WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant research findings

  1. Significant events in psychotherapy: An update of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timulak, Ladislav

    2010-11-01

    Significant events research represents a specific approach to studying client-identified important moments in the therapy process. The current study provides an overview of the significant events research conducted, the methodology used together with findings and implications. PsychInfo database was searched with keywords such as significant events, important events, significant moments, important moments, and counselling or psychotherapy. The references of the selected studies were also searched. This process led to the identification of 41 primary studies that used client-identified significant event(s) as a main or secondary focus of the study. These were consequently reviewed with regard to their methodology and findings. The findings are presented according to type of study conducted. The impacts of helpful events reported by clients are focused on contributions to therapeutic relationship and to in-session outcomes. Hindering events focus on some client disappointment with the therapist or therapy. The group therapy modality highlighted additional helpful impacts (like learning from others). Perspectives on what is significant in therapy differ between clients and therapists. The intensive qualitative studies reviewed confirm that the processes involved in significant events are complex and ambiguous. Studies show that the helpful events may also contain many hindering elements and that specific events are deeply contextually embedded in the preceding events of therapy. Some studies suggest that helpful significant events are therapeutically productive although this may need to be established further. Specific intensive studies show that the clients' perceptions in therapy may differ dramatically from that of the therapist. Furthermore, the relational and emotional aspects of significant moments may be more important for the clients than the cognitive aspects of therapy which are frequently stressed by therapists. 2010 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Research cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in end stage renal disease - incidence, significance and implications of unexpected incidental findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutherford, Elaine; Weir-McCall, Jonathan R.; Houston, J.G.; Struthers, Allan D. [Ninewells Hospital, Division of Cardiovascular and Diabetes Medicine, Dundee (United Kingdom); Patel, Rajan K.; Jardine, Alan G.; Mark, Patrick B. [Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Roditi, Giles [NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde, Department of Radiology, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2017-01-15

    Left ventricular mass (LVM) at cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) is a frequent end point in clinical trials in nephrology. Trial participants with end stage renal disease (ESRD) may have a greater frequency of incidental findings (IF). We retrospectively investigated prevalence of IF in previous research CMR and reviewed their subsequent impact on participants. Between 2002 and 2006, 161 ESRD patients underwent CMR in a transplant assessment study. Images were used to assess LV mass and function. In the current study a radiologist reviewed the scans for IF. Review of patient records determined the subsequent clinical significance of IF. There were 150 IF in 95 study participants. Eighty-four (56 %) were new diagnoses. One hundred and two were non-cardiac. Fifteen were suspicious of malignancy. There was a clinically significant IF for 14.9 % of the participants. In six cases earlier identification of an IF may have improved quality of life or survival. Without radiology support clinically important IF may be missed on CMR. Patients undergoing CMR in trials should be counselled about the frequency and implications of IF. Patients with ESRD have a higher prevalence of IF than reported in other populations. Nephrology studies require mechanisms for radiologist reporting and strategies for dealing with IF. (orig.)

  3. Publication of statistically significant research findings in prosthodontics & implant dentistry in the context of other dental specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spyridon N; Kloukos, Dimitrios; Petridis, Haralampos; Pandis, Nikolaos

    2015-10-01

    To assess the hypothesis that there is excessive reporting of statistically significant studies published in prosthodontic and implantology journals, which could indicate selective publication. The last 30 issues of 9 journals in prosthodontics and implant dentistry were hand-searched for articles with statistical analyses. The percentages of significant and non-significant results were tabulated by parameter of interest. Univariable/multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify possible predictors of reporting statistically significance findings. The results of this study were compared with similar studies in dentistry with random-effects meta-analyses. From the 2323 included studies 71% of them reported statistically significant results, with the significant results ranging from 47% to 86%. Multivariable modeling identified that geographical area and involvement of statistician were predictors of statistically significant results. Compared to interventional studies, the odds that in vitro and observational studies would report statistically significant results was increased by 1.20 times (OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.66-2.92) and 0.35 times (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.05-1.73), respectively. The probability of statistically significant results from randomized controlled trials was significantly lower compared to various study designs (difference: 30%, 95% CI: 11-49%). Likewise the probability of statistically significant results in prosthodontics and implant dentistry was lower compared to other dental specialties, but this result did not reach statistical significant (P>0.05). The majority of studies identified in the fields of prosthodontics and implant dentistry presented statistically significant results. The same trend existed in publications of other specialties in dentistry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  5. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W.; Jamieson, Douglas H.

    2005-01-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  6. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  7. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assessment is included, the finding need not repeat any of the discussion in the assessment but may... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32... Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of...

  8. Knowledge translation of research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimshaw Jeremy M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health. We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting, and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge

  9. Knowledge translation of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Eccles, Martin P; Lavis, John N; Hill, Sophie J; Squires, Janet E

    2012-05-31

    One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by an assessment of the

  10. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... note any other environmental documents related to it (§ 1501.7(a)(5)). If the assessment is included, the finding need not repeat any of the discussion in the assessment but may incorporate it by... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508...

  11. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  12. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based...... on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives...... and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null...

  13. Necrotizing pneumonia: CT findings and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong Suk; Im, Jung Gi; Ryoo, Jae Wook; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung

    1995-01-01

    To analyze CT and follow-up chest radiographic findings in patients with necrotizing pneumonia and to evaluate clinical significance of the extent of necrosis. We reviewed medical records and retrospectively analysed CT scans and follow-up chest radiographs of 22 patients with necrotizing pneumonia, confirmed by biopsy (n = 7) and culture (n = 15). Inclusion criteria for necrotizing pneumonia was necrotic low attenuation, with or without cavitation on postcontrast enhanced CT scan. The study group included 15 men and seven women, aged 11-66 years (average: 47 years). The pathogens of necrotizing pneumonia were Klebsiella spp (n = 7), Enterobacter spp (n = 5), Actinomyces spp (n = 4), Pseudomonas spp (n = 4), Nocardia spp (n = 4), and others (n = 5). Average duration of pneumonia was 4.1 months. On CT scan, pneumonic consolidations were well-marginated in 14 patients and there were cavities on initial CT scan in 16 cases. Margins of the necrotic portion on CT scan were well-demarcated in majority of the patients (16/22). Low attenuation areas on initial CT scan resulted in cavitation, fibrosis and volume loss as shown on follow-up chest radiographs. The larger the necrotic areas on CT, the more the volume loss was. CT findings of necrotizing pneumonia were well-marginated air-space consolidation with low attenuation area, with or without cavity. The extent of necrotic area was closely related with the degree of fibrotic change later on. CT is important tool for diagnosis and prediction of parenchymal damage in necrotizing pneumonia

  14. MR findings of tuberculous arthritis; significance of tuberculoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Han Won; Kim, Jeen Woo; Cho, Kil Ho [Yeungnam Univ. College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    To determine the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of tuberculous arthritis, and the frequency-in such cases-with which tuberculoma occurs. MR images of 26 patients (M;F, 14;12: mean age, 46.2 years) with pathologically proven tuberculous arthritis were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral erosion, synovial proliferation and soft tissue abscess, and whether the inner wall of this abscess was smooth, were assessed. In particular, we determined whether a nodular lesion which showed low SI on T1WI, central low SI with peripheral hjigh SI on T2WI, and rim enhancement on contrast study, was a tuberculoma. The joints involved were those of the knee (n=7), hip (n=7), shoulder (n=4), sacroiliac region (n=3), elbow (n=3), and ankle (n=2). Joint effusion was noted in 15 cases (58%), and subchondral erosion in 24 (92%). synovial proliferation was found in 23 cases (88%), and soft tissue abscess in 24 (92%). The inner wall of this abscess was irregular in 17 cases (71%). A tuberculoma was present in intra-or extra-or extra-articular soft tissue in 18 cases (69%). The MR findings of tuberculous arthritis were subchondral erosion, synovial proliferation, and soft tissue abscess. The presence of a tuberculoma in intra-or extra-articular soft tissue, a specific finding in tuberculous arthritis, was noted in 69% of our cases.

  15. MR findings of tuberculous arthritis; significance of tuberculoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Han Won; Kim, Jeen Woo; Cho, Kil Ho

    2001-01-01

    To determine the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of tuberculous arthritis, and the frequency-in such cases-with which tuberculoma occurs. MR images of 26 patients (M;F, 14;12: mean age, 46.2 years) with pathologically proven tuberculous arthritis were retrospectively reviewed. The presence of joint effusion, subchondral erosion, synovial proliferation and soft tissue abscess, and whether the inner wall of this abscess was smooth, were assessed. In particular, we determined whether a nodular lesion which showed low SI on T1WI, central low SI with peripheral hjigh SI on T2WI, and rim enhancement on contrast study, was a tuberculoma. The joints involved were those of the knee (n=7), hip (n=7), shoulder (n=4), sacroiliac region (n=3), elbow (n=3), and ankle (n=2). Joint effusion was noted in 15 cases (58%), and subchondral erosion in 24 (92%). synovial proliferation was found in 23 cases (88%), and soft tissue abscess in 24 (92%). The inner wall of this abscess was irregular in 17 cases (71%). A tuberculoma was present in intra-or extra-or extra-articular soft tissue in 18 cases (69%). The MR findings of tuberculous arthritis were subchondral erosion, synovial proliferation, and soft tissue abscess. The presence of a tuberculoma in intra-or extra-articular soft tissue, a specific finding in tuberculous arthritis, was noted in 69% of our cases

  16. Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issue Health Capsule Researchers Find a Mechanism for Schizophrenia En español Send us your comments Scientists uncovered a mechanism behind genetic variations previously linked to schizophrenia. The findings may lead to new clinical approaches. ...

  17. Imaging findings and significance of deep neck space infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Qixin; Gu Yifeng; Du Lianjun; Zhu Lili; Pan Yuping; Li Minghua; Yang Shixun; Shang Kezhong; Yin Shankai

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the imaging appearance of deep neck space cellulitis and abscess and to evaluate the diagnostic criteria of deep neck space infection. Methods: CT and MRI findings of 28 cases with deep neck space infection proved by clinical manifestation and pathology were analyzed, including 11 cases of retropharyngeal space, 5 cases of parapharyngeal space infection, 4 cases of masticator space infection, and 8 cases of multi-space infection. Results: CT and MRI could display the swelling of the soft tissues and displacement, reduction, or disappearance of lipoid space in the cellulitis. In inflammatory tissues, MRI imaging demonstrated hypointense or isointense signal on T 1 WI, and hyperintense signal changes on T 2 WI. In abscess, CT could display hypodensity in the center and boundary enhancement of the abscess. MRI could display obvious hyperintense signal on T 2 WI and boundary enhancement. Conclusion: CT and MRI could provide useful information for deep neck space cellulitis and abscess

  18. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  19. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and γ irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal's exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats

  20. Significance chasing in research practice: causes, consequences and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Jennifer J; Munafò, Marcus R

    2015-01-01

    The low reproducibility of findings within the scientific literature is a growing concern. This may be due to many findings being false positives which, in turn, can misdirect research effort and waste money. We review factors that may contribute to poor study reproducibility and an excess of 'significant' findings within the published literature. Specifically, we consider the influence of current incentive structures and the impact of these on research practices. The prevalence of false positives within the literature may be attributable to a number of questionable research practices, ranging from the relatively innocent and minor (e.g. unplanned post-hoc tests) to the calculated and serious (e.g. fabrication of data). These practices may be driven by current incentive structures (e.g. pressure to publish), alongside the preferential emphasis placed by journals on novelty over veracity. There are a number of potential solutions to poor reproducibility, such as new publishing formats that emphasize the research question and study design, rather than the results obtained. This has the potential to minimize significance chasing and non-publication of null findings. Significance chasing, questionable research practices and poor study reproducibility are the unfortunate consequence of a 'publish or perish' culture and a preference among journals for novel findings. It is likely that top-down change implemented by those with the ability to modify current incentive structure (e.g. funders and journals) will be required to address problems of poor reproducibility. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  1. Sharing Research Findings with Research Participants and Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LE Ferris

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In occupational and environmental health research, individual, group and community research participants have a unique and vested interest in the research findings. The ethical principles of autonomy, non-maleficence and beneficence are helpful in considering the ethical issues in the disclosure of research findings in occupational and environmental health research. Researchers need to include stakeholders, such as groups and communities, in these discussions and in planning for the dissemination of research findings. These discussions need to occur early in the research process.

  2. 77 FR 38632 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), NIH. ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by... animal model of Parkinson's disease, 2006 (``manuscript''). Specifically, ORI finds that the Respondent...

  3. 77 FR 22320 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... have injected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells obtained from Rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct... Research Integrity (ORI) has taken final action in the following case: Peter J. Francis, M.D., Ph.D...

  4. 76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... . From this site, you can access the NRC's Agency Wide Document Access and Management System (ADAMS... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment for the University of Alaska... the release of an incinerator previously used at the Arctic Health Research Building for unrestricted...

  5. 75 FR 77641 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... significance, used to calculate repression ratios and RNA decay rates. Dr. Mungekar also claimed to have... proposed or that uses him in any capacity on PHS-supported research, or that submits a report of PHS-funded...

  6. 77 FR 54917 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... monkeys were able to understand communicative gestures performed by a human. Specifically, (1) in the... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct... RR003640-13, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD), NIH, grant 5 R01...

  7. 77 FR 69627 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct... Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH, grant R56 DK063025, and National... Physiol. 291(6):C1271-8, 2006 Am J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 294(1):C295-305, 2008 J. Lipid Res. 42:1444...

  8. 78 FR 21125 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-09

    ... compared to wild type NE in Figure 4A, NEM, Figure 6A, CMA, Figure 8, HL73063-01, and Figure 7, HL79615-01.... Respondent agreed not to appeal the ORI findings of research misconduct set forth above. He has agreed...

  9. 78 FR 8148 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of... Philosophy, August 2009; hereafter referred to as the ``Dissertation.'' Doreian, B.W., Fulop, T.G...

  10. 75 FR 39530 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct... retinal gene profile data that he purportedly obtained from three-week old normal dogs and dogs with X... normal dogs and dogs with X-linked progressive retinal atrophy in abstracts and poster presentations for...

  11. Multiple Perpetrator Rape: Naming an Offence and Initial Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz

    2009-01-01

    Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…

  12. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption From 10 CFR 30, 40, and 70... Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption from Commencement of Construction Requirements... has reached a Finding of No Significant Impact. II. Summary of the Environmental Assessment Background...

  13. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  14. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  15. 77 FR 5254 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ..., former Research Assistant and Data Base Manager, CU, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by... present responsibility to be a steward of Federal funds. 2 CFR 180.125, 180.800(d), 376.10. The following...

  16. 78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood Control Improvements to the Rio Grande... Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). SUMMARY: Pursuant to... Significant Impact for Flood Control Improvements to the Rio Grande Canalization Project in Vado, New Mexico...

  17. Prevalence and clinical significance of extravascular incidental findings in patients undergoing CT cervico-cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crockett, Matthew Thomas; Murphy, Blathnaid; Smith, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Eoin Carl

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is a commonly performed study for assessment of vascular pathologies of head and neck. • This study assessed the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. • This study demonstrated the presence of clinically significant incidental findings in 14% of patients undergoing CTCCA with 8% of these findings deemed to be highly significant. 19% of patients with highly clinically significant findings did not receive appropriate follow up. • A standardised method of reporting incidental findings, such as that used in this paper is suggested to aid radiologists and referring physicians in recording and communicating these findings. - Abstract: Introduction: CT cervico-cerebral angiography (CTCCA) is now the first line diagnostic imaging modality for the majority of vascular pathologies of the head and neck with diagnostic value comparable to or better than traditional angiographic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, clinical significance and management of extravascular incidental findings detected on CTCCA. Materials and methods: A retrospective review of the CTCCA reports of 302 consecutive patients from 2009 to 2013 was undertaken. Extravascular incidental findings were classified, according to an adaptation of the CT colonography data and reporting system (CRADS), as EV1–EV4. EV1 = no incidental findings, EV2 = clinically insignificant incidental finding, EV3 = incidental finding of intermediate clinical significance, EV4 = highly clinically significant finding. Follow up of the electronic medical records of patients with EV3 or EV4 findings was undertaken to determine subsequent management. Results: Potentially clinically significant findings were demonstrated in 14.2% of patients with 8.6% of patients having a highly clinically significant finding. 4 incidental findings were confirmed to be malignant lesions and 5

  18. Incidental findings in youths volunteering for brain MRI research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, R E; Kaltman, D; Melhem, E R; Ruparel, K; Prabhakaran, K; Riley, M; Yodh, E; Hakonarson, H; Satterthwaite, T; Gur, R C

    2013-10-01

    MRIs are obtained in research in healthy and clinical populations, and incidental findings have been reported. Most studies have examined adults with variability in parameters of image acquisition and clinical measures available. We conducted a prospective study of youths and documented the frequency and concomitants of incidental findings. Youths (n = 1400) with an age range from 8-23 years were imaged on the same 3T scanner, with a standard acquisition protocol providing 1.0 mm(3) isotropic resolution of anatomic scans. All scans were reviewed by an experienced board-certified neuroradiologist and were categorized into 3 groups: 1) normal: no incidental findings; 2) coincidental: incidental finding(s) were noted, further reviewed with an experienced pediatric neuroradiologist, but were of no clinical significance; 3) incidental findings that on further review were considered to have potential clinical significance and participants were referred for appropriate clinical follow-up. Overall, 148 incidental findings (10.6% of sample) were noted, and of these, 12 required clinical follow-up. Incidental findings were not related to age. However, whites had a higher incidence of pineal cysts, and males had a higher incidence of cavum septum pellucidum, which was associated with psychosis-related symptoms. Incidental findings, moderated by race and sex, occur in approximately one-tenth of participants volunteering for pediatric research, with few requiring follow-up. The incidence supports a 2-tiered approach of neuroradiologic reading and clinical input to determine the potential significance of incidental findings detected on research MR imaging scans.

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary. I...

  20. Communication of Unexpected and Significant Findings on Chest Radiographs With an Automated PACS Alert System.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hayes, Sara A

    2014-08-01

    An integral part of realizing the enormous potential of imaging in patient care is close communication between radiologists and referring physicians. One key element of this process is the communication of unexpected significant findings. The authors examined the performance of a PACS-based alert system in the appropriate communication of reports containing unexpected significant findings to referring physicians.

  1. 77 FR 32116 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ..., R. Thomas, D. Neil Hayes, M. Meyerson, D.J. Kwiatkowski, and K.-K. Wong, submitted to the Journal of... supervisory plan must be designed to ensure the scientific integrity of his research contribution; Respondent... application for PHS funds or any report, manuscript, or abstract of PHS-funded research in which he is...

  2. 78 FR 67363 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... University--Canada (formerly University of Western Ontario): Based on the report of an investigation conducted by Western University--Canada (WU) and ORI's subsequent oversight analysis, ORI found that Dr. Hao...-supported research, Respondent shall ensure that a plan for supervision of his duties is submitted to ORI...

  3. 77 FR 52034 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-28

    ... fellow, Department of Developmental and Stem Cell Biology, Joslin, engaged in research misconduct in... regulate ageing and rejuventation of blood stem cell niches.'' Nature 463:495-500, 2010. Mayack, S.R., & Wagers, A.J. ``Osteolineage niche cells initiate hemotopoietic stem cell mobilization.'' Blood 112:519...

  4. 77 FR 40059 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... experimental results from her prior work in Korea with human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to confirm the generation, differentiation, and verification of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The false data...--121508.ppt' 5. Falsified research materials when the Respondent distributed cells to laboratory members...

  5. 75 FR 18836 - Findings of Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... case: Emily M. Horvath, Indiana University: Based on the Respondent's own admissions in sworn testimony... National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM), National Institutes of Health (NIH... admitted to falsifying the original research data when entering values into computer programs for...

  6. Translational findings from cardiovascular stem cell research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazhari, Ramesh; Hare, Joshua M

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of using stem cells to regenerate damaged myocardium has been actively investigated since the late 1990s. Consistent with the traditional view that the heart is a "postmitotic" organ that possesses minimal capacity for self-repair, much of the preclinical and clinical work has focused exclusively on introducing stem cells into the heart, with the hope of differentiation of these cells into functioning cardiomyocytes. This approach is ongoing and retains promise but to date has yielded inconsistent successes. More recently, it has become widely appreciated that the heart possesses endogenous repair mechanisms that, if adequately stimulated, might regenerate damaged cardiac tissue from in situ cardiac stem cells. Accordingly, much recent work has focused on engaging and enhancing endogenous cardiac repair mechanisms. This article reviews the literature on stem cell-based myocardial regeneration, placing emphasis on the mutually enriching interaction between basic and clinical research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The Significance of Malaysian Real Estate Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Najib Razali

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates research agenda by the Malaysian real estate researchers (MRERs. This study adopts a deskwork approach by examining research papers published in leading real estate journals, both international and local and papers presented in main real estate conferences from 1997 to 2010. In addition, the number of research papers published and presented were also assessed from several main real estate research journals in the US, UK, Asia/Australia and Malaysia and conferences such as American Real Estate Society (ARES, European Real Estate Society (ERES, Pacific Rim Real Estate Society (PRRES, Asian Real Estate Society (AsRES and local conference; International Real Estate Research Symposium (IRERS. The study indicates that the Malaysian real estate researchers (MRERs have made a positive contribution to the global real estate research. Nevertheless, there is still more effort needed in order to compete in the global real estate research agenda. It is anticipated that this trend will change since the Malaysian government has emphasised on improving the quality of higher learning institutions' for which research and publication will be the main agenda. The contribution from MRERs will significantly improve Malaysian universities standing in global ranking.

  8. Meta-analyses triggered by previous (false-)significant findings : Problems and solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, Ewoud; Roes, Kit C B; Mol, Ben W J; Kwee, Anneke; Moons, Karel G M; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses are typically triggered by a (potentially false-significant) finding in one of the preceding primary studies. We studied consequences of meta-analysis investigating effects when primary studies that triggered such meta-analysis are also included. METHODS: We analytically

  9. Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that it has reviewed environmental assessments (EA's) and issued findings of no significant impact (FONSI's) relating to the 167 new drug applications (NDA's) and supplemental applications listed in this document. FDA is publishing this notice because Federal regulations require public notice of the availability of environmental documents.

  10. 78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... (truck, rail, and marine). DLA Energy's implementation of a systemic change to the use of commercial..., Terrestrial, and Cultural Resources--Transport and storage of fuel products is highly regulated. DLA Energy's... of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact Regarding DLA Energy's...

  11. 75 FR 63519 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... reduced for certain environmental resource areas (i.e., for transportation, public and occupational health... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2009-0435] Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental... of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact; Notice...

  12. 75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...: I. Introduction The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the issuance of a license.... II. Finding of No Significant Impact Based on the analysis contained in this EA, the staff concluded... access the NRC's Agencywide Document Access and Management System (ADAMS), which provides text and image...

  13. 76 FR 56820 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    .... Ken Yale, of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment regarding the environmental...; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is..., the NRC performed an environmental assessment. Based on the results of the environmental assessment...

  14. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego County... the Final Environmental Statement for the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Docket No. 50-333...

  15. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... license renewal. Staff considered the following environmental resource areas in its evaluation: Land use... Protection and Performance Assessment Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal for Uranium One USA Inc...

  16. Research findings can change attitudes about corporal punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn

    2014-05-01

    Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Ethical responsibilities in nursing: research findings and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, V R

    1991-01-01

    Discussions in the literature assert that nurses are becoming increasingly cognizant of their ethical responsibilities, but that they are often ill prepared to participate in ethical decision making. A review of selected research literature from 1970 to 1987 was undertaken to validate these assertions. A total of 12 studies related to ethical responsibilities was identified in the review; all studies were published between 1980 and 1987. The majority of studies were at the descriptive and exploratory levels and employed Kohlberg's cognitive theory of moral development as their conceptual framework. Significant findings related to educational level and ethical responsibilities were consistent across studies. Findings related to age and clinical experience were mixed; the effects of economic level, religion-religiosity, ethnicity, and other variables on ethical responsibilities were not significant. Issues raised in the light of the existing research include the use of Kohlberg's theory as a conceptual orientation in nursing groups and limited data on the reliability and validity of instruments used in measuring ethical constructs. Recommendations for future research on ethical responsibilities include the validation of Kohlberg's theory for nursing investigations, exploration of other frameworks for developing a multidimensional view of ethical responsibilities, and the use of qualitative research designs.

  18. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2013-01-01

    controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice......This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly...... argue that applying statistical significance tests and mechanically adhering to their results are highly problematic and detrimental to critical thinking. We claim that the use of such tests do not provide any advantages in relation to deciding whether differences between citation indicators...

  19. [Significance of COI disclosure in medical research in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sone, Saburo

    2011-11-01

    In medical research, remarkable increase in collaboration with industry, public organizations such as universities, research institutions, and academic societies makes researchers to be more deeply involved with the activities of commercial entities. Activities of education and research, which are the responsibilities of academic institutions and societies, conflict with the interests of individuals associated with industrial-academic collaboration. Management of such conflict of interest (COI) is of much importance for academic institutions and societies to appropriately promote industrial-academic collaborative activities. Particularly, participation not only by healthy individuals, but also patients, is essential in the medical field as subjects of clinical research. For those involved in medical research, the deeper the level of COI with commercial entities, who are the financial or benefit provider, becomes serious, the more human rights of subjects could be violated, safety of life could be endangered, and research methods, data analysis and interpretation of results could be distorted. It is also possible that research may be unfairly evaluated or not published, even if the results are accurate, sometimes resulting in the ascertained effects of reporting bias included the overestimation of efficacy and the underestimation of safety risks of interventions. According to the COI management guideline of the Japanese Association of Medical Science (JAMS), significance of COI management is discussed.

  20. Establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings: the plot thickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutcliffe, J R; McKenna, H P

    1999-08-01

    Qualitative research is increasingly recognized and valued and its unique place in nursing research is highlighted by many. Despite this, some nurse researchers continue to raise epistemological issues about the problems of objectivity and the validity of qualitative research findings. This paper explores the issues relating to the representativeness or credibility of qualitative research findings. It therefore critiques the existing distinct philosophical and methodological positions concerning the trustworthiness of qualitative research findings, which are described as follows: quantitative studies should be judged using the same criteria and terminology as quantitative studies; it is impossible, in a meaningful way, for any criteria to be used to judge qualitative studies; qualitative studies should be judged using criteria that are developed for and fit the qualitative paradigm; and the credibility of qualitative research findings could be established by testing out the emerging theory by means of conducting a deductive quantitative study. The authors conclude by providing some guidelines for establishing the credibility of qualitative research findings.

  1. Helping Teachers Use Research Findings: The Consumer-Validation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Robert E.; Huffman, James O.

    A program stressing teacher involvement and classroom implementation of educational research findings is described. The program was designed to familiarize teachers with current findings, have them apply the findings in their classrooms, analyze their own teaching behavior, and critically evaluate the findings in terms of their applicability to…

  2. Is statistical significance clinically important?--A guide to judge the clinical relevance of study findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierevelt, Inger N.; van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Poolman, Rudolf W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe several issues that influence the reporting of statistical significance in relation to clinical importance, since misinterpretation of p values is a common issue in orthopaedic literature. Orthopaedic research is tormented by the risks of false-positive (type I error) and

  3. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Runway 22 or on Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards AFB. 17 On the basis of the findings of the Environmental Assessment, no significant impact to human...FLIGHT TEST CENTER Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space Page 5-3 Bowles, A.E., S. Eckert, L . Starke, E. Berg, L . Wolski, and...Numbers. Anne Choate, Laura 20 Pederson , Jeremy Scharfenberg, Henry Farland. Washington, D.C. September. 21 Jeppesen Sanderson, Incorporated 22

  4. The clinical significance of equivocal findings on spinal MRI in children with medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Julie; Ashmawy, Ramy; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Stephens, Derek; Bouffet, Eric; Laperriere, Normand; Taylor, Michael; Shroff, Manohar; Bartels, Ute

    2017-08-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common malignant brain tumor of childhood, with cerebrospinal fluid spread the most common site of metastasis. Currently, children diagnosed with MB and evidence of spinal metastasis are treated with an increased dose of craniospinal radiation (CSI). This report reviewed equivocal abnormalities including nerve root clumping, linear vascular enhancement, nerve root enhancement and/or other vague findings on spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to elucidate their prognostic significance and aid in risk stratification. This retrospective cohort study identified children (≥3 years) diagnosed with MB between 1988 and 2012. Children treated with upfront CSI were included, and staging spine MRI must have been done preoperatively or within 72 hr of primary tumor resection. Initial MRI of the spine was assessed by two independent reviewers blinded to outcome to evaluate for equivocal findings. Survival analysis was done to determine impact on prognosis. One hundred of 157 patients were eligible for the analysis. Equivocal findings were identified in 48 (48%) patients, with MRI done preoperatively in 45 (94%) patients. Analysis by subgroup identified a higher proportion of equivocal findings in the sonic hedgehog (SHH) subgroup (P = 0.007). Five-year overall survival (OS) in children with equivocal findings compared to those with normal MRI was not different, 80 vs. 84.8% respectively, while OS in M3 patients was worse at 54.7% (P = 0.02). A higher proportion of equivocal findings was identified in the SHH subgroup. This institutional retrospective review demonstrates equivocal findings are common, not associated with decreased OS and should not prompt increased dose of CSI. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. NIH Researchers Find Potential Genetic Cause of Cushing Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017 NIH researchers find potential genetic cause of Cushing syndrome Finding may lead to therapies that prevent pituitary ... mutations in the gene CABLES1 may lead to Cushing syndrome, a rare disorder in which the body overproduces ...

  6. Audit of radiology communication systems for critical, urgent, and unexpected significant findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, K A; Drinkwater, K J; Dugar, N; Howlett, D C

    2016-03-01

    To determine the compliance of UK radiology departments and trusts/healthcare organisations with National Patient Safety Agency and Royal College of Radiologist's published guidance on the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. A questionnaire was sent to all UK radiology department audit leads asking for details of their current departmental policy regarding the issuing of alerts; use of automated electronic alert systems; methods of notification of clinicians of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings; monitoring of results receipt; and examples of the more common types of serious pathologies for which alerts were issued. One hundred and fifty-four of 229 departments (67%) responded. Eighty-eight percent indicated that they had a policy in place for the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Only 34% had an automated electronic alert system in place and only 17% had a facility for service-wide electronic tracking of radiology reports. In only 11 departments with an electronic acknowledgement system was someone regularly monitoring the read rate. There is wide variation in practice across the UK with regard to the communication and monitoring of reports with many departments/trusts not fully compliant with published UK guidance. Despite the widespread use of electronic systems, only a minority of departments/trusts have and use electronic tracking to ensure reports have been read and acted upon. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Operating experience feedback from safety significant events at research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokr, A.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Abouzabal (Egypt). Egypt Second Research Reactor; Rao, D. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2015-05-15

    Operating experience feedback is an effective mechanism to provide lessons learned from the events and the associated corrective actions to prevent recurrence of events, resulting in improving safety in the nuclear installations. This paper analyzes the events of safety significance that have been occurred at research reactors and discusses the root causes and lessons learned from these events. Insights from literature on events at research reactors and feedback from events at nuclear power plants that are relevant to research reactors are also presented along with discussions. The results of the analysis showed the importance of communication of safety information and exchange of operating experience are vital to prevent reoccurrences of events. The analysis showed also the need for continued attention to human factors and training of operating personnel, and the need for establishing systematic ageing management programmes of reactor facilities, and programmes for safety management of handling of nuclear fuel, core components, and experimental devices.

  8. Operating experience feedback from safety significant events at research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokr, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Operating experience feedback is an effective mechanism to provide lessons learned from the events and the associated corrective actions to prevent recurrence of events, resulting in improving safety in the nuclear installations. This paper analyzes the events of safety significance that have been occurred at research reactors and discusses the root causes and lessons learned from these events. Insights from literature on events at research reactors and feedback from events at nuclear power plants that are relevant to research reactors are also presented along with discussions. The results of the analysis showed the importance of communication of safety information and exchange of operating experience are vital to prevent reoccurrences of events. The analysis showed also the need for continued attention to human factors and training of operating personnel, and the need for establishing systematic ageing management programmes of reactor facilities, and programmes for safety management of handling of nuclear fuel, core components, and experimental devices.

  9. Significance and impact of nuclear research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this conference was to gather representatives of universities, research institutes, governmental agencies and industry, as well as IAEA staff, to report on and to assess the significance and impact of nuclear science and technology in developing countries. Thirty-four papers from 17 countries were presented, which are included in the proceedings, as well as reports of three workshops on ''Basic and applied research'', on ''The IAEA's involvement in the implementation of national nuclear programmes'', and on ''Policy and management issues''. The presentation of these reports clearly reflects the fact that all the nuclear activities involved in the programmes of industrialized countries are in progress in developing countries, i.e. most of the aspects of applications in the field of nuclear power, research reactors, food and agriculture, industry and earth sciences, and life sciences. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  10. Audit of radiology communication systems for critical, urgent, and unexpected significant findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, K.A.; Drinkwater, K.J.; Dugar, N.; Howlett, D.C.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the compliance of UK radiology departments and trusts/healthcare organisations with National Patient Safety Agency and Royal College of Radiologist's published guidance on the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was sent to all UK radiology department audit leads asking for details of their current departmental policy regarding the issuing of alerts; use of automated electronic alert systems; methods of notification of clinicians of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings; monitoring of results receipt; and examples of the more common types of serious pathologies for which alerts were issued. Results: One hundred and fifty-four of 229 departments (67%) responded. Eighty-eight percent indicated that they had a policy in place for the communication of critical, urgent, and unexpected significant radiological findings. Only 34% had an automated electronic alert system in place and only 17% had a facility for service-wide electronic tracking of radiology reports. In only 11 departments with an electronic acknowledgement system was someone regularly monitoring the read rate. Conclusion: There is wide variation in practice across the UK with regard to the communication and monitoring of reports with many departments/trusts not fully compliant with published UK guidance. Despite the widespread use of electronic systems, only a minority of departments/trusts have and use electronic tracking to ensure reports have been read and acted upon. - Highlights: • UK wide audit of communication of significant radiology results. • 88% of departments have a communication policy in place. • 34% of departments have an automated electronic alert system. • 17% of Trusts have facility for service wide electronic tracking of radiology reports.

  11. Educating to Tolerance: Effects of Communicating Social Psychology Research Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco La Barbera

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed.

  12. Network Expansion and Pathway Enrichment Analysis towards Biologically Significant Findings from Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Xiaogang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many cases, crucial genes show relatively slight changes between groups of samples (e.g. normal vs. disease, and many genes selected from microarray differential analysis by measuring the expression level statistically are also poorly annotated and lack of biological significance. In this paper, we present an innovative approach - network expansion and pathway enrichment analysis (NEPEA for integrative microarray analysis. We assume that organized knowledge will help microarray data analysis in significant ways, and the organized knowledge could be represented as molecular interaction networks or biological pathways. Based on this hypothesis, we develop the NEPEA framework based on network expansion from the human annotated and predicted protein interaction (HAPPI database, and pathway enrichment from the human pathway database (HPD. We use a recently-published microarray dataset (GSE24215 related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D as case study, since this study provided a thorough experimental validation for both genes and pathways identified computationally from classical microarray analysis and pathway analysis. We perform our NEPEA analysis for this dataset based on the results from the classical microarray analysis to identify biologically significant genes and pathways. Our findings are not only consistent with the original findings mostly, but also obtained more supports from other literatures.

  13. The Value of Surprising Findings for Research on Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    JS Armstrong

    2004-01-01

    In the work of Armstrong (Journal of Business Research, 2002), I examined empirical research on the scientific process and related these to marketing science. The findings of some studies were surprising. In this reply, I address surprising findings and other issues raised by commentators.

  14. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. section 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  17. Managing incidental findings in human subjects research: analysis and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Susan M; Lawrenz, Frances P; Nelson, Charles A; Kahn, Jeffrey P; Cho, Mildred K; Clayton, Ellen Wright; Fletcher, Joel G; Georgieff, Michael K; Hammerschmidt, Dale; Hudson, Kathy; Illes, Judy; Kapur, Vivek; Keane, Moira A; Koenig, Barbara A; Leroy, Bonnie S; McFarland, Elizabeth G; Paradise, Jordan; Parker, Lisa S; Terry, Sharon F; Van Ness, Brian; Wilfond, Benjamin S

    2008-01-01

    No consensus yet exists on how to handle incidental findings (IFs) in human subjects research. Yet empirical studies document IFs in a wide range of research studies, where IFs are findings beyond the aims of the study that are of potential health or reproductive importance to the individual research participant. This paper reports recommendations of a two-year project group funded by NIH to study how to manage IFs in genetic and genomic research, as well as imaging research. We conclude that researchers have an obligation to address the possibility of discovering IFs in their protocol and communications with the IRB, and in their consent forms and communications with research participants. Researchers should establish a pathway for handling IFs and communicate that to the IRB and research participants. We recommend a pathway and categorize IFs into those that must be disclosed to research participants, those that may be disclosed, and those that should not be disclosed.

  18. Clinical significance of pneumatosis intestinalis - correlation of MDCT-findings with treatment and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treyaud, Marc-Olivier; Duran, Rafael; Knebel, Jean-Francois; Meuli, Reto A.; Schmidt, Sabine [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Zins, Marc [Fondation Hopital St Joseph, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the clinical significance of pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) including the influence on treatment and outcome. Two radiologists jointly reviewed MDCT-examinations of 149 consecutive emergency patients (53 women, mean age 64, range 21-95) with PI of the stomach (n = 4), small (n = 68) and/or large bowel (n = 96). PI extension, distribution and possibly associated porto-mesenteric venous gas (PMVG) were correlated with other MDCT-findings, risk factors, clinical management, laboratory, histopathology, final diagnosis and outcome. The most frequent cause of PI was intestinal ischemia (n = 80,53.7 %), followed by infection (n = 18,12.1 %), obstructive (n = 12,8.1 %) and non-obstructive (n = 10,6.7 %) bowel dilatation, unknown aetiologies (n = 8,5.4 %), drugs (n = 8,5.4 %), inflammation (n = 7,4.7 %), and others (n = 6,4 %). Neither PI distribution nor extension significantly correlated with underlying ischemia. Overall mortality was 41.6 % (n = 62), mostly related to intestinal ischemia (p = 0.003). Associated PMVG significantly correlated with underlying ischemia (p = 0.009), as did the anatomical distribution of PMVG (p = 0.015). Decreased mural contrast-enhancement was the only other MDCT-feature significantly associated with ischemia (p p < 0.001). Elevated white blood count significantly correlated with ischemia (p = 0.03). In emergency patients, ischemia remains the most common aetiology of PI, showing the highest mortality. PI with associated PMVG is an alerting sign. PI together with decreased mural contrast-enhancement indicates underlying ischemia. (orig.)

  19. Incidental Findings in Imaging Research: Evaluating Incidence, Benefit and Burden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Nicholas M.; Fletcher, Joel G.; Siddiki, Hassan A.; Harmsen, W. Scott; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Port, John D.; Tremaine, William J.; Pitot, Henry C.; McFarland, Beth; Robinson, Marguerite E.; Koenig, Barabara A.; King, Bernard F.; Wolf, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Context Little information exists concerning the frequency of clinically significant incidental findings (IFs) identified in the course of imaging research across a broad spectrum of imaging modalities and body regions. Objective To estimate the frequency with which research imaging IFs generate further clinical action, and the medical benefit/burden of identifying these IFs. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective review of subjects undergoing a research imaging exam that was interpreted by a radiologist for IFs in the first quarter of 2004, with 3-year clinical follow-up. An expert panel reviewed IFs generating clinical action to determine medical benefit/burden based on predefined criteria. Main Outcome Measures Frequency of (1) IFs that generated further clinical action by modality, body part, age, gender, and (2) IFs resulting in clear medical benefit or burden. Results 1376 patients underwent 1426 research imaging studies. 40% (567/1426) of exams had at least one IF (1055 total). Risk of an IF increased significantly by age (OR=1.5; [1.4–1.7=95% C.I.] per decade increase). Abdominopelvic CT generated more IFs than other exams (OR=18.9 compared with ultrasound; 9.2% with subsequent clinical action), with CT Thorax and MR brain next (OR=11.9 and 5.9; 2.8% and 2.2% with action, respectively). Overall 6.2% of exams (35/567) with an IF generated clinical action, resulting in clear medical benefit in 1.1% (6/567) and clear medical burden in 0.5% (3/567). In most instances, medical benefit/burden was unclear (4.6%; 26/567). Conclusions The frequency of IFs in imaging research exams varies significantly by imaging modality, body region and age. Research imaging studies at high risk for generating IFs can be identified. Routine evaluation of research images by radiologists may result in identification of IFs in a substantial number of cases and subsequent clinical action to address them in much smaller number. Such clinical action can result in medical

  20. APPLYING RESEARCH FINDINGS IN COMPREHENSION TO CLASSROOM PRACTICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WILLIAMS, RICHARD P.

    RESEARCH SHOWS THAT, IN SPITE OF THE FAVORABLE ATTITUDE TOWARD SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, A GAP EXISTS BETWEEN THE INITIATION OF AN INNOVATION AND ITS WIDE ACCEPTANCE. TO HELP CLOSE THE GAP, TEACHERS ARE ENCOURAGED TO APPLY RESEARCH FINDINGS TO CLASSROOM PRACTICE AND TO DETERMINE THEIR FEASIBILITY. SIXTEEN STUDIES ON COMPREHENSION CITED IN THIS ARTICLE…

  1. Brain herniations into the dural venous sinus or calvarium: MRI findings, possible causes and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battal, Bilal; Hamcan, Salih; Akgun, Veysel; Sari, Sebahattin; Tasar, Mustafa [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Oz, Oguzhan [Gulhane Military Medical School, Department of Neurology, Ankara (Turkey); Castillo, Mauricio [University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2016-06-15

    To determine frequency, imaging features and clinical significance of herniations of brain parenchyma into dural venous sinuses (DVS) and/or calvarium found on MRI. A total of 6160 brain MRI examinations containing at least one high-resolution T1- or T2-weighted sequence were retrospectively evaluated to determine the presence of incidental brain herniations into the DVS or calvarium. MRI sequences available for review were evaluated according to their capability to demonstrate these herniations. Patients' symptoms and clinical findings were recorded. Twenty-one (0.32 %) brain parenchyma herniations into the DVS (n = 18) or calvarium (n = 3) in 20 patients were detected. The most common locations of the herniations were the transverse sinuses (n = 13) and those involving inferior gyrus of the temporal lobe (n = 9). High-resolution T1- and T2-weighted sequences were equally useful in the detection of these brain herniations. According to clinical symptoms, brain herniations were considered to be incidental but headaches were present in nine patients. Brain herniations with surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the DVS and/or calvarium are incidental findings and not proven to be associated with any symptoms. Although rare, these herniations are more common than previously recognized and should not be confused with arachnoid granulations, clots or tumours. (orig.)

  2. Characterization of Change and Significance for Clinical Findings in Radiology Reports Through Natural Language Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Saeed; Bay, Graham; Langlotz, Curtis P

    2017-06-01

    We built a natural language processing (NLP) method to automatically extract clinical findings in radiology reports and characterize their level of change and significance according to a radiology-specific information model. We utilized a combination of machine learning and rule-based approaches for this purpose. Our method is unique in capturing different features and levels of abstractions at surface, entity, and discourse levels in text analysis. This combination has enabled us to recognize the underlying semantics of radiology report narratives for this task. We evaluated our method on radiology reports from four major healthcare organizations. Our evaluation showed the efficacy of our method in highlighting important changes (accuracy 99.2%, precision 96.3%, recall 93.5%, and F1 score 94.7%) and identifying significant observations (accuracy 75.8%, precision 75.2%, recall 75.7%, and F1 score 75.3%) to characterize radiology reports. This method can help clinicians quickly understand the key observations in radiology reports and facilitate clinical decision support, review prioritization, and disease surveillance.

  3. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research findings to other scientist and to advance scientific discovery. ... publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 ..... publication and advice policy on the necessary actions to.

  4. Social Science Research Findings and Educational Policy Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven I. Miller

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to raise several distinctions regarding the presumed relationship of social science research findings to social policy making. The distinctions are made using Glymour's critique of the Bell Curve. An argument is made that (1 social science models and research findings are largely irrelevant to the actual concerns of policy makers and (2 what is relevant, but overlooked by Glymour, is how ideological factors mediate the process. The forms that ideological mediation may take are indicated.

  5. Do students eventually get to publish their research findings? The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon ...

  6. Coexisting bronchogenic carcinoma and pulmonary tuberculosis in the same lobe: radiologic findings and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Il; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi; Kim, Hyae Young; Song, Jae Woo

    2001-01-01

    Bronchogenic carcinoma can mimic or be masked by pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), and the aim of this study was to describe the radiologic findings and clinical significance of bronchogenic carcinoma and pulmonary TB which coexist in the same lobe. The findings of 51 patients (48 males and three females, aged 48-79 years) in whom pulmonary TB and bronchogenic carcinoma coexisted in the same lobe were analyzed. The morphologic characteristics of a tumor, such as its diameter and margin, the presence of calcification or cavitation, and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, as seen at CT, were retrospectively assessed, and the clinical stage of the lung cancer was also determined. Using the serial chest radiographs available for 21 patients, the possible causes of delay in the diagnosis of lung cancer were analyzed. Lung cancers with coexisting pulmonary TB were located predominantly in the upper lobes (82.4%). The mean diameter of the mass was 5.3 cm, and most tumors (n=42, 82.4%) had a lobulated border. Calcification within the tumor was seen in 20 patients (39.2%), and cavitation in five (9.8%). Forty-two (82.4%) had mediastinal lymphadenopathy, and more than half the tumors (60.8%) were at an advanced stage [IIIB (n=11) or IV (n=20)]. The average delay in diagnosing lung cancer was 11.7 (range, 1-24) months, and the causes of this were failure to observe new nodules masked by coexisting stable TB lesions (n=8), misinterpretation of new lesions as aggravation of TB (n=5), misinterpretation of lung cancer as tuberculoma at initial radiography (n=4), masking of the nodule by an active TB lesion (n=3), and subtleness of the lesion (n=1). Most cancers concurrent with TB are large, lobulated masses with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, indicating that the morphologic characteristics of lung cancer with coexisting pulmonary TB are similar to those of lung cancer without TB. The diagnosis of lung cancer is delayed mainly because of masking by a tuberculous lesion, and this suggests that

  7. Managing incidental findings in population based biobank research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Solberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available With the introduction of whole genome sequencing in medical research, the debate on how to handle incidental findings is becoming omnipresent. Much of the literature on the topic so far, seems to defend the researcher’s duty to inform, the participant’s right to know combined with a thorough informed consent in order to protect and secure high ethical standards in research. In this paper, we argue that this ethical response to incidental findings and whole genome sequencing is appropriate in a clinical context, in what we call therapeutic research. However, we further argue, that it is rather inappropriate in basic research, like the research going on in public health oriented population based biobanks. Our argument is based on two premises: First, in population based biobank research the duties and rights involved are radically different from a clinical based setting. Second, to introduce the ethical framework from the clinical setting into population based basic research, is not only wrong, but it may lead to unethical consequences. A Norwegian population based biobank and the research-ethical debate in Norway on the regulation of whole genome sequencing is used as an illustrative case to demonstrate the pitfalls when approaching the debate on incidental findings in population based biobank research.

  8. Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O’Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:24185171

  9. Implementation Research: A Significant Step in the Right Direction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During my fellowship training, I was required to complete a hypothesis driven research in order to become eligible for board certification by the American Board of Pediatrics. I started the process by meeting with my mentor who asked me what type of research I was interested in. I gave him a little history of my background in ...

