WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant relevant experience

  1. Statistical significance versus clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Marieke H C; Bech, Anneke; Bouyer, Jean; van den Brand, Jan A J G

    2017-04-01

    In March this year, the American Statistical Association (ASA) posted a statement on the correct use of P-values, in response to a growing concern that the P-value is commonly misused and misinterpreted. We aim to translate these warnings given by the ASA into a language more easily understood by clinicians and researchers without a deep background in statistics. Moreover, we intend to illustrate the limitations of P-values, even when used and interpreted correctly, and bring more attention to the clinical relevance of study findings using two recently reported studies as examples. We argue that P-values are often misinterpreted. A common mistake is saying that P < 0.05 means that the null hypothesis is false, and P ≥0.05 means that the null hypothesis is true. The correct interpretation of a P-value of 0.05 is that if the null hypothesis were indeed true, a similar or more extreme result would occur 5% of the times upon repeating the study in a similar sample. In other words, the P-value informs about the likelihood of the data given the null hypothesis and not the other way around. A possible alternative related to the P-value is the confidence interval (CI). It provides more information on the magnitude of an effect and the imprecision with which that effect was estimated. However, there is no magic bullet to replace P-values and stop erroneous interpretation of scientific results. Scientists and readers alike should make themselves familiar with the correct, nuanced interpretation of statistical tests, P-values and CIs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Significance of perceptually relevant image decolorization for scene classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Sowmya; Divakaran, Govind; Soman, Kutti Padanyl

    2017-11-01

    Color images contain luminance and chrominance components representing the intensity and color information, respectively. The objective of this paper is to show the significance of incorporating chrominance information to the task of scene classification. An improved color-to-grayscale image conversion algorithm that effectively incorporates chrominance information is proposed using the color-to-gray structure similarity index and singular value decomposition to improve the perceptual quality of the converted grayscale images. The experimental results based on an image quality assessment for image decolorization and its success rate (using the Cadik and COLOR250 datasets) show that the proposed image decolorization technique performs better than eight existing benchmark algorithms for image decolorization. In the second part of the paper, the effectiveness of incorporating the chrominance component for scene classification tasks is demonstrated using a deep belief network-based image classification system developed using dense scale-invariant feature transforms. The amount of chrominance information incorporated into the proposed image decolorization technique is confirmed with the improvement to the overall scene classification accuracy. Moreover, the overall scene classification performance improved by combining the models obtained using the proposed method and conventional decolorization methods.

  3. Experiments with positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Kamps, J.; Li, R.; Hiemstra, D.

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using Dirichlet smoothing

  4. THE COMPLEX OF EMOTIONAL EXPERIENCES, RELEVANT MANIFESTATIONS OF INSPIRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Starikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to investigate structure of emotional experiences, relevant manifestations of inspiration creative activities of students.Methods. The proposed methods of mathematical statistics (correlation analysis, factor analysis, multidimensional scaling are applied.Results and scientific novelty. The use of factor analysis, multidimensional scaling allowed to reveal a consistent set of positive experiences of the students, the relevant experience of inspiration in creative activities. «Operational» rueful feelings dedicated by M. Chiksentmihaji («feeling of full involvement, and dilution in what you do», «feeling of concentration, perfect clarity of purpose, complete control and a feeling of total immersion in a job that does not require special efforts» and experiences of the «spiritual» nature, more appropriate to peaks experiences of A. Maslow («feeling of love for all existing, all life»; «a deep sense of self importance, the inner feeling of approval of self»; «feeling of unity with the whole world»; «acute perception of the beauty of the world of nature, “beautiful instant”»; «feeling of lightness, flowing» are included in this complex in accordance with the study results. The interrelation of degree of expressiveness of the given complex of experiences with inspiration experience is considered.Practical significance. The results of the study show structure of emotional experiences, relevant manifestations of inspiration. Research materials can be useful both to psychologists, and experts in the field of pedagogy of creative activity.

  5. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  6. Operating experience feedback from safety significant events at research reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokr, A.M. [Atomic Energy Authority, Abouzabal (Egypt). Egypt Second Research Reactor; Rao, D. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2015-05-15

    Operating experience feedback is an effective mechanism to provide lessons learned from the events and the associated corrective actions to prevent recurrence of events, resulting in improving safety in the nuclear installations. This paper analyzes the events of safety significance that have been occurred at research reactors and discusses the root causes and lessons learned from these events. Insights from literature on events at research reactors and feedback from events at nuclear power plants that are relevant to research reactors are also presented along with discussions. The results of the analysis showed the importance of communication of safety information and exchange of operating experience are vital to prevent reoccurrences of events. The analysis showed also the need for continued attention to human factors and training of operating personnel, and the need for establishing systematic ageing management programmes of reactor facilities, and programmes for safety management of handling of nuclear fuel, core components, and experimental devices.

  7. Operating experience feedback from safety significant events at research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokr, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Operating experience feedback is an effective mechanism to provide lessons learned from the events and the associated corrective actions to prevent recurrence of events, resulting in improving safety in the nuclear installations. This paper analyzes the events of safety significance that have been occurred at research reactors and discusses the root causes and lessons learned from these events. Insights from literature on events at research reactors and feedback from events at nuclear power plants that are relevant to research reactors are also presented along with discussions. The results of the analysis showed the importance of communication of safety information and exchange of operating experience are vital to prevent reoccurrences of events. The analysis showed also the need for continued attention to human factors and training of operating personnel, and the need for establishing systematic ageing management programmes of reactor facilities, and programmes for safety management of handling of nuclear fuel, core components, and experimental devices.

  8. Progress of LMJ-relevant implosions experiments on OMEGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casner A.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In preparation of the first ignition attempts on the Laser Mégajoule (LMJ, an experimental program is being pursued on OMEGA to investigate LMJ-relevant hohlraums. First, radiation temperature levels close to 300 eV were recently achieved in reduced-scale hohlraums with modest backscatter losses. Regarding the baseline target design for fusion experiments on LMJ, an extensive experimental database has also been collected for scaled implosions experiments in both empty and gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums. We acquired a full picture of hohlraum energetics and implosion dynamics. Not only did the rugby hohlraums show significantly higher x-ray drive energy over the cylindrical hohlraums, but symmetry control by power balance was demonstrated, as well as high-performance D2 implosions enabling the use of a complete suite of neutrons diagnostics. Charged particle diagnostics provide complementary insights into the physics of these x-ray driven implosions. An overview of these results demonstrates our ability to control the key parameters driving the implosion, lending more confidence in extrapolations to ignition-scale targets.

  9. FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agodi, C.; Abou-Haidar, Z.; Alvarez, M. A. G.; Aumann, T.; Balestra, F.; Battistoni, G.; Bocci, A.; Bohlen, T. T.; Bondì, M.; Boudard, A.; Brunetti, A.; Carpinelli, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Carbone, D.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cortes-Giraldo, M. A.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Durante, M.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Finck, C.; Foti, A.; Gallardo, M. I.; Golosio, B.; Iarocci, E.; Iazzi, F.; Ickert, G.; Introzzi, R.; Juliani, D.; Krimmer, J.; Kurz, N.; Labalme, M.; Lavagno, A.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fevre, A.; Leray, S.; Marchetto, F.; Monaco, V.; Morone, M. C.; Nicolosi, D.; Oliva, P.; Paoloni, A.; Patera, V.; Piersanti, L.; Pleskac, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Randazzo, N.; Romano, F.; Rossi, D.; Rosso, V.; Rousseau, M.; Sacchi, R.; Sala, P.; Sarti, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Schuy, C.; Sciubba, A.; Sfienti, C.; Simon, H.; Sipala, V.; Spiriti, E.; Stuttge, L.; Tropea, S.; Younis, H.

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, has been designed for the measurement of different ions fragmentation cross sections at different energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The experiment is performed by an international collaboration made of institutions from Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The experimental apparatus is partly based on an already existing setup made of the ALADIN magnet, the MUSIC IV TPC, the LAND2 neutron detector and the TOFWALL scintillator TOF system, integrated with newly designed detectors in the interaction Region (IR) around the carbon removable target: a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger for detection of light fragments emitted at large angles (KENTROS). The scientific program of the FIRST experiment started on summer 2011 with the study of the 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8mm) carbon target.

  10. FIRST experiment: Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agodi, C; Bondì, M; Cavallaro, M; Carbone, D; Cirrone, G A P; Cuttone, G; Abou-Haidar, Z; Alvarez, M A G; Bocci, A; Aumann, T; Durante, M; Balestra, F; Battistoni, G; Bohlen, T T; Boudard, A; Brunetti, A; Carpinelli, M; Cappuzzello, F; Cortes-Giraldo, M A; Napoli, M De

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear fragmentation processes are relevant in different fields of basic research and applied physics and are of particular interest for tumor therapy and for space radiation protection applications. The FIRST (Fragmentation of Ions Relevant for Space and Therapy) experiment at SIS accelerator of GSI laboratory in Darmstadt, has been designed for the measurement of different ions fragmentation cross sections at different energies between 100 and 1000 MeV/nucleon. The experiment is performed by an international collaboration made of institutions from Germany, France, Italy and Spain. The experimental apparatus is partly based on an already existing setup made of the ALADIN magnet, the MUSIC IV TPC, the LAND2 neutron detector and the TOFWALL scintillator TOF system, integrated with newly designed detectors in the interaction Region (IR) around the carbon removable target: a scintillator Start Counter, a Beam Monitor drift chamber, a silicon Vertex Detector and a Proton Tagger for detection of light fragments emitted at large angles (KENTROS). The scientific program of the FIRST experiment started on summer 2011 with the study of the 400 MeV/nucleon 12C beam fragmentation on thin (8 mm) carbon target.

  11. Equation of state experiments and theory relevant to planetary modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, M.; Graboske, H.C. Jr.; Nellis, W.J.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years there have been a number of static and shockwave experiments on the properties of planetary materials. The highest pressure measurements, and the ones most relevant to planetary modelling, have been obtained by shock compression. Of particular interest to the Jovian group are results for H 2 , H 2 O, CH 4 and NH 3 . Although the properties of metallic hydrogen have not been measured, they have been the subject of extensive calculations. In addition recent shock wave experiments on iron report to have detected melting under Earth core conditions. From this data theoretical models have been developed for computing the equations of state of materials used in planetary studies. A compelling feature that has followed from the use of improved material properties is a simplification in the planetary models. (author)

  12. Fusion-relevant basic radiation effects: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, L.K.; Coghlan, W.A.; Farrell, K.; Horton, L.L.; Lee, E.H.; Lewis, M.B.; Packan, N.H.

    1983-01-01

    A summary is given of results of the basic radiation effects program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which are relevant to fusion reactor materials applications. The basic radiation effects program at ORNL is a large effort with the dual objectives of understanding the atomic and microstructural defect mechanisms underlying radiation effects and of determining principles for the design of radiation resistant materials. A strength of this effort is the parallel and integrated experimental and theoretical approaches in each major research area. The experimental effort is active in electron microscopy, ion irradiations and ion-beam techniques, neutron irradiations, surface analysis and in other areas. The theoretical effort is active in developing the theory of radiation effects for a broad range of phenomena and in applying it to the design and interpretation of experiments and to alloy design

  13. Significant calendar period deviations in testicular germ cell tumors indicate that postnatal exposures are etiologically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speaks, Crystal; McGlynn, Katherine A; Cook, Michael B

    2012-10-01

    The current working model of type II testicular germ cell tumor (TGCT) pathogenesis states that carcinoma in situ arises during embryogenesis, is a necessary precursor, and always progresses to cancer. An implicit condition of this model is that only in utero exposures affect the development of TGCT in later life. In an age-period-cohort analysis, this working model contends an absence of calendar period deviations. We tested this contention using data from the SEER registries of the United States. We assessed age-period-cohort models of TGCTs, seminomas, and nonseminomas for the period 1973-2008. Analyses were restricted to whites diagnosed at ages 15-74 years. We tested whether calendar period deviations were significant in TGCT incidence trends adjusted for age deviations and cohort effects. This analysis included 32,250 TGCTs (18,475 seminomas and 13,775 nonseminomas). Seminoma incidence trends have increased with an average annual percentage change in log-linear rates (net drift) of 1.25 %, relative to just 0.14 % for nonseminoma. In more recent time periods, TGCT incidence trends have plateaued and then undergone a slight decrease. Calendar period deviations were highly statistically significant in models of TGCT (p = 1.24(-9)) and seminoma (p = 3.99(-14)), after adjustment for age deviations and cohort effects; results for nonseminoma (p = 0.02) indicated that the effects of calendar period were much more muted. Calendar period deviations play a significant role in incidence trends of TGCT, which indicates that postnatal exposures are etiologically relevant.

  14. Nematodes Relevance in Soil Quality Management and their Significance as Biomarkers in Aquatic Substrates: Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpheokhai, Leonard I; Oribhabor, Blessing J

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of man with the ecosystem is a major factor causing environmental pollution and its attendant consequences such as climate change in our world today. Patents relating to nematodes' relevance in soil quality management and their significance as biomarkers in aquatic substrates were reviewed. Nematodes are useful in rapid, easy and inexpensive method for testing the toxicity of substance (e.g. aquatic substrates). This review paper sets out to examine and discuss the issue of soil pollution, functions of nematodes in soil and aquatic substrates as well as bio-indicators in soil health management in terrestrial ecology. The information used were on the basis of secondary sources from previous research. It is abundantly clear that the population dynamics of plant parasitic or free-living nematodes have useful potentials as biomonitor for soil health and other forms of environmental contamination through agricultural activities, industrial pollution and oil spillage, and the analysis of nematode community structure could be used as complementary information obtained from conventional soil testing approaches.

  15. Highly Reducing Partitioning Experiments Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    's surface by MESSENGER (K, Na, Fe, Ti, Cl, Al, Cr, Mn, U, Th) and other geochemically relevant elements (P, F, H, N, C, Co, Ni, Mo, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Dy, Yb) are added to the starting composition at trace abundances (approximately 500 ppm) so that they are close enough to infinite dilution to follow Henry's law of trace elements, and their partitioning behavior can be measured between the metal, silicate, and sulfide phases. The results of these experiments will allow us to assess the thermal and magmatic evolution of the planet Mercury from a geochemical standpoint.

  16. Understanding significant others' experience of aphasia and rehabilitation following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallé, Marie-Christine; Le Dorze, Guylaine

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown how rehabilitation services contribute to significant others' adjustment to stroke with aphasia since their experience of rehabilitation has not been studied before. The purpose of this study was thus to understand significant others' experience of aphasia rehabilitation within the context of post-stroke rehabilitation. Individual interviews were carried out with 12 significant others of persons who became aphasic as a result of a stroke and were discharged from rehabilitation in the past 3 months. Data were analyzed with a grounded theory approach. "Being centered on the aphasic person" was the core category triggered by the significant other's perception of the stroke survivor's vulnerability and his/her feelings of attachment towards that person. Through their interactions with professionals, significant others assumed that rehabilitation was also centered on the aphasic person; a perspective that was reinforced. Consequently, significant others participated in rehabilitation as caregivers and expected rehabilitation to meet their caregiver needs but not other personal and relational needs. Their appraisal of rehabilitation was thus related to the satisfaction or not of caregiver needs. With a greater sensitivity to significant others who focus on the stroke survivor and disregard their own needs, rehabilitation professionals and especially speech-language therapists, can assist families in reestablishing communication and satisfying relationships which are affected because of aphasia. This qualitative study shows that significant others of aphasic stroke survivors experience rehabilitation as services focused on the person who had the stroke. Significant others' satisfaction with rehabilitation is not related to the fulfillment of their personal (e.g. resuming their activities) and relational needs (e.g. good communication with the person with aphasia). When offering interventions targeting significant others' needs, rehabilitation

  17. Practical Relevance of Experiments in Comprehensibility of Requirements Specifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Herrmann, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Requirements Engineering (RE) community has become increasingly aware of the importance of carrying out industry-relevant research. Researchers and practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of their empirical research to increase the likely adoption of RE methods in

  18. Fire analysis. Relevant aspects from Spanish nuclear power plants experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, Pedro; Villar, Tomas [Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E., Madrid (Spain). Nuclear Safety Dept.

    2015-12-15

    Empresarios Agrupados A.I.E. leads the development and updating of fire analysis for the Spanish NPP's. Some of them decided to voluntarily adopt standard NFPA-805 as an alternative to the current fire protection rules. Fire Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) methodologies have been continuously evolving during recent years. This paper will briefly present experience gained in relationship with some relevant aspects of fire risk analysis. Associated circuits need to be evaluated to determine if cable faults can prevent or cause the maloperation of redundant safety related systems. If a circuit is not properly protected by an isolation device, fire damage to a cable could propagate to other safe shutdown cables. In order to check that the coordination is adequate, existing electrical protections coordination studies have been analyzed and, for some plants, additional analyses have been performed for DC and AC for instrumentation an control (I and C) systems. Spurious actuations are also a basic part of the analysis of the consequence of a fire, which should consider any possible actuation that can prevent or affect the performance of a system or safety function. In this context, it was furthermore necessary to take into account the possibility of a combination of several spurious actuations that can result in a specific consequence, according to Appendix G of NEI 00-01 Rev. 2. These are the so-called Multiple Spurious Operations (MSOs). One key element in fire analysis is the availability of validated fire models used to estimate the spread of fire and the failure time of cable raceways. NFPA 805 states that fire models shall only be applied within the limitations of the given model. The applicability of the validation results is determined using normalized parameters traditionally used in fire modeling applications. Normalized parameters assessed in NUREG-1934 may be used to compare NPP fire scenarios with validation experiments. If some of the parameters do

  19. Procreative reasons-relevance: on the moral significance of why we have children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotz, Mianna

    2009-06-01

    Advances in reproductive technologies - in particular in genetic screening and selection - have occasioned renewed interest in the moral justifiability of the reasons that motivate the decision to have a child. The capacity to select for desired blood and tissue compatibilities has led to the much discussed 'saviour sibling' cases in which parents seek to 'have one child to save another'. Heightened interest in procreative reasons is to be welcomed, since it prompts a more general philosophical interrogation of the grounds for moral appraisal of reasons-to-parent, and of the extent to which such reasons are relevant to the moral assessment of procreation itself. I start by rejecting the idea that we can use a distinction between 'other-regarding' and 'future-child-regarding' reasons as a basis on which to distinguish good from bad procreative reasons. I then offer and evaluate three potential grounds for elucidating and establishing a relationship between procreative motivation and the rightness/wrongness of procreative conduct: the predictiveness, the verdictiveness, and the expressiveness of procreative reasons.

  20. Initial experience with the NRC significance determination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, A.L. [Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has revamped its inspection, assessment, and enforcement programs for commercial nuclear power plants. The new oversight process uses more objective, timely, and safety-significant criteria in assessing performance, while seeking to more effectively and efficiently regulate the industry. The NRC tested the new process at thirteen reactors at nine sites across the country on a pilot basis in 1999 to identify what things worked well and what improvements were called for before beginning Initial Implementation at all US nuclear power plants on April 2, 2000. After a year of experience has been gained with the new oversight process at all US plants, the NRC anticipates making further improvements based on this wider experience. (author)

  1. Initial experience with the NRC significance determination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madison, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has revamped its inspection, assessment, and enforcement programs for commercial nuclear power plants. The new oversight process uses more objective, timely, and safety-significant criteria in assessing performance, while seeking to more effectively and efficiently regulate the industry. The NRC tested the new process at thirteen reactors at nine sites across the country on a pilot basis in 1999 to identify what things worked well and what improvements were called for before beginning Initial Implementation at all US nuclear power plants on April 2, 2000. After a year of experience has been gained with the new oversight process at all US plants, the NRC anticipates making further improvements based on this wider experience. (author)

  2. Shock-ignition relevant experiments with planar targets on OMEGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberger, M.; Hu, S. X.; Anderson, K. S.; Boehly, T. R.; Sangster, T. C.; Seka, W.; Stoeckl, C.; Yaakobi, B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Theobald, W.; Lafon, M.; Nora, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Betti, R.; Meyerhofer, D. D. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, 250 East River Road, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Fusion Science Center, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Departments of Mechanical Engineering and Physics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Casner, A. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Fratanduono, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Ribeyre, X.; Schurtz, G. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, CELIA, Université Bordeaux 1-CEA-CNRS, Talence (France)

    2014-02-15

    We report on laser-driven, strong-shock generation and hot-electron production in planar targets in the presence of a pre-plasma at shock-ignition (SI) relevant laser and pre-plasma conditions. 2-D simulations reproduce the shock dynamics well, indicating ablator shocks of up to 75 Mbar have been generated. We observe hot-electron temperatures of ∼70 keV at intensities of 1.4 × 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2} with multiple overlapping beams driving the two-plasmon decay instability. When extrapolated to SI-relevant intensities of ∼10{sup 16} W/cm{sup 2}, the hot electron temperature will likely exceed 100 keV, suggesting that tightly focused beams without overlap are better suited for launching the ignitor shock.

  3. Is statistical significance clinically important?--A guide to judge the clinical relevance of study findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierevelt, Inger N.; van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Poolman, Rudolf W.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we describe several issues that influence the reporting of statistical significance in relation to clinical importance, since misinterpretation of p values is a common issue in orthopaedic literature. Orthopaedic research is tormented by the risks of false-positive (type I error) and

  4. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Sönke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Gühne, Otfried; Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Yu-Ao; Chen, Zeng-Bing; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2010-05-28

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the Mermin and Ardehali inequality for different levels of noise. Furthermore, we provide a way to develop entanglement tests with high statistical significance.

  5. The relevance of cytokines in the radiation-induced lung reaction. Experimental basis and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, C.E.; Ruebe, C.; Rodemann, H.P.

    2004-01-01

    Methods: published data on radiation-induced cytokine expression from experimental and clinical studies are reviewed. Results and conclusion: the major pro-inflammatory cytokines in the radiation response of the lung include tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1 (IL-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) appears to be of particular importance in the development of lung fibrosis. First approaches with radioprotective agents and gene therapy to modify radiation-induced cytokine expression have been investigated for prevention of late effects of irradiation lung damage in animal experiments. Preliminary data of clinical studies suggest that elevated plasma TGF-β-levels during radiotherapy may predict the development of symptomatic radiation pneumonitis. The biological impacts of endogenous radiation-induced cytokine production by tumor cells in respect of tumor behavior, potential damage to normal tissue, and clinical status of the host still need to be determined more precisely. (orig.)

  6. Increasing the statistical significance of entanglement detection in experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungnitsch, Bastian; Niekamp, Soenke; Kleinmann, Matthias; Guehne, Otfried [Institut fuer Quantenoptik und Quanteninformation, Innsbruck (Austria); Lu, He; Gao, Wei-Bo; Chen, Zeng-Bing [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Chen, Yu-Ao; Pan, Jian-Wei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China); Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Entanglement is often verified by a violation of an inequality like a Bell inequality or an entanglement witness. Considerable effort has been devoted to the optimization of such inequalities in order to obtain a high violation. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that such an optimization does not necessarily lead to a better entanglement test, if the statistical error is taken into account. Theoretically, we show for different error models that reducing the violation of an inequality can improve the significance. We show this to be the case for an error model in which the variance of an observable is interpreted as its error and for the standard error model in photonic experiments. Specifically, we demonstrate that the Mermin inequality yields a Bell test which is statistically more significant than the Ardehali inequality in the case of a photonic four-qubit state that is close to a GHZ state. Experimentally, we observe this phenomenon in a four-photon experiment, testing the above inequalities for different levels of noise.

  7. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Relevance of Microsatellite Instability in Sporadic Colorectal Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Copija

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellite instability (MSI is a marker of the replication error phenotype. It is caused by impaired DNA mismatch repair processes (MMR, resulting in ineffectiveness of the mechanisms responsible for the DNA replication precision and postreplicative DNA repair. MSI underlies the pathogenesis of 10%–20% of colorectal cancer (CRC cases. The data about the potential value of MMR status as a predictive factor for 5-fluorouracil (FU-based chemotherapy remain unclear. According to National Comprehensive Cancer Network updated guidelines, MSI testing is recommended for all patients with stage II CRC because patients with MSI-H (high-frequency MSI tumour may have a good prognosis and obtain no benefit from 5-FU-based adjuvant chemotherapy. The significance of the MSI status as a predictive factor for patients with metastatic disease was not confirmed. The association between the MSI status and the efficacy of the therapy based on anti-programmed death-1 receptor inhibitors requires further studies.

  8. Making Sociology Relevant: The Assignment and Application of Breaching Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalovich, Adam

    2006-01-01

    Breaching experiments involve the conscious exhibition of "unexpected" behavior, an observation of the types of social reactions such behavioral violations engender, and an analysis of the social structure that makes these social reactions possible. The conscious violation of norms can be highly fruitful for sociology students, providing insights…

  9. Liquid jet experiments: relevance to inertial confinement fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    In order to try to find a reactor design which offered protection against neutron damage, studies were undertaken at LLNL (the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) of self-healing, renewable liquid-wall reactor concepts. In conjuction with these studies, were done a seris of small-scale aer jet experiments were done over the past several years at UCD (University of California, Davis Campus) to simulate the behavior of liquid lithium (or lithium-lead) jets in these liquid-wall fusion reactor concepts. Extropolating the results of these small-scale experiments to the large-scale lithium jets, tentatively concluded that the lithium jet can be re-established after the microexplosion, and with careful design the jets should not breakup due to instabilities during the relatively quiscent period between MICROEXPLOSIONS

  10. Plasma experiments with relevance for other branches of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanduloviciu, M.; Lozneanu, E.

