet and used two tablet OsteoCalVitFort daily (1 tablet after breakfast and 1 after dinner). By a phone call, side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort were assessed. Results Th...

  14. Reporting effect sizes as a supplement to statistical significance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the article is to review the statistical significance reporting practices in reading instruction studies and to provide guidelines for when to calculate and report effect sizes in educational research. A review of six readily accessible (online) and accredited journals publishing research on reading instruction ...

  15. Side-effects of three pesticides on the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavousi, A; Talebi, K

    2003-01-01

    Side-effects of three commonly used pesticides in Iran were evaluated on an introduced strain of the predatory mite. Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, reared for about 10 years without exposure to any pesticides. Application of pesticides was carried out either to detached bean leaves using a Potter tower at 1 mg wet deposit per cm2 or by a hand sprayer on bean plants until run off. According to an EPPO decision making scheme, pirimiphos-methyl was found to be harmful (E=90.8%) and heptenophos harmless (E=-3.7%) to the predatory mite in the residual initial toxicity tests. For determination of the hazard class of malathion a field test was found to be necessary (E=59.8%). Categories of 1, 2, 3 were determined for heptenophos, malathion and primiphos-methyl, respectively, using IOBC classification. Despite being harmful, it is possible to use pirimiphos-methyl 10 days before release of P. persimilis. Investigation of the contribution of both lethal and sub-lethal effects to total impact indicated the dominance of lethality in the case of pirimiphos-methyl, while malathion acted by both mechanisms. Heptenophos did not have negative effects on fecundity of P. persimilis but rather caused a higher rate of fecundity in comparison with the control. The mortality found in the heptenophos test was not significantly different from the control.

  16. Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.

  17. Secondary-side feed-and-bleed effectiveness in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annunziato, A.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis is presented of physical phenomena occurring during secondary-side feed-and-bleed, which is being considered as an accident management procedure for pressurized water reactors. Problem areas related to the reliability of this procedure are identified and discussed. Secondary-side feed-and-bleed, as examined in the LOBI (which is the Light Water Reactor Off-Normal Behavior Investigation) integral system test facility, was not successful because of a delay in the secondary-side heat removal caused by the release of stored heat from the steam generator downcomer wall. Countercurrent flow limiting in the hot leg was another major phenomenon that can influence the effectiveness of this procedure. The discussion of the experimental results is complemented by relevant calculations by RELAP5/MOD3. In general, it was found that the effectiveness of the feed-and-bleed procedure is maximized if the number of steam generators used to implement it is reduced

  18. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  19. Thalidomide has a significant effect in patients with thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YunShuan; Ren, Quan; Zhou, Yali; Li, Pingping; Lin, Wanhua; Yin, Xiaolin

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of thalidomide in patients with thalassemia intermedia. We observed the effect of thalidomide in seven patients with thalassemia intermedia requiring blood transfusion. Four of the patients were transfusion-independent, and three patients were transfusion-dependent. For the four transfusion-independent patients, hemoglobin concentration increased significantly (≥2 g/dl) in three and moderately (1-2 g/dl) in one. After 3 months of treatment, hemoglobin concentration increased 3.2 ± 1.2 g/dl compared to pretreatment. Among the three transfusion-dependent patients, transfusion was terminated after one month of treatment in one patient and decreased >50% in the other two patients, accompanied by an increase in the average hemoglobin concentration. Thalidomide had a significant effect in patients with thalassemia intermedia. Further studies of a larger scale and more rigorous design are warranted.

  20. Significance of autobiographical episodes and spacing effects in incidental memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Participants were presented with target words on two occasions, and were asked each time to generate a memory of a past episode associated with the targets. Participants were also instructed to rate the importance (significance elaboration) or pleasantness of the pisode (pleasantness elaboration) in an orienting task, followed by an unexpect d recall test. Significance elaboration led to better recall than pleasantness elaboration, but only in the spaced presentation. The spaced presentation led to better tree recall than massed presentation with significance elaboration, but the difference between the two types of presentation was not observed with pleasantness elaboration. These results suggest that the significance of an episode is more critical than the pleasantness of an episode in determining the effectiveness of autobiographical elaboration in facilitating recall.

  1. Balancing opioid-induced gastrointestinal side effects with pain management: Insights from the online community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives.

  2. Managing the side effects of multiple sclerosis therapy: pharmacotherapy options for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommer, Paulus S; Zettl, Uwe K

    2018-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated and neurodegenerative disease with an unpredictable outcome. Immune-modulatory treatment aims at decreasing long-term disability. With the increasing number of treatment options, it is essential to fully digest the possible side effects of the available therapeutics and to monitor patients is essential. Areas covered: All approved disease-modifying drugs (DMD) for MS are discussed in this review. Mode of action, adverse effects, reported risks for infections and malignancies, and pregnancy related issues are discussed in the review. The authors also provide suggestions for monitoring therapy. For all approved DMDs the pivotal studies have been included for possible side effects, as well as reports by health authorities. For this manuscript, PubMed was checked for reports on side effects for various drugs. Expert opinion: Treatment options in MS are manifold, each carrying different risks. The safety-risk profile for approved agents is favorable. Knowing and monitoring these possible side effects is essential to minimize risks associated with treatment. Presently, the long-term experience for some of these therapies is missing and this must be addressed.

  3. Exploring the Process of Conveying Information about Side Effects: A Qualitative Study among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Kairuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how a sample of Australian pharmacists would convey information about the side effects of a medicine, if they were to counsel a patient. A qualitative method was selected and written responses to a case-based scenario were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The grounded theory approach elicited a fluid and dynamic model for side effect counselling. The study identified strategies for counselling, such as encouraging adherence through emphasising the benefits of the medication, referral to the prescriber, and providing empathy and reassurance to ease anxiety and address concerns. Pharmacists acknowledged the potential for risk, although only a minority used numerical descriptors. The final themes or outcomes were that pharmacists aim to allay fears, minimise harm and promote medication use when counselling about side effects. Professional empathy, the acknowledgment of patient concerns, and the importance of providing tailored information to promote medication adherence, emerged as features of the quality use of medicines. This study contributes to existing literature by identifying the role of allaying patients’ fears when conveying side effect information. It also describes a process to convey tailored information. Implications for practice include the importance of effective use of communication strategies to encourage adherence, as the appropriate use of medication can lead to positive health outcomes.

  4. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine, and renal side-effects of anti-PD-1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Lars; Forschner, Andrea; Loquai, Carmen; Goldinger, Simone M; Zimmer, Lisa; Ugurel, Selma; Schmidgen, Maria I; Gutzmer, Ralf; Utikal, Jochen S; Göppner, Daniela; Hassel, Jessica C; Meier, Friedegund; Tietze, Julia K; Thomas, Ioannis; Weishaupt, Carsten; Leverkus, Martin; Wahl, Renate; Dietrich, Ursula; Garbe, Claus; Kirchberger, Michael C; Eigentler, Thomas; Berking, Carola; Gesierich, Anja; Krackhardt, Angela M; Schadendorf, Dirk; Schuler, Gerold; Dummer, Reinhard; Heinzerling, Lucie M

    2016-06-01

    Anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies represent an effective treatment option for metastatic melanoma as well as for other cancer entities. They act via blockade of the PD-1 receptor, an inhibitor of the T-cell effector mechanisms that limit immune responses against tumours. As reported for ipilimumab, the anti-PD-1 antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These side-effects affect skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, endocrine system and other organ systems. Since life-threatening and fatal irAEs have been reported, adequate diagnosis and management are essential. In total, 496 patients with metastatic melanoma from 15 skin cancer centers were treated with pembrolizumab or nivolumab; 242 side-effects were described in 138 patients. In 116 of the 138 patients, side-effects affected the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, endocrine, and renal system. Rare side-effects included diabetes mellitus, lichen planus, and pancreas insufficiency due to pancreatitis. Anti-PD1 antibodies can induce a plethora of irAEs. The knowledge of them will allow prompt diagnosis and improve the management resulting in decreased morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  6. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  7. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  8. Comparison of clinical efficacy and side effects for bitemporal and bifrontal electrode placement in electroconvulsive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Catherine J; Russo, Joan; Tanner, Craig; Avery, David H; Neumaier, John F

    2004-09-01

    Bifrontal (BF) placement of electrodes in electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) has become a popular alternative to bitemporal (BT) placement. This study compares the clinical efficacy, side effects, and rehospitalization rates of BT and BF electrode placement in a community hospital setting. Charts from 76 patients receiving ECT treatments at Harborview Medical Center from 1994 to 2000 were reviewed to extract data on the characteristics of the course of ECT, clinical response, total headaches, narcotic and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses, as well as documentation of confusion, disorientation, memory loss, and treatment emergent need for assistance with activities of daily living. The BT patients experienced more clinical improvement during their stay (a 7-point greater change in Psychiatric Symptom Assessment Scale score, P < 0.05) and were significantly less likely to be rehospitalized within a 1-year time frame (odds ratio = 4.9, P = <0.05), even after controlling for relevant covariates. Although the two patient groups had equal rates of headache and analgesic administration, the BT placement caused significantly more cognitive impairment. This study suggests that BT electrode placement offers better efficacy but modestly greater cognitive impairment than BF electrode placement.

  9. Behavioral side effects of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment: the role of parenting strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Lamb, Karen E; McCarthy, Maria C

    2014-11-01

    Behavioral and emotional difficulties are a recognised side effect of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. Modifiable factors, such as parenting strategies, may be an appropriate target for interventions to assist families with managing their child's behavior, potentially leading to improved psychosocial and clinical outcomes. This study examined whether parenting strategies are associated with child behavioral and emotional problems in a pediatric oncology context, with the aim of establishing whether parenting is a potential modifiable target for psychosocial intervention. Participants included 73 parents of children aged 2-6 years who were either (i) in the maintenance phase of treatment for ALL at the Royal Children's Hospital Children's Cancer Centre, Melbourne (N = 43), or (ii) had no major medical history (healthy control group) (N = 30). Participants completed psychometrically validated questionnaires that assessed parenting strategies and child emotional and behavioral problems. Results revealed that the ALL group parents reported higher lax parenting and more spoiling and bribing of their child than the healthy control group. Results from regression models indicated that, after controlling for the significant contribution of illness status and child age on child emotional and behavioral difficulties, parental laxness and parental overprotection were significantly associated with child emotional and behavioral difficulties. Supporting parents to minimise sub-optimal parenting strategies, particularly lax parenting, may offer a fruitful avenue for future research directed toward modifiable factors associated with managing child emotional and behavioral problems in a pediatric oncology context. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Side Effects of Transplant Immunosuppressive Therapy in Post Renal Transplant Recipients, Mazandaran, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abazar Akbarzadeh Pasha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Post-kidney transplant survival relies on patient adherence to the intake of immunosuppressive medication. This study was performed to investigate complications associated with immunosuppressive therapy in renal transplantation. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 188 transplanted patients in Shahid Beheshti hospital of Babol in 2013. Check list and demographic questionnaire for data collecting were used. Then the data using were analyzed in SPSS.18 software by using chi-square test. Results A total of 188 transplanted patients, 115 (61.2% was male and mean age was 12.9 ± 42.9 years. 181 (96.3% of the subjects had at least one complication. The most common complication in 142 cases (75.5% was “excessive hair growth” and after this complication “increased blood sugar” had higher frequency and 119 (63.3% had this complication. Severe form of gingival overgrowth in women was significantly that more than men (22 (30.1, 14 (12.2, P = 0.004, and the other side effect was not significant difference between men and women or different age groups (P > 0.05 Conclusions Finding show that nearly all transplanted recipients suffered from one complication which need to recognize, control and treatment. It suggested that period visiting for early diagnosis and education to patient was recommend.

  11. Effect of side chain length and degree of polymerization on the decomposition and crystallization behaviour of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, D.; Mang, Th.; Popescu, C.; Weichold, O.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal behaviour of telomerized polyvinyl esters is investigated. • Thermal stability relies mainly on the contribution of side chains. • At equal molecular weights thermal stability is dictated by length of side chain. • Increasing the length of side chains improves also the packing degree of polymer. - Abstract: Four members of a homologous series of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers CCl_3–(CH_2CH (OCO(CH_2)_mCH_3))_n–Cl with degrees of polymerization of 10 and 20 were prepared by telomerisation using carbon tetrachloride. The number of side chain carbon atoms ranges from 2 (poly(vinyl acetate) to 18 (poly(vinyl stearate)). The effect of the n-alkyl side chain length and of the degree of polymerization on the thermal stability and crystallization behaviour of the synthesized compounds was investigated. All oligomers degrade in two major steps by first losing HCl and side chains with subsequent breakdown of the backbone. The members with short side chains, up to poly(vinyl octanoate), are amorphous and show internal plasticization, whereas those with high number of side chain carbon atoms are semi-crystalline due to side-chain crystallization. A better packing for poly(vinyl stearate) is also noticeable. The glass transition and melting temperatures as well as the onset temperature of decomposition are influenced to a larger extent by the side chain length than by the degree of polymerization. Thermal stability is improved if both the size and number of side chains increase, but only a long side chain causes a significant increase of the resistance to degradation. This results in a stabilization of PVAc so that oligomers from poly(vinyl octanoate) on are stable under atmospheric conditions. Thus, the way to design stable, chlorinated PVEs oligomers is to use a long n-alkyl side chain.

  12. Effect of side chain length and degree of polymerization on the decomposition and crystallization behaviour of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, D.; Mang, Th. [Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Heinrich-Mussmann-Str. 1, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Popescu, C., E-mail: crisan.popescu@kao.com [KAO Germany GmbH, Pfungstädterstr. 98-100, 64297 Darmstadt (Germany); Weichold, O., E-mail: weichold@ibac.rwth-aachen.de [Institute of Building Materials Research, Schinkelstr. 3, 52062 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-08-10

    Highlights: • Thermal behaviour of telomerized polyvinyl esters is investigated. • Thermal stability relies mainly on the contribution of side chains. • At equal molecular weights thermal stability is dictated by length of side chain. • Increasing the length of side chains improves also the packing degree of polymer. - Abstract: Four members of a homologous series of chlorinated poly(vinyl ester) oligomers CCl{sub 3}–(CH{sub 2}CH (OCO(CH{sub 2}){sub m}CH{sub 3})){sub n}–Cl with degrees of polymerization of 10 and 20 were prepared by telomerisation using carbon tetrachloride. The number of side chain carbon atoms ranges from 2 (poly(vinyl acetate) to 18 (poly(vinyl stearate)). The effect of the n-alkyl side chain length and of the degree of polymerization on the thermal stability and crystallization behaviour of the synthesized compounds was investigated. All oligomers degrade in two major steps by first losing HCl and side chains with subsequent breakdown of the backbone. The members with short side chains, up to poly(vinyl octanoate), are amorphous and show internal plasticization, whereas those with high number of side chain carbon atoms are semi-crystalline due to side-chain crystallization. A better packing for poly(vinyl stearate) is also noticeable. The glass transition and melting temperatures as well as the onset temperature of decomposition are influenced to a larger extent by the side chain length than by the degree of polymerization. Thermal stability is improved if both the size and number of side chains increase, but only a long side chain causes a significant increase of the resistance to degradation. This results in a stabilization of PVAc so that oligomers from poly(vinyl octanoate) on are stable under atmospheric conditions. Thus, the way to design stable, chlorinated PVEs oligomers is to use a long n-alkyl side chain.

  13. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  14. Significance assessment of the external control effects of lecturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurbatova Margarita, V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The state policy regarding higher education has changed in the last decade. These changes were part of the efficiency programs of the public sector. Governments of different countries ruined previously existing system of higher education state regulation and attempted to build the quasi-market structure in the higher education industry. Such transformations served as timely and progressive reforms in the recent studies of the economics of education. Substitution of bureaucratic management mechanisms and modern competition managerial tools are articulated. Economic and institutional and sociological studies on the effects of the introduction of quasi-markets and managerial tools in higher education governance oppose to orthodox market approach. They drew attention to the fact that evaluation methods and improve the effectiveness of organizations and employees that are typical of the private sector often produce results that differ from those in the public sector. To assess the consequences of the introduction of managerial tools of external control activities of university lecturers used a methodology based on the allocation of the individual structural components (effects and building on their basis of a multi-level hierarchical model in the research. Each component of the model (single effect is characterized by a degree of significance (importance and the degree of severity. The results of the systematization and assessment of the significance of the effects of external control activity of lecturers of Russian universities implemented in conditions of quasi-market mechanisms of the higher education system are highlighted in the paper.

  15. Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Side-Effects after Antimuscarinic Treatment for Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aram; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Jung, Rangrhee; Na, Selee; Kim, Joon-Chul; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2017-09-01

    Drug therapy is the mainstay of treatment for overactive bladder (OAB), but antimuscarinic agents possess side-effects. These side-effects decrease the patients' quality of life. We therefore assessed the impact of side-effects on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) through an analysis of EQ-5D questionnaire. This study was designed to investigate the patients' satisfaction by quality weight of health status as affected by the side-effects of OAB medications. Patients who had OAB symptoms lasting longer than 3 months and have experienced side-effects after any antimuscarinic treatments filled in the EQ-5D questionnaire. The enrolled patients had two EQ-5D questionnaires for two different health statuses, i.e., presence or absence of side-effects. Quality weight was calculated using the ED-5D health status score with Korean tariff. One hundred patients were enrolled and completed the HR-QoL questionnaire. The most prevalent side-effect was dry mouth (61%) and 28% patients had dry mouth and constipation concurrently. Most of the patients with side-effects tried to endure and overcome these side-effects (79%), but 10% desired a change in medication, and 6% stopped medication altogether. The quality weight of EQ-5D without side-effects was 0.863, while the quality weight with side-effects was 0.666 (P effects and 57 in those with side-effects, supporting the results of quality weight assessment. Overactive bladder patients may enjoy a better quality of life if side-effects associated with antimuscarinic therapy are fewer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Efficient hiding of confidential high-utility itemsets with minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jerry Chun-Wei; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Fournier-Viger, Philippe; Liu, Qiankun; Wong, Jia-Wei; Zhan, Justin

    2017-11-01

    Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) is an emerging research problem that has become critical in the last decades. PPDM consists of hiding sensitive information to ensure that it cannot be discovered by data mining algorithms. Several PPDM algorithms have been developed. Most of them are designed for hiding sensitive frequent itemsets or association rules. Hiding sensitive information in a database can have several side effects such as hiding other non-sensitive information and introducing redundant information. Finding the set of itemsets or transactions to be sanitised that minimises side effects is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) using transaction deletion is designed to hide sensitive high-utility itemsets for PPUM. A flexible fitness function with three adjustable weights is used to evaluate the goodness of each chromosome for hiding sensitive high-utility itemsets. To speed up the evolution process, the pre-large concept is adopted in the designed algorithm. It reduces the number of database scans required for verifying the goodness of an evaluated chromosome. Substantial experiments are conducted to compare the performance of the designed GA approach (with/without the pre-large concept), with a GA-based approach relying on transaction insertion and a non-evolutionary algorithm, in terms of execution time, side effects, database integrity and utility integrity. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm hides sensitive high-utility itemsets with fewer side effects than previous studies, while preserving high database and utility integrity.

  17. Movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their siblings: symptoms, side effects and mechanical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on several aspects of movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings. The main hypothesis is that movement disorders are not just side effects of antipsychotic medication but may also be symptoms of the illness itself and are related to the

  18. Side effects of radiotherapy in regime of dynamic dose multifractioning for local larynx cancer forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobina, E.L.

    2000-01-01

    A regime for dynamic multifractioning of radiotherapy dose used for treating larynx cancer was developed. The method favored reducing the side effects frequency as compared with the conventional fractioning in larynx mucosa from 70% to 46%, in neck skin being irradiated - from 60% to 48%

  19. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    2009-01-01

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Customers were included if they were older than 18 years, bought at least one drug either with or without medical prescription, and agreed to take part in the survey. Data were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. A total of 1445 customers buying 1946 drugs were surveyed (age 42.9 +/- 15.7 years, 56.9% female); 627 (59%) of 1055 customers who purchased prescription-only medicines (POM) did so without a prescription. Of all customers interviewed, 172 (11.9%) affirmed that the bought medicine(s) could cause harm. Only half of those (87 or 6%) were able to identify correctly at least one side effect of the purchased medicines. The majority received the information about side effects from a physician. Customers in semirural areas knew less about side effects (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.61; P = 0.00); whereas customers buying medicines for chronic pain, hypertension or diabetes knew more (odds ratio 2.63; 95% CI: 1.44-4.80; P = 0.00). The overall majority of customers did not know that medicines they bought could be harmful. This is particularly alarming because they frequently used POM without consulting a physician.

  20. Multinational study exploring patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by chemo-radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Okera, Meena

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively assess the incidence, severity and patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multinational survey included patients with a diagnosis of gynaecological or head and neck cancer schedu...

  1. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Changes When You Urinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy Side Effects: Changes when you urinate Ask about drinks or foods that you may need to avoid. Some things can make these problems worse. Your doctor or nurse may suggest that you limit or don’t have: I Drinks with alcohol (such as beer, wine, and liquor) I Drinks with caffeine (such as ...