  10. Scientists Find X Rays from Stellar Winds That May Play Significant Role in Galactic Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    Colorful star-forming regions that have captivated stargazers since the advent of the telescope 400 years ago contain gas thousands of times more energetic than previously recognized, powered by colliding stellar winds. This multimillion-degree gas radiated as X rays is one of the long-sought sources of energy and elements in the Milky Way galaxy's interstellar medium. A team led by Leisa Townsley, a senior research associate in astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State University, uncovered this wind phenomenon in the Rosette Nebula, a stellar nursery. With the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the team found that the most massive stars in the nebula produce winds that slam into each other, create violent shocks, and infuse the region with 6-million-degree gas. The findings are presented in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra." "A ghostly glow of diffuse X-ray emission pervades the Rosette Nebula and perhaps many other similar star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy," said Townsley. "We now have a new view of the engine lighting the beautiful Rosette Nebula and new evidence for how the interstellar medium may be energized." Townsley and her colleagues created a striking X-ray panorama of the Rosette Molecular Cloud from four images with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This is a swath of the sky nearly 100 light years across sprayed with hundreds of X-ray-emitting young stars. In one corner of the Rosette Molecular Cloud lies the Rosette Nebula, called an "H II region" because the hydrogen gas there has been stripped of its electrons due to the strong ultraviolet radiation from its young stars. This region, about 5,000 light years away in the constellation Monoceros, the Unicorn, has long been a favorite among amateur astronomers. The wispy, colorful display is visible with small telescopes. The Chandra survey reveals, for the first time, 6-million-degree gas at the center of the Rosette Nebula, occupying a

  11. Frequency and clinical significance of CAT findings in purulent and lymphocytic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, E.; Kloes, G.; Hopp, G.; Becker, H.

    1982-01-01

    From 1974-1980, computerized tomography was carried out on 34 patients with purulent and on 17 patients with lymphocytic meningitis. 25 out of the patients with purulent meningitis resp. meningoencephalitis could be examined in the acute stage. For all patients with already attenuated clinical symptoms normal results were obtained, while for the remainder findings were in part highly pathological consisting, e.g. in dilatations or narviowings of the ventricula system, failure to make the outer liquor cavities roentgenoparens, accumulation of pas in the subarachnoidal and subdur spaces including the interhemispheric clefs, cerebral medulla and periventricular edemas, abscesses and signs of ependymitis. Various findings could only be classified as pathological upon serial examination. Correlation statistics showed that all patients with marked pathological CT findings also suffered from distinct pertubations of consciousness. Out of 14 patients with pathological CT findings, 12 died. No connexions could be established between the level of liquor cell counts and CT alterations. Among 17 patients with a lymphocytic meningitis, CT findings were pathological with a mean dilatation of the ventricular system in only one case of chronic course and predominantly basal localization. The patient decreased. Phathological CT findings in purulent and lymphocytic meningitis point to an unfavourable prognosis. (orig.) [de

  12. Significance of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Research in Current Medical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Swayam; Agrawal, Suraksha

    2016-01-01

    Human genome sequencing highlights the involvement of genetic variation towards differential risk of human diseases, presence of different phenotypes, and response to pharmacological elements. This brings the field of personalized medicine to forefront in the era of modern health care. Numerous recent approaches have shown that how variation in the genome at single nucleotide level can be used in pharmacological research. The two broad aspects that deal with pharmacological research are pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics. This review encompasses how these variations have created the basis of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics research and important milestones accomplished in these two fields in different diseases. It further discusses at length their importance in disease diagnosis, response of drugs, and various treatment modalities on the basis of genetic determinants.

  13. 78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ... FONSI for transferring the land and real estate at the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) in Clemson.../property rights to the University. The Quit Claim Deed will incorporate any use restrictions identified by...

  14. 77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... monocrystalline photovoltaic panels mounted on fixed solar racking equipment and the construction of access roads... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No... Environmental Assessment (EA) associated with a solar generation project. The EA was prepared in accordance with...

  15. Dabrowski's Theory of Positive Disintegration and Giftedness: Overexcitability Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendaglio, Sal; Tillier, William

    2006-01-01

    During the past 20 years, a significant body of literature has emerged focusing on the application of Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration (TPD) to the study of gifted individuals. Although much of this literature is prescriptive, some research reports spanning this time period are available. A perusal of research on TPD's applicability…

  16. Researchers Find Essential Brain Circuit in Visual Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2013 Researchers find essential brain circuit in visual development NIH-funded study could lead to new treatments for amblyopia. The cartoon at left shows the connections from the eyes to the brain in a mouse. The right image shows the binocular zone of the mouse ...

  17. 77 FR 49457 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... will it cause a loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or historic resources. The... significantly impact unique characteristics of the geographic area such as historical or cultural resources... community. 10. The proposed action will result in the irretrievable loss of some individual salt cedar. The...

  18. Sonographic findings and clinical significance of uterine synechiae in pregnancy: Report of 6 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Hyung; Kim, Jung Sik

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed the sonograms of 6 cases with uterine synechiae in pregnancy. The diagnosis was based on the clinical and sonographic findings. Previous curret age during the artificial abortion and/or after the spontaneous abortion had been done in 5 cases (83.3%). In all cases, uterine synechia in pregnancy was recognized asintra-amniotic sheet containing hypoechoic central zone and an hyperechoic outer layers. Y-shaped splitting of thehyperechoic outer layers was seen against the uterine wall. The placenta extended along the sheet in 4 cases. Uterine synechiae in pregnancy should be distinguished from amniotic band syndrome by the characteristic snographic findings, and unwarranted abortion of normal fetus should be avoided

  19. The diagnostic significance of clinical and radiological findings in osteogenesis imperfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Deyong; Xu Zushan; Shen Qijie

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To define the diagnostic criteria of osteogenesis imperfection. Materials and methods: The clinical and radiologic manifestations of 68 patients with osteogenesis imperfection were studied retrospectively. Results: (1) A generalized decrease in osseous density (osteoporosis or osteopenia) with abnormal fragility of bone (68 cases). (2) Blue sclera (61 cases). (3) Dentinogenesis imperfection with opalescent bluish-gray tint (49 cases). (4) Progressive hearing loss (prior to the age of 40 years)-premature otosclerosis (38 cases). Other abnormalities such as abnormal contour and structure (68 cases), growth retardation (49 cases), episodic diaphoresis (24 cases), with abnormal temperature regulation (16 cases), hyperplastic scars (11 cases) and tendency of subcutaneous bruise (6 cases), all these were not characteristic features. Conclusion: Among all clinical and radiological findings, osteopenia with abnormal fragility of bone; blue sclera dentinogenesis imperfection with opalescent bluish-gray tint and premature otosclerosis are the most common and characteristic findings which can be taken as the diagnostic criteria of osteogenesis imperfection

  20. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    bacteriological culture during a 4-year period. Methods: Dpt. of Clinical Microbiology, Aalborg Hospital serves a population of 0.5 mio. Aerobic bacteriologic cultures are routinely carried out on 5% horse blood agar and chocolate agar (SSI Diagnostika, DK) at 35 °C in 5% CO2. The finding of translucent, pinpoint...... not respond to surgical drainage of the abscesses (if present) and prolonged empirical intravenous therapy with a β-lactam antibiotic and metronidazole (median 9 days). The tentative diagnosis of M. hominis prompted a change of antibiotic therapy to either moxifloxacin or clindamycin which was followed...... by resolution of symptoms and normalisation of CRP (median 9 days). Conclusion: M. hominis is a rare finding by prolonged incubation of conventional blood agar. A pathogenic role of M. hominis was supported by the lack of clinical response to surgical drainage and prolonged empirical antibiotic therapy...

  1. 77 FR 7610 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... and reinforced concrete floors acting as diaphragms in distributing loads to vertically resisting... reinforced concrete foundation. The reactor is fueled with standard low-enriched TRIGA (Training, Research....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Introduction The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is...

  2. Notification: Follow-Up on Significant Information Technology Security Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OA-FY14-0056, January 17, 2014. The EPA OIG plans to begin preliminary research to follow up on recommendations issued in its final reports between specific fiscal years, and reports associated with the FY 2013 OIG Management Challenges memo.

  3. Clinical significance of normal exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in subjects with abnormal exercise electrocardiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Chiba, Hiroshi; Mitani, Isao; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic findings and clinical features (chest pain, risk factors, resting electrocardiography, exercise electrocardiography and prognosis) was studied in the 234 patients with profound ST-segment depression (J 80 ≥ -2 mm) or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. We classified these cases into two groups by exercise thallium perfusion; (I) normal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 24), (II) abnormal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 210). The incidence of female in group I was larger than that in group II. In resting electrocardiography, left ventricular hypertrophy was found more frequent in group I. In exercise electrocardiography, most of ST-segment depression in group I revealed up-slope type and a rapid recovery to baseline. Group I had lower incidence of cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting). In conclusion, normal thallium-201 perfusion in exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy was more useful indicator for prognosis, even if the patients had the findings of profound ST-segment depression or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. (author)

  4. Finding the most significant common sequence and structure motifs in a set of RNA sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Heyer, L.J.; Stormo, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    We present a computational scheme to locally align a collection of RNA sequences using sequence and structure constraints, In addition, the method searches for the resulting alignments with the most significant common motifs, among all possible collections, The first part utilizes a simplified...

  5. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... determined that there is no significant difference in the environmental impacts that result from WEC decision... Environmental Quality, and is not an NRC-licensed facility. Pursuant to 10 CFR 30.11 and 70.17, WEC's... amendment request, the July 28, 2009, public meeting, the July 2009 WEC Environmental Report, and other...

  6. Finding the Intersection of the Learning Organization and Learning Transfer: The Significance of Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Hee; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to develop a conceptual framework delineating the key dimension of the learning organization which significantly influences learning transfer. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing previous studies and synthesizing the results associated with the following four relationships:…

  7. The Significance of Benefit Perceptions for the Ethics of HIV Research Involving Adolescents in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennie, Stuart; Groves, Allison K; Hallfors, Denise Dion; Iritani, Bonita J; Odongo, Fredrick S; Luseno, Winnie K

    2017-10-01

    Assessment of benefits is traditionally regarded as crucial to the ethical evaluation of research involving human participants. We conducted focus group discussions (FGDs) with health and other professionals engaged with adolescents, caregivers/parents, and adolescents in Siaya County, Kenya, to solicit opinions about appropriate ways of conducting HIV research with adolescents. Our data revealed that many focus group participants have a profoundly positive conception of participation in health research, including studies conferring seemingly few benefits. In this article, we identify and analyze five different but interrelated types of benefits as perceived by Kenyan adolescent and adult stakeholders in HIV research, and discuss their ethical significance. Our findings suggest that future empirical and conceptual research should concentrate on factors that may trigger researcher obligations to improve benefit perceptions among research participants.

  8. An algorithm for finding biologically significant features in microarray data based on a priori manifold learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zena M Hira

    Full Text Available Microarray databases are a large source of genetic data, which, upon proper analysis, could enhance our understanding of biology and medicine. Many microarray experiments have been designed to investigate the genetic mechanisms of cancer, and analytical approaches have been applied in order to classify different types of cancer or distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. However, microarrays are high-dimensional datasets with high levels of noise and this causes problems when using machine learning methods. A popular approach to this problem is to search for a set of features that will simplify the structure and to some degree remove the noise from the data. The most widely used approach to feature extraction is principal component analysis (PCA which assumes a multivariate Gaussian model of the data. More recently, non-linear methods have been investigated. Among these, manifold learning algorithms, for example Isomap, aim to project the data from a higher dimensional space onto a lower dimension one. We have proposed a priori manifold learning for finding a manifold in which a representative set of microarray data is fused with relevant data taken from the KEGG pathway database. Once the manifold has been constructed the raw microarray data is projected onto it and clustering and classification can take place. In contrast to earlier fusion based methods, the prior knowledge from the KEGG databases is not used in, and does not bias the classification process--it merely acts as an aid to find the best space in which to search the data. In our experiments we have found that using our new manifold method gives better classification results than using either PCA or conventional Isomap.

  9. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  10. Clinical significance of radioimmunological HPL findings in long-term management of premature delivery risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruckhaeberle, K.-E.; Bilek, K.; Viehweg, B.; Kuehndel, K.; Colditz, U.; Baer, G.

    1981-01-01

    Premature birth is not only characterized by premature delivery action but it is ever more frequently interpreted as the disturbed fetoplacental unit syndrome. In an attempt to therapeutically prevent premature delivery the placental function should be monitored. Possible intrauterine survival should be assessed as accurately as possible against extrauterine survival in order that the necessary tocolysis time could be determined. In our observations, clinical significance was studied of radioimmunologically determined HPL values in the serum under tocolysis conditions at premature birth risk on the basis of postnatal classification of the postnatal condition and of the particularity of the adaptation phase of the neonates. The significance of HPL determination in checking the fetoplacental unit during tocolysis should be arrived at while also using other diagnostic techniques, such as oxytocinase or estriol, ultrasound biometry, cardiotocography. (author)

  11. POLITENESS IN REQUESTS: SOME RESEARCH FINDINGS RELEVANT FOR INTERCULTURAL ENCOUNTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura CODREANU; Alina DEBU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this article is to analyze the relationship between indirectness and politeness in requests. The research project supporting the findings of the paper was undertaken in order to find out to what extent politeness and indirectness are viewed as overlapping or mutually excluding categories by Romanians compared to other nationalities, such as the British and the Hebrew. Another inherent goal of the paper is to provide an example of the socio linguistics instruments that can be employed in the investigation of the differences and similarities likely to emerge in intercultural encounters. Thus, we believe that only through similar research undertaken in the fields contributing to the emerging field of interculturality one can actually trespass the theoretical assumptions and move on to the identification of the right tools and means through which intercultural discourse to be approached at a pragmatic level and thus better understood and taught in educational establishments.

  12. Significance of a postenhancement computed tomography findings in liver cirrhosis: In view of hemodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo [Pusan National University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-04-15

    We observed a significant sign in postenhancement computed tomography of liver cirrhosis, that is visualization of portal venous branches. During postenhancement computed tomography scanning of liver, the portal vein can not be identified in liver parenchyme in 84% of patients without known cirrhosis (including chronic active hepatitis). The two have the same hemodynamic changes in that there is diffuse fibrosis and resultant decrease in vascular bed. Visualization of intrahepatic portal branches in postenhancement computed tomography is because of decreased diffusion ability and portal hypertension.

  13. Mycoplasma hominis: an incidental but significant finding by routine bacteriological culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Jan Berg; Schønheyder, Henrik Carl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: M. hominis is part of the normal mucosal flora and is primarily associated with infections in the genitourinary tract. Most infections occur following delivery or genitourinary instrumentation, but are also seen in immunocompromised patients. We present 4 cases diagnosed by routine ba...... Serum Institut, Copenhagen (by courtesy to Jørgen Skov). Results: The four patients were immunocompetent women (23-56 years of age) without significant comorbidity (Table). In all patients M. hominis were obtained in pure culture. At the time of diagnosis three patients had abscesses...

  14. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir: Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA's decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  15. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  16. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses

  17. Transforming the findings of narrative research into poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sharon Lorraine

    2015-05-01

    To offer dramatic poetry as representing findings from narrative research that is more accessible. This article is drawn from the author's doctorate work on how students' stories about their 'clinical' experiences can aid learning. Nursing students' stories of clinical practice experiences when engaged in the care of patients represented as dramatic poetry. Qualitative analytical approaches in narrative data analysis to provide a review of student stories from a variety of perspectives. This article illustrates a method for converting story data to poetry. It suggests that a range of audiences can learn from nursing students' stories of clinical practice when translated into dramatic poetry. Audiences can come close to understanding what students are experiencing in practice when engaged in the care of patients and learning from their practice experiences, when these experiences are expressed as dramatic poetry. Representing findings from narrative research as dramatic poetry can help audiences engage with nursing students' experiences at an emotional level. Enabling researchers and readers to become immersed in the poem transforming their understanding of what the students have learned.

  18. Japanese attitudes toward the elderly: A review of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyano, W

    1989-10-01

    Reviewed are research findings related to Japanese attitudes toward the elderly. Although several studies approaching this theme have been published in Japan since 1952, most of them are not known outside Japan because they were written in Japanese. These studies explored the presence of negative attitudes which were usually masked with rituals of respect for the elderly. People's proper use of tatemae, culturally defined normative meaning, and honne, actual feeling, in their attitudes toward the elderly is discussed as a potential source of the American idealization of aging in Japan.

  19. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane... insects, the Arundo scale and the Arundo wasp as biological control agents for the non-native and invasive... [[Page 71584

  20. Open Data in Global Environmental Research: Findings from the Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Honk, J.; Calero-Medina, C.; Costas, R.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents findings from the Belmont Forum’s survey on Open Data which targeted the global environmental research and data infrastructure community (Schmidt, Gemeinholzer & Treloar, 2016). It highlights users’ perceptions of the term “open data”, expectations of infrastructure functionalities, and barriers and enablers for the sharing of data. A wide range of good practice examples was pointed out by the respondents which demonstrates a substantial uptake of data sharing through e-infrastructures and a further need for enhancement and consolidation. Among all policy responses, funder policies seem to be the most important motivator. This supports the conclusion that stronger mandates will strengthen the case for data sharing. The Belmont Forum, a group of high-level representatives from major funding agencies across the globe, coordinates funding for collaborative research to address the challenges and opportunities of global environmental change. In particular, the E-Infrastructure and Data Management Collaborative Research Action has brought together domain scientists, computer and information scientists, legal scholars, social scientists, and other experts from more than 14 countries to establish recommendations on how the Belmont Forum can implement a more coordinated, holistic, and sustainable approach to the funding and support of global environmental change research. (Author)

  1. Head multidetector computed tomography: emergency medicine physicians overestimate the pretest probability and legal risk of significant findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskerville, Jerry Ray; Herrick, John

    2012-02-01

    This study focuses on clinically assigned prospective estimated pretest probability and pretest perception of legal risk as independent variables in the ordering of multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) head scans. Our primary aim is to measure the association between pretest probability of a significant finding and pretest perception of legal risk. Secondarily, we measure the percentage of MDCT scans that physicians would not order if there was no legal risk. This study is a prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive analysis of patients 18 years and older for whom emergency medicine physicians ordered a head MDCT. We collected a sample of 138 patients subjected to head MDCT scans. The prevalence of a significant finding in our population was 6%, yet the pretest probability expectation of a significant finding was 33%. The legal risk presumed was even more dramatic at 54%. These data support the hypothesis that physicians presume the legal risk to be significantly higher than the risk of a significant finding. A total of 21% or 15% patients (95% confidence interval, ±5.9%) would not have been subjected to MDCT if there was no legal risk. Physicians overestimated the probability that the computed tomographic scan would yield a significant result and indicated an even greater perceived medicolegal risk if the scan was not obtained. Physician test-ordering behavior is complex, and our study queries pertinent aspects of MDCT testing. The magnification of legal risk vs the pretest probability of a significant finding is demonstrated. Physicians significantly overestimated pretest probability of a significant finding on head MDCT scans and presumed legal risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rater cognition: review and integration of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Geneviève; St-Onge, Christina; Tavares, Walter

    2016-05-01

    . This framework could help bridge the gap between researchers adopting different perspectives when studying rater cognition and enable the interpretation of contradictory findings of raters' performance by determining which mechanism is enabled or disabled in any given context. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Convenience samples and caregiving research: how generalizable are the findings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel A; Brill, Jonathan E; Shands, Yvonne; Gordon, Judith R; Genderson, Maureen Wilson; Rose, Miriam; Cartwright, Francine

    2008-12-01

    We contrast characteristics of respondents recruited using convenience strategies with those of respondents recruited by random digit dial (RDD) methods. We compare sample variances, means, and interrelationships among variables generated from the convenience and RDD samples. Women aged 50 to 64 who work full time and provide care to a community-dwelling older person were recruited using either RDD (N = 55) or convenience methods (N = 87). Telephone interviews were conducted using reliable, valid measures of demographics, characteristics of the care recipient, help provided to the care recipient, evaluations of caregiver-care recipient relationship, and outcomes common to caregiving research. Convenience and RDD samples had similar variances on 68.4% of the examined variables. We found significant mean differences for 63% of the variables examined. Bivariate correlations suggest that one would reach different conclusions using the convenience and RDD sample data sets. Researchers should use convenience samples cautiously, as they may have limited generalizability.

  4. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  5. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  6. 75 FR 27583 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... CFR 11.11(d), gives final notice of the proposed construction of a small vertical axis wind turbine... (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and Solar Installation at the Paul Simon Job Corps Center Located... impact. This notice serves as the Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind...

  7. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of... Transportation (WSDOT) prepared a Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates the impacts of a... have a significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment and has issued a Finding...

  8. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent... have been prepared by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service relative to a proposed biological... review and analysis of environmental impacts associated with the proposed biological control program...

  9. 75 FR 17161 - Job Corps: Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Installation of a Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Job Corps: Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Installation of a Small Wind Turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located at... the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center, 15710 Highway 385, Chadron, NE 69337. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  10. 75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located at 15710 Highway... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps....11(d), gives final notice of the proposed construction of a small wind turbine at the Pine Ridge Job...

  11. LITERATURE REVIEWING WITH RESEARCH TOOLS, Part 2: Finding proper articles

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2017-01-01

    Research Tools” enable researchers to collect, organize, analyze, visualize and publicized research outputs. Dr. Nader has collected over 700 tools that enable students to follow the correct path in research and to ultimately produce high-quality research outputs with more accuracy and efficiency. It is assembled as an interactive Web-based mind map, titled “Research Tools”, which is updated periodically. “Research Tools” consists of a hierarchical set of nodes. It has four main nodes: (1)...

  12. Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot: imaging findings, clinical significance and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellado, J.M.; Ramos, A.; Salvado, E.; Camins, A.; Sauri, A.; Danus, M.

    2003-01-01

    Accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones are frequent findings in routine radiographs of the ankle and foot. They are commonly considered fortuitous and unrelated to the patient's complaint; however, they may eventually cause painful syndromes or degenerative changes in response to overuse and trauma. They may also suffer or simulate fractures. Our aim was to review, illustrate and discuss the imaging findings of some of the more frequent accessory ossicles and sesamoid bones of the ankle and foot region, with particular emphasis on those that may be of clinical significance or simulate fractures. (orig.)

  13. Registered nurses' use of research findings in the care of older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boström, Anne-Marie; Kajermo, Kerstin Nilsson; Nordström, Gun; Wallin, Lars

    2009-05-01

    To describe registered nurses' reported use of research in the care of older people and to examine associations between research use and factors related to the elements: the communication channels, the adopter and the social system. Research use among registered nurses working in hospital settings has been reported in many studies. Few studies, however, have explored the use of research among registered nurses working in the care of older people. A cross-sectional survey. In eight municipalities, all registered nurses (n = 210) working in older people care were invited to participate (response rate 67%). The Research Utilisation Questionnaire was adopted. Questions concerning the work organisation and research-related resources were sent to the Community Chief Nurse at each municipality. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were applied. The registered nurses reported a relatively low use of research findings in daily practice, despite reporting a positive attitude to research. The registered nurses reported lack of access to research reports at the work place and that they had little support from unit managers and colleagues. Registered nurses working in municipalities with access to research-related resources reported more use of research than registered nurses without resources. The factors 'Access to research findings at work place', 'Positive attitudes to research' and 'Nursing programme at university level' were significantly associated with research use. There is a great potential to increase registered nurses' use of research findings in the care of older people. Factors which were linked to the communication channels and the adopter were associated with research use. Strategies to enhance research use should focus on access to and adequate training in using information sources, increased knowledge on research methodology and nursing science and a supportive organisation.

  14. English-Language Teachers' Engagement with Research: Findings from Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…

  15. Joining forces to find answers — The International Research Chairs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-08

    Oct 8, 2010 ... Mobile Nav Footer Links ... the environment, and information technology hopes the new research program that ... Alper observes that the Canada Research Chairs program's success in achieving this goal provides one ... Like the Canada Research Chairs program, the IRCI emphasizes training students to ...

  16. Research on Language Learning Strategies: Methods, Findings, and Instructional Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxford, Rebecca; Crookall, David

    1989-01-01

    Surveys research on formal and informal second-language learning strategies, covering the effectiveness of research methods involving making lists, interviews and thinking aloud, note-taking, diaries, surveys, and training. Suggestions for future and improved research are presented. (131 references) (CB)

  17. 75 FR 62892 - Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [Docket No. 50-020; NRC-2010-0313] Massachusetts Institute of Technology Research Reactor Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Correction In notice document 2010-24809 beginning on page 61220 in the issue of Monday, October 4, 2010, make the...

  18. Organization as Information Processing Systems. Toward a Model of the Research Factors Associated with Significant Research Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    institutional conditions enable and reinforce behavior that leads to significant research oit comes. Financial grants, research assistance, and a...include positive instituitional conditions, diverse idea sources and widespread * communications, a goal of theoretical understanding, a relevant research

  19. "Response to Comments": Finding the Narrative in Narrative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Cathy A.

    2009-01-01

    The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…

  20. Finding the Fabulous Few: Why Your Program Needs Sophisticated Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfizenmaier, Emily

    1981-01-01

    Fund raising, it is argued, needs sophisticated prospect research. Professional prospect researchers play an important role in helping to identify prospective donors and also in helping to stimulate interest in gift giving. A sample of an individual work-up on a donor and a bibliography are provided. (MLW)

  1. CASE STUDY: Lebanon — Researchers find new ways to resolve ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Communication is the key to conflict resolution A research team in ... as a model for a new applied research unit at the American University of Beirut. ... The LUN, for example, created a forum for discussing problems and ...

  2. Three-dimensional (3D) culture in sarcoma research and the clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Songtao; Shen, Jacson; Hornicek, Francis; Duan, Zhenfeng

    2017-08-03

    Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors that arise from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment, sarcomas have a high mortality rate due to local recurrence, metastasis, and the development of drug resistance to chemotherapy. New models for sarcoma research are required to further understand the disease and to develop new therapies. In vitro sarcoma modeling is challenging because of significant genetic heterogeneities, diverse pathological, and overlapping clinical characteristics. Studies on the mechanisms of recurrence, metastasis, and drug resistance in sarcoma have resulted in the generation of novel three-dimensional (3D) culture models for sarcoma research. 3D culture models aim to recapitulate the tumor microenvironment that plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of sarcoma using biomaterial scaffolds of natural biological materials and artificial polymers. An ideal 3D culture model can properly mimic not only the microenvironment, oncogenesis, and maintenance of sarcoma cell growth, but also imitate the interactions between cells and to the extracellular matrix. More recently, 3D cell culture has been used to research the biological behavior and mechanism of chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistance in different sarcoma models. Ultimately, findings using 3D models that more accurately reflect human sarcoma biology are likely to translate into improved clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss the most recent advances of 3D culture technologies in sarcoma research and emerging clinical applications.

  3. Researching the meaning of life: finding new sources of hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alon, Shirly

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to discuss means of assisting terminally ill patients in seeking for sources of meaning and hope, alongside the acknowledgment that their lifespan is short.Psycho-spiritual aspects make a substantial component patients suffering from incurable illness have to deal with. Evaluating and mapping the causes and expressions of psychological--spiritual suffering may assist in tailoring appropriate strategies of distress relief. Therefore, interventions should be given in accordance with their specific focus of difficulties, as well as with wishes and needs. Appropriate interventions in palliative psychotherapeutic rapport are inspired by identifying new sources for meaning in current life (sometimes, aided by past experiences or future visions). Reinforcing sources for meaning may attempt in providing patients amongst:--equilibrium, between suffering and sorrow (which sometimes take over the patient's world), and on the other hand, new experiences, sense of satisfaction and fulfillment. Individual's acknowledgment that he is not completely withdrawn from the circle of life, and yet significance and fulfillment in life still exists. For a holistic meaning ? centered intervention it is advisable to simultaneously integrate two central axes: the existential analysis, inspired by concepts driven from Frenkl's Logotherapy, such as freedom of choice, personal responsibility, inner truth, hope and transcendentalism; the operative axis, enhancing meaning and hope by assisting patient's wishes come true. Patients are aware, many times, that those wishes may be their last one, therefore perceive their fulfillment as crucial for their sense of meaning. Moreover, those wishes may elevate patient and family's spirit and reduce risk of demoralization. Whereas existential--spiritual interventions are recommended to be given by qualified professional therapists, the operation of fulfilling wishes is feasible by everyone, from family members to multi

  4. Researching in education findings visibility: How Cubans are doing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, Paúl A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of Cuban educational research visibility by considering international ranking positioning of intellectual production in the field of education. A case study is conducted with outstanding Cuban educational researchers comparing their results with other prestigious professionals in the continent. Finally, new basic resources are proposed and explained for improving Bibliometric indicators by taking advantage of Google Scholar potentials in favoring international ranking positioning.

  5. Finding Qualitative Research Evidence for Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJean, Deirdre; Giacomini, Mita; Simeonov, Dorina; Smith, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Health technology assessment (HTA) agencies increasingly use reviews of qualitative research as evidence for evaluating social, experiential, and ethical aspects of health technologies. We systematically searched three bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Social Science Citation Index [SSCI]) using published search filters or "hedges" and our hybrid filter to identify qualitative research studies pertaining to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and early breast cancer. The search filters were compared in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and precision. Our screening by title and abstract revealed that qualitative research constituted only slightly more than 1% of all published research on each health topic. The performance of the published search filters varied greatly across topics and databases. Compared with existing search filters, our hybrid filter demonstrated a consistently high sensitivity across databases and topics, and minimized the resource-intensive process of sifting through false positives. We identify opportunities for qualitative health researchers to improve the uptake of qualitative research into evidence-informed policy making. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI)

  7. Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. The relationship between cerebral infarction on MR and angiographic findings in moyamoya disease: significance of the posterior circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Song, Soon Young [College of Medicine, Kwangdong Univ., Koyang (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Won Jong; Jung, So Lyung; Chung, Bong Gak; Kag, Si Won [College of Medicine, The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine, Pochon CHA Univ., Pochon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between changes in the posterior and anterior circulation, as seen at angiography, and the frequency and extent of cerebral infarction revealed by MR imaging in moyamoya disease. This study involved 34 patients (22 females and 12 males, aged 2-52 years) in whom cerebral angiography revealed the presence of moyamoya disease (bilateral; unilateral= 24:10; total hemispheres=58) and who also underwent brain MR imaging. To evaluate the angiographic findings, we applied each angiographic staging system to the anterior and posterior circulation. Leptomeningeal collateral circulation from the cortical branches of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) was also assigned one of four grades. At MR imaging, areas of cerebral cortical or subcortical infarction in the hemisphere were divided into six zones. White matter and basal ganglionic infarction, ventricular dilatation, cortical atrophy, and hemorrhagic lesions were also evaluated. To demonstrate the statistical significance of the relationship between the angiographic and the MR findings, both the Mantel-Haenszel chi-square test for trend and the chi-square test were used. The degree of steno-occlusive PCA change correlated significantly with the internal carotid artery (ICA) stage (p<0.0001). As PCA stages advanced, the degree of leptomeningeal collaterals from the PCA decreased significantly (P<0.0001), but ICA stages were not significant (p>0.05). The prevalence of infarction showed significant correlation with the degree of steno-occlusive change in both the ICA and PCA. The degree of cerebral ischemia in moyamoya patients increased proportionally with the severity of PCA stenosis rather than with that of steno-occlusive lesins of the anterior circulation. Infarctions tended to be distributed in the anterior part of the hemisphere at PCA state I or II, while in more advanced PCA lesions, they were also found posteriorly, especially in the territories of the posterior middle cerebral artery

  9. User research of a voting machine: Preliminary findings and experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Menno D.T.; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a usability study of the Nedap voting machine in the Netherlands. On the day of the national elections, 566 voters participated in our study immediately after having cast their real vote. The research focused on the correspondence between voter intents and voting results,

  10. Improving the production of applied health research findings: insights from a qualitative study of operational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Sonya; Turner, Simon; Utley, Martin; Fulop, Naomi J

    2017-09-08

    Knowledge produced through applied health research is often of a form not readily accessible to or actionable by policymakers and practitioners, which hinders its implementation. Our aim was to identify research activities that can support the production of knowledge tailored to inform policy and practice. To do this, we studied an operational research approach to improving the production of applied health research findings. A 2-year qualitative study was conducted of the operational research contribution to a multidisciplinary applied health research project that was successful in rapidly informing national policy. Semi-structured interviews (n = 20) were conducted with all members of the project's research team and advisory group (patient and health professional representatives and academics). These were augmented by participant (> 150 h) and non-participant (> 15 h) observations focusing on the process and experience of attempting to support knowledge production. Data were analysed thematically using QSR NVivo software. Operational research performed a knowledge mediation role shaped by a problem-focused approach and an intent to perform those tasks necessary to producing readily implementable knowledge but outwith the remit of other disciplinary strands of the project. Three characteristics of the role were found to support this: engaging and incorporating different perspectives to improve services by capturing a range of health professional and patient views alongside quantitative and qualitative research evidence; rendering data meaningful by creating and presenting evidence in forms that are accessible to and engage different audiences, enabling them to make sense of it for practical use; and maintaining perceived objectivity and rigour by establishing credibility, perceived neutrality and confidence in the robustness of the research in order to unite diverse professionals in thinking creatively about system-wide service improvement. Our study

  11. Considering Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level for Anticipatable Incidental Findings from Clinical Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Osorno, Alberto Betto; Ehler, Linda A; Brooks, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Determining what constitutes an anticipatable incidental finding (IF) from clinical research and defining whether, and when, this IF should be returned to the participant have been topics of discussion in the field of human subject protections for the last 10 years. It has been debated that implementing a comprehensive IF-approach that addresses both the responsibility of researchers to return IFs and the expectation of participants to receive them can be logistically challenging. IFs have been debated at different levels, such as the ethical reasoning for considering their disclosure or the need for planning for them during the development of the research study. Some authors have discussed the methods for re-contacting participants for disclosing IFs, as well as the relevance of considering the clinical importance of the IFs. Similarly, other authors have debated about when IFs should be disclosed to participants. However, no author has addressed how the "actionability" of the IFs should be considered, evaluated, or characterized at the participant's research setting level. This paper defines the concept of "Actionability at the Participant's Research Setting Level" (APRSL) for anticipatable IFs from clinical research, discusses some related ethical concepts to justify the APRSL concept, proposes a strategy to incorporate APRSL into the planning and management of IFs, and suggests a strategy for integrating APRSL at each local research setting. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Sigsearch: a new term for post hoc unplanned search for statistically significant relationships with the intent to create publishable findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Muhammad Jawad

    2010-09-01

    Post-hoc secondary data analysis with no prespecified hypotheses has been discouraged by textbook authors and journal editors alike. Unfortunately no single term describes this phenomenon succinctly. I would like to coin the term "sigsearch" to define this practice and bring it within the teaching lexicon of statistics courses. Sigsearch would include any unplanned, post-hoc search for statistical significance using multiple comparisons of subgroups. It would also include data analysis with outcomes other than the prespecified primary outcome measure of a study as well as secondary data analyses of earlier research.

  13. Novel approach to improve molecular imaging research: Correlation between macroscopic and molecular pathological findings in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Ingrid, E-mail: i.boehm@uni-bonn.de [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, ZARF Project, Center for Molecular Imaging Research MBMB, Philipps University of Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35039 Marburg (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: Currently, clinical research approaches are sparse in molecular imaging studies. Moreover, possible links between imaging features and pathological laboratory parameters are unknown, so far. Therefore, the goal was to find a possible relationship between imaging features and peripheral blood cell apoptosis, and thereby to present a novel way to complement molecular imaging research. Materials and methods: The investigation has been done in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a prototype of an autoimmune disease characterized by multiorgan involvement, autoantibody production, and disturbed apoptosis. Retrospectively, radiological findings have been compared to both autoantibody findings and percentage apoptotic blood cells. Results: Two SLE groups could be identified: patients with normal (annexin V binding < 20%), and with increased apoptosis (annexin V binding > 20%) of peripheral blood cells. The frequency of radiological examinations in SLE patients significantly correlated with an increased percentage of apoptotic cells (p < 0.005). In patients with characteristic imaging findings (e.g. lymph node swelling, pleural effusion) an elevated percentage of apoptotic cells was present. In contrast SLE-patients with normal imaging findings or uncharacteristic results of minimal severity had normal percentages of apoptotic blood cells. Conclusion: This correlation between radiographic findings and percentage of apoptotic blood cells provides (1) further insight into pathological mechanisms of SLE, (2) will offer the possibility to introduce apoptotic biomarkers as molecular probes for clinical molecular imaging approaches in future to early diagnose organ complaints in patients with SLE, and (3) is a plea to complement molecular imaging research by this clinical approach.

  14. Smoking cessation in women: findings from qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puskar, M

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of this descriptive exploratory study is to describe the experience of successful smoking cessation in adult women. The convenience sample included 10 women, ages 25 to 42, who had abstained from smoking for at least 6 months but not longer than 3 years. A semistructured interview format was used to elicit descriptions of the experience of successful smoking cessation from these subjects. The interview format explored the experience, including initial contemplation, the process of quitting, and maintenance of smoking abstinence. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and then analyzed using methods outlined by Miles and Huberman [1]. Four themes emerged from the data: evolving commitment to health and personal growth, being stigmatized, changing conceptualization of smoking, and smoking cessation as a relational phenomenon. These findings were consistent with Pender's Health Promotion Model and have implications for nurse practitioners who counsel women on smoking cessation.

  15. Prognostic value of clinical and Doppler echocardiographic findings in children and adolescents with significant rheumatic valvular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Fátima Derlene da Rocha; Goulart, Eugênio Marcos Andrade; Meira, Zilda Maria Alves

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever (RF) is based on clinical findings. However, during the chronic phase of the disease, the clinical approach is not sufficient for the follow-up of the patients and the Doppler echocardiography is a tool for the diagnosis of cardiac involvement. Prognostic variables that influence long-term outcomes are not well known. 462 patients with RF according to Jones criteria were studied, and followed-up from the initial attack to 13.6 ± 4.6 years. All patients underwent clinical assessment and Doppler echocardiography for the detection of heart valve involvement in the acute and chronic phases. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors influencing long-term heart valve disease. Carditis occurred in 55.8% and subclinical valvulitis in 35.3% patients. In the chronic phase, 33% of the patients had significant valvular heart disease. No normal Doppler echocardiography exam was observed on patients who had severe valvulitis, although heart auscultation had become normal in 13% of these. In the multivariate analysis, only the severity of carditis and the mitral and/or aortic valvulitis were associated with significant valvular heart disease. Chorea or arthritis were protective factors for significant valvular heart disease, odds ratio 0.41 (95% C.I. 0.22 – 0.77) and 0.43 (95% C.I. 0.23 – 0.82), respectively. Our study suggests that the use of Doppler echocardiography during RF helps to identify prognostic factors regarding the development of significant valvular heart disease. Initial severe carditis is an important factor in the long-term prognosis of chronic RHD, whereas arthritis and chore during the initial episode of RF appears to be protective. Strict secondary prophylaxis should be mandatory in high risk patients

  16. Gate valve and motor-operator research findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.

    1995-09-01

    This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves)

  17. Interrater and intrarater agreements of magnetic resonance imaging findings in the lumbar spine: significant variability across degenerative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Michael C; Buerba, Rafael A; Long, William D; Blizzard, Daniel J; Lischuk, Andrew W; Haims, Andrew H; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used in the evaluation of degenerative conditions in the lumbar spine. The relative interrater and intrarater agreements of MRI findings across different pathologic conditions are underexplored, as most studies are focused on specific findings. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interrater and intrarater agreements of MRI findings used to assess the degenerative lumbar spine. A retrospective diagnostic study at a large academic medical center was undertaken with a panel of orthopedic surgeons and musculoskeletal radiologists to assess lumbar MRIs using standardized criteria. Seventy-five subjects who underwent routine lumbar spine MRI at our institution were included. Each MRI study was assessed for 10 lumbar degenerative findings using standardized criteria. Lumbar vertebral levels were assessed independently, where applicable, for a total of 52 data points collected per study. T2-weighted axial and sagittal MRI sequences were presented in random order to the four reviewers (two orthopedic spine surgeons and two musculoskeletal radiologists) independently to determine interrater agreement. The first 10 studies were reevaluated at the end to determine intrarater agreement. Images were assessed using standardized and pilot-tested criteria to assess disc degeneration, stenosis, and other degenerative changes. Interrater and intrarater absolute percent agreements were calculated. To highlight the most clinically important MRI disagreements, a modified agreement analysis was also performed (in which disagreements between the lowest two severity grades for applicable conditions were ignored). Fleiss kappa coefficients for interrater agreement were determined. The overall absolute and modified interrater agreements were 76.9% and 93.5%, respectively. The absolute and modified intrarater agreements were 81.3% and 92.7%, respectively. Average Fleiss kappa coefficient was 0.431, suggesting moderate overall

  18. EU socio-economic research on fusion: findings and program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosato, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. The program is developed by independent experts making use of well established international methodologies. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrate that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. (author)

  19. EU socio-economic research on fusion: Findings and program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosato, G.C.

    2003-01-01

    In 1997 the European Commission launched a Socio-Economic Research program to study under which conditions future fusion power plants may become competitive, compatible with the energy supply system and acceptable for the public. It has been shown, among others, that: 1) local communities are ready to support the construction of an experimental fusion facility, if appropriate communication and awareness campaigns are carried out; 2) since the externalities are much lower than for competitors, fusion power plants may become the major producer of base load electricity at the end of the century in Europe, if climate changes have to be mitigated, if the construction of new nuclear fission power plants continues to be constrained and if nuclear fusion power plants become commercially available in 2050. Cooperating with major international organizations, the program for next year aims to demonstrating, through technical economic programming models and global multi-regional energy environmental scenarios, that the potential global benefits of fusion power plants in the second half of the century largely outdo the RD and D costs borne in the first half to make it available. Making the public aware of such benefits through field experiences will be part of the program. (author)

  20. Exploiting multimedia in reproductive science education: research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J

    2012-08-01

    Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Incidental findings in healthy control research subjects using whole-body MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, S.H.X.; Cobbold, J.F.L.; Lim, A.K.P.; Eliahoo, J.; Thomas, E.L.; Mehta, S.R.; Durighel, G.; Fitzpatrick, J.; Bell, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a powerful clinical tool used increasingly in the research setting. We aimed to assess the prevalence of incidental findings in a sequential cohort of healthy volunteers undergoing whole-body MRI as part of a normal control database for imaging research studies. Materials and methods: 148 healthy volunteers (median age 36 years, range 21-69 years; 63.5% males, 36.5% females) were enrolled into a prospective observational study at a single hospital-based MRI research unit in London, UK. Individuals with a clinical illness, treated or under investigation were excluded from the study. Results: 43 (29.1%) scans were abnormal with a total of 49 abnormalities detected. Of these, 20 abnormalities in 19 patients (12.8%) were of clinical significance. The prevalence of incidental findings increased significantly with both increasing age and body mass index (BMI). Obese subjects had a fivefold greater risk of having an incidental abnormality on MRI (OR 5.4, CI 2.1-14.0). Conclusions: This study showed that more than one quarter of healthy volunteers have MR-demonstrable abnormalities. There was an increased risk of such findings in obese patients. This has ethical and financial implications for future imaging research, particularly with respect to informed consent and follow-up of those with abnormalities detected during the course of imaging studies.

  2. MR findings of medulloblastomas and the significance of contrast enhanced MR of brain and spine for the staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, Yeon Hee; Suh, Jung Ho

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to analyze the MR findings of medulloblastoma, and to evaluate the subarachnoid dissemination and the significance of contrast enhanced MR of brain and spine for tumor staging. The preoperative brain MR studies of 18 patients (9 males, 9 females; mean age, 9.4 years) with surgically proved medulloblastomas were retrospectively reviewed to characterize these neoplasms with regard to their location, size, MR signal intensity, appearance after contrast enhancement, presence of cyst and necrosis, subarachnoid dissemination, and other associated findings. In 14 patients postoperative spine MR studies were evaluated for staging and therapeutic planning. The most frequent location of medulloblastoma was the inferior vermis and the mean tumor size was 4.1 x 3.6 x 3.9 cm. On T1-weighted image, medulloblastomas generally had low to intermediate signal, predominantly hypointense relative to white matter. On T2-weighted image, medulloblastomas showed moderately high signal, hyperintense relative to white matter. Inhomogeneous contrast enhancement was demonstrated in 13 patients(72.2%) after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine(Gadolinium). Cyst and necrosis within the tumor were visualized in 15 patients(83.3%). Subarachnoid disseminations of medulloblastomas were noted in 11 patients(61.1%), of which 6 demonstrated intracranial and 2 intraspinal dissemination. Three had both intracranial and intraspinal dissemination. In nine cases with intracranial lesions, there were intraparenchymal mass formation(7), subarachnoid nodules(5), infundibular lesions(2) and diffuse gyral enhancement(1). In five cases with intraspinal lesions, there were extramedullary intradural small nodules(3), central canal nodules(2), intradural masses(1) and fine nodular and sheet-like leptomeningeal enhancement(1). Other associated findings included intratumoral hemorrhage(11.1%), peritumoral edema(44.4%), tonsillar herniation(44.4%), hydrocephalus(88.9%) and

  3. Longitudinal split of the posterior cruciate ligament: description of a new MR finding and evaluation of its potential clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, J.H. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, H.W., E-mail: chung@amc.seoul.k [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, J.W. [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, B.K.; Lee, S.H.; Shin, M.J. [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical significance of the intra-substance longitudinal split of the posterior cruciate ligament (LS-PCL) and to evaluate its potential clinical significance on MRI. Materials and methods: The databases of two centres were searched for LS-PCL, 6917 knee magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations undertaken were retrospectively reviewed. LS-PCL was defined as increased signal intensity in a PCL in the longitudinal direction, but with an intact ligament outer surface on MRI. Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. Available arthroscopic results, degree of posterior knee instability, and changes in MRI findings, or the degree of instability during follow-up (FU), were reviewed from the patients medical records and via their MRI images. MRI images were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists in consensus for presence and location of LS-PCL and any combined injuries: menisci lesions, ligament injuries, and bone marrow changes. Results: Seven of 12 patients (58.3%) had morphological or functional evidence of PCL injury or insufficiency according to the change of posterior instability on FU stress testing (n = 3), insufficiency during arthroscopy (n = 2), or decreased extent and altered shape of the PCL split on the FU MRI (n = 3). One patient revealed both change of posterior instability on FU stress testing and insufficiency during arthroscopy. Combined injuries were revealed in seven patients. Five patients had isolated LS-PCL: two patients underwent arthroscopic PCL reconstructions; and another three patients revealed knee instability on stress testing. Conclusion: Although LS-PCL has not been described before, it can be a type of partial tear of the PCL, which causes PCL insufficiency.

  4. Return of individual research results and incidental findings in the clinical trials cooperative group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriere, Michael; Van Ness, Brian

    2012-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-funded cooperative group cancer clinical trial system develops experimental therapies and often collects samples from patients for correlative research. The cooperative group bank (CGB) system maintains biobanks with a current policy not to return research results to individuals. An online survey was created, and 10 directors of CGBs completed the surveys asking about understanding and attitudes in changing policies to consider return of incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of health significance. The potential impact of the 10 consensus recommendations of Wolf et al. presented in this issue are examined. Reidentification of samples is often not problematic; however, changes to the current banking and clinical trial systems would require significant effort to fulfill an obligation of recontact of subjects. Additional resources, as well as a national advisory board would be required to standardize implementation.