    2000-01-01

    A new scenario of self-organization, suggested by plasma experiments, is presented as an enlightening model able to illustrate, on some examples, the necessity of a paradigm shift in science. Thus, self-organization at criticality in fusion devices, differential negative resistance of semi-conductors, generation of complex space charge configurations under controllable laboratory conditions and in nature are mentioned as phenomena potentially explicable in the frame of a unique framework in which self-organization is the central concept. (authors)

  11. Relevance of animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations, though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and that host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types, and they can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors, risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. Animal experiments must remain a major approach to the investigation of mechanisms of carcinogenesis. 22 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  12. Relevance of experimental animal studies to the human experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, R.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Animal experiments are being used to examine a number of physical and biological factors that influence risk estimations though not usually in coordination with epidemiologists. It is clear that the different mechanisms involved in different types of tumors are reflected in the diversity of dose-response relationships. The forms of the dose-response relationships are influenced by both the initial events and their expression. Evidence is accumulating that many initiated cells do not get expressed as overt cancers and host factors may play a major role in the expression of potential tumor cells. There is a need for information about the relationship of the natural incidence and susceptibility to radiation induction for more tumor types. Such experiments will help answer the question of which risk estimate models are appropriate for different tumor types and can be carried out on animals. Perhaps because of the importance of host factors risk estimates as a percentage of the natural incidence appear to be similar for human beings and mice for a small number of tumor types. The elucidation of the mechanisms involved in different tissues while a slow business remains an important role of animal experiments

  13. Operational experience with Dragon reactor experiment of relevance to commercial reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capp, P.D.; Simon, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    An important part of the experience gained during the first ten years of successful power operation of the Dragon Reactor is relevant to the design and operation of future High Temperature Reactors (HTRs). The aspects presented in this paper have been chosen as being particularly applicable to larger HTR systems. Core performance under a variety of conditions is surveyed with particular emphasis on a technique developed for the identification and location of unpurged releasing fuel and the presence of activation and fission products in the core area. The lessons learned during the reflector block replacement are presented. Operating experience with the primary circuit identifies the lack of mixing of gas streams within the hot plenum and the problems of gas streaming in ducts. Helium leakage from the circuit is often greater than the optimum 0.1%/d. Virtually all the leakage problems are associated with the small bore instrument pipework essential for the many experiments associated with the Dragon Reactor Experiment (DRE). Primary circuit maintenance work confirms the generally clean state of the DRE circuit but identifies 137 Cs and 110 Agsup(m) as possible hazards if fuel emitting these isotopes is irradiated. (author)

  14. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  15. Transmutation: a decade of revival issues, relevant experiments and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatores, M.

    2001-01-01

    For more than a decade, transmutation studies have been again a topic of wide interest and have triggered numerous international activities, like bilateral/multilateral collaborations, information exchanges, state-of-the-art reports, conferences, but also some co-ordinated programmes and experiments. It is legitimate to ask at this point, whether transmutation studies are still 'fashionable' and why; what is known, what has been done and what should be done. Since the motivations of national programmes are often different, due to a different context, we will take for granted that transmutation is generally seen as an option for the back-end of the fuel cycle in order to reduce the burden of potential geological storages of radioactive wastes (whatever their nature). Finally, we also acknowledge the fact that some highly respected scientists have at several occasions during this decade expressed their doubts about the value of the transmutation option. A typical example is the position expressed by Pigford and Rasmussen, reporting the results of a study for the US National Research Council. (author)

  16. Sexual Dysfunction in Males: Significance of Adverse Childhood Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A survey of 301 male college students found that occasional sexual dysfunction was frequent in young male adults, and long-lasting adverse familial relationships to attachment figures were more influential in later sexual dysfunction than were childhood sexual abuse experiences. (Author/DB)

  17. Opposing Subjective Temporal Experiences in Response to Unpredictable and Predictable Fear-Relevant Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have found that the durations of fear-relevant stimuli were overestimated compared to those of neutral stimuli, even when the fear-relevant stimuli were only anticipated. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of the predictability of fear-relevant stimuli on sub-second temporal estimations. In Experiments 1a and 1b, a randomized design was employed to render the emotional valence of each trial unpredictable. In Experiments 2a and 2b, we incorporated a block design and a cueing paradigm, respectively, to render the emotional stimuli predictable. Compared with the neutral condition, the estimated blank interval was judged as being shorter under the unpredictable fear-relevant condition, while it was judged as being longer under the predictable fear-relevant condition. In other words, the unpredictable and predictable fear-relevant stimuli led to opposing temporal distortions. These results demonstrated that emotions modulate interval perception during different time processing stages.

  18. Judging Managerial Actions as Ethical or Unethical: Decision Bias and Domain Relevant Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Bailey, Ph.D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This is an empirical study comparing the susceptibility of managers and students to a decision-making bias when making judgments about ethical business practices. The managers and students read through vignettes and made judgments about how ethical they perceived the described business actions to be. Half of the participants (half of the managers and half of the students were exposed to three situations in which the actions being judged were clearly unethical. The other half of each group was exposed to situations in which the actions being judged were clearly ethical. All were exposed to the same fourth situation of a business decision. In this ambiguous situation it was not clear if the business decision being evaluated was ethical or unethical. The decision bias examined here addressed the question of ‘to what extent does exposure to prior unethical (or ethical actions influence one’s evaluation of how ethical a particular business decision is when it is not a clearly right or wrong action. The results demonstrated that students’ ethical judgments about the action in the fourth scenario (the same scenario for everyone differed depending on what they were previously exposed to. Significant assimilation effects were found in the student sample suggesting support for the perceptual readiness models. The managerial sample yielded differences in the opposite direction, one of a contrast effect, but these did not reach statistical significance. Assimilation effects occurred in the sample without domain relevant experience and contrast effects occurred with the experienced sample. Implications are discussed.

  19. Academic Library Department Experience Fosters the Development of Leadership Skills Relevant to Academic Library Directorship

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne M. Muellenbach

    2017-01-01

    A Review of: Harris-Keith, Colleen S. (2015). The Relationship Between Academic Library Department Experience and Perceptions of Leadership Skill Development Relevant to Academic Library Directorship. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(3), 246-263. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2015.03.017 Objective – This study sought to identify if the perception of library leadership skill and quality development is equal across departmental experience, and what are the leadership skills and qualities...

  20. The Environment for Professional Interaction and Relevant Practical Experience in AACSB-Accredited Accounting Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Barry P.

    2002-01-01

    Responses from 276 of 1,128 faculty at Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited schools indicated that 231 were certified; only 96 served in professional associations; large numbers received financial support for professional activities, but only small numbers felt involvement or relevant experience (which are required for…

  1. Professional Interaction, Relevant Practical Experience, and Intellectual Contributions at Nondoctoral AACSB-Accredited Accounting Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlinghaus, Barry P.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses a survey of faculty members at nondoctoral AACSB-accredited accounting programs in the United States. The purpose of the survey was to determine the environment for professional interaction and relevant experience in light of institutional demands for intellectual contributions. The findings show that the…

  2. How Body Orientation Affects Concepts of Space, Time and Valence: Functional Relevance of Integrating Sensorimotor Experiences during Word Processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lachmair

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to test the functional relevance of the spatial concepts UP or DOWN for words that use these concepts either literally (space or metaphorically (time, valence. A functional relevance would imply a symmetrical relationship between the spatial concepts and words related to these concepts, showing that processing words activate the related spatial concepts on one hand, but also that an activation of the concepts will ease the retrieval of a related word on the other. For the latter, the rotation angle of participant's body position was manipulated either to an upright or a head-down tilted body position to activate the related spatial concept. Afterwards participants produced in a within-subject design previously memorized words of the concepts space, time and valence according to the pace of a metronome. All words were related either to the spatial concept UP or DOWN. The results including Bayesian analyses show (1 a significant interaction between body position and words using the concepts UP and DOWN literally, (2 a marginal significant interaction between body position and temporal words and (3 no effect between body position and valence words. However, post-hoc analyses suggest no difference between experiments. Thus, the authors concluded that integrating sensorimotor experiences is indeed of functional relevance for all three concepts of space, time and valence. However, the strength of this functional relevance depends on how close words are linked to mental concepts representing vertical space.

  3. Journeys toward Textual Relevance: Male Readers of Color and the Significance of Malcolm X and Harry Potter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciurba, Katie

    2017-01-01

    This article combines interview data from a group of boys of color at an urban single-sex school and content analysis of "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" and "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" to demonstrate the complexities of readers' responses to literature. Textual relevance, or the ability to construct personal…

  4. Summary of existing superconducting magnet experience and its relevance to the safety of fusion magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.Y.; Allinger, J.; Danby, G.; Keane, J.; Powell, J.; Prodell, A.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive summary of experience with over twenty superconducting magnet systems has been collected through visits to and discussions about existing facilities including, for example, the bubble chamber magnets at Brookhaven National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, and the large superconducting spectrometer at Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. This summary includes data relating to parameters of these magnets, magnet protection methods, and operating experiences. The information received is organized and presented in the context of its relevance to the safe operation of future, very large superconducting magnet systems for fusion power plants

  5. Inability to detect significant absorption of immunoreactive soya protein in healthy adults may be relevant to its weak allergenicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Cecilia M; Dirks, Christina G; Pedersen, Mona H

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Soya and peanut are botanically closely related and share cross-reacting antigens, but compared to soya, peanut allergy has a higher prevalence with more severe allergic reactions. Furthermore, the threshold dose for eliciting reactions is higher for soya. A difference in undigested...... of soya protein. While we cannot totally exlude technical reasons, it may also reflect a true poor absorption in healthy adult volunteers. This could, in turn, be relevant to the apparently weak allergenicity of soy protein by comparison with peanut protein in allergic subjects....

  6. Academic Library Department Experience Fosters the Development of Leadership Skills Relevant to Academic Library Directorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne M. Muellenbach

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A Review of: Harris-Keith, Colleen S. (2015. The Relationship Between Academic Library Department Experience and Perceptions of Leadership Skill Development Relevant to Academic Library Directorship. The Journal of Academic Librarianship, 41(3, 246-263. doi:10.1016/j.acalib.2015.03.017 Objective – This study sought to identify if the perception of library leadership skill and quality development is equal across departmental experience, and what are the leadership skills and qualities most commonly perceived to be used in each department. Design – Quantitative online survey instrument. Setting – Master’s colleges and universities from 728 institutions in the United States of America, as classified by the Carnegie Foundation. Subjects – 666 academic library directors. Methods – Selected participants, representing academic library administrative leadership, were contacted by email a maximum of four times and were invited to complete an online survey instrument composed of six sections. The first three sections contained the purpose and confidentiality statements, demographic information, and data on the past five positions held by respondents prior to their current directorship. The next two sections each had 25 statements on a 5-point Likert scale, to collect data on perceived leadership skills and qualities exercised by respondents in their most recent three positions. The final section had four open-ended questions to help explain the academic library directors’ responses and provide context for the ratings in previous sections of the instrument. Main results – A total of 296 responses were received, for a 40.66% response rate, which was representative of the institution type demographics, including private non-profit, public, and private for-profit. The first research question asked: is the perception of library leadership skill and quality development equal across departmental experience? The data used for this question

  7. The design of PSB-VVER experiments relevant to accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Nevo, Alessandro; D'auria, Francesco; Mazzini, Marino; Bykov, Michael; Elkin, Ilya V.; Suslov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Experimental programs carried-out in integral test facilities are relevant for validating the best estimate thermal-hydraulic codes, which are used for accident analyses, design of accident management procedures, licensing of nuclear power plants, etc. The validation process, in fact, is based on well designed experiments. It consists in the comparison of the measured and calculated parameters and the determination whether a computer code has an adequate capability in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur in the course of transient and/or accidents. University of Pisa was responsible of the numerical design of the 12 experiments executed in PSB-VVER facility, operated at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center (Russia), in the framework of the TACIS 2.03/97 Contract 3.03.03 Part A, EC financed. The paper describes the methodology adopted at University of Pisa, starting form the scenarios foreseen in the final test matrix until the execution of the experiments. This process considers three key topics: a) the scaling issue and the simulation, with unavoidable distortions, of the expected performance of the reference nuclear power plants; b) the code assessment process involving the identification of phenomena challenging the code models; c) the features of the concerned integral test facility (scaling limitations, control logics, data acquisition system, instrumentation, etc.). The activities performed in this respect are discussed, and emphasis is also given to the relevance of the thermal losses to the environment. This issue affects particularly the small scaled facilities and has relevance on the scaling approach related to the power and volume of the facility. (author)

  8. The Design of PSB-VVER Experiments Relevant to Accident Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Alessandro Del; D'Auria, Francesco; Mazzini, Marino; Bykov, Michael; Elkin, Ilya V.; Suslov, Alexander

    Experimental programs carried-out in integral test facilities are relevant for validating the best estimate thermal-hydraulic codes(1), which are used for accident analyses, design of accident management procedures, licensing of nuclear power plants, etc. The validation process, in fact, is based on well designed experiments. It consists in the comparison of the measured and calculated parameters and the determination whether a computer code has an adequate capability in predicting the major phenomena expected to occur in the course of transient and/or accidents. University of Pisa was responsible of the numerical design of the 12 experiments executed in PSB-VVER facility (2), operated at Electrogorsk Research and Engineering Center (Russia), in the framework of the TACIS 2.03/97 Contract 3.03.03 Part A, EC financed (3). The paper describes the methodology adopted at University of Pisa, starting form the scenarios foreseen in the final test matrix until the execution of the experiments. This process considers three key topics: a) the scaling issue and the simulation, with unavoidable distortions, of the expected performance of the reference nuclear power plants; b) the code assessment process involving the identification of phenomena challenging the code models; c) the features of the concerned integral test facility (scaling limitations, control logics, data acquisition system, instrumentation, etc.). The activities performed in this respect are discussed, and emphasis is also given to the relevance of the thermal losses to the environment. This issue affects particularly the small scaled facilities and has relevance on the scaling approach related to the power and volume of the facility.

  9. Gas reactor and associated nuclear experience in the UK relevant to high temperature reactor engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beech, D.J.; May, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the UK, the NNC played a leading role in the design and build of all of the UK's commercial magnox reactors and advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGRs). It was also involved in the DRAGON project and was responsible for producing designs for large scale HTRs and other gas reactor designs employing helium and carbon dioxide coolants. This paper addresses the gas reactor experience and its relevance to the current HTR designs under development which use helium as the coolant, through the consideration of a representative sample of the issues addressed in the UK by the NNC in support of the AGR and other reactor programmes. Modern HTR designs provide unique engineering challenges. The success of the AGR design, reflected in the extended lifetimes agreed upon by the licensing authorities at many stations, indicates that these challenges can be successfully overcome. The UK experience is unique and provides substantial support to future gas reactor and high temperature engineering studies. (authors)

  10. The clinical significance of determination of adrenal medulla in patients with chronic cor pulmonale and analysis of its relevant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yingchun; Zha Jinshun

    2002-01-01

    In order to find the function of adrenal medulla in the development of chronic cor pulmonale and the effect of smoking, anoxia and lung's work on adrenal medulla, the authors determined adrenal medulla in 63 patients with acute cor pulmonale (Group A) and 60 controls (Group B). The authors tried to find out the effect of the patients' age, course of disease, history of smoking, malfunction of lung on adrenal medulla by multiple regressive analysis. Adrenal medulla is significantly higher in Group A than that of in Group B (P 2 both contribute to the conclusion that smoking is an independent factor to affect the adrenal medulla. The study shows that the adrenal medulla in patients with cor pulmonale is higher than that of normal people, and that the level of adrenal medulla is dependent on the degree of seriousness of the disease, obstructive ventilatory disturbance and anoxia

  11. Status-Relevant Experiences and Conspicuous Consumption - the Moderating Role of Prenatal Androgen Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Gert; Palacios-Fenech, Javier

    2016-09-20

    In this paper we study consumers' interest in acquiring and displaying expensive luxury products. Based on recent insights in consumer psychology, which build on developments in evolutionary biology, we consider luxury products as "costly signals": wasteful and costly goods, whose purpose is to communicate one's biological fitness, and social status, to others. In line with previous research, we show that experiences that trigger mate attraction goals (Study 1: Exposure to others in bathing outfit) or status display goals (Study 2: Experiencing a vicarious victory of one's favorite sports team) can increase people's interest in luxury products. However, we demonstrate that some individuals are predictably more responsive to those experiences than others. We used a physiological measure (the proportion of the length of the index finger and ring finger of the right hand, 2D:4D) as a proxy for individual differences in exposure to prenatal androgens (i.e., testosterone). This measure has been related to dominant and competitive behavior later in life. We predict and find that individuals with a low 2D:4D (i.e., high exposure to prenatal androgens) were more responsive to the status-relevant experiences: they became more interested in luxury goods after these experiences. This was not the case for high 2D:4D individuals.

  12. Perceiving active listening activates the reward system and improves the impression of relevant experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sasaki, Akihiro T; Sugawara, Sho K; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Shinohara, Ryoji; Sugisawa, Yuka; Tokutake, Kentaro; Mochizuki, Yukiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although active listening is an influential behavior, which can affect the social responses of others, the neural correlates underlying its perception have remained unclear. Sensing active listening in social interactions is accompanied by an improvement in the recollected impressions of relevant experiences and is thought to arouse positive feelings. We therefore hypothesized that the recognition of active listening activates the reward system, and that the emotional appraisal of experiences that had been subject to active listening would be improved. To test these hypotheses, we conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) on participants viewing assessments of their own personal experiences made by evaluators with or without active listening attitude. Subjects rated evaluators who showed active listening more positively. Furthermore, they rated episodes more positively when they were evaluated by individuals showing active listening. Neural activation in the ventral striatum was enhanced by perceiving active listening, suggesting that this was processed as rewarding. It also activated the right anterior insula, representing positive emotional reappraisal processes. Furthermore, the mentalizing network was activated when participants were being evaluated, irrespective of active listening behavior. Therefore, perceiving active listening appeared to result in positive emotional appraisal and to invoke mental state attribution to the active listener.

  13. Experience gained with the Synroc demonstration plant at ANSTO and its relevance to plutonium immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jostsons, A.; Ridal, A.; Mercer, D.J.; Vance, E.R.L. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia)

    1996-05-01

    The Synroc Demonstration Plant (SDP) was designed and constructed at Lucas Heights to demonstrate the feasibility of Synroc production on a commercial scale (10 kg/hr) with simulated Purex liquid HLW. Since commissioning of the SDP in 1987, over 6000 kg of Synroc has been fabricated with a range of feeds and waste loadings. The SDP utilises uniaxial hot-pressing to consolidate Synroc. Pressureless sintering and hot-isostatic pressing have also been studied at smaller scales. The results of this extensive process development have been incorporated in a conceptual design for a radioactive plant to condition HLW from a reprocessing plant with a capacity to treat 800 tpa of spent LWR fuel. Synroic containing TRU, including Pu, and fission products has been fabricated and characterised in a glove-box facility and hot cells, respectively. The extensive experience in processing of Synroc over the past 15 years is summarised and its relevance to immobilization of surplus plutonium is discussed.

  14. Summary of mirror experiments relevant to beam-plasma neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molvik, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    A promising design for a deuterium-tritium (DT) neutron source is based on the injection of neutral beams into a dense, warm plasma column. Its purpose is to test materials for possible use in fusion reactors. A series of designs have evolved, from a 4-T version to an 8-T version. Intense fluxes of 5--10 MW/m 2 is achieved at the plasma surface, sufficient to complete end-of-life tests in one to two years. In this report, we review data from earlier mirror experiments that are relevant to such neutron sources. Most of these data are from 2XIIB, which was the only facility to ever inject 5 MW of neutral beams into a single mirror call. The major physics issues for a beam-plasma neutron source are magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium and stability, microstability, startup, cold-ion fueling of the midplane to allow two-component reactions, and operation in the Spitzer conduction regime, where the power is removed to the ends by an axial gradient in the electron temperature T/sub e/. We show in this report that the conditions required for a neutron source have now been demonstrated in experiments. 20 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Some relevant parameters for assessing fire hazards of combustible mine materials using laboratory scale experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Charles D; Perera, Inoka E; Harteis, Samuel P; Teacoach, Kara A; DeRosa, Maria I; Thomas, Richard A; Smith, Alex C

    2018-04-15

    When combustible materials ignite and burn, the potential for fire growth and flame spread represents an obvious hazard, but during these processes of ignition and flaming, other life hazards present themselves and should be included to ensure an effective overall analysis of the relevant fire hazards. In particular, the gases and smoke produced both during the smoldering stages of fires leading to ignition and during the advanced flaming stages of a developing fire serve to contaminate the surrounding atmosphere, potentially producing elevated levels of toxicity and high levels of smoke obscuration that render the environment untenable. In underground mines, these hazards may be exacerbated by the existing forced ventilation that can carry the gases and smoke to locations far-removed from the fire location. Clearly, materials that require high temperatures (above 1400 K) and that exhibit low mass loss during thermal decomposition, or that require high heat fluxes or heat transfer rates to ignite represent less of a hazard than materials that decompose at low temperatures or ignite at low levels of heat flux. In order to define and quantify some possible parameters that can be used to assess these hazards, small-scale laboratory experiments were conducted in a number of configurations to measure: 1) the toxic gases and smoke produced both during non-flaming and flaming combustion; 2) mass loss rates as a function of temperature to determine ease of thermal decomposition; and 3) mass loss rates and times to ignition as a function of incident heat flux. This paper describes the experiments that were conducted, their results, and the development of a set of parameters that could possibly be used to assess the overall fire hazard of combustible materials using small scale laboratory experiments.

  16. Review of D-T Experiments Relevant to Burning Plasma Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. The TFTR and JET, in conjunction with the worldwide fusion effort, have studied a broad range of topics including magnetohydrodynamic stability, transport, wave-particle interactions, the confinement of energetic particles, and plasma boundary interactions. The D-T experiments differ in three principal ways from previous experiments: isotope effects associated with the use of deuterium-tritium fuel, the presence of fusion-generated alpha particles, and technology issues associated with tritium handling and increased activation. The effect of deuterium-tritium fuel and the presence of alpha particles is reviewed and placed in the perspective of the much large r worldwide database using deuterium fuel and theoretical understanding. Both devices have contributed substantially to addressing the scientific and technical issues associated with burning plasmas. However, future burning plasma experiments will operate with larger ratios of alpha heating power to auxiliary power and will be able to access additional alpha-particle physics issues. The scientific opportunities for extending our understanding of burning plasmas beyond that provided by current experiments is described

  17. The Importance of Integrating Clinical Relevance and Statistical Significance in the Assessment of Quality of Care--Illustrated Using the Swedish Stroke Register.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Lindmark

    Full Text Available When profiling hospital performance, quality inicators are commonly evaluated through hospital-specific adjusted means with confidence intervals. When identifying deviations from a norm, large hospitals can have statistically significant results even for clinically irrelevant deviations while important deviations in small hospitals can remain undiscovered. We have used data from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke to illustrate the properties of a benchmarking method that integrates considerations of both clinical relevance and level of statistical significance.The performance measure used was case-mix adjusted risk of death or dependency in activities of daily living within 3 months after stroke. A hospital was labeled as having outlying performance if its case-mix adjusted risk exceeded a benchmark value with a specified statistical confidence level. The benchmark was expressed relative to the population risk and should reflect the clinically relevant deviation that is to be detected. A simulation study based on Riksstroke patient data from 2008-2009 was performed to investigate the effect of the choice of the statistical confidence level and benchmark value on the diagnostic properties of the method.Simulations were based on 18,309 patients in 76 hospitals. The widely used setting, comparing 95% confidence intervals to the national average, resulted in low sensitivity (0.252 and high specificity (0.991. There were large variations in sensitivity and specificity for different requirements of statistical confidence. Lowering statistical confidence improved sensitivity with a relatively smaller loss of specificity. Variations due to different benchmark values were smaller, especially for sensitivity. This allows the choice of a clinically relevant benchmark to be driven by clinical factors without major concerns about sufficiently reliable evidence.The study emphasizes the importance of combining clinical relevance and level of statistical

  18. The Importance of Integrating Clinical Relevance and Statistical Significance in the Assessment of Quality of Care--Illustrated Using the Swedish Stroke Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Anita; van Rompaye, Bart; Goetghebeur, Els; Glader, Eva-Lotta; Eriksson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    When profiling hospital performance, quality inicators are commonly evaluated through hospital-specific adjusted means with confidence intervals. When identifying deviations from a norm, large hospitals can have statistically significant results even for clinically irrelevant deviations while important deviations in small hospitals can remain undiscovered. We have used data from the Swedish Stroke Register (Riksstroke) to illustrate the properties of a benchmarking method that integrates considerations of both clinical relevance and level of statistical significance. The performance measure used was case-mix adjusted risk of death or dependency in activities of daily living within 3 months after stroke. A hospital was labeled as having outlying performance if its case-mix adjusted risk exceeded a benchmark value with a specified statistical confidence level. The benchmark was expressed relative to the population risk and should reflect the clinically relevant deviation that is to be detected. A simulation study based on Riksstroke patient data from 2008-2009 was performed to investigate the effect of the choice of the statistical confidence level and benchmark value on the diagnostic properties of the method. Simulations were based on 18,309 patients in 76 hospitals. The widely used setting, comparing 95% confidence intervals to the national average, resulted in low sensitivity (0.252) and high specificity (0.991). There were large variations in sensitivity and specificity for different requirements of statistical confidence. Lowering statistical confidence improved sensitivity with a relatively smaller loss of specificity. Variations due to different benchmark values were smaller, especially for sensitivity. This allows the choice of a clinically relevant benchmark to be driven by clinical factors without major concerns about sufficiently reliable evidence. The study emphasizes the importance of combining clinical relevance and level of statistical confidence when

  19. Corrective interpersonal experience in psychodrama group therapy: a comprehensive process analysis of significant therapeutic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVea, Charmaine S; Gow, Kathryn; Lowe, Roger

    2011-07-01

    This study investigated the process of resolving painful emotional experience during psychodrama group therapy, by examining significant therapeutic events within seven psychodrama enactments. A comprehensive process analysis of four resolved and three not-resolved cases identified five meta-processes which were linked to in-session resolution. One was a readiness to engage in the therapeutic process, which was influenced by client characteristics and the client's experience of the group; and four were therapeutic events: (1) re-experiencing with insight; (2) activating resourcefulness; (3) social atom repair with emotional release; and (4) integration. A corrective interpersonal experience (social atom repair) healed the sense of fragmentation and interpersonal disconnection associated with unresolved emotional pain, and emotional release was therapeutically helpful when located within the enactment of this new role relationship. Protagonists who experienced resolution reported important improvements in interpersonal functioning and sense of self which they attributed to this experience.