  2. Side effect experiences of South Korean women in their twenties and thirties after facial plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Young A Kim,1 Hyang-In Cho Chung2 1Department of Nursing, Jeju National University College of Nursing, Jeju-si, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Nursing, Chonnam National University College of Nursing, Gwangju, Republic of Korea Background: Rates of plastic surgery procedures have increased dramatically over the past several decades, especially for the women in South Korea.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of South Korean women in their twenties and thirties with facial plastic surgery (FPS side effects.Participants and methods: Seven women who have suffered from FPS side effects participated in this study. Data were collected from July to September 2015 through individual in-depth interviews using open-ended questions and analyzed using Colaizzi’s method, which is a Husserlian phenomenological approach.Results: Six themes, and 25 subthemes, were found. Major themes were “choosing FPS to gain a new self”, “facing an unintended self”, “trying to accept a changed self”, “making efforts to overcome the situation”, “coming to know a new world”, and “pursuing a new lifestyle”.Conclusion: This study raises social awareness on the risk of plastic surgery side effects, which could prevent unnecessary plastic surgery. It also suggests the need for a deeper understanding of women’s biopsychosocial suffering from plastic surgery side effects. Keywords: cosmetic surgery, aesthetic plastic surgery, qualitative research, interview 

  3. Side Effects of Minocycline Treatment in Patients with Fragile X Syndrome and Exploration of Outcome Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utari, Agustini; Chonchaiya, Weerasak; Rivera, Susan M.; Schneider, Andrea; Hagerman, Randi J.; Faradz, Sultana M. H.; Ethell, Iryna M.; Nguyen, Danh V.

    2010-01-01

    Minocycline can rescue the dendritic spine and synaptic structural abnormalities in the fragile X knock-out mouse. This is a review and preliminary survey to document side effects and potential outcome measures for minocycline use in the treatment of individuals with fragile X syndrome. We surveyed 50 patients with fragile X syndrome who received…

  4. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2011; 15(3): 121 ... women recognized at least one family planning method, half of all recent or ... use of Primolut N tablets, addressing real and perceived side effects of family ... planning programs, research and policy. ... Utah to improve the quality of life in communities.

  5. Side effects after radiotherapy of age-related macular degeneration with the Nijmegen technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, C.B.; Tromp, A.I.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Leys, A.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Deutman, A.F.; Vingerling, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a randomized trial concerning radiotherapy for age-related macular degeneration, fluorescein angiograms were taken of controls and patients. In this study the frequency of side effects in eyes receiving radiotherapy with the Nijmegen technique is compared with the findings in the eyes

  6. Novel Profiling Model and Side Effects of Helical Scan Silicon Heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hozoi, A.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Albertini, J.B.; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial erasure of track edges was directly measured from triple-track patterns using a novel model to interpret the output profiles. The model is based on representing the read head as the sum of a reference width, wavelength independent, and two side reading effective widths that are wavelength

  7. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico.

  8. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients in public-sector ... current depression or other mental disorders would increase ... medication and the importance of adherence is discussed ..... neuropsychiatric side effects, substance abuse and emotional ... All authors contributed towards the conceptualisation and.

  9. Of ants and men the unexpected side effects of complexity in society

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G

    2014-01-01

    Why do things go wrong? Why, despite all the planning and care in the world, do things go from bad to worse? This book argues that it is because we are like the ants. Just as ants create an anthill without being aware of it, unintended side effects of human activity create all manner of social trends and crises. The book traces the way these trends emerge and the role they play in some of the major issues of our time. One of the greatest challenges today is the complexity of our social and economic systems. Every action has side effects that people often ignore or fail to see. The book examines the ways in which limitations in our thinking and behaviour lead to unintended side effects. It looks at the role played by complex networks of interactions. Finally, it looks at the way side effects of new technologies, especially computers and communication, have created an Information Revolution, the full repercussions of which are yet to be seen. In our race to create new technologies and sustain indefinite economi...

  10. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  11. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  12. Tolerance and side-effects of paroxetine in elderly depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, K

    1997-01-01

    Paroxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant, is considered to have fewer side-effects than a typical tricyclic antidepressant. As the elderly frequently suffer from adverse effects of psychotropic drugs, safeties and tolerance of paroxetine and their relationship with dose were studied in a double-blind study. Sixteen nondashhospitalised depressed patients, aged 72-86 years, were recruited but 12 patients completed the study. Patients were randomly selected to receive either 15 mg or 30 mg paroxetine daily for 42 days in a double-blind study. A trained nurse made weekly home visits to monitor their medication and general conditions. Patients were assessed at the hospital on days 1, 7, 14, 28 and 42. There were four drop-outs during the first week of study due to lack of motivation, skin rash and upper gastrointestinal symptoms (n=2). Plasma levels of paroxetine showed a dose-related increase in concentrations and indicated a good compliance. At the dosages used, no changes in blood pressure, heart rate, salivary volume, visual choice reaction time, critical flicker fusion threshold and short-term memory were observed in these patients. However, there was a significant improvement in their subjective symptoms (as assessed by a symptom check list and Hamilton Rating Scale) in the 30 mg group, indicating a feeling of well-being.

  13. Effect of working side interferences on mandibular movement in bruxers and non-bruxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiau, Y Y; Syu, J Z

    1995-02-01

    The effect of working interference on 13 bruxers and 14 non-bruxers was studied by applying a metal overlay on the buccal cusps of the adjacent upper premolar and molar. The pattern and velocity of cyclic movement during gum chewing before and after overlay insertion were observed. EMG of the temporalis and masseter muscles were recorded bilaterally during the chewing movement. It was found that after insertion, one of the non-bruxers complained of pain in the muscles, while such a complaint was not found in bruxers. Bruxing habit was reported to be less or eliminated in 44% of the bruxers, but no non-bruxers became bruxers. The closing velocity was more often decreased immediately after overlay insertion, and the closing path near the occlusal phase was significantly narrower, with patterns of over-extension and avoidance before reaching the occlusal phase. The delayed effects were a more vertically oriented chewing cycle without over-extended closing movement, and an unretarded chewing velocity. It was concluded that within the experimental period a working side interference was tolerable in most of the subjects studied with or without a bruxing habit.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reverse age-related increases in side effects of haloperidol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L; Fisher, Daniel W; Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Fang, Deyu; Csernansky, John G; Dong, Hongxin

    2017-08-01

    Older patients can be especially susceptible to antipsychotic-induced side effects, and the pharmacodynamic mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. We hypothesized that age-related epigenetic alterations lead to decreased expression and functionality of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), contributing to this susceptibility. In this study, we treated young (2-3 months old) and aged (22-24 months old) C57BL/6 mice with the D2R antagonist haloperidol (HAL) once a day for 14 days to evaluate HAL-induced motor side effects. In addition, we pretreated separate groups of young and aged mice with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) or entinostat (MS-275) and then administered HAL. Our results show that the motor side effects of HAL are exaggerated in aged mice as compared to young mice and that HDAC inhibitors are able to reverse the severity of these deficits. HAL-induced motor deficits in aged mice are associated with an age- and drug-dependent decrease in striatal D2R protein levels and functionality. Further, histone acetylation was reduced while histone tri-methylation was increased at specific lysine residues of H3 and H4 within the Drd2 promoter in the striatum of aged mice. HDAC inhibitors, particularly VPA, restored striatal D2R protein levels and functionality and reversed age- and drug-related histone modifications at the Drd2 promoter. These results suggest that epigenetic changes at the striatal Drd2 promoter drive age-related increases in antipsychotic side effect susceptibility, and HDAC inhibitors may be an effective adjunct treatment strategy to reduce side effects in aged populations.

  15. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients' Affected Side Lower Extremity's Walking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity's walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in all of the assessed items than the other two groups. [Conclusion] In the present study progressive body weight supported treadmill training was performed in an environment in which the subjects were actually walked, and PBWSTFBWT was more effective at efficiently training stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability.

  16. National survey addressing the information needs of primary care physicians: Side effect management of patients on androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeyonggo, Tony; Locke, Jennifer; Giudice, Maria Elizabeth Del; Alibhai, Shabbir; Fleshner, Neil Eric; Warde, Padraig

    2014-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment for prostate cancer with numerous side effects. We assess primary care physicians' (PCPs) knowledge of ADT side effects and their interest in increasing their knowledge in this area. A list of active Canadian PCPs was obtained using the Canadian Medical Directory. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 600 randomly selected physicians. We collected PCPs' demographic information, experience with ADT management, knowledge regarding ADT side effects and desired sources for obtaining knowledge on ADT management. In total, we received 103 completed questionnaires. Of these, 89% of PCPs had patients on ADT. One-third of respondents prescribed ADT and over half of them administered ADT annually. Thirty-eight percent felt their knowledge of ADT side effects was inadequate and 50% felt uncomfortable counselling patients on ADT. Many PCPs were less familiar with the incidence of functional side effects of ADT (i.e., hot flashes, fatigue and erectile dysfunction) compared to life-threatening side effects (i.e., cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome, fractures). In terms of increasing their knowledge of ADT side effects, 82% of PCPs would use educational resources if they were available (52% and 32% preferred continued medical education [CME] events and educational pamphlets, respectively). PCPs play an important role in managing ADT side effects. There is poor awareness of the prevalence of ADT side effects, and many are uncomfortable in managing these side effects. These areas may be addressed through CME programs and educational pamphlets.

  17. Evaluating significance in linear mixed-effects models in R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Steven G

    2017-08-01

    Mixed-effects models are being used ever more frequently in the analysis of experimental data. However, in the lme4 package in R the standards for evaluating significance of fixed effects in these models (i.e., obtaining p-values) are somewhat vague. There are good reasons for this, but as researchers who are using these models are required in many cases to report p-values, some method for evaluating the significance of the model output is needed. This paper reports the results of simulations showing that the two most common methods for evaluating significance, using likelihood ratio tests and applying the z distribution to the Wald t values from the model output (t-as-z), are somewhat anti-conservative, especially for smaller sample sizes. Other methods for evaluating significance, including parametric bootstrapping and the Kenward-Roger and Satterthwaite approximations for degrees of freedom, were also evaluated. The results of these simulations suggest that Type 1 error rates are closest to .05 when models are fitted using REML and p-values are derived using the Kenward-Roger or Satterthwaite approximations, as these approximations both produced acceptable Type 1 error rates even for smaller samples.

  18. Testing the effectiveness and the contribution of experimental supercharge (reversed) end-to-side nerve transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadi, Mustafa; Ramachandran, Sudheesh; Islam, Abir; Forden, Joanne; Guo, Gui Fang; Midha, Rajiv

    2018-05-18

    OBJECTIVE Supercharge end-to-side (SETS) transfer, also referred to as reverse end-to-side transfer, distal to severe nerve compression neuropathy or in-continuity nerve injury is gaining clinical popularity despite questions about its effectiveness. Here, the authors examined SETS distal to experimental neuroma in-continuity (NIC) injuries for efficacy in enhancing neuronal regeneration and functional outcome, and, for the first time, they definitively evaluated the degree of contribution of the native and donor motor neuron pools. METHODS This study was conducted in 2 phases. In phase I, rats (n = 35) were assigned to one of 5 groups for unilateral sciatic nerve surgeries: group 1, tibial NIC with distal peroneal-tibial SETS; group 2, tibial NIC without SETS; group 3, intact tibial and severed peroneal nerves; group 4, tibial transection with SETS; and group 5, severed tibial and peroneal nerves. Recovery was evaluated biweekly using electrophysiology and locomotion tasks. At the phase I end point, after retrograde labeling, the spinal cords were analyzed to assess the degree of neuronal regeneration. In phase II, 20 new animals underwent primary retrograde labeling of the tibial nerve, following which they were assigned to one of the following 3 groups: group 1, group 2, and group 4. Then, secondary retrograde labeling from the tibial nerve was performed at the study end point to quantify the native versus donor regenerated neuronal pool. RESULTS In phase I studies, a significantly increased neuronal regeneration in group 1 (SETS) compared with all other groups was observed, but with modest (nonsignificant) improvement in electrophysiological and behavioral outcomes. In phase II experiments, the authors discovered that secondary labeling in group 1 was predominantly contributed from the donor (peroneal) pool. Double-labeling counts were dramatically higher in group 2 than in group 1, suggestive of hampered regeneration from the native tibial motor neuron pool

  19. Patients' oral hydration levels and incidence of immediate to short-term mild side-effects in contrast agent enhanced MRI diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, Leon; Fallahi, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gadolinium-based contrast agents for radiodiagnostic purposes can lead to side effects, including nephrotoxicity in patients with renal insufficiency. This study evaluated whether the occurrence of mild side effects from gadolinium-based contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates to patients' oral hydration levels. Methods: Oral fluid intake levels 24 h pre- and 24 h post-MRI, as well as incidence of mild side-effects experienced 30 min and 24 h post-MRI were recorded by using a patient self-reporting questionnaire. Results: A total of 174 patients, 29 controls, 98 administered Prohance and 47 receiving Dotarem, were enrolled. Overall, the most frequently reported side-effect was headache; nausea only occurred in patients receiving contrast agent. One or more side-effects experienced 24 h following the MRI scan were reported by 10% (controls), 24% (Prohance) and 22% (Dotarem) of patients, respectively. Multivariate ordinal regression analysis showed that only male gender (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11–0.53) was statistically significantly associated with a decreased incidence of side-effects 30 min after MRI. At 24-h post MRI, a lack of contrast agent (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.09–1.74) and male gender (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.19–1.09) were associated with fewer side-effects. Conclusions: The level oral fluid intake before and after undergoing gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI does not appear to markedly affect the incidence of common undesirable mild symptoms experienced shortly after the procedure. Confounding differences between patients in reporting side-effects may contribute to these findings. - Highlights: • We assess the incidence of patient-reported side-effects after contrast-enhanced MRI. • We examine the potential impact of oral hydration levels on side-effects. • Patient reported side-effects are high compared to those reported by clinicians. • Female gender and contrast agent itself are associated with increased side-effects

  20. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects of anti-epileptic drugs in adolescents and children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B; Detyniecki, K; Choi, H; Hirsch, L; Katz, A; Legge, A; Wong, R; Jiang, A; Buchsbaum, R; Farooque, P

    2017-05-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the psychiatric and behavioral side effect (PBSE) profiles of both older and newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in children and adolescent patients with epilepsy. We used logistic regression analysis to test the correlation between 83 non-AED/patient related potential predictor variables and the rate of PBSE. We then compared for each AED the rate of PBSEs and the rate of PBSEs that led to intolerability (IPBSE) while controlling for non-AED predictors of PBSEs. 922 patients (≤18 years old) were included in our study. PBSEs and IPBSEs occurred in 13.8% and 11.2% of patients, respectively. Overall, a history of psychiatric condition, absence seizures, intractable epilepsy, and frontal lobe epilepsy were significantly associated with increased PBSE rates. Levetiracetam (LEV) had the greatest PBSE rate (16.2%). This was significantly higher compared to other AEDs. LEV was also significantly associated with a high rate of IPBSEs (13.4%) and dose-decrease rates due to IPBSE (6.7%). Zonisamide (ZNS) was associated with significantly higher cessation rate due to IPBSE (9.1%) compared to other AEDs. Patients with a history of psychiatric condition, absence seizures, intractable epilepsy, or frontal lobe epilepsy are more likely to develop PBSE. PBSEs appear to occur more frequently in adolescent and children patients taking LEV compared to other AEDs. LEV-attributed PBSEs are more likely to be associated with intolerability and subsequent decrease in dose. The rate of ZNS-attributed IPBSEs is more likely to be associated with complete cessation of AED. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. An Internet-based survey on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Annette; Rittmann, Ines; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Tattoo removal by laser therapy is a frequently performed procedure in dermatological practices. Quality-switched ruby, alexandrite, or Nd:YAG lasers are the most suitable treatment devices. Although these techniques are regarded as safe, both temporary and permanent side effects might occur. Little has been published on the frequency of complications associated with laser tattoo removal. We performed an Internet survey in German-speaking countries on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects. A total number of 157 questionnaires entered the final analysis. Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the tattoo as youthful folly (29%), esthetic reasons (28%), and 6% indicated medical problems. One third of participants were unsatisfied with the result of laser tattoo removal, and a complete removal of the tattoo pigment was obtained in 38% only. Local transient side effects occurred in nearly all participants, but an important rate of slightly visible scars (24%) or even important scarring (8%) was reported. Every fourth participant described mild or intense tan when the laser treatment was performed, and the same number of people indicated UV exposure following laser therapy, which should normally be avoided in these circumstances. As reported in the literature, nearly half of the participants experienced hypopigmentation in the treated area. Our results show that from the patients' point of view there is an important rate of side effects occurring after laser tattoo removal. Appropriate pretreatment counseling with regard to realistic expectations, possible side effects, and the application of test spots is mandatory to ensure patient satisfaction. Laser treatment should be performed by appropriately trained personnel only.

  2. [Current prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis. Fracture-oriented, effective, low side effects and inexpensive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, R; Bartl, C

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is still an underdiagnosed and insufficiently therapied widespread disease in Germany. Of the estimated 7 million osteoporosis patients only 1.5 million receive a guideline conform diagnosis and even less receive appropriate treatment. Some 90 % of patients are provided with analgesics but only 10 % receive an effective therapy, although efficacious, well-tested and affordable medications are available. In addition, approximately one half of the patients terminate treatment after only 1 year although according to the results of recent studies the duration of therapy should be at least 3-5 years. In view of the increasing average life expectancy, a consistent management for prevention of fractures associated with osteoporosis is always most important for society, even if only for reasons of costs. Achievement of this target depends on four circumstances: clarification of the origin of osteoporosis and fractures (bone consciousness), prophylaxis of bone loss and fractures (primary prevention), consistent guideline conform diagnostics and therapy (secondary and tertiary prevention) and cooperation of all disciplines in medicine (bone is everybody's business). This article describes the current state of diagnostics (bone density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry, FRAX®), prophylaxis of fractures (screening program) and therapy (use of economic and effective medications with low side effects). Novel medications are already undergoing clinical testing and a "healing" of bone reduction with restoration of the normal bone structure is to be expected.

  3. Moderating Effects of Trust on Environmentally Significant Behavior in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Gin Moon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To treat environmental problems and to seek sustainable development, voluntary and cooperative efforts, which is really against the traditional mentality with the emphasis on the individual competitive optimization, became the key to maintain the sustainability of complex social and ecological systems. To understand the cooperative and voluntary individual’s environmentally significant behavior (ESB, this paper focuses on the role of trust, and assesses the effect of trust on the relationship between existing factors and ESB. A structural equation model (SEM is constructed to estimate the moderating effects of trust on ESB in Korea. We found that people with a negative view on strict environmental regulations do not exhibit ESB and thus nudge policies could be much more effective than the forceful measure. It is noteworthy that public private partnership, as a kind of optimal trust, should be more promoted in the environmental protection policies.

  4. Evaluating the Role of Omega 3 on the Side Effects of Isotretinoin in Patients with the Acnea Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mirnezami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Acne vulgaris is chronic inflamatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit.Patients experience psychological burdens like depression ,anxiety, and low self- esteem. Isotretinoin is used in the treatment of severe and recalcitrant acne; however, this treatment is associated with a number of partialy common adverse effects that it sometimes may stop the process of treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral omega 3 on side-effects of isotretinoin . Materials and Methods: One hundred eighteen patients with severe acne vulgaris were randomly divided into two groups. Control group received isotretinoin (0.5 mg∕kg alone and case group received isotretinoin (0.5 mg∕kg combined with omega 3 (2 capsuls daily. The duration of treatment was 16 weeks.Mucocutaneous side-effects were assessed in patients(4, 8, 12, 16th wk. Results: Lip dryness (4, 8, 12th wk and dryness of nose, skin, eye in the 4 th week in the patients with acne vulgaris treated with isotretinoin and omega3 was lesser than in the patients treated with isotretinoin alone, that this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Omega 3 decreased the mucocutaneous side effects in the patients with acne vulgaris who received isotretinoin.

  5. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  6. Validity and usefulness of a single-item measure of patient-reported bother from side effects of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Timothy P; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mroczek, Daniel; O'Connor, Mary; Cella, David

    2018-03-01

    The improving efficacy of cancer treatment has resulted in an increasing array of treatment-related symptoms and associated burdens imposed on individuals undergoing aggressive treatment of their disease. Often, clinical trials compare therapies that have different types, and severities, of adverse effects. Whether rated by clinicians or patients themselves, it can be difficult to know which side effect profile is more disruptive or bothersome to patients. A simple summary index of bother can help to adjudicate the variability in adverse effects across treatments being compared with each other. Across 4 studies, a total of 5765 patients enrolled in cooperative group studies and industry-sponsored clinical trials were the subjects of the current study. Patients were diagnosed with a range of primary cancer sites, including bladder, brain, breast, colon/rectum, head/neck, hepatobiliary, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, and prostate as well as leukemia and lymphoma. All patients were administered the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General version (FACT-G). The single item "I am bothered by side effects of treatment" (GP5), rated on a 5-point Likert scale, is part of the FACT-G. To determine its validity as a useful summary measure from the patient perspective, it was correlated with individual and aggregated clinician-rated adverse events and patient reports of their general ability to enjoy life. Analyses of pharmaceutical trials demonstrated that mean GP5 scores ("I am bothered by side effects of treatment") significantly differed by maximum adverse event grade (PEffect sizes ranged from 0.13 to 0.46. Analyses of cooperative group trials demonstrated a significant correlation between GP5 and item GF3 ("I am able to enjoy life") in the predicted direction. The single FACT-G item "I am bothered by side effects of treatment" is significantly associated with clinician-reported adverse events and with patients' ability to enjoy their lives. It has promise as an

  7. A systematic review of the psychiatric side-effects of efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedi, Christopher A; Goforth, Harold W

    2011-11-01

    Concerns regarding the use of efavirenz in patients with a history of mental illness may predispose clinicians to not offer this agent to psychiatrically ill populations in spite of the convenience of once daily dosing, which can result in improved adherence in these at-risk populations. This systematic review examines the current data regarding the neuropsychiatric effects of efavirenz, and also attempts to provide guidance to clinicians using efavirenz to treat patients with mental illness. The review identified high rates of neuropsychiatric side effects including vivid dreams, insomnia and mood changes in approximately 50% of patients who initiate efavirenz. The effects begin quickly, commonly peak in the first 2 weeks, and are generally mild and transient in nature. Isolated case reports and uncontrolled data suggest higher rates of severe side effects; however, there is no clear evidence of a broadly increased risk of suicide or dangerous behavior for patients taking efavirenz as part of their antiretroviral regimen.