  5. Embodiment of the interpersonal nexus: revealing qualitative research findings on shoulder surgery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Nel Glass, K Robyn OgleSchool of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Australian Catholic University, Fitzroy, VIC, AustraliaBackground: The paper reports on the importance of the interpersonal nexus within qualitative research processes, from a recent research project on patient experiences of shoulder surgery. Our aim is to reveal the importance of qualitative research processes and specifically the role of the interpersonal nexus in generating quality data. Literature related to the importance of human interactions and interpersonal communication processes in health-related research remains limited. Shoulder surgery has been reported to be associated with significant postoperative pain. While shoulder surgery research has investigated various analgesic techniques to determine key efficacy and minimization of adverse side effects, little has been reported from the patient perspective.Methods: Following institutional ethics approval, this project was conducted in two private hospitals in Victoria, Australia, in 2010. The methods included a survey questionnaire, semistructured interviews, and researcher-reflective journaling. Researcher-reflective journaling was utilized to highlight and discuss the interpersonal nexus.Results: This research specifically addresses the importance of the contributions of qualitative methods and processes to understanding patient experiences of analgesic efficacy and shoulder surgery. The results reveal the importance of the established research process and the interwoven interpersonal nexus between the researcher and the research participants. The interpersonal skills of presencing and empathetic engagement are particularly highlighted.Conclusion: The authors attest the significance of establishing an interpersonal nexus in order to reveal patient experiences of shoulder surgery. Interpersonal emotional engagement is particularly highlighted in data collection, in what may be otherwise understated and overlooked

  6. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: A significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranzinger, Enno, E-mail: enno.stranzinger@insel.ch [University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Leidolt, Lars, E-mail: lars.leidolt@insel.ch [University Hospital Bern, Inselspital, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Eich, Georg, E-mail: georg.eich@ksa.ch [Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Pediatric Radiology, Tellstrasse, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland); Klimek, Peter Michael, E-mail: peter.klimek@ksa.ch [Cantonal Hospital Aarau, Pediatric Surgery, Tellstrasse, CH-5001 Aarau (Switzerland)

    2014-08-15

    Objective: Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. Materials and methods: 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. Results: In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured −3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.0001. In 6 patients (24% of all patients with confirmed fractures) the original report missed to diagnose the proximal tibial fracture. Conclusion: Young children between 2 and 5 years of age are at risk for proximal tibia fractures while jumping on a trampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures.

  7. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: A significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stranzinger, Enno; Leidolt, Lars; Eich, Georg; Klimek, Peter Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. Materials and methods: 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. Results: In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured −3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, P < 0.0001. In 6 patients (24% of all patients with confirmed fractures) the original report missed to diagnose the proximal tibial fracture. Conclusion: Young children between 2 and 5 years of age are at risk for proximal tibia fractures while jumping on a trampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures

  8. The anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate: a significant radiological finding in young children with trampoline fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranzinger, Enno; Leidolt, Lars; Eich, Georg; Klimek, Peter Michael

    2014-08-01

    Evaluation of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate in young children, which suffered a trampoline fracture in comparison with a normal population. 62 children (31 females, 31 males) between 2 and 5 years of age (average 2 years 11 months, standard deviation 11 months) with radiographs in two views of the tibia were included in this retrospective study. 25 children with proximal tibia fractures were injured with a history of jumping on a trampoline. All other causes for tibia fractures were excluded. A normal age-mapped control cohort of 37 children was compared. These children had neither evidence of a trampoline related injury nor a fracture of the tibia. The anterior tilt angle of the epiphyseal plate of the tibia was defined as an angle between the proximal tibia physis and the distal tibia physis on a lateral view. Two radiologists evaluated all radiographs for fractures and measured the anterior tilt angle in consensus. An unpaired Student's t-test was used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Original reports were reviewed and compared with the radiological findings and follow-up radiographs. In the normal control group, the average anterior tilt angle measured -3.2°, SD ± 2.8°. The children with trampoline fractures showed an anterior tilt of +4.4°, SD ± 2.9°. The difference was statistically significant, Ptrampoline. These fractures may be very subtle and difficult to detect on initial radiographs. Measurement of the anterior tilt angle of the proximal tibia epiphyseal plate on lateral radiographs is supportive for interpreting correctly trampoline fractures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Ngo Van

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 19362 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal for the Reed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... serves about 1,300 students. The Reed Research Reactor is housed in a section of the Psychology Building constructed specifically for that purpose. The section of the Psychology building housing the Reed Research... encompasses the entire Psychology Building and all areas 76 meters (250 feet) from the center of the reactor...

  11. Computedtomographic findings in natal encephalopathies and their significance for the prognosis for the near future and long-term development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlarek, F.

    1981-01-01

    190 premature babies and newborn with a hypoxic or traumatic natal encephalopathy were examined in the newborn period with cranial computed tomography. 10 other neonatals with cyanotic vitia even without neurologic syndromes were included into this study. 73 of these infants were intubated for a while and supplied with air. The CT findings were compared with those of a ''control group'' of neonatals who provided externally visible malformations but no burdening perinatal anamnesis. 82 premature and neonatal babies showed abnormal morphologic basic findings. Due to kind, localisation and size of the lesion, different morphologic patterns - depending on the birth weight - can be delineated. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the United States government announced the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) that included a proposal directed at doubling the nation's investment in nanotechnology to ensure the United States' competitive position in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. As part of the NNI, the National Science and Technology Council Interagency Working Group on Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (IWGN) concluded that research centers would permit activities that cannot be accomplished in the traditional mode of small groups or single investigators or with the current research infrastructure. The IWGN recognized the importance of establishing research centers with major Department of Energy (DOE) specialized and user facilities. Consequently, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) plans to support the NNI, in part, through the establishment of an integrated national program of Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC) affiliated with major facilities at DOE's national laboratories. Specific objectives of the NSRCs are to accomplish the following: (1) Advance the fundamental understanding and control of materials at the nanoscale regime; (2) Provide an environment to support research of a scope, complexity, and disciplinary breadth not possible under traditional investigator or small group efforts; (3) Provide the foundation for the development of nanotechnologies important to the DOE; (4) Provide state-of-the-art equipment to in-house laboratory, university, and industry researchers and optimize the use of national user facilities for materials characterization employing electrons, photons, and neutrons; (5) Provide a formal mechanism for both short- and long-term collaborations and partnerships among DOE laboratory, academic, and industrial researchers; and (6) Provide training for graduate students and postdoctoral associates in interdisciplinary nanoscale science, engineering, and technology research

  13. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  14. Concordance between myocardial perfusion scan assessed by SPECT and fractional flow reserve findings for detection of significant ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: FFR and MPI with SPECT techniques showed significant concordance for detection of myocardial ischemia, regardless of the type of diseased coronary arteries. In this context, SPECT has high sensitivity and NPV for detection of ischemia compared with FFR.

  15. 75 FR 26708 - ArborGen, LLC; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The subject Eucalyptus trees are considered regulated articles under the regulations... Controlled Release of Genetically Engineered Eucalyptus Hybrids AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... genetically engineered clone of a Eucalyptus hybrid. The purpose of this release is to continue research on...

  16. Rectal cancer staging: focus on the prognostic significance of the findings described by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Abstract High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool for multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) addressing rectal cancer. It provides anatomic information for surgical planning and allows patients to be stratified into different groups according to the risk of local and distant recurrence. One of the objectives of the MDT is the preoperative identification of high-risk patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. For this reason, the correct evaluation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), the depth of tumor spread beyond the muscularis propria, extramural vascular invasion and nodal status is of the utmost importance. Low rectal tumors represent a special challenge for the MDT, because decisions seek a balance between oncologic safety, in the pursuit of free resection margins, and the patient’s quality of life, in order to preserve sphincter function. At present, the exchange of information between the different specialties involved in dealing with patients with rectal cancer can rank the contribution of colleagues, auditing their work and incorporating knowledge that will lead to a better understanding of the pathology. Thus, beyond the anatomic description of the images, the radiologist’s role in the MDT makes it necessary to know the prognostic value of the findings that we describe, in terms of recurrence and survival, because these findings affect decision making and, therefore, the patients’ life. In this review, the usefulness of HR MRI in the initial staging of rectal cancer and in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment, with a focus on the prognostic value of the findings, is described as well as the contribution of HR MRI in assessing patients with suspected or confirmed recurrence of rectal cancer. PMID:23876415

  17. Rectal cancer staging: focus on the prognostic significance of the findings described by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2013-07-22

    High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool for multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) addressing rectal cancer. It provides anatomic information for surgical planning and allows patients to be stratified into different groups according to the risk of local and distant recurrence. One of the objectives of the MDT is the preoperative identification of high-risk patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. For this reason, the correct evaluation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), the depth of tumor spread beyond the muscularis propria, extramural vascular invasion and nodal status is of the utmost importance. Low rectal tumors represent a special challenge for the MDT, because decisions seek a balance between oncologic safety, in the pursuit of free resection margins, and the patient's quality of life, in order to preserve sphincter function. At present, the exchange of information between the different specialties involved in dealing with patients with rectal cancer can rank the contribution of colleagues, auditing their work and incorporating knowledge that will lead to a better understanding of the pathology. Thus, beyond the anatomic description of the images, the radiologist's role in the MDT makes it necessary to know the prognostic value of the findings that we describe, in terms of recurrence and survival, because these findings affect decision making and, therefore, the patients' life. In this review, the usefulness of HR MRI in the initial staging of rectal cancer and in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment, with a focus on the prognostic value of the findings, is described as well as the contribution of HR MRI in assessing patients with suspected or confirmed recurrence of rectal cancer.

  18. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Mattioli

    Full Text Available Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up.

  19. Disclosing incidental findings in brain research: the rights of minors in decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Nina C; Illes, Judy

    2013-11-01

    MRI is used routinely in research with children to generate new knowledge about brain development. The detection of unexpected brain abnormalities (incidental findings; IFs) in these studies presents unique challenges. While key issues surrounding incidence and significance, duty of care, and burden of disclosure have been addressed substantially for adults, less empirical data and normative analyses exist for minors who participate in minimal risk research. To identify ethical concerns and fill existing gaps, we conducted a comprehensive review of papers that focused explicitly on the discovery of IFs in minors. The discourse in the 21 papers retrieved for this analysis amply covered practical issues such as informed consent and screening, difficulties in ascertaining clinical significance, the economic costs and burden of responsibility on researchers, and risks (physical or psychological). However, we found little discussion about the involvement of minors in decisions about disclosure of IFs in the brain, especially for IFs of low clinical significance. In response, we propose a framework for managing IFs that integrates practical considerations with explicit appreciation of rights along the continuum of maturity. This capacity-adjusted framework emphasizes the importance of involving competent minors and respecting their right to make decisions about disclosure. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G

    2006-01-01

    Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher's significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson's hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher's approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson's approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher's significance test to Neyman-Pearson's hypothesis test procedure.

  1. A shift from significance test to hypothesis test through power analysis in medical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Girish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Medical research literature until recently, exhibited substantial dominance of the Fisher′s significance test approach of statistical inference concentrating more on probability of type I error over Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test considering both probability of type I and II error. Fisher′s approach dichotomises results into significant or not significant results with a P value. The Neyman-Pearson′s approach talks of acceptance or rejection of null hypothesis. Based on the same theory these two approaches deal with same objective and conclude in their own way. The advancement in computing techniques and availability of statistical software have resulted in increasing application of power calculations in medical research and thereby reporting the result of significance tests in the light of power of the test also. Significance test approach, when it incorporates power analysis contains the essence of hypothesis test approach. It may be safely argued that rising application of power analysis in medical research may have initiated a shift from Fisher′s significance test to Neyman-Pearson′s hypothesis test procedure.

  2. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp..., into the continental United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium pilosella, H...

  3. 76 FR 30397 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    .... The NRC staff considered the following environmental resource areas in its evaluation: Air quality... concludes that the proposed action will not result in a significant effect on the quality of the human... North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. The PDR reproduction contractor will copy documents...

  4. Humor Scholarship and TESOL: Applying Findings and Establishing a Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nancy D.

    2011-01-01

    Research in the areas of second language (L2) pragmatics and of conversational humor has increased in recent decades, resulting in a strong base of knowledge from which applied linguists can draw information for teaching purposes and undertake future research. Yet, whereas empirical findings in L2 pragmatics are beginning to find their way into…

  5. The long-term significance of teacher-rated hyperactivity and reading ability in childhood: findings from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rob; Prior, Margot; Willams, Sheila; Smart, Diana; Sanson, Anne

    2002-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: first, to examine behavioural and academic outcomes of children with hyperactivity, using data from two longitudinal studies; and second, to examine comparable psychosocial outcomes for children with early reading difficulties. Measures of teacher-rated persistent hyperactivity, and reading ability obtained during early primary school were available for children from the Australian Temperament Project and the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Both samples were followed up to assess behavioural and academic outcomes during the adolescent and early adult years. Family background, antisocial behaviour and literacy were controlled in the first set of analyses to examine the influence of early hyperactivity. There were strong linear relationships between early hyperactivity and later adverse outcomes. Adjustment for other childhood variables suggested that early hyperactivity was associated with continuing school difficulties, problems with attention and poor reading in adolescence. Early reading difficulties, after controlling for early hyperactivity, predicted continuing reading problems in high school and leaving school with no qualifications. The findings suggest that there are dual pathways from early inattentive behaviours to later inattention and reading problems, and from early reading difficulties to substantial impairments in later academic outcomes.

  6. Translating research findings into practice – the implementation of kangaroo mother care in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Anne-Marie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kangaroo mother care (KMC is a safe and effective method of caring for low birth weight infants and is promoted for its potential to improve newborn survival. Many countries find it difficult to take KMC to scale in healthcare facilities providing newborn care. KMC Ghana was an initiative to scale up KMC in four regions in Ghana. Research findings from two outreach trials in South Africa informed the design of the initiative. Two key points of departure were to equip healthcare facilities that conduct deliveries with the necessary skills for KMC practice and to single out KMC for special attention instead of embedding it in other newborn care initiatives. This paper describes the contextualisation and practical application of previous research findings and the results of monitoring the progress of the implementation of KMC in Ghana. Methods A three-phase outreach intervention was adapted from previous research findings to suit the local setting. A more structured system of KMC regional steering committees was introduced to drive the process and take the initiative forward. During Phase I, health workers in regions and districts were oriented in KMC and received basic support for the management of the outreach. Phase II entailed the strengthening of the regional steering committees. Phase III comprised a more formal assessment, utilising a previously validated KMC progress-monitoring instrument. Results Twenty-six out of 38 hospitals (68 % scored over 10 out of 30 and had reached the level of ‘evidence of practice’ by the end of Phase III. Seven hospitals exceeded expected performance by scoring at the level of ‘evidence of routine and institutionalised practice.’ The collective mean score for all participating hospitals was 12.07. Hospitals that had attained baby-friendly status or had been re-accredited in the five years before the intervention scored significantly better than the rest, with a mean score of 14

  7. CT characteristics of Morel-Lavallee lesions: an under-recognized but significant finding in acute trauma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, Gavin A.; Niederhauser, Blake D.; Collins, Mark S.; Howe, Benjamin M.

    2016-01-01

    To highlight the significance and imaging characteristics of Morel-Lavallee (ML) lesions, which have been well characterized on MRI, but are potentially under-recognized on CT. Twenty-eight Morel-Lavallee lesions were identified in 18 patients and were all clinically or surgically confirmed. Lesions were grouped into acute (<3 days), subacute (3-30 days), and chronic (>30 days) at the time of CT imaging. Charts were reviewed to gather patient characteristics, injury patterns, radiologist interpretation, treatment, and outcomes. Sixteen male and 2 female patients with a mean age of 50 years (range 19-80) at the date of their initial evaluation were identified. All patients had significant trauma that accounted for 28 ML lesions, all of which were in a characteristic subcutaneous location overlying the muscular fascial plane. Lesions on CT went through an evolution from hyperdense, poorly or moderately marginated without a pseudocapsule to being hypodense, with internal fat globules or septations and well marginated with a complete enhancing pseudocapsule. Only 1 (4 %) of the ML lesions was suggested and 7 (25 %) lesions were not commented on at all by the interpreting radiologist. Morel-Lavallee lesions are post-traumatic closed, internal, soft-tissue, degloving lesions that are potentially underrecognized on CT. Most acute ML lesions are nonspecific, resembling simple hematomas or contusions. ML lesions evolve as they age with subacute and chronic lesions demonstrating the known features described on MR imaging that should allow for an accurate imaging diagnosis. (orig.)

  8. CT characteristics of Morel-Lavallée lesions: an under-recognized but significant finding in acute trauma imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Gavin A; Niederhauser, Blake D; Collins, Mark S; Howe, Benjamin M

    2016-08-01

    To highlight the significance and imaging characteristics of Morel-Lavallée (ML) lesions, which have been well characterized on MRI, but are potentially under-recognized on CT. Twenty-eight Morel-Lavallée lesions were identified in 18 patients and were all clinically or surgically confirmed. Lesions were grouped into acute (30 days) at the time of CT imaging. Charts were reviewed to gather patient characteristics, injury patterns, radiologist interpretation, treatment, and outcomes. Sixteen male and 2 female patients with a mean age of 50 years (range 19-80) at the date of their initial evaluation were identified. All patients had significant trauma that accounted for 28 ML lesions, all of which were in a characteristic subcutaneous location overlying the muscular fascial plane. Lesions on CT went through an evolution from hyperdense, poorly or moderately marginated without a pseudocapsule to being hypodense, with internal fat globules or septations and well marginated with a complete enhancing pseudocapsule. Only 1 (4 %) of the ML lesions was suggested and 7 (25 %) lesions were not commented on at all by the interpreting radiologist. Morel-Lavallée lesions are post-traumatic closed, internal, soft-tissue, degloving lesions that are potentially underrecognized on CT. Most acute ML lesions are nonspecific, resembling simple hematomas or contusions. ML lesions evolve as they age with subacute and chronic lesions demonstrating the known features described on MR imaging that should allow for an accurate imaging diagnosis.

  9. Stakeholders in psychiatry and their attitudes toward receiving pertinent and incident findings in genomic research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundby, Anna; Boolsen, Merete Watt; Burgdorf, Kristoffer Solvsten

    2017-01-01

    potential research participants and health professionals toward receiving pertinent and incidental findings. A cross-sectional online survey was developed to investigate the attitudes among research participants toward receiving genomic findings. A total of 2,637 stakeholders responded: 241 persons...... and information that is not of serious health importance. Psychiatrists and clinical geneticists were less positive about receiving genomic findings compared with blood donors. The attitudes toward receiving findings were very positive. Stakeholders were willing to refrain from receiving incidental information......Increasingly more psychiatric research studies use whole genome sequencing or whole exome sequencing. Consequently, researchers face difficult questions, such as which genomic findings to return to research participants and how. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes among...

  10. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Hungry Horse--Columbia Falls line rebuild and relocation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has identified a need to rebuild the Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 115,000-volt (115-kV) transmission line to 230-kV. This line supplies power to customers in the area of Columbia Falls, Montana, and integrates generation at the US Bureau of Reclamation's (USBR) Hungry Horse Dam into BPA's transmission grid. There are several problems with the existing system. The Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 1 15-kV line is 45 years old and requires excessive maintenance. The USBR has decided to replace their aging 115-kV transformers at the dam with 230-kV transformers, which also would increase their operational flexibility. With the small conductor size and voltage of the line presently being used, significant amounts of energy are lost as the power moves across the line. Transformer failure at Hungry Horse Dam has led to joint planning between BPA and the USBR. (USBR and the US Forest Service are cooperating agencies on the proposed project.) The proposal to eliminate the 115-kV equipment and convert to 230-kV operation was the least costly of the options studied. By rebuilding the line, maintenance costs (and time required for outages) would be reduced. The increased generation at the USBR dam would be safely and consistently transmitted over the improved system, and less energy would be lost from the line, a cost and energy savings

  11. Science in the Eyes of Preschool Children: Findings from an Innovative Research Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubosarsky, Mia D.

    How do young children view science? Do these views reflect cultural stereotypes? When do these views develop? These fundamental questions in the field of science education have rarely been studied with the population of preschool children. One main reason is the lack of an appropriate research instrument that addresses preschool children's developmental competencies. Extensive body of research has pointed at the significance of early childhood experiences in developing positive attitudes and interests toward learning in general and the learning of science in particular. Theoretical and empirical research suggests that stereotypical views of science may be replaced by authentic views following inquiry science experience. However, no preschool science intervention program could be designed without a reliable instrument that provides baseline information about preschool children's current views of science. The current study presents preschool children's views of science as gathered from a pioneering research tool. This tool, in the form of a computer "game," does not require reading, writing, or expressive language skills and is operated by the children. The program engages children in several simple tasks involving picture recognition and yes/no answers in order to reveal their views about science. The study was conducted with 120 preschool children in two phases and found that by the age of 4 years, participants possess an emergent concept of science. Gender and school differences were detected. Findings from this interdisciplinary study will contribute to the fields of early childhood, science education, learning technologies, program evaluation, and early childhood curriculum development.

  12. Social Science Research Related to Wildfire Management: An Overview of Recent Findings and Future Research Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah M. McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Melanie Stidham; Bruce. Shindler

    2012-01-01

    As with other aspects of natural-resource management, the approach to managing wildland fires has evolved over time as scientific understanding has advanced and the broader context surrounding management decisions has changed. Prior to 2000 the primary focus of most fire research was on the physical and ecological aspects of fire; social science research was limited to...

  13. Researcher Tales and Research Ethics: The Spaces in Which We Find Ourselves

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Julie; Fitzgerald, Tanya

    2010-01-01

    The tales we tell here focus on the ethical issues arising from our research practice with vulnerable young participants and those for whom research has been inextricably linked with European imperialism and colonialism. The importance of relational obligations, temporality and potential for a continuing narrative approach to ethical research…

  14. 76 FR 33763 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ..., Ph.D., St. Jude Children's Research Hospital: Based on the findings of an investigation report by St... oversight review, ORI found that Philippe Bois, Ph.D., former postdoctoral fellow, Department of Biochemistry, St. Jude, engaged in misconduct in science and research misconduct in research funded by National...

  15. Sense of place in natural resource recreation and tourism: an evaluation and assessment of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer Farnum; Troy Hall; Linda E. Kruger

    2005-01-01

    Understanding sense of place and related concepts often presents challenges for both managers and researchers. Inconsistent application of terms, questions regarding their origin, and a lack of awareness of research findings contribute to the ambiguity of these concepts. This integrative review of research provides relevant, current information on the role of sense of...

  16. Information technology for clinical, translational and comparative effectiveness research. Findings from the section clinical research informatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, C; Choquet, R

    2013-01-01

    To summarize advances of excellent current research in the new emerging field of Clinical Research Informatics. Synopsis of four key articles selected for the IMIA Yearbook 2013. The selection was performed by querying PubMed and Web of Science with predefined keywords. From the original set of 590 papers, a first subset of 461 articles which was in the scope of Clinical Research Informatics was refined into a second subset of 79 relevant articles from which 15 articles were retained for peer-review. The four selected articles exemplify current research efforts conducted in the areas of data representation and management in clinical trials, secondary use of EHR data for clinical research, information technology platforms for translational and comparative effectiveness research and implementation of privacy control. The selected articles not only illustrate how innovative information technology supports classically organized randomized controlled trials but also demonstrate that the long promised benefits of electronic health care data for research are becoming a reality through concrete platforms and projects.

  17. The significance of 'hierarchy' in a research project on adoption and adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, R

    1999-06-01

    In the course of phenomenological research project focusing on the midwife's care of the mother who relinquishes her baby for adoption, hierarchy emerged repeatedly as a significant theme. This concept manifested itself both methodologically as well as thematically. In methodological terms, hierarchy first became apparent during the planning phase in the selection of the research design: at this point it took the form of the distinction between quantitative and qualitative research design. In the course of applying for research access the same attitudes re-emerged in the gatekeepers' responses to the research design which had been chose. Later, during the field work, hierarchy appeared in the course of the interviews, in the form of the unequal balance of power between the interviewer and the informant. Specific tactics were required to overcome the likelihood of hierarchy affecting the data at this stage. Eventually this concept was raised by the informants, who included both relinquishing mothers an midwives, and became a major theme. The informants' use of hierarchy to explain the unselfishness of relinquishment proved to be one of a number of strategies which facilitated coping either with the experience of relinquishment or with caring for a women going through that experience. The conclusion which emerges is that hierarchy features in many aspects of life. While it may be beneficial when applied to certain situations to facilitate coping, in other circumstances it may be less than positive.

  18. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO), the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail) in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their dissemination planning and activity

  19. Disseminating research findings: what should researchers do? A systematic scoping review of conceptual frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Mike W

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addressing deficiencies in the dissemination and transfer of research-based knowledge into routine clinical practice is high on the policy agenda both in the UK and internationally. However, there is lack of clarity between funding agencies as to what represents dissemination. Moreover, the expectations and guidance provided to researchers vary from one agency to another. Against this background, we performed a systematic scoping to identify and describe any conceptual/organising frameworks that could be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activity. Methods We searched twelve electronic databases (including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, the reference lists of included studies and of individual funding agency websites to identify potential studies for inclusion. To be included, papers had to present an explicit framework or plan either designed for use by researchers or that could be used to guide dissemination activity. Papers which mentioned dissemination (but did not provide any detail in the context of a wider knowledge translation framework, were excluded. References were screened independently by at least two reviewers; disagreements were resolved by discussion. For each included paper, the source, the date of publication, a description of the main elements of the framework, and whether there was any implicit/explicit reference to theory were extracted. A narrative synthesis was undertaken. Results Thirty-three frameworks met our inclusion criteria, 20 of which were designed to be used by researchers to guide their dissemination activities. Twenty-eight included frameworks were underpinned at least in part by one or more of three different theoretical approaches, namely persuasive communication, diffusion of innovations theory, and social marketing. Conclusions There are currently a number of theoretically-informed frameworks available to researchers that can be used to help guide their

  20. The earth is flat (p > 0.05): significance thresholds and the crisis of unreplicable research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Valentin; Korner-Nievergelt, Fränzi; Roth, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of 'statistical significance' as a license for making a claim of a scientific finding leads to considerable distortion of the scientific process (according to the American Statistical Association). We review why degrading p -values into 'significant' and 'nonsignificant' contributes to making studies irreproducible, or to making them seem irreproducible. A major problem is that we tend to take small p -values at face value, but mistrust results with larger p -values. In either case, p -values tell little about reliability of research, because they are hardly replicable even if an alternative hypothesis is true. Also significance ( p  ≤ 0.05) is hardly replicable: at a good statistical power of 80%, two studies will be 'conflicting', meaning that one is significant and the other is not, in one third of the cases if there is a true effect. A replication can therefore not be interpreted as having failed only because it is nonsignificant. Many apparent replication failures may thus reflect faulty judgment based on significance thresholds rather than a crisis of unreplicable research. Reliable conclusions on replicability and practical importance of a finding can only be drawn using cumulative evidence from multiple independent studies. However, applying significance thresholds makes cumulative knowledge unreliable. One reason is that with anything but ideal statistical power, significant effect sizes will be biased upwards. Interpreting inflated significant results while ignoring nonsignificant results will thus lead to wrong conclusions. But current incentives to hunt for significance lead to selective reporting and to publication bias against nonsignificant findings. Data dredging, p -hacking, and publication bias should be addressed by removing fixed significance thresholds. Consistent with the recommendations of the late Ronald Fisher, p -values should be interpreted as graded measures of the strength of evidence against the null hypothesis

  1. Increasing Use of Research Findings in Improving Evidence-Based Health Policy at the National Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiwita Budiharsana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In February 2016, the Minister of Health decided to increase the use of research findings in improving the quality of the national health policy and planning. The Ministry of Health has instructed the National Institute of Health Research and Development or NIHRD to play a stronger role of monitoring and evaluating all health programs, because “their opinion and research findings should be the basis for changes in national health policies and planning”. Compared to the past, the Ministry of Health has increased the research budget for evidence-based research tremendously. However, there is a gap between the information needs of program and policy-makers and the information offered by researchers. A close dialogue is needed between the users (program managers, policy makers and planners and the suppliers (researchers and evaluators to ensure that the evidence-based supplied by research is useful for programs, planning and health policy.

  2. Leading US nano-scientists’ perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists’ perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists’ perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  3. Leading US nano-scientists' perceptions about media coverage and the public communication of scientific research findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Youngjae; Scheufele, Dietram A.

    2011-12-01

    Despite the significant increase in the use of nanotechnology in academic research and commercial products over the past decade, there have been few studies that have explored scientists' perceptions and attitudes about the technology. In this article, we use survey data from the leading U.S. nano-scientists to explore their perceptions about two issues: the public communication of research findings and media coverage of nanotechnology, which serves as one relatively rapid outlet for public communication. We find that leading U.S. nano-scientists do see an important connection between the public communication of research findings and public attitudes about science. Also, there is a connection between the scientists' perceptions about media coverage and their views on the timing of public communication; scientists with positive attitudes about the media are more likely to support immediate public communication of research findings, while others believe that communication should take place only after research findings have been published through a peer-review process. We also demonstrate that journalists might have a more challenging time getting scientists to talk with them about nanotechnology news stories because nano-scientists tend to view media coverage of nanotechnology as less credible and less accurate than general science media coverage. We conclude that leading U.S. nano-scientists do feel a sense of responsibility for communicating their research findings to the public, but attitudes about the timing and the pathway of that communication vary across the group.

  4. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A critical discussion of null hypothesis significance testing and statistical power analysis within psychological research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Allan; Sommerlund, Bo

    2007-01-01

    The uses of null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) and statistical power analysis within psychological research are critically discussed. The article looks at the problems of relying solely on NHST when dealing with small and large sample sizes. The use of power-analysis in estimating...... the potential error introduced by small and large samples is advocated. Power analysis is not recommended as a replacement to NHST but as an additional source of information about the phenomena under investigation. Moreover, the importance of conceptual analysis in relation to statistical analysis of hypothesis...

  6. Impact of problem finding on the quality of authentic open inquiry science research projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labanca, Frank

    2008-11-01

    Problem finding is a creative process whereby individuals develop original ideas for study. Secondary science students who successfully participate in authentic, novel, open inquiry studies must engage in problem finding to determine viable and suitable topics. This study examined problem finding strategies employed by students who successfully completed and presented the results of their open inquiry research at the 2007 Connecticut Science Fair and the 2007 International Science and Engineering Fair. A multicase qualitative study was framed through the lenses of creativity, inquiry strategies, and situated cognition learning theory. Data were triangulated by methods (interviews, document analysis, surveys) and sources (students, teachers, mentors, fair directors, documents). The data demonstrated that the quality of student projects was directly impacted by the quality of their problem finding. Effective problem finding was a result of students using resources from previous, specialized experiences. They had a positive self-concept and a temperament for both the creative and logical perspectives of science research. Successful problem finding was derived from an idiosyncratic, nonlinear, and flexible use and understanding of inquiry. Finally, problem finding was influenced and assisted by the community of practicing scientists, with whom the students had an exceptional ability to communicate effectively. As a result, there appears to be a juxtaposition of creative and logical/analytical thought for open inquiry that may not be present in other forms of inquiry. Instructional strategies are suggested for teachers of science research students to improve the quality of problem finding for their students and their subsequent research projects.

  7. The Ademe research programme on atmospheric emissions from composting. Research findings and literature review - final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deportes, Isabelle; Mallard, Pascal; Loyon, Laurence; Guiziou, Fabrice; Fraboulet, Isaline; Clincke, Anne-Sophie; Fraboulet, Isaline; Tognet, Frederic; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Durif, Marc; Poulleau, Jean; Bacheley, Helene; Delabre, Karine; Zan-Alvarez, Patricia; Gourland, Pauline; Wery, Nathalie; Moletta-Denat, Marina; Deportes, Isabelle; Stavrakakis, Christophe; Schlosser, Olivier; Decottignies, Virginie; Akerman, Anna; Martel, Jean Luc; Senante, Elena; Givelet, Arnaud; Batton-Hubert, Mireille; Vaillant, Herve; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Pradelle, Frederic; Sassi, Jean-Francois; Teigne, Delphine; Duchaine, Caroline; Jean, Thierry; Lavoie, Jacques; Le Cloarec, Pierre; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre; Morcet, Muriel; Rivet, Marie; Romain, Anne-Claude

    2012-07-01

    Emissions of gas and particulates (dusts, mineral and organic) linked to composting wastes essentially come from the biodegradation of organic matter by micro-organisms and from the related site management activities, especially material handling (of the raw waste, mixes and compost): movements, turning, sieving and loading. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) is, in terms of mass, the main gas produced (along with water vapor) during composting. However, many other gases emitted in small amounts can also have a major impact on the environment and/or health risks. Such is the case for nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) with respect to global warming, and also for ammonia (NH 3 ) with respect to acidification and eutrophication of the local environment, and of a wide range of sulfur-based and volatile organic compounds which can potentially lead to very unpleasant (or offensive) odors and health risks. In the case of emitted dust particles, these can often carry micro-organisms and/or biological compounds with the known health effects of inflammation, allergic reactions and infection. Thus dealing with these emissions and the evaluation of their health and environmental impacts represents key aspects in the long term sustainability of the composting option. Even if the understanding of these emissions remains incomplete, taking into account the wide range of solid wastes treated and of the methods of composting available, efforts have been made these last years to better characterize the substrate and to improve the related measurement methods. ADEME launched in 2006 a research programme specifically addressing this theme in particular, involving many research organizations, technical centres, research consultancies and industrial partners. The work carried out in this framework has enabled an improvement in the knowledge of characterizing emissions, of their sources and controlling factors, of their metrology (whether at the source or within the environment around

  8. Significance and Implications of Patient-reported Xerostomia in Sjögren's Syndrome: Findings From the National Institutes of Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Monisha; Dye, Bruce A; Iafolla, Timothy; Baer, Alan N; Grisius, Margaret; Alevizos, Ilias

    2016-10-01

    .39, 95% CI: 2.02-1206.30, p-value=0.017). Age, gender, fatigue, pain, anxiety, and autoantibodies were not significantly associated with xerostomia. Findings from this study indicate that patient-reported xerostomia is highly prevalent among SS patients and is associated with several clinical phenotypes of this complex syndrome, thereby making it an important indicator of SS. The evidence also suggests that xerostomia is not limited to low salivary flow but might be reflective of compositional changes of saliva. Consequently, these findings suggest the need to consider xerostomia in the development of SS classification criteria and in patient-centered outcomes research in SS intervention trials. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Grant # DE000704-15. Dr. Baer is supported by RO1-DE-12354-15A1. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Recruitment methods for survey research: Findings from the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heerman, William J; Jackson, Natalie; Roumie, Christianne L; Harris, Paul A; Rosenbloom, S Trent; Pulley, Jill; Wilkins, Consuelo H; Williams, Neely A; Crenshaw, David; Leak, Cardella; Scherdin, Jon; Muñoz, Daniel; Bachmann, Justin; Rothman, Russell L; Kripalani, Sunil

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to report survey response rates and demographic characteristics of eight recruitment approaches to determine acceptability and effectiveness of large-scale patient recruitment among various populations. We conducted a cross sectional analysis of survey data from two large cohorts. Patients were recruited from the Mid-South Clinical Data Research Network using clinic-based recruitment, research registries, and mail, phone, and email approaches. Response rates are reported as patients who consented for the survey divided by the number of eligible patients approached. We contacted more than 90,000 patients and 13,197 patients completed surveys. Median age was 56.3years (IQR 40.9, 67.4). Racial/ethnic distribution was 84.1% White, non-Hispanic; 9.9% Black, non-Hispanic; 1.8% Hispanic; and 4.0% other, non-Hispanic. Face-to-face recruitment had the highest response rate of 94.3%, followed by participants who "opted-in" to a registry (76%). The lowest response rate was for unsolicited emails from the clinic (6.1%). Face-to-face recruitment enrolled a higher percentage of participants who self-identified as Black, non-Hispanic compared to other approaches (18.6% face-to-face vs. 8.4% for email). Technology-enabled recruitment approaches such as registries and emails are effective for recruiting but may yield less racial/ethnic diversity compared to traditional, more time-intensive approaches. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Power, effects, confidence, and significance: an investigation of statistical practices in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Happell, Brenda

    2014-05-01

    improvement. Most importantly, researchers should abandon the misleading practice of interpreting the results from inferential tests based solely on whether they are statistically significant (or not) and, instead, focus on reporting and interpreting effect sizes, confidence intervals, and significance levels. Nursing researchers also need to conduct and report a priori power analyses, and to address the issue of Type I experiment-wise error inflation in their studies. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. UK Library and Information Science Research is Having a Significant Influence on Research in Other Subject Disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Lee Stone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To quantify the value of librarianship and information science (LIS exports knowledge to other subject disciplines. Design – Bibliometric study. Setting – LIS departments in U.K. universities. Subjects – 232 LIS research articles published between 2001 and 2007. Methods – Data from the 2008 U.K. Research Assessment Exercise were checked to identify 405 research articles submitted by 10 selected university departments (out of a total of 21, which submitted research in the LIS category. The Web of Science database was then searched to see how many of these articles had been cited in other articles (n=232. If the citing article was published in a non-LIS journal it was considered a knowledge export. Journals were defined as non-LIS if they had not been assigned the subject category of Information Science & Library Science by the Journal of Citation Reports. The journal Impact Factors (IFs of citing journals were then normalized to measure the value of individual knowledge exports to their respective subject disciplines. This was done by comparing a citing journal’s IF with the median journal IF within that subject category. If the citing journal’s IF was above this median it was considered to be a valuable knowledge export. Main Results – The sample of LIS research articles produced a total of 1,061 knowledge exports in 444 unique non-LIS journals. These non-LIS journals covered 146 unique subject categories of which those related to computer science and chemistry/pharmacology cited LIS research with the greatest frequency. Just over three-quarters (n=798 of these citations were considered to be valuable knowledge exports. A sub-analysis showed that LIS articles published in non-LIS journals were significantly more valuable than the knowledge exports published in LIS journals. Conclusion – The validity of bibliometric studies can be improved by adopting the two methodological innovations presented in this study. The

  12. Biological variability in biomechanical engineering research: Significance and meta-analysis of current modeling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Douglas; Julias, Margaret; Nauman, Eric

    2014-04-11

    Biological systems are characterized by high levels of variability, which can affect the results of biomechanical analyses. As a review of this topic, we first surveyed levels of variation in materials relevant to biomechanics, and compared these values to standard engineered materials. As expected, we found significantly higher levels of variation in biological materials. A meta-analysis was then performed based on thorough reviews of 60 research studies from the field of biomechanics to assess the methods and manner in which biological variation is currently handled in our field. The results of our meta-analysis revealed interesting trends in modeling practices, and suggest a need for more biomechanical studies that fully incorporate biological variation in biomechanical models and analyses. Finally, we provide some case study example of how biological variability may provide valuable insights or lead to surprising results. The purpose of this study is to promote the advancement of biomechanics research by encouraging broader treatment of biological variability in biomechanical modeling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reconciling incongruous qualitative and quantitative findings in mixed methods research: exemplars from research with drug using populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D; Davidson, Peter J; Pollini, Robin A; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Washburn, Rachel; Palinkas, Lawrence A

    2012-01-01

    Mixed methods research is increasingly being promoted in the health sciences as a way to gain more comprehensive understandings of how social processes and individual behaviours shape human health. Mixed methods research most commonly combines qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis strategies. Often, integrating findings from multiple methods is assumed to confirm or validate the findings from one method with the findings from another, seeking convergence or agreement between methods. Cases in which findings from different methods are congruous are generally thought of as ideal, whilst conflicting findings may, at first glance, appear problematic. However, the latter situation provides the opportunity for a process through which apparently discordant results are reconciled, potentially leading to new emergent understandings of complex social phenomena. This paper presents three case studies drawn from the authors' research on HIV risk amongst injection drug users in which mixed methods studies yielded apparently discrepant results. We use these case studies (involving injection drug users [IDUs] using a Needle/Syringe Exchange Program in Los Angeles, CA, USA; IDUs seeking to purchase needle/syringes at pharmacies in Tijuana, Mexico; and young street-based IDUs in San Francisco, CA, USA) to identify challenges associated with integrating findings from mixed methods projects, summarize lessons learned, and make recommendations for how to more successfully anticipate and manage the integration of findings. Despite the challenges inherent in reconciling apparently conflicting findings from qualitative and quantitative approaches, in keeping with others who have argued in favour of integrating mixed methods findings, we contend that such an undertaking has the potential to yield benefits that emerge only through the struggle to reconcile discrepant results and may provide a sum that is greater than the individual qualitative and quantitative parts

  14. Collection and accumulation of seismic safety research findings, and considerations for information dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Seismic Safety Division of JNES is collecting and analyzing the findings of seismic safety research, and is developing a system to organize and disseminate the information internally and internationally. These tasks have been conducted in response to the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The overview of the tasks is as follows; 1) Collection of the knowledge and findings from seismic safety research. JNES collects information on seismic safety researches including the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The information is analyzed whether it is important for regulation to increase seismic safety of NPP. 2) Constructing database of seismic safety research. JNES collects information based on documents published by committee and constructs database of active faults around NPP sites in order to incorporate in the seismic safety review. 3) Dissemination of information related to seismic safety. JNES disseminates outcomes of own researches internally and internationally. (author)

  15. Collection and accumulation of seismic safety research findings, and considerations for information dissemination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Seismic Safety Division of JNES is collecting and analyzing the findings of seismic safety research, and is developing a system to organize and disseminate the information internally and internationally. These tasks have been conducted in response to the lessons learned from Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. The overview of the tasks is as follows; 1) Collection of the knowledge and findings from seismic safety research. JNES collects information on seismic safety researches including the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The information is analyzed whether it is important for regulation to increase seismic safety of NPP. 2) Constructing database of seismic safety research. JNES collects information based on documents published by committee and constructs database of active faults around NPP sites in order to incorporate in the seismic safety review. 3) Dissemination of information related to seismic safety. JNES disseminates outcomes of own researches internally and internationally. (author)

  16. Commenting on Findings in Qualitative and Quantitative Research Articles’ Discussion Sections in Applied Linguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dobakhti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research articles have received a wide interest in discourse studies particularly in genre analysis over the last few decades. A vast number of studies have focused on identifying the organizational patterns of research articles in various fields. However, to date, no study has been conducted on generic structure of qualitative and quantitative research articles. This study investigates the importance of commenting on findings in Discussion section of qualitative and quantitative research articles and the strategies that these two types of articles employ in making comments. The analysis shows that while commenting on findings is an important feature in both sets of articles, different strategies of commenting are favored in each type of articles. The differences can be attributed to the different epistemology of qualitative and quantitative research.

  17. Genome-wide significant locus for Research Diagnostic Criteria Schizoaffective Disorder Bipolar type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Elaine K; Di Florio, Arianna; Forty, Liz; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Grozeva, Detelina; Fraser, Christine; Richards, Alexander L; Moran, Jennifer L; Purcell, Shaun; Sklar, Pamela; Kirov, George; Owen, Michael J; O'Donovan, Michael C; Craddock, Nick; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian R

    2017-12-01

    Studies have suggested that Research Diagnostic Criteria for Schizoaffective Disorder Bipolar type (RDC-SABP) might identify a more genetically homogenous subgroup of bipolar disorder. Aiming to identify loci associated with RDC-SABP, we have performed a replication study using independent RDC-SABP cases (n = 144) and controls (n = 6,559), focusing on the 10 loci that reached a p-value bipolar disorder sample. Combining the WTCCC and replication datasets by meta-analysis (combined RDC-SABP, n = 423, controls, n = 9,494), we observed genome-wide significant association at one SNP, rs2352974, located within the intron of the gene TRAIP on chromosome 3p21.31 (p-value, 4.37 × 10 -8 ). This locus did not reach genome-wide significance in bipolar disorder or schizophrenia large Psychiatric Genomic Consortium datasets, suggesting that it may represent a relatively specific genetic risk for the bipolar subtype of schizoaffective disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-06-01

    for the ease of entrepreneurship. In biomedical research, countries are rated regarding their attractiveness from 1 to 10. Brazil is scored 5.26 – just behind China(6. According to Goldman Sachs’ economist Jim O’Neill(7, Brazil is one of the five BRICS countries with Russia, India, China and South Africa. Those countries represent the five major emerging national economies. Their markets should grow until the sum of their GDP reaches the one of the G6 countries around 2040 (Japan, USA, UK, France, Germany, Italy. This notion helps the investigators/investors to find the countries which offer the best opportunities. Brazil is definitely one of those; its Human Development Index (HDI, a composite score of life expectancy, education, and income per capita indicators is 79/187 versus 20/187 for France. This index has been created to highlight that people and their abilities should be the main indicators used to evaluate the potential of growth for a country and not only economic criteria. It can be used to question political choices. The reasons why Brazil is often solicited for clinical trials are explained by the following elements. An important growth of its pharmaceutical market over the last years, a highly urbanized population with an easy access to medications due to a generous government health program, important infrastructures in large metropolises (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro gathering the major part of the resources, a high relevance in clinical expertise, an important part of the population is treatment naive, which seduces the pharmaceutical industry, reasonable costs for research with a low-constraining regulation, an eased patient recruitment, and a surprising transdisciplinarity(8. Culture The French “exception culturelle” (cultural exception designates past or actual French specificities compared to other countries in the cultural field. This definition implies pride, pretentiousness and the feeling that French culture is superior to others

  19. Beyond the Page: A Process Review of Using Ethnodrama to Disseminate Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jamilah; Namey, Emily; Carrington Johnson, Annette; Guest, Greg

    2017-06-01

    Public health researchers are charged with communicating study findings to appropriate audiences. Dissemination activities typically target the academic research community. However, as participatory research grows, researchers are increasingly exploring innovative dissemination techniques to reach broader audiences, particularly research participants and their communities. One technique is ethnodrama/ethnotheatre, a written or live performance based on study findings. Though used effectively in social change programs, dramas are seldom used to distribute research findings exclusively. Therefore, little information is available about planning and implementing an ethnodrama for this purpose. We present a case study describing the process of planning and implementing an ethnodrama in the context of the Durham Focus Group Study, which explored men's health-seeking behaviors and experiences with health and healthcare services in Durham, North Carolina. Here, we highlight lessons learned throughout the production of the ethnodrama, and how we addressed challenges associated with transforming research data into educational entertainment. Additionally, we provide discussion of audience feedback, which indicated that our ethnodrama evoked an urgency to change health behaviors among lay persons (67%) and delivery of health services among those identifying as providers (84%), pointing to the success of the performance in both entertaining and educating the audience.

  20. BRAND SIGNIFICANCE IN THE MARKETING OF LUXURY WATCHMAKING. QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON THE BUCHAREST MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Alexandru Tiberiu Pop

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In a globalized socio-economic environment, where the 'citizen-consumer' is disillusioned, luxury is a societal response that sociologist Robert Ebguy calls the 'society of consolation'. In an elitist universe, the luxury world is experiencing an impressive transformation, with a constant annual growth rate and continued development aided by the arrival of internet and marketing. The definition of luxury perceptions have changed in a short time. New professions, new markets shaped by evolving needs and cultures come into play, imposing irreversibly different strategies, new reflexes and most importantly, new skills. The association between luxury and mass consumption is no longer a taboo. In this industry, the brand substitutes the product. The brand helps to attract new customers with a persuasive power of attraction. Moreover, a brand is now one of the few assets of a company that can provide long-term competitive advantage. Luxury brands require and trigger an emotional component more powerful than any other consumer good. The need to survive in a competitive environment prompted strong luxury brands to realize the connection between what they represents, in terms of values and characteristics, and how they are perceived. Unlike a large part of luxury brands on the market, especially automotive, cosmetics or clothing, watchmaking is a sector which excels in the manufactural nature of its products. Luxury watchmaking constitute a distinct and relatively clear-shaped area for research on prestigious brands. From the onset of the third millennium without suffering significantly from the financial crisis triggered in 2008, the luxury horology market has seen a continuous upward trend. Enthusiasts and collectors, amateur hoarding or VIPs from media and sport, are moving toward acquiring legendary watches, including Omega, Rolex, Piaget, Cartier, Vacheron Constantin, Patek Philippe, Tag Heurer or Bvlgari, to name some of the most popular brands

  1. Early Career Researchers Demand Full-text and Rely on Google to Find Scholarly Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Hayman

    2017-01-01

    A Review of: Nicholas, D., Boukacem-Zeghmouri, C., Rodríguez-Bravo, B., Xu, J., Watkinson, A., Abrizah, A., Herman, E., & Świgoń, M. (2017). Where and how early career researchers find scholarly information. Learned Publishing, 30(1), 19-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/leap.1087 Abstract Objective – To examine the attitudes and information behaviours of early career researchers (ECRs) when locating scholarly information. Design – Qualitative longitudinal study. Setting – R...