  20. Design of Experiments Relevant to Accreting Stream-Disk Impact in Interacting Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauland, Christine; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Young, R.; Plewa, T.

    2010-05-01

    In many Cataclysmic Binary systems, mass transfer via Roche lobe overflow onto an accretion disk occurs. This produces a hot spot from the heating created by the supersonic impact of the infalling flow with the rotating accretion disk, which can produce a radiative reverse shock in the infalling flow. This collision region has many ambiguities as a radiation hydrodynamic system. Depending upon conditions, it has been argued (Armitgae & Livio, ApJ 493, 898) that the shocked region may be optically thin, thick, or intermediate, which has the potential to significantly alter its structure and emissions. Laboratory experiments have yet to produce colliding flows that create a radiative reverse shock or to produce obliquely incident colliding flows, both of which are aspects of these Binary systems. We have undertaken the design of such an experiment, aimed at the Omega-60 laser facility. The design elements include the production of postshock flows within a dense material layer or ejecta flows by release of material from a shocked layer. Obtaining a radiative reverse shock in the laboratory requires producing a sufficiently fast flow (> 100 km/s) within a material whose opacity is large enough to produce energetically significant emission from experimentally achievable layers. In this poster we will discuss the astrophysical context, the experimental design work we have done, and the challenges of implementing and diagnosing an actual experiment. This work is funded by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, by the National Laser User Facility Program in NNSA-DS and by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC. The corresponding grant numbers are DE-FG52-09NA29548, DE-FG52-09NA29034, and DE-FC52-08NA28616.

  1. LANGUAGE EXPERIENCE SHAPES PROCESSING OF PITCH RELEVANT INFORMATION IN THE HUMAN BRAINSTEM AND AUDITORY CORTEX: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T

    2014-12-01

    Pitch is a robust perceptual attribute that plays an important role in speech, language, and music. As such, it provides an analytic window to evaluate how neural activity relevant to pitch undergo transformation from early sensory to later cognitive stages of processing in a well coordinated hierarchical network that is subject to experience-dependent plasticity. We review recent evidence of language experience-dependent effects in pitch processing based on comparisons of native vs. nonnative speakers of a tonal language from electrophysiological recordings in the auditory brainstem and auditory cortex. We present evidence that shows enhanced representation of linguistically-relevant pitch dimensions or features at both the brainstem and cortical levels with a stimulus-dependent preferential activation of the right hemisphere in native speakers of a tone language. We argue that neural representation of pitch-relevant information in the brainstem and early sensory level processing in the auditory cortex is shaped by the perceptual salience of domain-specific features. While both stages of processing are shaped by language experience, neural representations are transformed and fundamentally different at each biological level of abstraction. The representation of pitch relevant information in the brainstem is more fine-grained spectrotemporally as it reflects sustained neural phase-locking to pitch relevant periodicities contained in the stimulus. In contrast, the cortical pitch relevant neural activity reflects primarily a series of transient temporal neural events synchronized to certain temporal attributes of the pitch contour. We argue that experience-dependent enhancement of pitch representation for Chinese listeners most likely reflects an interaction between higher-level cognitive processes and early sensory-level processing to improve representations of behaviorally-relevant features that contribute optimally to perception. It is our view that long

  2. Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Richards, W A; McCann, U; Jesse, R

    2006-08-01

    Although psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes, little is known scientifically about its acute and persisting effects. This double-blind study evaluated the acute and longer-term psychological effects of a high dose of psilocybin relative to a comparison compound administered under comfortable, supportive conditions. The participants were hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious or spiritual activities. Two or three sessions were conducted at 2-month intervals. Thirty volunteers received orally administered psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) and methylphenidate hydrochloride (40 mg/70 kg) in counterbalanced order. To obscure the study design, six additional volunteers received methylphenidate in the first two sessions and unblinded psilocybin in a third session. The 8-h sessions were conducted individually. Volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. Study monitors rated volunteers' behavior during sessions. Volunteers completed questionnaires assessing drug effects and mystical experience immediately after and 2 months after sessions. Community observers rated changes in the volunteer's attitudes and behavior. Psilocybin produced a range of acute perceptual changes, subjective experiences, and labile moods including anxiety. Psilocybin also increased measures of mystical experience. At 2 months, the volunteers rated the psilocybin experience as having substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance and attributed to the experience sustained positive changes in attitudes and behavior consistent with changes rated by community observers. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences. The ability to occasion such experiences prospectively will allow rigorous scientific investigations of their causes and consequences.

  3. The Impact of School Design and Arrangement on Learning Experiences: A Case Study of an Architecturally Significant Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Deirdre Lyne

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of architectural design and arrangement on the learning experiences of students. Specifically, it examined how school design and arrangement foster interactions and relationships among students and adults relevant to integral learning experiences. This case study was limited to the breadth of knowledge…

  4. The significance of clinical experience on learning outcome from resuscitation training-a randomised controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Lind; Lippert, Freddy; Hesselfeldt, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: The impact of clinical experience on learning outcome from a resuscitation course has not been systematically investigated. AIM: To determine whether half a year of clinical experience before participation in an Advanced Life Support (ALS) course increases the immediate learning outcome...... and retention of learning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective single blinded randomised controlled study of the learning outcome from a standard ALS course on a volunteer sample of the entire cohort of newly graduated doctors from Copenhagen University. The outcome measurement was ALS...... immediately following graduation. RESULTS: Invitation to participate was accepted by 154/240 (64%) graduates and 117/154 (76%) completed the study. There was no difference between the intervention and control groups with regard to the immediate learning outcome. The intervention group had significantly higher...

  5. Socio-emotionally Significant Experience and Children’s Processing of Irrelevant Auditory Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Bates, John E.; Puce, Aina; Molfese, Dennis L.

    2017-01-01

    Theory and research indicate considerable influence of socio-emotionally significant experiences on children’s functioning and adaptation. In the current study, we examined neurophysiological correlates of children’s allocation of information processing resources to socio-emotionally significant events, specifically, simulated marital interactions. We presented 9- to 11-year-old children (n = 24; 11 females) with 15 videos of interactions between two actors posing as a married couple. Task-irrelevant brief auditory probes were presented during the videos, and event-related potentials (ERPs) elicited to the auditory probes were measured. As hypothesized, exposure to higher levels of interparental conflict was associated with smaller P1, P2, and N2 ERPs to the probes. This finding is consistent with the idea that children who had been exposed to more interparental conflict attended more to the videos and diverted fewer cognitive resources to processing the probes, thereby producing smaller ERPs to the probes. In addition, smaller N2s were associated with more child behavior problems, suggesting that allocating fewer processing resources to the probes was associated with more problem behavior. Results are discussed in terms of implications of socio-emotionally significant experiences for children’s processing of interpersonal interactions. PMID:27993611

  6. Experiences in Using Practitioner’s Checklists to Evaluate the Relevance of Experiments Reported in Requirements Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daneva, Maia; Sikkel, Nicolaas; Condori-Fernandez, Nelly; Herrmann, Andrea

    Background: Requirements Engineering (RE) researchers recognize that for RE methods to be adopted in industry, practitioners should be able to evaluate the relevance of a study to their practice. Kitchenham et al proposed a set of perspective-based checklists, which demonstrated to be a useful

  7. Teaching for Change: New Teachers' Experiences with and Visions for Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrero, Noah; Ziauddin, Asra; Ahn, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the voices of thirteen pre- and in-service teachers to showcase their perspectives of culturally relevant pedagogy as a teaching framework. Positionality, critical consciousness, and cultural assets are used as foundations to explore social justice pedagogy. These new teachers discuss the challenges they face in making the…

  8. Transport of significant metals recovered in real sea experiment of adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Hayato; Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Katakai, Akio; Hasegawa, Shin; Seko, Noriaki; Sugo, Takanobu; Kawabata, Yukiya

    2001-10-01

    Real sea experiment for the recovery of significant metals such as uranium and vanadium which dissolved in seawater with extremely low concentration has been carried out at the offing of Mutsu establishment to evaluate the adsorption performance of adsorbent synthesized by radiation-induced graft-polymerization. The significant metals of uranium and vanadium eluted from the adsorbent which was soaked in the real sea were adsorbed onto the conventional chelate resin. The chelate resin which adsorbed the metals was packed in a plastic (PVC) column and further put in a cylindrical stainless transport container. This container was transported to the facility for separation and purification by a truck for the exclusive loading. Then the recovers metals were purified there. The recovered metals contained the uranium of 150g (1.92 MBq) and less in one recovery experiment. The maximum concentration is 60 Bq/g when the uranium is adsorbed on the chelate resin. Transport of recovered metals can be treated as general substance since these amount and concentration are out of legal control. However, the recovered metals were transported in conformity to L type Transport as a voluntary regulation. Though there is no requirements of structural strength for L type package legally, the structural strength of container was designed on that of IP-2 type which is higher transport grade than L type to take its safety measure. Its strength analysis proved the safety under general transport process. The transport was based on the plan made in advance. (author)

  9. Does Guiding Toward Task-Relevant Information Help Improve Graph Processing and Graph Comprehension of Individuals with Low or High Numeracy? An Eye-Tracker Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Junghans, Alex

    2017-11-01

    Individuals with low numeracy have difficulties with understanding complex graphs. Combining the information-processing approach to numeracy with graph comprehension and information-reduction theories, we examined whether high numerates' better comprehension might be explained by their closer attention to task-relevant graphical elements, from which they would expect numerical information to understand the graph. Furthermore, we investigated whether participants could be trained in improving their attention to task-relevant information and graph comprehension. In an eye-tracker experiment ( N = 110) involving a sample from the general population, we presented participants with 2 hypothetical scenarios (stomach cancer, leukemia) showing survival curves for 2 treatments. In the training condition, participants received written instructions on how to read the graph. In the control condition, participants received another text. We tracked participants' eye movements while they answered 9 knowledge questions. The sum constituted graph comprehension. We analyzed visual attention to task-relevant graphical elements by using relative fixation durations and relative fixation counts. The mediation analysis revealed a significant ( P attention to task-relevant information, which did not differ between the 2 conditions. Training had a significant main effect on visual attention ( P attention to task-relevant graphical elements than individuals with low numeracy. With appropriate instructions, both groups can be trained to improve their graph-processing efficiency. Future research should examine (e.g., motivational) mediators between visual attention and graph comprehension to develop appropriate instructions that also result in higher graph comprehension.

  10. The relevance of US experience to the completion of the European internal energy market for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood-Collins, John [Little (Arthur D.), Inc., London (GB); Lee, William [Shearman and Sterling, Paris (FR)

    1990-01-01

    The European Commission's 1988 document on the completion of the internal energy market made a number of recommendations which, if adopted, would significantly affect the European natural gas industry. These were principally that: user's access to transmission systems should be facilitated, in order to permit them direct access to suppliers; greater price transparency should be encouraged, to remove competitive distortions; and fiscal harmonisation should be accelerated, in order to ''level the playing field'' between industrial users in different countries. Advocates of ''open access'' or ''common carriage'', i.e. of a system under which owners of gas pipeline and storage facilities would have a legal obligation to provide transportation and related services to third parties for a specific fee, have argued that adoption of a US-style regulatory system could improve the efficiency of European markets by removing anti-competitive practices. The purpose of this article is to review the arguments on both sides and, in particular, to consider whether US experience may be a relevant model for European authorities to adopt. (author).

  11. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma relevant cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2, TPO, EPO) levels in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tintin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of relevant cytokines in the development and pathogenesis of aplastic anemia. Methods: Plasma GM-CSF, IL-2, TPO (with RIA) and EPO (with CLIA) contents were measured in 100 patients (acute 43, chronic 57) with aplastic anemia and 50 controls. Complete blood count was also performed in all these subjects. Results: The peripheral RBC, WBC, platelet counts and GM-CSF contents were significantly lower in the patients with aplastic anemia than those in the controls (P<0.05), while the IL-2, EPO and TPO contents were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.05). GM-CSF contents were positively correlated with the WBC numbers. EPO contents were negatively correlated with the RBC counts and TPO contents were correlated (negatively) with the platelet counts. Conclusion: There was correlationship between each blood elements (WBC, RBC, platelet) and its corresponding cytokine (GS-CSF, EPO, TPO respectively). IL-2 contents were not correlated with WBC counts. (authors)

  12. Exploring the post-deployment reintegration experiences of veterans with PTSD and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freytes, I Magaly; LeLaurin, Jennifer H; Zickmund, Susan L; Resende, Rosana D; Uphold, Constance R

    2017-01-01

    Veterans with family support have better functional recovery and reintegration outcomes. However, families' ability to support the veteran with PTSD's rehabilitation and reintegration oftentimes is hindered by interpersonal challenges. We report findings of a qualitative study that examined OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD/TBI and their significant others' (SOs') perceptions of family functioning. We conducted 24 in-depth interviews with 12 veteran/SO dyads using an adapted version of the Family Assessment Device Structured Interview. Descriptive qualitative analytic methods were used to analyze the data. Data show that the impact of deployment and the resulting changes in the individuals and the family dynamics lingered years after the veterans returned home and had a lasting influence on veterans' and SOs' perceptions of family functioning. Most couples acknowledged growth in their relationships several years postdeployment. However, many continued to struggle with disruptions generated by deployment. Four themes emerged from the data: individual changes, coping strategies, relationship changes, and a "new normal." Postdeployment family functioning was influenced by a dynamic interplay of individual and relationship factors and the development of coping strategies and a new normal. This study contributes to the understanding of the prolonged postdeployment family reintegration experiences of veterans and their SOs. Findings underscore the importance of continuing to advance the current knowledge base about the long-term impact of deployment on veterans and their families, especially factors that contribute to positive postdeployment family functioning. Additional empirical studies are needed to provide more in-depth understanding of the long-term postdeployment reintegration experiences of veterans and their families. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. UK irradiation experience relevant to advanced carbide fuel concepts for LMFBR's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, K.Q.; Batey, W.; Paris, R.; Sloss, W.M.; Snape, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Despite discouraging prognoses of fabrication and reprocessing problems, it is recognized that the quest for a carbide fuel pin design which fully exploits the favourable density and thermal conductivity of (U,Pu) monocarbide must be maintained. Studies in aid of carbide fuel development have, therefore, continued in the UK in parallel with those on oxide, albeit at a substantially lower level of effort, and a sufficient body of irradiation experience has been accumulated to allow discrimination of realistic fuel pin designs

  14. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morlent, O. [CEA Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire; Michel, F. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  15. Safety significance of component ageing, exemplary for MOV, based on French and German operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morlent, O.

    2001-01-01

    An outline is given of how IPSN and GRS assess the effects of physical ageing on the safety of French and German Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) on the basis of the available knowledge and how investigations are carried out. The presentation is focused exemplary on a preliminary study illustrating approaches for the evaluation of the ageing behaviour of active components, the motor-operated valves (MOV). The results so far seems to demonstrate that the developed methodological approaches are suitable to obtain qualitative evidence with regard to the ageing behaviour of technical facilities such as MOV. The evaluation of the operating experience with French 900 MWe plants seems to reveal, for MOV of one system, a trend similar to some international findings about ageing-related events with increasing operating time; this trend will have to be confirmed. For the German NPPs so far, there appears to be no significant increase of ageing-related events concerning MOV as the plants get older. Future work on ageing scheduled at IPSN and GRS includes further cooperation on this issue, too; a deep analysis is necessary to explain the reasons of such apparent differences before any conclusion. (authors)

  16. Diagnosis of atypia/follicular lesion of undetermined significance: An institutional experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Q Wong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The overall malignancy rate for the thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA diagnosed as atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance (AUS/FLUS ranges from 5% to 30%. In this study, we present our institutional experience with thyroid nodules diagnosed as AUS/FLUS and further stratified into subcategories. In addition, we also assessed the significance of various clinicopathologic factors that may influence AUS/FLUS diagnoses and their outcomes. Design: A search of our laboratory information system was performed to identify all in-house thyroid FNA cases diagnosed as AUS/FLUS from 2008 to 2012. The data were collected and characterized by patient demographic information, cytopathology diagnosis with sub-classifiers and follow-up. Results: The case cohort included 457 cases diagnosed as AUS/FLUS. These were further sub-classified into one of six subcategories depending on the cytomorphologic findings and suspicion for or against a neoplastic process. Of the 457 cases, repeat FNA and/or surgical follow-up was available in 363 cases. There were 182 (39.8% cases with cytologic follow-up only; 18 (9.9% remained as AUS/FLUS, while 158 (86.8% were re-classified with the majority being benign (142 cases. Histologic follow-up was available in 181 (39.6% cases. There were 60 malignant cases confirmed by surgical excision, with an overall malignancy rate of 33.1%. The malignancy rate was 38.8% for cases with a repeat FNA versus 25.6% for cases that went directly to surgery without a repeat FNA. Papillary thyroid carcinoma accounted for 93.3% (56 cases of the malignant cases. Conclusion: Based on our study, even though the malignancy rate of AUS/FLUS cases is similar to those reported for cases diagnosed as follicular neoplasm/suspicious for follicular neoplasm, we are of the belief that these comparable malignancy rates are a product of better clinical management and selection of patients diagnosed as AUS

  17. The ATLAS experience and its relevance to the data acquisition of the BM@N experiment at the NICA complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiwa, K G; Mellado, B; Slepnev, I; Bazylev, S

    2016-01-01

    The quest to understand the world around us has increased the size of high energy physics experiments and the processing rate of the data output from high energy experiments. The Large Hadron Collider is the largest experimental set-up known, with ATLAS detector as one of the detectors built to record proton-proton collision at about 10 PB/s (Petabit/s) around the LHC interaction point. With the Phase-II upgrade in 2022 this data output will increase by at least 10 times higher than those of today due to luminosity increase, this poses a serious challenge on processing and storage of the data. Also the BM@N fixed target experiment is expected to have event size of about 80,000 bytes/Event, leading to huge amount of data output to be processed in real time. Experimentalists handle these challenges by developing High-throughput electronic, with the capability of processing and reducing big data to scientific data in real time. One of these high-throughput electronics is the Super Readout Driver (sROD) and ARM-based processing unit (PU) developed for ATLAS TileCal detector by the University of the Witwatersrand. The sROD is designed to process data from Tile Calorimeter at 40 MHz. This work takes a look at the architecture of the data acquisition (DAQ) system of the BM@N detectors and the adaptation of the high-throughput systems to last stage of the BM@N DAQ system. (paper)

  18. Experience relevant to safety obtained from reactor decommissioning operations in the French Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraudel, B.; Langlois, G.

    1979-01-01

    From among the nuclear facilities constructed in France the authors cite eight large reactors, ranging from critical assemblies to power reactors, that have been finally shut-down since 1965. A brief account is given of the way in which the various operations were carried out after the final control rod drop, a distinction being drawn between the shut-down proper and the containment and dismantling work. A description is also given, from the technical and regulatory standpoint, of the final stage attained, and mention is made of French safety arrangements and of the part played by the safety services during decommissioning operations. Among the lessons derived from French experience, the authors mention the completion of operations without any serious safety problems, and with guarantees for the protection of personnel and the population as a whole, by conventional techniques; the advantage of planning decommissioning operations from the very beginning of construction of the facilities; and the importance of filing descriptive documents. In view of the experience gained, the French Atomic Energy Commission has devised internal procedures for facilitating the application of regulations governing the shut-down and decommissioning phases, which are aimed at preserving surveillance procedures similar to those in force during normal operation. (author)

  19. Aboriginal Australians' experience of social capital and its relevance to health and wellbeing in urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne-Yung, Kathryn; Ziersch, Anna; Baum, Fran; Gallaher, Gilbert

    2013-11-01

    Social capital has been linked to physical and mental health. While definitions of social capital vary, all include networks of social relationships and refer to the subsequent benefits and disadvantages accrued to members. Research on social capital for Aboriginal Australians has mainly focused on discrete rural and remote Aboriginal contexts with less known about the features and health and other benefits of social capital in urban settings. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 153 Aboriginal people living in urban areas on their experiences of social capital. Of particular interest was how engagement in bonding and bridging networks influenced health and wellbeing. Employing Bourdieu's relational theory of capital where resources are unequally distributed and reproduced in society we found that patterns of social capital are strongly associated with economic, social and cultural position which in turn reflects the historical experiences of dispossession and disadvantage experienced by Aboriginal Australians. Social capital was also found to both reinforce and influence Aboriginal cultural identity, and had both positive and negative impacts on health and wellbeing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Accretion growth of water-ice grains in astrophysically-relevant dusty plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Marshall, Ryan; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The grain growth process in the Caltech water-ice dusty plasma experiment has been studied using a high-speed camera equipped with a long-distance microscope lens. It is found that (i) the ice grain number density decreases four-fold as the average grain length increases from 20 to 80 um, (ii) the ice grain length has a log-normal distribution rather than a power-law dependence, and (iii) no collisions between ice grains are apparent. The grains have a large negative charge so the agglomeration growth is prevented by their strong mutual repulsion. It is concluded that direct accretion of water molecules is in good agreement with the observed ice grain growth. The volumetric packing factor of the ice grains must be less than 0.25 in order for the grain kinetic energy to be sufficiently small to prevent collisions between ice grains; this conclusion is consistent with ice grain images showing a fractal character.

  1. Operating experience of vault type dry storage and its relevance to future storage needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxwell, E.O.; Deacon, D.

    1982-01-01

    An outline description of the early passive cooled vault type dry stores for irradiated magnox fuel at the Wylfa Nuclear Power Station together with the valuable operating experience gained over many years. An outline description of the world's first air-cooled vault type dry store (350 Te) and comments on its construction and successful operation. A description of the basic principles that were used in the design of this store and how these principles have been developed for use on vault type storage systems for oxide fuel and vitrified waste. An examination of the basic parameters that the author's consider should be used to measure the adequacy of the many storage options currently being considered around the world is included in order that a better assessment of the various systems may be obtained

  2. Experiments and models of MHD jets and their relevance to astrophysics and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Paul M.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)-driven jets involve poloidal and toroidal magnetic fields, finite pressure gradients, and unbalanced forces. The mechanism driving these jets is first discussed qualitatively by decomposing the magnetic force into a curvature and a gradient component. The mechanism is then considered quantitatively by consideration of all terms in the three components of the MHD equation of motion and in addition, the implications of Ampere's law, Faraday's law, the ideal Ohm's law, and the equation of continuity. The analysis shows that jets are self-collimating with the tip of the jet moving more slowly than the main column of the jet so there is a continuous stagnation near the tip in the jet frame. Experiments supporting these conclusions are discussed and it is shown how this mechanism relates to jets in astrophysical and solar corona contexts.

  3. The materials irradiation experiment for testing plasma facing materials at fusion relevant conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, L. M., E-mail: garrisonlm@ornl.gov; Egle, B. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Zenobia, S. J.; Kulcinski, G. L.; Santarius, J. F. [Fusion Technology Institute, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The Materials Irradiation Experiment (MITE-E) was constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Laboratory to test materials for potential use as plasma-facing materials (PFMs) in fusion reactors. PFMs in fusion reactors will be bombarded with x-rays, neutrons, and ions of hydrogen and helium. More needs to be understood about the interactions between the plasma and the materials to validate their use for fusion reactors. The MITE-E simulates some of the fusion reactor conditions by holding samples at temperatures up to 1000 °C while irradiating them with helium or deuterium ions with energies from 10 to 150 keV. The ion gun can irradiate the samples with ion currents of 20 μA–500 μA; the typical current used is 72 μA, which is an average flux of 9 × 10{sup 14} ions/(cm{sup 2} s). The ion gun uses electrostatic lenses to extract and shape the ion beam. A variable power (1-20 W), steady-state, Nd:YAG laser provides additional heating to maintain a constant sample temperature during irradiations. The ion beam current reaching the sample is directly measured and monitored in real-time during irradiations. The ion beam profile has been investigated using a copper sample sputtering experiment. The MITE-E has successfully been used to irradiate polycrystalline and single crystal tungsten samples with helium ions and will continue to be a source of important data for plasma interactions with materials.

  4. Analysis and evaluation of the ASTEC model basis. Relevant experiments. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppers, V.; Koch, M.K.