  8. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

  9. Potential functional and pathological side effects related to off-target pharmacological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James J; Van Vleet, Terry R; Mittelstadt, Scott W; Blomme, Eric A G

    2017-09-01

    Most pharmaceutical companies test their discovery-stage proprietary molecules in a battery of in vitro pharmacology assays to try to determine off-target interactions. During all phases of drug discovery and development, various questions arise regarding potential side effects associated with such off-target pharmacological activity. Here we present a scientific literature curation effort undertaken to determine and summarize the most likely functional and pathological outcomes associated with interactions at 70 receptors, enzymes, ion channels and transporters with established links to adverse effects. To that end, the scientific literature was reviewed using an on-line database, and the most commonly reported effects were summarized in tabular format. The resultant table should serve as a practical guide for research scientists and clinical investigators for the prediction and interpretation of adverse side effects associated with molecules interacting with components of this screening battery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Conventional and conformal technique of external beam radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: Dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrikah, N.; Winarno, H.; Amalia, T.; Djakaria, M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conventional and conformal techniques of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in terms of the dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on cervical cancer patients who underwent EBRT before brachytherapy in the Radiotherapy Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The prescribed dose distribution, tumor response, and acute side effects of EBRT using conventional and conformal techniques were investigated. In total, 51 patients who underwent EBRT using conventional techniques (25 cases using Cobalt-60 and 26 cases using a linear accelerator (LINAC)) and 29 patients who underwent EBRT using conformal techniques were included in the study. The distribution of the prescribed dose in the target had an impact on the patient’s final response to EBRT. The complete response rate of patients to conformal techniques was significantly greater (58%) than that of patients to conventional techniques (42%). No severe acute local side effects were seen in any of the patients (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grades 3-4). The distribution of the dose and volume to the gastrointestinal tract affected the proportion of mild acute side effects (RTOG grades 1-2). The urinary bladder was significantly greater using conventional techniques (Cobalt-60/LINAC) than using conformal techniques at 72% and 78% compared to 28% and 22%, respectively. The use of conformal techniques in pelvic radiation therapy is suggested in radiotherapy centers with CT simulators and 3D Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (RTPSs) to decrease some uncertainties in radiotherapy planning. The use of AP/PA pelvic radiation techniques with Cobalt-60 should be limited in body thicknesses equal to or less than 18 cm. When using conformal techniques, delineation should be applied in the small bowel, as it is considered a critical organ according to RTOG

  11. Use of sedative drugs at reducing the side effects of voiding cystourethrography in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging of the kidneys and urinary tract has a significant and critical role for diagnosis of genitourinary system diseases. Although technological progress goes toward less invasive approaches, some of the current methods are still invasive and annoying. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is the best and most accurate method for diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux. VCUG is a distressful procedure that gives serious anxiety and pain in a large proportion of children and fear for parents; therefore, using effective sedative drugs with the least side effects is necessary and should be considered. Materials and Methods: In this review article, importance and efficacy of different drugs before catheterization VCUG be compared in the base of literature survey on EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane source. Results: We found that the treatment should be based on nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods; nonpharmacological treatment includes the psychological preparation before procedures as a safety precaution with little or no risk modality, as well as reassuring support. The presence of parents during painful procedures cannot alleviate children distress. Pharmacological methods include oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg and intranasal use (0.2 mg/kg that had been used 10 min before the procedure can effect on anterograde amnesia and sedation without considerable effect on accuracy and grade of reflux. Nitric oxide has a shorter recovery time versus midazolam but has a potential risk for deep sedation and may interfere with the child's voiding phase. Conclusion: In summary, oral midazolam of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg or 0.2 mg/kg intranasal is acceptable drug that can be used before VCUG.

  12. Age-related differences in renal side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in the rat

    OpenAIRE

    Jongejan, Mieke

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe improved life-expectancy of cancer patient has brought to light late sequelae of oncology therapy. This is especially true for pediatric patients. Renal damage is one of the adverse side-effects of anti-tumor therapy that may occur. Studies conceming damaging effects of radiotherapy or chemotherapy on the kidney have generally been performed in adults. There is scant experimental or clinical information on renal function after anti -tumor therapy in the young. Rapid growth occ...

  13. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...... their identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects...

  14. Regulating Effect of Asymmetrical Impeller on the Flow Distributions of Double-sided Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Dengfeng; Wang, Benjiang

    2017-11-01

    To achieve the rebalance of flow distributions of double-sided impellers, a method of improving the radius of rear impeller is presented in this paper. It is found that the flow distributions of front and rear impeller can be adjusted effectively by increasing the radius of rear impeller, thus improves the balance of flow distributions of front and rear impeller. Meanwhile, the working conversion mode process of double-sided centrifugal compressor is also changed. Further analysis shows that the flowrates of blade channels in front impeller are mainly influenced by the circumferential distributions of static pressure in the volute. But the flowrates of rear impeller blade channels are influenced by the outlet flow field of bent duct besides the effects of static pressure distributions in the volute. In the airflow interaction area downstream, the flowrate of blade channel is obviously smaller. By increasing the radius of rear impeller, the work capacity of rear impeller is enhanced, the working mode conversion process from parallel working mode of double-sided impeller to the single impeller working mode is delayed, and the stable working range of double-sided compressor is broadened.

  15. Sleep Disturbance During Smoking Cessation: Withdrawal or Side Effect of Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    The nicotine-metabolite ratio (NMR) predicts treatment response and is related to treatment side effect severity. Sleep disturbance may be one important side effect, but understanding sleep disturbance effects on smoking cessation is complicated by the fact that nicotine withdrawal also produces sleep disturbance. To evaluate the effects of withdrawal and treatment side effects on sleep disturbance. This is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (Lerman et al., 2015) of 1,136 smokers randomised to placebo ( n = 363), transdermal nicotine (TN; n = 381), or varenicline ( n = 392) and stratified based on NMR (559 slow metabolisers; 577 normal metabolisers). Sleep disturbance was assessed at baseline and at 1-week following the target quit date (TQD). We also examined whether sleep disturbance predicted 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment (EOT). The varenicline and TN groups exhibited greater increases in sleep disturbance (vs. placebo; treatment × time interaction; p = 0.005), particularly among those who quit smoking at 1-week post-TQD. There was a main effect of NMR ( p = 0.04), but no interactions with treatment. TN and varenicline attenuated withdrawal symptoms unrelated to sleep (vs. placebo). Greater baseline sleep disturbance predicted relapse at EOT ( p = 0.004). Existing treatments may not mitigate withdrawal-related sleep disturbance and adjunctive treatments that target sleep disturbance may improve abstinence rates.

  16. [Adverse side effects of antiretroviral therapy: relationship between patients' perception and adherence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, María Teresa; del Cacho, Elena; López, Ester; Codina, Carles; Tuset, Montserrat; de Lazzari, Elisa; Miró, Josep M; Gatell, Josep M; Ribas, Josep

    2007-06-23

    To evaluate the relationship between perceived adverse side effects (AE) and non-adherence associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). For 6 consecutive months, patients taking HAART who came to the Pharmacy Department were interviewed. In the questionnaire they had to answer if they had experienced any AE over the past 6 months, what did they do in response to AE and what was the clinical evolution. Adherence was measured by pill counts or by pharmacy records (when pill counts were not possible). Of 1,936 interviewed patients, 661 (34.1%) reported AE over the past 6 months. The type of antiretroviral drug regimen and starting, re-starting or changing HAART over the past 6 months were significantly associated with AE. Patients who reported AE were 1.4 times more likely to be non-adherents. The most frequently reported AE were diarrhea followed by central nervous system abnormalities and by other gastrointestinal disturbances. In patients starting HAART, 62% of AE improved or disappeared during the first 4 weeks of therapy. Patients who report AE have worst adherence. AE are more frequent in patients starting HAART but in most cases they improve with time and/or symptomatic therapy.

  17. Effects of COMT, DRD2, BDNF, and APOE Genotypic Variation on Treatment Efficacy and Cognitive Side Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousman, Chad A; Katalinic, Natalie; Martin, Donel M; Smith, Deidre J; Ingram, Anna; Dowling, Nathan; Ng, Chee; Loo, Colleen K

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the main and interaction effects of the COMT Val158Met, DRD2 C957T, BDNF Val66Met, and APOE polymorphisms on treatment efficacy and cognitive side effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A total of 117 adult inpatients with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder recruited from 3 hospitals were administered the Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale and a cognitive battery assessing global cognition, anterograde memory, executive function, speed and concentration, as well as retrograde memory at baseline and after ECT treatment. DRD2 C957T heterozygotes had 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.13-12.25; P = 0.032) greater odds of remission compared with CC homozygotes. Among the men, COMT Val/Val carriers had greater depressive symptom reduction compared with Met/Met carriers (Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale percentage of reduction, 76% vs 35%; P = 0.020) but not among the women (P = 0.903) after ECT. For cognitive outcomes, an interaction effect on anterograde memory was observed between the DRD2 and BDNF polymorphisms (P = 0.016), in which carriers of the DRD2 TT and BDNF Val/Val genotypes had significantly less decline in anterograde performance than those that carried the TC and Met-allele (P = 0.001) or CC and Met-allele (P = 0.003) genotypes. However, no results withstood correction for multiple comparisons. These observations provide preliminary evidence supporting an association between common functional genotypic variation and ECT efficacy as well as anterograde memory side effects after ECT. Validation of these findings is required before firm conclusions can be made and clinical utility can be assessed.

  18. Systematic review and metaanalysis of statins for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in children: evaluation of cholesterol changes and side effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2012-02-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) affects 1 in 500 individuals. Evidence supports the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering effect of statins for adults with heFH. However, there are concerns regarding the treatment children with heFH. By performing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the published literature, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of statins used for children with heFH. A systematic review was performed by searching multiple medical databases and citations to identify reports of randomized controlled trials of statins used to treat children with heFH. The trials were retrieved, reviewed, and subjected to metaanalysis. The search yielded 2,174 titles. Of the 63 studies retrieved and reviewed, 56 were excluded, 7 were included in the systematic review, and 4 were included in the metaanalysis. Significant heterogeneity was detected. The metaanalysis showed significant LDL lowering, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol elevation, and increases in height and weight with statins. The metaanalysis could not be performed for many side effects of statins, but individual trials showed no significant side effects. Quality assessment showed methodologic concerns, with potential for bias. For example, six trials analyzed statin effects without intention to treat despite such a stated intention. Metaanalysis shows significant LDL lowering with statin treatment. Further studies, including epidemiologic and multicenter studies, are required.

  19. Significantly enhanced memory effect in metallic glass by multistep training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. X.; Luo, P.; Sun, Y. T.; Wen, P.; Bai, H. Y.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-11-01

    The state of metastable equilibrium glass can carry an imprint of the past and exhibit memory effect. As a hallmark of glassy dynamics, memory effect can affect glassy behavior as it evolves further upon time. Even though the physical picture of the memory effect has been well studied, it is unclear whether a glass can recall as many pieces of information as possible, and if so, how the glass will accordingly behave. We report that by fractionizing temperature interval, inserting multistep aging protocols, and optimizing the time of each temperature step, i.e., by imposing a multistep "training" on a prototypical P d40N i10C u30P20 metallic glass, the memory of the trained glass can be significantly strengthened, marked by a pronounced augment in potential energy. These findings provide a new guide for regulating the energy state of glass by enhancing the nonequilibrium behaviors of the memory effect and offer an opportunity to develop a clearer physical picture of glassy dynamics.

  20. Correlation of mastication and masticatory movements and effect of chewing side preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias Gomes, Simone Guimarães; Custodio, William; Moura Jufer, Juliana Silva; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to correlate masticatory performance with mandibular movements during mastication, and to evaluate masticatory performance and mandibular movements of subjects with different types of mastication. Seventy-eight healthy dentate subjects were selected and divided into 2 groups: bilateral and unilateral chewers. This classification was set by using kinesiography during mastication of an artificial material. Unilateral mastication was defined as the majority of the cycles took place at one specific side. The same tracings used to define type of mastication were used to evaluate mandibular movements by means of its parameters. Masticatory performance was analyzed by comminution of the artificial material and a sieving method. Statistical analysis was performed by Spearman's correlation method, and Mann-Whitney and Student's t-test, when appropriate, at 5% significance level. No correlation was found between masticatory performance and parameters of mandibular movement during mastication. Bilateral chewers presented significantly better (pchewing side worsens mastication.

  1. Psychiatric side effects of ketamine in hospitalized medical patients administered subanesthetic doses for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Keith G

    2014-08-01

    To assess the psychiatric side effects of ketamine when administered in subanesthetic doses to hospitalized patients. It is hypothesized that such effects occur frequently. In this retrospective study, the medical records of 50 patients hospitalized on medical and surgical units at our facility who had continuous intravenous infusions of ketamine for pain or mild sedation were reviewed. Patient progress in the days following the start of ketamine infusion was reviewed and response to ketamine was noted. Twenty-two percent of the patients were noted to have some type of psychiatric reaction to ketamine, including agitation, confusion, and hallucinations. These reactions were relatively short lived, namely, occurring during or shortly after the infusions. No association was found between patient response to ketamine and gender, age, or infusion rate. Awareness of the psychiatric side effects of ketamine is an important consideration for clinicians administering this medication either for pain control or for depressive illness.

  2. Ovarian cancer survivors' acceptance of treatment side effects evolves as goals of care change over the cancer continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Melissa K; Ellis, Annie E; Koontz, Laura M; Shyne, Savannah; Klingenberg, Bernhard; Fields, Jessica C; Chern, Jing-Yi; Blank, Stephanie V

    2017-08-01

    Women with ovarian cancer can have long overall survival and goals of treatment change over time from cure to remission to stable disease. We sought to determine whether survivors' acceptance of treatment side effects also changes over the disease continuum. Women with ovarian cancer completed an online survey focusing on survivors' goals and priorities. The survey was distributed through survivor networks and social media. Four hundred and thirty-four women visited the survey website and 328 (76%) completed the survey. Among participants, 141 (43%) identified themselves as having ever recurred, 119 (36%) were undergoing treatment at the time of survey completion and 86 (26%) had received four or more chemotherapy regimens. Respondents' goals of care were cure for 115 women (35%), remission for 156 (48%) and stable disease for 56 (17%). When asked what was most meaningful, 148 women (45%) reported overall survival, 135 (41%) reported quality of life and 40 (12%) reported progression-free survival. >50% of survivors were willing to tolerate the following symptoms for the goal of cure: fatigue (283, 86%), alopecia (281, 86%), diarrhea (232, 71%), constipation (227, 69%), neuropathy (218, 66%), arthralgia (210, 64%), sexual side effects (201, 61%), reflux symptoms (188, 57%), memory loss (180, 55%), nausea/vomiting (180, 55%), hospitalization for treatment side effects (179, 55%) and pain (169, 52%). The rates of tolerance for most symptoms decreased significantly as the goal of treatment changed from cure to remission to stable disease. Women with ovarian cancer willingly accept many treatment side effects when the goal of treatment is cure, however become less accepting when the goal is remission and even less so when the goal is stable disease. Physicians and survivors must carefully consider treatment toxicities and quality of life effects when selecting drugs for patients with incurable disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacogenetics of clozapine treatment response and side-effects in schizophrenia: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriretnakumar, Venuja; Huang, Eric; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine (CLZ) is the most effective treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, with potential added benefits of reduction in suicide risk and aggression. However, CLZ is also mainly underused due to its high risk for the potentially lethal side-effect of agranulocytosis as well as weight gain and related metabolic dysregulation. Pharmacogenetics promises to enable the prediction of patient treatment response and risk of adverse effects based on patients' genetics, paving the way toward individualized treatment. This article reviews pharmacogenetics studies of CLZ response and side-effects with a focus on articles from January 2012 to February 2015, as an update to the previous reviews. Pharmacokinetic genes explored primarily include CYP1A2, while pharmacodynamic genes consisted of traditional pharmacogenetic targets such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor as well novel mitochondrial genes, NDUFS-1 and translocator protein. Pharmacogenetics is a promising avenue for individualized medication of CLZ in SCZ, with several consistently replicated gene variants predicting CLZ response and side-effects. However, a large proportion of studies have yielded mixed results. Large-scale Genome-wide association studies (e.g., CRESTAR) and targeted gene studies with standardized designs (response measurements, treatment durations, plasma level monitoring) are required for further progress toward clinical translation. Additionally, in order to improve study quality, we recommend accounting for important confounders, including polypharmacy, baseline measurements, treatment duration, gender, and age at onset.

  4. Beluga coal field development: social effects and management alternatives. [West side of Cook Inlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, M.; Cluett, C.; Trimble, J.; Brody, S.; Howell, C.; Leman, L.; Svendsen, G.

    1979-05-01

    Plans are under way to mine the Beluga coal fields on the west side of Cook Inlet. The coal will be strip-mined for export, or to supply local electric generating plants, or both. Over the next 20 years, this coal development activity is likely to generate social and economic impacts at the local, regional, and state levels. The purpose of this study is to assess the potential social and economic effects of coal development, including employment and population growth, regional impacts, and the facility and service needs of a new settlement in the Beluga area. Of special concern is identifying the role of various governmental agencies in the development process. Potential effects on the natural environment are not examined in detail since they are expected to be controlled to acceptable levels through existing Federal and state laws. This report examines three possible levels of coal-field development and the settlement requirements associated with each. The most probable regional impacts associated with this development will include effects on the regional labor force, the market for coal, and the generation and distribution of revenues. The main regional labor force impacts will be positive in nature. The rate of regional unemployment is likely to decline slightly for the duration of the project, with an increase in wage income available for reinvestment in the region and a reduction in the number of individuals receiving unemployment insurance payments. Coal development is not expected to induce any significant inmigration of workers from outside the region.The development of the Beluga coal resources and the production of electricity from coal would add to the Kenai Peninsula Borough's tax base. The assessed value of coal lands around Beluga would likely increase and, in addition, Cook Inlet Region, Inc. would be the recipient of royalties from coal leases. A number of recommendations for research and governmental activities are presented.

  5. Comparative study of adverse effects of Olanzapine and Risperidone on blood suger, lipid and other side effects in psychotic disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mitra safa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Safa M1, Mohammadi MR2, Saki M3, Delfan B4, Tarrahi MJ5, Rouhandeh M6 1. Assistant Professor, Department of psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. GP, Khorramabad, Iran 3. Instructor, Department of Nursing, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 4. Associate Professor, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 5. Instructor, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 6. BSc in Nursing, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Chronic mental disorders are among the problems in psychiatrics. Atypical anti psychotic drugs are new effective medications to treat these disorders. Unfortunately these drugs lead to side effects such as increase in blood glocuse, weight gain and edema. This study aims to investigate adverse effects of Olanzapine and Rispridone on lipid level and blood glocuse and other complications in patients with psychotic disorders. Materials and methods: This clinical trial-double blinded study, patients with psychotic disorders were randomly categorized into two groups. Group one treated with Olanzapine and other with Rispridone. All the subjects were initially assessed for blood sugar and lipids, and in the case of normal, they were randomly assigned to two groups in a double- blinded method to be treated with Olanzapine or Risperidone. Blood sugar and lipids tests were performed for all subjects at the 1st week and 3 months after initiation of therapy. Other complications were assessed too, then the data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: The results of the study indicated that the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and blood suger rose significantly at the 1st week and third month after beginning the treatment. Increase of cholesterol and triglyceride in the Olanzapine and Risperidone

  6. Women with breast cancer report substantially more disease- and treatment-related side or late effects than registered by clinical oncologists: a cross-sectional study of a standard follow-up program in an oncological department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Mai Britt Bjørklund; Grau, Cai; Zachariae, Robert

    2017-01-01

    effects were hot flushes (35%), fatigue (32%), and sleep disturbance (31%). CONCLUSION: None of the scheduled or additional visits resulted in detection of recurrent disease. Furthermore, the majority of patients reported side or late effects. Statistically significant more women reported side or late...... effects than registered by the clinical oncologists. This suggests the need for rethinking of the follow-up programs with more emphasis upon side or late effects of the treatment....