  2. On the Question of Methodological Support of Research on Relationships of Interpersonal Significance in Kindergarten Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliyn V.A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the importance of in-depth research (in particular, employing an algorithm developed by M.Yu. Kondratyev for defining integral status of an individual on child-child interpersonal relationship in kindergarten groups. Although relationships with significant adults are by all means essential for preschool children, interpersonal relation- ships on the child-child level to a great extent shape the content of the social situation of development in general. Still, when it comes to revealing status and role position of the child in the structure of interpersonal relationships within the kindergarten group, there’s the challenge of defining informal intragroup structure of power in contact community (due to the age specifics. The paper suggests how this challenge may be addressed and provides a version of the technique suitable for preschoolers that helps overcome age restrictions implied by the original technique. Also, the paper reports on the outcomes of approbation of this version which proved its heuristic nature. For instance, the outcomes show a high degree of correlation between the results of kindergarten group members ranking in accordance with their influence upon peers carried out by teachers working in these groups.

  3. New Ideas for REUs - some Strategies from SOARS (Significant Opportunities in Atmospheric Research and Science)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacker-Santos, R.; Pandya, R. E.; Kennedy, M.

    2009-12-01

    Research shows that even talented and academically well-prepared students encounter significant challenges when applying to and entering graduate school, and that these challenges may be especially discouraging for students from historically under-represented groups. SOARS, a multi-year undergraduate-to-graduate bridge program designed to broaden participation in the atmospheric and related sciences, prepares its students for these challenges with year-round training, mentoring and support. Our presentation will describe particular SOARS elements that help students prepare for graduate school, including authentic summer research experience at NCAR and partnering labs, strong mentoring that extends over several years, and a supportive community of peers. We will also discuss our leadership training, comprehensive psychological support, graduate school seminars, GRE courses, school funding and the advice we provide on applying to and choosing a graduate program. Drawing from our ongoing program evaluation, we will highlight those strategies that students describe as most useful. Studies suggest that many students from under-represented communities choose not to pursue graduate school in STEM in part because STEM offers less opportunity to serve their community than careers like medicine or law. To address this, SOARS has created opportunities for interested students to do educational projects or participate in research with clear societal relevance. In 2009, several students organized and offered hands-on science outreach to low-income immigrant families in Colorado. In addition, many students have also spent time doing research in partnership with local communities - including working with indigenous communities in the United States. All these approaches have helped, as shown by the SOARS protégés who will present at the 2009 AGU fall meeting. Since SOARS’ founding, 129 students have participated in the program. Of those participants, 18 are still enrolled as

  4. Clinical verification of genetic results returned to research participants: findings from a Colon Cancer Family Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurino, Mercy Y; Truitt, Anjali R; Tenney, Lederle; Fisher, Douglass; Lindor, Noralane M; Veenstra, David; Jarvik, Gail P; Newcomb, Polly A; Fullerton, Stephanie M

    2017-11-01

    The extent to which participants act to clinically verify research results is largely unknown. This study examined whether participants who received Lynch syndrome (LS)-related findings pursued researchers' recommendation to clinically verify results with testing performed by a CLIA-certified laboratory. The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center site of the multinational Colon Cancer Family Registry offered non-CLIA individual genetic research results to select registry participants (cases and their enrolled relatives) from 2011 to 2013. Participants who elected to receive results were counseled on the importance of verifying results at a CLIA-certified laboratory. Twenty-six (76.5%) of the 34 participants who received genetic results completed 2- and 12-month postdisclosure surveys; 42.3% of these (11/26) participated in a semistructured follow-up interview. Within 12 months of result disclosure, only 4 (15.4%) of 26 participants reported having verified their results in a CLIA-certified laboratory; of these four cases, all research and clinical results were concordant. Reasons for pursuing clinical verification included acting on the recommendation of the research team and informing future clinical care. Those who did not verify results cited lack of insurance coverage and limited perceived personal benefit of clinical verification as reasons for inaction. These findings suggest researchers will need to address barriers to seeking clinical verification in order to ensure that the intended benefits of returning genetic research results are realized. © 2017 The Authors. Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Significant Signs: A Case Study of Citation Practices in Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Citations have a central role in the dynamic process of knowledge development and as measures of research performance--yet little is known about their role in educational research or the qualities they are assumed to measure. Based on a citation context analysis, this study shows how a paradigmatic reference within classroom research has been used…

  6. The Effects of Ability Grouping: A Meta-Analysis of Research Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Theresa Koontz; Taylor, Bob L.

    The study reported in this paper quantitatively integrated the recent research findings on ability grouping in order to generalize about these effects on student achievement and student self-concept. Meta-analysis was used to statistically integrate the empirical data. The relationships among various experimental variables including grade level,…

  7. Strategic niche management and sustainable innovation journeys : theory, findings, research agenda, and policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schot, J.W.; Geels, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses empirical findings and conceptual elaborations of the last 10 years in strategic niche management research (SNM). The SNM approach suggests that sustainable innovation journeys can be facilitated by creating technological niches, i.e. protected spaces that allow the

  8. Programme Implementation in Social and Emotional Learning: Basic Issues and Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlak, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental importance of achieving quality implementation when assessing the impact of social and emotional learning interventions. Recent findings in implementation science are reviewed that include a definition of implementation, its relation to programme outcomes, current research on the factors that affect…

  9. Internet Consumer Catalog Shopping: Findings from an Exploratory Study and Directions for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joseph M.; Vijayasarathy, Leo R.

    1998-01-01

    Presents findings from an exploratory, empirical investigation of perceptions of Internet catalog shopping compared to more traditional print catalog shopping. Two factors that might influence perceptions, personality, and important other people are examined, and directions for further research are suggested. (Author/LRW)

  10. Plagiarism: Examination of Conceptual Issues and Evaluation of Research Findings on Using Detection Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Angelos; Theodosiadou, Dimitra; Pappos, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to analyze and evaluate the research findings on using Plagiarism Detection Services (PDS) in universities. In order to do that, conceptual issues about plagiarism are examined and the complex nature of plagiarism is discussed. Subsequently, the pragmatic forms of student plagiarism are listed and PDS strategies on…

  11. Experimental program to stimulate competitive energy research in North Dakota: Summary and significance of DOE Trainee research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudjouk, Philip

    1999-07-01

    The general goals of the North Dakota DOE/EPSCoR Program are to enhance the capabilities of North Dakota's researchers to conduct nationally competitive energy-related research and to develop science and engineering human resources to meet current and future needs in energy-related areas. Doctoral students were trained and energy research was conducted.

  12. The earth is flat (p > 0.05: significance thresholds and the crisis of unreplicable research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Amrhein

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of ‘statistical significance’ as a license for making a claim of a scientific finding leads to considerable distortion of the scientific process (according to the American Statistical Association. We review why degrading p-values into ‘significant’ and ‘nonsignificant’ contributes to making studies irreproducible, or to making them seem irreproducible. A major problem is that we tend to take small p-values at face value, but mistrust results with larger p-values. In either case, p-values tell little about reliability of research, because they are hardly replicable even if an alternative hypothesis is true. Also significance (p ≤ 0.05 is hardly replicable: at a good statistical power of 80%, two studies will be ‘conflicting’, meaning that one is significant and the other is not, in one third of the cases if there is a true effect. A replication can therefore not be interpreted as having failed only because it is nonsignificant. Many apparent replication failures may thus reflect faulty judgment based on significance thresholds rather than a crisis of unreplicable research. Reliable conclusions on replicability and practical importance of a finding can only be drawn using cumulative evidence from multiple independent studies. However, applying significance thresholds makes cumulative knowledge unreliable. One reason is that with anything but ideal statistical power, significant effect sizes will be biased upwards. Interpreting inflated significant results while ignoring nonsignificant results will thus lead to wrong conclusions. But current incentives to hunt for significance lead to selective reporting and to publication bias against nonsignificant findings. Data dredging, p-hacking, and publication bias should be addressed by removing fixed significance thresholds. Consistent with the recommendations of the late Ronald Fisher, p-values should be interpreted as graded measures of the strength of evidence

  13. Finding the Middle Ground in Violent Video Game Research: Lessons From Ferguson (2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Patrick M

    2015-09-01

    Ferguson's comprehensive meta-analysis provides convincing data that violent video games have almost no effect on children's aggression. Although this finding is unlikely to bring unity to a divided field, Ferguson's article (2015, this issue) provides important rules that should aid all researchers. First, we need to be more accepting of results that are inconsistent with our own theories. Second, extraneous variables are often responsible for the relations previous studies have found between violent media and aggression. Third, we should avoid using unstandardized assessments of important variables whenever possible. Finally, caution is warranted when generalizing laboratory research findings to severe acts of violent in the "real world." It is hoped that, by accepting these basic rules, researchers and others will adopt less extreme positions concerning the effects of violent video games. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Can We Trust Positive Findings of Intervention Research? The Role of Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased attention to the issue of conflict of interest within prevention research. The aims of this paper are to discuss these developments and to relate them to discussions of conflict of interest in the broader scientific literature. Although there has been concern expressed about the extent to which conflicts of interest can be defined and measured, empirical research suggests that financial conflicts can be easily identified and assessed in meta-analyses focused on their effects on research quality. Research evidence also shows that conflict of interest is associated with use of flexible data analysis practices and the reporting of chance positive findings, both within prevention research and related disciplines such as public health and psychology. However, the overwhelming majority of published studies report positive results, and there are a number of other influences within academia (such as pressure to publish) that account for this and for the use of flexible data analysis practices. Accordingly, introducing measures to improve research quality in general, rather than just focusing on problems specific to research in which there is a clearly identifiable conflict of interest, may prove more effective and less controversial. Most such efforts focus on introducing greater transparency into research design, practice, and reporting. These both curtail employment of flexible data analysis practices and make their use transparent to investigators seeking to assess their effects on research quality. Also, requiring detailed disclosures of conflicts be reported by all investigators (not just senior authors) would improve current disclosure practices.

  15. Researchers' Perceptions of Statistical Significance Contribute to Bias in Health and Exercise Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Taylor L.; Lohse, Keith R.

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed researchers in the health and exercise sciences to explore different areas and magnitudes of bias in researchers' decision making. Participants were presented with scenarios (testing a central hypothesis with p = 0.06 or p = 0.04) in a random order and surveyed about what they would do in each scenario. Participants showed significant…

  16. When the boundaries are blurred: the significance of feminist methods in research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghorashi, H.

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that the author's somewhat in-between position as both an outsider/researcher and an insider/ex-political Iranian activist now in exile has contributed to the process of research on Iranian women exiles in the Netherlands and the United States. Feminist attention on

  17. The prevalence and significance of displacement for wilderness recreation management and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid E. Schneider

    2007-01-01

    The concept of visitor displacement has important implications for wilderness management and research. Research on actual displacement of wilderness visitors is extremely limited, but this displacement likely follows patterns found for general recreationists: visitors employ a variety of coping responses and displacement is prevalent. Understanding if and when visitors...

  18. How Chemistry Graduate Students and Researchers Are Finding and Using Chemical Information: Findings from Interviews in a Chinese University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuening

    2017-01-01

    Although scholarship has addressed issues around serving international students in U.S. and Canadian libraries, reports on how Chinese graduate students use information in Chinese universities, especially for a particular discipline, are rare. In this study, the author interviewed 15 graduate students and researchers in a top-ranked chemistry…

  19. Involving patient research partners has a significant impact on outcomes research: a responsive evaluation of the international OMERACT conferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.T.; Abma, T.A.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Collins, S.; Kirwan, J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the inclusion of patients as international research partners in Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) conferences and how this has influenced the scope and conduct of outcomes research in rheumatology. Design: A thematic content analysis of OMERACT internal documents,

  20. The distribution of P-values in medical research articles suggested selective reporting associated with statistical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Combescure, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    Published P-values provide a window into the global enterprise of medical research. The aim of this study was to use the distribution of published P-values to estimate the relative frequencies of null and alternative hypotheses and to seek irregularities suggestive of publication bias. This cross-sectional study included P-values published in 120 medical research articles in 2016 (30 each from the BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine). The observed distribution of P-values was compared with expected distributions under the null hypothesis (i.e., uniform between 0 and 1) and the alternative hypothesis (strictly decreasing from 0 to 1). P-values were categorized according to conventional levels of statistical significance and in one-percent intervals. Among 4,158 recorded P-values, 26.1% were highly significant (P values values equal to 1, and (3) about twice as many P-values less than 0.05 compared with those more than 0.05. The latter finding was seen in both randomized trials and observational studies, and in most types of analyses, excepting heterogeneity tests and interaction tests. Under plausible assumptions, we estimate that about half of the tested hypotheses were null and the other half were alternative. This analysis suggests that statistical tests published in medical journals are not a random sample of null and alternative hypotheses but that selective reporting is prevalent. In particular, significant results are about twice as likely to be reported as nonsignificant results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Autism Research: Music Aptitude's Effect on Developmental/Academic Gains for Students with Significant Cognitive/Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, Elise S.

    2014-01-01

    This research study was built upon findings in neuroscience of the brain's natural ability to physically change itself through cognitive modifiability by creating new pathways and neural connections. The purpose of the research was to investigate instructional music applications for improvement in basic math skills with students who are on the…

  2. Topical review: sluggish cognitive tempo: research findings and relevance for pediatric psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Stephen P

    2013-11-01

    To summarize recent research on sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and consider the potential relevance of SCT for the field of pediatric psychology. Literature review. Recent empirical evidence shows SCT symptoms consisting of sluggish/sleepy and daydreamy behaviors to be distinct from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. SCT is associated with psychosocial functioning in children and adolescents, including internalizing symptoms, social withdrawal, and, possibly, academic impairment. The recent findings reviewed suggest that SCT is an important construct for pediatric psychologists to be aware of and may also be directly useful for the research and practice of pediatric psychology.

  3. Communicating Academic Research Findings to IS Professionals: An Analysis of Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Lang

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Because research findings often do not have direct or immediate relevance to IS professionals in industry, the question arises as to how those findings should be disseminated to them in a suitable form at such time as they do become relevant. A central argument of this paper is that the traditional mechanisms whereby academic researchers disseminate their work are prone to numerous communication breakdowns, and that much work which could potentially make valuable contributions to practice is haplessly lost within the vaults of academia. Using the well-known Shannon & Weaver communication model, three major problems are analyzed: the choice of dissemination channels, language barriers, and the alienation of academia from industry.

  4. Exploring the Best Practices of Nursing Research Councils in Magnet® Organizations: Findings From a Qualitative Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jennifer; Lindauer, Cathleen; Parks, Joyce; Scala, Elizabeth

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this descriptive qualitative study was to identify best practices of nursing research councils (NRCs) at Magnet®-designated hospitals. Nursing research (NR) is essential, adding to the body of nursing knowledge. Applying NR to the bedside improves care, enhances patient safety, and is an imperative for nursing leaders. We interviewed NR designees at 26 Magnet-recognized hospitals about the structure and function of their NRCs and used structural coding to identify best practices. Most organizations link NR and evidence-based practice. Council membership includes leadership and clinical nurses. Councils conduct scientific reviews for nursing studies, supporting nurse principal investigators. Tracking and reporting of NR vary widely and are challenging. Councils provide education, sponsor research days, and collaborate interprofessionally, including with academic partners. Findings from this study demonstrate the need to create formal processes to track and report NR and to develop outcome-focused NR education.

  5. A Mixed Method Research for Finding a Model of Administrative Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Feizy; Alireza Moghali; Masuod Geramipoor; Reza Zare

    2015-01-01

    One of the critical issues of administrative decentralization in translating theory into practice is understanding its meaning. An important method to identify administrative decentralization is to address how it can be planned and implemented, and what are its implications, and how it would overcome challenges. The purpose of this study is finding a model for analyzing and evaluating administrative decentralization, so a mixed method research was used to explore and confirm the model of Admi...

  6. The significant impact of education, poverty, and race on Internet-based research participant engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartz, Sarah M; Quan, Tiffany; Ibiebele, Abiye; Fisher, Sherri L; Olfson, Emily; Salyer, Patricia; Bierut, Laura J

    2017-02-01

    Internet-based technologies are increasingly being used for research studies. However, it is not known whether Internet-based approaches will effectively engage participants from diverse racial and socioeconomic backgrounds. A total of 967 participants were recruited and offered genetic ancestry results. We evaluated viewing Internet-based genetic ancestry results among participants who expressed high interest in obtaining the results. Of the participants, 64% stated that they were very or extremely interested in their genetic ancestry results. Among interested participants, individuals with a high school diploma (n = 473) viewed their results 19% of the time relative to 4% of the 145 participants without a diploma (P Internet-based research was low despite high reported interest. This suggests that explicit strategies should be developed to increase diversity in Internet-based research.Genet Med 19 2, 240-243.

  7. What is the Significance of Research for Music Education in Practice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Frede V.

    2009-01-01

    these types of relationship are considered necessary. The distinctive task of music pedagogical research is to question, explore, and develop issues, conditions, and potentialities within the practice of music education by rendering them accessible to consciousness and conceptual thought in verbal terms....... Consequently, it has to do its utmost not to degenerate into ideology. The role of teacher education is discussed. Examples show how research may matter to practical music teaching and learning. An overall conclusion is that the relationship in question should be marked by closeness and distance at the same...

  8. The significance of X-ray diagnostics for the research on road accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittmeyer, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Within the group of injuries occuring to pedestrians in road accidents, the fracture of the lower extremities presents an essential criterion for determining collisionary constellations, which are interesting within the scope of research on road accidents. In order to render possible an efficient interdisciplinary cooperation, the X-ray images have to permit precise orientation about the course of the fractional suture. (orig.) [de

  9. Wildfire smoke exposure and human health: Significant gaps in research for a growing public health issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Carolyn; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes; Bassein, Jed A; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the effect of wildfire smoke exposure on human health represents a unique interdisciplinary challenge to the scientific community. Population health studies indicate that wildfire smoke is a risk to human health and increases the healthcare burden of smoke-impacted areas. However, wildfire smoke composition is complex and dynamic, making characterization and modeling difficult. Furthermore, current efforts to study the effect of wildfire smoke are limited by availability of air quality measures and inconsistent air quality reporting among researchers. To help address these issues, we conducted a substantive review of wildfire smoke effects on population health, wildfire smoke exposure in occupational health, and experimental wood smoke exposure. Our goal was to evaluate the current literature on wildfire smoke and highlight important gaps in research. In particular we emphasize long-term health effects of wildfire smoke, recovery following wildfire smoke exposure, and health consequences of exposure in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relative Significance of Journals, Authors, and Articles Cited in Financial Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, John C; Mabry, Rodney H

    1994-01-01

    The authors evaluate journals based on their relative contributions to top-level finance research in a recent period. Journals are ranked according to the number of citations found in articles published in the Journal of Finance, Journal of Financial Economics, Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, and Review of Financial Studies. The analysis controls for both the average number of articles and average number of words published annually in each cited journal. The authors identify t...

  11. Assessing the effectiveness of a longitudinal knowledge dissemination intervention: Sharing research findings in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhian Twine

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge dissemination interventions (KDIs are integral to knowledge brokerage activities in research as part of the ethics of practice, but are seldom evaluated. In this case study, we critically reflect on an annual KDI as part of knowledge brokerage activities in the MRC/Wits-Agincourt Unit health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS in rural South Africa from 2001 to 2015. The HDSS findings on births, deaths and migrations, as well as nested research project results, were shared with villagers, village leaders and service providers. The data used for this case study comprised secondary analysis of 13 reports and 762 evaluation forms of annual village-based meetings; records of requests for data from stakeholders; and qualitative analysis of 15 individual and five focus group interviews with local leaders and service providers involving 60 people. Over time, the KDI evolved from taking place over one week a year to being extended over six months, and to include briefings with service providers and local leaders. Attendance at village-level meetings remained low at an average of 3 per cent of the total adult population. Since 2011, the KDI village-based meetings have developed into an embedded community forum for discussion of topical village issues. There has been a decrease in requests for health-care and other services from the research unit, with a concurrent increase in research-related questions and requests for data from service providers, village leaders and political representatives. We conclude that, in this setting, the dissemination of research findings is not a linear exchange of information from the researchers to village residents and their leadership, but is increasingly multi-directional. KDIs are a key component of knowledge brokerage activities and involve, influence and are influenced by other aspects of knowledge brokerage, such as identifying, engaging and connecting with stakeholders and supporting sustainability.

  12. Future health care applications resulting from progress in the neurosciences: The significance of neural plasticity research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelijns, A.C.; Graaff, P.J.; Lopes da Silva, F.A.; Gispen, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Neurological, communicative and behavioral disorders afflict a significant part of the population in industrialized countries, and these disorders can be expected to gain in importance in the coming decades. In a considerable number of these dis-orders impairments in plasticity, i.e. deficiencies in

  13. Findings from NSABP Protocol No. B-04: comparison of radical mastectomy with alternative treatments. II. The clinical and biologic significance of medial-central breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.; Wolmark, N.; Redmond, C.; Deutsch, M.; Fisher, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    Findings from 1665 women with primary breast cancer, treated at 34 NSABP institutions in Canada and the United States, have failed to demonstrate that patients with medial-central tumors had a greater probability of developing distant metastases or dying than did those with lateral tumors despite the greater incidence of internal mammary (IM) node involvement when tumors are medial-central in location. A comparison of patients with similar clinical nodal status and tumor location who were treated either by radical mastectomy (RM) or by total mastectomy plus radiation therapy (TM + RT) failed to indicate that radiation of IM nodes reduced the probability of distant treatment failure (TF) or mortality. When findings from patients having equivalent clinical nodal status and tumor location treated by TM alone or TM + RT were compared, it was found that the addition of RT failed to alter the probability of the occurrence of a distant TF or of death. This was despite the fact that in the nonradiated group two putative sources of further tumor spread, i.e., positive axillary and IM nodes, were left unremoved and untreated. The findings provide further insight into the biologic significance of the positive lymph node and confirm our prior contention that positive regional lymph nodes are indicators of a host-tumor relationship which permits the development of metastases and that they are not important investigators of distant disease

  14. Biomedical research in france and brazil: an analysis of significant differences and ethical issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hervé Moizan

    2016-01-01

    At first sight, Brazil and France seem pretty distant from one another, but on the map, they are not separated by the Atlantic Ocean, but by the Oyapock River, located between the state of Amapa and French Guiana (French overseas department), creating a 730 km long international border. If the distance does exist, it is very different when we finely analyze some similarities in the field of biomedical research. France is the biggest country of Western Europe and covers 1/5 of the European ...

  15. Brands matter: Major findings from the Alcohol Brand Research Among Underage Drinkers (ABRAND) project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah P; Siegel, Michael B; DeJong, William; Ross, Craig S; Naimi, Timothy; Albers, Alison; Skeer, Margie; Rosenbloom, David L; Jernigan, David H

    Alcohol research focused on underage drinkers has not comprehensively assessed the landscape of brand-level drinking behaviors among youth. This information is needed to profile youth alcohol use accurately, explore its antecedents, and develop appropriate interventions. We collected national data on the alcohol brand-level consumption of underage drinkers in the United States and then examined the association between those preferences and several factors including youth exposure to brand-specific alcohol advertising, corporate sponsorships, popular music lyrics, and social networking sites, and alcohol pricing. This paper summarizes our findings, plus the results of other published studies on alcohol branding and youth drinking. Our findings revealed several interesting facts regarding youth drinking. For example, we found that: 1) youth are not drinking the cheapest alcohol brands; 2) youth brand preferences differ from those of adult drinkers; 3) underage drinkers are not opportunistic in their alcohol consumption, but instead consume a very specific set of brands; 4) the brands that youth are heavily exposed to in magazines and television advertising correspond to the brands they most often report consuming; and 5) youth consume more of the alcohol brands to whose advertising they are most heavily exposed. The findings presented here suggests that brand-level alcohol research will provide important insight into youth drinking behaviors, the factors that contribute to youth alcohol consumption, and potential avenues for effective public health surveillance and programming.

  16. Bringing translation out of the shadows: translation as an issue of methodological significance in cross-cultural qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine Pui-Hing; Poon, Maurice Kwong-Lai

    2010-04-01

    Translation is an integral component of cross-cultural research that has remained invisible. It is commonly assumed that translation is an objective and neutral process, in which the translators are "technicians" in producing texts in different languages. Drawing from the field of translation studies and the findings of a translation exercise conducted with three bilingual Cantonese-English translators, the authors highlight some of the methodological issues about translation in cross-cultural qualitative research. They argue that only by making translation visible and through open dialogue can researchers uncover the richness embedded in the research data and facilitate multiple ways of knowing.

  17. Significance, progress and prospects for research in simplified cultivation technologies for rice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, M; Ibrahim, Md; Xia, B; Zou, Y

    2011-08-01

    Simplified cultivation technologies for rice have become increasingly attractive in recent years in China because of their social, economical and environmental benefits. To date, several simplified cultivation technologies, such as conventional tillage and seedling throwing (CTST), conventional tillage and direct seeding (CTDS), no-tillage and seedling throwing (NTST), no-tillage and direct seeding (NTDS) and no-tillage and transplanting (NTTP), have been developed in China. Most studies have shown that rice grown under each of these simplified cultivation technologies can produce a grain yield equal to or higher than traditional cultivation (conventional tillage and transplanting). Studies that have described the influences of agronomic practices on yield formation of rice under simplified cultivation have demonstrated that optimizing agronomy practices would increase the efficiencies of simplified cultivation systems. Further research is needed to optimize the management strategies for CTST, CTDS and NTST rice which have developed quickly in recent years, to strengthen basic research for those simplified cultivation technologies that are rarely used at present (such as NTTP and NTDS), to select and breed cultivars suitable for simplified cultivation and to compare the practicability and effectiveness of different simplified cultivation technologies in different rice production regions.

  18. Early Career Researchers Demand Full-text and Rely on Google to Find Scholarly Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hayman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Nicholas, D., Boukacem-Zeghmouri, C., Rodríguez-Bravo, B., Xu, J., Watkinson, A., Abrizah, A., Herman, E., & Świgoń, M. (2017. Where and how early career researchers find scholarly information. Learned Publishing, 30(1, 19-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/leap.1087 Abstract Objective – To examine the attitudes and information behaviours of early career researchers (ECRs when locating scholarly information. Design – Qualitative longitudinal study. Setting – Research participants from the United Kingdom, United States of America, China, France, Malaysia, Poland, and Spain. Subjects – A total 116 participants from various disciplines, aged 35 and younger, who were holding or had previously held a research position, but not in a tenured position. All participants held a doctorate or were in the process of earning one. Methods – Using structured interviews of 60-90 minutes, researchers asked 60 questions of each participant via face-to-face, Skype, or telephone interviews. The interview format and questions were formed via focus groups. Main Results – As part of a longitudinal project, results reported are limited to the first year of the study, and focused on three primary questions identified by the authors: where do ECRs find scholarly information, whether they use their smartphones to locate and read scholarly information, and what social media do they use to find scholarly information. Researchers describe how ECRs themselves interpreted the phrase scholarly information to primarily mean journal articles, while the researchers themselves had a much expanded definition to include professional and “scholarly contacts, ideas, and data” (p. 22. This research shows that Google and Google Scholar are widely used by ECRs for locating scholarly information regardless of discipline, language, or geography. Their analysis by country points to currency and the combined breadth-and-depth search experience that Google provides as

  19. Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D; Jacob, S; Grosche, B; Dehos, A; Hornhardt, S; Ziegelberger, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out. (review)

  20. Lipidomics in translational research and the clinical significance of lipid-based biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Daniel J; Hoeferlin, L Alexis; Chalfant, Charles E

    2017-11-01

    Lipidomics is a rapidly developing field of study that focuses on the identification and quantitation of various lipid species in the lipidome. Lipidomics has now emerged in the forefront of scientific research due to the importance of lipids in metabolism, cancer, and disease. Using both targeted and untargeted mass spectrometry as a tool for analysis, progress in the field has rapidly progressed in the last decade. Having the ability to assess these small molecules in vivo has led to better understanding of several lipid-driven mechanisms and the identification of lipid-based biomarkers in neurodegenerative disease, cancer, sepsis, wound healing, and pre-eclampsia. Biomarker identification and mechanistic understanding of specific lipid pathways linked to a disease's pathologies can form the foundation in the development of novel therapeutics in hopes of curing human disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Description of test facilities bound to the research on sodium aerosols - some significant results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolias, M; Lafon, A; Vidard, M; Schaller, K H [DRNR/STRS - Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1977-01-01

    This communication is dedicated to the description of the CEA (French Atomic Energy Authority) testing located at CADARACHE and which are utilized for the study of sodium aerosols behavior. These testing loops are necessary for studying the operating of equipment such as filters, sodium vapour traps, condensers and separators. It is also possible to study the effect of characteristics parameters on formation, coagulation and carrying away of sodium aerosols in the cover gas. Sodium aerosols deposits in a vertical annular space configuration with a cold area in its upper part are also studied. Some significant results emphasize the importance of operating conditions on the formation of aerosols. (author)

  2. Daily tritium intakes by people living near a heavy-water research reactor facility: dosimetric significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, A.; Cornett, R.J.; Galeriu, D.; Workman, W.; Brown, R.M.

    1997-02-01

    We have estimated the relative daily intakes of tritiated water (HTO) and organically bound tritium (OBT), and have measured HTO-in-urine, in an adult population residing in the town of Deep River, Ontario, near a heavy-water research reactor facility at Chalk River. The daily intake of elevated levels of atmospheric tritium has been estimated from its concentration in environmental and biological samples, and various food items from a local tritium-monitoring program. Where the available data were inadequate, we used estimates generated by an environmental tritium-transfer model. From these data and estimates, we calculated a total daily tritium intake of about 55 Bq. Of this amount, 2.5 Bq is obtained from OBT-in-diet. Inhalation of HTO-in-air (15 Bq d -1 ) and HTO-in-drinking water (15 Bq d -1 ) accounts for more than half of the HTO intake. Skin absorption of HTO from air and bathing or swimming (for 30 min d -1 ) accounts for another 9 Bq d -1 and 0.1 Bq d -1 , respectively. The remaining intake of HTO is from food as tissue-free water tritium. The International Commission on Radiological Protection's recommended two-compartment metabolic model for tritium predicts an equilibrium body burden of about 900 Bq from HTO (818 Bq) and OBT (83 Bq) in the body, which corresponds to an annual tritium dose of 0.41 μSv. The model-predicted urinary excretion of HTO (∼18 Bq L -1 ) agrees well with measured HTO-in-urine (range, 10-32 Bq L -1 ). The OBT dose contribution to the total tritium dose is about 16%. We conclude that for the people living near the Chalk River research reactor facility, the bulk of the tritium dose is due to HTO intake. (author)

  3. Application of research findings and summary of research needs: Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galyean, M L; Eng, K S

    1998-01-01

    Updated research findings with acidosis, feedlot bloat, liver abscesses, and sudden death syndromes were presented at the Bud Britton Memorial Symposium on Metabolic Disorders of Feedlot Cattle. Possible industry applications include the need to establish guidelines for use of clostridial vaccines in feedlot cattle, further assessment of the relationship between acidosis and polioencephalomalacia, examination of the effects of various ionophores on the incidence of metabolic disorders, and evaluation of the effects of feed bunk management and limit- and restricted-feeding programs on the incidence of metabolic disorders. A multidisciplinary approach among researchers, consulting nutritionists and veterinarians, and feedlot managers will be required for effective progress in research and in the application of research findings. Areas suggested for further research include 1) assessment of feed consumption patterns and social behavior of cattle in large-pen, feedlot settings; 2) evaluation of the relationship between feed intake management systems (feed bunk management programs, limit- and programmed-feeding) and the incidence of metabolic disorders, including delineation of the role of variability in feed intake in the etiology of such disorders; 3) efforts to improve antemortem and postmortem diagnosis, and to establish standardized regional or national epidemiological databases for various metabolic disorders; 4) ascertaining the accuracy of diagnosis of metabolic disorders and determining the relationship of previous health history of animals to the incidence of metabolic disorders; 5) further defining ruminal and intestinal microbiology as it relates to metabolic disorders and deeper evaluation of metabolic changes that occur with such disorders; 6) continued appraisal of the effects of grain processing and specific feed ingredients and nutrients on metabolic disorders, and development of new feed additives to control or prevent these disorders; and 7

  4. Significance of the inital cytomorphological and immunocytochemical findings and the correlation with the international prognostic index for the survival in patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaljević Biljana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a quick, economical, and safe initial method in managing a patient with suspected lymphoma. According to a few reports on this preoblem, the aim of this study was to compare histological findings to cytomorphological ones in needle aspirates. We also compared these findings to the overal survival (OS time. Methods. We analyzed the fine-needle aspiration biopsies of peripheral lymph nodes, and the International Prognostic Index (IPI in 81 patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL. We put these findings into correlation with OS time. Results. According to the International Working Formulation (IWF criteria, the dominant cell population was as follows: 18 patients had the small cell population, 21 patients had small cleaved cells, 18 patients had the mixed cell population, 21 patients had large cell population, 2 patients had Burkitt lymphoma type, and 1 patient had the dominant lymphoblasts. On presentation, 32 patients had a low IPI index, 32 patients had a low intermediate, and 17 patients had a high intermediate IPI. We confirmed the statistical significance (Kaplan-Mayer of cytomorphology (p = 0.013 and IPI index (p = 0.016 for survival time. During a 48-month follow-up, OS was 37.2 months for the patients with the dominant small cells, and 32 months for the patients with small cleaved cells (PH equivalent to indolent NHL. For the patients with the dominant mixed cell population, large cell population and Burkitt limphoma cell, OS were 17, 14.4, and 9.3 months, respectively (PH equivalent to aggressive NHL. Patients with low IPI had the highest OS, 36 months for the low intermediate and only 11.6 months for the high intermediate IPI index. Conclusion. We concluded that an initial cytological and clinical profile of patients with NHL, might give a quick and relevant information for planning an adequate therapy.

  5. Using Interactive Technology to Disseminate Research Findings to a Diverse Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Stockley

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates how case stories can be used to disseminate the findings of several case studies on negotiating accommodations in the workplace. It highlights the power of interactive technology and of the partnership between the researchers and the Canadian Council for Rehabilitation and Work (CCRW. The paper describes the process of designing an interactive web-based case story for the purpose of disseminating research findings. The interactive case story is an extension of both the case study and the narrative case story. As part of a larger research project, it is our goal to use interactive case stories to investigate the impact of essential skills training on workers with disabilities who negotiate with employers for workplace accommodations. Résumé Le présent article montre comment les histoires de cas peuvent être utilisées pour diffuser les conclusions de plusieurs études de cas sur la négociation entourant l’aménagement du milieu de travail. Il met en évidence le pouvoir de la technologie interactive et du partenariat entre les chercheurs et le Conseil canadien de la réadaptation et du travail (CCRT. L’article décrit le processus de conception d’une histoire de cas interactive en ligne visant à diffuser des résultats de recherche. L’histoire de cas interactive est un prolongement à la fois de l’étude de cas et du récit de l’histoire de cas. Dans le cadre d’un plus vaste projet de recherche, notre but est d’utiliser des histoires de cas interactives pour étudier l’impact de la formation sur les compétences essentielles chez les travailleurs handicapés qui négocient avec leur employeur pour l’aménagement de leur milieu de travail.

  6. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  7. Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  8. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  9. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  10. Strengthening government health and family planning programs: findings from an action research project in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, R; Phillips, J F; Rahman, M

    1984-01-01

    An ongoing study at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B) is based on the premise that public sector health and family planning programs can be improved through an assessment of the dysfunctional aspects of their operations, the development of problem-solving capabilities, and the transfer of strategies successfully tested in a small-scale pilot project. This paper reports findings from a field trial implemented in a subunit of the project area at an early stage of the project. Operational barriers to public sector program implementation are discussed with regard to the quantity of work, the quality of work, supplies and facilities, integration of health and family planning, and leadership, supervision, and decision making. Initial results of the ICDDR,B intervention on these managerial processes are also indicated.

  11. Findings from working for the IAEA initiative on research reactor ageing and ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roegler, H.-J.

    2010-01-01

    1995 the last sharing and compiling the existing knowledge about of the Research Reactor (RR) Ageing and the respective Fighting took place during a well attended conference at Geesthacht, Germany, documented in a bulky conference report. In 2008, the International Atomic Energy Agency has initiated another collecting and evaluating in order to make the recent experience in that field available to the entire RR Community. In this respect, RR operators, plant and system fabricators, and authorities as well as independent experts have been approached worldwide for providing contributions and fortunately about every second member of the RR Community replied. The paper is going to inform on the experience gained by the contacts and communication, the replies as well as the non-replies, underlying motives as problems, and mainly, some statistical evaluation of the findings. The respective IAEA data base being accessible to all members of the RR Community will be briefly characterised in structures and contents. (author)

  12. Trust in leadership: meta-analytic findings and implications for research and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Kurt T; Ferrin, Donald L

    2002-08-01

    In this study, the authors examined the findings and implications of the research on trust in leadership that has been conducted during the past 4 decades. First, the study provides estimates of the primary relationships between trust in leadership and key outcomes, antecedents, and correlates (k = 106). Second, the study explores how specifying the construct with alternative leadership referents (direct leaders vs. organizational leadership) and definitions (types of trust) results in systematically different relationships between trust in leadership and outcomes and antecedents. Direct leaders (e.g., supervisors) appear to be a particularly important referent of trust. Last, a theoretical framework is offered to provide parsimony to the expansive literature and to clarify the different perspectives on the construct of trust in leadership and its operation.

  13. Cross-pollination of research findings, although uncommon, may accelerate discovery of human disease genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duda Marlena

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Technological leaps in genome sequencing have resulted in a surge in discovery of human disease genes. These discoveries have led to increased clarity on the molecular pathology of disease and have also demonstrated considerable overlap in the genetic roots of human diseases. In light of this large genetic overlap, we tested whether cross-disease research approaches lead to faster, more impactful discoveries. Methods We leveraged several gene-disease association databases to calculate a Mutual Citation Score (MCS for 10,853 pairs of genetically related diseases to measure the frequency of cross-citation between research fields. To assess the importance of cooperative research, we computed an Individual Disease Cooperation Score (ICS and the average publication rate for each disease. Results For all disease pairs with one gene in common, we found that the degree of genetic overlap was a poor predictor of cooperation (r2=0.3198 and that the vast majority of disease pairs (89.56% never cited previous discoveries of the same gene in a different disease, irrespective of the level of genetic similarity between the diseases. A fraction (0.25% of the pairs demonstrated cross-citation in greater than 5% of their published genetic discoveries and 0.037% cross-referenced discoveries more than 10% of the time. We found strong positive correlations between ICS and publication rate (r2=0.7931, and an even stronger correlation between the publication rate and the number of cross-referenced diseases (r2=0.8585. These results suggested that cross-disease research may have the potential to yield novel discoveries at a faster pace than singular disease research. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the frequency of cross-disease study is low despite the high level of genetic similarity among many human diseases, and that collaborative methods may accelerate and increase the impact of new genetic discoveries. Until we have a better

  14. Some recent research findings on the social dynamics of environmental risk perception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick-Jones, T.; Marchi, B. de; Del Zotto, M.; Pellizzoni, L.; Ungaro, D.; Prades Lopez, A.; Diaz Hidalgo, M.; Pidgeon, N.; Sime, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: key themes: social dynamics of public risk perception; trust, tolerability, and risk management; discourses of environmental risk; implications for risk communication and environmental valuation; application of mixed qualitative/quantitative methods in risk perception research. This paper presents some of the key findings of a two-year comparative European study (the PRISP Project) on public perception of risks associated with industrial sites in the UK, Italy and Spain. The project utilised a mixed-method approach (comprising community ethnography, semi-structured interviews, questionnaire survey and focus groups), within a Grounded Theory framework, to examine the social dynamics of risk comprehension, tolerability and politics in settings adjacent to a range of industrial facilities. These often complex industrial zones present a portfolio of 'acute' and 'chronic' risks including hazards associated with sites regulated by the European Union COMAH Directive. Our findings have important implications for the regulation of both major accident hazard and pollution risks, risk communication programmes, industrial risk management practices and for the methodological basis of health and safety and environmental valuation techniques. (authors)

  15. Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI

  16. Finding the right doctoral thesis - an innovative research fair for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Julius; Grabbert, Markus; Pander, Tanja; Gradel, Maximilian; Köhler, Lisa-Maria; Fischer, Martin R; von der Borch, Philip; Dimitriadis, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The importance of research, as promoted by the CanMEDS framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects. To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called DoktaMed with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. DoktaMed is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of DoktaMed rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor"). They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting DoktaMed as a worthwhile investment of time. Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting DoktaMed. However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that DoktaMed focuses on now. Evaluation after six years of DoktaMed is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.

  17. Finding the right doctoral thesis – an innovative research fair for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen, Julius

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The importance of research, as promoted by the framework, is widely acknowledged. Many medical students in Germany work on a research project as part of their doctoral thesis whilst still going to medical school. However, a significant amount of projects are abandoned unfinished, which leads to substantial wastage of resources. One reason for this is an information deficit concerning undergraduate research projects.Project description: To counteract this, we introduced an annual event at LMU Munich called with more than 600 visitors each year. It combines medical convention and research fair including keynote lectures, workshops and poster sessions as well as an exhibition of research groups and institutes. is a peer-to-peer event organized by a team of 40 students. Results: A needs analysis before its implementation underlined the information deficit as a possible cause for the high rate of abandoned projects. In the annual evaluation, visitors of rate the event with an average grade of 2.1 on a six-level Likert scale (n=558, SD=1.06, with "1=very good", "6=poor". They stated to now feel better informed about the topic and regarded visiting as a worthwhile investment of time.Discussion: Students are generally satisfied with the event and feel better informed after visiting . However, many students never visit DoktaMed for various reasons. A possible improvement would be to present a greater number of clinical studies in addition to the laboratory work that focuses on now.Conclusion: Evaluation after six years of is very promising. Visitors seem to be better informed. Nevertheless there is space for improvement in order to get more students and more faculty members involved. More studies are needed to assess long-term effects.

  18. The Role of Serotonin (5-HT) in Behavioral Control: Findings from Animal Research and Clinical Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, CL; Biskup, CS; Herpertz, S; Gaber, TJ; Kuhn, CM; Hood, SH

    2015-01-01

    The neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine both have a critical role in the underlying neurobiology of different behaviors. With focus on the interplay between dopamine and serotonin, it has been proposed that dopamine biases behavior towards habitual responding, and with serotonin offsetting this phenomenon and directing the balance toward more flexible, goal-directed responding. The present focus paper stands in close relationship to the publication by Worbe et al. (2015), which deals with the effects of acute tryptophan depletion, a neurodietary physiological method to decrease central nervous serotonin synthesis in humans for a short period of time, on the balance between hypothetical goal-directed and habitual systems. In that research, acute tryptophan depletion challenge administration and a following short-term reduction in central nervous serotonin synthesis were associated with a shift of behavioral performance towards habitual responding, providing further evidence that central nervous serotonin function modulates the balance between goal-directed and stimulus-response habitual systems of behavioral control. In the present focus paper, we discuss the findings by Worbe and colleagues in light of animal experiments as well as clinical implications and discuss potential future avenues for related research. PMID:25991656

  19. Rape treatment outcome research: empirical findings and state of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Katrina A; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery.

  20. Findings by the Commission Evaluating Nuclear Safety and Repository Research in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandtner, W.; Closs, K.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Commission Evaluating Nuclear Safety and Repository Research in Germany, which had been appointed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics on September 24, 1999, submitted its report. Here is the gist of the Commission's findings: Irrespective of the criteria established with the political decision to terminate the use of nuclear power in Germany, competence in nuclear safety must be maintained over the next few decades. Only in this way can the government perform its duty and make provisions for the future, and can the safety of nuclear facilities and waste management pathways be ensured in accordance with the international state of the art. In view of the considerable reduction in funding in recent years and also in future, measures must be taken to ensure that further decreases in-roject funding and institutionalized government financing are excluded so as to avoid further declines in terms of manpower and competence in this field. Reactor safety and repository research must be financed at a level allowing the federal government to discharge its legal duties. The full report by the Commission, with its annexes, is available on the GRS web site (http://www.grs.de) as a PDF file. (orig.) [de

  1. Institutional review board perspectives on obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings to research participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliwa, Catherine; Yurkiewicz, Ilana R; Lehmann, Lisa Soleymani; Hull, Sara Chandros; Jones, Nathan; Berkman, Benjamin E

    2016-07-01

    Researchers' obligations to disclose genetic incidental findings (GIFs) have been widely debated, but there has been little empirical study of the engagement of institutional review boards (IRBs) with this issue. This article presents data from the first extensive (n = 796) national survey of IRB professionals' understanding of, experience with, and beliefs surrounding GIFs. Most respondents had dealt with questions about GIFs (74%), but only a minority (47%) felt prepared to address them. Although a majority believed that there is an obligation to disclose GIFs (78%), there is still not consensus about the supporting ethical principles. Respondents generally did not endorse the idea that researchers' additional time and effort (7%), and lack of resources (29%), were valid reasons for diminishing a putative obligation. Most (96%) supported a right not to know, but this view became less pronounced (63%) when framed in terms of specific case studies. IRBs are actively engaged with GIFs but have not yet reached consensus. Respondents were uncomfortable with arguments that could be used to limit an obligation to return GIFs. This could indicate that IRBs are providing some of the impetus for the trend toward returning GIFs, although questions remain about the relative contribution of other stakeholders.Genet Med 18 7, 705-711.

  2. Rape Treatment Outcome Research: Empirical Findings and State of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews empirical support for treatments targeting women sexually assaulted during adolescence or adulthood. Thirty-two articles were located using data from 20 separate samples. Of the 20 samples, 12 targeted victims with chronic symptoms, three focused on the acute period post-assault, two included women with chronic and acute symptoms, and three were secondary prevention programs. The majority of studies focus on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and/or anxiety as treatment targets. Cognitive Processing Therapy and Prolonged Exposure have garnered the most support with this population. Stress Inoculation Training and Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing also show some efficacy. Of the four studies that compared active treatments, few differences were found. Overall, cognitive behavioral interventions lead to better PTSD outcomes than supportive counseling does. However, even in the strongest treatments more than one-third of women retain a PTSD diagnosis at post-treatment or drop out of treatment. Discussion highlights the paucity of research in this area, methodological limitations of examined studies, generalizability of findings, and important directions for future research at various stages of trauma recovery. PMID:19442425

  3. Recruiting community health centers into pragmatic research: Findings from STOP CRC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Gloria D; Retecki, Sally; Schneider, Jennifer; Taplin, Stephen H; Burdick, Tim; Green, Beverly B

    2016-04-01

    uninsured patients, limited clinic capacity to prepare mailings required by the study protocol, discomfort with randomization, and concerns about delaying program implementation at some clinics due to the research requirements. Our findings address an important research gap and may inform future efforts to recruit community health centers into pragmatic research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Finding CreativeVoice: Applying Arts-Based Research in the Context of Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flor Rivera Lopez

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The integration of creative arts–based methods into scientific research offers a host of advantages, including the ability to capture the complex texture of lived experience, explore interconnections between nature and culture, support nonhierarchical relations, and communicate insights in engaging and empowering new ways. In this article, we describe a new method—CreativeVoice—integrating the creative arts and qualitative research, which we developed and applied in a context of pursuing community-based conservation of agricultural biodiversity. We developed CreativeVoice as an integrative method to help us understand the local contexts, cultures, and perspectives from community members of different ages and genders, in two contrasting farming communities in Oaxaca, Mexico. CreativeVoice effectively adapts and extends the Photovoice method so as to retain its benefits but address some of its limitations. This includes allowing participants to choose a genre of artistic expression connected to their own specific individual or cultural contexts and providing the capacity to move beyond capturing present-day realities to directly bring in connections to the past and visions for the future. This article describes both the CreativeVoice approach and the significant value of integrating arts-based methods into research for advancing sustainability.