    2015-12-01

    The present report is a Technical Report within the research project ''ASMO'', funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi 1501433) and projected at the Reactor Simulation and Safety Group, Chair of Energy Systems and Energy Economics (LEE) at the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (RUB). The project deals with the analysis of the model basis of the Accident Source Term Evaluation Code (ASTEC). This report focuses on the containment part of ASTEC (CPA) and presents the simulation results of the experiment TH20.7. The experimental series TH20 was performed in the test vessel THAI (Thermal-hydraulics, Aerosols, Iodine) to investigate the erosion of a helium layer by a blower generated air jet. Helium is used as a substitute for hydrogen. In the experiment TH20.7 a light-gas layer is established and eroded by a momentum driven jet. The simulation of momentum driven jets is challenging for CPA because there is no model to simulate the kinetic momentum transfer. Subject of this report is the analysis of the capability of the code with the current model basis to model momentum driven phenomena. The jet is modelled using virtual ventilation systems, so called FAN-Systems. The FAN-Systems are adapted to the erosion velocity. The simulation results are compared to the experimental results and a basic calculation using FAN-Systems without any adjustments. For further improvement, different variation calculations are performed. At first, the vertical nodalization is refined. Subsequently, the resistance coefficients are adjusted to support the jet flow pattern and the number of the FAN-Systems is reduced. The analysis shows that the simulation of a momentum driven light-gas layer erosion is possible using adjusted FAN-Systems. A fine selected vertical nodalization and adaption of the resistance coefficients improves the simulation results.

  5. The superficial ulnar artery: development and clinical significance Artéria ulnar superficial: desenvolvimento e relevância clínica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasulu Reddy

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The principal arteries of the upper limb show a wide range of variation that is of considerable interest to orthopedic surgeons, plastic surgeons, radiologists and anatomists. We present here a case of superficial ulnar artery found during the routine dissection of right upper limb of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The superficial ulnar artery originated from the brachial artery, crossed the median nerve anteriorly and ran lateral to this nerve and the brachial artery. The superficial ulnar artery in the arm gave rise to a narrow muscular branch to the biceps brachii. At the elbow level the artery ran superficial to the bicipital aponeurosis where it was crossed by the median cubital vein. It then ran downward and medially superficial to the forearm flexor muscles, and then downward to enter the hand. At the palm, it formed the superficial and deep palmar arches together with the branches of the radial artery. The presence of a superficial ulnar artery is clinically important when raising forearm flaps in reconstructive surgery. The embryology and clinical significance of the variation are discussed.As principais artérias do membro superior apresentam uma ampla variação, que é relativamente importante a cirurgiões ortopédicos e plásticos, radiologistas e anatomistas.Apresentamosumcaso de artéria ulnar superficial encontrada durante dissecção de rotina de membro superior direito de um cadáver masculino de 50 anos de idade.Aartéria ulnar superficial originava-se da artéria braquial, cruzava o nervo mediano anteriormente e percorria lateralmente esse nervo e a artéria braquial. A artéria ulnar superficial no braço deu origem a um ramo muscular estreito do músculo bíceps braquial. Ao nível do cotovelo, a artéria percorria superficialmente a aponeurose bicipital, onde era cruzada pela veia cubital mediana. Percorria, então, em sentido descendente e medialmente superficial aos músculos flexores do antebraço, e então descendia para

  6. Supporting deployed operations: are military nurses gaining the relevant experience from MDHUs to be competent in deployed operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Steven P; Allan, Helen T

    2014-01-01

    To explore how peacetime employment of military nurses in the UK National Health Service Medical Defence Hospital Units prepares them to be competent to practise in their role on deployment. Military secondary care nurses are employed within UK National Health Service Trusts to gain clinical experience that will be relevant to their military nursing role. A two-stage grounded theory study using mixed methods: postal questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews. In stage one a postal questionnaire was distributed to all serving military nurses. Stage two involved 12 semi-structured interviews. The data from both parts of the study were analysed using grounded theory. Four categories and one core category were identified, which suggested that participants did not feel fully prepared for deployment. Their feelings of preparedness increased with deployment experience and decreased when the nature of injuries seen on deployment changed. Respondents argued that even when unprepared, they did not feel incompetent. The findings suggest that the peacetime clinical experience gained in the National Health Service did not always develop the necessary competencies to carry out roles as military nurses on deployment. This study highlights the unique role of military nurses. We discuss these findings in the light of the literature on competency and expertise. The military nurses in this study did not feel fully prepared for deployed operations. We propose a new model for how military nurses could gain relevant experience from their National Health Service placements. National Health Service clinical placements need to be reassessed regularly to ensure that they are meeting military nurses' clinical requirements. Experiences of nurses returning from deployment could be shared and used as a basis for reflection and learning within National Health Service Trusts and also inform decisions regarding the appropriateness of clinical placements for qualified military nurses. © 2012

  7. Identification of Accretion as Grain Growth Mechanism in Astrophysically Relevant Water&ice Dusty Plasma Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Ryan S.; Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M.

    2017-03-01

    The grain growth process in the Caltech water-ice dusty plasma experiment has been studied using a high-speed camera and a long-distance microscope lens. It is observed that (I) the ice grain number density decreases fourfold as the average grain major axis increases from 20 to 80 μm, (II) the major axis length has a log-normal distribution rather than a power-law dependence, and (III) no collisions between ice grains are apparent. The grains have a large negative charge resulting in strong mutual repulsion and this, combined with the fractal character of the ice grains, prevents them from agglomerating. In order for the grain kinetic energy to be sufficiently small to prevent collisions between ice grains, the volumetric packing factor (I.e., ratio of the actual volume to the volume of a circumscribing ellipsoid) of the ice grains must be less than ˜0.1 depending on the exact relative velocity of the grains in question. Thus, it is concluded that direct accretion of water molecules is very likely to dominate the observed ice grain growth.

  8. Border cases between autonomy and relevance: Economic sciences in Berlin--A natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düppe, Till

    2015-06-01

    The faculty of economics at today's Humboldt University in Berlin, as no other institution of economics, has witnessed three radical ruptures in its history: in 1933, National Socialism replaced the pluralism prevailing in the Weimar Republic by imposing a "German economics"; after WWII, GDR authorities replaced this NS regime by imposing a Marxist imperative, which after the fall of the wall was replaced by the Western standards of neoclassical economics. In reconstructing these three reforms, institutional history can serve as a context in which questions about the political nature of economic knowledge can be answered that remain speculative in a conceptual context. I thus present a natural experiment in the political epistemology of economics: How do economists respond to, resist, and stabilize, changing political regimes? How do economists renegotiate the autonomy of economic knowledge given changing demands as of its social task? Among others, I show that contrary to Robert Merton's old, but still widely held thesis in political epistemology-that the values of science are compatible only with democratic regimes-the totalitarian and authoritarian regimes created better conditions for methodological pluralism in economics than democratic society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of Accretion as Grain Growth Mechanism in Astrophysically Relevant Water–Ice Dusty Plasma Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, Ryan S.; Chai, Kil-Byoung; Bellan, Paul M. [Applied Physics and Materials Science, Caltech, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The grain growth process in the Caltech water–ice dusty plasma experiment has been studied using a high-speed camera and a long-distance microscope lens. It is observed that (i) the ice grain number density decreases fourfold as the average grain major axis increases from 20 to 80 μ m, (ii) the major axis length has a log-normal distribution rather than a power-law dependence, and (iii) no collisions between ice grains are apparent. The grains have a large negative charge resulting in strong mutual repulsion and this, combined with the fractal character of the ice grains, prevents them from agglomerating. In order for the grain kinetic energy to be sufficiently small to prevent collisions between ice grains, the volumetric packing factor (i.e., ratio of the actual volume to the volume of a circumscribing ellipsoid) of the ice grains must be less than ∼0.1 depending on the exact relative velocity of the grains in question. Thus, it is concluded that direct accretion of water molecules is very likely to dominate the observed ice grain growth.

  10. Fission-product chemistry in severe reactor accidents: Review of relevant integral experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Hueber, C.

    1992-01-01

    The attenuation of the radioactive fission-product emission from a severe reactor accident will depend on a combination of chemical, physical and thermal-hydraulic effects. Chemical species stabilised under the prevailing conditions will determine the extent of aerosol formation and any subsequent interaction, so defining the magnitude and physical forms of the eventual release into the environment. While several important integral tests have taken place in recent years, these experiments have tended to focus on the generation of mass-balance and aerosol-related data to test and validate materials-transport codes rather than study the impact of important chemical phenomena. This emphasis on thermal hydraulics, fuel behaviour and aerosol properties has occurred in many test (e.g. PBF, DEMONA, Marviken-V, LACE and ACE). Nevertheless, the generation and reaction of the chemical species in all of these programmes determined the transport properties of the resulting vapours and aerosols. Chemical effects have been studied in measurements somewhat subsidiary to the main aims of the tests. This work has been reviewed in detail with respect to Marviken-V, LACE, ACE and Falcon. Specific issues remain to be addressed, and these are discussed in terms of the proposed Phebus-FB programme. (author). 58 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  11. Neutron-induced reactions relevant for Inertial-Cofinement Fusion Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, Melissa; Devlin, Mathew; Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Merrill, Frank; Nelson, Ronald; Tonchev, Anton

    2014-09-01

    The typical ignition experiment at the National Ignition Facility ablatively implodes a plastic capsule filled with DT fuel, generating a high flux of 14-MeV neutrons from the d(t,n) α reaction. There is some spread in the energy of these primary 14-MeV neutrons, which is mainly attributable to Doppler shifting from the relative thermal motion of the burning DT fuel. Neutrons created during this reaction have 5--10% chance of scattering before escaping the fuel assembly, losing some fraction of their energy in the scattering process. Neutrons emerging with an energy greater than the reaction energy are generated by a two-step process where neutrons first transfer momentum to a deuteron or tritium ion, these enhanced energy ions then fuse in flight to produce higher energy neutrons; some of these neutrons have energies in excess of 30 MeV. Measuring the fluencies of both the low- and high-energy neutrons is a powerful mechanism for studying the properties of the fuel assembly, and the various parameters important to inertial confinement fusion. We have developed a number of tools to measure the spectral characteristics of the NIF neutron spectrum. Most of these methods rely on exploiting the energy dependence of (n, γ), (n,2n), (n,3n) and (n,p) reactions on a variety o.

  12. The State Supervision (Control in the Sphere of Economic Activity: International Experience Relevant for Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovychenko Larysa Yu.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The attempts in the process of decentralization in Ukraine to implement the best international practices of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, in the process which depends on the status of deregulation and development of entrepreneurship, have caused the topicality of the problem set. The article is aimed at analyzing the international experience of application of the State supervision (control instruments in the sphere of economic activity and determination of the directions of their use in Ukraine. The stages of reforms of the control and supervision activity both in foreign countries and in Ukraine were considered. The directions and measures on creation of effective system of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity, applied in the world countries, were systematized. Both the positive and the negative aspects of use of foreign instruments of the State supervision (control in the sphere of economic activity in Ukraine have been defined. Recommendations on formation of the national complex system of functioning of control-supervision activity have been given.

  13. A corrective emotional experience - or just a bit of exercise? The relevance of interpersonal learning in Exercise on prescription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2011-01-01

    Roessler, K. K. (2011). A corrective emotional experience - or just a bit of exercise? The relevance of interpersonal learning in Exercise on prescription. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. The objective of the present study was to examine psychological aspects of intra- and interpersonal......, but could not sustain, a change in health behavior. The article concludes that behavioral change is strengthened by interaction with health personnel and with the training group. These new insights likewise demand an increased focus on the human resources of general practitioners or physiotherapists who...... handle the training. They should learn about their supportive role for the participants, the regressive urges of the participants and the benefits of promoting group relations....

  14. Tritium inventory control--the experience with DT tokamaks and its relevance for future machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, A.C.; Gentile, C.A.; Laesser, R.L.K.; Coad, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    At present, the commercial use of tritium is relatively small scale. The main source of supply is as a by-product of heavy water moderated fission reactors and the products are mainly discrete sources or tracers with activity typically in the GBq range. There are in general no restrictions on the use of tritium other than those, which would normally apply to the use of radioactive material. The future use of tritium as intermediate fuel for a fusion power plant series will involve an increase by several orders of magnitude in the industrial use of tritium and may increase concerns relating to safety, transport and waste disposal. In addition, the use of tritium in fusion power will be unable to be satisfied by current sources of supply and tritium production in future fusion power plants will be essential for the operation of the plants as well as for the start of new ones. Power plant studies have, however, shown that these issues can be satisfactorily addressed. In addition the values for clearance of tritiated materials in a number of countries are consistent with the low environmental impact of disposal of tritiated waste. There are, however, many practical operational and regulatory problems, which will need to be solved in the context of the experimental programmes. The current regulations for control and accountancy of tritium inventory, as applied internationally and in specific countries, are reviewed and their influence on the DT fuel cycle considered. The effect of safety case limits on the need for control of tritium inventory in TFTR, JET and ITER is analysed. The sensitivity of the fuel cycle to tritium inventory is considered. The experience of controlling tritium inventory in TFTR and JET is reviewed and the latest results from JET presented. This takes into account the limits and constraints, the differing requirements for tritium processing, in-vessel retention, the needs for waste management and decommissioning including detritiation, and

  15. Laboratory experiments on ammoniated clay minerals with relevance for asteroid (1) Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Simone; Stefani, Stefania; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Ammannito, Eleonora

    2017-04-01

    Recent observations with VIR spectrometer onboard Dawn spacecraft [1] have suggested the presence of ammoniated phyllosilicates widespread on the surface of asteroid (1) Ceres [2,3]. The global surface composition of Ceres as suggested by VIR average infrared spectrum in the 1-4 micron range appears to be due to a mixture of NH4-bearing phyllosilicates, serpentine, carbonates and a dark absorbing phase (magnetite or amorphous carbon) [2]. An absorption feature occurring near 3.1 micron in the average spectrum is considered the main evidence for the presence of NH4-bearing phase; nevertheless in the past several authors tried to explain this feature, as observed with telescopic spectra, invoking the presence of brucite, cronstedtite, water ice or clays [4]. In this project we are carrying out laboratory experiments with the aim of studying ammoniated phyllosilicates in the visible-infrared range. A suite of 9 clay minerals has been used for this study, including illite, nontronite and montmorillonite. In order to produce the ammoniated species we followed a modified procedure based on the one described in Bishop et al. (2002) [5]. All minerals were reduced in fine grain size (features, appearing at different wavelengths near 2, 3, 6 and 7 micron. In some cases the spectral shape of already existent absorption bands resulted deeply modified. A few species did not show the appearance of new features. These results suggest that NH4+ ions fix in various ways in different minerals. Nontronite and montmorillonite appear to be the best candidates, among the studied suite, to be used in future laboratory reproduced analog mixtures. [1] Russell C.T. et al., 2004, Planetary and Space Science, 52, 465-489 [2] De Sanctis M.C. et al., 2015, Nature, 528, 241-244 [3] Ammannito E. et al., 2016, Science, vol.353, issue 6303 [4] Rivkin A.S. et al., 2011, Space Science Reviews, 163, 95-116 [5] Bishop J.L. et al., 2002, Planetary and Space Science, 50, 11-19

  16. Authoring experience: the significance and performance of storytelling in Socratic dialogue with rehabilitating cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Jeanette Bresson Ladegaard; Svendsen, Mette Nordahl

    2015-08-01

    This article examines the storytelling aspect in philosophizing with rehabilitating cancer patients in small Socratic dialogue groups (SDG). Recounting an experience to illustrate a philosophical question chosen by the participants is the traditional point of departure for the dialogical exchange. However, narrating is much more than a beginning point or the skeletal framework of events and it deserves more scholarly attention than hitherto given. Storytelling pervades the whole Socratic process and impacts the conceptual analysis in a SDG. In this article we show how the narrative aspect became a rich resource for the compassionate bond between participants and how their stories cultivated the abstract reflection in the group. In addition, the aim of the article is to reveal the different layers in the performance of storytelling, or of authoring experience. By picking, poking and dissecting an experience through a collaborative effort, most participants had their initial experience existentially refined and the chosen concept of which the experience served as an illustration transformed into a moral compass to be used in self-orientation post cancer.

  17. Drought-associated changes in climate and their relevance for ecosystem experiments and models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. De Boeck

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought periods can have important impacts on plant productivity and ecosystem functioning, but climatic conditions other than the lack of precipitation during droughts have never been quantified and have therefore not been considered explicitly in both experimental and modeling studies. Here, we identify which climatic characteristics deviate from normal during droughts and how these deviations could affect plant responses. Analysis of 609 years of daily data from nine Western European meteorological stations reveals that droughts in the studied region are consistently associated with more sunshine (+45 %, increased mean (+1.6 °C and maximum (+2.8 °C air temperatures and vapour pressure deficits that were 51 % higher than under normal conditions. These deviations from normal increase significantly as droughts progress. Using the process-model ORCHIDEE, we simulated droughts consistent with the results of the dataset analysis and compared water and carbon exchange of three different vegetation types during such natural droughts and droughts in which only the precipitation was affected. The comparison revealed contrasting responses: carbon loss was higher under natural drought in grasslands, while increased carbon uptake was found especially in decidious forests. This difference was attributed to better access to water reserves in forest ecosystems which prevented drought stress. This demonstrates that the warmer and sunnier conditions naturally associated with droughts can either improve growth or aggravate drought-related stress, depending on water reserves. As the impacts of including or excluding climatic parameters that correlate with drought are substantial, we propose that both experimental and modeling efforts should take into account other environmental factors than merely precipitation.

  18. The significance of meaningful and enjoyable activities for nursing home resident's experiences of dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slettebø, Åshild; Saeteren, Berit; Caspari, Synnøve

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Living in a nursing home may be challenging to the residents' experience of dignity. Residents' perception of how their dignity is respected in everyday care is important. AIM: To examine how nursing home residents experience dignity through the provision of activities that foster...... meaning and joy in their daily life. METHOD: A qualitative design was used and 28 individual semistructured interviews conducted with nursing home residents from six nursing homes in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The data were analysed with qualitative content analysis. Independent ethical committees in all...... participating countries granted their approval for the study. FINDINGS: The participants highlight two dimensions of the activities that foster experiences of dignity in nursing homes in Scandinavia. These two categories were (i) fostering dignity through meaningful participation and (ii) fostering dignity...

  19. Experiments and models of MHD jets and their relevance to astrophysics and solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellan, Paul

    2017-10-01

    MHD-driven flows exist in both space and lab plasmas because the MHD force-balance equation J × B - ∇ P = 0 can only be satisfied in situations having an unusual degree of symmetry. In the normal situation where such symmetry does not exist, an arbitrary magnetic field B and its associated current J =μ0- 1 ∇ × B provide a magnetic force F = J × B having the character of a torque, i.e., ∇ × F ≠ 0 . Because ∇ × ∇ P = 0 is a mathematical identity, no pressure gradient can balance this torque so a flow is driven. Additionally, since ideal MHD has magnetic flux frozen into the frame of the moving plasma, the flow convects frozen-in magnetic flux. If the flow slows and piles up, both the plasma and the frozen-in magnetic flux will be compressed. This magnetic flux compression amplifies both the frozen-in B and its associated J . Slowing down thus increases certain components of F , in particular the pinch force associated with the electric current in the flow direction. This increased pinching causes the flow to self-collimate if the leading edge of the flow moves slower than the trailing part so there is compression in the flow frame. The result is that the flow self-collimates and forms a narrow jet. Self-collimating jets with embedded electric current and helical magnetic field are analogous to the straight cylindrical approximation of a tokamak, but now with the length of the cylinder continuously increasing and the radius depending on axial position. The flows are directed from axial regions having small radius to axial regions having large radius. The flow velocity is proportional to the axial electric current and is a significant fraction of the Alfvén velocity. Examples of these MHD-driven flows are astrophysical jets, certain solar coronal situations, and the initial plasma produced by the coaxial magnetized plasma guns used for making spheromaks. The above picture has been developed from laboratory measurements, analytic models, and numerical

  20. A Foray Into Not-Quite Companion Species: Design Experiments With Urbananimals As Significant Others

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenskjold, Tau Ulv; Jönsson, Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the project, Urban Animals and Us, as a journey - or foray - into the ‘terrain vague’ between people and (other) animals with whom we share urban space. Through three design experiments developed around speculative prototypes and co-design tools, we attempt to bring ’wild’ urb...

  1. The Earth Is Flat when Personally Significant Experiences with the Sphericity of the Earth Are Absent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A…

  2. Significant Life Experiences on the Formation of Environmental Action among Chinese College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danqing; Chen, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence young adults' engagement in environmental action is critical to further developing their active and important participation in environmental issues. In this paper, we designed two studies to identify life experiences of Chinese college students that foster environmental action. In Study 1, we used an…

  3. SEEK-2 (Sporadic-E Experiment over Kyushu 2 − Project Outline, and Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pfaff

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available SEEK-2 (Sporadic-E Experiment over Kyushu 2 is an observation campaign to study the spatial structure of the field-aligned irregularity (FAI and sporadic-E(Es-layer by means of two sounding rockets and a ground-based observation network with radars and optical instruments. The experiment was successfully conducted on 3 August 2002, with successive launches of two sounding rockets from the Uchinoura Space Center (USC of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA. The timing of the experiment was carefully selected, while intense quasi-periodic (QP echoes were observed with two radars in Tanegashima. The main Es-layer, with its double-layered structure, was observed at altitudes of 103–105 km, the presence of which was well accounted for by the ion accumulation due to neutral-wind shear. Several minor peaks were detected in the electron density profiles at altitudes of up to 130 km. The intensity of the electric field was 5–10 mV/m and showed intense fluctuations below 110 km. Wave-like variation of the electric field was seen above 110 km. From radar experiments, we found that QP echoes appeared around 105 km, which agreed well with the main Es-layer height. The QP echoes propagated to the west-northwest, with frontal structures elongated from north-northeast to south-southwest. Radar observations conduced throughout the SEEK-2 period, on the other hand, showed that frontal structures of the QP echoes were most frequently propagated to the southeast. This result was consistent with the direction of gravity-wave propagation observed with the OH imager during the same period. The rocket beacon experiment with the Es-layers revealed the spatial structure of the plasma densities. On the basis of these results and those from SEEK-1 in 1996, we examined the structures of the nighttime mid-latitude E-region. We concluded that the QP echoes reflect the horizontal structures of the main Es-layers. The source of the structures was not clearly

  4. The Earth is flat when personally significant experiences with the sphericity of the Earth are absent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2010-07-01

    Participants with personal and without personal experiences with the Earth as a sphere estimated large-scale distances between six cities located on different continents. Cognitive distances were submitted to a specific multidimensional scaling algorithm in the 3D Euclidean space with the constraint that all cities had to lie on the same sphere. A simulation was run that calculated respective 3D configurations of the city positions for a wide range of radii of the proposed sphere. People who had personally experienced the Earth as a sphere, at least once in their lifetime, showed a clear optimal solution of the multidimensional scaling (MDS) routine with a mean radius deviating only 8% from the actual radius of the Earth. In contrast, the calculated configurations for people without any personal experience with the Earth as a sphere were compatible with a cognitive concept of a flat Earth. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Moessbauer experiment to observe significance of vector potentials in quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheon, I.T.

    1984-02-01

    As a powerful method to confirm the Aharonov-Bohm effect in bound states, we propose the Moessbauer experiment with 53 I 129 nucleus fixed at the center of toroidal magnet. With a toroid of major radius 10 cm, minor radius 1.5 cm and 6000 turns of coil, we estimate the energy shift -1.1x10 -8 eV for the electric current of 1 mA. (author)

  6. How do patients actually experience and use art in hospitals? The significance of interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louring Nielsen, Stine Maria; Fich, Lars Brorson; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2017-01-01

    , followed by an experiment using paintings in the dayroom of five medical wards. Fieldwork was done over a two-week period. During the first week, dayrooms were configured without the presence of art and in the second week were configured with the artworks. Semi-structured interviews, observation......, maintain a connection to the world outside the hospital and support their identity. We conclude that the presence of visual art in hospitals contributes to health outcomes by improving patient satisfaction as an extended form of health care. The article draws attention to further research perspectives...

  7. The Significance of Certain Elements in Art for Patients’ Experience and Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Maria Louring; Mullins, Michael Finbarr; Fich, Lars Brorson

    2017-01-01

    among the highest ratings. The role of spatial context, motif, color and shapes seems to have an effect on patients’ experience of a hospital stay. This article draws attention to the application of visual art as a source of stimulus and healing—and a means to affect patient satisfaction in hospitals.......Focusing on the interactional aspects of art in health interventions, we qualify guidelines for art in hospitals. Patients in this user-oriented study primarily ranked items to favor figurative art painted in light colors; however both figurative and abstract art in light and dark colors figured...

  8. Significance of an experiment of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    Restrictive conditions on the class of allowed physical theories are drawn from the assumption that the predictions of quantum theory are valid for an experiment of the kind proposed by Greenberger, Horne, and Zeilinger [in Bell's Theorem, Quantum Theory and Conceptions of the Universe, edited by M. Kafatos (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, 1989)]. It is shown that no theory can be compatible with the following four conditions. (1) The choices to be made by the three experimenters can be treated, in this context, as three independent free variables. (2) For each of the six possible local measurements under consideration, if that local measurement were to be performed, then exactly one of the alternative possible outcomes of this measurement must be selected as the actual outcome. (3) For each triad of measurements in a certain set of possible triads, if that triad were to be performed, then the corresponding triad of selected outcomes must satisfy the correlation condition predicted by quantum theory. (4) For each of the six possible local measurements, if that local measurement were to be performed, then the selected outcome must, according to the theory, be independent of which two experiments will later, in some frame of reference, be performed in the other two regions

  9. Creating Significant Learning Experiences in a Large Undergraduate Psychology Class: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.; LaMonaca, Frank H., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    The authors redesigned a Lifespan Development course using Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning and measured changes across his six domains: Knowledge, Application, Integration, Human Dimension, Caring, and Learning How to Learn. Using case studies and group work, 151 undergraduates completed identical pre- and post-tests that measured…

  10. The Significance Of Experience Of West Bengal For Poverty Alleviation In Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Nemova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes socio-economic problems and ways of eliminating poverty in Bangladesh. The focal point of the research is poverty among rural population which is the most vulnerable one. The author’s assumption is that the main reason for rural poverty is historical inequality of land property distribution in Bangladesh. The existing measures of poverty alleviation in Bangladesh (micro crediting among others have made the country a role model for development. However, due to the limited potential of micro crediting a broader program of socio-economic reforms is required for any country striving to provide inclusive development. Using comparative-historical method the article compares the experience of Bangladesh and Indian state of West Bengal in implementing agricultural reforms aimed at improving life of the poor. West Bengal under the CPM rule is considered as a state with strong government whereas Bangladesh is considered as a state with weak government but rather strong non-governmental actors (NGOs. The article makes a conclusion that a weak institutional power of Bangladesh is one of the main reasons why agricultural reforms have not been adopted in this country and that poverty elimination there requires structural reforms to redistribute land property and to guarantee rural population legal and economic equality.