  7. Immunological Effects of Probiotics and their Significance to Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Harsharn S.; Grover, Sunita; Batish, Virender K.; Gill, Preet

    Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit upon the host (FAO/WHO, 2001). Lactic acid bacteria, particularly Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species are commonly used as probiotics. Other less commonly used probiotics include the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae and some non-pathogenic Escherichia coli and Bacillus species. Studies over the past 20 years have demonstrated that probiotic intake is able to confer a range of health benefits including modulation of the immune system, protection against gastrointestinal and respiratory tract infections, lowering of blood cholesterol levels, attenuation of overt immuno-inflammatory disorders (such as inflammatory bowel disease, allergies) and anti-cancer effects. However, the strongest clinical evidence for probiotics relates to their effectiveness in improving gut health and modulating (via stimulation or regulation) the host immune system. This chapter provides an overview of the current status of our knowledge regarding the immunostimulatory and immunoregulatory effects of probiotics on the immune system and their significance to human health.

  8. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. Key points To cover the specific game demands, more

  9. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p 5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p handball games can be used to manipulate both external and internal loads on the players. Key pointsTo cover the specific game demands, more

  10. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  11. An investigation on the side-effect and complications of the thyroid artery embolization for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yi; Zeng Xianqiang; Yang Jijin; Tian Jianming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the side-effect and complications of interventional therapy of hyperthyroidism and the prevention and treatment. Methods: Super selective catheterization followed by embolization with PVA microspheres and Gelfoam particles were performed within the abnormal thyroid superior and inferior arteries of in patients with hyperthyroidism. Results: All the patients felt discomfort in their neck, 53 patients felt painful in their neck and had difficulty in swallowing. Other 11 patients had difficulty in pronunciation or hoarse pronunciation, 17 patients had toothache, 18 patients have purpuric skin rash, one patient had brain infarct, and one patient has life-threatening thyrotoxicosis. No hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism are observed. Conclusion: There are some side-effect and complications in the thyroid artery embolization for hyperthyroidism. Careful manipulation during the procedure and close post-intervention care can prevent and manage some serious complications

  12. Age and Gender Related Renal Side Effects of Cisplatin in Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Maleki, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2017-06-25

    Backgrounds: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a choice of anti-cancer drug for cancer chemotherapy with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. It seems that age is an important factor influencing the side effects of CDDP. This study was designed to determine the role of age and gender simultaneously in CDDP induced renal toxicity. Methods: 40 Wistar male and female rats were assigned as 6 groups in 3 different age categories (10, 16, and 20 weeks old). The single dose of CDDP (7.5 mg/kg, ip) was administrated, and a week later measurements were performed. Results: Body weight changes in male (not in female) animals aged 16 and 20 weeks were more than 10 weeks old animals (PGender difference in serum level of Cr, BUN and nitrite, and Cr-clearance were observed in animals aged10 weeks (Pgender depended, and may be different at various ages. Creative Commons Attribution License

  13. Radiotherapy for cancer patients aged 80 and older: a study of effectiveness and side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariah, Babu; Balducci, Lodovico; Venkattaramanabalaji, G.V.; Casey, Linda; Greenberg, Harvey M.; Del Regato, Juan A.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To profile cancer patients aged 80 and older undergoing radiotherapy and to study the tumor response and side effects of therapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed the records of patients aged 80 and older who received radiation therapy at James A. Haley Veterans Hospital and H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center between 1988 and 1995. A total of 203 patients aged 80-94 received radiotherapy during this period. Treatment sites included head and neck [50], breast [16], chest [37], pelvis [53], and miscellaneous [39]. Age, treatment site, field size, total dose, response to treatment, treatment interruptions, incidence and severity of weight loss, myelosuppression, diarrhea, mucositis, dermatitis, and follow-up status are assessed using our departmental records and hospital tumor registry. Results: Of 191 patients evaluated, 179 (94%) completed the treatment without serious complications. A total of 195 sites were irradiated. Twelve patients (6%) required interruption of the treatment. Therapeutic responses were seen in 86 out of 112 patients (77%) treated with curative intent (with 67% complete response) and in 67 out of 83 patients (81%) treated with palliative intent. The causes of treatment interruptions included weight loss from diarrhea, dysphagia, and progressive disease. Treatment interruptions were more likely in patients treated with large treatment fields. In patients treated for upper aero-digestive tract cancer, Grade 3 and 4 mucositis was noted in 20 and 2% of patients, respectively. Grade 1 and 2 enteritis was noted in 43% of patients treated for pelvic malignancies. Grade 3 dermatitis was noted only in 2% of patients. Conclusion: Radiotherapy is highly effective and well tolerated by the oldest old. Age is not a contraindication to aggressive radiotherapy

  14. Probing the dark side of the Universe with weak gravitational lensing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Li-Ping; Fan Zu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Arising from gravitational deflections of light rays by large-scale structures in the Universe, weak-lensing effects have been recognized as one of the most important probes in cosmological studies. In this paper, we review the main progress in weak-lensing analyses, and discuss the challenges in future investigations aiming to understand the dark side of the Universe with unprecedented precisions. (invited reviews)

  15. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  16. Influence of psychiatric diagnosis on treatment uptake and interferon side effects in patients with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Yuan J; Shadbolt, Bruce; Teoh, Narci; Blunn, Anne; To, Caroline; Rodriguez-Morales, Ilys; Chitturi, Shivakumar; Kaye, Graham; Rodrigo, Kalyana; Farrell, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Pegylated-interferon-α/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) treatment can cure hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but has frequent neuropsychiatric side-effects. Patients with pre-existing psychiatric illness may not be offered therapy. We established prevalence of self-reported psychiatric comorbidity among HCV-infected patients in a hospital-liver clinic, and determined the impact of such diagnoses on uptake and tolerance to PEG-IFN/RBV. All HCV cases referred for assessment in Australian Capital Territory/surrounding regions April 2004-March 2012 were entered into a clinical database. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses of variables correlating with uptake of antiviral therapy and frequency of treatment-related side-effects. Of 773 referred patients, 235 (30%) described pre-existing psychiatric illness. Among these, 26% received antiviral therapy, compared with 30% of 538 without psychiatric comorbidity. History of depression (usually validated by liaison psychiatry) was associated with higher incidence of treatment-related neuropsychiatric side-effects (odds ratio 2.79 [1.35-5.70], P schizophrenia: three (11%) received antiviral therapy, compared with 30% admitting depression and 20% with bipolar affective disorder (all assessed by psychiatrist). In most schizophrenia cases, the reason for not offering antiviral treatment was psychological illness, yet none of five treated (these three plus two others in a psychiatric rehabilitation facility) experienced worsening psychiatric symptoms. A history of depression is common with hepatitis C but does not affect initiation of antiviral treatment, despite substantially increased risk of psychiatric side-effects. In contrast, pre-existing schizophrenia appears to influence treatment decisions, despite little evidence that PEG-IFN/RBV exacerbates the psychiatric condition, and well-supervised antiviral therapy can have good outcomes.

  17. Comparison of the efficiency, side effects and complications of the synthetic dural grafts: Beriplast and Tissudura

    OpenAIRE

    HAMZAOĞLU, Vural; ÖZALP, Hakan; KARKUCAK, Ahmet; ÇOKLUK, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare human fibrinogen-thrombin-based liquid dural graft; Beriplast® (Behring, Malburg, Germany) and collagen-based dural graft; Tissudura® (Baxter, Heidelberg, Germany) in terms of efficiency, side effects and complications. Thirty Spraque Dawley rats were used in this experimental study. A burrhole was opened on the left parietal bone of each subject and experimental dural defect was created. While 10 subjects were in sham group without any dural defect re...

  18. Side effects and complications of intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the side effects and complications following intraosseous anesthesia (IA), comparing them with those of the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Material and method: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two ...

  19. Exercise for the Management of Side Effects and Quality of Life among Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Mustian, Karen M.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Palesh, Oxana G.; Peppone, Luke J.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Carroll, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity may play an important role in the rehabilitation of cancer survivors during and following treatment. Current research suggests numerous beneficial outcomes are experienced in cancer survivors undergoing exercise interventions during or following cancer treatment. Exercise not only plays a role in managing side effects but also improves functional capacity and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the oncology literature supporting the use ...

  20. Novel Anticonvulsant Analogs of Dextromethorphan: Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    dextromethorphan (014, [+J-3-aethyl-l7-methylmorphinan) may be, in part, due to its ____________________metabolism to the PCP-like compound... Dextromethorphan : Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile1 FRANK C. TORTELLA, LYDIA ROBLES, JEFFREY M. WITKIN and AMY HAUCK NEWMAN... dextromethorphan ; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; PCP, phencyclidine hydrochloride; DX, dextrorphan; AHN649, [(+)-3- amino-1 7-methylmorphinan]; AHN1 -036

  1. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week intervention with structured physical activity, relaxation, body-awareness techniques and massage on the symptoms/side-effects of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study was prospective and exploratory, and 54 patients....../side-effects than patients with no evidence of disease (n=28) (P=0.027). The results indicate that a six weeks multidimensional exercise intervention undertaken by cancer patients with or without residual disease while undergoing chemotherapy can lead to a reduction in treatment-related symptoms....

  2. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: A rare side effect in a patient treated with Imiquimod for lentigo maligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Whatling

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Topical Imiquimod is increasingly used in the treatment of lentigo maligna (LM for patients not suitable or willing for surgery. It acts as an immune response modifier and is recommended for use with caution in patients with autoimmune disorders. A review of the literature did not reveal any reported cases of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP with the use of Imiquimod so far. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of Addison's and Graves' disease who had been diagnosed with lentigo maligna on the right nasal ala. Within two days of commencing of topical Imiquimod treatment, she was admitted to the hospital with extensive cutaneous and mucosal bruising and treated as acute Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura. Deranged platelets were reversed promptly with treatment and Imiquimod discontinued. We demonstrate that Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura is a potential life-threatening side effect of Imiquimod treatment and patients who have autoimmune disorders are at increased risk of developing this side effect. We recommend that Imiquimod is contraindicated in patients with autoimmune disease. Here we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on Imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna and its potential side effects.

  3. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  4. Effective Energy Simulation and Optimal Design of Side-lit Buildings with Venetian Blinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tian

    Venetian blinds are popularly used in buildings to control the amount of incoming daylight for improving visual comfort and reducing heat gains in air-conditioning systems. Studies have shown that the proper design and operation of window systems could result in significant energy savings in both lighting and cooling. However, there is no convenient computer tool that allows effective and efficient optimization of the envelope of side-lit buildings with blinds now. Three computer tools, Adeline, DOE2 and EnergyPlus widely used for the above-mentioned purpose have been experimentally examined in this study. Results indicate that the two former tools give unacceptable accuracy due to unrealistic assumptions adopted while the last one may generate large errors in certain conditions. Moreover, current computer tools have to conduct hourly energy simulations, which are not necessary for life-cycle energy analysis and optimal design, to provide annual cooling loads. This is not computationally efficient, particularly not suitable for optimal designing a building at initial stage because the impacts of many design variations and optional features have to be evaluated. A methodology is therefore developed for efficient and effective thermal and daylighting simulations and optimal design of buildings with blinds. Based on geometric optics and radiosity method, a mathematical model is developed to reasonably simulate the daylighting behaviors of venetian blinds. Indoor illuminance at any reference point can be directly and efficiently computed. They have been validated with both experiments and simulations with Radiance. Validation results show that indoor illuminances computed by the new models agree well with the measured data, and the accuracy provided by them is equivalent to that of Radiance. The computational efficiency of the new models is much higher than that of Radiance as well as EnergyPlus. Two new methods are developed for the thermal simulation of buildings. A

  5. Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, A.; Ripken, T.; Mamom, T.; Drommer, W.; Welling, H.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    In order to evaluate the potential for refractive surgery, fs laser pulses of 150-fs pulse duration were used to process corneal tissue of dead and living animal eyes. By focusing the laser radiation down to spot sizes of several microns, very precise cuts could be achieved inside the treated cornea, accompanied with minimum collateral damage to the tissue by thermal or mechanical effects. During histo-pathological analysis by light and transmission electron microscopy considerable side effects of fs photodisruption were found. Due to the high intensities at the focal region several nonlinear effects occurred. Self-focusing, photodissociation, UV-light production were observed, leading to streak formation inside the cornea.

  6. The Bright Side and Dark Side of Workplace Social Capital: Opposing Effects of Gender on Overweight among Japanese Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Suzuki, Etsuji; Oksanen, Tuula; Kawachi, Ichiro; Takao, Soshi

    2014-01-01

    Background A growing number of studies have sought to examine the health associations of workplace social capital; however, evidence of associations with overweight is sparse. We examined the association between individual perceptions of workplace social capital and overweight among Japanese male and female employees. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a cross-sectional survey among full-time employees at a company in Osaka prefecture in February 2012. We used an 8-item measure to assess overall and sub-dimensions of workplace social capital, divided into tertiles. Of 1050 employees, 849 responded, and 750 (624 men and 126 women) could be linked to annual health check-up data in the analysis. Binomial logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for overweight (body mass index: ≥25 kg/m2, calculated from measured weight and height) separately for men and women. The prevalence of overweight was 24.5% among men and 14.3% among women. Among men, low levels of bonding and linking social capital in the workplace were associated with a nearly 2-fold risk of overweight compared to high corresponding dimensions of social capital when adjusted for age, sleep hours, physiological distress, and lifestyle. In contrast, among women we found lower overall and linking social capital to be associated with lower odds for overweight even after covariate adjustment. Subsequently, we used multinomial logistic regression analyses to assess the relationships between a 1 standard deviation (SD) decrease in mean social capital and odds of underweight/overweight relative to normal weight. Among men, a 1-SD decrease in overall, bonding, and linking social capital was significantly associated with higher odds of overweight, but not with underweight. Among women, no significant associations were found for either overweight or underweight. Conclusions/Significance We found opposite gender relationships between perceived low linking

  7. Review Article: Fabricated Microparticles: An Innovative Method to Minimize the Side Effects of NSAIDs in Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan; Moin, Afrasim; Veerabhadrappa, Gangadharappa Hosahalli

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles are polymeric bodies ranging 1-1000 µm that constitute a variety of forms such as microcapsules, microspheres, microcages, microshells, microrods, biosensors microparticles, radiolabeled microparticles, and so forth. This review focuses on general microparticles, mainly microcapsules and microspheres. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostcommonly prescribed medications in the world. Most of the NSAIDs available have severe side effects. With increased awareness of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, safety has become a priority in treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases with NSAIDs. A trend in NSAID development has been to improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing the severity of GI side effects by altering dosage through modified release to optimize drug delivery. One such approach is the use of fabricated microparticles such as microcapsules and microspheres as carriers of drugs. Microparticles provide delivery of macromolecules and micromolecules via different routes and effectively control the release profile of such drugs. Microcapsules and microspheres are compatible with most natural and synthetic polymers and can be used for several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, nasal, intra-ocular, topical, and the like. Because of greater stability and multiple manufacturing techniques, microspheres and microcapsules are preferred as drug carriers over other colloidal drug delivery systems. Microparticles provide effective protection of the encapsulated agent against degradation by enzymatic activities, controlled and confined delivery of drugs from a few hours to months, and ingenious administration compared to alternative forms of controlled-release parenteral dosages, such as macro-sized implants. This comprehensive overview of fabricated microparticles describes microencapsulation technologies to produce microparticles for targeted therapy of arthritis and other

  8. Supply- and demand-side effects of power sector planning with demand-side management options and SO2 emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.; Marpaung, C.O.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of SO 2 emission mitigation constraints in the power sector planning in Indonesia--a developing country--during 2003-2017 from a long term integrated resource planning perspective. A decomposition model is developed to assess the contributions of supply- and demand-side effects to the total changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions from the power sector due to constraints on SO 2 emissions. The results of the study show that both the supply- and demand-side effects would act towards the reduction of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions. However, the supply-side effect would play the dominant role in emission mitigations from the power sector in Indonesia. The average incremental SO 2 abatement cost would increase from US$ 970 to US$ 1271 per ton of SO 2 , while electricity price would increase by 2-18% if the annual SO 2 emission reduction target is increased from 10% to 25%

  9. Effects of Mach Numbers on Side Force, Yawing Moment and Surface Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka; Husain, Mukkarum; Younis, Muhammad Yamin

    2011-09-01

    In this research, CFD simulations are performed for air vehicle configuration to compute the side force effect and yawing moment coefficients variations at high angle of attack and Mach numbers. As the angle of attack is increased then lift and drag are increased for cylinder body configurations. But when roll angle is given to body then side force component is also appeared on the body which causes lateral forces on the body and yawing moment is also produced. Now due to advancement of CFD methods we are able to calculate these forces and moment even at supersonic and hypersonic speed. In this study modern CFD techniques are used to simulate the hypersonic flow to calculate the side force effects and yawing moment coefficient. Static pressure variations along the circumferential and along the length of the body are also calculated. The pressure coefficient and center of pressure may be accurately predicted and calculated. When roll angle and yaw angle is given to body then these forces becomes very high and cause the instability of the missile body with fin configurations. So it is very demanding and serious problem to accurately predict and simulate these forces for the stability of supersonic vehicles.

  10. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Huelva, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Huelva (Spain); Rivera de los Santos, Francisco [University of Seville, Area of Methodology of Behavioural Sciences, Seville (Spain); Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos [University of Huelva, Department of Environmental and Public Health, Huelva (Spain)

    2017-10-15

    Regadenoson, an A{sub 2A} adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO{sub 2}), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  11. Influence of body mass index and type of low-level exercise on the side effect profile of regadenoson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado-Garcia, Carlos; Jimenez-Heffernan, Amelia; Lopez-Martin, Juana; Molina-Mora, Manuela; Aroui, Tarik; Sanchez de Mora, Elena; Ramos-Font, Carlos; Rivera de los Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Frutos, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Regadenoson, an A_2_A adenosine receptor pharmacologic stress agent for radionuclide myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI), is administered as a single, fixed dose. We studied the side effect profile of regadenoson combined with two types of low-level exercise, according to body mass index (BMI). Three hundred and fifty-six patients (46.1% men, mean age 67.7±10.7 years, range 31-90 years) underwent regadenoson stress testing combined with low-level exercise. Subjects were classified according to BMI as normal, overweight, or obese, and the type of low-level exercise performed as walking on the treadmill (TE group, n=190) or forcefully swinging legs while sitting (SS group, n=166). Patients' demographics, medical history, clinical symptoms during stress, changes in ECG, oxygen saturation (SatO_2), systolic blood pressure (SBP), and heart rate (HR) were evaluated. Groups were comparable (p=ns) with regard to cardiovascular risks factors. The incidence of side effects was similar across BMI (p=ns), although the TE patients showed improved profiles over those with SS exercise, with a significantly lower incidence of flushing, dizziness and nausea/gastrointestinal discomfort (12.9% vs. 28.4%; 19.9% vs. 33.4%; 11.4% vs. 19.2%, respectively; all p<0.05). Regarding the hemodynamic response, we did not observe significant changes in SBP and HR after regadenoson administration across BMI categories. Comparing the TE and SS groups, no significant changes were observed in SBP, but there was a higher increase in HR in the TE group (p<0.05). Regadenoson in combination with low-level exercise is safe and well tolerated over a wide range of BMI, with TE exercise showing a better side effect profile than SS. (orig.)

  12. Predicting acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: data from quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, and a continuous-performance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrim G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geir Ogrim,1–3 Knut A Hestad,3,4 Jan Ferenc Brunner,3,5,6 Juri Kropotov3,7,8 1Neuropsychiatric Unit, Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 2National Resource Center for ADHD, Tourettes' Syndrome and Narcolepsy, Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Division of Mental Health, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Neuroscience, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 7Institute of the Human Brain, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 8Department of Neuropsychology, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to search for predictors of acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, emphasizing variables from quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG, event-related potentials (ERPs, and behavior data from a visual continuous-performance test (VCPT. Methods: Seventy medication-naïve ADHD patients aged 7–16 years were tested with QEEG, including a go/no-go task condition (VCPT from which behavior data and ERPs were extracted, followed by a systematic trial on stimulant medication lasting at least 4 weeks. Based on data from rating scales and interviews, two psychologists who were blind to the QEEG/ERP test results independently rated the patients as having no or small side effects (n = 37 or troublesome side effects (n = 33. We determined if the side effects were related to sex, age, IQ, ADHD subtype, comorbidities, clinical outcome, and variables in QEEG, ERPs, and VCPT. Results: There was a moderate negative correlation between clinical outcome and side effects. Three variables were significantly associated with side effects in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the ERP independent component – contingent negative variation

  13. Antiepileptic Drug Behavioral Side Effects in Individuals with Mental Retardation and the Use of Behavioral Measurement Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral psychology measurement methods helped assess antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects in five individuals with mental retardation who could not verbally communicate presence of side effects. When the suspected antiepileptic drug was altered, an 81% reduction of maladaptive behaviors occurred. The measurement methods enabled systematic…

  14. The evaluation-mediation hypothesis: does the specification of potential side effects influence the perceived risk of medication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: starting from the assumptions of support theory, this project analyzed the extent to which the specification of potential side effects influences the perceived risk associated, with a particular medication. Respondents were presented with an instruction leaflet for a medication which indicated (a) the overall probability that a side effect will occur or (b) the probability of occurrence of several specific side effects. Support theory predicts that the cognitive availability of potential side effects and therefore the perceived risk increases as a function of the specificity with which the side effects are presented. In contrast the evaluation-mediation hypothesis predicts that a more detailed presentation of potential side effects enhances the perceived quality of the information leaflet and thereby leads to a reduction of perceived risk. Support for the evaluation-mediation hypothesis was found in a series of studies which included the editing hypothesis and the elaboration likelihood model as additional explanations: the more detailed the information about potential side effects, the lower the estimated risk of suffering a side effect on taking the medication. As predicted, the influence of presentation specificity on perceived risk was mediated almost exclusively by the perceived quality of the information leaflet. A current series of studies seeks to support the evaluation-mediation hypothesis in a completely different domain, the perceived risk of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. (author)

  15. Symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone in young adults with recent onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Johanna; Tijssen, Jans; Dingemans, Petrus; Gersons, Berthold; Linszen, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone were compared in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Actively symptomatic patients n=44) randomly, received olanzapine 15 mg (median dose) or risperidone 4 mg (median dose). Symptom response and side-effects were measured

  16. METABOLIC SIDE EFFECTS OF HALOPERIDOL AND RISPERIDONE- A SIX MONTHS FOLLOWUP STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaimathi B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To compare and analyse the metabolic side effects of Risperidone and Haloperidol in newly diagnosed drug-naive schizophrenic disorder patients attending Govt. Stanley Medical College Hospital during initial 6 months of therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS Newly diagnosed drug-naïve Schizophrenic Patients (n = 60 aged between 18 - 45 years are recruited and randomly allocated into Group A (Risperidone 4 - 6 mg daily and Group B (Haloperidol 5 - 10 mg daily after getting informed consent from the patient’s family members. Patients are followed up monthly for the occurrence of metabolic abnormalities like weight gain, rise in blood pressure, elevated fasting, post-prandial blood sugar level, dyslipidaemia for a period of 6 months. RESULTS Risperidone group showed the mean body weight increase from 64.40 to 69.27, SBP/DBP increase from 123.80/79 to 129.90/83.13; FBS/PPBS increase from 100.20/129.30 to 135.40/185.00; TC increase from 177.23 to 206.23; LDL from 124.30 to 158.30; HDL 48.83 to 50.07; TG 133.47 to 197.83: Haloperidol group showed the mean body weight increase from 64.07 to 68.48, SBP/DBP increase from 123.80/79.00 to 124.27/81.67; FBS/PPBS increase from 100.20/129.30 to 119.87/167.10; TC increase from 177.23 to 197.40; LDL from 119.77 to 139.00; HDL remained 48.83; TG 133.47 to 171.40. CONCLUSION This study showed that patients in both the groups had weight gain, rise in blood sugar, LDL cholesterol and Triglycerides level, but the rise was significant in patients on Risperidone when compared to those on Haloperidol during the 6-month followup.