  5. Delineating sampling procedures: Pedagogical significance of analysing sampling descriptions and their justifications in TESL experimental research reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Miin-Hwa Lim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching second language learners how to write research reports constitutes a crucial component in programmes on English for Specific Purposes (ESP in institutions of higher learning. One of the rhetorical segments in research reports that merit attention has to do with the descriptions and justifications of sampling procedures. This genre-based study looks into sampling delineations in the Method-related sections of research articles on the teaching of English as a second language (TESL written by expert writers and published in eight reputed international refereed journals. Using Swales’s (1990 & 2004 framework, I conducted a quantitative analysis of the rhetorical steps and a qualitative investigation into the language resources employed in delineating sampling procedures. This investigation has considerable relevance to ESP students and instructors as it has yielded pertinent findings on how samples can be appropriately described to meet the expectations of dissertation examiners, reviewers, and supervisors. The findings of this study have furnished insights into how supervisors and instructors can possibly teach novice writers ways of using specific linguistic mechanisms to lucidly describe and convincingly justify the sampling procedures in the Method sections of experimental research reports.

  6. Recent findings regarding maintenance of enzootic variants of Yersinia pestis in sylvatic reservoirs and their significance in the evolution of epidemic plague.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearden, Scott W; Brubaker, Robert R

    2010-01-01

    Despite the widespread presence of bubonic plague in sylvatic reservoirs throughout the world, the causative agent (Yersinia pestis) evolved in its present form within the last 20,000 years from enteropathogenic Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Comparison of the genomes from the two species revealed that Y. pestis possesses only a few unique plasmid-encoded genes that contribute to acute disease, whereas this organism has lost about 13% of the chromosomal genes that remain active in Y. pseudotuberculosis. These losses reflect readily detectable additions, deletions, transpositions, inversions, and acquisition of about 70 insertion sequence (IS) inserts, none of which are likely to promote increased virulence. In contrast, major enzymes of intermediary metabolism, including glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (Zwf ) and aspartase, are present but not catalytically functional due to the presence of missense mutations. The latter are generally not detectable by the technology of bioinformatics and, in the case of Y. pestis, result in radical changes in the metabolic flow of carbon. As an important consequence, plague bacilli exhibit a stringent low-calcium response characterized by conversion of L-glutamate (and metabolically related amino acids) to L-aspartate with secretion of the latter into supernatant fluid at 37 degrees C in culture media containing Na(+) but lacking added Ca(2+). This phenomenon also occurs in vivo and likely adversely affects the bioenergetics of host amino acid pools. Curiously, aspartase is functional in all tested enzootic (pestoides) strains of Y. pestis. These isolates are typically restricted to the ancient plague reservoirs of Central Asia and Africa and are fully virulent in members of the rodent Superfamily Muroidea but avirulent in guinea pigs and man. The implications of these findings for the distribution and ecology of Y. pestis could be significant.

  7. The significance of a hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Sang Yoo; Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Jun

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of the hypoplastic canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and the relationship between the hypoplastic bony canal and aplasia or hypoplasia of the cochlear nerve. A retrospective review of high resolution temporal CT(HRCT) and MRI findings was conducted. The narrow bony canal of the cochlear nerve and the relative size of the internal auditory canal were correlated with the cochlear nerve deficiency on MRI. The comparative size of the component nerves (facial, cochlear, superior vestibular, inferior vestibular nerve), and the relative size of the internal auditory canal and the bony canal of the cochlear nerve were measured. The clinical history and the results of the clinical examination were reviewed for each patient. High resolution MRI showed aplasia of the common vestibulocochlear nerve in one patient and a deficiency of the cochlear nerve in 9 patients. These abnormalities occurred in association with a prominent narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and a stenosis of the internal auditory canal, which was observed on temporal bone CT in 9 patients with congenital SNHL. Three patients had normal IAC, despite the presence of a hypoplastic cochlear nerve on the side on which they had SNHL. In one patient, the narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and internal auditory canal were not found to be associated with acquired SNHL. The hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve might be more highly indicative of congenital cochlear nerve deficiency than that of the narrow internal auditory canal, and the position of the crista falciformis should also be carefully

  8. The significance of a hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss: CT and MRI findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yoon Jung; Park, Sang Yoo; Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Jun [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the significance of the hypoplastic canal for the cochlear nerve in patients with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and the relationship between the hypoplastic bony canal and aplasia or hypoplasia of the cochlear nerve. A retrospective review of high resolution temporal CT(HRCT) and MRI findings was conducted. The narrow bony canal of the cochlear nerve and the relative size of the internal auditory canal were correlated with the cochlear nerve deficiency on MRI. The comparative size of the component nerves (facial, cochlear, superior vestibular, inferior vestibular nerve), and the relative size of the internal auditory canal and the bony canal of the cochlear nerve were measured. The clinical history and the results of the clinical examination were reviewed for each patient. High resolution MRI showed aplasia of the common vestibulocochlear nerve in one patient and a deficiency of the cochlear nerve in 9 patients. These abnormalities occurred in association with a prominent narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and a stenosis of the internal auditory canal, which was observed on temporal bone CT in 9 patients with congenital SNHL. Three patients had normal IAC, despite the presence of a hypoplastic cochlear nerve on the side on which they had SNHL. In one patient, the narrowing of the canal for the cochlear nerve and internal auditory canal were not found to be associated with acquired SNHL. The hypoplastic bony canal for the cochlear nerve might be more highly indicative of congenital cochlear nerve deficiency than that of the narrow internal auditory canal, and the position of the crista falciformis should also be carefully.

  9. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  10. Evaluation applications of instrument calibration research findings in psychology for very small samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.; Petry, P.

    2016-11-01

    Many published research studies document item calibration invariance across samples using Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement. A new approach to outcomes evaluation for very small samples was employed for two workshop series focused on stress reduction and joyful living conducted for health system employees and caregivers since 2012. Rasch-calibrated self-report instruments measuring depression, anxiety and stress, and the joyful living effects of mindfulness behaviors were identified in peer-reviewed journal articles. Items from one instrument were modified for use with a US population, other items were simplified, and some new items were written. Participants provided ratings of their depression, anxiety and stress, and the effects of their mindfulness behaviors before and after each workshop series. The numbers of participants providing both pre- and post-workshop data were low (16 and 14). Analysis of these small data sets produce results showing that, with some exceptions, the item hierarchies defining the constructs retained the same invariant profiles they had exhibited in the published research (correlations (not disattenuated) range from 0.85 to 0.96). In addition, comparisons of the pre- and post-workshop measures for the three constructs showed substantively and statistically significant changes. Implications for program evaluation comparisons, quality improvement efforts, and the organization of communications concerning outcomes in clinical fields are explored.

  11. Source memory errors in schizophrenia, hallucinations and negative symptoms: a synthesis of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, G; Ohlsen, R I; Bressan, R A; David, A S

    2012-12-01

    Previous research has shown associations between source memory errors and hallucinations in patients with schizophrenia. We bring together here findings from a broad memory investigation to specify better the type of source memory failure that is associated with auditory and visual hallucinations. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 43 healthy participants underwent a memory task involving recall and recognition of lists of words, recognition of pictures, memory for temporal and spatial context of presentation of the stimuli, and remembering whether target items were presented as words or pictures. False recognition of words and pictures was associated with hallucination scores. The extra-list intrusions in free recall were associated with verbal hallucinations whereas the intra-list intrusions were associated with a global hallucination score. Errors in discriminating the temporal context of word presentation and the spatial context of picture presentation were associated with auditory hallucinations. The tendency to remember verbal labels of items as pictures of these items was associated with visual hallucinations. Several memory errors were also inversely associated with affective flattening and anhedonia. Verbal and visual hallucinations are associated with confusion between internal verbal thoughts or internal visual images and perception. In addition, auditory hallucinations are associated with failure to process or remember the context of presentation of the events. Certain negative symptoms have an opposite effect on memory errors.

  12. Religion, spirituality, and medicine: research findings and implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G

    2004-12-01

    A growing body of scientific research suggests connections between religion, spirituality, and both mental and physical health. The findings are particularly strong in patients with severe or chronic illnesses who are having stressful psychologic and social changes, as well as existential struggles related to meaning and purpose. Recent studies indicate that religious beliefs influence medical decisions, such as the use of chemotherapy and other life-saving treatments, and at times may conflict with medical care. This article addresses the ways physicians can use such information. Spirituality is an area that makes many physicians uncomfortable, since training in medical schools and continuing medical education programs are limited. Not only do most physicians lack the necessary training, they worry about spending additional time with patients and overstepping ethical boundaries. While these concerns are valid, each can be addressed in a sensible way. Taking a spiritual history, supporting the patient's beliefs, and orchestrating the fulfillment of spiritual needs are among the topics this article will address. The goal is to help physicians provide medical care that is sensitive to the way many patients understand and cope with medical illness.

  13. Frontal alpha asymmetry as a pathway to behavioural withdrawal in depression: Research findings and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesulola, Emmanuel; Sharpley, Christopher F; Bitsika, Vicki; Agnew, Linda L; Wilson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Depression has been described as a process of behavioural withdrawal from overwhelming aversive stressors, and which manifests itself in the diagnostic symptomatology for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). The underlying neurobiological pathways to that behavioural withdrawal are suggested to include greater activation in the right vs the left frontal lobes, described as frontal EEG asymmetry. However, despite a previous meta-analysis that provided overall support for this EEG asymmetry hypothesis, inconsistencies and several methodological confounds exist. The current review examines the literature on this issue, identifies inconsistencies in findings and discusses several key research issues that require addressing for this field to move towards a defensible theoretical model of depression and EEG asymmetry. In particular, the position of EEG asymmetry in the brain, measurement of severity and symptoms profiles of depression, and the effects of gender are considered as potential avenues to more accurately define the specific nature of the depression-EEG asymmetry association. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Problems Teachers Face When Doing Action Research and Finding Possible Solutions: Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun

    2012-01-01

    Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…

  15. Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Jeffery A

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many interventions found to be effective in health services research studies fail to translate into meaningful patient care outcomes across multiple contexts. Health services researchers recognize the need to evaluate not only summative outcomes but also formative outcomes to assess the extent to which implementation is effective in a specific setting, prolongs sustainability, and promotes dissemination into other settings. Many implementation theories have been published to help promote effective implementation. However, they overlap considerably in the constructs included in individual theories, and a comparison of theories reveals that each is missing important constructs included in other theories. In addition, terminology and definitions are not consistent across theories. We describe the Consolidated Framework For Implementation Research (CFIR that offers an overarching typology to promote implementation theory development and verification about what works where and why across multiple contexts. Methods We used a snowball sampling approach to identify published theories that were evaluated to identify constructs based on strength of conceptual or empirical support for influence on implementation, consistency in definitions, alignment with our own findings, and potential for measurement. We combined constructs across published theories that had different labels but were redundant or overlapping in definition, and we parsed apart constructs that conflated underlying concepts. Results The CFIR is composed of five major domains: intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and the process of implementation. Eight constructs were identified related to the intervention (e.g., evidence strength and quality, four constructs were identified related to outer setting (e.g., patient needs and resources, 12 constructs were identified related to inner setting (e.g., culture

  16. Significance of performing CT after radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma. Relationship between CT findings in areas other than the tumor site and post therapeutic outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokoube, Kouichi; Saito, Kazuhiro; Kotake, Fumio; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Mizokami, Yuji; Mikami, Ryuji; Matsuoka, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    The relationships between the CT findings following radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the clinical symptoms and laboratory data were examined. The subjects consisted of 31 cases (41 nodules) of HCC that were treated by RFA. The CT findings before and after RFA, particularly the findings in areas other than the treatment site (henceforth, secondary findings), were evaluated by a physician and a radiologist. In addition, the relationships between the CT findings and post-RFA clinical symptoms (fever/pain) and laboratory data were examined. Secondary findings were found in 90.3% (28/31). These findings were broadly classified into changes in the needle tract 51.6% (16/31), retention of effusion 41.9% (13/31), thickening of the gallbladder wall 12.9% (4/31), changes in the retroperitoneal space 9.7% (3/31), and dilatation of the intrahepatic bile duct 3.2% (1/31), in the order of frequency. A relationship was found between changes in the retroperitoneal space and the clinical symptoms (fever: p=0.0366, pain: p=0.0012). Relationships were also found between changes in the needle tract and retention of effusion and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p<0.0001), as well as between changes in the needle tract and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p=0.0149). The size of the treatment area did not correlate with the presence of clinical symptoms and changes in laboratory data. Diverse classification of CT findings was observed after RFA, and a relationship with clinical symptoms was noted. A relationship was also found between classification of the CT findings following RFA and the post-therapeutic outcome. (authors)

  17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    release of tritium from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

  18. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    and places is essential if we are to develop viable measures and approaches to soil and water conservation across the globe. In this paper we will provide an overview of the topics that are addressed in this session and give an overview of the current research in this field and using the insights we will aim to present a new research agenda oriented towards a significant impact in economic and environmental sustainability.

  19. Significance of findings of both emergency chest X-ray and thoracic computed tomography routinely performed at the emergency unit in 102 polytrauma patients. A prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grieser, T.; Buehne, K.H.; Haeuser, H.; Bohndorf, K.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate prospectively whether and to what extent both thoracic computed tomography (Tx-CT) and supine X-ray of the chest (Rx-Tx) are able to show additional findings that are therapeutically relevant. Patients and Methods: According to a fixed study protocol, we performed Rx-Tx and Tx-CT in 102 consecutive, haemodynamically stable polytrauma patients (mean age, 41.2 yrs; age range, 12-93 yrs). Findings of therapeutical relevance drawn from both Tx-CT and Rx-Tx, and urgent interventions indicated by an attending trauma team were documented on a standardized evaluation sheet immediately. Any change in the patient's management that is different from routine life-saving procedures, and any therapeutical intervention done in the emergency room or elsewhere (operating theatre, angiographic facility) were considered therapeutically relevant. Results: Of 102 patients, 43 (42.2%) had a total of 51 therapeutically relevant findings. Rx-Tx alone yielded 23 relevant findings (45.1%) in 23 patients (22.5%). Of them, Tx-CT has shown additional important findings in 7 patients (30.4%). When Tx-CT alone is considered, it revealed 22 new findings of therapeutical relevance (43.2%) in 20 patients (46.5%). Altogether, Tx-CT was able to show 30 relevant findings in 27 patients, i.e., there was a therapeutical benefit for 26.5% of all polytrauma patients included. Most frequently, there was a need for chest-tube insertion (n=29). Conclusions: Polytrauma patients if haemodynamically stable may profit from computed tomography of the chest when therapeutically relevant thoracic injuries are looked for or early therapeutical interventions are to be checked. However, chest X-ray should stay as a 'front-line' screening method because of its superbly quick feasibility and availability. (orig.) [de

  20. Development of the pediatric daily ulcerative colitis signs and symptoms scale (DUCS): qualitative research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flood, Emuella; Silberg, Debra G; Romero, Beverly; Beusterien, Kathleen; Erder, M Haim; Cuffari, Carmen

    2017-09-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop patient-reported (PRO) and observer-reported (ObsRO) outcome measures of ulcerative colitis (UC) signs/symptoms in children aged 5-17 with mild/moderate UC. The daily ulcerative colitis signs and symptoms scale (DUCS) was developed in two phases. Phase I involved concept elicitation interviews with patients and healthcare providers, review of website posts and item generation. Phase II involved cognitive debriefing and assessment of usability and feasibility of the eDiaries. Participants were recruited from five US clinical sites, a research recruitment agency, and internet advertising. Thematic and content analysis was performed to identify concepts from Phase I. The Phase II cognitive debriefing interviews were analyzed iteratively to identify problems with clarity and relevance of eDiary content. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) also reviewed and provided feedback on the eDiaries. Phase I included 32 participants (22 remission; 10 active disease). Phase II included 38 participants (22 remission; 16 active disease). A core set of seven signs and symptoms emerged that were reported by at least 30% of the patients interviewed: abdominal pain, blood in stool, frequent stools, diarrhea, stool urgency, nighttime stools, and tiredness. Participant input influenced changes such as refinement of item wording, revision of graphics, and selection of response scales. Revisions suggested by FDA included simplifying the response scale and adding questions to capture symptoms during sleeping hours. The findings of instrument development suggest that the DUCS PRO and ObsRO eDiaries are content-valid instruments for capturing the daily signs and symptoms of pediatric patients with mild to moderate UC in a clinical trial setting.

  1. Witness for Wellness: preliminary findings from a community-academic participatory research mental health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Jones, Loretta; Fackler-Lowrie, Nicole; Ellison, Marcia; Booker, Theodore; Jones, Felica; McDaniel, Sharon; Moini, Moraya; Williams, Kamau R; Klap, Ruth; Koegel, Paul; Wells, Kenneth B

    2006-01-01

    Quality improvement programs promoting depression screening and appropriate treatment can significantly reduce racial and ethnic disparities in mental-health care and outcomes. However, promoting the adoption of quality-improvement strategies requires more than the simple knowledge of their potential benefits. To better understand depression issues in racial and ethnic minority communities and to discover, refine, and promote the adoption of evidence-based interventions in these communities, a collaborative academic-community participatory partnership was developed and introduced through a community-based depression conference. This partnership was based on the community-influenced model used by Healthy African-American Families, a community-based agency in south Los Angeles, and the Partners in Care model developed at the UCLA/RAND NIMH Health Services Research Center. The integrated model is described in this paper as well as the activities and preliminary results based on multimethod program evaluation techniques. We found that combining the two models was feasible. Significant improvements in depression identification, knowledge about treatment options, and availability of treatment providers were observed among conference participants. In addition, the conference reinforced in the participants the importance of community mobilization for addressing depression and mental health issues in the community. Although the project is relatively new and ongoing, already substantial gains in community activities in the area of depression have been observed. In addition, new applications of this integrated model are underway in the areas of diabetes and substance abuse. Continued monitoring of this project should help refine the model as well as assist in the identification of process and outcome measures for such efforts.

  2. Incidental findings are frequent in young healthy individuals undergoing magnetic resonance imaging in brain research imaging studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartwigsen, Gesa; Siebner, Hartwig R; Deuschl, Günther

    2010-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about how to handle incidental findings (IF) detected in healthy individuals who participate in research-driven magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. There are currently no established guidelines regarding their management....

  3. 78 FR 23255 - Findings of Misconduct in Science/Research Misconduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), National... peptide, and by falsely inserting a band in lane 3 to represent the [alpha]VBS peptide, in Figure 4B of...

  4. Country variations in depressive symptoms profile in Asian countries: Findings of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription (REAP) studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Kok-Yoon; Tripathi, Adarsh; Avasthi, Ajit; Chong, Mian-Yoon; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Sim, Kang; Si, Tian-Mei; Kanba, Shigenobu; He, Yan-Ling; Lee, Min-Soo; Fung-Kum Chiu, Helen; Yang, Shu-Yu; Kuga, Hironori; Udormatn, Pichet; Kallivayalil, Roy A; Tanra, Andi J; Maramis, Margarita; Grover, Sandeep; Chin, Loi-Fei; Dahlan, Rahima; Mohamad Isa, Mohd Fadzli; Ebenezer, Esther Gunaseli M; Nordin, Norhayati; Shen, Winston W; Shinfuku, Naotaka; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Sartorius, Norman

    2015-09-01

    This study was to assess differences in the symptom profile of depressive illness across various countries/territories in Asia. The study was a part of the Research on Asia Psychotropic Prescription project. The participating countries/territories include China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Singapore, Taiwan, and Thailand. The pattern of depressive symptoms in 1,400 subjects with depressive disorder from 42 psychiatric centers in 10 Asian countries/territories was assessed. We collected information on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics with a standardized protocol and data collection procedure. The most common presentations of depressive symptoms were persistent sadness, loss of interest, and insomnia. Similar findings were found regardless of the region, country, or its income level. Patients with depressive disorder from high-income countries presented significantly more with vegetative symptom cluster (P countries had significantly more with both mood (P countries, patients with depressive symptoms had significantly less mood symptom cluster (P countries/territories, core depressive symptoms remain the same. Variations have been found in presentation of depressive symptoms with regards to the level of income of countries. Physical or vegetative symptoms were reported more by centers in higher income countries, while depressive cognition and suicidal thoughts/acts were more frequently reported from lower income countries. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings?Findings from Expert Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O?Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug A...

  6. Research-based Reflections on How the Educational, Economic and Social Circumstances Faced by Some Children and Young People Can Lead to Significant Disadvantage and Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tucker Stanley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides detailed reflections on the educational, economic and social circumstances that impact on the lives of many disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people. Drawing largely on primary research data collected in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, three illustrative case studies are presented for consideration focusing on: life in residential care and youth offending institutions; experiences of educational vulnerability; and human trafficking. The methodological approach adopted across the research projects explored, was shaped by the demands and expectations of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC. All of the reported data reflects the views of children and young people who were interviewed as part of three research projects. It is argued that the difficult and challenging circumstances that many children and young people find themselves in, place them at significant disadvantage and increased vulnerability in terms of their social and educational development and life chances.

  7. Clinical significance of cerebrospinal fluid tap test and magnetic resonance imaging/computed tomography findings of tight high convexity in patients with possible idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Masatsune; Furuse, Motomasa; Nishida, Namiko; Oowaki, Hisayuki; Matsumoto, Atsuhito; Suzuki, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) is a treatable syndrome with a classical triad of symptoms. The Japanese iNPH guidelines indicate that the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) tap test and tight high-convexity on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are important for the diagnosis. The relationships between the effectiveness of CSF shunt surgery in possible iNPH patients, the tap test result, and the MR imaging/computed tomography (CT) findings of tight high-convexity were evaluated in 88 possible iNPH patients (mean age 75 years) with one or more of the classical triad of symptoms, and mild to moderate ventricular dilation. All patients underwent the tap test in the outpatient clinic, and patients and caregivers assessed the clinical changes during one week. The tap test was positive in 47 patients and negative in 41 patients. Surgery was performed in 19 patients with positive tap test, and was effective in 17 patients. Although the findings were inconsistent in some patients, the result of the tap test was found to be highly correlated with the MR imaging/CT finding of tight high-convexity (p<0.0001), confirming that both these diagnostic tests are promising predictors of shunt effectiveness. (author)

  8. Behavioral and Social Sciences at the National Institutes of Health: adoption of research findings in health research and practice as a scientific priority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, William T

    2017-06-01

    The National Institutes of Health's Office of Behavioral and Social Sciences Research (OBSSR) recently released its Strategic Plan for 2017 to 2021. This plan highlights three scientific priorities: (1) improve the synergy of basic and applied behavioral and social sciences research, (2) enhance and promote the research infrastructure, methods, and measures needed to support a more cumulative and integrated approach to behavioral and social sciences research, and (3) facilitate the adoption of behavioral and social sciences research findings in health research and in practice. This commentary focuses on the challenges and opportunities to facilitate the adoption of research findings in health research and in practice. In addition to the ongoing NIH support for dissemination and implementation (D&I) research, we must address transformative challenges and opportunities such as better disseminating and implementing D&I research, merging research and practice, adopting more rigorous and diverse methods and measures for both D&I and clinical trials research, evaluating technological-based delivery of interventions, and transitioning from minimally adaptable intervention packages to planned adaptations rooted in behavior change principles. Beyond translation into practice and policy, the OBSSR Strategic Plan also highlights the need for translation of behavioral and social science findings into the broader biomedical research enterprise.

  9. There Is a Significant Discrepancy Between "Big Data" Database and Original Research Publications on Hip Arthroscopy Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochacki, Kyle R; Jack, Robert A; Safran, Marc R; Nho, Shane J; Harris, Joshua D

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare (1) major complication, (2) revision, and (3) conversion to arthroplasty rates following hip arthroscopy between database studies and original research peer-reviewed publications. A systematic review was performed using PRISMA guidelines. PubMed, SCOPUS, SportDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for studies that investigated major complication (dislocation, femoral neck fracture, avascular necrosis, fluid extravasation, septic arthritis, death), revision, and hip arthroplasty conversion rates following hip arthroscopy. Major complication, revision, and conversion to hip arthroplasty rates were compared between original research (single- or multicenter therapeutic studies) and database (insurance database using ICD-9/10 and/or current procedural terminology coding terminology) publishing studies. Two hundred seven studies (201 original research publications [15,780 subjects; 54% female] and 6 database studies [20,825 subjects; 60% female]) were analyzed (mean age, 38.2 ± 11.6 years old; mean follow-up, 2.7 ± 2.9 years). The database studies had a significantly higher age (40.6 + 2.8 vs 35.4 ± 11.6), body mass index (27.4 ± 5.6 vs 24.9 ± 3.1), percentage of females (60.1% vs 53.8%), and longer follow-up (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 2.7 ± 3.0) compared with original research (P database studies (P = .029; relative risk [RR], 1.3). There was a significantly higher rate of femoral neck fracture (0.24% vs 0.03%; P database studies. Reoperations occurred at a significantly higher rate in the database studies (11.1% vs 7.3%; P database studies (8.0% vs 3.7%; P Database studies report significantly increased major complication, revision, and conversion to hip arthroplasty rates compared with original research investigations of hip arthroscopy outcomes. Level IV, systematic review of Level I-IV studies. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  10. Development and Pilot Testing of a Decision Aid for Genomic Research Participants Notified of Clinically Actionable Research Findings for Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Amanda M; Smith, Sian K; Meiser, Bettina; Ballinger, Mandy L; Thomas, David M; Tattersall, Martin; Young, Mary-Anne

    2018-02-17

    Germline genomic testing is increasingly used in research to identify genetic causes of disease, including cancer. However, there is evidence that individuals who are notified of clinically actionable research findings have difficulty making informed decisions regarding uptake of genetic counseling for these findings. This study aimed to produce and pilot test a decision aid to assist participants in genomic research studies who are notified of clinically actionable research findings to make informed choices regarding uptake of genetic counseling. Development was guided by published literature, the International Patient Decision Aid Standards, and the expertise of a steering committee of clinicians, researchers, and consumers. Decision aid acceptability was assessed by self-report questionnaire. All 19 participants stated that the decision aid was easy to read, clearly presented, increased their understanding of the implications of taking up research findings, and would be helpful in decision-making. While low to moderate levels of distress/worry were reported after reading the booklet, a majority of participants also reported feeling reassured. All participants would recommend the booklet to others considering uptake of clinically actionable research findings. Results indicate the decision aid is acceptable to the target audience, with potential as a useful decision support tool for genomic research participants.

  11. Improving Hawaiian and Filipino involvement in clinical research opportunities: qualitative findings from Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollin, Lisa X; Harrigan, Rosanne C; Calderón, José L; Perez, John; Easa, David

    2005-01-01

    Investigate the barriers to participation in medical research that involves Asian and Pacific Islander (API) populations in Hawai'i. Fifty people (27 Filipinos, 23 Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders) in five different communities on Oahu. Nine focus groups with an ethnically matched moderator were held to explore people's feelings, problems, and recommendations regarding medical research. Sessions were audiotaped, transcribed, and qualitatively analyzed with the constant comparison method. Only 12% of study participants said that they absolutely would not participate in a clinical study. Most agreed that research is vital. Filipino participants were more optimistic about the safety and value of joining in medical research. Hawaiian groups were more hesitant and fearful. Reasons for nonparticipation included negative feelings about the purpose and intent of clinical trials and language and cultural barriers. Suggestions on how to encourage API populations to participate in research investigations included improving peoples' understanding of the benefits to family and community. Hawaiian and Filipino groups differed only slightly in their assessments of the type of research needed in their communities. Recruitment campaigns must improve people's awareness of the process of informed consent, research safeguards, and benefits to family and community. Attention should focus on K-12 health education to use members of the younger generations to access and educate elders, involving persons with medical research experience as a recruitment resource, returning results to study participants, and increasing the number of healthcare professionals and researchers that are culturally and linguistically matched to the community.

  12. Towards Understanding EFL Teachers' Conceptions of Research: Findings from Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, Darío Luis

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the conceptions of research held by English as a foreign language teachers in Argentina. Quantitative data from 622 participants from an online questionnaire were followed by qualitative data from online interviews with 40 of those participants. Results show that the teachers conceptualised research through conventional…

  13. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings—Findings from Expert Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Hammond, David; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration’s new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people. Many agreed that more than one warning would be important as e-cigarette science evolves and that research on additional warning themes (e.g., nicotine exposure, harmful constituents) and execution styles (including use of pictorials) was important. Participants were somewhat mixed about the use of reduced-risk messages within e-cigarette warnings, but agreed that research on how to communicate about cigarette/e-cigarette relative risks was needed. Overall, more research is needed on tobacco warnings for non-cigarette products, including on the message content, placement, execution and potential impact on audiences’ product knowledge, risk perceptions and use intentions. This is particularly needed for products such as e-cigarettes which may have harm-reduction potential relative to cigarettes and require unique considerations. PMID:28708124

  14. Considerations and Future Research Directions for E-Cigarette Warnings-Findings from Expert Interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wackowski, Olivia A; Hammond, David; O'Connor, Richard J; Strasser, Andrew A; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2017-07-14

    Tobacco warning labels are important sources of risk information but research historically has been cigarette-centric. This qualitative study aimed to inform future direction and research on warnings for e-cigarettes. Between June and August 2016, we conducted interviews with 10 researchers with expertise in tobacco warning label research. Interviewees were registrants of a 2016 National Cancer Institute grantee meeting on tobacco warnings. Several participants agreed that the Food and Drug Administration's new nicotine addiction warning for e-cigarettes could be informative but that it might not resonate with young people. Many agreed that more than one warning would be important as e-cigarette science evolves and that research on additional warning themes (e.g., nicotine exposure, harmful constituents) and execution styles (including use of pictorials) was important. Participants were somewhat mixed about the use of reduced-risk messages within e-cigarette warnings, but agreed that research on how to communicate about cigarette/e-cigarette relative risks was needed. Overall, more research is needed on tobacco warnings for non-cigarette products, including on the message content, placement, execution and potential impact on audiences' product knowledge, risk perceptions and use intentions. This is particularly needed for products such as e-cigarettes which may have harm-reduction potential relative to cigarettes and require unique considerations.

  15. Women finding the way: American Indian women leading intervention research in Native communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse; Chase, Josephine; Elkins, Jennifer; Martin, Jennifer; Nanez, Jennifer; Mootz, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Although there is literature concentrating on cross-cultural approaches to academic and community partnerships with Native communities, few address the process and experiences of American Indian women leading federally funded and culturally grounded behavioral health intervention research in Native communities. This paper summarizes relevant literature on community-engaged research with Native communities, examines traditional roles and modern challenges for American Indian women, describes the culturally grounded collaborative process for the authors' behavioral health intervention development with Native communities, and considers emergent themes from our own research experiences navigating competing demands from mainstream and Native communities. It concludes with recommendations for supporting and enhancing resilience.

  16. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  17. The impact of sleep disorders on driving safety-findings from the Second Strategic Highway Research Program naturalistic driving study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Yuan; Perez, Miguel A; Lau, Nathan

    2018-04-01

    This study investigated the association between driving safety and seven sleep disorders amongst 3541 participants of the Second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) naturalistic driving study. SHRP 2 collected naturalistic driving data from participants between 16 and 98 years old by instrumenting participants' vehicles. The analyses used logistic regression to determine the likelihood of crash or near-crash involvement, Poisson log-linear regression to assess crash or near-crash rate, and ordinal logistic regression to assess driver maneuver appropriateness and crash or near-crash severity. These analyses did not account for any medical treatments for the sleep disorders. Females with restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), drivers with insomnia or narcolepsy, are associated with significantly higher risk of crash or near-crash. Drivers with shift work sleep disorder (SWSD) are associated with significantly increased crash or near-crash rate. Females with RLS/WED or sleep apnea and drivers with SWSD are associated with less safe driver maneuver and drivers with periodic limb movement disorder are associated with more severe events. The four analyses provide no evidence of safety decrements associated with migraine. This study is the first examination on the association between seven sleep disorders and different measures of driving risk using large-scale naturalistic driving study data. The results corroborate much of the existing simulator and epidemiological research related to sleep-disorder patients and their driving safety, but add ecological validity to those findings. These results contribute to the empirical basis for medical professionals, policy makers, and employers in making decisions to aid individuals with sleep disorders in balancing safety and personal mobility.

  18. Difference of ore-bearing and non-ore-bearing pegmatite in the Guangshigou area and its research significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Wenqian; Zhang Zhanshi; Sha Yazhou; Rao Chaojun

    2011-01-01

    Guangshigou uranium deposit is one of the typical granite-pegmatite uranium deposits in China, the ore-body are located in the density zone of the outside contact zone of granite pluton. To distinguish the ore-bearing and Non-ore-bearing pegmatite is one of the most practices and have great significance for the effect of mineral exploration. Based on the field investigation and former research results, contrast research on the characteristics of the pegmatite on petrology, geophysical, geochemistry and stable isotopes have been carried out. It is pointed out that the ore-bearing pegmatite differ from the non-ore-bearing one from macro-and-micro-view in Guangshigou Uranium deposits, the main characteristics are summarized; the macro-and-micro signs are established, the genetic difference between the ore-bearing and non-ore-bearing pegmatite are discussed primarily. The achievements would be helpful for prospecting and researching of this type uranium deposits in China. (authors)

  19. Where to find weather and climatic data for forest research studies and management planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines

    1977-01-01

    Forest-range research or operational study designs should include the possible effects of weather and climate. This document describes the meteorological observational networks, the data available from them, and where the information is stored.

  20. The North American long-term soil productivity experiment: findings from the first decade of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers; D. Andrew Scott; Felipe g. Sanchez; Richard A. Voldseth; Deborah Page-Dumroese; John D. Elioff; Douglas M. Stone

    2005-01-01

    First decade findings on the impacts of organic matter removal and soil compaction are reported for the 26 oldest installations in the nation-wide network of long-term soil productivity sites. Complete removal of surface organic matter led to declines in soil C concentration to 20 cm depth and to reduced nutrient availability. The effect is attributed mainly to the...

  1. Partnership for Equity in Education through Research (PEER): Findings from the First Year of Research on AANAPISIs

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research in Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Through generous support from the Kresge Foundation, Lumina Foundation, USA Funds, and Walmart Foundation, the National Commission on Asian American and Pacific Islander Research on Education (CARE) teamed up with the Asian & Pacific Islander American Scholarship Fund (APIASF) and three AANAPISI campus partners--City College of San Francisco,…

  2. Steps to strengthen ethics in organizations: research findings, ethics placebos, and what works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Kenneth S

    2015-01-01

    Research shows that many organizations overlook needs and opportunities to strengthen ethics. Barriers can make it hard to see the need for stronger ethics and even harder to take effective action. These barriers include the organization's misleading use of language, misuse of an ethics code, culture of silence, strategies of justification, institutional betrayal, and ethical fallacies. Ethics placebos tend to take the place of steps to see, solve, and prevent problems. This article reviews relevant research and specific steps that create change.

  3. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists: Research Findings and Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, de, van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of (potentially) violent lone-actors based on an analysis of 120 cases from across Europe. The Research Note focuses on the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists.[1] First of all, it presents th...

  4. Cyberbullying Victimization and Behaviors Among Girls: Applying Research Findings in the Field

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia A. Snell; Elizabeth K. Englander

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Prior research on cyberbullying has been conducted; however specific research on gender differences has yet to be examined. The current study focuses on gender trends, specifically females, in cyberbullying victimization and behaviors. Approach: A survey was given to undergraduate students at Bridgewater State College in an effort to see what gender trends exist in cyberbullying behaviors. A pilot program focused on girls and cyberbullying is also examined in this article. ...

  5. Strategies for Enhancing Family Participation in Research in the ICU: Findings From a Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotolo, Danae; Nielsen, Elizabeth L; Curtis, J Randall; Engelberg, Ruth A

    2017-08-01

    Family members of critically ill patients who participate in research focused on palliative care issues have been found to be systematically different from those who do not. These differences threaten the validity of research and raise ethical questions about worsening disparities in care by failing to represent diverse perspectives. This study's aims were to explore: 1) barriers and facilitators influencing family members' decisions to participate in palliative care research; and 2) potential methods to enhance research participation. Family members who were asked to participate in a randomized trial testing the efficacy of a facilitator to improve clinician-family communication in the intensive care unit (ICU). Family members who participated (n = 17) and those who declined participation (n = 7) in Family Communication Study were interviewed about their recruitment experiences. We also included family members of currently critically ill patients to assess current experiences (n = 4). Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Investigators used thematic analysis to identify factors influencing family members' decisions. Transcripts were co-reviewed to synthesize codes and themes. Three factors influencing participants' decisions were identified: Altruism, Research Experience, and Enhanced Resources. Altruism and Research Experience described intrinsic characteristics that are less amenable to strategies for improving participation rates. Enhanced Resources reflects families' desires for increased access to information and logistical and emotional support. Family members found their recruitment experiences to be positive when staff were knowledgeable about the ICU, sensitive to the stressful circumstances, and conveyed a caring attitude. By training research staff to be supportive of families' emotional needs and need for logistical knowledge about the ICU, recruitment of a potentially more diverse sample of families may be enhanced. Copyright © 2017

  6. Barriers to participation in mental health research: findings from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Anna; Howard, Louise; Morgan, Craig

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate why people with a first episode of psychosis choose or decline to participate in mental health research, using a qualitative study design. Participants were recruited via referrals from the Genetics and Psychosis (GAP) study. A total of 26 individuals with a first-episode of psychosis (nine of whom declined participation in the GAP study and 17 who participated) were individually interviewed and asked about their attitudes towards mental health research participation. Thematic analysis of interview transcripts was used to determine dominant themes and sub-themes on what constituted barriers and facilitators to participation. Reasons for research participation identified included a desire to help others, curiosity, and positive experiences with clinicians. Decisions to participate or not were also influenced by practical issues, including the timing of the approach, researchers' communication skills and whether individuals had concerns that it may be potentially harmful to their health. Other barriers to participation included patients' conceptualizations of mental health problems and the influence of other inpatients. Information on barriers and facilitators to recruitment in mental health research could inform recruitment strategies, thereby maximizing recruitment rates and minimizing the risk of selection biases.

  7. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  8. Insomnia in places of detention: a review of the most recent research findings

    OpenAIRE

    Elger, Bernice Simone

    2007-01-01

    Up to 40% of prisoner patients in a general medicine outpatient service seek medical consultation for sleep problems. This paper provides a brief overview of what is known about insomnia and its treatment from studies on non-detained patients and discusses the relevance of the findings from studies in liberty for prison health care. The clinical and ethical issues of insomnia in prison are described, followed by a summary of the existing studies on insomnia in prison. The results of the repor...

  9. Big city Bombus: using natural history and land-use history to find significant environmental drivers in bumble-bee declines in urban development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaum, Paul; Simao, Maria-Carolina; Vaidya, Chatura; Fitch, Gordon; Iulinao, Benjamin

    2017-05-01

    Native bee populations are critical sources of pollination. Unfortunately, native bees are declining in abundance and diversity. Much of this decline comes from human land-use change. While the effects of large-scale agriculture on native bees are relatively well understood, the effects of urban development are less clear. Understanding urbanity's effect on native bees requires consideration of specific characteristics of both particular bee species and their urban landscape. We surveyed bumble-bee ( Bombus spp.) abundance and diversity in gardens across multiple urban centres in southeastern Michigan. There are significant declines in Bombus abundance and diversity associated with urban development when measured on scales in-line with Bombus flight ability. These declines are entirely driven by declines in females; males showed no response to urbanization. We hypothesize that this is owing to differing foraging strategies between the sexes, and it suggests reduced Bombus colony density in more urban areas. While urbanity reduced Bombus prevalence, results in Detroit imply that 'shrinking cities' potentially offer unique urban paradigms that must be considered when studying wild bee ecology. Results show previously unidentified differences in the effects of urbanity on female and male bumble-bee populations and suggest that urban landscapes can be managed to support native bee conservation.

  10. The significance of morphological changes in the brain-tumor interface for the pathogenesis of brain edema in meningioma: Magnetic resonance tomography and intraoperative findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitzer, M.; Klose, U.; Naegele, T.; Mundinger, P.; Voigt, K.; Freudenstein, D.; Heiss, E.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to verify a possible correlation between macroscopic changes of the brain-tumor interface (BTI) and the development of a peritumoral brain edema in meningiomas. Methods: 27 meningiomas were investigated in this prospective study using an optimized inversion-recovery (IR) sequence. After i.v. administration of 0.2 mmol Gd-DTPA/kg axial and coronary images were acquired (slice thickness=2 mm). The distances of signal altered cortex and obliterations of the subarachnoid space (SAS) were measured at the BTI and related to the pial tumor circumference (cortical-index and SAS-index). Intraoperatively the BTI was divided into the following categories: 0: SAS not obliterated, 1: SAS partially obliterated, 2: Direct contact between tumor and white matter, 3: Tumor infiltration into brain. Results: Edema-associated meningiomas showed a significantly (p=0.0001) increased SAS-index (0.47 vs. 0.07) and cortical index (0.45 vs. 0.0) compared to cases without edema. Intraoperatively 95% of meningiomas with brain edema showed SAS-obliterations, compared to 50% of cases without an edema. Conclusions: Arachnoid adhesions at the BTI with obliteration of the SAS seem to play an essential role in the induction of brain edema in meningiomas. (orig.) [de

  11. The significance of radiology in the diagnosis of pyometra (endometritis post oestrum) in dogs: An evaluation of the correlation between radiographic and laboratoy findings in 131 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bree, H. van; Schepper, J. de; Capiau, E.

    1988-01-01

    In 131 bitches with proven pyometra or endometritis post oestrum (E. P. O.) a retrospective study of the lateral abdominal radiograph was carried out. In 31 (24%) of the cases (group 1) the uterine silhouette could not be perceived on the survey radiograph. In the other 100 cases (group 2) the uterus was clearly visible. Its diameter was measured and compared to the length of the second lumbar vertebra. The values for this ratio ranged between 0.4 and 3.5. The smallest uterine diameter perceived on the plain lateral abdominal radiograph measured 12 mm. Within group 2 the degree of uterine distension was significantly correlated with the number of white blood cells and the serum haptoglobin concentration. This correlation suggests a relation between the degree of uterine distension, the amount of uterine pus, the degree of uterine inflammation and the general inflammatory and stress reaction. Renal failure was more frequently observed in bitches with a greatly enlarged uterus than with a normal or only slightly enlarged uterus, although the degree of renal failure was not correlated to the uterine diameter. Within group 2 the closed type of pyometra was associated with a more enlarged uterus, but not with a higher leucocytosis [de

  12. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  13. Domestic Violence Between Same-Gender Partners: Recent Findings and Future Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClennen, Joan C.

    2005-01-01

    Empirical literature about same-gender domestic violence was relatively nonexistent until the past 20 years, and conducting research with this population about a sensitive topic remains a daunting endeavor. Existing studies reveal similarities between opposite- and same-gender domestic violence in prevalence, types of abuse, and various dynamics,…

  14. Informing Intervention Strategies to Reduce Energy Drink Consumption in Young People: Findings From Qualitative Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jacinta; Martin, Karen; Costa, Beth; Christian, Hayley; Kaur, Simmi; Harray, Amelia; Barblett, Ann; Oddy, Wendy Hazel; Ambrosini, Gina; Allen, Karina; Trapp, Gina

    2017-10-01

    To determine young people's knowledge of energy drinks (EDs), factors influencing ED consumption, and intervention strategies to decrease ED consumption in young people. Eight group interviews with young people (aged 12-25 years). Community groups and secondary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Forty-one young people, 41% of whom were male and 73% of whom consumed EDs. Factors influencing ED consumption and intervention strategies informed by young people to reduce ED consumption. Two researchers conducted a qualitative content analysis on the data using NVivo software. Facilitators of ED consumption included enhanced energy, pleasant taste, low cost, peer pressure, easy availability, and ED promotions. Barriers included negative health effects, unpleasant taste, high cost, and parents' disapproval. Strategies to reduce ED consumption included ED restrictions, changing ED packaging, increasing ED prices, reducing visibility in retail outlets, and research and education. Because many countries allow the sale of EDs to people aged consumption. In addition to more research and education, these strategies included policy changes targeting ED sales, packaging, price, and visibility. Future research might examine the feasibility of implementing such interventions. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Attachment Perspective on the Child--Dog Bond: Interdisciplinary and International Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the process of attachment formation in young children has been a focal point in child development research for decades. However, young children's attachments are not only with human beings; they also form bonds with companion animals, particularly dogs ("Canis familiaris"). Given the number of dogs that are kept by families…

  16. The Meaning of Work among Chinese University Students: Findings from Prototype Research Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sili; Leung, S. Alvin; Li, Xu

    2012-01-01

    This study examined Chinese university students' conceptualization of the meaning of work. One hundred and ninety students (93 male, 97 female) from Beijing, China, participated in the study. Prototype research methodology (J. Li, 2001) was used to explore the meaning of work and the associations among the identified meanings. Cluster analysis was…

  17. Census of Institutional Repositories in the United States: MIRACLE Project Research Findings. CLIR Publication No. 140

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, Karen; Rieh, Soo Young; St. Jean, Beth; Kim, Jihyun; Yakel, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe results of a nationwide census of institutional repositories in U.S. academic institutions. The census is one of several activities of the MIRACLE Project, an Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS)-funded research program based at the University of Michigan. The acronym MIRACLE means "Making…

  18. The influence of plants on productivity : A critical assessment of research findings and test methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, I; van der Voordt, Theo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose
    This paper aims to review available research into the impact of plants on people and labour productivity in order to test a number of hypotheses and the reliability and validity of “evidence based” statements.
    Methodology
    An extended literature review has been conducted of

  19. The Challenge of Finding Faculty Time for Applied Research Activities in Ontario Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkrantz, Otte

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how the role of Ontario college faculty has evolved since the advent of the Post-Secondary Education Choice and Excellence Act of 2000 and the Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act of 2002 in terms of whether or not the decision to create a research culture at the colleges included making time…

  20. A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services*

    OpenAIRE

    Richwine, Margaret (Peggy); McGowan, Julie J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals.

  1. The Planning of Teaching in the Context of Lesson Study: Research Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulou, Eurydice-Maria; Darra, Maria

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to examine the attitudes, perceptions and experiences of the teachers participating in the planning of teaching in the context of the Lesson Study. The present work, which is part of a wider research effort, followed a mixed methodological planning for reasons of triangulation. The survey was conducted from…

  2. Can We Find Solutions with People? Participatory Action Research with Small Organic Producers in Andalusia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…

  3. Analysing Personal Characteristics of Lone-Actor Terrorists : Research Findings and Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, de van Zuijdewijn J.; Bakker, E.

    2016-01-01

    This Research Note presents the outcome of a project that looked at the personal characteristics of lone-actor terrorists. It is part of the larger Countering Lone-Actor Terrorism (CLAT) project. The project described here aimed to improve understanding of, and responses to, the phenomenon of

  4. Quality of the working environment and productivity : research findings and case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greef, M. de; Broek, K. van den; Jongkind, R.; Kenny, L.; Shechtman, O.; Kuhn, K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this working paper, prepared by the Topic Centre on Research - Work and Health of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, is to look at the link between a good working environment and productivity. A better understanding of positive effects of a good working environment

  5. Better Together: Research Findings on the Relationship between Racial Justice Organizations and LGBT Communities. Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Rinku; Wessler, Seth; Apollon, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    In partnership with the Arcus Foundation, the Applied Research Center (ARC) has undertaken a study of the relationship between racial justice organizations and lesbian/gay/bisexual/transgender (LGBT) constituencies and issues, with the understanding that communities of color themselves, including their LGBT members, have a good deal at stake in…

  6. The ABCs of Keeping on Track to Graduation: Research Findings from Baltimore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Messel, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study of graduation outcomes in Baltimore uses multivariate analysis of longitudinal student cohort data to examine the impact of factors identified in previous research as early warning indicators of a dropout outcome. Student cohort files were constructed from longitudinal administrative data (following all first-time 2004-2005 and…

  7. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  8. Highlights of the Russian health studies program and updated research findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountos, Barrett N.