  11. Significant Learning Experiences for English Foreign Language Students (Experiencias significativas para estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Luz María; McNulty, Maria

    2010-01-01

    This action research examines experiences that students in a grade 10 EFL class had with redesigning a grammar-unit into a topic-based unit. Strategies were formulating significant learning goals and objectives, and implementing and reflecting on activities with three dimensions of Dee Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning: the human…

  12. Discrepancies between adolescents' attributed relevance and experiences regarding communication are associated with poorer client participation and learning processes in psychosocial care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, Margot; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J.; De Winter, Andrea F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine adolescents' attributed relevance and experiences regarding communication, and whether discrepancies in these are associated with clients' participation and learning processes in psychosocial care. Methods: Adolescents receiving psychosocial care (n = 211) completed measures of

  13. Significant life events and social connectedness in Australian women’s gambling experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuske Elaine Mary

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM - The aim is to examine significant life events and social connections that encourage some women to gamble. Specifically, how do these events and connections described as important for women who develop gambling-related problems differ for women who remain recreational gamblers? DESIGN - 20 women who were electronic gaming machine (EGMs, poker machines, slots players were interviewed using a brief interview guide. They also completed the nine question Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI from the Canadian Problem Gambling Index CPGI. 11 women self-identified as recreational gamblers (RG while 9 had sought and received help for their gambling problems (PG. Using a feminist, qualitative design and an adaptive grounded theory method to analyze their histories, a number of themes emerged indicating a progression to problem gambling for some and the ability to recognise when control over gambling was needed by others. RESULTS - Although both groups (RG and PG reported common gambling motivations differences appeared in the strength of their social support networks and ways of coping with stress, especially stress associated with a significant life event. CONCLUSIONS - The human need for social connectedness and personal bonds with others emphasised the usefulness of using social capital theories in gambling research with women.

  14. [Significance of early diagnosis of posterior urethral valves in fetus for further development - own experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, Grażyna; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Wawer, Zofia; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of posterior urethral valves is estimated to be from 3:1000 to 8:1000 and this is one of the most common causes of obstruction of urinary tract in boys. About 13-17% of children with posterior urethral valves develop end stage renal failure. We present a  6-month-old boy with late diagnosis of posterior urtehral valves. Antenatal ultrasound investigation of the urinary tract was normal. A small degree of oligohydramnios was found during delivery. At the age of six months the boy was admitted to hospital because of urinary tract infection, hypertension (130/90 mmHg) and acute kidney injury (urea - 46 mg/dL, creatinine - 1.1 mg/dL, GFR - 35.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 ). Bilateral hydronephrosis and megaureters, low-capacity bladder with hypertrophied wall were seen on ultrasound examination. Voiding cystourethrograhy revealed vesicoureteral refluxes (III/V), hypertrophy of the bladder wall with numerous diverticula and dilated posterior urethra. During urethroscopy urethral valves were resected. Increased intravesical pressure (leak point up to 305 cm H2 O) was found on urodynamic test. Renal scintigraphy (99mTc-EC) revealed decreased intake of isotope in the left kidney (5%), and the right kidney intake was 95% ERPF. The patient was qualified for left-sided nephrectomy, which was postponed because of high leak point and high risk of worsening of vesicoureteral reflux to right kidney after nephrectomy. Anticholinergic and α-blocker treatment was started. At the age of 11 months left-side nephrectomy was performed because of recurrent urinary tract infections. After 3.5-year follow-up blood pressure, physical development, kidney function tests, and urinalysis are normal. Additionally to this investigation the significance of early diagnosis including prenatal (PUV) for further development as well as further therapeutic procedure is discussed.

  15. Safety evaluation of the NSRR facility relevant to the modification for improved pulse operation and preirradiated fuel experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inabe, Teruo; Terakado, Yoshibumi; Tanzawa, Sadamitsu; Katagiri, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1988-11-01

    The Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) is a pulse reactor for the inpile experiments to study the fuel behavior under reactivity initiated accident conditions. The present operation modes of the NSRR consist of the steady state operation up to 300 kW and the natural pulse operation in which a sharp pulsed power is generated from substantially zero power level. In addition to these, two new modes of shaped pulse operation and combined pulse operation will be conducted in the near future as the improved pulse operations. A transient power up to 10 MW will be generated in the shaped pulse operation, and a combination of a transient power up to 10 MW and a sharp pulsed power will be generated in the combined pulse operation. Furthermore, preirradiated fuel rods will be employed in the future experiments whereas the present experiments are confined to the test specimens of unirradiated fuel rods. To provide for these programs, the fundamental design works relevant to the modification of the reactor facility including the reactor instrumentation and control systems and experimental provision were developed. The reactor safety evaluation is prerequisite for confirming the propriety of the fundamental design of the reactor facility from the safety point of view. The safety evaluation was therefore conducted postulating such events that would bring about abnormal conditions in the reactor facility. As a result of the safety evaluation, it has been confirmed as to the NSRR facility after modification that the anticipated transients, the postulated accidents, the major accident and the hypothetical accident do not result respectively in any serious safety problem and that the fundamental design principles and the reactor siting are adequate and acceptable. (author)

  16. Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R.; Richards, William A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; McCann, Una D.; Jesse, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes; however little is known scientifically about its long-term effects. We previously reported the effects of a double-blind study evaluating the psychological effects of a high psilocybin dose. This report presents the 14-month follow-up and examines the relationship of the follow-up results to data obtained at screening and on drug session days. Participants were 36 hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious/spiritual activities. Oral psilocybin (30 mg/70kg) was administered on one of two or three sessions, with methylphenidate (40 mg/70kg) administered on the other session(s). During sessions, volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. At the 14-month follow-up, 58% and 67%, respectively, of volunteers rated the psilocybin-occasioned experience as being among the five most personally meaningful and among the five most spiritually significant experiences of their lives; 64% indicated the experience increased well-being or life satisfaction; 58% met criteria for having had a “complete” mystical experience. Correlation and regression analyses indicated a central role of the mystical experience assessed on the session day in the high ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance at follow-up. Of the measures of personality, affect, quality of life, and spirituality assessed across the study, only a scale measuring mystical experience showed a difference from screening. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously-occurring mystical experiences that, at 14-month follow-up, were considered by volunteers to be among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant of their lives. PMID:18593735

  17. Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Rr; Richards, Wa; Johnson, Mw; McCann, Ud; Jesse, R

    2008-08-01

    Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes; however, little is known scientifically about its long-term effects. We previously reported the effects of a double-blind study evaluating the psychological effects of a high psilocybin dose. This report presents the 14-month follow-up and examines the relationship of the follow-up results to data obtained at screening and on drug session days. Participants were 36 hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious/ spiritual activities. Oral psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) was administered on one of two or three sessions, with methylphenidate (40 mg/70 kg) administered on the other session(s). During sessions, volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. At the 14-month follow-up, 58% and 67%, respectively, of volunteers rated the psilocybin-occasioned experience as being among the five most personally meaningful and among the five most spiritually significant experiences of their lives; 64% indicated that the experience increased well-being or life satisfaction; 58% met criteria for having had a 'complete' mystical experience. Correlation and regression analyses indicated a central role of the mystical experience assessed on the session day in the high ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance at follow-up. Of the measures of personality, affect, quality of life and spirituality assessed across the study, only a scale measuring mystical experience showed a difference from screening. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences that, at 14-month follow-up, were considered by volunteers to be among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant of their lives.

  18. Deep learning relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Petersen, Casper

    2016-01-01

    train a Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) on existing relevant information to that query. We then use the RNN to "deep learn" a single, synthetic, and we assume, relevant document for that query. We design a crowdsourcing experiment to assess how relevant the "deep learned" document is, compared...... to existing relevant documents. Users are shown a query and four wordclouds (of three existing relevant documents and our deep learned synthetic document). The synthetic document is ranked on average most relevant of all....

  19. Physiologically-Relevant Modes of Membrane Interactions by the Human Antimicrobial Peptide, LL-37, Revealed by SFG Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Bei; Soblosky, Lauren; Nguyen, Khoi; Geng, Junqing; Yu, Xinglong; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Chen, Zhan

    2013-05-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) could become the next generation antibiotic compounds which can overcome bacterial resistance by disrupting cell membranes and it is essential to determine the factors underlying its mechanism of action. Although high-resolution NMR and other biological studies have provided valuable insights, it has been a major challenge to follow the AMP-membrane interactions at physiologically-relevant low peptide concentrations. In this study, we demonstrate a novel approach to overcome this major limitation by performing Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopic experiments on lipid bilayers containing an AMP, LL-37. Our results demonstrate the power of SFG to study non-linear helical peptides and also infer that lipid-peptide interaction and the peptide orientation depend on the lipid membrane composition. The observed SFG signal changes capture the aggregating process of LL-37 on membrane. In addition, our SFG results on cholesterol-containing lipid bilayers indicate the inhibition effect of cholesterol on peptide-induced membrane permeation process.

  20. Significant weight loss following clozapine use, how is it possible? A case report and review of published cases and literature relevant to the subject.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tungaraza, Tongeji E

    2016-10-01

    It has been repeatedly shown that clozapine is more efficacious than other antipsychotics in the management of treatment-resistant schizophrenia. However, clozapine is associated with a number of side effects including weight gain. Antipsychotic-induced weight gain has been linked with a number of untoward events including psychological factors such as stigma and low self-esteem, and physical factors such as metabolic syndromes and untimely death. The mechanism underlying antipsychotic (including clozapine)-induced weight gain is not clearly understood, although it is said to involve several brain areas, several neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and genetic factors. To some individuals however, clozapine use is associated with significant weight loss (13.5-50% of body weight). The observed weight loss in these groups of patients has not been attributed to any underlying diagnosable physical disorders. There have been a handful cases published with this phenomenon, which seems to be contrary to what is expected when clozapine is prescribed. From the currently published cases three groups emerge - those who lost weight simply by taking clozapine, those who lost weight due to improved mental state, engaging in diet and increased exercise, and those for whom weight loss was a sign of a poor response to clozapine. A case of JX who has a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is presented. JX lost over 26% of her body weight when she was prescribed clozapine. A detailed review of other published cases is undertaken. The underlying mechanisms involving weight loss are discussed and the implications to clinicians are highlighted. Coordinated studies to examine these groups of patients may provide some insight, not only in the mechanism of clozapine-induced weight loss, but also in the better management of patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia involving clozapine use.

  1. Team-Based Learning, Faculty Research, and Grant Writing Bring Significant Learning Experiences to an Undergraduate Biochemistry Laboratory Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Hedeel Guy; Heyl, Deborah L.; Liggit, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    This biochemistry laboratory course was designed to provide significant learning experiences to expose students to different ways of succeeding as scientists in academia and foster development and improvement of their potential and competency as the next generation of investigators. To meet these goals, the laboratory course employs three…

  2. Pre-aged soil organic carbon as a major component of the Yellow River suspended load: Regional significance and global relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shuqin; Eglinton, Timothy I.; Montluçon, Daniel B.; McIntyre, Cameron; Zhao, Meixun

    2015-03-01

    Large rivers connect the continents and the oceans, and corresponding material fluxes have a global impact on marine biogeochemistry. The Yellow River transports vast quantities of suspended sediments to the ocean, yet the nature of the particulate organic carbon (POC) carried by this system is not well known. The focus of this study is to characterize the sources, composition and age of suspended POC collected near the terminus of this river system, focusing on the abundance and carbon isotopic composition (13C and 14C) of specific biomarkers. The concentrations of vascular plant wax lipids (long-chain (≥C24) n-alkanes, n-fatty acids) and POC co-varied with total suspended solid (TSS) concentrations, indicating that both were controlled by the overall terrestrial sediment flux. POC exhibited relatively uniform δ13C values (-23.8 to -24.2‰), and old radiocarbon ages (4000-4640 yr). However, different biomarkers exhibited a wide range of 14C ages. Short-chain (C16, C18) fatty acid 14C ages were variable but generally the youngest organic components (from 502 yr to modern), suggesting they reflect recently biosynthesized material. Lignin phenol 14C ages were also variable and relatively young (1070 yr to modern), suggesting rapid export of carbon from terrestrial primary production. In contrast, long-chain plant wax lipids display relatively uniform and significantly older 14C ages (1500-1800 yr), likely reflecting inputs of pre-aged, mineral-associated soil OC from the Yellow River drainage basin. Even-carbon-numbered n-alkanes yielded the oldest 14C ages (up to 26 000 yr), revealing the presence of fossil (petrogenic) OC. Two isotopic mass balance approaches were explored to quantitively apportion different OC sources in Yellow River suspended sediments. Results indicate that the dominant component of POC (53-57%) is substantially pre-aged (1510-1770 yr), and likely sourced from the extensive loess-paleosol deposits outcropping within the drainage basin. Of

  3. Clinical relevance of positive voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies: experience from a tertiary referral centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Ross W; Zandi, Michael S; Armstrong, Richard; Vincent, Angela; Schott, Jonathan M

    2014-06-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies can be associated with a range of immunotherapy-responsive clinical presentations including limbic encephalitis, Morvan's syndrome and acquired neuromyotonia. However, there are patients with positive levels in whom the significance is uncertain. To evaluate the clinical significance associated with positive (>100 pM) VGKC-complex antibodies. Over a 4-year period, 1053 samples were sent for testing of which 55 were positive. The clinical presentations, final diagnoses and responses to immunotherapies, when given, were assessed retrospectively and the likelihood of autoimmunity was categorised as definite, possible, unlikely or undetermined (modified from Zuliani et al 2012). Only 4 of the 32 patients with low-positive (100-400 pM) levels were considered definitely autoimmune, 3 with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability and 1 with a thymoma; 3 were given immunotherapies. Of the remaining 28 with low-positive levels, 13 (3 of whom had tumours) were considered possibly autoimmune, and 15 were unlikely or undetermined; 1 was given immunotherapy unsuccessfully. Of the 23 patients with high-positive (>400 pM) levels, 12 were given immunotherapies, 11 of whom showed a good response. 11 were considered definitely autoimmune, 10 with limbic encephalitis (antibody specificity: 5 LGI1, 1 contactin2, 2 negative, 2 untested) and 1 with a tumour. In the remaining 12, autoimmunity was considered possible (n=9; most had not received immunotherapies), or unlikely (n=3). As antibody testing becomes more widely available, and many samples are referred from patients with less clear-cut diagnoses, it is important to assess the utility of the results. VGKC-complex antibodies in the range of 100-400 pM (0.1-0.4 nM) were considered clinically relevant in rare conditions with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability and appeared to associate with tumours (12.5%). By contrast high-positive (>400 pM; >0.4 nM) levels were considered definitely

  4. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach) following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzullo, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1) the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2) the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds. Leg Regrowth Results First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (pbarbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement. Summary It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content. PMID:26824931

  5. Systematic literature review of integrated community case management and the private sector in Africa: Relevant experiences and potential next steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awor, Phyllis; Miller, Jane; Peterson, Stefan

    2014-12-01

    Despite substantial investments made over the past 40 years in low income countries, governments cannot be viewed as the principal health care provider in many countries. Evidence on the role of the private sector in the delivery of health services is becoming increasingly available. In this study, we set out to determine the extent to which the private sector has been utilized in providing integrated care for sick children under 5 years of age with community-acquired malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea. We reviewed the published literature for integrated community case management (iCCM) related experiences within both the public and private sector. We searched PubMed and Google/Google Scholar for all relevant literature until July 2014. The search terms used were "malaria", "pneumonia", "diarrhoea", "private sector" and "community case management". A total of 383 articles referred to malaria, pneumonia or diarrhoea in the private sector. The large majority of these studies (290) were only malaria related. Most of the iCCM-related studies evaluated introduction of only malaria drugs and/or diagnostics into the private sector. Only one study evaluated the introduction of drugs and diagnostics for malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea in the private sector. In contrast, most iCCM-related studies in the public sector directly reported on community case management of 2 or more of the illnesses. While the private sector is an important source of care for children in low income countries, little has been done to harness the potential of this sector in improving access to care for non-malaria-associated fever in children within the community. It would be logical for iCCM programs to expand their activities to include the private sector to achieve higher population coverage. An implementation research agenda for private sector integrated care of febrile childhood illness needs to be developed and implemented in conjunction with private sector intervention programs.

  6. [The significance of drawing on experience of experimental study on Chinese materia medica during the Republican period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wan, Fang

    2015-05-01

    During the period of the Republic of China, researches of experiments on Chinese materia medica developed extensively with the scientific process of Chinese medicine. Although the technology standard was relatively low and the reference value, limited. The experiences, positive or negative, obtained at that time still has reference significance to today's Chinese medicine scientific research. The notion that traditional Chinese medical and scientific research be conducted under the guidance of TCM theory; valuable experience contained in the ancient literature of traditional Chinese medicine be collected; and the transformation capacity of scientific research be elevated, has been accepted by modern TCM professionals. If you go back to the history, it can be seen that this notion was summarized through repeated practice during the critical moment of traditional Chinese medicine, which should be emphasized and its understanding deepened at any time.

  7. Leg Regrowth in Blaberus discoidalis (Discoid Cockroach following Limb Autotomy versus Limb Severance and Relevance to Neurophysiology Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy C Marzullo

    Full Text Available Many insects can regenerate limbs, but less is known about the regrowth process with regard to limb injury type. As part of our neurophysiology education experiments involving the removal of a cockroach leg, 1 the ability of Blaberus discoidalis cockroaches to regenerate a metathoracic leg was examined following autotomy at the femur/trochanter joint versus severance via a transverse coxa-cut, and 2 the neurophysiology of the detached legs with regard to leg removal type was studied by measuring spike firing rate and microstimulation movement thresholds.First appearance of leg regrowth was after 5 weeks in the autotomy group and 12 weeks in the coxa-cut group. Moreover, regenerated legs in the autotomy group were 72% of full size on first appearance, significantly larger (p<0.05 than coxa-cut legs (29% of full size at first appearance. Regenerated legs in both groups grew in size with each subsequent molt; the autotomy-removed legs grew to full size within 18 weeks, whereas coxa-cut legs took longer than 28 weeks to regrow. Removal of the metathoracic leg in both conditions did not have an effect on mortality compared to matched controls with unmolested legs.Autotomy-removed legs had lower spontaneous firing rates, similar marked increased firing rates upon tactile manipulation of tibial barbs, and a 10% higher electrical microstimulation threshold for movement.It is recommended that neurophysiology experiments on cockroach legs remove the limb at autotomy joints instead of coxa cuts, as the leg regenerates significantly faster when autotomized and does not detract from the neurophysiology educational content.

  8. Evaluation of water-hammer experience in nuclear power plants. Technical findings relevant to Unresolved Safety Issue A-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes key technical findings relevant to the Unresolved Safety Issue A-1, Water Hammer. These findings were derived from studies of reported water hammer occurrences and underlying causes and provide key insights into means to minimize or eliminate further water hammer occurrences. It should also be noted that this report does not represent a substitute for current rules and regulations

  9. Code Sharing and Collaboration: Experiences From the Scientist's Expert Assistant Project and Their Relevance to the Virtual Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korathkar, Anuradha; Grosvenor, Sandy; Jones, Jeremy; Li, Connie; Mackey, Jennifer; Neher, Ken; Obenschain, Arthur F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the Virtual Observatory (VO), software tools will perform the functions that have traditionally been performed by physical observatories and their instruments. These tools will not be adjuncts to VO functionality but will make up the very core of the VO. Consequently, the tradition of observatory and system independent tools serving a small user base is not valid for the VO. For the VO to succeed, we must improve software collaboration and code sharing between projects and groups. A significant goal of the Scientist's Expert Assistant (SEA) project has been promoting effective collaboration and code sharing among groups. During the past three years, the SEA project has been developing prototypes for new observation planning software tools and strategies. Initially funded by the Next Generation Space Telescope, parts of the SEA code have since been adopted by the Space Telescope Science Institute. SEA has also supplied code for the SIRTF (Space Infrared Telescope Facility) planning tools, and the JSky Open Source Java library. The potential benefits of sharing code are clear. The recipient gains functionality for considerably less cost. The provider gains additional developers working with their code. If enough users groups adopt a set of common code and tools, de facto standards can emerge (as demonstrated by the success of the FITS standard). Code sharing also raises a number of challenges related to the management of the code. In this talk, we will review our experiences with SEA--both successes and failures, and offer some lessons learned that might promote further successes in collaboration and re-use.

  10. Moving from irrelevant intellectual capital (IC) reporting to value-relevant IC disclosures: key learning points from the Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaper, Stefan; Nielsen, Christian; Roslender, Robin

    2017-01-01

    , largely informed by an accounting perspective, towards IC-related disclosures. Design/methodology/approach – The paper draws on data obtained from 21 semi-structured interviews with respondents in 16 companies. The respondents were contacted following a genealogical exercise carried out on the 102...... with a recognised reporting vehicle such as the annual report, were also encountered. Research limitations/implications – The implications of this study are that timely, value-relevant IC disclosures and compliant reporting, primarily for accountability purposes, have the potential to coexist. In addition...... to the usual limitations of a semi-structured interview research design, respondents’ difficulties in clearly recalling events during the project after some 10-12 years is a further potential limitation. Additionally, the use of internet-based communication channels for disclosure purposes was in its infancy...

  11. Relevance of the hadronic interaction model in the interpretation of multiple muon data as detected with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Aramo, C; Auriemma, G; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bisi, V; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Castellano, M G; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Coutu, S; De Benedictis, L; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Grassi, M; Gray, L; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Guarnaccia, P; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Hawthorne, A; Heinz, R; Iarocci, Enzo; Katsavounidis, E; Kearns, E T; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta-Neri, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Mazzotta, C; Michael, D G; Mikheyev, S P; Miller, L; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Okada, C; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Rastelli, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rubizzo, U; Sanzgiri, A; Satriano, C; Satta, L; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra-Lugaresi, P; Severi, M; Sioli, M; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, Lawrence R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of discussing the effect of the possible sources of systematic uncertainties in simulation models, the analysis of multiple muon events from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso is reviewed. In particular, the predictions $9 from different currently available hadronic interaction models are compared. (9 refs).