  17. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape - Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Zhang

    Full Text Available Oilseed rape (Brassica napus is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users' health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0-1 t/ha less. Alternatives for future

  18. Benefits of remote real-time side-effect monitoring systems for patients receiving cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoed, Sarah; Breen, Sibilah; Gough, Karla; Aranda, Sanchia

    2012-03-05

    In Australia, the incidence of cancer diagnoses is rising along with an aging population. Cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy, are increasingly being provided in the ambulatory care setting. Cancer treatments are commonly associated with distressing and serious side-effects and patients often struggle to manage these themselves without specialized real-time support. Unlike chronic disease populations, few systems for the remote real-time monitoring of cancer patients have been reported. However, several prototype systems have been developed and have received favorable reports. This review aimed to identify and detail systems that reported statistical analyses of changes in patient clinical outcomes, health care system usage or health economic analyses. Five papers were identified that met these criteria. There was wide variation in the design of the monitoring systems in terms of data input method, clinician alerting and response, groups of patients targeted and clinical outcomes measured. The majority of studies had significant methodological weaknesses. These included no control group comparisons, small sample sizes, poor documentation of clinical interventions or measures of adherence to the monitoring systems. In spite of the limitations, promising results emerged in terms of improved clinical outcomes (e.g. pain, depression, fatigue). Health care system usage was assessed in two papers with inconsistent results. No studies included health economic analyses. The diversity in systems described, outcomes measured and methodological issues all limited between-study comparisons. Given the acceptability of remote monitoring and the promising outcomes from the few studies analyzing patient or health care system outcomes, future research is needed to rigorously trial these systems to enable greater patient support and safety in the ambulatory setting.

  19. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  20. Turning to account the implicit side effects of hydroelectric projects implying reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Operation of the hydroelectric projects including relatively important water reservoirs provides implicitly side effects favorable to water management (increase of minimum provided flows, flood routing, etc) and to related fields (additional facilities for water supply, extension of the public utility networks as: road, telecommunication, electric lines, favoring the tourism and recreative activities). The paper suggests methodologies for economic and financial assessment of these effects, the turning to account of which, may increase the efficiency of the hydroelectric development and may stimulate the interest for new investments in the field.(author). 3 figs., 5 refs

  1. Severe side effects with the application of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) during radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, U.; Siems, H.; Wannenmacher, M.; Schoelmerich, J.; Kluge, F.; Schaefer, H.E.

    1987-10-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study, the prophylactic effect of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) as suppositories (3x250 mg/day) on radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma was studied. The study ended when 16 patients had been included (5-ASA: Eight, placebo: Eight) because of severe side effects in the 5-ASA group. 75% of patients treated with 5-ASA reported symptoms of a severe proctitis while only one patient in the placebo group had similar complaints. The application of Mesalazine as suppositories is not useful in preventing radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma.

  2. Severe side effects with the application of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid) during radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freund, U.; Siems, H.; Wannenmacher, M.; Schoelmerich, J.; Kluge, F.; Schaefer, H.E.

    1987-01-01

    In a prospective randomized placebo controlled double blind study, the prophylactic effect of Mesalazine (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) as suppositories (3x250 mg/day) on radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy for prostatic carcinoma was studied. The study ended when 16 patients had been included (5-ASA: Eight, placebo: Eight) because of severe side effects in the 5-ASA group. 75% of patients treated with 5-ASA reported symptoms of a severe proctitis while only one patient in the placebo group had similar complaints. The application of Mesalazine as suppositories is not useful in preventing radiation induced proctitis during radiotherapy of prostate carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  3. Effects of the interstrip gap on the efficiency and response of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torresi D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the effects of the segmentation of the electrodes of Double Sided Silicon Strip Detectors (DSSSDs are investigated. In order to characterize the response of the DSSSDs we perform a first experiment by using tandem beams of different energies directly sent on the detector and a second experiment by mean of a proton microbeam. Results show that the effective width of the inter-strip region and the efficiency for full energy detection, varies with both detected energy and bias voltage. The experimental results are qualitatively reproduced by a simplified model based on the Shockley-Ramo-Gunn framework.

  4. Renal Side Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Gewillig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen or indomethacin are commonly prescribed drugs to induce pharmacologic closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates. Based on a recently published Cochrane meta-analysis, both drugs are equally effective to induce closure. Drug choice can therefore be based on differences in side effects or pharmaco-economic arguments. The current review quantifies the negative impact of either ibuprofen or indomethacin on renal function, including diuresis, glomerular filtration rate and renal tubular function. Both ibuprofen and indomethacin have a quantifiable impact on renal function. However, compared to ibuprofen, the negative impact of indomethacin is more pronounced.

  5. Erythropoietin as an add-on treatment for cognitive side effects of electroconvulsive therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lejla Sjanic; Petersen, Jeff Zarp; Vinberg, Maj

    2018-01-01

    trial investigates (1) whether short-term add-on treatment with erythropoietin (EPO) can reduce the cognitive side -effects of ECT and (2) whether such effects are long-lasting. Further, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) will be used to explore the neural underpinnings...... cognitive benefits of EPO are investigated with structural and functional MRI after the final EPO/saline infusion. The primary outcome is change from baseline to after EPO treatment (3 days after eight ECT sessions) in a cognitive composite score spanning attention, psychomotor speed, and executive...... of covariance. Functional MRI data will be preprocessed and analyzed using the FMRIB Software Library....

  6. Management of side effects during and post-treatment in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana; Scheiber, Caroline; Kesler, Shelli; Mustian, Karen; Koopman, Cheryl; Schapira, Lidia

    2018-03-01

    Cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment are commonly experienced symptoms that share psychological and physical manifestations. One or more of these symptoms will affect nearly all patients at some point during their course of treatment or survivorship. These side effects are burdensome and reduce patients' quality of life well beyond their cancer diagnosis and associated care treatments. Cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment are likely to have multiple etiologies that make it difficult to identify the most effective method to manage them. In this review, we summarized the information on cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment incidence and prevalence among breast cancer patients and survivors as well as recent research findings on pharmaceutical, psychological, and exercise interventions that have shown effectiveness in the treatment of these side effects. Our review revealed that most current pharmaceutical interventions tend to ameliorate symptoms only temporarily without addressing the underlying causes. Exercise and behavioral interventions are consistently more effective at managing chronic symptoms and possibly address an underlying etiology. Future research is needed to investigate effective interventions that can be delivered directly in clinic to a large portion of patients and survivors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Relationship between Sensory Stimulation and Side Effects in Percutaneous Radiofrequency Treatment of the Trigeminal Ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Mark V; Koning, Nick J; Koning, Henk M; van Kleef, Maarten

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) treatment of the trigeminal ganglion for treating patients with trigeminal neuralgia, to determine which patients have a long-term benefit, and to evaluate the effect of RF parameters. A retrospective study in 28 consecutive patients in combination with a follow-up questionnaire (n = 26, 93% response). An initial treatment effect of 89% was observed, 60% sustained at 12-month follow-up. Major side effects were hypesthesia (56%), dry eye (20%), and masseter muscle weakness (12%). A lower sensory stimulation threshold during treatment was associated with better patient satisfaction (P = 0.016), improved pain relief (P = 0.039), and trended toward more hypesthesia (P = 0.077). This low-volume study reported treatment effects in an older population that were similar to previous studies. Only a higher incidence of hypesthesia was detected by long-term follow-up. This study supported the high efficiency of RF treatment, but there was a high level of side effects. Most notable, low sensory stimulation was associated with increased hypesthesia, whereas higher stimulation levels yielded less effectiveness. Further investigation of an optimal sensory stimulation range for percutaneous RF treatment of the trigeminal ganglion was found to be warranted. © 2013 World Institute of Pain.

  8. A side-effect free method for identifying cancer drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Md Izhar; Ong, Seng-Kai; Mujawar, Shama; Pawar, Shrikant; More, Pallavi; Paul, Somnath; Lahiri, Chandrajit

    2018-04-27

    Identifying effective drug targets, with little or no side effects, remains an ever challenging task. A potential pitfall of failing to uncover the correct drug targets, due to side effect of pleiotropic genes, might lead the potential drugs to be illicit and withdrawn. Simplifying disease complexity, for the investigation of the mechanistic aspects and identification of effective drug targets, have been done through several approaches of protein interactome analysis. Of these, centrality measures have always gained importance in identifying candidate drug targets. Here, we put forward an integrated method of analysing a complex network of cancer and depict the importance of k-core, functional connectivity and centrality (KFC) for identifying effective drug targets. Essentially, we have extracted the proteins involved in the pathways leading to cancer from the pathway databases which enlist real experimental datasets. The interactions between these proteins were mapped to build an interactome. Integrative analyses of the interactome enabled us to unearth plausible reasons for drugs being rendered withdrawn, thereby giving future scope to pharmaceutical industries to potentially avoid them (e.g. ESR1, HDAC2, F2, PLG, PPARA, RXRA, etc). Based upon our KFC criteria, we have shortlisted ten proteins (GRB2, FYN, PIK3R1, CBL, JAK2, LCK, LYN, SYK, JAK1 and SOCS3) as effective candidates for drug development.

  9. Side Effects of Nitrification Inhibitors on Non Target Microbial Processes in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Carl Gottlieb Ottow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural chemicals have been used extensively in modern agriculture and toxicological studies suggest a great potential for inducing undesirable effects on non target organisms. A model experiment was conducted in order to determine side effects of three nitrification inhibitors (NIs, 3,4dimethylpyrazolephosphate = DMPP, 4-Chlor-methylpyrazole phosphate = ClMPP and dicyandiamide = DCD on non target microbial processes in soils. Side effects and dose response curve of three NIs were quantified under laboratory conditions using silty clay, loam and a sandy soils. Dehydrogenase, dimethylsulfoxide reductase as well as nitrogenase activity (NA and potential denitrification capacity were measured as common and specific non target microbial processes. The influence of 5-1000 times the base concentration, dose response curves were examined, and no observable effect level = NOEL, as well as effective dose ED10 and ED50 (10% and 50% inhibition were calculated. The NOEL for microbial non target processes were about 30–70 times higher than base concentration in all investigated soils. The potential denitrification capacity revealed to be the most sensitive parameter. ClMPP exhibited the strongest influence on the non target microbial processes in the three soils. The NOEL, ED10 and ED50 values were higher in clay than in loamy or sandy soil. The NIs was the most effective in sandy soils.

  10. Effects of surgical side and site on psychological symptoms following epilepsy surgery in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayson, Brigid E; Floden, Darlene P; Ferguson, Lisa; Kim, Kevin H; Jehi, Lara; Busch, Robyn M

    2017-03-01

    This retrospective study examined the potential role of side and site of surgery in psychological symptom change after epilepsy surgery and determined the base rate of psychological change at the individual level. Two-hundred twenty-eight adults completed the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) before and after temporal (TLR; n=190) or frontal lobe resection (FLR; n=38). Repeated measures ANOVAs with bootstrapping examined differences in psychological outcome as a function of surgical site separately in patients who underwent left- versus right-sided resections. Individual's PAI score changes were then used to determine the prevalence of clinically meaningful postoperative symptom change. Following left-sided resections, there were significant group-by-time interactions on Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, and Anxiety Related Disorders. There was also a trend in this direction on the Depression scale. TLR patients endorsed greater preoperative symptoms than FLR patients on all of these scales, except the Somatic Complaints scale. After surgery, TLR patients reported symptom improvement on all four scales, while scores of FLR patients remained relatively stable over time. Endorsement of Mania-related symptoms increased in both TLR and FLR groups from pre-to post-surgical testing. Following right-sided resections, both groups endorsed symptom improvements on Somatic Complaints, Anxiety, and Depression scales following surgery. In addition, the TLR group endorsed more Mania-related symptoms than the FLR group regardless of time. Patterns of meaningful change in individual patients were generally consistent with group findings, with the most frequent improvements observed following TLR. However, there were a small subset of patients who reported symptom exacerbation after surgery. Our results suggest that surgical lateralization and localization are important factors in postoperative psychological outcome and highlight the importance of considering psychological change

  11. Effect of water side deposits on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, M. Siddhartha

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of water side deposits in the 210 MW coal fired thermal power plant components (viz., boiler, turbine, feed water heaters, condensers and lube oil coolers) on the energy efficiency of these components and that of the overall system at 100% maximum continuous rating (MCR). The origin, composition and rate of build up of deposits on the water side are presented. A linear growth rate of deposits is assumed for simplicity. The effects of the reduction in heat transfer, increased pressure drop and increased pumping power/reduced power output in the components are quantified in the form of curve fits as functions of the deposit thickness (μm). The reduction in heat transfer in the boiler components is in the range of 0.2-2.0% under normal scaling. The increased pumping power is of the order of 0.6-7.6% in the boiler components, 29% in the BFP circuit, 26% in the LPH circuit, 21% in the HPH circuit and 18% in the lube oil cooler circuits. The effects on the overall coal fired plant is quantified through functional relations between the efficiencies and the notional deposit thickness. The sensitivity indices to the notional deposit thickness are: boiler efficiency: -0.0021% points/μm, turbine circuit efficiency: -0.0037% points/μm, auxiliary power efficiency: -0.00129% points/μm, gross overall efficiency: -0.0039% points/μm and net overall efficiency: -0.0040% points/μm. The overall effect of scale build up is either increased power input of ∼68 kW/μm (at a constant power output) or decreased power output ∼25 kW/μm (at a constant power input). Successful contaminant control techniques are highlighted. Capacity reduction effects due to water side deposits are negligible

  12. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  13. General equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option under the Clean Development Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Govinda R; Shrestha, Ram M

    2006-09-01

    The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is considered a key instrument to encourage developing countries' participation in the mitigation of global climate change. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through the energy supply and demand side activities are the main options to be implemented under the CDM. This paper analyses the general equilibrium effects of a supply side GHG mitigation option-the substitution of thermal power with hydropower--in Thailand under the CDM. A static multi-sector general equilibrium model has been developed for the purpose of this study. The key finding of the study is that the substitution of electricity generation from thermal power plants with that from hydropower plants would increase economic welfare in Thailand. The supply side option would, however, adversely affect the gross domestic product (GDP) and the trade balance. The percentage changes in economic welfare, GDP and trade balance increase with the level of substitution and the price of certified emission reduction (CER) units.

  14. Cutaneous side-effects in patients on long-term treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osio, A; Mateus, C; Soria, J-C; Massard, C; Malka, D; Boige, V; Besse, B; Robert, C

    2009-09-01

    Acute and subacute cutaneous side-effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) are very frequent and well known. Much less is known about the chronic cutaneous effects of these drugs and about their potential psychosocial impact on patients. We performed a retrospective study of patients treated with EGFRIs for more than 6 months. All patients had a detailed dermatological examination. The primary cancer, associated chemotherapies, skin treatment, evolution of skin symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL) as evaluated by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were noted. Seven men and nine women were identified. The mean length of EGFRI treatment was 10 months (range 6-27). At the time of examination, all patients (100%) had cutaneous side-effects. Grade I or II folliculitis was found in 37.5% of the patients. Additional skin manifestations were xerosis (100%), mucositis (69%), hair abnormalities (87.5%), eyelash trichomegaly (62.5%), facial hypertrichosis (56%), painful paronychia (56%) and onycholysis (44%). Dose reduction or EGFRI discontinuation for skin toxicity were needed in six patients (37.5%). DLQI evaluation showed a moderate to strong impact on QoL in four patients (25%). Cutaneous side-effects are found in 100% of patients treated with EGFRIs for more than 6 months and have a significant effect on patients' QoL. The clinical spectrum of skin manifestation varies over time. As the use of EGFRIs rapidly increases, it is critical for us to improve our knowledge in the understanding and managment of these skin manifestations.

  15. Side effects, complications and outcome of thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis in 406 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pedro M; Freixinet, Jorge L; Hussein, Mohamed; Valencia, Jose M; Gil, Rita M; Herrero, Jorge; Caballero-Hidalgo, Araceli

    2008-09-01

    Thoracic sympathectomy (TS) is the treatment of choice for severe primary hyperhidrosis. However, complications, side effects and satisfaction have not been well defined. To analyze the complications, side effects, satisfaction degree and quality of life of patients after TS for primary upper limb hyperhidrosis. One-year follow-up after 406 consecutive TS for primary upper limb hyperhidrosis. Bilateral TS was completed in all patients. Complications arose in 23 cases (5.6%), with pneumothorax being the most frequent. The success rate after discharge, 6 and 12 months was respectively, 100%, 98.1% and 96.5% for palmo-axillary hyperhidrosis; 100%, 99.3% and 97.8% for isolated palmar hyperhidrosis and 100%, 85.7% and 71.4% for isolated axillary hyperhidrosis. No persistence of hyperhidrosis was observed. Global recurrence was 3.7% (28.5% axillary hyperhidrosis group). Compensatory sweating (CS) appeared in 55% and was not related to the extension of the TS. Being female was a predisposing factor of CS (p<0.004). Excessive dryness appeared at 9% and was associated with extensive TS (P<0.001). Plantar hyperhidrosis improved at 33.6%, worsened at 10% and remained stable during the follow-up. Satisfaction degree decreased with the passage of time and was associated with recurrence. Quality of life was excellent at discharge, 6 and 12 month in 100%, 100% and 97%, respectively. Pneumothorax is the most frequent complication of TS. CS is the main and undesirable side effect, appears with the passage of time, and is not related to the extension of TS. Being female is the only predictor factor of suffering CS. Plantar hyperhidrosis improves initially, although tends to reappear. Excessive dryness appears in extensive TS and does not improve over time. Postoperative satisfaction degree is high but decreases over time owing to the appearance of recurrence. Effectiveness and the absence of CS determine an excellent quality of life. Six percent of the patients regret the surgery

  16. Interdisciplinary documentation of treatment side effects in oncology. Present status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The documentation of acute and chronic treatment sequelae is a decisive precondition for the appropriate evaluation of the treatment quality of any cancer therapy. Methods and results: Interdisciplinary (inter)national efforts have resulted in a new consensus for recording of treatment sequelae in oncology. While the acute treatment side effects (day 1 to 90 after treatment) are recommended to be documented and evaluated using the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), for the chronic treatment side effects (day 91 and thereafter) the Late Effect Normal Tissue (LENT) criteria are to be implemented. The latter classification system allows to differentiate between the Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (SOMA) toxicity aspects. Both classification systems can be implemented not only for clinical applications using radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone but also for combinations with each other or with other treatment modalities. This allows for an effective interdisciplinary comparison between different treatment concepts not only within each institution but also in multicenter trials. Conclusions: Prospective documentation and evaluation of treatment toxicity in oncology should be intensified and systematically included in future mono- and multi-institutional clinical trials. (orig.) [de

  17. Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS, a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients’ pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p < 0.05. The degrees of injection pain were lower in a COS-pretreated group than in a propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05. COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia.