    2017-01-01

    Recognized for conducting cutting-edge science in the field of radiation health effects research, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Russian Health Studies Program has continued to generate excitement and enthusiasm throughout its 23-year mission to assess worker and public health risks from radiation exposure resulting from nuclear weapons production activities in the former Soviet Union. The three goals of the Program are to: (1) clarify the relationship between health effects and chronic, low-to-medium dose radiation exposure; (2) estimate the cancer risks from exposure to gamma, neutron, and alpha radiation; and (3) provide information to the national and international organizations that determine radiation protection standards and practices. Research sponsored by DOE's Russian Health Studies Program is conducted under the authority of the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER), a bi-national committee representing Federal agencies in the United States and the Russian Federation. Signed in 1994, the JCCRER Agreement established the legal basis for the collaborative research between USA and Russian scientists to determine the risks associated with working at or living near Russian former nuclear weapons production sites. The products of the Program are peer-reviewed publications on cancer risk estimates from worker and community exposure to ionizing radiation following the production of nuclear weapons in Russia. The scientific return on investment has been substantial. Through 31 December 2015, JCCRER researchers have published 299 peer-reviewed publications. To date, the research has focused on the Mayak Production Association (Mayak) in Ozersk, Russia, which is the site of the first Soviet nuclear weapons production facility, and people in surrounding communities along the Techa River. There are five current projects in the Russian Health Studies Program: two radiation epidemiology studies; two historical dose reconstruction

  9. End-of-Life care in a community garden: Findings from a Participatory Action Research project in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Pauline; Gartrell, Gabrielle; Egg, Gwen; Nolan, Andrew; Cross, Merylin

    2017-05-01

    This article presents findings from research that explored how a community garden might function as a place of end-of-life and bereavement support. Adopting Participatory Action Research (PAR) methods, and informed by Third Place theory and notions of therapeutic landscape, creative consultations were held in the Garden and people's homes. The findings provide insights into the nature of informal care as it is played out in the liminal garden space, between home and institution. The results illuminate the therapeutic landscape of community gardens, and contribute new understandings to the fields of PAR, health geography and end-of-life care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Methodically finding solutions of equipments for carrying out experiments in materials testing and research. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findeisen, D.; Nachtweide, D.; Kuntze, G.

    1983-01-01

    In comparison with the development of industrial products the development of test equipments is of special kind, which is demonstrated by methodical proceeding for finding solutions and by potentialities for technical design and production of test equipment engineering. Some general principles are turned out and explained by several realized examples of design belonging to the sphere of materials testing in den Federal Institute of Materials Testing (BAM) representative of other problems. User are large scientific institutes independent of university, scientific institutes as members of university just as test stands and quality control offices of industrial works. (orig.) [de

  11. The Internet as a Source of Academic Research Information: Findings of Two Pilot Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry M. Kibirige

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a source of serious subject-oriented information, the Internet has been a powerful feature in the information arena since its inception in the last quarter of the twentieth century. It was, however, initially restricted to government contractors or major research universities operating under the aegis of the Advanced Research Projects Network (ARPANET.(1 In the 1990s, the content and use of the Internet was expanded to includemundane subjects covered in business, industry, education,government, entertainment, and a host of otherareas. It has become a magnanimous network of networks the measurement of whose size, impact, and content often elude serious scholarly effort.(2 Opening the Internet to common usage literally opened the flood gates of what has come to be known as the information superhighway. Currently, there is virtually no subject that cannot be found on the Internet in one form or another.

  12. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy eSemrau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbially-mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30 years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past five years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided.

  13. Requirements Engineering as Creative Problem Solving: A Research Agenda for Idea Finding

    OpenAIRE

    Maiden, N.; Jones, S.; Karlsen, I. K.; Neill, R.; Zachos, K.; Milne, A.

    2010-01-01

    This vision paper frames requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. Its purpose is to enable requirements researchers and practitioners to recruit relevant theories, models, techniques and tools from creative problem solving to understand and support requirements processes more effectively. It uses 4 drivers to motivate the case for requirements engineering as a creative problem solving process. It then maps established requirements activities onto one of the longest-esta...

  14. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra N. Bazzano

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  15. Human Performance Optimization Metrics: Consensus Findings, Gaps, and Recommendations for Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nindl, Bradley C; Jaffin, Dianna P; Dretsch, Michael N; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kent, Michael L; Grunberg, Neil E; Pierce, Joseph R; Barry, Erin S; Scott, Jonathan M; Young, Andrew J; OʼConnor, Francis G; Deuster, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Human performance optimization (HPO) is defined as "the process of applying knowledge, skills and emerging technologies to improve and preserve the capabilities of military members, and organizations to execute essential tasks." The lack of consensus for operationally relevant and standardized metrics that meet joint military requirements has been identified as the single most important gap for research and application of HPO. In 2013, the Consortium for Health and Military Performance hosted a meeting to develop a toolkit of standardized HPO metrics for use in military and civilian research, and potentially for field applications by commanders, units, and organizations. Performance was considered from a holistic perspective as being influenced by various behaviors and barriers. To accomplish the goal of developing a standardized toolkit, key metrics were identified and evaluated across a spectrum of domains that contribute to HPO: physical performance, nutritional status, psychological status, cognitive performance, environmental challenges, sleep, and pain. These domains were chosen based on relevant data with regard to performance enhancers and degraders. The specific objectives at this meeting were to (a) identify and evaluate current metrics for assessing human performance within selected domains; (b) prioritize metrics within each domain to establish a human performance assessment toolkit; and (c) identify scientific gaps and the needed research to more effectively assess human performance across domains. This article provides of a summary of 150 total HPO metrics across multiple domains that can be used as a starting point-the beginning of an HPO toolkit: physical fitness (29 metrics), nutrition (24 metrics), psychological status (36 metrics), cognitive performance (35 metrics), environment (12 metrics), sleep (9 metrics), and pain (5 metrics). These metrics can be particularly valuable as the military emphasizes a renewed interest in Human Dimension efforts

  16. The conceptual analysis of the instructional process: Research findings on students’ teacher reflections in art education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Hajdušková

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the linking pedagogical theory to teaching practicewith the aim to improve quality of education through its analytic reflection by teachersor student teachers. The text deals with the original method of didactic reflection– concept analysis. Concept analysis is characterized as a methodical instrument forreflection and evaluation of the instruction. It is based on investigation of didacticcontent transformation in educational processes and it is oriented to creative approachand experiential learning in the instruction. The explanation uses the results of research(2009–2010 on the state of didactic skills and pedagogical content knowledge of arteducation teachers during their didactic training.

  17. From outer space to Earth-The social significance of isolated and confined environment research in human space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Koji; Tachibana, Shoichi; Inoue, Natsuhiko

    2017-11-01

    Human space exploration requires massive budgets every fiscal year. Especially under severe financial constraint conditions, governments are forced to justify to society why spending so much tax revenue for human space exploration is worth the cost. The value of human space exploration might be estimated in many ways, but its social significance and cost-effectiveness are two key ways to gauge that worth. Since these measures should be applied country by country because sociopolitical conditions differ in each country and must be taken into consideration, the study on the social significance of human space exploration must take the coloration of a case-study. This paper, focusing on the case of Japan with surveying Japanese literary and national documents as well as taking its sociopolitical conditions into account, examines the social significance of human space exploration. First, we give an overview of the circumstances surrounding Japan's human space exploration program. Derived from the statements of such relevant parties as scholars, journalists, policy makers, and astronauts, this overview indicates that the main concerns about human space exploration in Japan are its social significance and cost-effectiveness (Section 1). Next, an overview of behavioral science-an essential field for human space exploration (referred to in this paper as space behavioral science) that provides support for astronauts-is presented from the perspective of stress research in isolated and confined environments (Section 2). We then give two examples of where such knowledge from space behavioral science research has been applied to terrestrial isolated and confined environments. One is JAXA's support in 2009 for people who were vulnerable to infection by a new strain of flu and accordingly placed in an isolated and confined facility under the Infectious Disease Law and the Quarantine Law. The other is NASA's support in 2010 for Chilean mine workers who were trapped 700 m

  18. An Example of the Use of Research Methods and Findings as an Experiential Learning Exercise in an Accounting Theory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Bruce; Philipich, Kirk; Blatz, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this teaching note is to describe an experiential learning exercise used in a master's level financial accounting theory course. The experiential exercise illustrates how order effects can affect user's judgments, a long-standing research finding. This experiential exercise was used in an attempt to make students more cognizant of…

  19. Statement Summarizing Research Findings on the Issue of the Relationship Between Food-Additive-Free Diets and Hyperkinesis in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Morris; Wender, Esther

    The National Advisory Committee on Hyperkinesis and Food Additives paper summarized some research findings on the issue of the relationship between food-additive-free diets and hyperkinesis in children. Based on several challenge studies, it is concluded that the evidence generally refutes Dr. B. F. Feingold's claim that artificial colorings in…

  20. Findings of Visual Arts Research in Early Childhood and Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Županić Benić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arts research was introduced in the field of education during the 1990s by Barone and Eisner, but their methodology is rarely used because it is not considered to be consistent with traditional paradigms of the scientific method. This review identified only seven visual arts research studies in early childhood education and primary education. Four studies were conducted in early childhood education settings, and two of those studies used quantitative methods to investigate the effects of art on early childhood development. The three studies that were conducted in primary education used a case study approach to examine art projects in the community or the classroom. Participation in visual arts was associated with enhanced learning outcomes in other areas and the development of individual and social competences, but it was not found to facilitate the development of age-dependent abilities, such as visual or grapho-motor abilities. Visual arts also proved to be an effective method of communication for children in preschool and primary education institutions because it is easier for them to express their opinions and beliefs to adults with visual media than with words.

  1. PLUME-FEATHER, referencing and finding software for research and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bénassy, O; Caron, C; Ferret-Canape, C; Cheylus, A; Courcelle, E; Dantec, C; Dayre, P; Dostes, T; Durand, A; Facq, A; Gambini, G; Morris, F; Geahchan, E; Helft, C; Hoffmann, D; Ingarao, M; Joly, P; Kieffer, J; Larré, J-M; Libes, M

    2014-01-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

  2. PLUME-FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénassy, O.; Caron, C.; Ferret-Canape, C.; Cheylus, A.; Courcelle, E.; Dantec, C.; Dayre, P.; Dostes, T.; Durand, A.; Facq, A.; Gambini, G.; Geahchan, E.; Helft, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Ingarao, M.; Joly, P.; Kieffer, J.; Larré, J.-M.; Libes, M.; Morris, F.; Parmentier, H.; Pérochon, L.; Porte, O.; Romier, G.; Rousse, D.; Tournoy, R.; Valeins, H.

    2014-06-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarEFor theHigher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA...), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME by more than 900 contributors. Although the server is maintained by a French institution, it is open to international contributions in the academic domain. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas (presently more than 2000) registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. The project has been presented to the HEP community in 2012 for the first time [1]. This is an update of the status and a call for (further) contributions.

  3. PLUME–FEATHER, Referencing and Finding Software for Research and Education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Dirk; Romier, Geneviève

    2012-01-01

    PLUME-FEATHER is a non-profit project created to Promote economicaL, Useful and Maintained softwarE For the Higher Education And THE Research communities. The site references software, mainly Free/Libre Open Source Software (FLOSS) from French universities and national research organisations, (CNRS, INRA…), laboratories or departments as well as other FLOSS software used and evaluated by users within these institutions. Each software is represented by a reference card, which describes origin, aim, installation, cost (if applicable) and user experience from the point of view of an academic user for academic users. Presently over 1000 programs are referenced on PLUME. Although the server is maintained by a french institution, it is completely open to international contributions in the academic domainb. All contained and validated contents are visible to anonymous public, whereas registered users can contribute, starting with comments on single software reference cards up to help with the organisation and presentation of the referenced software products. This first presentation is call for (further) contributions from the HEP community.

  4. Synergies, strengths and challenges: findings on community capability from a systematic health systems research literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha S. George

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community capability is the combined influence of a community’s social systems and collective resources that can address community problems and broaden community opportunities. We frame it as consisting of three domains that together support community empowerment: what communities have; how communities act; and for whom communities act. We sought to further understand these domains through a secondary analysis of a previous systematic review on community participation in health systems interventions in low and middle income countries (LMICs. Methods We searched for journal articles published between 2000 and 2012 related to the concepts of “community”, “capability/participation”, “health systems research” and “LMIC.” We identified 64 with rich accounts of community participation involving service delivery and governance in health systems research for thematic analysis following the three domains framing community capability. Results When considering what communities have, articles reported external linkages as the most frequently gained resource, especially when partnerships resulted in more community power over the intervention. In contrast, financial assets were the least mentioned, despite their importance for sustainability. With how communities act, articles discussed challenges of ensuring inclusive participation and detailed strategies to improve inclusiveness. Very little was reported about strengthening community cohesiveness and collective efficacy despite their importance in community initiatives. When reviewing for whom communities act, the importance of strong local leadership was mentioned frequently, while conflict resolution strategies and skills were rarely discussed. Synergies were found across these elements of community capability, with tangible success in one area leading to positive changes in another. Access to information and opportunities to develop skills were crucial to community

  5. What Counts in After School? Findings from the Massachusetts Afterschool Research Study (MARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M. Miller

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the Massachusetts Afterschool Research Study (MARS. Conducted during 2003-2005, MARS took an in-depth look at program structure and quality in 78 varied programs across Massachusetts, using data sources that included interviews with program directors, afterschool program site observations, school district student data, attendance data, and surveys with afterschool program staff, day school teachers, and afterschool program youth. The MARS study offers many useful insights into what afterschool programs look like, approaches to providing high quality experiences for youth, and the connections between high quality and improved outcomes for the young people attending these programs. The results may be useful to programs, policy makers, and others in the field by deepening our understanding of how youth participation leads to a variety of youth outcomes.

  6. Disaster media coverage and psychological outcomes: descriptive findings in the extant research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Newman, Elana; Nelson, Summer D; Nitiéma, Pascal; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Rahman, Ambreen

    2014-09-01

    This review of the literature on disaster media coverage describes the events, samples, and forms of media coverage (television, newspapers, radio, internet) studied and examines the association between media consumption and psychological outcomes. A total of 36 studies representing both man-made and natural events met criteria for review in this analysis. Most studies examined disaster television viewing in the context of terrorism and explored a range of outcomes including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) caseness and posttraumatic stress (PTS), depression, anxiety, stress reactions, and substance use. There is good evidence establishing a relationship between disaster television viewing and various psychological outcomes, especially PTSD caseness and PTS, but studies are too few to draw definitive conclusions about the other forms of media coverage that have been examined. As media technology continues to advance, future research is needed to investigate these additional media forms especially newer forms such as social media.

  7. Informed consent for exome sequencing research in families with genetic disease: the emerging issue of incidental findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergner, Amanda L; Bollinger, Juli; Raraigh, Karen S; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Blout, Carrie Lynn; Telegrafi, Aida Bytyci; James, Cynthia A

    2014-11-01

    Genomic sequencing technology is increasingly used in genetic research. Studies of informed consent for exome and genome sequencing (ES/GS) research have largely involved hypothetical scenarios or healthy individuals enrolling in population-based studies. Studies have yet to explore the consent experiences of adults with inherited disease. We conducted a qualitative interview study of 15 adults recently enrolled in a large-scale ES/GS study (11 affected adults, four parents of affected children). Our study had two goals: (1) to explore three theoretical barriers to consent for ES/GS research (interpretive/technical complexity, possibility of incidental findings, and risks of loss of privacy); and (2) to explore how interviewees experienced the consent process. Interviewees could articulate study goals and processes, describe incidental findings, discuss risks of privacy loss, and reflect on their consent experience. Few expected the study would identify the genetic cause of their condition. All elected to receive incidental findings. Interviewees acknowledged paying little attention to potential implications of incidental findings in light of more pressing goals of supporting research regarding their own medical conditions. Interviewees suggested that experience living with a genetic condition prepared them to adjust to incidental findings. Interviewees also expressed little concern about loss of confidentiality of study data. Some experienced the consent process as very long. None desired reconsent prior to return of study results. Families with inherited disease likely would benefit from a consent process in which study risks and benefits were discussed in the context of prior experiences with genetic research and genetic disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Exploring arts-based knowledge translation: sharing research findings through performing the patterns, rehearsing the results, staging the synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Kendra; Schultz, Annette S H

    2014-04-01

    Cultivation of knowledge translation (KT) strategies that actively engage health professionals in critical reflection of their practice and research-based evidence are imperative to address the research-practice gap. While research-based evidence is exponentially growing, our ability to facilitate uptake by nurses and other health professionals has not kept pace. Innovative approaches that extend epistemological bias beyond a singular standpoint of postpositivism, such as the utilization of arts-based methods, expand the possibility to address the complexities of context, engage audience members, promote dissemination within communities of practice, and foster new audiences interested in research findings. In this paper, we address the importance of adopting a social constructivist epistemological stance to facilitate knowledge translation to diverse audiences, explore various arts-based knowledge translation (ABKT) strategies, and open a dialogue concerning evaluative tenets of ABKT. ABKT utilizes various art forms to disseminate research knowledge to diverse audiences and promote evidence-informed practice. ABKT initiatives translate knowledge not based upon a linear model, which views knowledge as an objective entity, but rather operate from the premise that knowledge is socially situated, which demands acknowledging and engaging the learner within their context. Theatre, dance, photography, and poetry are art forms that are commonly used to communicate research findings to diverse audiences. Given the emerging interest and importance of utilizing this KT strategy situated within a social constructivist epistemology, potential challenges and plausible evaluative criteria specific to ABKT are presented. ABKT is an emerging KT strategy that is grounded in social constructivist epistemological tenets, and holds potential for meaningfully sharing new research knowledge with diverse audiences. ABKT is an innovative and synergistic approach to traditional

  9. EMSODEV and EPOS-IP: key findings for effective management of EU research infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materia, Paola; Bozzoli, Sabrina; Beranzoli, Laura; Cocco, Massimo; Favali, Paolo; Freda, Carmela; Sangianantoni, Agata

    2017-04-01

    EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, http://www.emso-eu.org) and EPOS (European Plate Observing System, https://www.epos-ip.org) are pan-European Research Infrastructures (RIs) in the ESFRI 2016 Roadmap. EMSO has recently become an ERIC (European Research Infrastructure Consortium), whilst EPOS application is in progress. Both ERICs will be hosted in Italy and the "Representing Entity" is INGV. EMSO consists of oceanic environment observation systems spanning from the Arctic through the Atlantic and Mediterranean, to the Black Sea for long-term, high-resolution, real-time monitoring of natural and man-induced processes such as hazards, climate, and marine ecosystems changes to study their evolution and interconnections. EPOS aims at creating a pan-European infrastructure for solid Earth science to support a safe and sustainable society. EPOS will enable innovative multidisciplinary research for a better understanding of Earth's physical and chemical processes controlling earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, ground instability, tsunami, and all those processes driving tectonics and Earth's surface dynamics. Following the conclusion of their Preparatory Phases the two RIs are now in their Implementation Phase still supported by the EC through the EMSODEV and EPOS-IP projects, both run by dedicated Project Management Offices at INGV with sound experience in EU projects. EMSODEV (H2020 project, 2015-2018) involves 11 partners and 9 associate partners and aims at improving the harmonization among the EMSO ERIC observation systems through the realization of EMSO Generic Instrument Modules (EGIMs), and a Data Management Platform (DMP) to implement interoperability and standardization. The DMP will provide access to data from all EMSO nodes, providing a unified, homogeneous, infrastructure-scale and user-oriented platform integrated with the increased measurement capabilities and functions provided by the EGIMs. EPOS IP (H2020 project, 2015

  10. Why public information works: Research findings on organizational and individual impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisconti, A.S.

    1989-01-01

    Broad and growing public recognition of the importance of nuclear energy in the United States is evident in the public opinion polls, continued defeat of antinuclear referenda, positive Congressional actions, and open support by politicians-from the National Conference of State Legislatures to President Bush. At leadership levels, the need to address the looming electricity crisis without increasing dependence on foreign oil or greenhouse gas emissions is being voiced increasingly. Within this context, the industry is beginning to be successful in getting its message across to the American public through national advertising and media and public relations programs of the U.S. Council for Energy Awareness (USCEA). And the author knows that the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Public Information Committee is working hard in complementary kinds of public education. Research shows that the public's attitudes toward nuclear energy become more favorable when they are exposed to public information and that a more active scientific community could greatly increase public recognition of the benefits that nuclear energy provides

  11. Finding an optimization of the plate element of Egyptian research reactor using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahed, M.; Ibrahim, W.; Effat, A.

    2008-01-01

    The second Egyptian research reactor ET-RR-2 went critical on the 27th of November 1997. The National Center of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control (NCNSRC) has the responsibility of the evaluation and assessment of the safety of this reactor. The purpose of this paper is to present an approach to optimization of the fuel element plate. For an efficient search through the solution space we use a multi objective genetic algorithm which allows us to identify a set of Pareto optimal solutions providing the decision maker with the complete spectrum of optimal solutions with respect to the various targets. The aim of this paper is to propose a new approach for optimizing the fuel element plate in the reactor. The fuel element plate is designed with a view to improve reliability and lifetime and it is one of the most important elements during the shut down. In this present paper, we present a conceptual design approach for fuel element plate, in conjunction with a genetic algorithm to obtain a fuel plate that maximizes a fitness value to optimize the safety design of the fuel plate. (authors)

  12. Environmental policy instruments and technological change in the energy sector: findings from comparative empirical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjaerseth, J.B.; Christiansen, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the extent to which and in what ways environmental policy instruments may affect patterns of environmental friendly technological change in the energy sector. Our argument is based on the assumption, however, that technological change is also affected by the political context in which the instruments are applied and by the nature of the problem itself. Comparative empirical research involving different European countries, sectors and policy fields were examined, including climate change, air pollution and wind power. The relationship between environmental policy instruments and technological change is extremely complex, not least due to the impact of other factors that may be more decisive than environmental ones. Against this backdrop, it was concluded that: 1) a portfolio of policy instruments works to the extent that different types of policy instruments affect the different drivers and stages behind technological change needed to solve specific problems. The need for a portfolio of policy instruments depends on the technological challenge being faced; 2) voluntary approaches facilitated constructive corporate strategies, but mandatory approaches tended to be more effective in stimulating short term major technological change; 3) voluntary approaches work well in the short term when the problem to be solved is characterized by lack of information and coordination. (author)

  13. Finding cancer driver mutations in the era of big data research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulos, Rebecca C; Wong, Jason W H

    2018-04-02

    In the last decade, the costs of genome sequencing have decreased considerably. The commencement of large-scale cancer sequencing projects has enabled cancer genomics to join the big data revolution. One of the challenges still facing cancer genomics research is determining which are the driver mutations in an individual cancer, as these contribute only a small subset of the overall mutation profile of a tumour. Focusing primarily on somatic single nucleotide mutations in this review, we consider both coding and non-coding driver mutations, and discuss how such mutations might be identified from cancer sequencing datasets. We describe some of the tools and database that are available for the annotation of somatic variants and the identification of cancer driver genes. We also address the use of genome-wide variation in mutation load to establish background mutation rates from which to identify driver mutations under positive selection. Finally, we describe the ways in which mutational signatures can act as clues for the identification of cancer drivers, as these mutations may cause, or arise from, certain mutational processes. By defining the molecular changes responsible for driving cancer development, new cancer treatment strategies may be developed or novel preventative measures proposed.

  14. A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, M P; McGowan, J J

    2001-01-01

    The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals. Based on the results of a needs assessment, a virtual medical library was created; various levels of training were provided. Virtual library users were asked to complete a Likert-type survey, which included questions on intent of use and impact of use. At the conclusion of the project period, structured interviews were conducted. Impact of the virtual health sciences library showed a strong correlation with the impact of information provided by health sciences librarians. Both interventions resulted in avoidance of adverse health events. Data collected from the structured interviews confirmed the perceived value of the virtual library. While librarians continue to hold a strong position in supporting information access for health care providers, their roles in the information age must begin to move away from providing information toward selecting and organizing knowledge resources and instruction in their use.

  15. A rural virtual health sciences library project: research findings with implications for next generation library services*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richwine, Margaret (Peggy); McGowan, Julie J.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The Shared Hospital Electronic Library of Southern Indiana (SHELSI) research project was designed to determine whether access to a virtual health sciences library and training in its use would support medical decision making in rural southern Indiana and achieve the same level of impact seen by targeted information services provided by health sciences librarians in urban hospitals. Methods: Based on the results of a needs assessment, a virtual medical library was created; various levels of training were provided. Virtual library users were asked to complete a Likert-type survey, which included questions on intent of use and impact of use. At the conclusion of the project period, structured interviews were conducted. Results: Impact of the virtual health sciences library showed a strong correlation with the impact of information provided by health sciences librarians. Both interventions resulted in avoidance of adverse health events. Data collected from the structured interviews confirmed the perceived value of the virtual library. Conclusion: While librarians continue to hold a strong position in supporting information access for health care providers, their roles in the information age must begin to move away from providing information toward selecting and organizing knowledge resources and instruction in their use. PMID:11209799

  16. On norms and bodies: findings from field research on cosmetic surgery in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorneles de Andrade, Daniela

    2010-05-01

    Brazil has the second highest rate of cosmetic surgery worldwide, provided in a large number of public and private clinics and hospitals, especially in the southeast. This qualitative field research in Rio de Janeiro included participant observation and in-depth interviews with 18 women cosmetic surgery patients, 10 key informants (e.g. psychologists and sociologists) and 12 plastic surgeons. Fifteen of the women were either pre- or post-operative; three had not decided whether to have surgery. When asked about their motivations and expectations of the surgery, the majority of the women said they wanted to be "normal". Most of the surgeons said they acted as empathic companions from decision-making through surgery and beyond. Many of the key informants were critical of what was happening to medical ethics in relation to cosmetic surgery. With the growth in a consumer culture, they saw ethics in medicine becoming more bendable and subject to the "law" of the market. The cult of the body has become a mass phenomenon and taken on an important social dimension in a society where norms and images are broadcast widely by the media. The trend towards body-modification by cosmetic surgery at an early age is increasing dramatically. What demands critical thinking and further investigation are the consequences of cosmetic surgery for physical and mental health. Copyright 2010 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Construction ages of the Upton Stone Chamber: Preliminary findings and suggestions for future luminescence research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Shannon; Martin, Frederick; Taylor, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    The Upton Chamber in Massachusetts, an earth-covered stone structure 3.4 meters (m) in diameter, with a corbelled stone dome, and a 4.3 m long entrance passageway, is studied with the aim of determining whether optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating methods can be used to establish the approximate construction date of the entranceway. Three samples, taken from soil behind the lowest stones in the wall of the entrance passageway, returned OSL ages between 385 and 660 years ago (or from 1625 A.D. to 1350 A.D.; using the year 2011 as the 0 year). One sample, taken below the bottom of the artifact layers in an archeological test pit in front of the chamber entrance, returned OSL ages between 650 and 880 years ago. A modern sample collected from a nearby fluvial channel returned an age between 55 and 175 years. The Upton Chamber OSL sampling results are challenging to interpret because there are mixtures in the samples of both younger and older grains that likely result from human modification, root or soil processes, animal bioturbation (i.e. ants and worms), and/or partial bleaching. The ages were determined using the lowest component of the finite mixture model as applied to a distribution of quartz grains. Further research may enable us to determine whether older components are of anthropomorphic or geological origin.

  18. Factors associated with home hazards: Findings from the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romli, Muhammad H; Tan, Maw P; Mackenzie, Lynette; Lovarini, Meryl; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul B; Clemson, Lindy

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have investigated home hazards as a risk factor for falls without considering factors associated with the presence of home hazards. The present study aimed to determine patterns of home hazards among urban community-dwelling older Malaysians, and to identify factors contributing to home hazards. Cross-sectional data from the initial wave of the Malaysian Elders Longitudinal Research study were used. Basic demographics were obtained from the Global Questionnaire. Basic and instrumental activities of daily living were measured using the Katz and Lawton-Brody scales, and home hazards were identified using the Home Falls and Accidents Screening Tool. Participants were also asked if they had fallen in the previous 12 months. Data were analyzed from 1489 participants. Hazards were frequently identified (>30%) in the toilet and bathroom areas (no grab rail, no non-slip mat, distant toilet), slippery floors, no bedside light access and inappropriate footwear. Lower educational attainment, traditional housing, Chinese ethnicity, greater number of home occupants, lower monthly expenditure, poor vision and younger age were the factors independently associated with home hazards. This study provides evidence that home hazards are a product of the interaction of the individual's function within their home environment. Hazards are also influenced by local sociocultural and environmental factors. The relationship between home hazards and falls appears complex and deserves further evaluation. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 387-395. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  19. Judicial Performance and Experiences of Judicial Work: Findings from Socio-legal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharyn Roach Anleu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Judicial performance evaluation processes and programs tend to imply an abstract, normative model of the proper judge. The focus is on the individual judicial officer, identifying how judges ought to perform their judicial work and assessing any departures from the model. However, there is considerable diversity in judging which abstract models of JPE may not anticipate. Importantly, judicial performance occurs within a context – the practical and natural settings in which every day judicial work is undertaken. This entails time constraints, workload patterns, and dependence on the activities of others, factors over which the judicial officer may have little control, but which in turn may affect his/her behaviour. Often, judicial performance is taken to refer to in-court work only. Judicial work also occurs outside court and outside regular court hours and so may be less visible for judicial performance evaluation. Although there is considerable variety in judicial experiences of judging, JPE only sometimes includes self-perceptions or judges’ own reflections on their work. Social science and socio-legal research, including original empirical data from Australia, investigates judging in various contexts and explores judicial officers’ experiences of their work. Such empirical research can widen understandings of judicial performance and evaluation. Los procesos y programas de evaluación del rendimiento judicial tienden a implicar un modelo normativo abstracto del juez competente. La atención se centra en el funcionario judicial individual, identificando cómo deben realizar su labor los jueces y determinando cualquier desviación respecto al modelo. Sin embargo, a la hora de juzgar, existe una gran diversidad que los modelos abstractos de evaluación del rendimiento judicial no pueden anticipar. Es importante destacar que el desempeño judicial se produce en un contexto – el marco práctico y natural en el que se desarrolla cada d

  20. [The significance of introducing registry study in the post-marketing safety research for Chinese medicine and pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Chang, Yan-Peng

    2014-03-01

    There is a new research model named 'registry study/patient registry' in Western medicine, which could be referred to by Chinese medicine researchers, such as active safety surveillance. This article will introduce registry study from different aspects as the developing history, features, and application in order to inform Chinese medicine researchers of future studies.

  1. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or

  2. Finding the community in sustainable online community engagement: Not-for-profit organisation websites, service-learning and research

    OpenAIRE

    Dodd, Alice

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the use of action research (2008–2014) based on a case study of the Sustainable Online Community Engagement (SOCE) Project, a service-learning project in which University of South Australia students build websites for not-for-profit (NFP) organisations, to demonstrate that effective teaching, public service and research are interdependent. A significant problem experienced in the SOCE project was that, despite some training and ongoing assistance, the community organisat...

  3. 'Knowledge for better health' revisited - the increasing significance of health research systems: a review by departing Editors-in-Chief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A

    2017-10-02

    How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems. HARPS has maintained its focus on a range of central themes that are key components of a national health research system in any country. These include building capacity to conduct and use health research, identifying appropriate priorities, securing funds and allocating them accountably, producing scientifically valid research outputs, promoting the use of research in polices and practice in order to improve health, and monitoring and evaluating the health research system. Some of the themes covered in HARPS are now receiving increased attention and, for example, with the assessment of research impact and development of knowledge translation platforms, the journal has covered their progress throughout that expansion of interest. In addition, there is increasing recognition of new imperatives, including the importance of promoting gender equality in health research if benefits are to be maximised. In this Editorial, we outline some of the diverse and developing perspectives considered within each theme, as well as considering how they are held together by the growing desire to build effective health research systems in all countries.From 2003 until mid-June 2017, HARPS published 590 articles on the above and related themes, with authors being located in 76 countries. We present quantitative data tracing

  4. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munung, Ns; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

    2014-05-01

    Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. TO CHECK IF A THESIS RESULTED IN A PUBLICATION, WE SEARCHED: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals

  5. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  6. Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) registry VII: prevalence and clinical significance of serositis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Bai, W; Zhu, P; Zhang, X; Liu, S; Wu, L; Ma, L; Bi, L; Zuo, X; Sun, L; Huang, C; Tian, X; Li, M; Zhao, Y; Zeng, X

    2016-05-01

    To investigate both the prevalence and clinical characteristics of serositis in Chinese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a large cohort in the Chinese SLE Treatment and Research group (CSTAR) database. A prospective cross-sectional study of patients with SLE was conducted based on the data from the CSTAR registry. Serositis was defined according to the 1999 revised American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for SLE - that is, pleuritis/pleural effusion and/or pericarditis/pericardial effusion detected by echocardiography, chest X-ray or chest computerized tomography (CT) scan. Peritonitis/peritoneal effusion were confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography. We analysed the prevalence and clinical associations of serositis with demographic data, organ involvements, laboratory findings and SLE disease activity. Of 2104 patients with SLE, 345 were diagnosed with serositis. The prevalence of lupus nephritis (LN), interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension, as well as the presence of leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, hypocomplementemia and anti-dsDNA antibodies was significantly higher in patients with serositis (P Lupus-related peritonitis had similar clinical manifestations and laboratory profiles as serositis caused by SLE. There is a significant association of nephropathy, interstitial lung disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, hypocomplementemia, leukocytopenia, thrombocytopenia and elevated anti-dsDNA antibodies with serositis. The results suggest that higher SLE disease activity contributes to serositis development, and should be treated aggressively. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The ROOTS study: a 10-year review of findings on adolescent depression, and recommendations for future longitudinal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gemma; Jones, Peter B; Goodyer, Ian M

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to review longitudinal findings on adolescent mental health from the 'ROOTS study', and provide directions and recommendations for future longitudinal research. To do this, we discuss relevant findings from the ROOTS study, and review its strengths and limitations. We examined all publications from the ROOTS study up to July 2015, selected those examining adolescent mental health, and classified them as investigating (a) childhood risk factors for adolescent depression, (b) genetic and cognitive vulnerability to depression in adolescence, (c) genetic markers, childhood adversities, and neuroendophenotypes, (d) morning cortisol and depression, (e) physical activity and depression symptoms, and (f) the underlying structure of mental health in adolescence. We reviewed the strengths and limitations of the ROOTS study, and how they feed into recommendations for future longitudinal research. There was evidence supporting a putative hormonal biomarker for the emergence of depression in boys. Environmental pathways from child adversity to adolescent depression were confirmed in girls, partly accounted for by negative life events in early adolescence. The preceding role of automatic cognitive biases assessed using behavioural tasks was substantiated, with evidence for genetic susceptibility. Novel latent statistical models of child adversity, depression, anxiety, and psychotic experiences were produced, with concurrent and prospective validity. Our experiences conducting the ROOTS study resulted in a set of strengths, limitations, and recommendations for future longitudinal studies. The ROOTS study has advanced knowledge on the aetiology of adolescent depression by investigating environmental, genetic, hormonal, and neural risk factors. Findings provide a foundation for future research integrating cognitive neuroscience with epidemiology.

  8. Radical university-industry innovation – research design and preliminary findings from an on-going qualitative case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gertsen, Frank; Nielsen, René Nesgaard

    and it is arguing that there is a lack of in-depth understanding of such collaborative radical innovation processes. The paper then suggests an abductive research design for an explorative in-depth case study of collaborative radical innovation involving a university and an established Danish manufacturing firm....... Some preliminary findings are presented and briefly discussed, including the role of the university’s formal set-up to deal with IPR/commercialisation and the researchers’ personal networking with industry as well as challenges concerning the sharing of IPR/commercialisation outcomes....

  9. Alignment of Sexuality Education with Self Determination for People with Significant Disabilities: A Review of Research and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Jason; Tincani, Matt; Whitby, Peggy Schaefer; Boutot, E. Amanda

    2014-01-01

    Sexual development is a complex but vital part of the human experience. People with significant disabilities are not excluded from this principle, but often may be prevented from receiving high-quality and comprehensive instruction necessary for a healthy sexual life. The functional model of self-determination emphasizes increasing knowledge,…

  10. Team-Based Learning, Faculty Research, and Grant Writing Bring Significant Learning Experiences to an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Hedeel Guy; Heyl, Deborah L.; Liggit, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    This biochemistry laboratory course was designed to provide significant learning experiences to expose students to different ways of succeeding as scientists in academia and foster development and improvement of their potential and competency as the next generation of investigators. To meet these goals, the laboratory course employs three…

  11. Finding and engaging patients and the public to work collaboratively on an acute infection microbiology research public panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Sally; Evans, David; Gibson, Andy; Chin, Teh Li; Stoddart, Margaret; Kok, Michele; Campbell, Richard; Kenny, Val; MacGowan, Alasdair

    2018-01-01

    In 2015 a microbiology team in Bristol joined a European research project that aims to develop new antibiotics to fight drug resistant infections. The microbiology team were convinced of the benefits of patient and public involvement, but had found it difficult to find former patients to work with on earlier microbiology research. This paper describes how the team overcame this challenge to successfully recruit a PPI panel to develop PPI within the European project.The advice from people with experience in public involvement was to decide what criteria were desirable for panel membership, think about what the work of the panel might involve and how long the project will go on. The team decided that experience of suffering a serious acute infection would qualify people to comment on this project. Next, the team needed to identify ways of finding people to join the PPI panel.The microbiology research team tried different ways to approach potential panel members. These included distributing flyers at public research events, sending emails to potentially interested people, posting a message on the hospital Facebook page and approaching eligible people known to the team. A direct approach was the most successful method - either by email, mail or in person. Ultimately 16 people were selected to form the panel. Key factors for success were planning what the work of the panel might be, perseverance despite early lack of success, and one person having overall responsibility for setting up the panel, with the support of the whole team. Background In 2015 the microbiology research team became involved in a large European programme of research aiming to bring new antimicrobial drugs onto the market to combat the increasing problem of multi-drug resistant infection. With the purpose of developing patient and public involvement (PPI) in this project, the team decided to recruit a PPI panel to work with. The microbiology team had previously worked with a PPI panel on other

  12. The financial management of research centers and institutes at U.S. medical schools: findings from six institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, William T

    2006-06-01

    To explore three questions surrounding the financial management of research centers and institutes at U.S. medical schools: How do medical schools allocate institutional funds to centers and institutes? How and by whom are those decisions made? What are the implications of these decision-making models on the future of the academic biomedical research enterprise? Using a qualitative research design, the author and associates interviewed over 150 faculty members and administrators at six medical schools and their parent universities in 2004. Interview data were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. This methodology generated rich descriptions and explanations of the six medical schools, which can produce extrapolations to, but not necessarily generalizable findings to, other institutions and settings. An examination of four dimensions of financial decision-making-funding timing, process, structure, and culture-produces two essential models of how medical schools approach the financial management of research centers. In the first, a "charity" model, center directors make hat-in-hand appeals directly to the dean, the result of which may depend on individual negotiation skills and personal relationships. In the second, a "planned-giving" model, the process for obtaining and renewing funds is institutionalized, agreed upon, and monitored. The ways in which deans, administrators, department chairs, and center directors attend to, decide upon, and carry out financial decisions can influence how people throughout the medical school think about interdisciplinary and collaborative activities marshalled though centers and institutes.

  13. Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in ireland - a veterinary perspective

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2008-10-01

    Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets\\' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens\\' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.

  14. Animal abuse and intimate partner violence: researching the link and its significance in ireland - a veterinary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Research on domestic violence has established a substantial association between intimate partner abuse and the abuse of children within the home. It is only recently however, that researchers have demonstrated the correlation between non-accidental injury in animals, and abuse of women by their intimate male partners. A growing body of evidence suggests that animal abuse can be an early indicator for other forms of violent behaviour. This research includes the responses of a sample of 23 women using refuge services in the Republic of Ireland. It investigates the connection between domestic violence and animal abuse, and ascertains if there is sufficient support service for animals and people relevant to domestic abuse. In the survey population, 57% of women reported witnessing one or more forms of abuse, or threats of abuse, of their pets. Five of which were reported to have resulted in the death of the pet. Eighty seven per cent of women felt a facility to accommodate pets would have made their decision to leave the family home easier. Four women disclosed that lack of such a service and concern for the welfare of their companion animals caused them to remain in their abusive relationships for longer than they felt appropriate. Nine families placed pets in the care of family or friends, one woman is unaware of the fate of her pet, while the pets of six families remained with the abusive male after his partner entered a refuge. The majority of women felt unable to talk to anyone about their fears for their pets' welfare. Many felt that there is no service which can provide temporary accommodation for womens' pets while they are in refuge. The results obtained support those found elsewhere in larger studies in the USA and UK, and demonstrate an association of animal abuse in households where there is reported domestic violence.

  15. Some properties of castor oil affecting its performance as a capacitor impregnant and their significance to future impregnant research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boicourt, G.P.

    1975-01-01

    For a considerable time castor oil and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) have been the principal impregnants used in energy-storage capacitors. Castor oil has proven to be better than PCB for pulsed applications. PCB's have come under attack as an environmental hazard, while castor oil is a vegetable product and its supply and quality are subject to fluctuation. These two facts make the development of new impregnants desirable. The properties of PCB as a capacitor impregnant are well known. This paper first compares a number of properties of castor oil and PCB's. A comparison is made between the lives of castor oil capacitors and comparable PCB energy-storage capacitors. Some of the physical and chemical properties of castor oil which make it a good pulse capacitor impregnant are examined. These properties can be used as a guide for future research on new pulse capacitor impregnants

  16. Cognitive Biases in Children and Adolescents With Chronic Pain: A Review of Findings and a Call for Developmental Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer Y F; Heathcote, Lauren C; Beale, Sarah; Gray, Suzy; Jacobs, Konrad; Wilkinson, Nick; Crombez, Geert

    2018-06-01

    Cognitive biases that emphasize bodily harm, injury, and illness could play a role in the maintenance of chronic pain by facilitating fear and avoidance. Whereas extensive research has established attention, interpretation, and memory biases in adults with chronic pain, far less is known about these same biases in children and adolescents with pain. Studying cognitive biases in attention, interpretation, and memory in relation to pain occurring in youth is important because youth is a time when pain can first become chronic, and when relationships between cognitive biases and pain outcomes emerge and stabilize. Thus, youth potentially offers a time window for the prevention of chronic pain problems. In this article, we summarize the growing corpus of data that have measured cognitive biases in relation to pediatric pain. We conclude that although biases in attention, interpretation, and memory characterize children and adolescents with varying pain experiences, questions regarding the direction, magnitude, nature, and role of these biases remain. We call for independent extension of cognitive bias research in children and adolescents, using well powered longitudinal studies with wide age ranges and psychometrically sound experimental measures to clarify these findings and any developmental trends in the links between cognitive biases and pain outcomes. This article provides a rationale for the theoretical and practical importance of studying the role of cognitive biases in children and adolescents with chronic pain, which has to date, been relatively understudied. Existing findings are reviewed critically, and recommendations for future research are offered. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lessons for tsunami risk mitigation from recent events occured in Chile: research findings for alerting and evacuation from interdisciplinary perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cienfuegos, R.; Catalan, P. A.; Leon, J.; Gonzalez, G.; Repetto, P.; Urrutia, A.; Tomita, T.; Orellana, V.

    2016-12-01

    In the wake of the 2010 tsunami that hit Chile, a major public effort to promote interdisciplinary disaster reseach was undertaken by the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (Conicyt) allocating funds to create the Center for Integrated Research on Natural Risks Management (CIGIDEN). This effort has been key in promoting associativity between national and international research teams in order to transform the frequent occurrence of extreme events that affect Chile into an opportunity for interdisciplinary research. In this presentation we will summarize some of the fundamental research findings regarding tsunami forecasting, alerting, and evacuation processes based on interdisciplinary field work campaigns and modeling efforts conducted in the wake of the three most recent destructive events that hit Chile in 2010, 2014, and 2015. One of the main results that we shall emphatize from these findings, is that while research and operational efforts to model and forecast tsunamis are important, technological positivisms should not undermine educational efforts that have proved to be effective in reducing casualties due to tsunamis in the near field. Indeed, in recent events that hit Chile, first tsunami waves reached the adjacent generation zones in time scales comparable with the required time for data gathering and modeling even for the most sophisticated early warning tsunami algorithms currently available. The latter emphasizes self-evacuation from coastal areas, while forecasting and monitoring tsunami hazards remain very important for alerting more distant areas, and are essential for alert cancelling especially when shelf and embayment resonance, and edge wave propagation may produce destructive late tsunami arrivals several hours after the nucleation of the earthquake. By combining some of the recent evidence we have gathered in Chile on seismic source uncertainities (both epistemic and aleatoric), tsunami hydrodynamics, the response

  18. Finding the community in sustainable online community engagement: Not-for-profit organisation websites, service-learning and research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Dodd

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the use of action research (2008–2014 based on a case study of the Sustainable Online Community Engagement (SOCE Project, a service-learning project in which University of South Australia students build websites for not-for-profit (NFP organisations, to demonstrate that effective teaching, public service and research are interdependent. A significant problem experienced in the SOCE project was that, despite some training and ongoing assistance, the community organisations reported that they found it difficult to make effective use of their websites. One of the proposed solutions was to develop an online community of the participating organisations that would be self-supporting, member-driven and collaborative, and enable the organisations to share information about web-based technology. The research reported here explored the usefulness of developing such an online community for the organisations involved and sought alternative ways to assist the organisations to maintain an effective and sustainable web presence. The research used a three-phase ethnographic action research approach. The first phase was a content analysis and review of the editing records of 135 organisational websites hosted by the SOCE project. The second phase was an online survey sent to 145 community organisation members responsible for the management of these websites, resulting in 48 responses. The third phase consisted of semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 18 of the website managers from 12 of these organisations. The research revealed the extent to which organisations were unable to manage their websites and found that the proposed solution of an online community would not be useful. More importantly, it suggested other useful strategies which have been implemented. In Furco’s (2010 model of the engaged campus, public engagement can be used to advance the public service, teaching and research components of higher education’s tripartite

  19. Development of free statistical software enabling researchers to calculate confidence levels, clinical significance curves and risk-benefit contours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Mukherjee, R.K.; Gebski, V.J.

    2003-01-01

    Confidence levels, clinical significance curves, and risk-benefit contours are tools improving analysis of clinical studies and minimizing misinterpretation of published results, however no software has been available for their calculation. The objective was to develop software to help clinicians utilize these tools. Excel 2000 spreadsheets were designed using only built-in functions, without macros. The workbook was protected and encrypted so that users can modify only input cells. The workbook has 4 spreadsheets for use in studies comparing two patient groups. Sheet 1 comprises instructions and graphic examples for use. Sheet 2 allows the user to input the main study results (e.g. survival rates) into a 2-by-2 table. Confidence intervals (95%), p-value and the confidence level for Treatment A being better than Treatment B are automatically generated. An additional input cell allows the user to determine the confidence associated with a specified level of benefit. For example if the user wishes to know the confidence that Treatment A is at least 10% better than B, 10% is entered. Sheet 2 automatically displays clinical significance curves, graphically illustrating confidence levels for all possible benefits of one treatment over the other. Sheet 3 allows input of toxicity data, and calculates the confidence that one treatment is more toxic than the other. It also determines the confidence that the relative toxicity of the most effective arm does not exceed user-defined tolerability. Sheet 4 automatically calculates risk-benefit contours, displaying the confidence associated with a specified scenario of minimum benefit and maximum risk of one treatment arm over the other. The spreadsheet is freely downloadable at www.ontumor.com/professional/statistics.htm A simple, self-explanatory, freely available spreadsheet calculator was developed using Excel 2000. The incorporated decision-making tools can be used for data analysis and improve the reporting of results of any

  20. Climate change and human infectious diseases: A synthesis of research findings from global and spatio-temporal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lu; Gong, Peng

    2017-06-01

    The life cycles and transmission of most infectious agents are inextricably linked with climate. In spite of a growing level of interest and progress in determining climate change effects on infectious disease, the debate on the potential health outcomes remains polarizing, which is partly attributable to the varying effects of climate change, different types of pathogen-host systems, and spatio-temporal scales. We summarize the published evidence and show that over the past few decades, the reported negative or uncertain responses of infectious diseases to climate change has been growing. A feature of the research tendency is the focus on temperature and insect-borne diseases at the local and decadal scale. Geographically, regions experiencing higher temperature anomalies have been given more research attention; unfortunately, the Earth's most vulnerable regions to climate variability and extreme events have been less studied. From local to global scales, agreements on the response of infectious diseases to climate change tend to converge. So far, an abundance of findings have been based on statistical methods, with the number of mechanistic studies slowly growing. Research gaps and trends identified in this study should be addressed in the future. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. FIRST AND SECOND LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT IN YOUNG CHILDREN AND BILINGUALISM IN LIGHT OF LINGUISTICS, NEUROLINGUISTICS AND FINDINGS FROM BRAIN RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus PINAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review shows that infants begin picking up elements of what will be their first language in the womb, and certainly long before their first coo according to the current guidelines and it presents a descriptive approach to bilingualism and multilingualism. This article is the outcome of a thorough survey of literature and primarily it aims to present the similarities and differences between the L1 and L2 acquisition in light of linguistics, neurolinguistics and findings from brain research. This Review will illustrate various thought and new hypotheses on first and second language development, bilingualism and multilingualism derived from studies in linguistics, neurolinguistics and brain research. In the context of our paper we shall try to describe aspects and stages of first language acquisition from even before birth especially the 20th week of the fetal development of the baby to 60th week of life, as well as the second language acquisition process, which is divided into three types: simultaneous, consecutive and adult. In particular, we will present and discuss some of the main results of the brain researchers like Franceschini and De Bleser and we shall interpret them.