  12. Relevance of the hadronic interaction model in the interpretation of multiple muon data as detected with the MACRO experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosio, M.; Antolini, R.; Aramo, C.; Auriemma, G.; Baldini, A.; Barbarino, G. C.; Barish, B. C.; Battistoni, G.; Bellotti, R.; Bemporad, C.; Bernardini, P.; Bilokon, H.; Bisi, V.; Bloise, C.; Bower, C.; Bussino, S.; Cafagna, F.; Calicchio, M.; Campana, D.; Carboni, M.; Castellano, M.; Cecchini, S.; Cei, F.; Chiarella, V.; Coutu, S.; De Benedictis, L.; De Cataldo, G.; Dekhissi, H.; De Marzo, C.; De Mitri, I.; De Vincenzi, M.; Di Credico, A.; Erriquez, O.; Favuzzi, C.; Forti, C.; Fusco, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Giannini, G.; Giglietto, N.; Grassi, M.; Gray, L.; Grillo, A.; Guarino, F.; Guarnaccia, P.; Gustavino, C.; Habig, A.; Hanson, K.; Hawthorne, A.; Heinz, R.; Iarocci, E.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kearns, E.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Lamanna, E.; Lane, C.; Levin, D. S.; Lipari, P.; Longley, N. P.; Longo, M. J.; Maaroufi, F.; Mancarella, G.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Neri, A. Margiotta; Marini, A.; Martello, D.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; Mazzotta, C.; Michael, D. G.; Mikheyev, S.; Miller, L.; Monacelli, P.; Montaruli, T.; Monteno, M.; Mufson, S.; Musser, J.; Nicolo, D.; Nolty, R.; Okada, C.; Orth, C.; Osteria, G.; Palamara, O.; Patera, V.; Patrizii, L.; Pazzi, R.; Peck, C. W.; Petrera, S.; Pistilli, P.; Popa, V.; Raino, A.; Rastelli, A.; Reynoldson, J.; Ronga, F.; Rubizzo, U.; Sanzgiri, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, L.; Scapparone, E.; Scholberg, K.; Sciubba, A.; Serra-Lugaresi, P.; Severi, M.; Sioli, M.; Sitta, M.; Spinelli, P.; Spinetti, M.; Spurio, M.; Steinberg, R.; Stone, J. L.; Sulak, L. R.; Surdo, A.; Tarle, G.; Togo, V.; Walter, C. W.; Webb, R.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of discussing the effect of the possible sources of systematic uncertainties in simulation models, the analysis of multiple muon events from the MACRO experiment at Gran Sasso is reviewed. In particular, the predictions from different currently available hadronic interaction models are compared

  13. The Impact of Nursing Students' Prior Chemistry Experience on Academic Performance and Perception of Relevance in a Health Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddey, Kerrie; de Berg, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Nursing students have typically found the study of chemistry to be one of their major challenges in a nursing course. This mixed method study was designed to explore how prior experiences in chemistry might impact chemistry achievement during a health science unit. Nursing students (N = 101) studying chemistry as part of a health science unit were…

  14. Relevance of a molecular tumour board (MTB) for patients' enrolment in clinical trials: experience of the Institut Curie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basse, Clémence; Morel, Claire; Alt, Marie; Sablin, Marie Paule; Franck, Coralie; Pierron, Gaëlle; Callens, Céline; Melaabi, Samia; Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Bataillon, Guillaume; Gardrat, Sophie; Lavigne, Marion; Bonsang, Benjamin; Vaflard, Pauline; Pons Tostivint, Elvire; Dubot, Coraline; Loirat, Delphine; Marous, Miguelle; Geiss, Romain; Clément, Nathalie; Schleiermacher, Gudrun; Kamoun, Choumouss; Girard, Elodie; Ardin, Maude; Benoist, Camille; Bernard, Virginie; Mariani, Odette; Rouzier, Roman; Tresca, Patricia; Servois, Vincent; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Bieche, Ivan; Le Tourneau, Christophe; Kamal, Maud

    2018-01-01

    High throughput molecular screening techniques allow the identification of multiple molecular alterations, some of which are actionable and can be targeted by molecularly targeted agents (MTA). We aimed at evaluating the relevance of using this approach in the frame of Institut Curie Molecular Tumor Board (MTB) to guide patients with cancer to clinical trials with MTAs. We included all patients presented at Institut Curie MTB from 4 October 2014 to 31 October 2017. The following information was extracted from the chart: decision to perform tumour profiling, types of molecular analyses, samples used, molecular alterations identified and those which are actionable, and inclusion in a clinical trial with matched MTA. 736 patients were presented at the MTB. Molecular analyses were performed in 442 patients (60%). Techniques used included next-generation sequencing, comparative genomic hybridisation array and/or other techniques including immunohistochemistry in 78%, 51% and 58% of patients, respectively. Analyses were performed on a fresh frozen biopsy in 91 patients (21%), on archival tissue (fixed or frozen) in 326 patients (74%) and on both archival and fresh frozen biopsy in 25 patients (6%). At least one molecular alteration was identified in 280 analysed patients (63%). An actionable molecular alteration was identified in 207 analysed patients (47%). Forty-five analysed patients (10%) were enrolled in a clinical trial with matched MTA and 29 additional patients were oriented and included in a clinical trial based on a molecular alteration identified prior to the MTB analysis. Median time between date of specimen reception and molecular results was 28 days (range: 5-168). The implementation of an MTB at Institut Curie enabled the inclusion of 10% of patients into a clinical trial with matched therapy.

  15. Significant Influences on Nature Experiences: A Comparative Study of Southern German and Northern Spanish Pupils Aged 14-15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zecha, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of the current situation of nature experiences among adolescents is of critical importance for the protection of nature. The participants of this study are 14-15 year-old pupils from Bavaria (Southern Germany) and Asturias (Northern Spain). In particular, the author was interested in a) the level of outdoor experiences of each…

  16. The practical experience with assistance programs: view from a non-nuclear weapons-state with a significant nuclear infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetvergov, S.

    2002-01-01

    /or nuclear shell device. In May 2000, with direct participation of the German Society of Nuclear Reactors and Facilities Security (GRS), a training seminar was held on establishing of design threats for hypothetical research reactors and the creation of physical protection conception. With direct participation of the IAEA a training seminar was held in Almaty on December 2002 for exchange of observed experiences and concrete pathways for establishing DBT in Kazakhstan were determined. This support from IAEA and donor countries has allowed Kazakhstan to create an ideology and a set of regulatory documents for physical protection of nuclear objects and on assessment for design threat at the international requirements level. Now, relevant authorities of Kazakhstan investigate the issue of design threat. These are mostly done by the Committee of National Security jointly with the Kazakhstan Atomic Energy Committee and the administrations of nuclear facilities. (author)

  17. Multiphase, multicomponent simulations and experiments of reactive flow, relevant for combining geologic CO2 sequestration with geothermal energy capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar, Martin O.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding the fluid dynamics of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) in brine- filled porous media is important for predictions of CO2 flow and brine displacement during geologic CO2 sequestration and during geothermal energy capture using sequestered CO2 as the subsurface heat extraction fluid. We investigate multiphase fluid flow in porous media employing particle image velocimetry experiments and lattice-Boltzmann fluid flow simulations at the pore scale. In particular, we are interested in the motion of a drop (representing a CO2 bubble) through an orifice in a plate, representing a simplified porous medium. In addition, we study single-phase/multicomponent reactive transport experimentally by injecting water with dissolved CO2 into rocks/sediments typically considered for CO2 sequestration to investigate how resultant fluid-mineral reactions modify permeability fields. Finally, we investigate numerically subsurface CO2 and heat transport at the geologic formation scale.

  18. Lack of experience is a significant factor in the missed diagnosis of perilunate fracture dislocation or isolated dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilker Çolak

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that lack of experience was the most important factor in the misdiagnosis of perilunate fracture dislocation or isolated dislocation. Level of Evidence: Level IV, diagnostic study.

  19. Relevant patient perceptions and experiences for evaluating quality of interaction with physiotherapists during outpatient rehabilitation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Baño-Aledo, M Elena; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Escolar-Reina, Pilar; Montilla-Herrador, Joaquina; Collins, Sean M

    2014-03-01

    To identify elements of the physiotherapist-patient interaction considered by patients when they evaluate the quality of care in outpatient rehabilitation settings. A qualitative study with nine focus groups, Two researchers conducted the focus groups, and a topic guide with predetermined questions was used. Each group discussion was audiotaped,, transcribed verbatim and analyzed thematically according to a modified grounded theory approach. Three postacute ambulatory centers in Barcelona, Madrid and Seville (Spain). Fifty-seven adults undergoing outpatient rehabilitation for musculoskeletal conditions/injuries. Patients based their evaluations of quality of care on their assessment of physiotherapists' willingness to provide information and education, technical expertise and interpersonal manners (eg. respect, emotional support and sensitivity changes in the patient's status). Both positive and negative aspects of the physiotherapist-patient interaction emerged under all these themes, except for friendly and respectful communication. This study identified which elements of the physiotherapist-patient interaction are considered by patients when evaluating the quality of care in rehabilitation outpatient settings. Further research should work to develop self-report questionnaires about patients' experiences of the physiotherapist-patient interaction in rehabilitation services to provide empirical and quantitative evidence. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A corrective emotional experience - or just a bit of exercise? The relevance of interpersonal learning in Exercise on prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2011-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine psychological aspects of intra- and interpersonal learning for patients with Type 2 diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia treated with Exercise on prescription. The research design consists of a qualitative investigation of 30 patients in Denmark undergoing a community-based exercise treatment at baseline, a post-intervention investigation after four months and a follow-up one year after the start of intervention. The results demonstrated that, for the majority of the participants, interaction under group conditions contributes to maintaining the commitment to exercise. For a corrective emotional experience- a correction of an emotional situation a person could not handle in the past - to occur requires two conditions: the group and the environment must be experienced as sufficiently safe, and there must be feedback to permit reality-testing. However, existential psychological aspects such as fear of dying or the universality of suffering triggered, but could not sustain, a change in health behavior. The article concludes that behavioral change is strengthened by interaction with health personnel and with the training group. These new insights likewise demand an increased focus on the human resources of general practitioners or physiotherapists who handle the training. They should learn about their supportive role for the participants, the regressive urges of the participants and the benefits of promoting group relations. © 2011 The Author. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2011 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  1. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 1. field experiments evaluating plant-relevant soil water behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Perkins, K.S.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.; Stock, J.D.; Singha, K.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the eff ect of pedogenesis on the soil moisture dynamics infl uencing the character and quality of ecological habitat, we conducted infi ltration and redistribution experiments on three alluvial deposits in the Mojave National Preserve: (i) recently deposited active wash sediments, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. At each, we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infi ltration ring for 2.3 h and monitored soil water content and matric pressure during and atier infi ltration, using probes and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). Infi ltration and downward fl ow rates were greater in younger material, favoring deep-rooted species. Deep-rooted species tend to colonize the margins of washes, where they are unaff ected by sediment transport that inhibits colonization. The ERI results support important generalizations, for example that shallower than 0.5 m, infi ltrated water persists longer in highly developed soil, favoring shallow-rooted species. Soil moisture data for the two youngest soils suggested that saturation overshoot, which may have signifi cant but unexplored hydroecologic and pedogenic eff ects, occurred at the horizontally advancing weting front. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties generally increased with pedogenic development. Evidence suggested that some early-stage developmental processes may promote uniformity; the intermediate- age soil appeared to have the least heterogeneity in terms of textural variation with depth, and also the least anisotropy. Lateral heterogeneity was pronounced in older soil, having a multitude of eff ects on the distribution and retention of soil water, and may facilitate certain water-conserving strategies of plants over what would be possible in a laterally homogeneous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  2. Teens, Video Games, and Civics: Teens' Gaming Experiences Are Diverse and Include Significant Social Interaction and Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Amanda; Kahne, Joseph; Middaugh, Ellen; Macgill, Alexandra Rankin; Evans, Chris; Vitak, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Video games provide a diverse set of experiences and related activities and are part of the lives of almost all teens in America. To date, most video game research has focused on how games impact academic and social outcomes (particularly aggression). There has also been some exploration of the relationship between games and civic outcomes, but as…

  3. 78 FR 79559 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Miró: The Experience of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... ``Mir[oacute]: The Experience of Seeing,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the... at the Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA, from on or about February 13, 2014, until on or about May 18, 2014, the Nasher Museum of Art at Duke University, from on or about August 28, 2014, until on or about...

  4. Discrepancies between adolescents' attributed relevance and experiences regarding communication are associated with poorer client participation and learning processes in psychosocial care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Margot; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Metselaar, Janneke; Knorth, Erik J; De Winter, Andrea F

    2014-12-01

    To examine adolescents' attributed relevance and experiences regarding communication, and whether discrepancies in these are associated with clients' participation and learning processes in psychosocial care. Adolescents receiving psychosocial care (n=211) completed measures of communication in three domains: affective communication, information provision, and shared decision-making. Participation involved clients' attendance and adherence (professional-reported). Learning processes involved clients' improved understanding and improved confidence (client and professional-reported). Important but less often experienced affective communication was associated with low adherence (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval: 2.8, 1.1-6.8), less improvement in understanding (3.7, 1.5-9.0), and less improvement in confidence (4.5, 1.8-11.6). If information provision or shared decision-making was important but less often experienced, adolescents were more likely to demonstrate less improvement in understanding (3.1, 1.1-8.5; 4.2, 1.7-10.8). The combination "less important but experienced" only had an effect regarding affective communication; these adolescents were more likely to demonstrate less improvement in confidence (6.0, 2.3-15.4). Discrepancies between attributed relevance and experiences frequently occur. These discrepancies negatively affect adolescents' participation and their learning processes, although the pattern differs across communication domains. Care professionals should pay considerable attention to their clients' communication preferences and adapt their communication style when necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hypothesis Tests for Bernoulli Experiments: Ordering the Sample Space by Bayes Factors and Using Adaptive Significance Levels for Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. de B. Pereira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to find the relation between the adaptive significance level presented here and the sample size. We statisticians know of the inconsistency, or paradox, in the current classical tests of significance that are based on p-value statistics that are compared to the canonical significance levels (10%, 5%, and 1%: “Raise the sample to reject the null hypothesis” is the recommendation of some ill-advised scientists! This paper will show that it is possible to eliminate this problem of significance tests. We present here the beginning of a larger research project. The intention is to extend its use to more complex applications such as survival analysis, reliability tests, and other areas. The main tools used here are the Bayes factor and the extended Neyman–Pearson Lemma.

  6. Italian Credit Mobility Students Significantly Increase Their Alcohol Intake, Risky Drinking and Related Consequences During the Study Abroad Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aresi, Giovanni; Moore, Simon; Marta, Elena

    2016-11-01

    To examine changes in alcohol intake and consequences in Italian students studying abroad. Italian exchange students planning to study abroad were invited to report on their drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences before and after their time abroad. After excluding those who abstained throughout, data on 121 students were analysed and showed that they tended to consume more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences compared to their pre-departure levels. The added alcohol risk of study abroad for Italian students merits consideration of possible opportunities for intervention. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  7. Palliative patients’ and significant others’ experiences of transitions concerning organizational, psychosocial and existential issues during the course of incurable cancer: A systematic review protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rikke; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Review question/objective The objective of this review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available evidence exploring palliative patients’ or their significant others’ experiences of transitions during the course of incurable cancer. In this review, transitions are concept...... exploring euthanasia will be excluded because euthanasia is not included in the WHO definition of palliation. KEYWORDS Lived experience; incurable cancer; patient; significant other; transition; organizational; psychosocial; existential...

  8. Clinicopathological significance of psychotic experiences in non-psychotic young people: evidence from four population-based studies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Ian

    2012-07-01

    Epidemiological research has shown that hallucinations and delusions, the classic symptoms of psychosis, are far more prevalent in the population than actual psychotic disorder. These symptoms are especially prevalent in childhood and adolescence. Longitudinal research has demonstrated that psychotic symptoms in adolescence increase the risk of psychotic disorder in adulthood. There has been a lack of research, however, on the immediate clinicopathological significance of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

  9. Predicting subject-driven actions and sensory experience in a virtual world with relevance vector machine regression of fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Giancarlo; De Martino, Federico; Esposito, Fabrizio; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2011-05-15

    In this work we illustrate the approach of the Maastricht Brain Imaging Center to the PBAIC 2007 competition, where participants had to predict, based on fMRI measurements of brain activity, subject driven actions and sensory experience in a virtual world. After standard pre-processing (slice scan time correction, motion correction), we generated rating predictions based on linear Relevance Vector Machine (RVM) learning from all brain voxels. Spatial and temporal filtering of the time series was optimized rating by rating. For some of the ratings (e.g. Instructions, Hits, Faces, Velocity), linear RVM regression was accurate and very consistent within and between subjects. For other ratings (e.g. Arousal, Valence) results were less satisfactory. Our approach ranked overall second. To investigate the role of different brain regions in ratings prediction we generated predictive maps, i.e. maps of the weighted contribution of each voxel to the predicted rating. These maps generally included (but were not limited to) "specialized" regions which are consistent with results from conventional neuroimaging studies and known functional neuroanatomy. In conclusion, Sparse Bayesian Learning models, such as RVM, appear to be a valuable approach to the multivariate regression of fMRI time series. The implementation of the Automatic Relevance Determination criterion is particularly suitable and provides a good generalization, despite the limited number of samples which is typically available in fMRI. Predictive maps allow disclosing multi-voxel patterns of brain activity that predict perceptual and behavioral subjective experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC) over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditmyer, Marcia; Dounis, Georgia; Mobley, Connie; Schwarz, Eli

    2011-04-05

    With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC) was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009) that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT) and Significant Caries Index (SiC) were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES) data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of caries free individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was significantly higher than DMFT scores within each

  11. Inequalities of caries experience in Nevada youth expressed by DMFT index vs. Significant Caries Index (SiC over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobley Connie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increasingly polarized distribution of dental caries among children and adolescents, the usual DMFT measure has become a less meaningful population descriptor. To re-focus on identifying the high caries prevalence group the Significant Caries Index (SiC was created. The aims of this study were to analyze the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Nevada youth over a period of eight years and to compare its expression by means of DMFT and SiC; analyze the caries trends in the population and their underlying factors, and determine whether Nevada youth were at risk for significantly high levels of dental caries. Methods Retrospective data was analyzed from a series of sequential, standardized oral health surveys across eight years (2001/2002-2008/2009 that included over 62,000 examinations of adolescents 13-19 years of age, attending public/private Nevada schools. Mean Decayed-Missing-Filled Teeth index (DMFT and Significant Caries Index (SiC were subsequently computed for each academic year. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, racial background, and residence in a fluoridated/non-fluoridated community. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results Comparison of students' mean DMFT to National (NHANES data confirmed that dental caries remains a common chronic disease among Nevada youth, presenting higher prevalence rates and greater mean scores than the national averages. Downward trends were found across all demographics compared between survey years 1 and 6 with the exception of survey year 3. An upward trend began in survey year six. Over time, the younger group displayed an increasing proportion of cariesfree individuals while a decreasing proportion was found among older examinees. As expected, the mean SiC score was

  12. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Demaris, Kendra M; Goo, Roy; Mnatzaganian, Christina Louise; Wong Smith, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47) in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.

  13. [The physiologic significance of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and changes in its erythrocyte levels in an experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béder, I; Orgonásová, M; Brozman, B; Horecký, J; Mataseje, A

    1990-05-01

    The regulatory effect of 2,3-DPG on oxygen transport and binding to hemoglobin was analyzed. Under conditions of substitution hemodilution by isooncotic 3.4% Rheodextran (Spofa), changes in the content of 2,3-DPG in arterial and venous blood were enzymatically determined over several days. Reference values of 2,3-DPG were obtained in the studied series of dogs (2.05 +/- 0.74 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 in whole blood 4.69 +/- 1.52 x 10(-6) mol.g-1 of erythrocyte volume, and 13.39 +/- 2.82 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of hemoglobin). In anesthetized animals the content of 2,3-DPG in arterial blood was significantly higher (6.28 +/- 0.84 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of erythrocyte volume) than in venous blood (6.01 +/- 0.80 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of erythrocyte volume). At substitution hemodilution the 2,3-DPG content in erythrocytes of venous blood decreased from 5.46 +/- 0.67 to 4.97 +/- 1.31 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of erythrocyte volume. The subsequent increase to 6.04 +/- 0.71 x 10(-6) mol.ml-1 of erythrocyte volume was achieved by nonlinear increase over the following days, at persisting low hemoglobin content in blood.

  14. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez DT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Taira Juarez, Kendra M Demaris, Roy Goo, Christina Louise Mnatzaganian, Helen Wong SmithDaniel K Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Honolulu, HI, USAAbstract: The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47 in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, glycosylated hemoglobin, USA

  15. Routine Laboratory Blood Tests May Diagnose Significant Fibrosis in Liver Transplant Recipients with Chronic Hepatitis C: A 10 Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheen, Victoria; Nguyen, Heajung; Jimenez, Melissa; Agopian, Vatche; Vangala, Sitaram; Elashoff, David; Saab, Sammy

    2016-03-28

    The aims of our study were to determine whether routine blood tests, the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to Platelet Ratio Index (APRI) and Fibrosis 4 (Fib-4) scores, were associated with advanced fibrosis and to create a novel model in liver transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). We performed a cross sectional study of patients at The University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Medical Center who underwent liver transplantation for HCV. We used linear mixed effects models to analyze association between fibrosis severity and individual biochemical markers and mixed effects logistic regression to construct diagnostic models for advanced fibrosis (METAVIR F3-4). Cross-validation was used to estimate a receiving operator characteristic (ROC) curve for the prediction models and to estimate the area under the curve (AUC). The mean (± standard deviation [SD]) age of our cohort was 55 (±7.7) years, and almost three quarter were male. The mean (±SD) time from transplant to liver biopsy was 19.9 (±17.1) months. The mean (±SD) APRI and Fib-4 scores were 3 (±12) and 7 (±14), respectively. Increased fibrosis was associated with lower platelet count and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values and higher total bilirubin and Fib-4 scores. We developed a model that takes into account age, gender, platelet count, ALT, and total bilirubin, and this model outperformed APRI and Fib-4 with an AUC of 0.68 (p fibrosis more reliably than APRI and Fib-4 scores. This noninvasive calculation may be used clinically to identify liver transplant recipients with HCV with significant liver damage.

  16. Volunteering to Care for People with Severe Mental Illness: A Qualitative Study of the Significance of Professional and Private Life Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ørtenblad, Lisbeth; Væggemose, Ulla; Gissel, Lene; Nissen, Nina Konstantin

    2018-02-06

    Challenges in recruiting volunteers encountered by psychiatric services are barely elucidated despite a general societal increase in volunteering. The aim of the study was to explore the significance of professional and private life experiences in willingness to volunteer to care for people with severe mental illness. Focus group interviews with volunteers in the Community Family Programme was conducted, followed by thematic analysis. All interviewees had professional and/or private experience of SMI, which had a major influence on their initial willingness to volunteer. Volunteering was an opportunity to pass on their experiences and to care for SMI people in ways that were not possible in their professions. The interviewees did not distinguish between the influences of professional and/or private life experiences on their willingness to volunteer. The study demonstrates the importance of professional and/or private life experiences in initial considerations about volunteering for mental health care. The consequences for recruitment practices are discussed.

  17. Experiences of non-specialist nurses caring for patients and their significant others undergoing transitions during palliative end-of-life cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Hrønn; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    electronic databases and seven websites were searched. Methodological quality: Methodological validity of the qualitative papers was assessed independently by two reviewers using the standardized critical appraisal instruments from the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI...... knowledge and personal growth. Objective/question: What are non-specialist nurses’ experiences when providing palliative end-of-life cancer care that involves the psychosocial and existential transitions of their patients and significant others? Inclusion criteria Types of participants: The current review...... considered studies that included a description of the experiences of non-specialist trained registered nurses (RNs) working in non-specialist wards. Phenomena of interest: The current review considered studies that investigated experiences of RNs when providing palliative end-of-life cancer care...

  18. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  19. [Significances of the life experience for the long-lived elderly person in the process of death/dying and mourning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Tânia Maria de Oliva; Lopes, Regina Lúcia Mendonça

    2014-08-01

    This is a study using the Heideggerian theoretical-phenomenological approach, which sought to understand the significances of the life experience for the long-lived elderly person in the process of death/dying and mourning. It was conducted in 2009 with 16 long-lived senior citizens of both genders who were aged between 80 and 90, members of a community center for the elderly located in a suburban neighborhood of the city of Salvador in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The results showed that the long-lived elderly person experiences the mourning status process when relatives and friends become ill and die. Furthermore, they gave ambiguous reports with respect to the fear of death. With the attributed significances, it was possible to arrive at the unit of significance, namely the authenticity and lack of authenticity of the individual regarding imminent death. The conclusion reached is that long-lived elderly individuals faced with the process of death/dying and mourning is apparent or concealed in accordance with the moment they are experiencing and the opportunities that present themselves, in other words, it is greatly influenced by their past.

  20. LAD Early Career Prize Talk:Laboratory astrophysics experiments investigating the effects of high energy fluxes on Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth relevant to young supernova remnants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Park, Hye Sook; Huntington, Channing; Miles, Aaron R.; Remington, Bruce A.; Plewa, Tomek; Trantham, Matt; Shvarts, Dov; Raman, Kumar; MacLaren, Steven; Wan, Wesley; Doss, Forrest; Kline, John; Flippos, Kirk; Malamud, Guy; Handy, Timothy; Prisbey, Shon; Grosskopf, Michael; Krauland, Christine; Klein, Sallee; Harding, Eric; Wallace, Russell; Marion, Donna; Kalantar, Dan

    2017-06-01

    Energy-transport effects can alter the structure that develops as a supernova evolves into a supernova remnant. The Rayleigh Taylor (RT) instability is thought to produce structure at the interface between the stellar ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM), based on simple models and hydrodynamic simulations. When a blast wave emerges from an exploding star, it drives a forward shock into the CSM and a reverse shock forms in the expanding stellar ejecta, creating a young supernova remnant (SNR). As mass accumulates in the shocked layers, the interface between these two shocks decelerates, becoming unstable to the RT instability. Simulations predict that RT produces structures at this interface, having a range of spatial scales. When the CSM is dense enough, as in the case of SN 1993J, the hot shocked matter can produce significant radiative fluxes that affect the emission from the SNR. Here we report experimental results from the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to explore how large energy fluxes, which are present in supernovae such as SN 1993J, might affect this structure. The experiment used NIF to create a RT unstable interface subject to a high energy flux by the emergence of a blast wave into lower-density matter, in analogy to the SNR. We also preformed and with a low energy flux to compare the affect of the energy flux on the instability growth. We found that the RT growth was reduced in the experiments with a high energy flux. In analyzing the comparison with SN 1993J, we discovered that the energy fluxes produced by heat conduction appear to be larger than the radiative energy fluxes, and large enough to have dramatic consequences. No reported astrophysical simulations have included radiation and heat conduction self-consistently in modeling SNRs.

  1. In what root-zone N concentration does nitrate start to leach significantly? A reasonable answer from modeling Mediterranean field data and closed root-zone experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, D.; Kanner, B.; Levy, Y.; Shapira, R. H.; Bar-Tal, A.

    2017-12-01

    Closed-root-zone experiments (e.g. pots, lyzimeters) reveal in many cases a mineral-nitrogen (N) concentration from which the root-N-uptake efficiency reduces significantly and nitrate leaching below the root-zone increases dramatically. A les-direct way to reveal this threshold concentration in agricultural fields is to calibrate N-transport models of the unsaturated zone to nitrate data of the deep samples (under the root-zone) by fitting the threshold concentration of the nitrate-uptake function. Independent research efforts of these two types in light soils where nitrate problems in underlying aquifers are common reviled: 1) that the threshold exists for most crops (filed, vegetables and orchards); 2) nice agreement on the threshold value between the two very different research methodologies; and 3) the threshold lies within 20-50 mg-N/L. Focusing on being below the threshold is a relatively simple aim in the way to maintain intensive agriculture with limited effects on the nitrate concentration in the underlying water resource. Our experience show that in some crops this threshold coincides with the end-of-rise of the N-yield curve (e.g. corn); in this case, it is relatively easy to convince farmers to fertilize below threshold. In other crops, although significant N is lost to leaching the crop can still use higher N concentration to increase yield (e.g. potato).