  18. Nightguard vital bleaching: side effects and patient satisfaction 10 to 17 years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushell, Lee W; Ritter, André V; Garland, Glenn E; Tiwana, Karen K; Smith, Lynn R; Broome, Angela; Leonard, Ralph H

    2012-06-01

      The long-term patient satisfaction and safety of nightguard vital bleaching (NGVB) requires further evaluation.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction and identify side effects of NGVB up to 17 years post-treatment.   Thirty-one participants who had completed previous NGVB studies using 10% carbamide peroxide were contacted at least 10 years post-treatment (range 10-17 years, average 12.3 years). Participants reported shade satisfaction (very satisfied [VS], partially satisfied [PS], or not satisfied [NS]) as well as potential complications. Participants had teeth # 6 to 11 examined for tooth vitality, gingival inflammation (Löe's Gingival Index [GI]), and radiographically for external cervical resorption (ECR).   All of the participants had successful lightening of their teeth. Sixty-one percent (19) had not retreated their teeth. Of those who had not retreated their teeth and who responded to the question of whitening satisfaction, 31% (4/13) were VS, 54% (7/13) were PS, and 15% (2/13) were NS with their current shade. Of those who had retreated their teeth, all were VS or PS. Ninety-one percent of the examined teeth had GI = 0 (normal), 7% had GI = 1 (mild inflammation), and 2% had GI = 2 (moderate inflammation). Sixty-nine percent of teeth tested responded to a cold stimulus. Radiographs did not detect ECR or apical lesions. No participant reported having a gingival biopsy post-treatment, and 87% would whiten again.   Patient satisfaction with NGVB may last as long as 12.3 years in average (range 10-17 years) post-treatment. GI and ECR findings were considered within the normal expectations for the sample studied, suggesting minimal clinical post-NGVB side effects up to 17 years. Nightguard vital bleaching provides patient satisfaction with minimal side effects up to 17 years post-treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Side-Pinch Effect of a Magnetically Driven Shock Tube with Parallel Plate Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, C. T.; Korsbech, Uffe C C; Mondrup, K.

    1969-01-01

    To study the possible effect of the side pinch on the steady-state current and the steady-state shock speed of a magnetically driven shock tube, a semiempirical model is formulated. The time history of the current, the radial and the translational motion of the current-carrying region are expressed...... by three interacting nonlinear equations with five adjustable parameters describing the variation of the electric circuit elements, the geometry of the shock tube, and the initial running conditions. Within the range of practical interest for values of the parameters investigated, computational results...

  20. Adverse Side Effects of Psychotropic Medication and Challenging Behavior: Pilot Work Assessing Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdovinos, Maria G; Schieber, Elizabeth; McMahon, Meara; Beard, Lisa; Wilkinson, Alyssa; Carpenter, Jaimie

    2017-12-01

    Psychotropic medications are often prescribed to reduce challenging behavior in individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Functional analyses (FAs) have demonstrated utility in assessing medication impact on behavior; however, the impact of adverse side effects (ASE) on challenging behavior is under-assessed. The purpose of this study was to develop a methodology, similar to FAs, to explore potential medication ASE impact on challenging behavior in seven individuals with IDD. Results revealed response rate differences in designed ASE conditions for most participants. Outcomes support further development and use of this methodology to assess the presence and impact of ASEs.

  1. A jaundiced bodybuilder Cholestatic hepatitis as side effect of injectable anabolic-androgenic steroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boks, Marije N; Tiebosch, Anton T; van der Waaij, Laurens A

    2017-11-01

    The use of anabolic steroids is prevalent in recreational athletes. This case report describes a young amateur bodybuilder who was referred to our outpatient clinic with jaundice and loss of appetite due to cholestatic hepatitis. Additional tests including a liver biopsy made it likely that the hepatitis was caused by the injectable anabolic steroid trenbolone enanthate. Cholestatic hepatitis may not be limited to the use of oral anabolic-androgenic steroids, as is widely assumed. Therefore, and because of other side effects, the recreational use of all forms of anabolic steroids should be discouraged.

  2. Therapy and prophylaxis of radiation-induced side effects following amputation of the mammary glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckardt, V [Gemeinschaftspraxis Beck, Hillenbrand, Eckardt, Augsburg (F.R. Germany). Roentgeninstitut

    1976-01-01

    After surgical removal of a carcinoma of the breast, 79 women received postoperative telecobalt-60 irradiation as out-patients. Prior to irradiation high doses of venoruton intens (1500 mg HR/die) were administered in order to obtain radioprotective properties of the skin, the subcutaneous fatty tissue and the lymphatic system of the irradiated regions. A strikingly small number of brachial oedemas and subcutaneous indurations following telecobalt-60 irradiation was found under HR treatment. Irradiation was carried out in the out-patient department with relatively high single doses without interruptions caused by radiotherapy. The high doses of HR did not entail any side-effects.

  3. Effect of Side Chains on Molecular Conformation of Anthracene-Ethynylene-Phenylene-Vinylene Oligomers: A Comparative Density Functional Study With and Without Dispersion Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chuanding; Hoppe, Harald; Beenken, Wichard J D

    2016-06-02

    Using density functional calculations with and without dispersion interaction, we studied the effects of linear octyl and branched 2-ethylhexyl side chains on the oligomer conformation of the conjugated copolymer poly(p-anthracene-ethynylene)-alt-poly(p-phenylene-vinylene). With dispersion included, the branched side chains can cause significant bending of the oligomer backbone, while without dispersion they induce mainly torsional disorder. The oligomers with mainly linear side chains keep good planarity when optimized with and without dispersion. Despite their dramatically different conformations, the calculated absorption spectra of the oligomers with various side chain combinations are very similar, indicating that the conformation of the copolymer is not the main reason for the experimentally observed different spectra of ordered and disordered phases.

  4. Effect of side chain length on charge transport, morphology, and photovoltaic performance of conjugated polymers in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duan, C.; Willems, R.E.M.; van Franeker, J.J.; Bruijnaers, B.J.; Wienk, M.M.; Janssen, R.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of side chain length on the photovoltaic properties of conjugated polymers is systematically investigated with two sets of polymers that bear different alkyl side chain lengths based on benzodithiophene and benzo[2,1,3]thiadiazole or 5,6-difluorobenzo[2,1,3]thiadiazole. Characterization

  5. Assessing unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market : An application to the Dutch daily newspaper market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2012-01-01

    We compare different methods to assess unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market by applying them to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch newspaper industry. We first specify and estimate a structural model of demand for differentiated products in both the readership and the advertising sides of

  6. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  7. Reversible global aphasia as a side effect of quetiapine: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien CF

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ching-Fang Chien,1 Poyin Huang,1,2 Sun-Wung Hsieh1,2 1Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 2Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Quetiapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent which is also prescribed for delirium due to its anti-dopaminergic effects; aphasia is an unusual side effect associated with the drug. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old woman who was prescribed quetiapine (50 mg per day for delirium. Unexpected, global aphasia occurred 3 days after treatment began. Complete recovery occurred following discontinuation of the drug. A brain computed tomography scan excluded intracranial hemorrhage and the laboratory results confirmed that no exacerbation of infection or electrolyte imbalances were present. During the aphasic episode, the patient’s condition did not deteriorate and no new neurological symptoms occurred. We suspect that the occurrence of aphasia was directly due to an adverse reaction to quetiapine. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of reversible, global aphasia as a side effect of quetiapine. We propose that this occurrence of aphasia may be due to the action of quetiapine as a dopamine receptor antagonist. Clinicians should use quetiapine with caution, especially in elderly patients. On observation of aphasia, a review of the patient’s medical history is required to assess for the usage of quetiapine. Keywords: aphasia, quetiapine, insomnia, delirium

  8. Prediction of Central Nervous System Side Effects Through Drug Permeability to Blood-Brain Barrier and Recommendation Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhenran

    2018-04-01

    Drug side effects are one of the public health concerns. Using powerful machine-learning methods to predict potential side effects before the drugs reach the clinical stages is of great importance to reduce time consumption and protect the security of patients. Recently, researchers have proved that the central nervous system (CNS) side effects of a drug are closely related to its permeability to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inspired by this, we proposed an extended neighborhood-based recommendation method to predict CNS side effects using drug permeability to the BBB and other known features of drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to predict CNS side effects considering drug permeability to the BBB. Computational experiments demonstrated that drug permeability to the BBB is an important factor in CNS side effects prediction. Moreover, we built an ensemble recommendation model and obtained higher AUC score (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and AUPR score (area under the precision-recall curve) on the data set of CNS side effects by integrating various features of drug.

  9. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G; Liu, Qing-Song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R; Grim, Travis W; Merritt, Christina R; Wise, Laura E; Abdullah, Rehab A; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition

  10. Dose comparison and side effect profile of metformin extended release versus metformin immediate release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, M.; Khan, K.; Salman, S.; Mehmood, N.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is very common worldwide, with majority of cases in Asia Pacific region. Metformin is the first line therapy, along with lifestyle modification for all type 2 diabetics as recommended by ADA. Metformin is available as conventional Metformin Immediate Release (MIR) and Metformin Extended Release (MXR). Metformin XR has better gastrointestinal tolerability and fewer side effects as compared to Metformin IR, with similar efficacy regarding anti-hyperglycaemic effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether metformin XR is as effective as Metformin IR in maintaining glycaemic control at equivalent doses or even at reduced doses; and to compare the side effect profile of the two preparations. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at Medical and Endocrinology OPD of Jinnah Hospital Lahore A total of 90 type 2 diabetics of both genders were recruited using nonprobability purposive sampling. Patients were randomized into 3 groups; 30 in each group. Group 1 received Metformin IR 1000 mg twice daily; group 2 received metformin XR 1000mg twice daily; and group 3 received metformin XR 500 mg twice daily, for a period of three months. HbA1c was done at baseline and after three months of therapy along with fasting blood sugars and random blood sugars weekly. Results: The mean age of patients was 46+-9 years, with 54% being males and 46% being females. There was a 1% reduction in HbA1c in group 1, 0.7% reduction in group 2 and only 0.4% reduction in group 3. Similarly, all three therapies were equally effective in reducing blood sugar fasting and blood sugar random at three months. Side effects namely diarrhoea, dyspepsia and flatulence were greatest with Metformin IR (40%) but less than half with Metformin XR at equivalent dose and negligible at half the dose. Conclusions: All three Metformin groups were effective in reduction of HbA1C and glycaemic control clinically and there is no statistical difference in HbA1c reduction

  11. Significance of radiation-induced bystander effects in radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Since 1994, a Phase I/II clinical study and radiotherapy have carried out using carbon-ion beams produced with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) at National Institute of Radiological Sciences. Now we constructed the new treatment facility for the advanced carbon-ion therapy at HIMAC applying a 3D fast spot scanning system with pencil beams. In the field of fundamental biological studies for high-LET heavy ions, there are some reports regarding bystander effects after exposure to alpha particles derived from 238 Pu or He-ion microbeams. However, only limited sets of studies have examined bystander effects after exposure to different ion species heavier than helium, such as carbon ions. We have been investigating bystander cellular responses in both normal human and human tumor cells irradiated with the HIMAC carbon ions. Bystander cell-killing effect was observed in the cells harboring wild-type P53 gene, but not in the P53-mutated cells. Moreover, observed bystander effect was suppressed by treating with a specific inhibitor of gap-junction mediated cell-cell communication. There is clear evidence that the carbon-ion irradiation enables the enhanced cell killing in cells with wild-type P53 gene via gap-junction mediated bystander effect. (author)

  12. Parent socialization effects in different cultures: significance of directive parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorkhabi, Nadia

    2012-06-01

    In this article, the controversy of divergent findings in research on parental socialization effects in different cultures is addressed. Three explanations intended to address divergent findings of socialization effects in different cultures, as advanced by researchers who emphasize cultural differences, are discussed. These include cultural differences in socialization values and goals of parents, parental emotional and cognitive characteristics associated with parenting styles, and adolescents' interpretations or evaluations of their parents' parenting styles. The empirical evidence for and against each of these arguments is examined and an alternative paradigm for understanding and empirical study of developmental outcomes associated with parenting styles in different cultures is suggested. Baumrind's directive parenting style is presented as an alternative to the authoritarian parenting style in understanding the positive developmental effects associated with "strict" parenting in cultures said to have a collectivist orientation. Directions for research on the three explanations are mentioned.

  13. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...

  14. Self-Limited Kleptomania Symptoms as a Side Effect of Duloxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. T. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Impulse control disorders (ICDs have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists, frequently used in neurodegenerative conditions affecting the nigrostriatal pathway. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine have dose-dependent differential affinity for monoaminergic transporters, inhibiting the dopamine transporter at higher doses, thus increasing availability of synaptic dopamine, with the potential for similar impulse control side effects. Case Presentation. A 19-year-old Asian-American female with a history of depression developed new-onset stealing behaviors after an increase in her dose of duloxetine from 60 mg to 90 mg; she described these actions as “compulsive” and irresistible, later experiencing either relief or guilt, features compatible with an ICD. Her symptoms eventually subsided with continued use of 90 mg of duloxetine. Discussion. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of a patient developing new-onset ICD behaviors after being placed on a higher dose of duloxetine, which can inhibit the dopamine transporter and cause difficulty with impulse control. The self-resolving nature of the symptoms may result from compensatory upregulation of dopamine transporters, increasing reuptake of dopamine. Asian populations may be at a higher risk due to the frequent occurrence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms, which decrease the conversion of duloxetine to its inactive metabolites.

  15. Understanding the side effects of emission trading: implications for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschel, Nina; Posch, Alfred; Pierer, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The trading of emission allowances is an important market instrument in climate policy. However, the inclusion of certain branches of industry in the trading system not only provides incentives for emission reduction, it also entails unwanted side effects. Thus, the objective of the present study is to identify such side effects-positive and negative-by examining the potential impact of waste management inclusion in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Desk research was supplemented with qualitative and quantitative empirical analysis (based on expert interviews and a questionnaire) in order to analyse the related perceptions and expectations of actors and stakeholders. The impact of waste management inclusion in the EU ETS is analysed in terms of the following three areas: (i) costs and cost pass-through, (ii), competitiveness and market position, and (iii) carbon leakage. Concerning expectations in the area of costs, both the interviewed experts and the practitioners surveyed thought that costs were likely to increase or that they could be passed on to customers. However, experts and practitioners differed with respect to the possibility of carbon leakage. Clearly, increased knowledge of the possible impact arising from inclusion of the waste sector in the EU ETS would enable managers to become more proactive and to manage waste streams and treatment options more economically.

  16. Stem cells as anticancer drug carrier to reduce the chemotherapy side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Al-Arag, Siham; Middendorp, Elodie; Gergley, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Chemotherapy used for cancer treatment, due to the lack of specificity of drugs, is associated to various damaging side effects that have severe impact on patients' quality of life. Over the past 30 years, increasing efforts have been placed on optimizing chemotherapy dosing with the main goal of increasing antitumor efficacy while reducing drug-associated toxicity. A novel research shows that stem cells may act as a reservoir for the anticancer agent, which will subsequently release some of the drug's metabolites, or even the drug in its original form, in vicinity of the cancer cells. These cells may play a dual role in controlling drug toxicity depending on their capacity to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug. In our study, we show that Dental Pulp Stem Cells DPSCs are able to rapidly uptake Paclitaxel PTX, and to release it in the culture medium in a time-dependent manner. This resulting conditioned culture medium is to be transferred to breast cancer cells, the MCF-7. By applying Confocal Raman Microscopy, the anticancer drug uptake by the MCF-7 was measured. Surprisingly, the cancer cells -without any direct contact with PTX- showed a drug uptake. This proves that the stem cells carried and delivered the anticancer drug without its modification. It could be a revolution in chemotherapy to avoid the drug's side effects and increase its efficacy.

  17. Cholestatic hepatitis as a possible new side-effect of oxycodone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oxycodone is a widely-used semisynthetic opioid analgesic that has been used for over eighty years. Oxycodone is known to cause side effects such as nausea, pruritus, dizziness, constipation and somnolence. As far as we are aware cholestatic hepatitis as a result of oxycodone use has not been reported so far in the world literature. Case presentation A 34-year-old male presented with cholestatic jaundice and severe pruritus after receiving oxycodone for analgesia post-T11 vertebrectomy. Extensive laboratory investigations and imaging studies did not reveal any other obvious cause for his jaundice and a liver biopsy confirmed canalicular cholestatis suggestive of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient's symptoms and transaminases normalised on withdrawal of oxycodone confirming that oxycodone was the probable cause of the patient's hepatotoxicity. Conclusion We conclude that cholestatic hepatitis is possibly a rare side effect of oxycodone use. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially serious picture of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  18. [Prevention of side effects and complications after operation for partial ileal bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchuk, K K; Sedletskiĭ, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    Side effects and complications of the application of partial ileal bypass used for dislipidemia were analyzed in 162 patients with atherosclerosis. It was shown, that the partial ileal bypass operation could lead to the development of series of undesirable side effects such as diarrhea, hypovitaminosis B12, off-state intestine enteritis. The application of modification of partial ileal bypass such as formation of ileo-ileoanastomosis 5-6 cm long near ileocecal valve with the maintenance of its functions disposed the diarrhea and minimized the risk of the development of hypovitaminosis B12 after operation. It is possible to prevent the development of enteritis of off-state loop of the small intestine by using microanastomosis between off-state and functioning iliac intestine. The partial ileal bypass operation didn't influence on body weight, wouldn't increase the risk of stone formation in the gallbladder and kidneys. The risk of the development of hypovitaminosis B12 is minimal after operation.

  19. Metastatic breast cancer - age has a significant effect on survival ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data on 217 elderly (aged ≥ 65 years) and 209 middleaged postmenopausal patients with metastatic breast cancer treated in the Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, from 1976 to 1985 were analysed to determine the effect of age on survival. When considered as a group, the elderly have a more ...

  20. Substituted group and side chain effects for the porphyrin and zinc(II)–porphyrin derivatives: A DFT and TD-DFT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, Chin-Kuen; Chuang, Wen-Hua; Wang, Bo-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    The DFT/B3LYP/LANL2DZ and TD-DFT calculations have been performed to generate the optimized structures, electronic and photo-physical properties for the porphyrin and zinc(II)–porphyrin (metalloporphyrin) derivatives. The substituted group and side chain effects for these derivatives are discussed in this study. According to the calculation results, the side chain moiety extends the π-delocalization length from the porphyrin core to the side chain moiety. The substituted group with a stronger electron-donating ability increases the energy level of highest occupied molecular orbital (E HOMO ). The side chain moiety with a lower resonance energy decreases E HOMO , the energy level of the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (E LUMO ), and the energy gap (E g ) between HOMO and LUMO in the porphyrin and zinc(II)–porphyrin derivatives. The natural bonding orbital (NBO) analysis determines the possible electron transfer mechanism from the electron-donating to -withdrawing groups (the side chain moiety) in these porphyrin derivatives. The projected density of state (PDOS) analysis shows that the electron-donating group affects the electron density distribution in both HOMO and LUMO, and the side chain moiety influence the electron density distribution in LUMO. The calculated photo-physical properties (absorption wavelengths and the related oscillator strength, f) in dichloromethane environment for porphyrin and zinc(II)–porphyrin derivatives have been simulated by using the TD-DFT method within the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM). The present of both of the substituted group and the side chain moiety in these derivatives results in a red shift and broadening of the range of the absorption peaks of the Q/Soret band as compared to porphin. -- Highlights: • Side chain moiety extends the π-delocalization for the porphyrins. • Substituted group increases the energy of highest occupied molecular orbital. • Side chain moiety influences the Q/Soret band of

  1. Significance of radiation effects in solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; McDonell, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Proposed NRC criteria for disposal of high-level nuclear waste require development of waste packages to contain radionuclide for at least 1000 years, and design of repositories to prevent radionuclide release at an annual rate greater than 1 part in 100,000 of the total activity. The high-level wastes that are now temporarily stored as aqueous salts, sludges, and calcines must be converted to high-integrity solid forms that resist deterioration from radiation and other effects of long-term storage. Spent fuel may be encapsulated for similar long-term storage. Candidate waste forms beside the spent fuel elements themselves, include borosilicate and related glasses, mineral-like crystalline ceramics, concrete formulations, and metal-matrix glass or ceramic composites. these waste forms will sustain damage produced by beta-gamma radiation up to 10 12 rads, by alpha radiation up to 10 19 particles/g, by internal helium generation greater than about 0.1 atom percent, and by the atom transmutations accompanying radioactive decay. Current data indicate that under these conditions the glass forms suffer only minor volume changes, stored energy deposition, and leachability effects. The crystalline ceramics appear susceptible to the potentially more severe alterations accompanying metamictization and natural analogs of candidate materials are being examined to establish their suitability as waste forms. Helium concentrations in the waste forms are generally below thresholds for severe damage in either glass or crystalline ceramics at low temperatures, but microstructural effects are not well characterized. Transmutation effects remain to be established

  2. The significance of domino effect in chemical accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmatian, Behrouz; Abdolhamidzadeh, B; Darbra Roman, Rosa Maria; Casal Fàbrega, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    A historical survey was performed on 330 accidents involving domino effect, occurred in process/storage plants and in the transportation of hazardous materials; only accidents occurred after 1st-January-1961 have been considered. The main features – geographical location, type of accident, materials involved, origin and causes, consequences, domino sequences – were analyzed, with special consideration to the situation in the developing countries and compared to those from other previous surve...