  2. The impact on healthcare, policy and practice from 36 multi-project research programmes: findings from two reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanney, Steve; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Blatch-Jones, Amanda; Glover, Matthew; Raftery, James

    2017-03-28

    We sought to analyse the impacts found, and the methods used, in a series of assessments of programmes and portfolios of health research consisting of multiple projects. We analysed a sample of 36 impact studies of multi-project research programmes, selected from a wider sample of impact studies included in two narrative systematic reviews published in 2007 and 2016. We included impact studies in which the individual projects in a programme had been assessed for wider impact, especially on policy or practice, and where findings had been described in such a way that allowed them to be collated and compared. Included programmes were highly diverse in terms of location (11 different countries plus two multi-country ones), number of component projects (8 to 178), nature of the programme, research field, mode of funding, time between completion and impact assessment, methods used to assess impact, and level of impact identified. Thirty-one studies reported on policy impact, 17 on clinician behaviour or informing clinical practice, three on a combined category such as policy and clinician impact, and 12 on wider elements of impact (health gain, patient benefit, improved care or other benefits to the healthcare system). In those multi-programme projects that assessed the respective categories, the percentage of projects that reported some impact was policy 35% (range 5-100%), practice 32% (10-69%), combined category 64% (60-67%), and health gain/health services 27% (6-48%). Variations in levels of impact achieved partly reflected differences in the types of programme, levels of collaboration with users, and methods and timing of impact assessment. Most commonly, principal investigators were surveyed; some studies involved desk research and some interviews with investigators and/or stakeholders. Most studies used a conceptual framework such as the Payback Framework. One study attempted to assess the monetary value of a research programme's health gain. The widespread

  3. The operation of a Research and Development (R&D) program and its significance for practice change in community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansyah, Andi; Sainsbury, Erica; Krass, Ines

    2017-01-01

    Community pharmacy practice in Australia is changing and Research and Development (R&D) in community pharmacy plays an important role in contributing to the changes. A range of Cognitive Pharmacy Services (CPS) were developed from R&D programs, yet their implementation has been minimal indicating slow practice change within community pharmacy. Given the vital role of R&D, little is known about the operation and the extent to which it has been effective in supporting practice change in community pharmacy. In depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 key stakeholders in the pharmacy and healthcare system in Australia. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and analysed using an inductive approach. Participants perceived that the R&D program has played an important role in the advent of CPS. Furthermore, they considered that evidence generated by the R&D projects is a critical influence on policy formulation, funding and implementation of CPS into practice. However, policy decisions and subsequent implementation are also influenced by other factors associated with context and facilitation which in turn foster or inhibit effective Knowledge Translation (KT) in the community pharmacy sector. While R&D programs have been viewed as essential for supporting changes in community pharmacy practice through development and funding of CPS, the overall impact has been small, as contemporary practice continues to be predominantly a dispensing model. Given the complexity and dynamic nature of the community pharmacy system, stakeholders must take into account the inter-relationship between context, evidence and facilitation for successful KT in community pharmacy practice.

  4. Environmental Assessment, Establishing a Drop Zone at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center in Socorro, New Mexico and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-07

    Rustle of leaf 20 dB Whisper 30 dB Normal conversation 60 dB Inside passenger car at 60 MPH 65-75 dB Ringing telephone 80 dB Lawn mower 85-90 dB...shows that the noise would be at a level between a lawn mower and a tractor/bulldozer, which is more than sufficient to wake people at night and to...would be at a level between a lawn mower and a tractor/bulldozer, which is more than sufficient to wake people at night, and to disrupt their

  5. Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  6. Anticipate and communicate: Ethical management of incidental and secondary findings in the clinical, research, and direct-to-consumer contexts (December 2013 report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Christine

    2014-09-15

    Genomic population research increases the possibility of finding genetic coding anomalies that are not the primary object of research but may have significance for the current and future medical care of research participants and progeny. The December 2013 Report of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Anticipate and Communicate: Ethical Management of Incidental and Secondary Findings in the Clinical, Research, and Direct-to-Consumer Contexts (http://bioethics.gov/sites/default/files/FINALAnticipateCommunicate_PCSBI_0.pdf)) recommends that a researcher anticipate these findings and make a plan that addresses which findings will be communicated to research participants and how. Following these recommendations will be disruptive for both investigators and institutional review boards (IRBs) until the research community reaches consensus, or a mechanism for evolving consensus, on which results should be returned to research participants. A protocol-by-protocol approach, though laborious, makes sense for both investigators and IRBs as the research community thinks through the implications of genomic research. Epidemiologists will note that discussion of the return of results and the plan for communicating findings should be included in both the participant consent agreement and the research protocol submitted to the IRB. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Barriers and opportunities for enhancing patient recruitment and retention in clinical research: findings from an interview study in an NHS academic health science centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary; Caffrey, Louise; McKevitt, Christopher

    2015-03-12

    In the UK, the recruitment of patients into clinical research is a national health research and development policy priority. There has been limited investigation of how national level factors operate as barriers or facilitators to recruitment work, particularly from the perspective of staff undertaking patient recruitment work. The aim of this study is to identify and examine staff views of the key organisational barriers and facilitators to patient recruitment work in one clinical research group located in an NHS Academic Health Science Centre. A qualitative study utilizing in-depth, one-to-one semi-structured interviews with 11 purposively selected staff with particular responsibilities to recruit and retain patients as clinical research subjects. Thematic analysis classified interview data by recurring themes, concepts, and emergent categories for the purposes of establishing explanatory accounts. The findings highlight four key factors that staff perceived to be most significant for the successful recruitment and retention of patients in research and identify how staff located these factors within patients, studies, the research centre, the trust, and beyond the trust. Firstly, competition for research participants at an organisational and national level was perceived to undermine recruitment success. Secondly, the tension between clinical and clinical research workloads was seen to interrupt patient recruitment into studies, despite national funding arrangements to manage excess treatment costs. Thirdly, staff perceived an imbalance between personal patient burden and benefit. Ethical committee regulation, designed to protect patients, was perceived by some staff to detract from clarification and systematisation of incentivisation strategies. Finally, the structure and relationships within clinical research teams, in particular the low tacit status of recruitment skills, was seen as influential. The results of this case-study, conducted in an exemplary NHS

  8. Behaviour change strategies for reducing blood pressure-related disease burden: findings from a global implementation research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris, David; Thompson, Simon R; Beratarrechea, Andrea; Cárdenas, María Kathia; Diez-Canseco, Francisco; Goudge, Jane; Gyamfi, Joyce; Kamano, Jemima Hoine; Irazola, Vilma; Johnson, Claire; Kengne, Andre P; Keat, Ng Kien; Miranda, J Jaime; Mohan, Sailesh; Mukasa, Barbara; Ng, Eleanor; Nieuwlaat, Robby; Ogedegbe, Olugbenga; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Praveen, Devarsetty; Salam, Abdul; Thorogood, Margaret; Thrift, Amanda G; Vedanthan, Rajesh; Waddy, Salina P; Webster, Jacqui; Webster, Ruth; Yeates, Karen; Yusoff, Khalid

    2015-11-09

    . The findings highlight the importance of contextual factors in driving success and failure of research programmes. Forthcoming outcome and process evaluations from each project will build on this exploratory work and provide a greater understanding of factors that might influence scale-up of intervention strategies.

  9. [Great discoveries: from the painstaking efforts of researchers to the contribution of accidental findings and the dissemination of study results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garattini, Silvio

    2015-06-01

    This article takes its cue from the original work of sir Alexander Fleming on penicillin, published in the first issue of Recenti Progressi in Medicina in 1946 and reproduced here on the occasion of the approaching 70-year anniversary of the journal. The path that brought Fleming to the discovery of penicillin, one of the major milestones in the history of clinical pharmacology, provides insight for a range of considerations: the painstaking efforts of researchers, the contribution from accidental findings, and the dissemination of study results. Although the discovery of penicillin has changed the course of medicine, the benefits deriving from such an important advance are most likely to be offset by the overprescription of antibiotics, which is the leading cause of antimicrobial resistance and one of the most serious public health problems of our time.

  10. Adolescent perceptions of violence: formative research findings from a social marketing campaign to reduce violence among middle school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, G P; Bell-Ellison, B A; Loomis, W; Tucci, M

    2007-05-01

    To identify the specific barriers and benefits of violent behaviours as noted by middle school youth and to develop a social marketing campaign that attends to the needs and wants of the target audience. A non-experimental, qualitative study design was used to assess youth perceptions of violence in a large, southeast urban school district. Using a social marketing approach, a series of in-depth interviews were conducted with middle school youths, to gain an understanding of perceived barriers and benefits of violent behaviours. Additionally, interviews assessed youth preferences for an effective spokesperson for an anti-violence campaign. Qualitative analysis of coded transcripts revealed key themes that were incorporated into a multi-media initiative. Critical themes of the research highlighted that the majority of violence occurs at school, during school hours and most of the youths believed the use of violence was necessary to defend themselves from other peers or to protect family members. Another key finding pertained to adolescent views on violent people; although the majority of respondents reported engaging in violent acts, they did not view themselves as violent. Results were used to inform the development of a social marketing campaign designed to reduce youth violence among middle school students in a large, urban central Florida school district. Findings from the formative research led to the creation and pre-testing of five potential campaign brands. The campaign slogan that tested best with the target audience emphasized the choice youth have to either engage in violent behaviour and suffer the consequences or to 'rise above' physical conflict and reap the benefits.

  11. Finding people who will tell you their thoughts on genomics-recruitment strategies for social sciences research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, A; Bragin, E; Parker, M

    2014-10-01

    This paper offers a description of how social media, traditional media and direct invitation were used as tools for the recruitment of 6,944 research participants for a social sciences study on genomics. The remit was to gather the views of various stakeholders towards sharing incidental findings from whole genome studies. This involved recruiting members of the public, genetic health professionals, genomic researchers and non-genetic health professionals. A novel survey was designed that contained ten integrated films; this was made available online and open for completion by anyone worldwide. The recruitment methods are described together with the convenience and snowballing sampling framework. The most successful strategy involved the utilisation of social media; Facebook, Blogging, Twitter, LinkedIn and Google Ads led to the ascertainment of over 75 % of the final sample. We conclude that the strategies used were successful in recruiting in eclectic mix of appropriate participants. Design of the survey and results from the study are presented separately.

  12. Dentist Material Selection for Single-Unit Crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, Sonia K.; Lawson, Nathaniel C.; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Litaker, Mark S.; McClelland, Jocelyn A.; Louis, David R.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Pihlstrom, Daniel J.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Mungia, Rahma; McCracken, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Dentists enrolled in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a study questionnaire about techniques and materials used for single-unit crowns and an enrollment questionnaire about dentist/practice characteristics. The objectives were to quantify dentists’ material recommendations and test the hypothesis that dentist’s and practice’s characteristics are significantly associated with these recommendations. Methods Surveyed dentists responded to a contextual scenario asking what material they would use for a single-unit crown on an anterior and posterior tooth. Material choices included: full metal, porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM), all-zirconia, layered zirconia, lithium disilicate, leucite-reinforced ceramic, or other. Results 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists responded (83%). The top 3 choices for anterior crowns were lithium disilicate (54%), layered zirconia (17%), and leucite-reinforced glass ceramic (13%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist’s gender, race, years since graduation, practice type, region, practice busyness, hours worked/week, and location type. The top 3 choices for posterior crowns were all-zirconia (32%), PFM (31%), and lithium disilicate (21%). There were significant differences (p<0.05) by dentist’s gender, practice type, region, practice busyness, insurance coverage, hours worked/week, and location type. Conclusions Network dentists use a broad range of materials for single-unit crowns for anterior and posterior teeth, adopting newer materials into their practices as they become available. Material choices are significantly associated with dentist’s and practice’s characteristics. Clinical Significance Decisions for crown material may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. Dentists should be cognizant of this when developing an evidence-based approach to selecting crown material. PMID:27693778

  13. A single qualitative study can show same findings as years of quantitative research: Obstructive sleep apnoea as an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Tandeter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Many years of quantitative research led to our present knowledge of the symptoms and associated features (S&AF of the obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA syndrome. Aims 1. To prove that a qualitative research approach may identify symptoms and associated features of OSA in less time/effort than that used in a quantitative approach; 2. To describe the experience of patients with OSA and the effects of the syndrome on their quality of life and that of their spouses and families (issues that quantitative methods fail to recognize. Methods We used a narrative inquiry methodology (qualitative research. The sample was selected using the “snowball sampling technique". The sample included 10 patients with moderate to severe OSA who had good adherence to CPAP and significant clinical improvement after treatment, and 3 of the patient’s spouses. Results The following issues were identified: A long pre-diagnosis phase of OSA (20 years in one of the patients; Characteristic S&AF of the syndrome as experienced by patients and their spouses; The need for increased awareness of both the public and the medical establishment in regards to this disorder; Premature ejaculation (not reported previously and nightmares (non-conclusive in the literature were identified and improved with CPAP therapy. Conclusion With the use of quantitative research methods it took decades to discover things that we found in one simple qualitative study. We therefore urge scientists to use more often these qualitative methods when looking for S&AF of diseases and syndromes.

  14. Experimental findings on actinide recovery utilizing oxidation by peroxydisulfate followed by ion exchange: Fuel cycle research & development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D. T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-31

    Our research seeks to determine if inorganic ion-exchange materials can be exploited to provide effective minor actinide (Am, Cm) separation from lanthanides. Previous work has established that a number of inorganic and UMOF ion-exchange materials exhibit varying affinities for actinides and lanthanides, which may be exploited for effective separations. During FY15, experimental work focused on investigating methods to oxidize americium in dilute nitric and perchloric acid with subsequent ion-exchange performance measurements of ion exchangers with the oxidized americium in dilute nitric acid. Ion-exchange materials tested included a variety of alkali titanates. Americium oxidation testing sought to determine the influence that other redox active components may have on the oxidation of AmIII. Experimental findings indicated that CeIII, NpV, and RuII are oxidized by peroxydisulfate, but there are no indications that the presence of CeIII, NpV, and RuII affected the rate or extent of americium oxidation at the concentrations of peroxydisulfate being used.

  15. Using Abductive Research Logic: "The Logic of Discovery", to Construct a Rigorous Explanation of Amorphous Evaluation Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin-Rozalis, Miri

    2010-01-01

    Background: Two kinds of research logic prevail in scientific research: deductive research logic and inductive research logic. However, both fail in the field of evaluation, especially evaluation conducted in unfamiliar environments. Purpose: In this article I wish to suggest the application of a research logic--"abduction"--"the logic of…

  16. Soil erosion and degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. The Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group (SEDER) approach and findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Pulido, Manuel; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Borja, Manuel Esteban Lucas; Francisco Martínez-Murillo, Juan; Rodrigo-Comino, Jesús; Pereira, Paulo; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Taguas, Tani; Úbeda, Xavier; Brevik, Eric C.; Tarolli, Paolo; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Parras Alcantara, Luis; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Oliva, Marc; di Prima, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The Soil Erosion and Degradation Reseach Group (SEDER) is developing a research program since 2002 to assess the soil erosion and degradation processes at the Canyoles River watershed in Eastern Spain. The research study site was selected as representative of the environmental changes that take place in the Mediterranean: abandonment of the agriculture land in the mountains, forest fire expansion, intensification of the agriculture, impact of the infraesturctures such as rail and road embankments, and soil sealing due to the urban expansion. The research is based on the continuous measurements in the Montesa and El Teularet research stations and the sampling of the soils, topographical measurements and the use of rainfall simulators, minidisk infiltrometers, ring infiltrometers and Water Drop Penetration Time tests. The research is moving from a pure scientific approach to a more socio-economic view, and the stakeholders are being researched from a perception point of view. SEDER is also moving from pure to applied science, with the objective to design new managements that will satisfy the stakeholders and will achieve the sustainability. The research is being carried out in vineyards and orchards as they show extremely high erosion rates. But also we are interested in the impact of forest fires and the road embankments. In all three research topics, SEDER wish to find the sustainable managements. Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project) and the CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R and CGL2016-75178-C2-2-R national research projects. References Bodí, M. B., Martin, D. A., Balfour, V. N., Santín, C., Doerr, S. H., Pereira, P., . . . Mataix-Solera, J. (2014). Corrigendum to "wildland fire ash: Production, composition and eco-hydro-geomorphic effects", earth sci. rev. 130 (2014) [103-127]. Earth-Science Reviews, 138, 503. doi:10

  17. The emotional challenges of conducting in-depth research into significant health issues in health geography: reflections on emotional labour, fieldwork and life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarrol, Sarah

    2017-12-01

    Emotions are increasingly being recognised and integrated into human geography and it has been highlighted that focusing on the 'interrelatedness' of the research process is crucial. By contextualising fieldwork within the life course of the researcher, greater acknowledgement of the 'emotional labour' involved in fieldwork can be highlighted. The author reflects on the 'emotional geographies' of conducting PhD research into significant health issues with participants who had recently suffered a heart attack in Fife, Scotland. This paper reveals emotions involved in this kind of research, drawing on perspectives from participants as well as the researcher. The author also draws attention to, and reflects on, the lack of engagement with researcher's emotional labour within formal academic structures, such as research training and ethics application processes. Reflecting on fieldwork experiences from a distance, the author discusses the influence and impact of her emotional experiences of fieldwork. This paper contributes to work concerned with emotions and fieldwork in geography and asserts that greater importance and value needs to be given to this type of emotion work as embedded and situated within researchers' life courses.

  18. Ethical concerns and career satisfaction in obstetrics and gynecology: a review of recent findings from the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrow, Victoria A; Leddy, Meaghan A; Lawrence, Hal; Schulkin, Jay

    2011-09-01

    Obstetricians-gynecologists (ob-gyns) are frequently confronted with situations that have ethical implications (e.g., whether to accept gifts or samples from drug companies or disclosing medical errors to patients). Additionally, various factors, including specific job-related tasks, costs, and benefits, may impact ob-gyns' career satisfaction. Ethical concerns and career satisfaction can play a role in the quality of women's health care. This article summarizes the studies published between 2005 and 2009 by the Research Department of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, which encompass ethical concerns regarding interactions with pharmaceutical representatives and patient safety/medical error reporting, as well as ob-gyn career satisfaction. Additionally, a brief discussion regarding ethical concerns in the ob-gyn field, in general, highlights key topics for the last 30 years. Ethical dilemmas continue to be of concern for ob-gyns. Familiarity with guidelines on appropriate interactions with industry is associated with lower percentages of potentially problematic relationships with pharmaceutical industries. Physicians report that the expense of patient safety initiatives is one of the top barriers for improving patient safety, followed by fear of liability. Overall, respondents reported being satisfied with their careers. However, half of the respondents reported that they were extremely concerned about the impact of professional liability costs on the duration of their careers. Increased familiarity with guidelines may lead to a decreased ob-gyn reliance on pharmaceutical representatives and free samples, whereas specific and practical tools may help them implement patient safety techniques. The easing of malpractice insurance and threat of litigation may enhance career satisfaction among ob-gyns. This article will discuss related findings in recent years. Obstetricians & Gynecologists and Family Physicians. After the completing the CME

  19. Project-based production and project management: Findings and trends in research on temporary systems in multiple contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinus Pretorius

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation is challenging almost every aspect of the political, economic, social and technological environment. Organisations, whether public or private, have to adapt their strategies and operations to stay competitive and efficient. Historically, organisations adopted project-based operations as a mode to stay competitive, although the applications tended to be the oneoff type of operations such as construction and system development projects (Edum-Fotwe & McCaffer, 2000. As the world changed from an industrially driven to a more knowledge driven economy and the pace of continuous change became more intense, organisations adopted a project-based mode of operations on a broader scale. The knowledge economy lead to the creation of many service orientated industries. Organisations started facing portfolios of projects where the nature of these projects differed in technological complexity, urgency, customer value and social impact (Gutjahr & Froeschl, 2013. Based on their experience with more technically orientated projects, organisations focused their attention more intensely on new project management methods, tools and processes and not necessarily on the human and organisational interfaces. This paradigm changed however, especially since the 1980s and more and more organisations adopted temporary organisational forms (Bakker, 2010 in order to improve their competitiveness. The contributions in this special edition of the South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences have a common focus on the importance of the human and organisational interface of project-based operations on project success. The purpose of this concluding article is to analyse the findings and recommendations in these papers and to detect trends and future research opportunities in the field of project-based operations.

  20. Treatment Recommendations for Single-Unit Crowns: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Michael S.; Louis, David R.; Litaker, Mark S.; Minyé, Helena M.; Mungia, Rahma; Gordan, Valeria V.; Marshall, Don G.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Objectives were to: (1) quantify practitioner variation in likelihood to recommend a crown; and (2) test whether certain dentist, practice, and clinical factors are significantly associated with this likelihood. Methods Dentists in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network completed a questionnaire about indications for single-unit crowns. In four clinical scenarios, practitioners ranked their likelihood of recommending a single-unit crown. These responses were used to calculate a dentist-specific “Crown Factor” (CF; range 0–12). A higher score implies a higher likelihood to recommend a crown. Certain characteristics were tested for statistically significant associations with the CF. Results 1,777 of 2,132 eligible dentists responded (83%). Practitioners were most likely to recommend crowns for teeth that were fractured, cracked, endodontically-treated, or had a broken restoration. Practitioners overwhelmingly recommended crowns for posterior teeth treated endodontically (94%). Practice owners, Southwest practitioners, and practitioners with a balanced work load were more likely to recommend crowns, as were practitioners who use optical scanners for digital impressions. Conclusions There is substantial variation in the likelihood of recommending a crown. While consensus exists in some areas (posterior endodontic treatment), variation dominates in others (size of an existing restoration). Recommendations varied by type of practice, network region, practice busyness, patient insurance status, and use of optical scanners. Practical Implications Recommendations for crowns may be influenced by factors unrelated to tooth and patient variables. A concern for tooth fracture -- whether from endodontic treatment, fractured teeth, or large restorations -- prompted many clinicians to recommend crowns. PMID:27492046

  1. Synthesis of qualitative linguistic research--a pilot review integrating and generalizing findings on doctor-patient interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Peter

    2011-03-01

    There is a broad range qualitative linguistic research (sequential analysis) on doctor-patient interaction that had only a marginal impact on clinical research and practice. At least in parts this is due to the lack of qualitative research synthesis in the field. Available research summaries are not systematic in their methodology. This paper proposes a synthesis methodology for qualitative, sequential analytic research on doctor-patient interaction. The presented methodology is not new but specifies standard methodology of qualitative research synthesis for sequential analytic research. This pilot review synthesizes twelve studies on German-speaking doctor-patient interactions, identifies 45 verbal actions of doctors and structures them in a systematics of eight interaction components. Three interaction components ("Listening", "Asking for information", and "Giving information") seem to be central and cover two thirds of the identified action types. This pilot review demonstrates that sequential analytic research can be synthesized in a consistent and meaningful way, thus providing a more comprehensive and unbiased integration of research. Future synthesis of qualitative research in the area of health communication research is very much needed. Qualitative research synthesis can support the development of quantitative research and of educational materials in medical training and patient training. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Personality Factors and Preceding User Comments on the Processing of Research Findings on Deep Brain Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Experiment in a Simulated Online Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Background Laypeople frequently discuss medical research findings on Web-based platforms, but little is known about whether they grasp the tentativeness that is inherent in these findings. Potential influential factors involved in understanding medical tentativeness have hardly been assessed to date. Objective The research presented here aimed to examine the effects of personality factors and of other users? previous contributions in a Web-based forum on laypeople?s understanding of the tenta...

  3. Who Has Used Internal Company Documents for Biomedical and Public Health Research and Where Did They Find Them?

    OpenAIRE

    Wieland, L. Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S. Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N.; Rosman, Lori M.; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. RESULTS: Our search...

  4. Experiences in the Dissemination and Utilisation of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Research Findings from Three Southern African Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaino, Luckson M.; Mtetwa, David; Kasanda, Choshi

    2014-01-01

    The dissemination and utilisation of research knowledge produced at universities has been debated in recent times. Recent changes and developments at universities suggest an entrepreneurial model of academic research production in which universities have the responsibility not only to carry out research and teaching but also to disseminate…

  5. The Continuing Search to Find a More Effective and Less Intimidating Way to Teach Research Methods in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Existing literature examining the teaching of research methods highlights difficulties students face when developing research competencies. Studies of student-centred teaching approaches have found increased student performance and improved confidence in undertaking research projects. To develop a student-centred approach, it could be beneficial…

  6. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research process, as part of which students must find and appraise evidence from research.[5] This highlights that teaching research methodology is inclined towards equipping students ... Students believed that evidence-based practice was vital, yet their understanding of the concept was restricted when compared with the.

  7. Do countries rely on the World Health Organization for translating research findings into clinical guidelines? A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ramadhani A; Geldsetzer, Pascal; Bärnighausen, Till; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2016-10-06

    The World Health Organization's (WHO) antiretroviral therapy (ART) guidelines have generally been adopted rapidly and with high fidelity by countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Thus far, however, WHO has not published specific guidance on nutritional care and support for (non-pregnant) adults living with HIV despite a solid evidence base for some interventions. This offers an opportunity for a case study on whether national clinical guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa provide concrete recommendations in the face of limited guidance by WHO. This study, therefore, aims to determine if national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa contain specific guidance on nutritional care and support for non-pregnant adults living with HIV. We identified the most recent national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan African countries with English as an official language. Using pre-specified criteria, we determined for each guideline whether it provides guidance to clinicians on each of five components of nutritional care and support for adults living with HIV: assessment of nutritional status, dietary counseling, micronutrient supplementation, ready-to-use therapeutic or supplementary foods, and food subsidies. We found that national HIV treatment guidelines in sub-Saharan Africa generally do not contain concrete recommendations on nutritional care and support for non-pregnant adults living with HIV. Given that decisions on nutritional care and support are inevitably being made at the clinician-patient level, and that clinicians have a relative disadvantage in systematically identifying, summarizing, and weighing up research evidence compared to WHO and national governments, there is a need for more specific clinical guidance. In our view, such guidance should at a minimum recommend daily micronutrient supplements for adults living with HIV who are in pre-ART stages, regular dietary counseling, periodic assessment of anthropometric status, and additional nutritional

  8. E-Cigarettes Use Behavior and Experience of Adults: Qualitative Research Findings to Inform E-Cigarette Use Measure Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyoshin; Davis, Andrew H; Dohack, Jaime L; Clark, Pamela I

    2017-02-01

    findings reveal that vaping is not a mere replacement for combustible cigarette smoking and that many users of e-cigarettes enjoy product characteristics such as flavors and "clouds" that are unavailable in combustible cigarettes. Therefore, commonly available cigarette smoking measures are not well suited to measurement of e-cigarette use behavior, and indication that new measures need to be developed to accurately track e-cigarette use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Correlation between symptoms and external characteristics of cracked teeth: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Thomas J; Funkhouser, Ellen; Ferracane, Jack L; Gilbert, Gregg H; Baltuck, Camille; Benjamin, Paul; Louis, David; Mungia, Rahma; Meyerowitz, Cyril

    2017-04-01

    Cracked teeth are ubiquitous in the adult dentition. The objective of this study was to determine which patient traits and behaviors and external tooth and crack characteristics correlate with cracked teeth being symptomatic. Dentists in The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network enrolled a convenience sample of patients each with a single, vital posterior tooth with at least 1 observable external crack in this observational study; they enrolled 2,975 cracked teeth from 209 practitioners. The authors collected data at the patient level, tooth level, and crack level. They used generalized estimating equations to obtain significant (P crack. Characteristics positively associated with cracked tooth symptoms, after adjusting for demographics, included patients who clenched, ground, or pressed their teeth together (OR, 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.50), molars (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.30-1.92), teeth with a wear facet through enamel (OR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.40), carious lesions (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.07-1.60), cracks that were on the distal surface of the tooth (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.13-1.52), and cracks that blocked transilluminated light (OR, 1.31, 95% CI, 1.09-1.57). Teeth with stained cracks were negatively associated with having cracked tooth symptoms (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.55-0.84). The greatest likelihood of a cracked tooth being symptomatic was found when patients reported clenching or grinding their teeth and had a molar with a distal crack that blocked transilluminated light. This information can help inform dentists in the decision-making process regarding the prognosis for a cracked tooth. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Systematic review finds that study data not published in full text articles have unclear impact on meta-analyses results in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Christine M; Blümle, Anette; Schell, Lisa K; Schwarzer, Guido; Oeller, Patrick; Cabrera, Laura; von Elm, Erik; Briel, Matthias; Meerpohl, Joerg J

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis as part of a systematic review aims to provide a thorough, comprehensive and unbiased statistical summary of data from the literature. However, relevant study results could be missing from a meta-analysis because of selective publication and inadequate dissemination. If missing outcome data differ systematically from published ones, a meta-analysis will be biased with an inaccurate assessment of the intervention effect. As part of the EU-funded OPEN project (www.open-project.eu) we conducted a systematic review that assessed whether the inclusion of data that were not published at all and/or published only in the grey literature influences pooled effect estimates in meta-analyses and leads to different interpretation. Systematic review of published literature (methodological research projects). Four bibliographic databases were searched up to February 2016 without restriction of publication year or language. Methodological research projects were considered eligible for inclusion if they reviewed a cohort of meta-analyses which (i) compared pooled effect estimates of meta-analyses of health care interventions according to publication status of data or (ii) examined whether the inclusion of unpublished or grey literature data impacts the result of a meta-analysis. Seven methodological research projects including 187 meta-analyses comparing pooled treatment effect estimates according to different publication status were identified. Two research projects showed that published data showed larger pooled treatment effects in favour of the intervention than unpublished or grey literature data (Ratio of ORs 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.28 and 1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.66). In the remaining research projects pooled effect estimates and/or overall findings were not significantly changed by the inclusion of unpublished and/or grey literature data. The precision of the pooled estimate was increased with narrower 95% confidence interval. Although we may anticipate that

  11. Decompression Sickness and U-2 Operations: Summary of Research, Findings, and Recommendations Regarding Use of Exercise During Prebreathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Research Laboratory Hypobaric DCS Research Database developed at Brooks AFB, TX, which has detailed information on over 3,000 research chamber... hyperbaric oxygen therapy resulting in complete resolution of all symptoms. After instituting EDP, the same pilot flew 36 U-2 high flights without any...consultation with base SGP and USAFSAM Hyperbarics and MAJCOM/SGPA. Earlier guidance in the 1980’s was much more restrictive and, in fact, permanently

  12. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne Gjedsted; Paoletti, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed...... with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles...

  13. An Overview of Research Strategies and Findings (1971-1975) of the Kamehameha Early Education Program. Technical Report #66.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimore, Ronald; Tharp, Roland G.

    This report reviews the major lines of investigation of the Kamehameha Early Education Program (KEEP) for the period 1971-75. A brief introductory section describes the selection of initial research strategies, identification of problems, issues in research design (such as internal versus external validity) and problems pertaining to the process…

  14. Knowledge creation for practice in public sector management accounting by consultants and academics: Preliminary findings and directions for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, G.J.; Aardema, H.; ter Bogt, H.J.; Groot, T.L.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    This study is about knowledge creation for practice in public sector management accounting by consultants and academics. It shows that researchers emphasize the importance of practice, but worry about the prospects of a successful cross-fertilization between practice and research, because of the

  15. Knowledge creation for practice in public sector management accounting by consultants and academics : Preliminary findings and directions for future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, G. Jan; Aardema, Harrie; ter Bogt, Henk J.; Groot, Tom L. C. M.

    This study is about knowledge creation for practice in public sector management accounting by consultants and academics. It shows that researchers emphasize the importance of practice, but worry about the prospects of a successful cross-fertilization between practice and research, because of the

  16. Young people's views about the purpose and composition of research ethics committees: findings from the PEARL qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey, Suzanne; Brown, Lindsey; Campbell, Rona; Boyd, Andy; Macleod, John

    2016-09-02

    Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) is a birth cohort study within which the Project to Enhance ALSPAC through Record Linkage (PEARL) was established to enrich the ALSPAC resource through linkage between ALSPAC participants and routine sources of health and social data. PEARL incorporated qualitative research to seek the views of young people about data linkage, including their opinions about appropriate safeguards and research governance. In this paper we focus on views expressed about the purpose and composition of research ethics committees. Digitally recorded interviews were conducted with 48 participants aged 17-19 years. Participants were asked about whether medical research should be monitored and controlled, their knowledge of research ethics committees, who should sit on these committees and what their role should be. Interview recordings were fully transcribed and anonymised. Thematic analysis was undertaken, assisted by the Framework approach to data management. The majority of interviewees had little or no specific knowledge of ethics committees. Once given basic information about research ethics committees, only three respondents suggested there was no need for such bodies to scrutinise research. The key tasks of ethics committees were identified as monitoring the research process and protecting research participants. The difficulty of balancing the potential to inhibit research against the need to protect research participants was acknowledged. The importance of relevant research and professional expertise was identified but it was also considered important to represent wider public opinion, and to counter the bias potentially associated with self-selection possibly through a selection process similar to 'jury duty'. There is a need for more education and public awareness about the role and composition of research ethics committees. Despite an initial lack of knowledge, interviewees were able to contribute their ideas and balance

  17. Finding the Words to Work Together: Developing a Research Design to Explore Risk and Adult Protection in Co-Produced Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Ian; Archibald, Sylvia; McInnes, Kerry; Cross, Beth; Daniel, Brigid; Johnson, Fiona

    2012-01-01

    Although co-production of research with people who access support services is increasingly common, details about how people who access support services can take more of an assertive role in developing research proposals and method design remains sketchy. This article reflects on the development of a research project on adult protection practice in…

  18. Procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating research participants in Qatar: findings from a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killawi, Amal; Khidir, Amal; Elnashar, Maha; Abdelrahim, Huda; Hammoud, Maya; Elliott, Heather; Thurston, Michelle; Asad, Humna; Al-Khal, Abdul Latif; Fetters, Michael D

    2014-02-04

    Very few researchers have reported on procedures of recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating participants in health research in the Arabian Gulf Region. Empirical research can inform the debate about whether to adjust these procedures for culturally diverse settings. Our objective was to delineate procedures related to recruiting, obtaining informed consent, and compensating health research participants in the extremely high-density multicultural setting of Qatar. During a multistage mixed methods project, field observations and qualitative interviews were conducted in a general medicine clinic of a major medical center in Qatar. Participants were chosen based on gender, age, literacy, and preferred language, i.e., Arabic, English, Hindi and Urdu. Qualitative analysis identified themes about recruitment, informed consent, compensation, and other research procedures. A total of 153 individuals were approached and 84 enrolled; the latter showed a diverse age range (18 to 75 years); varied language representation: Arabic (n = 24), English (n = 20), Hindi (n = 20), and Urdu (n = 20); and balanced gender distribution: women (n = 43) and men (n = 41). Primary reasons for 30 declinations included concern about interview length and recording. The study achieved a 74% participation rate. Qualitative analytics revealed key themes about hesitation to participate, decisions about participation with family members as well as discussions with them as "incidental research participants", the informed consent process, privacy and gender rules of the interview environment, reactions to member checking and compensation, and motivation for participating. Vulnerability emerged as a recurring issue throughout the process among a minority of participants. This study from Qatar is the first to provide empirical data on recruitment, informed consent, compensation and other research procedures in a general adult population in the Middle East and Arabian Gulf. This

  19. Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness: findings from the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC), Southwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girma, Eshetu; Möller-Leimkühler, Anne Maria; Müller, Norbert; Dehning, Sandra; Froeschl, Guenter; Tesfaye, Markos

    2014-02-21

    Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness is a negative attitude by the public which blame family members for the mental illness of their relatives. Family stigma can result in self social restrictions, delay in treatment seeking and poor quality of life. This study aimed at investigating the degree and correlates of family stigma. A quantitative cross-sectional house to house survey was conducted among 845 randomly selected urban and rural community members in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. An interviewer administered and pre-tested questionnaire adapted from other studies was used to measure the degree of family stigma and to determine its correlates. Data entry was done by using EPI-DATA and the analysis was performed using STATA software. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analysis was done to identify the correlates of family stigma. Among the total 845 respondents, 81.18% were female. On a range of 1 to 5 score, the mean family stigma score was 2.16 (± 0.49). In a multivariate analysis, rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.43, P mental illness increased, the stigma scores decreased significantly. High supernatural explanation of mental illness was significantly correlated with lower stigma among individuals with lower level of exposure to people with mental illness (PWMI). On the other hand, high exposure to PWMI was significantly associated with lower stigma among respondents who had high education. Stigma scores increased with increasing income among respondents who had lower educational status. Our findings revealed moderate level of family stigma. Place of residence, perceived signs and explanations of mental illness were independent correlates of public stigma against family members of people with mental illness. Therefore, mental health communication programs to inform explanations and signs of mental illness need to be implemented.

  20. A training programme to build cancer research capacity in low- and middle-income countries: findings from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Lauren D; Barnoya, Joaquin; Gharzouzi, Eduardo N; Benson, Peter; Colditz, Graham A

    2014-04-01

    Guatemala is experiencing an increasing burden of cancer but lacks capacity for cancer prevention, control and research. In partnership with a medical school in the United States of America, a multidisciplinary Cancer Control Research Training Institute was developed at the Instituto de Cancerología (INCAN) in Guatemala City. This institute provided a year-long training programme for clinicians that focused on research methods in population health and sociocultural anthropology. The programme included didactic experiences in Guatemala and the United States as well as applied training in which participants developed research protocols responsive to Guatemala's cancer needs. Although INCAN is the point of referral and service for Guatemala's cancer patients, the institute's administration is also interested in increasing cancer research - with a focus on population health. INCAN is thus a resource for capacity building within the context of cancer prevention and control. Trainees increased their self-efficacy for the design and conduct of research. Value-added benefits included establishment of an annual cancer seminar and workshops in cancer pathology and qualitative analysis. INCAN has recently incorporated some of the programme's components into its residency training and established a research department. A training programme for clinicians can build cancer research capacity in low- and middle-income countries. Training in population-based research methods will enable countries such as Guatemala to gather country-specific data. Once collected, such data can be used to assess the burden of cancer-related disease, guide policy for reducing it and identify priority areas for cancer prevention and treatment.

  1. Who has used internal company documents for biomedical and public health research and where did they find them?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Susan Wieland

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. RESULTS: Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%. Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6% were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%. The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%. Most articles (346/361; 96% used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles, the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. CONCLUSIONS: Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been

  2. Who has used internal company documents for biomedical and public health research and where did they find them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, L Susan; Rutkow, Lainie; Vedula, S Swaroop; Kaufmann, Christopher N; Rosman, Lori M; Twose, Claire; Mahendraratnam, Nirosha; Dickersin, Kay

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sources of internal company documents used in public health and healthcare research. We searched PubMed and Embase for articles using internal company documents to address a research question about a health-related topic. Our primary interest was where authors obtained internal company documents for their research. We also extracted information on type of company, type of research question, type of internal documents, and funding source. Our searches identified 9,305 citations of which 357 were eligible. Scanning of reference lists and consultation with colleagues identified 4 additional articles, resulting in 361 included articles. Most articles examined internal tobacco company documents (325/361; 90%). Articles using documents from pharmaceutical companies (20/361; 6%) were the next most common. Tobacco articles used documents from repositories; pharmaceutical documents were from a range of sources. Most included articles relied upon internal company documents obtained through litigation (350/361; 97%). The research questions posed were primarily about company strategies to promote or position the company and its products (326/361; 90%). Most articles (346/361; 96%) used information from miscellaneous documents such as memos or letters, or from unspecified types of documents. When explicit information about study funding was provided (290/361 articles), the most common source was the US-based National Cancer Institute. We developed an alternative and more sensitive search targeted at identifying additional research articles using internal pharmaceutical company documents, but the search retrieved an impractical number of citations for review. Internal company documents provide an excellent source of information on health topics (e.g., corporate behavior, study data) exemplified by articles based on tobacco industry documents. Pharmaceutical and other industry documents appear to have been less used for research, indicating a need for funding for

  3. Work in progress Tim Radford on research that aims to find a tiny error in Einstein's theory of special relativity

    CERN Multimedia

    Radford, T

    2004-01-01

    "Ben Varcoe wants to find a relatively small mistake in Einstein's theory of special relativity. To do this, he will slow light down from 300,000 km per second to 10 metres per second - about the speed of Darren Campbell - and see how it behaves" (1 page)

  4. Accelerated Proficiency and Facilitated Retention: Recommendations Based on an Integration of Research and Findings from a Working Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    skill loss occurs early, within the first year, and that skill loss slows marginally after that. To relativize the above findings, which might be...civilian and contractor scientists, engineers and technicians. He directs all civil engineering, security, morale and welfare, and professional

  5. Finding the team for Mars: a psychological and human factors analysis of a Mars Desert Research Station crew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Benjamin D; Hancock, P A; Deaton, John; Suedfeld, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A two-week mission in March and April of 2011 sent six team members to the Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS). MDRS, a research facility in the high Utah desert, provides an analogue for the harsh and unusual working conditions that will be faced by men and women who one day explore Mars. During the mission a selection of quantitative and qualitative psychological tests were administered to the international, multidisciplinary team. A selection of the results are presented along with discussion.

  6. Behind the Headlines: Media Representation of Children and Young People in Northern Ireland:Summary of Research Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Faith; McAlister, Siobhán; Scraton, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Funded by the Economic and Social Research Council this partnership project between the Childhood, Transition and Social Justice Initiative at Queen’s University and Include Youth focuses on the negative stereotyping of children and young people and the role and responsibilities of the media in the creation and transmission of negative images. Engaging with children, young people, organisations working with children and young people and media representatives, the project uses research evidenc...

  7. Consulting patients in setting priorities in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (M.E.) research: findings from a national on-line survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicola; Robinson, Lisa; Chowdhury, Sonya; Ogden, Clare; Newton, Julia L

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic encephalitis (M.E.) is a common condition, the cause of which is not known and there are no treatments available. In this study the national patient support group Action for M.E. sought the opinions of their members via an online survey as to what they felt should be future priorities for M.E. Respondents were asked what they considered first, second and third research priorities to be from a list of 13 pre-defined options. Individuals were invited to provide additional free text comments about Action for M.E.'s research priorities in general. Of the 1144 respondents: 822 had M.E.; 94 were a supporting a member of Action for M.E. ; 66 were carers for someone with M.E.; 26 were professionals with an interest in M.E.; 136 had a family member or colleague with M.E. Individuals selected more than one category as applicable. The top five research priorities identified were: disease processes to achieve a better understanding of the causes of M.E.; more effective treatments; faster and more accurate diagnosis; clinical course of M.E.; outcomes and natural history; and severely affected patients. Least popular priorities were: sleep; economic research towards identifying the cost of ME; and psychological aspects. Much of the free text comments emphasised the importance of funding biomedical research into disease processes to achieve a better understanding of the causes of M.E. Three themes were identified in relation to this topic: accurate diagnosis and awareness; risk factors and causes; drug development and curative therapies. In conclusion; individuals affected by M.E. have clear views regarding priorities for research investment. These have informed Action for M.E.'s ongoing research strategy and ultimately will inform national and international research priorities.

  8. Service user involvement in research may lead to contrary rather than collaborative accounts: findings from a qualitative palliative care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbat, Liz; Hubbard, Gill

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore what data emerge when former carergivers (co-researchers) are trained to interview current care-givers about their experiences. Despite a trend of involving service users in conducting research interviews, there have been few examinations of how and whether a common service user identity has an impact on the data generated. Four co-researchers were recruited, trained and supported to conduct qualitative interviews with 11 current carers of people receiving palliative services. Conversation analysis was used to examine the conversational characteristics of the research interviews. Data were collected in 2010-2011. Conversation analysis identified that interactional difficulties were evident across the data. When co-researchers talked about their own experiences as carers, interviewees frequently changed the topic of conversation, thereby closing-down opportunities for further disclosure or elaboration from the interviewee about the original topic. Conversation analysis identifies how caregiving identities are co-constructed and points where there is agreement and disagreement in the co-construction. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Developing skills and competence of employees of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie regional operational programme managing body – research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Michalcewicz-Kaniowska

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world it is the employees or the human capital of any company who are responsible for effective management and caring for the future of their business. Organisations change all the time which means that continual staff training should be provided. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the training policy of the managing body of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie Regional Operational Programme (IZ RPO WK-P and its employees’ development potential. The research participants preferred mentoring (47%, coaching (27% and briefing (26% techniques. They also benefited from a range of educational techniques such as training courses, post-graduate studies etc. and a wide choice of subjects. Thus, it is necessary to conduct periodic research on training requirements, focusing on subjects and training techniques.