  2. Relevância da ultra-sonografia dos tendões flexores em cavalos Puro Sangue de corrida na adaptação ao treinamento Significance of flexor tendon ultrasonography in training thoroughbred horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Roxana Greig

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e quatro potros Puro Sangue de Corrida (PSC, com dois anos de idade foram avaliados ultra-sonograficamente, durante o período final da doma e início de treinamento, através da imagem transversal dos tendões flexor digital superficial (TFDS e profundo (TFDP. As avaliações foram realizadas com intervalos de 15 dias. A área transversal (AT, a textura dos ecos e a ecogenicidade dos tendões foram avaliadas nas sete zonas da região metacarpiana através de um programa de mensuração de imagens do próprio aparelho de ultra-sonografia. Durante a doma e treinamento, houve diminuição da AT na zona IA e IIIA (PThe cross-sectional area (CSA of the superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT and deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT of twenty four thoroughbreds was ultrasonographically evaluated before and during their initial training to determine the effect of exercise on the tendon CSA, texture and echogenicity to characterize the response to training. Ultrasonographic transverse images of the left forelimb were obtained every fifteen days. The SDFT CSA of zones IA and IIIA showed a decrease (P<0.05, f=0.010 e f=0.023 res. during the breaking and training period and an increase (P< 0.05 of zone IIIC (f=0.039. Evaluating just the training period, SDFT CSA results of zones IA, IIIA and IIIC were similar. The DDFT showed no variation during the breaking phase but when the training phase was evaluated there was a decrease (P<0.05 in zones IA (f=0.006 and IIIA (f=0.006. Evaluating both breaking and training periods the DDFT showed a decrease (P<0.05 in zones IA (f=0.027, IIIA (f=0.0001 and IIIB (f=0.0031. Fiber texture and tendon echogenicity showed no significant difference between breaking and last reading during training. This study provides evidence of variation of adaptation among the ultrasonographic zones of both SDFT and DDFT to exercise during training of thoroughbred horses. Ultra-sonography is not the most indicated method to evaluate the

  3. From isolation and dependence to autonomy - expectations before and experiences after cochlear implantation in adult cochlear implant users and their significant others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäki-Torkko, Elina Margareetta; Vestergren, Sara; Harder, Henrik; Lyxell, Björn

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine pre-operative expectations and the post-operative experiences related to cochlear implants (CI) in CI-users and their significant others. A questionnaire was used and the responses were analysed by means of The Qualitative Content Analysis. All adults implanted between 1992 and 2010, who had had their implants for a minimum of 12 months (n = 120) were contacted. Response rate was high (90.8%), and all-inclusive answers were received from 101 CI-users (84.2%). The overall sense of increased well-being and life satisfaction was described as having lived in two different worlds, one with the auditory stimulation and one without. In the overall sense of increased well-being and satisfaction three interwoven subcategories, alienation - normality, fear - autonomy, and living a social life emerged. When CI-users and their significant others recalled the time prior to receiving the CI, a sense of fear was present with origins in the concern for the respondents' (CI-users) ability to cope and care independently in society. Conversely, after the implantation both parties emphasized the notion of a distinct transformation within the CI-user towards autonomy. Communication was highlighted as a large part of living social life. The CI increases well-being and satisfaction for both CI-users and their significant others, which is especially evident regarding enhanced autonomy, normality and living social life. Before implantation it is important to discuss the fact that phone calls and listening to music are improvement expectations that might not be met by the CI. The perceived life changes affect the lives of both the CI-users and the significant others, a finding important to take into consideration before implantation and during rehabilitation after the implantation. Before implantation it is important to inform both CI-recipients and significant others about the length of time required to be able to hear selectively after the

  4. The Significance of an Excess in a Counting Experiment: Assessing the Impact of Systematic Uncertainties and the Case with a Gaussian Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianello, Giacomo

    2018-05-01

    Several experiments in high-energy physics and astrophysics can be treated as on/off measurements, where an observation potentially containing a new source or effect (“on” measurement) is contrasted with a background-only observation free of the effect (“off” measurement). In counting experiments, the significance of the new source or effect can be estimated with a widely used formula from Li & Ma, which assumes that both measurements are Poisson random variables. In this paper we study three other cases: (i) the ideal case where the background measurement has no uncertainty, which can be used to study the maximum sensitivity that an instrument can achieve, (ii) the case where the background estimate b in the off measurement has an additional systematic uncertainty, and (iii) the case where b is a Gaussian random variable instead of a Poisson random variable. The latter case applies when b comes from a model fitted on archival or ancillary data, or from the interpolation of a function fitted on data surrounding the candidate new source/effect. Practitioners typically use a formula that is only valid when b is large and when its uncertainty is very small, while we derive a general formula that can be applied in all regimes. We also develop simple methods that can be used to assess how much an estimate of significance is sensitive to systematic uncertainties on the efficiency or on the background. Examples of applications include the detection of short gamma-ray bursts and of new X-ray or γ-ray sources. All the techniques presented in this paper are made available in a Python code that is ready to use.

  5. MR imaging of patients with localisation-related seizures: initial experience at 3.0T and relevance to the NICE guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, P.D.; Coley, S.C.; Connolly, D.J.A.; Hodgson, T.; Romanowski, C.A.J.; Widjaja, E.; Darwent, G.; Wilkinson, I.D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe our initial experience of imaging adults with localisation-related epilepsy using MR imaging at 3.0T. We discuss the findings in the context of the recently released NICE guidelines that provide detailed advice on imaging people with epilepsy in the UK. 120 consecutive people over the age of 16 years with localisation-related epilepsy were referred for clinical MR examinations from a regional neuroscience centre in England. None of the people had had MR examinations prior to the present study. High resolution MR imaging was performed taking advantage of the high field strength and high performance gradients of the system. Two experienced neuroradiologists reported on the examinations independently and the presence and type of pathology was recorded. There was complete agreement between the two reporters in all 120 cases. The overall frequency of abnormalities shown by MR was 31/120 (26%) and the commonest abnormality shown was mesial temporal sclerosis found in 10/120 (8%). Tumours were shown in 4/120, all of which appeared low grade as judged by imaging criteria. Epilepsy is the commonest neurological condition and demands a significant resource in order to provide good care for sufferers. Recent guidelines published in the UK have suggested that the majority of people with epilepsy should receive brain MR as part of their routine assessment. Our work shows that using the most sophisticated MR imaging in a highly selected population there is a modest pick-up rate of brain abnormalities. If a widespread epilepsy-imaging programme is started the detection rate is likely to be much lower. Although MR is acknowledged to be a reliable way of detecting pathology in people with epilepsy there is a dearth of information studying the health economics of imaging epilepsy in relation to patient management and outcomes

  6. Proceedings of the CSNI WGOE/SEGHOF workshop on modifications at nuclear power plants - Operating experience, safety significance and the role of human factors and organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Operating experience repeatedly shows that changes and modifications at nuclear power plants (NPPs) may lead to safety significant events. At the same time, modifications are necessary to ensure a safe and economic functioning of the NPPs. To ensure the continuing safety of NPPs it is important that processes for change and modification are given proper attention both by the NPPs and the regulators. The operability, maintainability and testability of every modification should be thoroughly assessed from different points of view to ensure that no safety problems are introduced. The OECD/NEA Committee on Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) addressed the issue of modifications at a 'Workshop on Modifications at Nuclear Power Plants - Operating Experience, Safety Significance and Role of Human Factors' held at the OECD headquarters in Paris on October 6 to 8, 2003. This workshop was undertaken as a joint effort of the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE) and the Special Experts Group on Human and Organisational Factors (SEGHOF). During the workshop, WGOE focused on the theme of 'Minor Modifications and their Safety Significance', while SEGHOF focused on the topic 'Human and Organisational Factors in NPP Modifications'. The workshop was attended by 55 experts from the industry, regulators and technical support organizations in 15 countries. The workshop programme consisted of plenary and parallel sessions for presentations and discussions. One important part of the workshop was to discuss findings of the WGOE and SEGHOF surveys of utility and regulatory experience from modifications at the NPPs. Modifications at the NPPs are controlled by written procedures. The process varies depending on the type of the modification. Large modifications generally lead to fewer problems, because the projects are given both a great deal of attention and resources. In contrast, minor modifications seem to represent a generic challenge because they are less likely to be

  7. A Discussion of the Effect of Musical Context on Perception of Succession of Musical Events, and its Relevance for Philosophical Models of Temporal Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Phillips

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article reviewed in this commentary takes philosophical models of temporal experience as its starting point, in an exploration of how an "experience of succession" may be distinguished from a mere "succession of experience". It is proposed that context is the important factor in differentiating the two experiences, rather than duration. Context is accounted for in broad terms, with specific discussion of gesture, performance environment, and mental imagery. The discussion may usefully pave the way for future collaboration between philosophers and psychologists. However, there are multiple fundamental findings in music cognition research, vital to any consideration of the context in which musical experiences occur (e.g. meter, tonality, expectation, familiarity, that could be factored into this discussion. The ideas discussed could be developed with greater consideration of recent empirical studies in music perception. Perhaps then a theoretical model of the experience of succession of musical events could give rise to experimental hypotheses, which may then be tested in order to further refine such models.

  8. Clinical experience of 2-hour I-131 thyroid uptake significance in considering the radioiodine Graves' disease treatment dose: A retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shammeri, I.; Al-Deen Mahmood, S.; Al-Mohannadi, S.; Ballani, N.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: It has been noticed that Graves' disease patients with high turnover are likely to experience under dosage when calculating the radioiodine therapeutic dose. We aim to demonstrate our clinical experience of 2-h I-131 uptake% value in estimating the radioiodine dose for Graves' disease patients with rapid washout. Material and methods: We reviewed the medical records for 2080 Graves' disease patients who received radioiodine treatment(s). Patients were distinguished by 2-h I-131 thyroid uptake%: 249 patients (group I) exhibited a rapid washout (>25%), and 250 patients (group II control group) demonstrated normal uptake (6–15%); the age and sex were balanced for both groups. These cases were reviewed for the time taken to control the condition clinically (ideally 3 months is the time needed), the time taken to achieve hypothyroidism (average time is 6 months), and the number of repeated treatments for recurrent thyrotoxicosis or failure of treatment. Results: In 152/249 (61%) patients, the condition was not controlled in the 3 month period post treatment and subsequently they needed more frequent and closer follow up, as opposed to 47/250 patients (19%) in the control group-II. At 6 months, 119/249 (48%) patients in group-I had not achieved hypothyroidism, as opposed to 28/250 patients (11%) in group-II. Seventy-seven patients in group-I (31%) needed a second or third therapeutic dose, as opposed to 10/250 patients (4%) in group-II. Conclusion: We believe that a higher radioiodine dose with significant rapid washout in the thyroid gland of Graves' disease patients would give a greater treatment success rate. - Highlights: • We present our clinical experience of 2-h I-131 uptake% value in Graves' disease. • We reviewed records of hyperthyroid patients who received radioiodine treatment. • Two patients' groups were distinguished by normal and high 2-h I-131 uptake%. • The two groups showed different radioiodine treatment

  9. The impact of positive, negative and topical relevance feedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, Rianne; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2008-01-01

    This document contains a description of experiments for the 2008 Relevance Feedback track. We experiment with different amounts of feedback, including negative relevance feedback. Feedback is implemented using massive weighted query expansion. Parsimonious query expansion using only relevant

  10. Why relevance theory is relevant for lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothma, Theo; Tarp, Sven

    2014-01-01

    This article starts by providing a brief summary of relevance theory in information science in relation to the function theory of lexicography, explaining the different types of relevance, viz. objective system relevance and the subjective types of relevance, i.e. topical, cognitive, situational...... that is very important for lexicography as well as for information science, viz. functional relevance. Since all lexicographic work is ultimately aimed at satisfying users’ information needs, the article then discusses why the lexicographer should take note of all these types of relevance when planning a new...... dictionary project, identifying new tasks and responsibilities of the modern lexicographer. The article furthermore discusses how relevance theory impacts on teaching dictionary culture and reference skills. By integrating insights from lexicography and information science, the article contributes to new...

  11. The Experience of a Highly Skilled Student during Handball Lessons in Physical Education: A Relevant Pointer to the Gap between School and Sports Contexts of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crance, Marie-Cecile; Trohel, Jean; Saury, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the experience of a highly skilled student during a handball physical education unit in a French high school. More specifically, the analysis describes the nature of his involvement during two lessons that follow a pedagogical model close to the principles of Sport Education. The present case study of a…

  12. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in patients with HPV positive DNA testing and correlation with disease progression by age group: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Reynolds, Jordan P; Jenkins, Sarah M; Winter, Stephanie M; Henry, Michael R; Nassar, Aziza

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a broad diagnostic category that could be attributed to human papillomavirus infection (HPV), malignant neoplasia and reactive conditions. We evaluated our institutional experience with ASC-US in women who are positive for high risk HPV (HRHPV+) by the Digene hybrid capture method from 2005-2009 to identify the risk of progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in association with age. We reviewed cytologic and follow-up surgical pathology reports for all specimens available. Progression was defined as a diagnosis of at least CINI on follow-up biopsy or resection or SIL on cytology. We identified 2613 cases and follow-up was available in 1839 (70.4%). Of these 74.2% had just one follow-up, 16.2% had a total of 2 follow-ups, 5.3% had a total of 3 follow-ups, and the remaining had as many as 6 follow-ups. Among the 1839 patients, 69.4% were age 30 or younger, 16.0% were between 31 to 40, 9.0% were between 41 to 50, and 5.6% were 51 or older. Among these, 25-30% progressed to dysplasia. The risk of progression varied by age (p=0.04) and was lowest among women between the ages of 41-50. Our findings highlight the importance of continued cytologic follow-up in women with HRHPV+ ASC-US in order to detect progression of disease, although the risk of progression is age dependent.

  13. CT Imaging Findings and Their Relevance to the Clinical Outcomes After Stent Graft Repair of Penetrating Aortic Ulcers: Six-year, Single-center Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology (Korea, Republic of); Angle, John F.; Park, Auh Whan; Anderson, Curtis; Sabri, Saher S.; Turba, Ulku C. [University of Virginia Health System, Division of Angiography, Interventional Radiology and Special Procedures, Department of Radiology (United States); Kern, John A.; Cherry, Kenneth J. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Surgery (United States); Matsumoto, Alan H., E-mail: ahm4d@virginia.edu [University of Virginia Health System, Division of Angiography, Interventional Radiology and Special Procedures, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To present the computed tomographic (CT) imaging findings and their relevance to clinical outcomes related to stent graft placement in patients with penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs). Methods: Medical and imaging records and imaging studies were reviewed for consecutive patients who underwent stent graft repair of a PAU. The distribution and characteristics of the PAU, technical success of stent graft repair, procedure-related complications, associated aortic wall abnormalities, and outcomes of the PAUs at follow-up CT scans were evaluated. Results: Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment for PAU. A total of 87% of the PAUs were in the proximal (n = 8) or distal (n = 5) descending thoracic aorta. There was a broad spectrum of PAU depth (mean, 7.9 {+-} 5.6 mm; range 1.5-25.0 mm) and diameter (mean, 13.5 {+-} 9.7 mm; range 2.2-41.0 mm). Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta and intramural hematoma were associated in 53 and 93% of the patients, respectively. Technical success was achieved in 100%. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients. Endoleaks were observed in two patients within 2 weeks of the procedure, both of which resolved spontaneously. At follow-up CT scanning, regression and thrombosis of the PAUs were observed in all patients. The average patient survival was 61.8 months, with an overall mortality of 13% (2 of 15) at follow-up. Neither death was related to the endograft device or the PAU. Conclusion: Endovascular stent graft placement was safe and effective in causing regression and thrombosis of PAUs in this small series of patients. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients (33%) with associated long-segmental atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta or intramural hematoma.

  14. CT Imaging Findings and Their Relevance to the Clinical Outcomes After Stent Graft Repair of Penetrating Aortic Ulcers: Six-year, Single-center Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Angle, John F.; Park, Auh Whan; Anderson, Curtis; Sabri, Saher S.; Turba, Ulku C.; Kern, John A.; Cherry, Kenneth J.; Matsumoto, Alan H.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present the computed tomographic (CT) imaging findings and their relevance to clinical outcomes related to stent graft placement in patients with penetrating aortic ulcers (PAUs). Methods: Medical and imaging records and imaging studies were reviewed for consecutive patients who underwent stent graft repair of a PAU. The distribution and characteristics of the PAU, technical success of stent graft repair, procedure-related complications, associated aortic wall abnormalities, and outcomes of the PAUs at follow-up CT scans were evaluated. Results: Fifteen patients underwent endovascular treatment for PAU. A total of 87% of the PAUs were in the proximal (n = 8) or distal (n = 5) descending thoracic aorta. There was a broad spectrum of PAU depth (mean, 7.9 ± 5.6 mm; range 1.5–25.0 mm) and diameter (mean, 13.5 ± 9.7 mm; range 2.2–41.0 mm). Atherosclerosis of the thoracic aorta and intramural hematoma were associated in 53 and 93% of the patients, respectively. Technical success was achieved in 100%. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients. Endoleaks were observed in two patients within 2 weeks of the procedure, both of which resolved spontaneously. At follow-up CT scanning, regression and thrombosis of the PAUs were observed in all patients. The average patient survival was 61.8 months, with an overall mortality of 13% (2 of 15) at follow-up. Neither death was related to the endograft device or the PAU. Conclusion: Endovascular stent graft placement was safe and effective in causing regression and thrombosis of PAUs in this small series of patients. Two or more stent grafts were used in five patients (33%) with associated long-segmental atherosclerotic changes of the thoracic aorta or intramural hematoma.

  15. Sampling in the Snow: High School Winter Field Experiences Provide Relevant, Real World Connections Between Scientific Practices and Disciplinary Core Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E. W.; Burakowski, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    For much of the northern United States, the months surrounding the winter solstice are times of increased darkness, low temperatures, and frozen landscapes. It's a time when many high school science educators, who otherwise would venture outside with their classes, hunker down and are wary of the outdoors. However, a plethora of learning opportunities lies just beyond the classroom. Working collaboratively, a high school science teacher and a snow scientist have developed multiple activities to engage students in the scientific process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting the winter world using snow data to (1) learn about the insulative properties of snow, and (2) to learn about the role of snow cover on winter climate through its reflective properties while participating in a volunteer network that collects snow depth, albedo (reflectivity), and density data. These outdoor field-based snow investigations incorporate Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) and disciplinary core ideas, including ESS2.C: The roles of water in Earth's surface processes and ESS2.D: Weather and Climate. Additionally, the lesson plans presented address Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics, including the creation and analysis of bar graphs and time series plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.A.1) and xy scatter plots (CCSS.Math.HSS-ID.B.6). High school students participating in the 2013/2014 snow sampling season described their outdoor learning experience as "authentic" and "hands-on" as compared to traditional class indoors. They emphasized that learning outdoors was essential to their understanding of underlying content and concepts because they "learn through actual experience."

  16. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  17. Transparency in the reporting of in vivo pre-clinical pain research: The relevance and implications of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Andrew S C; Morland, Rosemary; Huang, Wenlong; Currie, Gillian L; Sena, Emily S; Macleod, Malcolm R

    2017-12-29

    Clear reporting of research is crucial to the scientific process. Poorly designed and reported studies are damaging not only to the efforts of individual researchers, but also to science as a whole. Standardised reporting methods, such as those already established for reporting randomised clinical trials, have led to improved study design and facilitated the processes of clinical systematic review and meta-analysis. Such standards were lacking in the pre-clinical field until the development of the ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments) guidelines. These were prompted following a survey which highlighted a widespread lack of robust and consistent reporting of pre-clinical in vivo research, with reports frequently omitting basic information required for study replication and quality assessment. The resulting twenty item checklist in ARRIVE covers all aspects of experimental design with particular emphasis on bias reduction and methodological transparency. Influential publishers and research funders have already adopted ARRIVE. Further dissemination and acknowledgement of the importance of these guidelines is vital to their widespread implementation. Conclusions and implications Wide implementation of the ARRIVE guidelines for reporting of in vivo preclinical research, especially pain research, are essential for a much needed increased transparency and quality in publishing such research. ARRIVE will also positively influence improvements in experimental design and quality, assist the conduct of accurate replication studies of important new findings and facilitate meta-analyses of preclinical research.

  18. Design of a Data Catalogue for Perdigão-2017 Field Experiment: Establishing the Relevant Parameters, Post-Processing Techniques and Users Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, J. L.; Belo-Pereira, M.; Leo, L. S.; Fernando, J.; Wildmann, N.; Gerz, T.; Rodrigues, C. V.; Lopes, A. S.; Lopes, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Perdigão is the largest of a series of wind-mapping studies embedded in the on-going NEWA (New European Wind Atlas) Project. The intensive observational period of the Perdigão field experiment resulted in an unprecedented volume of data, covering several wind conditions through 46 consecutive days between May and June 2017. For researchers looking into specific events, it is time consuming to scrutinise the datasets looking for appropriate conditions. Such task becomes harder if the parameters of interest were not measured directly, instead requiring their computation from the raw datasets. This work will present the e-Science platform developed by University of Porto for the Perdigao dataset. The platform will assist scientists of Perdigao and the larger scientific community in extrapolating the datasets associated to specific flow regimes of interest as well as automatically performing post-processing/filtering operations internally in the platform. We will illustrate the flow regime categories identified in Perdigao based on several parameters such as weather type classification, cloud characteristics, as well as stability regime indicators (Brunt-Väisälä frequency, Scorer parameter, potential temperature inversion heights, dimensionless Richardson and Froude numbers) and wind regime indicators. Examples of some of the post-processing techniques available in the e-Science platform, such as the Savitzky-Golay low-pass filtering technique, will be also presented.

  19. PERMCAT experiments with tritium at high helium flow rates relevant for the tritium extraction systems using the CAPER facility at TLK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bükki-Deme, András, E-mail: andras.buekki-deme@kit.edu; Demange, David; Le, Thanh-Long; Fanghänel, Eleonore; Simon, Karl-Heinz

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • We examined PERMCAT reactor efficiency processing tritiated water at high Helium carrier flow rates. • We have found that – as expected from previous studies – that the swamping ratio (ratio between the impurity and purge side flow rates) has a key effect on the decontamination factors. • On the other hand, some rather unexpected effects tend to show that the limiting phenomena of such specific operation of PERMCAT reactors (at high impurity flow rates, thus short residence time) lies on the kinetics of the isotope exchange reactions. - Abstract: Experiments are still necessary to consolidate the processes retained for the Tritium Extraction Systems of the European ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM). A PERMCAT reactor combines a catalyst promoting isotope exchange reactions and a Pd/Ag membrane allowing tritium recovery from complex gaseous mixtures containing tritium in different chemical forms. Originally developed for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing, the PERMCAT process is also candidate to detritiate the water arising from an adsorption column installed in the TBM ancillary systems. We discuss the results of an extensive experimental campaign using a PERMCAT reactor to process Q{sub 2}O containing impurity gas mixtures at high flow rates. Two different experimental configurations were studied, namely PERMCAT stand-alone, and PERMCAT in combination with a zeolite molecular sieve bed (MSB, previously loaded with Q{sub 2}O) under regeneration. On the one hand, many expected behaviors were observed, such as the key influence of the swamping ratio (ratio between the impurity and purge side flow rates) on the decontamination factors. On the other hand, some rather unexpected effects tend to show that the limiting phenomena of such specific operation of PERMCAT reactors (at high flow rates, thus short residence time) lies on the kinetics of the isotope exchange reactions.

  20. The significance of the human factor in the safety of nuclear reactors: the French experience and the lessons of Three Mile Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houze, C.; Oury, J.M.