  3. The role side effects play in the choice of antiepileptic therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy: a comparative study on traditional antiepileptic drugs versus oxcarbazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carapella Maria Carmine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seizure control doesn't represent the only challenging goal in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy. Side effects have often taken precedence for patients' quality of life. Methods We performed an observational retrospective study on patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy: 35 who had assumed oxcarbazepine monotherapy and 35 patients who had undergone treatment with traditional antiepileptic drugs. Primary variable of efficacy was the mean seizure frequency per month and safety variables were the drop-out for side effects and total incidence of side effects. We applied the Propensity Score technique to minimize selection bias. Results Our results showed a similar efficacy of oxcarbazepine and traditional antiepileptic drugs over time, but the difference in safety and tolerability between the two groups was significant: traditional AEDs caused more side effects, both serious and non serious. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of taking into consideration not only seizure control but also the appearance of side effects when choosing antiepileptic drugs in this patients population.

  4. The role side effects play in the choice of antiepileptic therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy: a comparative study on traditional antiepileptic drugs versus oxcarbazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Marta; Dinapoli, Loredana; Vidiri, Antonello; Pace, Andrea; Fabi, Alessandra; Pompili, Alfredo; Carapella, Maria Carmine; Jandolo, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Background Seizure control doesn't represent the only challenging goal in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy. Side effects have often taken precedence for patients' quality of life. Methods We performed an observational retrospective study on patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy: 35 who had assumed oxcarbazepine monotherapy and 35 patients who had undergone treatment with traditional antiepileptic drugs. Primary variable of efficacy was the mean seizure frequency per month and safety variables were the drop-out for side effects and total incidence of side effects. We applied the Propensity Score technique to minimize selection bias. Results Our results showed a similar efficacy of oxcarbazepine and traditional antiepileptic drugs over time, but the difference in safety and tolerability between the two groups was significant: traditional AEDs caused more side effects, both serious and non serious. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of taking into consideration not only seizure control but also the appearance of side effects when choosing antiepileptic drugs in this patients population. PMID:19419544

  5. Preliminary results of the study about predictors of rectal side effects in radical radiotherapy of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, L; Barrios, E; Kasdorf, P; Valdagni, R; Paolini, G

    2010-01-01

    to say no or a causal relationship with the various parameters studied in order to establish the predictors. To the extent that the number of patients admitted to the study and included increased monitoring, an appropriate statistical power can be achieved by using predictive models such as nomograms, neural networks, or Bayesian Markov chains models among others; that allow establish that these dosimetric factors may eventually identified as significant become predictors of this side effect

  6. End effect braking force reduction in high-speed single-sided linear induction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiri, Abbas; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new analytical equation to model the end effect braking force of SLIM is derived. ► Equations for efficiency, power factor and output thrust are analytically derived. ► The effect of design variables on the performance of the motor is analyzed. ► An optimization method is employed to minimize the end effect braking force (EEBF). ► The results show that EEBF is minimized by appropriate selection of motor parameters. - Abstract: Linear induction motors have been widely employed in industry because of their simple structure and low construction cost. However, they suffer from low efficiency and power factor. In addition, existence of so called end effect influences their performance especially in high speeds. The end effect deteriorates the performance of the motor by producing braking force. So, in this paper, by using Duncan equivalent circuit model, a new analytical equation is proposed to model end effect braking force. Employing the proposed equation and considering all phenomena involved in the single-sided linear induction motor, a simple design procedure is presented and the effect of different design variables on the performance of the motor is analyzed. A multi-objective optimization method based on genetic algorithm is introduced to maximize efficiency and power factor, as well as to minimize the end effect braking force, simultaneously. Finally, to validate the optimization results, 2D finite element method is employed.

  7. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Bosschem

    Full Text Available Helicobacter suis (H. suis is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin, administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  8. Rotator side chains trigger cooperative transition for shape and function memory effect in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyunjoong; Dudenko, Dmytro; Zhang, Fengjiao; D'Avino, Gabriele; Ruzié, Christian; Richard, Audrey; Schweicher, Guillaume; Cornil, Jérôme; Beljonne, David; Geerts, Yves; Diao, Ying

    2018-01-18

    Martensitic transition is a solid-state phase transition involving cooperative movement of atoms, mostly studied in metallurgy. The main characteristics are low transition barrier, ultrafast kinetics, and structural reversibility. They are rarely observed in molecular crystals, and hence the origin and mechanism are largely unexplored. Here we report the discovery of martensitic transition in single crystals of two different organic semiconductors. In situ microscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, Raman and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and molecular simulations combined indicate that the rotating bulky side chains trigger cooperative transition. Cooperativity enables shape memory effect in single crystals and function memory effect in thin film transistors. We establish a molecular design rule to trigger martensitic transition in organic semiconductors, showing promise for designing next-generation smart multifunctional materials.

  9. Overview of clinical use and side effect profile of valsartan in Chinese hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qi-Fang; Li, Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed the Chinese and English literature for the efficacy and safety data of valsartan monotherapy or combination therapy in Chinese hypertensive patients. According to the data of ten randomized controlled trials, valsartan monotherapy was as efficacious as another angiotensin receptor blocker or other classes of antihypertensive drugs, excepting the slightly inferior diastolic blood pressure-lowering effect in comparison with calcium channel blockers. According to the data of six randomized controlled trials, valsartan combination, with hydrochlorothiazide, amlodipine, or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system, was more efficacious than monotherapy of valsartan, amlodipine, or nifedipine gastrointestinal therapeutic system. According to these trials, valsartan had an acceptable tolerability, regardless of whether it was used as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Nonetheless, several rare side effects have been reported, indicating that it should still be used with caution. This is of particular importance given that there are millions of hypertensive patients, worldwide, currently exposed to the drug. PMID:24403822

  10. Prophylaxis and treatment of side effects due to iodinated contrast media relevant to radiological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, C.

    2007-01-01

    Increased utilization of iodinated contrast media may be associated with increased incidence of adverse events. The most important side effects include contrast-induced nephropathy, anaphylactoid reaction, thyrotoxicosis, and extravasation. In patients with moderate renal dysfunction, saline hydration and reduction of contrast media volume are recommended. No regime to prevent anaphylactoid reactions has yet proven to be efficient. If subclinical hyperthyroidism has been determined, prophylaxis with sodium perchlorate is advised. Contrast-induced nephropathy is commonly transient and needs to be followed over time. Mild general anaphylactoid reactions may be treated with antihistaminic drugs and corticosteroids. Furthermore the choice of the X-ray contrast media might influence the risk of any adverse effects. (orig.) [de

  11. Leakage and field emission in side-gate graphene field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bartolomeo, A., E-mail: dibant@sa.infn.it; Iemmo, L.; Romeo, F.; Cucolo, A. M. [Physics Department “E.R. Caianiello,” University of Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Giubileo, F. [CNR-SPIN Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Russo, S.; Unal, S. [Physics Department, University of Exeter, Stocker Road 6, Exeter, Devon EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Passacantando, M.; Grossi, V. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO{sub 2}/vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO{sub 2} up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1 μA/μm between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.

  12. Assessment of side effects induced by injection of different adjuvant/antigen combinations in rabbits and mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, P.P.A.M.; Koedam, M.A.; Wester, P.W.; Baumans, V.; Claassen, E.; Hendriksen, C.F.M.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated the side effects induced by injection of Freund's adjuvant (FA) and alternative adjuvants combined with different antigens. Rabbits and mice were injected subcutaneously, intramuscularly (rabbits) and intraperitoneally (mice) with different adjuvants (FA, Specol, RIBI, TiterMax,

  13. Side effects and risks of radioiodine treatment of benign thyroid diseases. Nebenwirkungen und Risiken bei der Radiojodtherapie gutartiger Schilddruesenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Hohenberger, W.; Wolf, F. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1990-12-01

    Radioiodine treatment is considered to be the treatment of choice in benign thyroid diseases because of its very low side effects. Real and hypothetic risks and side effects have to be differentiated. Both may occur early and late after the treatment. Radioiodinethyroiditis in small volumes at high doses is very rare. Exacerbation of a thyroid storm (0.34%) as well as local compressions accompanied with reactive edema of the thyroid are early real side effects of radioiodine treatment. Late real side effects are failure of treatment (7-30% of thyrotoxicosis) and induction of hypothyroidism (4-20% of functional autonomy and increasing frequency in Graves' diseases with time). Late hypothetic risks are somatic (1-9/10000 bis 1-9/100000) or genetic (1-9/100000). An early risk might be the misdiagnosis of an additional thyroid carcinoma. (orig.).

  14. Can melatonin prevent or improve metabolic side effects during antipsychotic treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio MC

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Cristina Porfirio,1 Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida,2 Maddalena Stornelli,1 Silvia Giovinazzo,1 Diane Purper-Ouakil,3 Gabriele Masi4 1Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Italy; 2Unit of Child Neurology, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital São Paulo, Brazil; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France; 4IRCCS Stella Maris, Scientific Institute of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Abstract: In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects. In this paper, we point out the possible protective effect of add-on melatonin treatment in preventing, mitigating, or even reversing SGAs metabolic effects, improving quality of life and providing safer long-term treatments in pediatric patients. Melatonin is an endogenous indolamine secreted during darkness by the pineal gland; it plays a key role in regulating the circadian rhythm, generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus, and has many other biological functions, including chronobiotic, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects, and diminishing oxidative injury and fat distribution. It has been hypothesized that SGAs cause adverse metabolic effects that may be restored by nightly administration of melatonin because of its influence on autonomic and hormonal outputs. Interestingly, atypical anti-psychotics (AAPs can cause

  15. USE OF HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL SIDE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED TO ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HCV HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mancino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Haematological abnormalities are common during combination antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Although dose reduction or discontinuation can easily treat these side effects, they can adversely affect the efficacy of combination antiviral therapy reducing the likelihood of a sustained viral response (SVR. To avoid potentially diminishing a patient’s chance of response, many physicians have begun using growth factors off-label to manage anaemia and neutropenia in hepatitis C. Haematopoietic growth factors are generally well tolerated and they may be useful for managing haematological side effects of anti-HCV therapy improving patients’ quality of life. To date, the role and benefit of these agents during anti-HCV therapy and their positive impact on SVR have not conclusively determined in the published studies. However, the possibility of a benefit to individual outpatients remains, and an individualized approach is recommended. This review explores the incidence, clinical significance, and management of anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with combination therapy for HCV infection.

  16. Acute and late side-effects of conventional and conformal pelvic radiotherapy for cervical and endometrial cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmajlowicz, B.; Komafel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim of the study. The purpose of this prospective study was to analyze and compare acute and late side-effects observed in patients with cervical and endometrial cancer treated with conventional 2-dimensional (2D) and conformal 3-dimensional (3D) pelvic radiotherapy. Patients and method. 50 patients treated with conventional pelvic radiotherapy and 50 patients treated with conformal pelvic radiotherapy at the Clinical Department of Gynecological Radiotherapy of the Lower Silesian Oncology Center between November 2004 and October 2005 were entered into a prospective study. We assessed Radiotherapy side-effects according to EORTCIRTOG, performance status according to the WHO, Body Mass Index and hematologic parameters during radiotherapy and one year after treatment. Results. Performance status acc. to the WHO was significantly better in the conformal arm. Anemia and nausea were more frequent in the conventional arm. In both the study groups acute gastrointestinal and genitourinary morbidity was more frequent than late morbidity and performance status was better after than before radiotherapy. Mean BMI was lower after radiotherapy than before treatment. Conclusions. Conformal pelvic radiotherapy in patients with cervical and endometrial cancer is less toxic than conventional pelvic radiotherapy which is also confirmed by the performance status. (authors)

  17. Adverse effects of anticoagulation treatment: clinically significant upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Skok

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the last years, the use of oral anticoagulant treatment has increased dramatically, principally for the prevention of venous thrombosis and thrombembolic events. This treatment is demanding, especially among the elderly with concommitant diseases and different medication. Aim of the study to evaluate the rate of serious complications, clinically significant hemorrhage from upper gastointestinal tract in patients treated with oral antiocoagulants in a prospective cohort study.Patients and methods: Included were patients admitted to our institution between January 1, 1994 and December 31, 2003 due to gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Emergency endoscopy and laboratory testing was performed in all patients.Results: 6416 patients were investigated: 2452 women (38.2 % and 3964 men (61.8 %, mean age 59.1 years, SD 17.2. Among our patients, 55 % were aged over 60 years. In 86.4 % of patients the source of bleeding was confirmed in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the last week prior to bleeding, 20.4 % (1309/6416 of all patients were regularly taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, anticoagulant therapy or antiplatelet agents in single daily doses at least. 6.3 % of patients (82/1309 with abundant hemorrhage from upper gastrointestinal tract were using oral anticoagulant therapy and had INR > 5 at admission, 25.6 % of them had INR > 10. The mortality of patients using oral anticoagulants and INR > 5 was 17.1 %.Conclusions: Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a serious complication of different medications, particularly in elderly patients. Safe use of anticoagulant therapy is based on careful selection of patients and correct intake of the prescribed drugs.

  18. Driver injury in near- and far-side impacts: Update on the effect of front passenger belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, Chantal S; Viano, David C

    2018-04-03

    This is a study that updates earlier research on the influence of a front passenger on the risk for severe driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts. It includes the effects of belt use by the driver and passenger, identifies body regions involved in driver injury, and identifies the sources for severe driver head injury. 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the risk for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4 + F driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts by front passenger belt use and as a sole occupant in the driver seat. Side impacts were identified with GAD1 = L or R without rollover (rollover ≤ 0). Front-outboard occupants were included without ejection (ejection = 0). Injury severity was defined by MAIS and fatality (F) by TREATMNT = 1 or INJSEV = 4. Weighted data were determined. The risk for MAIS 4 + F was determined using the number of occupants with known injury status MAIS 0 + F. Standard errors were determined. Overall, belted drivers had greater risks for severe injury in near-side than far-side impacts. As a sole driver, the risk was 0.969 ± 0.212% for near-side and 0.313 ± 0.069% for far-side impacts (P impacts. The risk was 2.17 times greater with an unbelted passenger (NS). The driver's risk was 0.782 ± 0.431% with an unbelted passenger and 0.361% ± 0.114% with a belted passenger in far-side impacts. The risk was 1.57 times greater with an unbelted passenger (P impacts, the leading sources for AIS 4+ head injury were the left B-pillar, roof, and other vehicle. For far-side impacts, the leading sources were the other occupant, right interior, and roof (8.5%). Seat belt use by a passenger lowered the risk of severe driver injury in side impacts. The reduction was 54% in near-side impacts and 36% in far-side impacts. Belted drivers experienced mostly head and thoracic AIS 4+ injuries. Head injuries in the belted drivers were from contact with the side interior and the other occupant, even with a belted passenger.

  19. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  20. Investigation of side wall effects on an inward scramjet inlet at Mach number 8.6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Tiago Cavalcanti

    Experimental and computational studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of a scramjet inlet as the side cowl length is changed. A slender inward turning inlet of a total length of 304.8 mm, a span of 50.8 mm with the compression at 11.54 deg and CR = 4.79 was used. The side cowl lengths were of 0, 50.8 and 76.2 mm. The UTA Hypersonic Shock Tunnel facility was used in the reflected mode. The model was instrumented with nine piezoelectric pressure transducers, for static and total pressure measurements. A wedge was mounted at the rear of the inlet in order to accommodate a Pitot pressure rake. The driven tube was instrumented with three pressure transducers. Two of them were used to measure the incident shock wave speed, and a third one was used for stagnation pressure measurements during a test. Furthermore, a Pitot probe was installed below the model in order to measure the impact pressure on each run, this reading along with the driven sensor readings, allowed us for the calculation of freestream properties. During the experiments, nominal stagnation enthalpy of 0.67 MJ/kg and stagnation pressure of 3.67 MPa were achieved. Freestream conditions were Mach number 8.6 and Reynolds number of 1.94 million per m. Test times were 300 - 500 microseconds. Numerical simulations using RANS with the Wilcox K-w turbulence model were performed using ANSYS Fluent. The results from the static pressure measurements presented a good agreement with CFD predictions. Moreover, the uniformity at the inlet exit was achieved within the experimental precision. The experiments showed that the cowl length has a pronounced effect in the pressure distribution on the inlet and a minor effect in the exit flow Mach number. The numerical results confirmed these trends and showed that a complex flow structure is formed in the cowl-ramp corners; a non-uniform transverse shock structure was found to be related to the cowl leading edge position. Cross flow due to the side expansion

  1. Increased demand-side flexibility: market effects and impacts on variable renewable energy integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Grytli Tveten

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of increased demand-side flexibility (DSF on integration and market value of variable renewable energy sources (VRE. Using assumed potentials, system-optimal within-day shifts in demand are investigated for the Northern European power markets in 2030, applying a comprehensive partial equilibrium model with high temporal and spatial resolution. Increased DSF is found to cause only a minor (less than 3% reduction in consumers’ cost of electricity. VRE revenues are found to increase (up to 5% and 2% for wind and solar power, respectively, and total VRE curtailment decreases by up to 7.2 TWh. Increased DSF causes only limited reductions in GHG emissions. The emission reduction is, however, sensitive to underlying assumptions. We conclude that increased DSF is a promising measure for improving VRE integration. However, low consumers’ savings imply that policies stimulating DFS will be needed to fully use the potential benefits of DSF for VRE integration

  2. Slip effects on a generalized Burgers’ fluid flow between two side walls with fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research for the 3D flow of a generalized Burgers’ fluid between two side walls generated by an exponential accelerating plate and a constant pressure gradient, where the no-slip assumption between the exponential accelerating plate and the Burgers’ fluid is no longer valid. The governing equations of the generalized Burgers’ fluid flow are established by using the fractional calculus approach. Exact analytic solutions for the 3D flow are established by employing the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier sine transform. Furthermore, some 3D and 2D figures for the fluid velocity and shear stress are plotted to analyze and discuss the effects of various parameters.

  3. Increased prevalence of hyperthyroidism as an early and transient side-effect of implementing iodine prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołkowski, Filip; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Szybiński, Zbigniew; Huszno, Bohdan

    2007-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of hyperthyroidism just after implementation of iodine prophylaxis among adults from an area with iodine deficiency. A total of 1648 adults (age 16 years and older) were sampled from an area of southern Poland during two nationwide epidemiological surveys. Of these, 1424 adults with negative medical history for thyroid disorders qualified for final analysis. The authors compared thyroid dysfunction in participants prior to (1989-1990) and after implementation of iodine prophylaxis (1997-1999). The southern part of Poland. We found an increase in the serum concentration of anti-thyroid microsomal antibodies from 4.9% in the years 1989-1990 to 12.1% after introduction of iodised household salt (P hyperthyroidism (defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone hyperthyroidism. Those possible early side-effects appear to be only temporary and are acceptable when compared with the evident benefits of adequate iodine intake.

  4. Pharmacogenetics and aromatase inhibitor induced side effects in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sini, Valentina; Botticelli, Andrea; Lunardi, Gianluigi; Gori, Stefania; Marchetti, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    This paper reviews genetic variations mainly related to the onset of adverse events during aromatase inhibitors in early breast cancer. Genetic variability could occur at different steps. The analysis included studies that involved breast cancer patients, treated with an aromatase inhibitor, genotyped for CYP19A1 and/or CYP17A1 and/or CYP27B1 and/or TCLA1, and/or RANK/RANKL/OPG and/or ESR1/ESR2, and assessed for toxicity profile. Twenty-two articles were included for the analysis. Three studies evaluated outcomes and adverse events; 19 studies assessed only side effects. Functional variations may be useful in predicting the onset of toxicities. The identification of polymorphisms at increased risk of toxicity may enable patient management. However, more data are needed to be applied in the individualization of treatment in daily practice.

  5. Acute myositis: an unusual and severe side effect of docetaxel: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochigneux, Philippe; Schleinitz, Nicolas; Ebbo, Mikael; Aymonier, Marie; Pourroy, Bertrand; Boissier, Romain; Salas, Sébastien; Deville, Jean-Laurent

    2018-06-01

    Docetaxel is an antimicrotubules cytotoxic agent prescribed widely by medical oncologists in multiple tumor types (breast, lung, prostate, stomach, head, and neck). However, the side effects of docetaxel are numerous (cytopenia, peripheral edema, myalgia, arthralgia, alopecia, and sensitive neuropathy) and recent concerns have been raised about neutropenic enterocolitis in France. Here, we report the case of a 57-year-old patient with metastatic prostatic cancer, who developed a severe myositis and fasciitis grade IV 1 week after his second docetaxel infusion. We reviewed the five cases of docetaxel-related myositis described in the literature, and found that most of them occurred in patients with diabetes (n=5/5) or hypertension (n=4/5). A vascular toxicity may explain this severe complication, and patients with diabetes or hypertension should be monitored closely in the context of a docetaxel chemotherapy.