  10. Identification of risk factors for new-onset sciatica in Japanese workers: findings from the Japan epidemiological research of Occupation-related Back pain study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsudaira, Ko; Kawaguchi, Mika; Isomura, Tatsuya; Arisaka, Mayumi; Fujii, Tomoko; Takeshita, Katsushi; Kitagawa, Tomoaki; Miyoshi, Kota; Konishi, Hiroaki

    2013-12-15

    Two-year, prospective cohort data collected for the Japan epidemiological research of Occupation-related Back pain study were used for the analysis. To identify potential risk factors for the development of new-onset sciatica in initially symptom-free Japanese workers with no history of sciatica. Although the associations between individual and occupational factors and cases of new-onset sciatica are established, the effect of psychosocial factors on the development of sciatica has still not been adequately clarified. In total, 5310 participants responded to a self-administered baseline questionnaire (response rate: 86.5%). Furthermore, 3194 (60.2%) completed both 1- and 2-year follow-up questionnaires. The baseline questionnaire assessed individual characteristics, ergonomic work demands, and work-related psychosocial factors. The outcome of interest was new-onset sciatica with or without low back pain during the 2-year follow-up period. Incidence was calculated for participants who reported no low back pain in the preceding year and no history of lumbar radicular pain (sciatica) at baseline. Logistical regression assessed risk factors associated with new-onset sciatica. Of 765 eligible participants, 141 (18.4%) reported a new episode of sciatica during the 2-year follow-up. In crude analysis, significant associations were found between new-onset sciatica and age and obesity. In adjusted analysis, significant associations were found for obesity and mental workload in a qualitative aspect after controlling for age and sex. Consequently, in multivariate analysis with all the potential risk factors, age and obesity remained statistically significant (odds ratios: 1.59, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-2.52; odds ratios: 1.77, 95% confidence interval: 1.17-2.68, respectively). In previously asymptomatic Japanese workers, the risk of developing new-onset sciatica is mediated by individual factors. Our findings suggest that the management of obesity may prevent new

  11. Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness: findings from the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center (GGFRC), Southwest Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Public stigma against family members of people with mental illness is a negative attitude by the public which blame family members for the mental illness of their relatives. Family stigma can result in self social restrictions, delay in treatment seeking and poor quality of life. This study aimed at investigating the degree and correlates of family stigma. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional house to house survey was conducted among 845 randomly selected urban and rural community members in the Gilgel Gibe Field Research Center, Southwest Ethiopia. An interviewer administered and pre-tested questionnaire adapted from other studies was used to measure the degree of family stigma and to determine its correlates. Data entry was done by using EPI-DATA and the analysis was performed using STATA software. Unadjusted and adjusted linear regression analysis was done to identify the correlates of family stigma. Results Among the total 845 respondents, 81.18% were female. On a range of 1 to 5 score, the mean family stigma score was 2.16 (±0.49). In a multivariate analysis, rural residents had significantly higher stigma scores (std. β = 0.43, P supernatural (std. β = -0.12, P supernatural explanation of mental illness was significantly correlated with lower stigma among individuals with lower level of exposure to people with mental illness (PWMI). On the other hand, high exposure to PWMI was significantly associated with lower stigma among respondents who had high education. Stigma scores increased with increasing income among respondents who had lower educational status. Conclusions Our findings revealed moderate level of family stigma. Place of residence, perceived signs and explanations of mental illness were independent correlates of public stigma against family members of people with mental illness. Therefore, mental health communication programs to inform explanations and signs of mental illness need to be implemented. PMID:24555444

  12. Findings on the Development and Use of Technology-Infused Curricula in Preschool Classrooms. Interactive STEM Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, Jennifer; Louie, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Mobile tablets are becoming more prevalent in educational settings, but little is known about the impact of using technology-infused curricula in preschool classrooms. The research summarized in this brief suggests that well-designed tablet-based activities can indeed improve student learning outcomes at the preschool level. These positive…

  13. The influence of organic production on food quality - research findings, gaps and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Załęcka, Aneta; Bügel, Susanne; Paoletti, Flavio; Kahl, Johannes; Bonanno, Adriana; Dostalova, Anne; Rahmann, Gerold

    2014-10-01

    Although several meta-analysis studies have been published comparing the quality of food derived from organic and non-organic origin, it is still not clear if food from organic production per se can guarantee product-related added value to consumers. This paper aims to summarize the status quo in order to identify research gaps and suggest future research challenges. Organic food is described according to a quality model already published. The influence of organic production on food quality is structured in primary production and processing. Furthermore, organic food authentication is discussed. Organic food seems to contain fewer pesticide residues and statistically more selected health-related compounds such as polyphenols in plant products and polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and meat products, but the health relevance for consumers is not clear yet. Comparing food from organic origin with so called 'conventional' food seems not to be appropriate, because 'conventional' is not defined. In organic food quality research a system approach is needed from which systemic markers can be selected. Research on the impact of processing technologies on the quality according to organic principles seems of high relevance, since most of the food is processed. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Dentists' use of caries risk assessment in children: findings from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Joseph L; Qvist, Vebeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) member dentists (from four regions in the U.S. and Scandinavia) who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment in patients aged 6 to 18. Among respondents, 73...

  15. Restorative treatment thresholds for interproximal primary caries based on radiographic images: findings from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordan, Valeria V; Garvan, Cynthia W; Heft, Marc W

    2009-01-01

    with restorative intervention in lesions that have penetrated only the enamel surface. This study surveyed dentists from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) who had reported doing at least some restorative dentistry (n = 901). Dentists were asked to indicate the depth at which they would restore...

  16. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  17. Young Children's Research Behaviour? Children Aged Four to Eight Years Finding Solutions at Home and at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jane M.

    2013-01-01

    Children's research abilities have become increasingly recognised by adults, yet children remain excluded from the academy. This restricts children's freedom to make choices in matters affecting them, underestimates their capabilities and denies children particular rights. The present paper reports on young children's problem-solving as part of a…

  18. Methods and impact of engagement in research, from theory to practice and back again: early findings from the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, Laura; Heckert, Andrea; Margolis, Mary Kay; Schrandt, Suzanne; Frank, Lori

    2018-01-01

    Since 2012, PCORI has been funding patient-centered comparative effectiveness research with a requirement for engaging patients and other stakeholders in the research, a requirement that is unique among the US funders of clinical research. This paper presents PCORI's evaluation framework for assessing the short- and long-term impacts of engagement; describes engagement in PCORI projects (types of stakeholders engaged, when in the research process they are engaged and how they are engaged, contributions of their engagement); and identifies the effects of engagement on study design, processes, and outcomes selection, as reported by both PCORI-funded investigators and patient and other stakeholder research partners. Detailed quantitative and qualitative information collected annually from investigators and their partners was analyzed via descriptive statistics and cross-sectional qualitative content and thematic analysis, and compared against the outcomes expected from the evaluation framework and its underlying conceptual model. The data support the role of engaged research partners in refinements to the research questions, selection of interventions to compare, choice of study outcomes and how they are measured, contributions to strategies for recruitment, and ensuring studies are patient-centered. The evaluation framework and the underlying conceptual model are supported by results to date. PCORI will continue to assess the effects of engagement as the funded projects progress toward completion, dissemination, and uptake into clinical decision making.

  19. Searching for sex- and gender-sensitive tuberculosis research in public health: finding a needle in a haystack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissandjee, Bilkis; Mourid, Assia; Greenaway, Christina A; Short, Wendy E; Proctor, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors’ diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex–gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate usage of the terminology associated with sex and gender. In addition, public health database indexers ought to accept the task of developing and implementing adequate definitions of sex and gender terms so as to facilitate access to sex- and gender-related research. These twin advances will allow clinicians to more readily recognize and access knowledge pertaining to systems of redress that respond to gendered risks that compound existing health inequalities in disease management and control, particularly when dealing with already complex diseases. Given the methodological and linguistic challenges presented by the

  20. Searching for sex- and gender-sensitive tuberculosis research in public health: finding a needle in a haystack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissandjee, Bilkis; Mourid, Assia; Greenaway, Christina A; Short, Wendy E; Proctor, Jodi A

    2016-01-01

    Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors' diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex-gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB) prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate usage of the terminology associated with sex and gender. In addition, public health database indexers ought to accept the task of developing and implementing adequate definitions of sex and gender terms so as to facilitate access to sex- and gender-related research. These twin advances will allow clinicians to more readily recognize and access knowledge pertaining to systems of redress that respond to gendered risks that compound existing health inequalities in disease management and control, particularly when dealing with already complex diseases. Given the methodological and linguistic challenges presented by the

  1. Finding research information on the web: how to make the most of Google and other free search tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    The Internet and the World Wide Web has had a major impact on the accessibility of research information. The move towards open access and development of institutional repositories has resulted in increasing amounts of information being made available free of charge. Many of these resources are not included in conventional subscription databases and Google is not always the best way to ensure that one is picking up all relevant material on a topic. This article will look at how Google's search engine works, how to use Google more effectively for identifying research information, alternatives to Google and will review some of the specialist tools that have evolved to cope with the diverse forms of information that now exist in electronic form.

  2. The genetics of auricular development and malformation: new findings in model systems driving future directions for microtia research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Timothy C.; Camci, Esra D.; Vora, Siddharth; Luquetti, Daniela V.; Turner, Eric E.

    2014-01-01

    Microtia is a term used to describe a wide array of phenotypic presentations of the outer ear. Although the majority of the cases are isolated in nature, much of our understanding of the causes of microtia has been driven by the identification of genes underlying syndromic forms where the anomaly co-presents with various other craniofacial and extra-craniofacial structural defects. In this review we discuss recent findings in mice deficient in Hoxa2, a key regulator of branchial arch patterning, which has necessitated a revision to the canonical model of pinna morphogenesis. The revised model will likely impact current classification schemes for microtia and, as we argue in this review, the interpretation of the developmental basis for various auricular malformations. In addition, we highlight recent studies in other mammalian species that are providing the first clues as to possible causes of at least some isolated anomalies and thus should now accelerate the search for the more elusive genetic contributions to the many isolated and non-syndromic cases of microtia. These findings, together with the application of new genome-level sequencing technologies and more thorough quantitative assessment of available mutant mouse resources, promise an exciting future for genetic studies in microtia. PMID:24880027

  3. Caring communities as collective learning process: findings and lessons learned from a participatory research project in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegleitner, Klaus; Schuchter, Patrick

    2018-04-01

    By now, the public health end-of-life care approach is well established and has induced diverse initiatives-subsumed under the concept of compassionate or caring communities-to engage the community in supporting vulnerable, dying people and their beloved ones. In the light of a participatory research project our paper examines the question: what are the deeper ideas behind caring communities and what constitutes a caring community? A multi-level analysis based on (I) qualitative research with focus groups and interviews with community members within the project; (II) the reflection of the role of participatory research in caring community initiatives, and (III) the meta-analysis of an international expert workshop, which allowed to discuss our experiences and insights in the light of international caring community models and expertise. Our analysis of qualities ("ingredients") of a caring community, from the perspective of community members, highlighted the importance of the co-creation of supportive care relationships in the local care web, through everyday life solidarity in the neighbourhood, appreciating and exchanging the wisdom of care, and also marked the role of professionals as enablers. Participatory research in caring community developments has the potential to engage and empower citizens, and to interlink existential care-stories with questions about the structural and political environments of appropriate end-of-life care. The caring community movement and public health end-of-life care has to maintain their critical potential against the commercialization and fragmentation of care (services), but also without "romanticizing" communities. Prospective caring community progresses need (I) an ecological health-promotion framework for action and (II) social learning processes along the existential experiences and the wisdom of community members, complementing each other. Organizing existential-political care dialogues can contribute to an ethic of caring

  4. Money for Research, Not for Energy Bills: Finding Energy and Cost Savings in High Performance Computer Facility Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drewmark Communications; Sartor, Dale; Wilson, Mark

    2010-07-01

    High-performance computing facilities in the United States consume an enormous amount of electricity, cutting into research budgets and challenging public- and private-sector efforts to reduce energy consumption and meet environmental goals. However, these facilities can greatly reduce their energy demand through energy-efficient design of the facility itself. Using a case study of a facility under design, this article discusses strategies and technologies that can be used to help achieve energy reductions.

  5. Social Media Technology and Public Health in Ontario: Findings from a Planning Meeting Exploring Current Practices and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard; McMurray, Josephine; Regan, Sandra; Kothari, Anita; Donelle, Lorie; McBride, Susan; Sobel, Annette; Hall, Jodi; Fraser, Robert; Foisey, Lyndsay

    2017-01-01

    In the province of Ontario, many of the public health units (PHUs) now possess and use social media as part of their daily health promotion and communication operations. To explore this topic, a planning meeting was held to generate deeper insights toward the use of these forms of technology for preventative services delivery. The planning meeting was held with 50 participants, comprising representatives from 20 of the 36 PHUs in Ontario, interested academics, students and government representatives. A nominal group technique (NGT) was used to build consensus related to future research needs, as related to public health and social media. Participants generated a range of insights around the use of social media, including the need for: leadership buy-in and resource allocation; social media policy and governance structure; performance measurement and evaluation; practices related to engagement with program recipients and addressing the lack of resources faced by many health units. Future research priorities were also generated, related to evaluating the cost-benefit of social media activities and understanding behaviour change implications. Further research is needed to evaluate the functionality, leadership and competency requirements and impact(s) of these new forms of health communication technology within public health service delivery. Copyright © 2017 Longwoods Publishing.

  6. Development of a Pilot Data Management Infrastructure for Biomedical Researchers at University of Manchester – Approach, Findings, Challenges and Outlook of the MaDAM Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meik Poschen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Management and curation of digital data has been becoming ever more important in a higher education and research environment characterised by large and complex data, demand for more interdisciplinary and collaborative work, extended funder requirements and use of e-infrastructures to facilitate new research methods and paradigms. This paper presents the approach, technical infrastructure, findings, challenges and outlook (including future development within the successor project, MiSS of the ‘MaDAM: Pilot data management infrastructure for biomedical researchers at University of Manchester’ project funded under the infrastructure strand of the JISC Managing Research Data (JISCMRD programme. MaDAM developed a pilot research data management solution at the University of Manchester based on biomedical researchers’ requirements, which includes technical and governance components with the flexibility to meet future needs across multiple research groups and disciplines.

  7. Patient responses to research recruitment and follow-up surveys: findings from a diverse multicultural health care setting in Qatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Khidir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care researchers working in the Arabian Gulf need information on how to optimize recruitment and retention of study participants in extremely culturally diverse settings. Implemented in Doha, Qatar in 2012 with 4 language groups, namely Arabic, English, Hindi, and Urdu, this research documents persons’ responses to recruitment, consent, follow-up, and reminder procedures during psychometric testing of the Multicultural Assessment Instrument (MAI, a novel self- or interviewer-administered survey. Methods Bilingual research assistants recruited adults in outpatient clinics by approaching persons in particular who appeared to be from a target language group. Participants completed the MAI, a second acculturation instrument used for content-validity assessment, and a demographics questionnaire. Participants were asked to take the MAI again in 2–3 weeks, in person or by post, to assess test-retest reliability. Recruitment data were analyzed by using nonparametric statistics. Results Of 1503 persons approached during recruitment, 400 enrolled (27 %—100 per language group. The enrollment rates in the language groups were: Arabic-32 %; English-33 %; Hindi-18 %; Urdu-30 %. The groups varied somewhat in their preferences regarding consent procedure, follow-up survey administration, contact mode for follow-up reminders, and disclosure of personal mailing address (for postal follow-up. Over all, telephone was the preferred medium for follow-up reminders. Of 64 persons who accepted a research assistant’s invitation for in-person follow-up, 40 participants completed the interview (follow-up rate, 63 %; among 126 persons in the postal group with a deliverable address, 29 participants mailed back a completed follow-up survey (response rate, 23 %. Conclusions Researchers in the Arabian Gulf face challenges to successfully identify, enroll, and retain eligible study participants. Although bilingual assistants

  8. Finding a Vulnerable Spot in HIV’s Armor by Investigating the Structure of HIV | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects and eventually kills CD4-expressing T cells, which are essential for the immune system to function appropriately. Loss of significant numbers of T cells leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a disease that kills over two million people around the world every year. HIV infection depends on two proteins expressed on

  9. Balancing Water Resources Development and Environmental Sustainability in Africa : A Review of Recent Research Findings and Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent’s water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the

  10. The bad apple effect and social value orientation in public-goods dilemmas: replication and extension of research findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Song; Sun, Jiaqing; Cai, Wei; Jin, Shenghua

    2014-06-01

    Two studies were conducted to replicate and extend previous findings on the effect of uncooperative behavior on group cooperation (the "bad apple" effect). Study 1 (56 women, 40 men; M age = 23.5 yr.) manipulated information about contributions from the bad apple, controlling for overall contributions to a group account. Study 2 (50 women, 34 men; M age = 20.4 yr.) compared the effects of a bad apple and a good apple on cooperation. The social value orientation of participants was measured to explore individual differences in the bad apple effect. The results revealed a bad apple (a) decreased cooperation among individuals with proself and prosocial orientations in Study 1, and (b) had a greater effect than a good apple on those who were proself compared to prosocial in Study 2.

  11. Searching for sex- and gender-sensitive tuberculosis research in public health: finding a needle in a haystack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissandjee B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilkis Vissandjee,1 Assia Mourid,2 Christina A Greenaway,3 Wendy E Short,4 Jodi A Proctor5 1Faculty of Nursing, Public Health Research Institute, Université de Montréal, Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 2Allied Health Library, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, McGill University, Division of Infectious Diseases, Jewish General Hospital, Montréal, QC, Canada; 4Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, School of Social Sciences, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD, Australia; 5School of Social Work, McGill University, Montréal, QC, Canada Abstract: Despite broadening consideration of sex- and gender-based issues in health research, when seeking information on how sex and gender contribute to disease contexts for specific health or public health topics, a lack of consistent or systematic use of terminology in health literature means that it remains difficult to identify research with a sex or gender focus. These inconsistencies are driven, in part, by the complexity and terminological inflexibility of the indexing systems for gender- and sex-related terms in public health databases. Compounding the issue are authors’ diverse vocabularies, and in some cases lack of accuracy in defining and using fundamental sex–gender terms in writing, and when establishing keyword lists and search criteria. Considering the specific case of the tuberculosis (TB prevention and management literature, an analysis of sex and gender sensitivity in three health databases was performed. While there is an expanding literature exploring the roles of both sex and gender in the trajectory and lived experience of TB, we demonstrate the potential to miss relevant research when attempting to retrieve literature using only the search criteria currently available. We, therefore, argue that for good clinical practice to be achieved; there is a need for both public health researchers and users to be better educated in appropriate

  12. The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: Methods and Findings from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; Gonzales, Patrick; Kawanaka, Takako; Knoll, Steffen; Serrano, Ana

    1999-01-01

    Describes the methods and preliminary findings of the Videotape Classroom Study, a video survey of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Germany, Japan, and the United States. Part of the Third International Mathematics and Science study, this research project is the first study of videotaped records from national probability samples. (SLD)

  13. Cyberbullying as a negative result of cyber-culture of Slovak children and adolescents: selected research findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollá Katarína

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyber-culture points out the life in cyberspace and goes beyond national cultures. It is particularly attractive for the young people who use Information and Communications Technologies (ICT to express their attitudes, values, beliefs and thinking. Those do not need to be necessarily in accordance with the standards of an individual society. Cyberculture becomes dangerous. Great risk lies in cyberbullying that represents negative impact of cyber-culture on human behavior. The aim of the study is to detect cyberbullying as a negative impact of cyber-culture among of Slovak children and adolescents. The research was carried out on a sample of 1619 11-18-year old respondents (average age was 14.51. Results of cyberbullying research carried out using Latent Class Analysis (LCA have proved the appropriateness of 3-latent-class module. Relative entropy of the module reached 0.915. It was demonstrated that 52.9% of respondents belonged to the group of uninvolved, 42.7% were victims and 4.4% were victims-aggressors. Being a negative consequence of cyber-culture, cyberbullying is a challenge that educators - including other assisting professions - face when educating children and adolescents to orientate in cyberspace, behave responsibly, express themselves in a way that would not interfere others’ integrity and identity (personal and virtual. The study was written under VEGA MŠVVaŠ SR a SAV č. 1/0244/15: “Detekcia a riešenie kyberšikany”.

  14. Evaluating the Development of Chemistry Undergraduate Researchers' Scientific Thinking Skills Using Performance-Data: First Findings from the Performance Assessment of Undergraduate Research (PURE) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsh, Joseph; Esteb, John J.; Maltese, Adam V.

    2017-01-01

    National calls in science, technology, engineering, and technology education reform efforts have advanced the wide-scale engagement of students in undergraduate research for the preparation of a workforce and citizenry able to attend to the challenges of the 21st century. Awareness of the potential benefits and costs of these experiences has led…

  15. Effects of capturing and collaring on polar bears: findings from long-term research on the southern Beaufort Sea population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey F.; Atwood, Todd C.; Durner, George M.; Simac, Kristin S.; Amstrup, Steven C.

    2014-01-01

    Context: The potential for research methods to affect wildlife is an increasing concern among both scientists and the public. This topic has a particular urgency for polar bears because additional research is needed to monitor and understand population responses to rapid loss of sea ice habitat.Aims: This study used data collected from polar bears sampled in the Alaska portion of the southern Beaufort Sea to investigate the potential for capture to adversely affect behaviour and vital rates. We evaluated the extent to which capture, collaring and handling may influence activity and movement days to weeks post-capture, and body mass, body condition, reproduction and survival over 6 months or more.Methods: We compared post-capture activity and movement rates, and relationships between prior capture history and body mass, body condition and reproductive success. We also summarised data on capture-related mortality.Key results: Individual-based estimates of activity and movement rates reached near-normal levels within 2–3 days and fully normal levels within 5 days post-capture. Models of activity and movement rates among all bears had poor fit, but suggested potential for prolonged, lower-level rate reductions. Repeated captures was not related to negative effects on body condition, reproduction or cub growth or survival. Capture-related mortality was substantially reduced after 1986, when immobilisation drugs were changed, with only 3 mortalities in 2517 captures from 1987–2013.Conclusions: Polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea exhibited the greatest reductions in activity and movement rates 3.5 days post-capture. These shorter-term, post-capture effects do not appear to have translated into any long-term effects on body condition, reproduction, or cub survival. Additionally, collaring had no effect on polar bear recovery rates, body condition, reproduction or cub survival.Implications: This study provides empirical evidence that current capture

  16. Preventative lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) and young child feeding practices: findings from qualitative research in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesorogol, Carolyn; Jean-Louis, Sherlie; Green, Jamie; Iannotti, Lora

    2015-12-01

    To prevent undernutrition in an urban slum in Haiti, a lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) was introduced through a randomised control trial. Food supplementation for young child nutrition has a long history in Haiti, but there is little empirical information regarding the effects of supplementation on young child feeding practices. One of the concerns raised by supplementation is that it may disrupt other positive feeding practices such as breastfeeding and use of other complementary foods, with negative consequences for child nutrition. We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with mother-baby pairs from the three comparison groups: control, 3-month LNS supplementation and 6-month LNS supplementation. Findings from those in the LNS groups indicated high acceptance and satisfaction with LNS and perceptions that it positively affects child health and development. LNS was integrated into and enhanced ongoing complementary feeding practices. The effects of LNS use on duration and perceived quantity of breastfeeding were variable, but generally, breastfeeding was maintained during and after the intervention. Interviews generated insights into beliefs regarding infant and young child feeding practices such as introduction and use of complementary foods, and breastfeeding duration, exclusivity and cessation. Implications for the use of LNS in public health nutrition programmes are discussed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Heron, Jon; Ness, Andy R.; Bundred, Peter; Gaskell, Rosalind M.; Coyne, Karen P.; German, Alexander J.; McCune, Sandra; Dawson, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood. PMID:21139856

  18. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Heron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, were used to collect pet ownership data from the mothers, from gestation to child age 10 years old. 14,663 children were included in the study, of which mothers of 13,557 reported pet information at gestation, and 7,800 by age 10. Pet types recorded include cat, dog, rabbit, rodent, bird, fish and tortoise/turtle. The dataset also contains a number of demographic, socioeconomic and behavioural variables relevant to human health behaviour. Logistic regression was used to build multivariable models for ownership of each pet type at age 7 years. Family pet ownership increased during childhood, in particular rabbits, rodents and fish. A number of socioeconomic and demographic factors were associated with ownership of different pet types and the effects differed depending on the pet type studied. Variables which require consideration by researchers include gender, presence of older siblings, ethnicity, maternal and paternal education, maternal and paternal social class, maternal age, number of people in the household, house type, and concurrent ownership of other pets. Whether the mother had pets during her childhood was a strong predictor of pet ownership in all models. In HAI studies, care should be taken to control for confounding factors, and to treat each pet type individually. ALSPAC and other similar birth cohorts can be considered a potential resource for research into the effects of pet ownership during childhood.

  19. Informing a Behavior Change Communication Strategy: Formative Research Findings From the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodish, Stephen; Aburto, Nancy; Dibari, Filippo; Brieger, William; Agostinho, Saozinha P; Gittelsohn, Joel

    2015-09-01

    Nutrition interventions targeting the first 1000 days show promise to improve nutritional status, but they require effective implementation. Formative research is thus invaluable for developing such interventions, but there have been few detailed studies that describe this phase of work within the Scaling Up Nutrition (SUN) movement. To inform a stunting prevention intervention in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique, by describing the sociocultural landscape and elucidating characteristics related to young child food, illness, and health. This formative research utilized a rapid assessment procedures (RAP) approach with 3 iterative phases that explored local perceptions and behaviors around food and illness among the Macua, Mwani, and Maconde ethnic groups. Ethnographic methods, including in-depth interviews, direct observations, free lists, and pile sorts, were used to collect data from community leaders, caregivers, and children 6 to 23 months. Data were analyzed drawing from grounded theory and cultural domain analysis. Geographic differences drive sociocultural characteristics amid 3 ethnic groups that allow for segmentation of the population into 2 distinct audiences for behavior change communications. These 2 communities have similar classification systems for children's foods but different adult dietary patterns. Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement did not fall into the existing food classification systems of either community, and participants preferred its promotion through community leader channels. Community members in both groups have little recognition of and perceived severity toward nutrition-related illnesses. Within Cabo Delgado, the cultural heterogeneity yields substantial differences related to food, illness, and health that are necessary to consider for developing an effective nutrition intervention. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Analysis of the nexus between population, water resources and Global Food Security highlights significance of governance and research investments and policy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusa, Isa A M; Zerihun, Ayalsew; Gibberd, Mark R

    2018-05-10

    Analyses of sensitivity of Global Food Security (GFS) score to a key set of supply or demand factors often suggest population and water supply as being the most critical and on which policies tend to focus. To explore other policy options, we characterised the nexus between GFS and a set of supply or demand factors including defining including population, agricultural and industrial water-use, agricultural publications (as a surrogate for investment in agricultural research and development [R&D]), and corruption perception index (CPI), to reveal opportunities for attaining enduring GFS. We found that despite being the primary driver of demand for food, population showed no significant correlation with GFS scores. Similarly agricultural water-use was poorly correlated with GFS scores, except in countries where evaporation exceeds precipitation and irrigation is significant. However, GFS had a strong positive association with industrial water-use as a surrogate for overall industrialisation. Recent expansions in cultivated land area failed to yield concomitant improvements in GFS score since such expansions have been mostly into marginal lands with low productivity and also barely compensated for lands retired from cropping in several developed economies. However, GFS was positively associated with agricultural R&D investments, as it was with the CPI scores. The apparent and relative strengths of these drivers on GFS outcome amongst countries were in the order: industrial water-use ≈ publication rate ≈ corruption perception > agricultural water-use > population. We concluded by suggesting that to enshrine enduring food security, policies should prioritise (1) increased R&D investments that address farmer needs, and (2) governance mechanisms that promote accountability in both research and production value chains. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Calorie labeling in a rural middle school influences food selection: findings from community-based participatory research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Monica; McGinnis, Paul; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; O'Malley, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Calorie labeling at the point-of-purchase in chain restaurants has been shown to reduce energy intake. To investigate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information at one rural middle school. With a community-based participatory research framework a mixed method approach was used to evaluate the impact of point-of-purchase calorie information. Students in grades 6-8, dining at the school cafeteria January and February 2010, participated for 17 school days each month; in January a menu was offered in the usual manner without calorie labels; the same menu was prepared in February with the addition of calorie labels at point-of-purchase. Gross calories served per student were measured each day allowing for matched comparison by menu. In March/April of 2010, 32 students who ate in the cafeteria 3 or more times per week were interviewed regarding their views on menu labeling. Calorie consumption decreased by an average of 47 calories/day; fat intake reduced by 2.1 grams/day. Five main themes were consistent throughout the interviews. Point-of-purchase calorie labels can play a role in reducing the number of calories consumed by middle school age children at the lunch. The majority of students interviewed found the calorie labels helped them choose healthier food.

  2. Concordance between patient satisfaction and the dentist’s view: findings from the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Joseph L.; Hudak-Boss, Susan; Fellows, Jeffery L.; Rindal, Brad; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the dentist’s view of the patient’s experience and concordance with the patient’s rating of satisfaction. Methods Practitioners from 197 practices in the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network recruited consecutively seen patients who had defective restorations that were replaced or repaired. At the end of the treatment visit, the treating dentist and 5,879 patients completed and returned a survey that asked about the patient’s satisfaction. Results Dentists viewed their patients as satisfied with their treatment experience (89% n=4,719) and that they had been perceived as friendly (97%, n=5,136). Dentists had less strong feelings about whether patients had a preference for the restorative material (43%, n=2,271) or an interest in information about the procedure (33%, n=1,757). Overall, patients were satisfied, and most of the time dentists correctly predicted this. Among patients who were less than satisfied, there was a substantial subset of cases where dentists were not aware. Conclusion For improved patient-centered care, patient desires, expectations and perception of the dental care experience need to be assessed by the dentist and then managed or corrected as needed. Practice implications By taking a patient-centered approach, dentists should seek to understand how patients evaluate and rate the service provided, thereby enabling themselves to focus on what each patient values most. PMID:24686969

  3. Impacts of reintroduced bison on first nations people in Yukon, Canada: Finding common ground through participatory research and social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas A Clark

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From 1988-1992 wood bison (Bison bison athabascae were transplanted to the southwest Yukon, inadvertently creating concerns among local First Nations about their impacts on other wildlife, habitat, and their members' traditional livelihoods. To understand these concerns we conducted a participatory impact assessment based on a multistage analysis of existing and new qualitative data. We found wood bison had since become a valued food resource, though there was a socially-determined carrying capacity for this population. Study participants desire a population large enough to sustainably harvest but avoid crossing a threshold beyond which bison may alter the regional ecosystem. An alternative problem definition emerged that focuses on how wildlife and people alike are adapting to the observed long-term changes in climate and landscape; suggesting that a wider range of acceptable policy alternatives likely exists than may have previously been thought. Collective identification of this new problem definition indicates that this specific assessment acted as a social learning process in which the participants jointly discovered new perspectives on a problem at both individual and organisational levels. Subsequent regulatory changes, based on this research, demonstrate the efficacy of participatory impact assessment for ameliorating human-wildlife conflicts.

  4. Family conflict, emotional security, and child development: translating research findings into a prevention program for community families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, E Mark; Schatz, Julie N

    2012-03-01

    The social problem posed by family conflict to the physical and psychological health and well-being of children, parents, and underlying family relationships is a cause for concern. Inter-parental and parent-child conflict are linked with children's behavioral, emotional, social, academic, and health problems, with children's risk particularly elevated in distressed marriages. Supported by the promise of brief psycho-educational programs (e.g., Halford et al. in Journal of Family Psychology 22:497-505, 2008; Sanders in Journal of Family Psychology 22:506-517, 2008), the present paper presents the development and evaluation of a prevention program for community families with children, concerned with family-wide conflict and relationships, and building on Emotional Security Theory (Davies and Cummings in Psychological Bulletin 116:387-411, 1994). This program uniquely focuses on translating research and theory in this area into brief, engaging programs for community families to improve conflict and emotional security for the sake of the children. Evaluation is based on multi-domain and multi-method assessments of family-wide and child outcomes in the context of a randomized control design. A series of studies are briefly described in the programmatic development of a prevention program for conflict and emotional security for community families, culminating in a program for family-wide conflict and emotional security for families with adolescents. With regard to this ongoing program, evidence is presented at the post-test for improvements in family-wide functioning, consideration of the relative benefits for different groups within the community, and preliminary support for the theoretical bases for program outcomes.

  5. Use of caries-preventive agents in children: findings from the dental practice-based research network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J L; Richman, Joshua S; Rindal, D Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2010-01-01

    Scientific evidence supports the application of caries-preventive agents in children and adolescents, and this knowledge must be applied to the practice of dentistry. There are few multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographical regions. The objective of the present study was to characterise the use of specific caries-preventive agents for paediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of practising clinicians. The present study surveyed clinicians from the Dental Practice-based Research Network who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey consisted of a questionnaire that presented a range of questions about caries risk assessment and the use of preventive techniques in children aged 6 to 18 years. Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used caries-preventive agents of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries-preventive agents ranged from 36% to 7%,with the most commonly used agent being non-prescription fluoride rinse. Clinicians who practised in a large group practice model and clinicians who come from the Scandinavian region use caries risk assessment more frequently compared to clinicians who come from regions that had, predominantly, clinicians in private practice. Whether or not clinicians used caries risk assessment with their paediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries-preventive treatments on patients. Although clinicians reported the use of some form of in-office caries-preventive agent, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practising clinicians about the benefits of caries-preventive agents, or a function of differing financial incentives, or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk.

  6. The incidence of eating disorders in the UK in 2000-2009: findings from the General Practice Research Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Hagberg, Katrina W; Petersen, Irene; Treasure, Janet L

    2013-05-28

    Few studies have investigated the incidence of eating disorders (EDs). Important questions about changes in the incidence of diagnosed disorders in recent years, disorder and gender-specific onset and case detection remain unanswered. Understanding changes in incidence is important for public health, clinical practice and service provision. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual (age-specific, gender-specific and subtype-specific) incidence of diagnosed ED: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in primary care over a 10-year period in the UK (2000-2009); to examine the changes within the study period; and to describe peak age at diagnosis. Register-based study. Primary care. Data were obtained from a primary care register, the General Practice Research Database, which contains anonymised records representing about 5% of the UK population. All patients with a first-time diagnosis of AN, BN and EDNOS were identified. Annual crude and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated. A total of 9072 patients with a first-time diagnosis of an ED were identified. The age-standardised annual incidence rate of all diagnosed ED for ages 10-49 increased from 32.3 (95% CI 31.7 to 32.9) to 37.2 (95% CI 36.6 to 37.9) per 100 000 between 2000 and 2009. The incidence of AN and BN was stable; however, the incidence of EDNOS increased. The incidence of the diagnosed ED was highest for girls aged 15-19 and for boys aged 10-14. The age-standardised incidence of ED increased in primary care between 2000 and 2009. New diagnoses of EDNOS increased, and EDNOS is the most common ED in primary care.

  7. The incidence of eating disorders in the UK in 2000–2009: findings from the General Practice Research Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Hagberg, Katrina W; Petersen, Irene; Treasure, Janet L

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have investigated the incidence of eating disorders (EDs). Important questions about changes in the incidence of diagnosed disorders in recent years, disorder and gender-specific onset and case detection remain unanswered. Understanding changes in incidence is important for public health, clinical practice and service provision. The aim of this study was to estimate the annual (age-specific, gender-specific and subtype-specific) incidence of diagnosed ED: anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN) and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) in primary care over a 10-year period in the UK (2000–2009); to examine the changes within the study period; and to describe peak age at diagnosis. Design Register-based study. Setting Primary care. Data were obtained from a primary care register, the General Practice Research Database, which contains anonymised records representing about 5% of the UK population. Participants All patients with a first-time diagnosis of AN, BN and EDNOS were identified. Primary outcome Annual crude and age-standardised incidence rates were calculated. Results A total of 9072 patients with a first-time diagnosis of an ED were identified. The age-standardised annual incidence rate of all diagnosed ED for ages 10–49 increased from 32.3 (95% CI 31.7 to 32.9) to 37.2 (95% CI 36.6 to 37.9) per 100 000 between 2000 and 2009. The incidence of AN and BN was stable; however, the incidence of EDNOS increased. The incidence of the diagnosed ED was highest for girls aged 15–19 and for boys aged 10–14. Conclusions The age-standardised incidence of ED increased in primary care between 2000 and 2009. New diagnoses of EDNOS increased, and EDNOS is the most common ED in primary care. PMID:23793681

  8. Balancing water resources development and environmental sustainability in Africa: a review of recent research findings and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Sustainable development in Africa is dependent on increasing use of the continent's water resources without significantly degrading ecosystem services that are also fundamental to human wellbeing. This is particularly challenging in Africa because of high spatial and temporal variability in the availability of water resources and limited amounts of total water availability across expansive semi-arid portions of the continent. The challenge is compounded by ambitious targets for increased water use and a rush of international funding to finance development activities. Balancing development with environmental sustainability requires (i) understanding the boundary conditions imposed by the continent's climate and hydrology today and into the future, (ii) estimating the magnitude and spatial distribution of water use needed to meet development goals, and (iii) understanding the environmental water requirements of affected ecosystems, their current status and potential consequences of increased water use. This article reviews recent advancements in each of these topics and highlights innovative approaches and tools available to support sustainable development. While much remains to be learned, scientific understanding and technology should not be viewed as impediments to sustainable development on the continent.

  9. Changes in symptoms during urologic chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptom flares: findings from one site of the MAPP Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Colditz, Graham A; Pakpahan, Ratna; Bradley, Catherine S; Goodman, Melody S; Andriole, Gerald L; Lai, H Henry

    2015-02-01

    To provide the first description and quantification of symptom changes during interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome symptom exacerbations ("flares"). Participants at one site of the Trans-Multidisciplinary Approaches to the study of chronic Pelvic Pain Epidemiology and Phenotyping Study completed two 10-day diaries over the 1-year study follow-up period, one at baseline and one during their first flare (if not at baseline). On each day of the diary, participants reported whether they were currently experiencing a flare, defined as "symptoms that are much worse than usual" for at least 1 day, and their levels of urination-related pain, pelvic pain, urgency, and frequency on a scale of 0-10. Linear mixed models were used to calculate mean changes in symptoms between non-flare and flare days from the same participant. Eighteen of 27 women and 9 of 29 men reported at least one flare during follow-up, for a total of 281 non-flare and 210 flare days. Of these participants, 44.4% reported one flare, 29.6% reported two flares, and 25.9% reported ≥ 3 flares over the combined 20-day diary observation period, with reported flares ranging in duration from 1 day to >2 weeks. During these flares, each of the main symptoms worsened significantly by a mean of at least two points and total symptoms worsened by a mean of 11 points for both sexes (all P ≤ 0.01). Flares are common and correspond to a global worsening of urologic and pelvic pain symptoms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The Impact of Personality Factors and Preceding User Comments on the Processing of Research Findings on Deep Brain Stimulation: A Randomized Controlled Experiment in a Simulated Online Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinkohl, Insa; Flemming, Danny; Cress, Ulrike; Kimmerle, Joachim

    2016-03-03

    Laypeople frequently discuss medical research findings on Web-based platforms, but little is known about whether they grasp the tentativeness that is inherent in these findings. Potential influential factors involved in understanding medical tentativeness have hardly been assessed to date. The research presented here aimed to examine the effects of personality factors and of other users' previous contributions in a Web-based forum on laypeople's understanding of the tentativeness of medical research findings, using the example of research on deep brain stimulation. We presented 70 university students with an online news article that reported findings on applying deep brain stimulation as a novel therapeutic method for depression, which participants were unfamiliar with. In a randomized controlled experiment, we manipulated the forum such that the article was either accompanied by user comments that addressed the issue of tentativeness, by comments that did not address this issue, or the article was accompanied by no comments at all. Participants were instructed to write their own individual user comments. Their scientific literacy, epistemological beliefs, and academic self-efficacy were measured. The outcomes measured were perceived tentativeness and tentativeness addressed in the participants' own comments. More sophisticated epistemological beliefs enhanced the perception of tentativeness (standardized β=.26, P=.034). Greater scientific literacy (stand. β=.25, P=.025) and greater academic self-efficacy (stand. β=.31, P=.007) were both predictors of a more extensive discussion of tentativeness in participants' comments. When forum posts presented in the experiment addressed the issue of tentativeness, participants' subsequent behavior tended to be consistent with what they had read in the forum, F2,63=3.66; P=.049, ηp(2)=.092. Students' understanding of the tentativeness of research findings on deep brain stimulation in an online forum is influenced by a

  11. Metasynthesis findings: potential versus reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2014-11-01

    Early on, qualitative researchers predicted that metasynthesis research had the potential to significantly push knowledge development forward. More recently, scholars have questioned whether this is actually occurring. To examine this concern, a randomly selected sample of metasynthesis articles was systematically reviewed to identify the types of findings that have been produced. Based on this systematic examination, it appears that findings from metasynthesis investigations might not be reaching their full potential. Metasynthesis investigations frequently result in isolated findings rather than findings in relationship, and opportunities to generate research hypotheses and theoretical models are not always fully realized. With this in mind, methods for moving metasynthesis findings into relationship are discussed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Surgical Findings and Outcomes in Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Oophorectomy: A Multicenter Review From the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons Fellows Pelvic Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara F B; Abramson, Vandana G; Alvarez, Jimena; DeStephano, Christopher; Hur, Hye-Chun; Lee, Katherine; Mattingly, Patricia; Park, Beau; Piszczek, Carolyn; Seifi, Farinaz; Stuparich, Mallory; Yunker, Amanda

    2018-01-01

    To describe the procedures performed, intra-abdominal findings, and surgical pathology in a cohort of women with premenopausal breast cancer who underwent oopherectomy. Multicenter retrospective chart review (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Nine US academic medical centers participating in the Fellows' Pelvic Research Network (FPRN). One hundred twenty-seven women with premenopausal breast cancer undergoing oophorectomy between January 2013 and March 2016. Surgical castration. The mean patient age was 45.8 years. Fourteen patients (11%) carried a BRCA mutations, and 22 (17%) carried another germline or acquired mutation, including multiple variants of uncertain significance. There was wide variation in surgical approach. Sixty-five patients (51%) underwent pelvic washings, and 43 (35%) underwent concurrent hysterectomy. Other concomitant procedures included midurethral sling placement, appendectomy, and hysteroscopy. Three patients experienced complications (transfusion, wound cellulitis, and vaginal cuff dehiscence). Thirteen patients (10%) had ovarian pathology detected on analysis of the surgical specimen, including metastatic tumor, serous cystadenomas, endometriomas, and Brenner tumor. Eight patients (6%) had Fallopian tube pathology, including 3 serous tubal intraepithelial cancers. Among the 44 uterine specimens, 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma and 1 multifocal endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia were noted. Regarding the entire study population, the number of patients meeting our study criteria and seen by gynecologic surgeons in the FPRN for oophorectomy increased by nearly 400% from 2013 to 2015. Since publication of the Suppression of Ovarian Function Trial data, bilateral oophorectomy has been recommended for some women with premenopausal breast cancer to facilitate breast cancer treatment with aromatase inhibitors. These women may be at elevated risk for occult abdominal pathology compared with the general population. Gynecologic surgeons

  13. Associations between use of crack cocaine and HIV-1 disease progression: research findings and implications for mother-to-infant transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Judith A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent in vitro and in vivo research has suggested that cocaine has a direct effect on the pathogenesis of AIDS. These findings are confirmed by epidemiological studies linking the use of injected, inhaled, and smoked (crack) cocaine and indicators of HIV disease progression, even among adherent users of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Recent studies of vertical HIV transmission suggest that cocaine use may play a role in mother-to-child infection via alteration of maternal immune respo...

  14. Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-05-28

    May 28, 2015 ... The findings revealed a significant association between iron deficiency and anaemia. Therefore ... The sample was selected using a stratified two-stage cluster design consisting of 37 clusters, 18 in the .... deficiency in malaria endemic regions has multiple causes of which p.falciparum being one of the ...

  15. Non-financial constraints to scaling-up small and medium-sized energy enterprises: Findings from field research in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Desgain, Denis DR; Mackenzie, Gordon A.

    2015-01-01

    constraint to establishing and expanding local small and medium-sized energy businesses, a range of significant non-financial constraints were also identified. This article provides a critical evaluation of these non-financial constraints as they were encountered in Ghana, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, based...... on the findings of a wider study into the key outcomes of the AREED project. These barriers include the institutional frameworks, human capacities and social and cultural factors....

  16. The TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study: Methods and Findings from an Exploratory Research Project on Eighth-Grade Mathematics Instruction in Germany, Japan, and the United States. A Research and Development Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, James W.; Gonzales, Patrick; Kwanaka, Takako; Knoll, Steffen; Serrano, Ana

    This report presents the methods and preliminary findings of the Videotape Classroom Study, a video study of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Germany, Japan, and the United States. This exploratory research project is part of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). The study included 231 eighth-grade mathematics…

  17. Housing First for People With Severe Mental Illness Who Are Homeless: A Review of the Research and Findings From the At Home–Chez soi Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Tim; Nelson, Geoffrey; Tsemberis, Sam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide a review of the extant research literature on Housing First (HF) for people with severe mental illness (SMI) who are homeless and to describe the findings of the recently completed At Home (AH)–Chez soi (CS) demonstration project. HF represents a paradigm shift in the delivery of community mental health services, whereby people with SMI who are homeless are supported through assertive community treatment or intensive case management to move into regular housing. Method: The AH–CS demonstration project entailed a randomized controlled trial conducted in 5 Canadian cities between 2009 and 2013. Mixed methods were used to examine the implementation of HF programs and participant outcomes, comparing 1158 people receiving HF to 990 people receiving standard care. Results: Initial research conducted in the United States shows HF to be a promising approach, yielding superior outcomes in helping people to rapidly exit homelessness and establish stable housing. Findings from the AH–CS demonstration project reveal that HF can be successfully adapted to different contexts and for different populations without losing its fidelity. People receiving HF achieved superior housing outcomes and showed more rapid improvements in community functioning and quality of life than those receiving treatment as usual. Conclusions: Knowledge translation efforts have been undertaken to disseminate the positive findings and lessons learned from the AH–CS project and to scale up the HF approach across Canada. PMID:26720504

  18. A Note on Testing Mediated Effects in Structural Equation Models: Reconciling Past and Current Research on the Performance of the Test of Joint Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Matthew J.; Gonzalez, Oscar; Miocevic, Milica; MacKinnon, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Methods to assess the significance of mediated effects in education and the social sciences are well studied and fall into two categories: single sample methods and computer-intensive methods. A popular single sample method to detect the significance of the mediated effect is the test of joint significance, and a popular computer-intensive method…

  19. Informed consent instead of assent is appropriate in children from the age of twelve: Policy implications of new findings on children's competence to consent to clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Irma M; De Vries, Martine C; Troost, Pieter W; Meynen, Gerben; Van Goudoever, Johannes B; Lindauer, Ramón J L

    2015-11-09

    For many decades, the debate on children's competence to give informed consent in medical settings concentrated on ethical and legal aspects, with little empirical underpinnings. Recently, data from empirical research became available to advance the discussion. It was shown that children's competence to consent to clinical research could be accurately assessed by the modified MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research. Age limits for children to be deemed competent to decide on research participation have been studied: generally children of 11.2 years and above were decision-making competent, while children of 9.6 years and younger were not. Age was pointed out to be the key determining factor in children's competence. In this article we reflect on policy implications of these findings, considering legal, ethical, developmental and clinical perspectives. Although assessment of children's competence has a normative character, ethics, law and clinical practice can benefit from research data. The findings may help to do justice to the capacities children possess and challenges they may face when deciding about treatment and research options. We discuss advantages and drawbacks of standardized competence assessment in children on a case-by-case basis compared to application of a fixed age limit, and conclude that a selective implementation of case-by-case competence assessment in specific populations is preferable. We recommend the implementation of age limits based on empirical evidence. Furthermore, we elaborate on a suitable model for informed consent involving children and parents that would do justice to developmental aspects of children and the specific characteristics of the parent-child dyad. Previous research outcomes showed that children's medical decision-making capacities could be operationalized into a standardized assessment instrument. Recommendations for policies include a dual consent procedure, including both child as well as parents

  20. DECOVALEX III/BENCHPAR PROJECTS. Approaches to Upscaling Thermal-Hydro-Mechanical Processes in a Fractured Rock. Mass and its Significance for Large-Scale Repository Performance Assessment. Summary of Findings. Report of BMT2/WP3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Johan; Staub, Isabelle; Knight, Les

    2005-02-01

    The Benchmark Test 2 of DECOVALEX III and Work Package 3 of BENCHPAR concerns the upscaling Thermal (T), Hydrological (H) and Mechanical (M) processes in a fractured rock mass and its significance for large-scale repository performance assessment. The work is primarily concerned with the extent to which various thermo-hydro-mechanical couplings in a fractured rock mass adjacent to a repository are significant in terms of solute transport typically calculated in large-scale repository performance assessments. Since the presence of even quite small fractures may control the hydraulic, mechanical and coupled hydromechanical behaviour of the rock mass, a key of the work has been to explore the extent to which these can be upscaled and represented by 'equivalent' continuum properties appropriate PA calculations. From these general aims the BMT was set-up as a numerical study of a large scale reference problem. Analysing this reference problem should: help explore how different means of simplifying the geometrical detail of a site, with its implications on model parameters, ('upscaling') impacts model predictions of relevance to repository performance, explore to what extent the THM-coupling needs to be considered in relation to PA-measures, compare the uncertainties in upscaling (both to uncertainty on how to upscale or uncertainty that arises due to the upscaling processes) and consideration of THM couplings with the inherent uncertainty and spatial variability of the site specific data. Furthermore, it has been an essential component of the work that individual teams not only produce numerical results but are forced to make their own judgements and to provide the proper justification for their conclusions based on their analysis. It should also be understood that conclusions drawn will partly be specific to the problem analysed, in particular as it mainly concerns a 2D application. This means that specific conclusions may have limited applicability to real problems in