  6. The means/side-effect distinction in moral cognition: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Adam; May, Joshua

    2017-09-01

    Experimental research suggests that people draw a moral distinction between bad outcomes brought about as a means versus a side effect (or byproduct). Such findings have informed multiple psychological and philosophical debates about moral cognition, including its computational structure, its sensitivity to the famous Doctrine of Double Effect, its reliability, and its status as a universal and innate mental module akin to universal grammar. But some studies have failed to replicate the means/byproduct effect especially in the absence of other factors, such as personal contact. So we aimed to determine how robust the means/byproduct effect is by conducting a meta-analysis of both published and unpublished studies (k=101; 24,058 participants). We found that while there is an overall small difference between moral judgments of means and byproducts (standardized mean difference=0.87, 95% CI 0.67-1.06; standardized mean change=0.57, 95% CI 0.44-0.69; log odds ratio=1.59, 95% CI 1.15-2.02), the mean effect size is primarily moderated by whether the outcome is brought about by personal contact, which typically involves the use of personal force. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel E; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Fahrbach, Susan E; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Film cooling adiabatic effectiveness measurements of pressure side trailing edge cooling configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Becchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays total inlet temperature of gas turbine is far above the permissible metal temperature; as a consequence, advanced cooling techniques must be applied to protect from thermal stresses, oxidation and corrosion the components located in the high pressure stages, such as the blade trailing edge. A suitable design of the cooling system for the trailing edge has to cope with geometric constraints and aerodynamic demands; state-of-the-art of cooling concepts often use film cooling on blade pressure side: the air taken from last compressor stages is ejected through discrete holes or slots to provide a cold layer between hot mainstream and the blade surface. With the goal of ensuring a satisfactory lifetime of blades, the design of efficient trailing edge film cooling schemes and, moreover, the possibility to check carefully their behavior, are hence necessary to guarantee an appropriate metal temperature distribution. For this purpose an experimental survey was carried out to investigate the film covering performance of different pressure side trailing edge cooling systems for turbine blades. The experimental test section consists of a scaled-up trailing edge model installed in an open loop suction type test rig. Measurements of adiabatic effectiveness distributions were carried out on three trailing edge cooling system configurations. The baseline geometry is composed by inclined slots separated by elongated pedestals; the second geometry shares the same cutback configuration, with an additional row of circular film cooling holes located upstream; the third model is equipped with three rows of in-line film cooling holes. Experiments have been performed at nearly ambient conditions imposing several blowing ratio values and using carbon dioxide as coolant in order to reproduce a density ratio close to the engine conditions (DR=1.52. To extend the validity of the survey a comparison between adiabatic effectiveness measurements and a prediction by

  9. Developing visual images for communicating information aboutantiretroviral side effects to a low-literate population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowse, Ros; Ramela, Thato; Barford, Kirsty-Lee; Browne, Sara

    2010-09-01

    The side effects of antiretroviral (ARV) therapy are linked to altered quality of life and adherence. Poor adherence has also been associated with low health-literacy skills, with an uninformed patient more likely to make ARV-related decisions that compromise the efficacy of the treatment. Low literacy skills disempower patients in interactions with healthcare providers and preclude the use of existing written patient information materials, which are generally written at a high reading level. Visual images or pictograms used as a counselling tool or included in patient information leaflets have been shown to improve patients' knowledge, particularly in low-literate groups. The objective of this study was to design visuals or pictograms illustrating various ARV side effects and to evaluate them in a low-literate South African Xhosa population. Core images were generated either from a design workshop or from posed photos or images from textbooks. The research team worked closely with a graphic artist. Initial versions of the images were discussed and assessed in group discussions, and then modified and eventually evaluated quantitatively in individual interviews with 40 participants who each had a maximum of 10 years of schooling. The familiarity of the human body, its facial expressions, postures and actions contextualised the information and contributed to the participants' understanding. Visuals that were simple, had a clear central focus and reflected familiar body experiences (e.g. vomiting) were highly successful. The introduction of abstract elements (e.g. fever) and metaphorical images (e.g. nightmares) presented problems for interpretation, particularly to those with the lowest educational levels. We recommend that such visual images should be designed in collaboration with the target population and a graphic artist, taking cognisance of the audience's literacy skills and culture, and should employ a multistage iterative process of modification and

  10. Quality of life and side effects in patients with actinic keratosis treated with ingenol mebutate: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubert-Esteve, E; Del Pozo-Hernando, L J; Izquierdo-Herce, N; Bauzá-Alonso, A; Martín-Santiago, A; Jones-Caballero, M

    2015-10-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) lesions are in situ squamous cell carcinoma. These lesions have a low risk of progressing to invasive disease but significant impact on patients' quality of life (QoL). The aim of this study was to assess QoL and side effects in patients with AK receiving treatment with ingenol mebutate. This was a prospective, non-randomized pilot study carried out in Spain. The target population was adults with a clinical diagnosis of AK affecting any part of the body. Outcomes were assessed on the basis of a QoL questionnaire (Skindex-29), local skin response, the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM 1.4), and clinical response. A total of 19 patients were studied. Most of the participants were men (89.5%) and mean age was 76.2 years. After treatment with ingenol mebutate, significant improvement was observed in the Skindex-29 subscales relating to symptom severity (P=.041), the patients' emotional state (P=.026), and in the overall score (P=.014). Erythema, crusting, and flaking or scaling were the local skin responses with highest median score (2.0 in all 3 cases). Imiquimod 5% and ingenol mebutate achieved higher median scores for effectiveness and global satisfaction than any other previous treatments (as measured by TSQM 1.4). In the patients' assessment of convenience, ingenol mebutate had a higher median score than previous treatments. Over half of the patients (52.6%) had an improvement of at least 75% at month 3. QoL in patients with AK improves after treatment with ingenol mebutate. The presence of side effects did not affect QoL or patient satisfaction with treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  11. Effectiveness of 308-nm Excimer Laser Therapy in Treating Alopecia Areata, Determined by Examining the Treated Sides of Selected Alopecic Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ji Won; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Bang, Chan Yl; Shin, Jeonghyun; Choi, Gwang Seong

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have reported the use of 308-nm excimer laser therapy for treating alopecia areata (AA); however, the effectiveness of this therapy on a theoretical basis has not yet been comparatively analyzed. To determine the therapeutic effect of excimer laser therapy on AA. One alopecic patch was divided into control and treated sides in 10 patients with AA. Then, 308-nm excimer laser therapy was administered twice a week for 12 weeks. Photograph and phototrichogram analyses were performed. Photographic assessments by both dermatologists and individuals of the general population showed objective improvements after excimer laser therapy. On the treated side, the hair count and hair diameter had statistically increased after treatment. However, only the hair diameter was found to be significantly high in the treated half when it was compared with the control side. The 308-nm excimer laser has a therapeutic effect on AA, which is proven by photograph and phototrichogram analysis by a side-by-side comparison. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Effect of small sided handball game on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability of male handball players

    OpenAIRE

    CHITTIBABU, Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four and eight weeks small-sided handball game on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability of male handball players. Sixteen (16) male university handball players volunteered to act as subjects and were randomly assigned to small-sided handball game group (SSHG) and control group (CG).  Small-sided handball game was administered three days in a week for eight weeks. Subjects were measured on aerobic capacity, total sprint time and ...

  13. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  14. Finasteride Side Effects and Post-Finasteride Syndrome in Male Androgenic Alopecia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Mirela

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride is in present a relatively frequent prescribed drug for male androgenic alopecia. The adverse effects reported by some patients seem to be notable, consisting of various (physical, mental/ neurological, sexual, etc. manifestations which are encountered both during Finasteride administration and after treatment cessation (in the form of `post-Finasteride syndrome`. The pharmacological action and the corresponding adverse effects related to Finasteride administration were investigated and published in literature through several and successive studies. In respect to psychiatric disorders, the most notable concern is related to depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts among former users of finasteride with persistent adverse effects. Regarding genito-urinary symptoms, these are usually represented by gynecomastia, decreased interest in sexual intercourse/ low level of sexual desire and erectile dysfunction. Finally, we viewed Finasteride side effects and post-Finasteride syndrome as distinct physiopathologic entities, thus requiring possible distinct therapeutic approaches. Additional studies will be necessary, in order to further investigate the cerebral neuromodulation of the two relational (cognitive and sexual functions, both of which may be interfered by administration of hormones or by the corresponding compounds such as Finasteride.

  15. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  16. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Caixeta Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species, as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.. One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1, maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1, a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting

  17. Side effects associated with ultrarapid cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype among women with early stage breast cancer treated with tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolla, R; Vidali, M; Meola, S; Pollarolo, P; Fanello, M R; Nicolotti, C; Saggia, C; Forti, L; Agostino, F D; Rossi, V; Borra, G; Stratica, F; Alabiso, O; Bellomo, G

    2012-01-01

    The side effects of tamoxifen, a drug widely used for the treatment and the prevention of recurrence in patients with estrogen receptor positive breast cancers (ER+), have been reported in clinical trials, but to date no information is available on their possible association with an increased enzymatic activity of CYP2D6 (ultra-metabolizers, UMs). The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the association between the presence of multiple functional CYP2D6 alleles and the occurrence of side effects. 61 women with ER+ breast cancer receiving tamoxifen monotherapy were investigated in order to assess the relationships between CYP2D6 UM phenotype and side effects. Genotyping of 16 CYP2D6 polymorphisms was performed using a new DNA microarray technology. A highly significant difference was detected (41.2% of difference, 95% CI 6 - 61%, Fisher's exact test, p = 0.030) between the numbers of Ultrarapid Metabolizer patients (UM; high activity) with two or more adverse drug reactions to tamoxifen (7/9; 77.8%), compared to the number of Extensive Metabolizers (EM; normal activity), Intermediate Metabolizers (IM; reduced activity), and Poor Metabolizers (PM; no activity) with at least two side effects (19/52, 36.5%). A similar difference was also observed comparing the two groups (UM vs EM-IM-PM) for the number of side effects (median and inter quartile range, IQR: AM/EM/IM 1, IQR 0-2 vs. ULTRA 2, IQR 2-4; Mann-Whitney p = 0.005). Our results suggest a new association between CYP2D6 gene duplication and side effects to tamoxifen, indicating a possible role of CYP2D6 in their occurrence.

  18. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae."nMethods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. "nResults: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism."nConclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  19. Side Effects of IGR Cyromazine on Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae, a Parasitic Wasp of House Fly Pupae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Vazirianzadeh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Combination of cyromazine as an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR and Nasonia vitripennis (Hymenop¬tera: Pteromalidae a parasitic wasp may be an effective tool for reducing the house-fly populations in poultry houses and livestock farms. This study was conducted to assess the side effects of the IGR cyromazine on the level of parasit¬ism and numbers and the longevity of emerged N. vitripennis parasitoids from house fly pupae.Methods: Cyromazine treated cloth target was used as the contaminating method of the parasitoids which was ap¬plied in this research study. Results: The Weibull distribution showed that there was no significant difference among controls and cyromazine treated targets for longevity data. There was no significant effect of cyromazine on the level of parasitism of N. vitripennis using 2 test. One-way ANOVA showed that the actual numbers emerging were significantly higher in the control than in two cyromazine treatments; however, it is a useful phenomenon because of reducing the hyperparasitism.Conclusion: There is a good consistency between using N. vitripennis and 1.1% or 0.9% cyromazine treated targets. There¬fore cyromazine treated targets can be applied as a safe delivery vehicle for applying the cyromazine IGR in the poultry houses and livestock farms in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program.

  20. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre

    2013-07-15

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  2. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W.; Medical University Vienna; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A.; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P.; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  3. End Effects on the Linear Induction MHD Generator Calculated by Two-Sided Laplace Transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeln, F.; Peschka, W. [Deutsche Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Institut fuer Energiewandlung und Elektrische Antriebe, Stuttgart, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1966-11-15

    In induction MHD systems special problems occur where the flow enters or leaves the magnetic field. These problems are generally described as end effects. Large gradients of the magnetic field are present at the inlet and also at the outlet of an MHD induction engine, these generating electric current systems in the fluid which may spoil the performance characteristics of the generator due to the interaction with the primary field of the engine. The two-dimensional induction MHD generator of finite length, using a polyphase winding system to obtain a travelling magnetic field, is treated as a boundary value problem by two-sided Laplace transform. For simplicity incompressibility is assumed. The two- dimensional boundary value problem of the induction engine is solved for - {infinity} Less-Than-Over-Equal-To x Less-Than-Over-Equal-To {infinity}. x is parallel to the flow direction of the linear MHD generator. In the region 0 Less-Than-Over-Equal-To x Less-Than-Over-Equal-To L the magnetic travelling wave is sinusoidal with a cyclical frequency {omega} and a phase-velocity v{sub s}. At x = 0 the conducting incompressible working fluid enters the field region and leaves it at the point-x = L. Two mathematical methods can be used to solve the boundary value problem, the Fourier transform or the two-sided Laplace transform. The latter offers the advantage of representing a complex analytical function in the image space. Moreover, it is possible to obtain the characteristics of the generator in the image space (e. g. field configuration, power flow function, etc.). That implies a large simplification of mathematical treatment. The solution in the original space then is given by asymptotic expansion of the known image function. (author)

  4. Effect of the Length of Side Group Substitution on Optical and Electroluminescene Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hwan Gyu; Kang, Hyeon Mi; Kim, Beom Jin; Park, Young Il [The Catholic University, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Young Jun [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Wook [LG display Co., Gyeonggi (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Blue emitting materials, 9,10-bis-biphenyl-4-yl-anthracene (AC-P), 9,10-bis-[1,1';4',1'']terphenyl-4-yl-anthracene (AC-DP), and 9,10-bis[3'',5''-deiphenyltriphenyl-4'-yl]anthracene (AC-TP) were synthesized through boration and Suzuki aryl-aryl coupling reaction. EL performance of blue light-emitters was optimized and improved by varying the chemical structures of the side groups. In the thin film state, the three materials exhibit PLmax values in the range of 442-456 nm. EL device with the synthesized compounds in the following configuration was fabricated: ITO/4,4',4''-tris(N-(2-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino)triphenylamine (2-TNATA) 60nm/N,N'-bis (naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-bis(phenyl)benzidine (NPB) 15nm/synthesized blue emitting materials (30nm)/1,3,5- tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)phenyl (TPBi) 20nm/LiF 1nm/Al 200nm. The current efficiency and C.I.E. value of AC-TP were 3.87 cd/A and (0.15, 0.12). A bulky and non-planar side group helps to prevent π-π* stacking interaction, which should lead to the formation of more reliable amorphous film. This is expected to have a positive effect on the high efficiency of the operating OLED device.

  5. Using human genetics to predict the effects and side-effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: 'Genetic proxies' are increasingly being used to predict the effects of drugs. We present an up-to-date overview of the use of human genetics to predict effects and adverse effects of lipid-targeting drugs. RECENT FINDINGS: LDL cholesterol lowering variants in HMG-Coenzyme A re...

  6. Shielding Effectiveness Analysis and Modification of the Coupling Effect Transmission Line Method on Cavities with Multi-Sided Apertures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the traditional transmission line method treats electromagnetic waves as excitation sources and the cavity as a rectangular waveguide whose terminal is shorted, the transmission line method can only calculate shielding effectiveness in the center line of the cavity with apertures on one side. In this paper, the aperture coupling effect of different sides was analyzed based on vector analysis. According to the field intensity distribution of different transport modes in the rectangular waveguide, the calculation model of cavity shielding effectiveness in any position is proposed, which can solve the question of the calculation model of shielding effectiveness in any position in the traditional method of equivalent transmission methods. Further expansion of the equivalent transmission lines model is adopted to study the shielding effectiveness of different aperture cavities, and the coupling effect rule of the incident angle, the number of apertures, and the size of the cavity is obtained, which can provide the technical support for the design of electromagnetic shielding cavities for electronic equipment.

  7. Practical issues in laser cleaning of stone and painted artefacts: optimisation procedures and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouli, Paraskevi; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta

    2012-02-01

    In the last twenty years lasers have acquired an important role in the study and the preservation of Cultural Heritage (CH) objects and Monuments, as they have effectively illuminated a number of complex diagnostic and restoration problems. Their unique properties have enabled their use in a wide range of conservation applications, since they ensure interventions with precise control, material selectivity and immediate feedback. Surface cleaning, based on laser ablation, is a delicate, critical and irreversible process, which, given the multitude of materials that may be present on a CH object and the often fragile or precarious condition of the original surfaces, is fraught with many potential complications. Therefore it is crucial to choose the best possible laser cleaning methodology for each individual case, which involves optimising the laser parameters according to material properties, as well as the thorough knowledge of the ablation mechanisms involved. In this context the systematic investigation and elucidation of potential damage or side effects occurring upon cleaning is essential, as it delineates the possibilities and limitations of laser ablation and allows the fine-tuning of the operating parameters for a successful cleaning intervention. This paper is an overview of studies investigating the mechanisms which are responsible for the laser-induced discoloration effects. Emphasis is given on the yellowing coloration observed on stonework upon infrared (IR) ablation of pollution encrustations, while the various theories introduced to approach the different physical and/or chemical processes and mechanisms responsible for such side effects are discussed. In this respect the different laser cleaning methodologies, which are based on the use of laser systems with different pulse durations and wavelength characteristics, introduced in order to rectify or prevent discoloration on stonework are presented. In parallel, the darkening phenomena which occur upon

  8. Buoyancy effects in vertical rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field and single sided heat load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostichev, P. I.; Poddubnyi, I. I.; Razuvanov, N. G.

    2017-11-01

    In some DEMO blanket designs liquid metal flows in vertical ducts of rectangular cross-section between ceramic breeder units providing their cooling. Heat exchange in these conditions is governed by the influence of magnetic field (coplanar) and by buoyancy effects that depend on the flow orientation to the gravity vector (downward and upward flow). Magnetohydrodynamic and heat transfer of liquid metal in vertical rectangular ducts is not well researched. Experimental study of buoyancy effects in rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field for one-sided heat load and downward and upward flowsis presented in this paper. The detail research with has been done on mercury MHD close loop with using of the probe technique allow to discover several advantageous and disadvantageous effects. The intensive impact of buoyancy force has been observed in a few regime of downward flow which has been laminarized by magnetic field. Due to the development in the flow of the secondary large-scale vortices heat transfer improved and the temperature fluctuations of the abnormally high intensity have been fixed. On the contrary, in the upward flow the buoyancy force stabilized the flow which lead to decreasing of the turbulence heat transfer ratio and, consequently, deterioration of heat transfer.

  9. Relationships among morphine metabolism, pain and side effects during long-term treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per

    2003-01-01

    The two metabolites of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), have been studied intensively in animals and humans during the past 30 years in order to elucidate their precise action and possible contribution to the desired effects and side effects seen after...... morphine administration. M3G and M6G are formed by morphine glucuronidation, mainly in the liver, and are excreted by the kidneys. The metabolites are found in the cerebrospinal fluid after single as well as multiple doses of morphine. M6G binds to opioid receptors, and animal studies have demonstrated...... of the studies have used lower doses of M6G than of morphine. M3G displays very low affinity for opioid receptors and has no analgesic activity. Animal studies have shown that M3G may antagonize the analgesic effect of morphine and M6G, but no human studies have demonstrated this. M3G has also been connected...

  10. Cardiovascular side effects of cancer therapies: a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschenhagen, Thomas; Force, Thomas; Ewer, Michael S; de Keulenaer, Gilles W; Suter, Thomas M; Anker, Stefan D; Avkiran, Metin; de Azambuja, Evandro; Balligand, Jean-Luc; Brutsaert, Dirk L; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Hansen, Arne; Heymans, Stephane; Hill, Joseph A; Hirsch, Emilio; Hilfiker-Kleiner, Denise; Janssens, Stefan; de Jong, Steven; Neubauer, Gitte; Pieske, Burkert; Ponikowski, Piotr; Pirmohamed, Munir; Rauchhaus, Mathias; Sawyer, Douglas; Sugden, Peter H; Wojta, Johann; Zannad, Faiez; Shah, Ajay M

    2011-01-01

    The reductions in mortality and morbidity being achieved among cancer patients with current therapies represent a major achievement. However, given their mechanisms of action, many anti-cancer agents may have significant potential for cardiovascular side effects, including the induction of heart failure. The magnitude of this problem remains unclear and is not readily apparent from current clinical trials of emerging targeted agents, which generally under-represent older patients and those with significant co-morbidities. The risk of adverse events may also increase when novel agents, which frequently modulate survival pathways, are used in combination with each other or with other conventional cytotoxic chemotherapeutics. The extent to which survival and growth pathways in the tumour cell (which we seek to inhibit) coincide with those in cardiovascular cells (which we seek to preserve) is an open question but one that will become ever more important with the development of new cancer therapies that target intracellular signalling pathways. It remains unclear whether potential cardiovascular problems can be predicted from analyses of such basic signalling mechanisms and what pre-clinical evaluation should be undertaken. The screening of patients, optimization of therapeutic schemes, monitoring of cardiovascular function during treatment, and the management of cardiovascular side effects are likely to become increasingly important in cancer patients. This paper summarizes the deliberations of a cross-disciplinary workshop organized by the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology (held in Brussels in May 2009), which brought together clinicians working in cardiology and oncology and those involved in basic, translational, and pharmaceutical science.

  11. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dieckmann, Karin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Gleiss, Andreas [Section of Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Zehetmayer, Martin [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  12. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman; Dieckmann, Karin; Gleiss, Andreas; Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Poetter, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  13. Non-destructive Analysis Reveals Effect of Installation Details on Plywood Siding Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; Gregory T. Schueneman; Steven Lacher; Xiping Wang; R. Sam Williams

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of a variety of construction techniques on the performance of plywood siding and the applied paint, using both ultrasound and conventional visual inspection techniques. The impact of bottom edge contact, flashing vs. caulking board ends, priming the bottom edge, location (Wisconsin vs. Mississippi) and a gap behind the siding to...

  14. The dysfunctional side effects of quantitative indicator production: illustration from mental health care (a message from Chicken Little).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, P E

    1984-01-01

    In the current context of economic conservation, accountability and retrenchment from social programs, justification i