    1982-05-01

    The importance of the human factor to French nuclear safety policy and the application of human fallibility as a parameter of safety analysis are described. The impact of reactor operating experience on future theoretical and practical application considerations is discussed. Particular reference is given to the lessons of Three Mile Island

  1. Molecular environment of stable iodine and radioiodine (129I) in natural organic matter: Evidence inferred from NMR and binding experiments at environmentally relevant concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chen; Zhong, Junyan; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Zhang, Saijin; Li, Hsiu-Ping; Ho, Yi-Fang; Schwehr, Kathleen A.; Kaplan, Daniel I.; Roberts, Kimberly A.; Brinkmeyer, Robin; Yeager, Chris M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2012-11-01

    129I is a major by-product of nuclear fission and had become one of the major radiation risk drivers at Department of Energy (DOE) sites. 129I is present at elevated levels in the surface soils of the Savannah River Site (SRS) F-Area and was found to be bound predominantly to soil organic matter (SOM). Naturally bound 127I and 129I to sequentially extracted humic acids (HAs), fulvic acids (FAs) and a water extractable colloid (WEC) were measured in a 129I-contaminated wetland surface soil located on the SRS. WEC is a predominantly colloidal organic fraction obtained from soil re-suspension experiments to mimic the fraction that may be released during groundwater exfiltration, storm water or surface runoff events. For the first time, NMR techniques were applied to infer the molecular environment of naturally occurring stable iodine and radioiodine binding to SOM. Iodine uptake partitioning coefficients (Kd) by these SOM samples at ambient iodine concentrations were also measured and related to quantitative structural analyses by 13C DPMAS NMR and solution state 1H NMR on the eight humic acid fractions. By assessing the molecular environment of iodine, it was found that it was closely associated with the aromatic regions containing esterified products of phenolic and formic acids or other aliphatic carboxylic acids, amide functionalities, quinone-like structures activated by electron-donating groups (e.g., NH2), or a hemicellulose-lignin-like complex with phenyl-glycosidic linkages. However, FAs and WEC contained much greater concentrations of 127I or 129I than HAs. The contrasting radioiodine contents among the three different types of SOM (HAs, FAs and WEC) suggest that the iodine binding environment cannot be explained solely by the difference in the amount of their reactive binding sites. Instead, indirect evidence indicates that the macro-molecular conformation, such as the hydrophobic aliphatic periphery hindering the active aromatic cores and the hydrophilic

  2. [Relevant public health enteropathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Maribel; Ochoa, Theresa J

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhea remains the third leading cause of death in children under five years, despite recent advances in the management and prevention of this disease. It is caused by multiple pathogens, however, the prevalence of each varies by age group, geographical area and the scenario where cases (community vs hospital) are recorded. The most relevant pathogens in public health are those associated with the highest burden of disease, severity, complications and mortality. In our country, norovirus, Campylobacter and diarrheagenic E. coli are the most prevalent pathogens at the community level in children. In this paper we review the local epidemiology and potential areas of development in five selected pathogens: rotavirus, norovirus, Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), Shigella and Salmonella. Of these, rotavirus is the most important in the pediatric population and the main agent responsible for child mortality from diarrhea. The introduction of rotavirus vaccination in Peru will have a significant impact on disease burden and mortality from diarrhea. However, surveillance studies are needed to determine the impact of vaccination and changes in the epidemiology of diarrhea in Peru following the introduction of new vaccines, as well as antibiotic resistance surveillance of clinical relevant bacteria.

  3. How do patients actually experience and use art in hospitals? The significance of interaction: a user-oriented experimental case study

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Stine L.; Fich, Lars B.; Roessler, Kirsten K.; Mullins, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article aims to understand patient wellbeing and satisfaction and to qualify the current guidelines for the application of art in hospitals. Employing anthropological methods, we focus on the interactional aspects of art in health interventions. A user-oriented study ranked 20 paintings, followed by an experiment using paintings in the dayroom of five medical wards. Fieldwork was done over a two-week period. During the first week, dayrooms were configured without the presence of...

  4. [Significance of cross-cultural experience for young psychiatrists--learning from "The Joint Workshop for Psychiatric Residents of Korea and Japan"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    kato, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    Korea and Japan are geographically very close, and a variety of cultural exchanges have taken place in recorded history. However, Korea and Japan have been enriched by the influence of Western cultures along with modernization, and mutual exchanges between the two countries have thus decreased in numerous fields including mental health and psychiatry. Prof. Masahisa Nishizono and Prof. Byun-Kun Min, who are leaders in the field of psychiatry in both Japan and Korea, have established "The Joint Workshop for Psychiatric Residents of Korea and Japan", which has been held alternately in Fukuoka or Seoul every summer since 2000. This Joint Workshop provides young psychiatrists with real experiences and many opportunities to learn about transcultural psychiatry regarding both countries. The participants are able to obtain a better mutual understanding of psychiatric epidemiology, recent developments in biological psychiatry while also learning about different concepts regarding the stigma of mental disorders. All participants could also increase their knowledge about the traditional culture and social changes related to the field of psychiatry in both countries. The workshop has helped to build friendship and mutual cooperation between both nations. Contemporary societies are continually becoming more and more diversified and complicated. For young psychiatrists who have to treat patients with modern difficulties and various complicated problems, such cross-cultural experiences may be useful for establishing potentially new and effective treatments for such patients. Psychiatrists and mental health experts have tried to reduce of stigma and discrimination against people with mental disorders, but even today such stigma and discrimination continues to strongly exist. The author thinks that such cross-cultural experiences by the psychiatrists themselves may help to reduce such notions. The author would like to explore the role of cross-cultural experiences in the field of

  5. Rare extragonadal teratomas in children: complete tumor excision as a reliable and essential procedure for significant survival. Clinical experience and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradies, Guglielmo; Zullino, Francesca; Orofino, Antonio; Leggio, Samuele

    2014-01-01

    Extragonadal teratomas are rare tumors in neonates and infants and can sometimes show unusual, distinctive feature such as an unusual location, a clinical sometimes acute, presentation and a "fetiform" histotype of the lesion. We have extrapolated, from our entire experience of teratomas, 4 unusual cases, mostly operated as emergencies; 2 of them were treated just after birth. Aim of this paper is to report the clinical and pathological findings, to evaluate the surgical approach and the long-term biological behaviour in these cases, in the light of survival and current insights reported in the literature. The Authors reviewed the most significant (Tables I and II) clinical, laboratory, radiologic, and pathologic findings, surgical procedures, early and long-term results in 4 children, 1 male and 3 females (M/F ratio: 1/3), suffering from extragonadal teratomas, located in the temporo-zygomatic region of the head (Case n. 1, Fig. 1), retroperitoneal space (Case n. 2, Fig. 2) ,liver (Case n. 3, Figg. 3-5), kidney (Case n. 4, Fig. 6, 7), respectively. Of the 4 patients, 2 were treated neonatally (1 T. of the head, 1 retroperitoneal T.) A prenatal diagnosis had already been made in 2 of the 4 patients, between the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy, All the infants were born by scheduled caesarean section in a tertiary care hospital and were the immediately referred to thew N.I.C.Us. Because of a mostly acute clinical presentation, the 4 patients were then referred to the surgical unit at different ages: 7 days, 28 days, 7 months, and 4 years respectively. The initial clinical presentation (Table II) was consistent with the site of the mass and/or its side effects. The 2 newborns (Case 1 and 2) both with a prenatally diagnosed mass located at the temporozygomatic region and in the abdominal cavite respectively, already displayed, at birth a mass with a tendency to further growth. The symptoms and signs described to the primary care physician by the parents of the 2

  6. Reply to the ''Comment on 'The significance of the distribution of hot spots on the interpretation of laser-produced plasma experiments' ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arad, B.; Eliezer, S.

    1979-01-01

    We disagree with the conclusion reached by Goel, Gupta, and Bhatnagar that the effect of hot spots is not significant in analyzing scaling laws using transformed variables. We believe they have overlooked the main points of our analysis

  7. [The significance of the experience in organizing medical support for the troops during the war years for the development of the modern military medical infrastructure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogodin, Iu I; Gurov, A N

    1995-05-01

    In the present period when combat activities are being carried out at the territory of Russia, namely in Chechnya, it is very important to solve the problem of the improvement of the infrastructure of medical service as a basis of territorial system of medical support of troops. That's why we are looking at the experience of medical support of troops in the period of the Great Patriotic war in order to determine the basic characteristic features of military medical infrastructure (MMI) of that time. Using the experience of medical support in the period of the Great Patriotic war it is necessary to draw the main attention on studying the medico-geographical aspects of the Armed Forces deployment over the whole territory of the country, state of health service system (taking into account its reformation), influence of natural, socio-economic and ecological factors of different regions upon the health of servicemen, organization of medical support of troops, proliferation of infectious and parasitic diseases, local resources and availability of medication materials, medical supplies, equipment and technique, as well as other indices which must be taken into consideration in routine situations or during disaster relief. All this information is very valuable for the process of the formation of an adequate MMF in the zone of responsibility of medical support of troops.

  8. Self-relevant beauty evaluation: Evidence from an event-related potentials study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanchang; Zhang, Yan; Tian, Yuan; Fan, Cuiying; Zhou, Zongkui

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the electrophysiological correlates of beauty evaluation when participants performed the self-reference task. About 13 (7 men, 6 women) undergraduates participated in the experiment using event-related potentials. Results showed that the response to self-relevant information was faster compared to other-relevant information and no significant differences for self-relevant relative to mother-relevant information were observed. Both physical and interior beauty words for self-relevant information showed an enhanced late positive component as compared to other-relevant information. Physical beauty for self-relevant information yielded a larger late positive component in contrast to mother-relevant information but not for interior beauty. This study indicates that beauty is specific to the person who judges it though an individual and one's mother may hold similar views of interior beauty.

  9. Significant Learning Experiences and Ignatian Pedagogy: A Case Study of Curricula, Academic Practices, and Graduate Outcomes in Jesuit Universities' Honors Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pampel, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This qualitative, multisite case study used Dee Fink's taxonomy of significant learning as a lens through which to examine the curricular structure, academic practices, and graduate outcomes for honors programs at Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States. Special attention was given to the distinctive quality of Ignatian pedagogy and…

  10. Vygotsky's Crisis: Argument, context, relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Ludmila

    2012-06-01

    Vygotsky's The Historical Significance of the Crisis in Psychology (1926-1927) is an important text in the history and philosophy of psychology that has only become available to scholars in 1982 in Russian, and in 1997 in English. The goal of this paper is to introduce Vygotsky's conception of psychology to a wider audience. I argue that Vygotsky's argument about the "crisis" in psychology and its resolution can be fully understood only in the context of his social and political thinking. Vygotsky shared the enthusiasm, widespread among Russian leftist intelligentsia in the 1920s, that Soviet society had launched an unprecedented social experiment: The socialist revolution opened the way for establishing social conditions that would let the individual flourish. For Vygotsky, this meant that "a new man" of the future would become "the first and only species in biology that would create itself." He envisioned psychology as a science that would serve this humanist teleology. I propose that The Crisis is relevant today insofar as it helps us define a fundamental problem: How can we systematically account for the development of knowledge in psychology? I evaluate how Vygotsky addresses this problem as a historian of the crisis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Women with provoked vestibulodynia experience clinically significant reductions in pain regardless of treatment: results from a 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Seth N P; Bergeron, Sophie; Binik, Yitzchak M; Lambert, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a prevalent genital pain syndrome that has been assumed to be chronic, with little spontaneous remission. Despite this assumption, there is a dearth of empirical evidence regarding the progression of PVD in a natural setting. Although many treatments are available, there is no single treatment that has demonstrated efficacy above others. The aims of this secondary analysis of a prospective study were to (i) assess changes over a 2-year period in pain, depressive symptoms, and sexual outcomes in women with PVD; and (ii) examine changes based on treatment(s) type. Participants completed questionnaire packages at Time 1 and a follow-up package 2 years later. Visual analog scale of genital pain, Global Measure of Sexual Satisfaction, Female Sexual Function Index, Beck Depression Inventory, Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sexual intercourse attempts over the past month. Two hundred thirty-nine women with PVD completed both time one and two questionnaires. For the sample as a whole, there was significant improvement over 2 years on pain ratings, sexual satisfaction, sexual function, and depressive symptoms. The most commonly received treatments were physical therapy, sex/psychotherapy, and medical treatment, although 41.0% did not undergo any treatment. Women receiving no treatment also improved significantly on pain ratings. No single treatment type predicted better outcome for any variable except depressive symptoms, in which women who underwent surgery were more likely to improve. These results suggest that PVD may significantly reduce in severity over time. Participants demonstrated clinically significant pain improvement, even when they did not receive treatment. Furthermore, the only single treatment type predicting better outcomes was surgery, and only for depressive symptoms, accounting for only 2.3% of the variance. These data do not demonstrate the superiority of any one treatment and underscore the need to have control groups in

  12. Participation in water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery: Experiences of significant factors for continuing exercising as a part of cancer rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enblom, A; Lindquist, H; Bergmark, K

    2018-01-01

    Although physical exercising has great benefits, little is known regarding factors of significance for cancer survivors to continue exercising within their rehabilitation. The objective was to describe factors experienced to be of significance for cancer survivors to continue with water-exercising long-term after breast cancer surgery. Women (n = 29) who had undergone breast cancer surgery (mastectomy 79%, axillary surgery 86%, and radiotherapy 86%) for median (md) 13 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) was followed up regarding their rehabilitation, arm function Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (md 14, IQR 7-32), EQ-5D score (md 0.8, IQR 0.73-1.0) and quality of life EQ health barometer (md 80, IQR 64-95). We performed qualitative focus-group interviews regarding the women's views (n = 24). The women had participated in water-exercising 1-46 semesters, md 8 (25th-75th percentile 3-21.5) semesters. Nearly all, 97%, participated in the water-exercising group every week, and 21 (72%) had participated in the water-exercising group at least half of the time since their breast cancer surgery, without complications. The women experienced that factors of significance to continue with water-exercising were the convenience of easily modified weightless exercising in the water, social interaction, and access to a private dressing room. These factors would be important to consider to encourage continuing in exercising. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Spirulina Supplements Improved the Nutritional Status of Undernourished Children Quickly and Significantly: Experience from Kisantu, the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Féfé Khuabi Matondo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Despite high levels of malnutrition, there is still very little information on the nutritional benefits of Spirulina, a natural alga that provides essential amino acids, rare essential lipids, and numerous minerals and vitamins, to undernourished children in the world. Methods. We carried out a prospective study of 50 children aged between six and 60 months. The intervention group consisted of 16 children who received 10 g of Spirulina daily, as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre, and the control group of 34 children who just received the local diet. Both groups of children were assessed on day zero, day 15, and day 30. Results. After treatment, the weight-for-age Z scores and weight-for-height Z scores increased significantly in the intervention group. At day 15, there was a statistically significant difference between the mean corpuscular volume, total proteins, and albumin (p<0.05 in both groups, in favour of the intervention group, and at day 30, this difference extended to all of the studied parameters (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study found that the nutritional status of undernourished children who received Spirulina supplements as well as the local diet administered by the nutritional centre improved quickly and significantly.

  14. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrifying Biofilm Relevant ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, biological monochloramine removal (i.e., cometabolism) by a pure culture ammonia–oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas europaea, and a nitrifying mixed–culture have been shown to increase monochloramine demand. Although important, these previous suspended culture batch kinetic experiments were not representative of drinking water distribution systems where bacteria grow predominantly as biofilm attached to pipe walls or sediments and physiological differences may exist between suspension and biofilm growth. Therefore, the current research was an important next step in extending the previous results to investigate monochloramine cometabolism by biofilm grown in annular reactors under drinking water relevant conditions. Estimated monochloramine cometabolism kinetics were similar to those of ammonia metabolism, and monochloramine cometabolism was a significant loss mechanism (25–40% of the observed monochloramine loss). These results demonstrated that monochloramine cometabolism occurred in drinking water relevant nitrifying biofilm; thus, cometabolism may be a significant contribution to monochloramine loss during nitrification episodes in distribution systems. Investigate whether or not nitrifying biofilm can biologically transform monochloramine under drinking water relevant conditions.

  15. How do patients actually experience and use art in hospitals? The significance of interaction: a user-oriented experimental case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Stine L; Fich, Lars B; Roessler, Kirsten K; Mullins, Michael F

    2017-12-01

    This article aims to understand patient wellbeing and satisfaction and to qualify the current guidelines for the application of art in hospitals. Employing anthropological methods, we focus on the interactional aspects of art in health interventions. A user-oriented study ranked 20 paintings, followed by an experiment using paintings in the dayroom of five medical wards. Fieldwork was done over a two-week period. During the first week, dayrooms were configured without the presence of art and in the second week were configured with the artworks. Semi-structured interviews, observation, participant observation and informal conversation were carried out and were informed by thermal cameras, which monitored the usage, patient occupation and flow in two of the dayrooms. The study shows that art contributes to creating an environment and atmosphere where patients can feel safe, socialize, maintain a connection to the world outside the hospital and support their identity. We conclude that the presence of visual art in hospitals contributes to health outcomes by improving patient satisfaction as an extended form of health care. The article draws attention to further research perspectives and methods associated with the development of art in hospitals.

  16. Significance of FDG-PET in Identification of Diseases of the Appendix – Based on Experience of Two Cases Falsely Positive for FDG Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimpei Ogawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of the significance of F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET in the identification of diseases of the appendix is presented based on two cases falsely positive for FDG accumulation. Both cases were palpable for a tumor in the lower right abdominal region and a prominently enlarged appendix was depicted by CT. Although the patients underwent ileocecal resection based on a strong suspicion of appendiceal cancer rather than appendicitis since abnormal accumulation exhibiting maximum standard uptake values (SUVs of 7.27 and 17.11, respectively, was observed at the same site in FDG-PET examination and since there no malignant findings observed histologically, the patients were diagnosed with appendicitis. Although FDG specifically accumulates not only in malignant tumors, but also in diseases such as acute or chronic inflammation, abscesses and lymphadenitis, and identification based on SUVs has been reported to be used as a method of identification, the two cases reported here were both false-positive cases exhibiting high maximum SUVs. At the present time, although the significance of FDG-PET in the identification of diseases of the appendix is somewhat low and there are limitations on its application, various research is currently being conducted with the aim of improving diagnostic accuracy, and it is hoped that additional studies will be conducted in the future.

  17. The Significance of Tailored, Web-Based Information on Experiences Regarding Perceived Self-Management in Ovarian Cancer Patients in the Diagnostic Phase-An Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne Kirstine; Holt, Kamila Adellund; Mogensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    provided data for statistical analysis. Patients’ difference in change in Sense of Coherence over time was statistically significant in favor of those who had used the website (mean difference 4.42, pwebsite prevented a decrease in self-management of Danish...... of a healthcare-professional developed website, available to both patients and relatives, on patients’ experienced self-management before surgery for ovarian cancer. In an experimental study, Danish women with ovarian cancer were consecutively included if they would participate and had a relative, willing...... to offer attention to the cancer situation. The control group had standard care, the intervention group plus their relatives had additional access to a website with cancer-specific physical, psychical, and practical information. The validated questionnaires Cancer Behavior Inventory and Sense of Coherence...

  18. Making Deferred Taxes Relevant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Arjan; Naarding, Ewout

    2018-01-01

    We analyse the conceptual problems in current accounting for deferred taxes and provide solutions derived from the literature in order to make International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) deferred tax numbers value-relevant. In our view, the empirical results concerning the value relevance of

  19. Parsimonious relevance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.; Myang, S.-H.; Oard, D.W.; Sebastiani, F.; Chua, T.-S.; Leong, M.-K.

    2008-01-01

    We describe a method for applying parsimonious language models to re-estimate the term probabilities assigned by relevance models. We apply our method to six topic sets from test collections in five different genres. Our parsimonious relevance models (i) improve retrieval effectiveness in terms of

  20. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  1. Other relevant papers in physical oceanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyffeler, F.

    1989-01-01

    During the past few years, significant progress has occurred in the field of physical oceanography partly as a consequence of developing cooperation and international participation in well-coordinated ocean research programmes. Although these programs were not designed specifically to address CRESP problems, many have proved to be directly relevant to CRESP objectives. For example, MODE, POLYMODE, and Tourbillon were intensive site-specific experiments that included studies of dispersion processes throughout the water column. NOAMP and GME were also site specific, involved the entire water column, and even stressed near-bottom and suspended-sediment processes. Others, (e.g., WOCE) are larger in scope and include extensive observations of the general circulation of entire ocean basins. As a whole, they contribute immensely to improving the data base for exchange and transport processes and thereby for the verification and validation of both regional-scale and general-circulation ocean models. That, in turn, is directly relevant to radiological assessments. Selected papers deriving from experiments such as these are discussed and referenced below

  2. Culturally Relevant Cyberbullying Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Gregory John

    2017-01-01

    In this action research study, I, along with a student intervention committee of 14 members, developed a cyberbullying intervention for a large urban high school on the west coast. This high school contained a predominantly African American student population. I aimed to discover culturally relevant cyberbullying prevention strategies for African American students. The intervention committee selected video safety messages featuring African American actors as the most culturally relevant cyber...

  3. Environmentally Significant Life Experiences: The Look of a Wolf in the Lives of Ernest T. Seton, Aldo Leopold and Félix Rodríguez de la Fuente

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, J.; Echarri, F.

    2018-01-01

    A primary aim of environmental education is to promote environmental values. Significant life experiences (SLE) are a powerful, fast and long-lasting way to achieve this objective, but they have received little scholarly attention thus far. As examples to help us characterize SLE and understand their function, the cases of three well-known…

  4. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  5. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  6. Is Information Still Relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The term "information" in information science does not share the characteristics of those of a nomenclature: it does not bear a generally accepted definition and it does not serve as the bases and assumptions for research studies. As the data deluge has arrived, is the concept of information still relevant for information…

  7. Identification of relevant conditions and experiments for fuel-coolant interactions in nuclear power plants - SERENA Co-ordinated Programme (Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications) Phase 1, Task 1 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magallon, D.; Scott de Martinville, E.; Chaumont, B.; Filippi, M.; Meignen, R.; Berthoud, G.; Ratel, G.; Melikhov, O.I.; Melikhov, V.I.; Jacobs, H.; Buerger, Manfred; Buck, Michael; Moriyama, K.; Nakamura, H.; Hirano, M.; Muramatsu, K.; Ishikawa, J.; Song, Jinho; Bang, Kwanghyun; Suh, Namduk; Sairanen, Risto; Lindholm, Ilona

    2004-01-01

    SERENA (Steam Explosion Resolution for Nuclear Applications) is an international OECD programme for the resolution of FCI remaining issues. The programme has origin the concerns expressed by the Senior Group Experts on Nuclear Safety Research and Programme (SESAR/FAP) about de-emphasis of FCI research all over the world, while uncertainties still exist on some aspects of FCI. After an evaluation of remaining needs by FCI experts in a meeting October 2000, a proposal was matured during 2001 following CSNI recommendations that existing knowledge should be carefully assessed before carrying out new experiments, and reactor application should be the focus of any new action. The work programme was approved by CSNI December 2001. The programme started January 2002. The overall objective of SERENA is to obtain convergence on the understanding of FCI processes and energetics, as well as on method(s) for reliable estimate of the magnitude of loadings for realistic reactor conditions, in order to bring understanding and predictability of FCI energetics to desirable levels for risk management. The work is performed in two phases: - Phase 1 analyses and evaluates knowledge and data on FCI by using available tools with the aim to identify areas where large uncertainties/ discrepancies still subsist and are important for predicting loads in reactors with a sufficient level of confidence, and work to be done, if any, to reduce these uncertainties/discrepancies. - Phase 2 will implement analytical and experimental actions to resolve these uncertainties/ discrepancies, if required. The objective of Phase 1 is reached through comparative calculations by available tools of existing experiments and reactor cases. It is divided into five tasks: 1. Identification of relevant conditions for FCI in reactor, 2. Comparison of various approaches for calculating jet break-up and pre-mixing, 3. Comparison of various approaches for calculating the explosion phase, 4. Reactor applications, 5

  8. Assessing the relevance of ecotoxicological studies for regulatory decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudén, Christina; Adams, Julie; Ågerstrand, Marlene; Brock, Theo Cm; Poulsen, Veronique; Schlekat, Christian E; Wheeler, James R; Henry, Tala R

    2017-07-01

    Regulatory policies in many parts of the world recognize either the utility of or the mandate that all available studies be considered in environmental or ecological hazard and risk assessment (ERA) of chemicals, including studies from the peer-reviewed literature. Consequently, a vast array of different studies and data types need to be considered. The first steps in the evaluation process involve determining whether the study is relevant to the ERA and sufficiently reliable. Relevance evaluation is typically performed using existing guidance but involves application of "expert judgment" by risk assessors. In the present paper, we review published guidance for relevance evaluation and, on the basis of the practical experience within the group of authors, we identify additional aspects and further develop already proposed aspects that should be considered when conducting a relevance assessment for ecotoxicological studies. From a regulatory point of view, the overarching key aspect of relevance concerns the ability to directly or indirectly use the study in ERA with the purpose of addressing specific protection goals and ultimately regulatory decision making. Because ERA schemes are based on the appropriate linking of exposure and effect estimates, important features of ecotoxicological studies relate to exposure relevance and biological relevance. Exposure relevance addresses the representativeness of the test substance, environmental exposure media, and exposure regime. Biological relevance deals with the environmental significance of the test organism and the endpoints selected, the ecological realism of the test conditions simulated in the study, as well as a mechanistic link of treatment-related effects for endpoints to the protection goal identified in the ERA. In addition, uncertainties associated with relevance should be considered in the assessment. A systematic and transparent assessment of relevance is needed for regulatory decision making. The relevance

  9. Duration of Untreated Cardiac Arrest and Clinical Relevance of Animal Experiments: The Relationship Between the "No-Flow" Duration and the Severity of Post-Cardiac Arrest Syndrome in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babini, Giovanni; Grassi, Luigi; Russo, Ilaria; Novelli, Deborah; Boccardo, Antonio; Luciani, Anita; Fumagalli, Francesca; Staszewsky, Lidia; Fiordaliso, Fabio; De Maglie, Marcella; Salio, Monica; Zani, Davide D; Letizia, Teresa; Masson, Serge; Luini, Mario V; Pravettoni, Davide; Scanziani, Eugenio; Latini, Roberto; Ristagno, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    The study investigated the effect of untreated cardiac arrest (CA), that is, "no-flow" time, on postresuscitation myocardial and neurological injury, and survival in a pig model to identify an optimal duration that adequately reflects the most frequent clinical scenario. An established model of myocardial infarction followed by CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was used. Twenty-two pigs were subjected to three no-flow durations: short (8-10 min), intermediate (12-13 min), and long (14-15 min). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed together with thermodilution cardiac output (CO) and high sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT). Neurological impairment was evaluated by neurological scores, serum neuron specific enolase (NSE), and histopathology. More than 60% of animals survived when the duration of CA was ≤13 min, compared to only 20% for a duration ≥14 min. Neuronal degeneration and neurological scores showed a trend toward a worse recovery for longer no-flow durations. No animals achieved a good neurological recovery for a no-flow ≥14 min, in comparison to a 56% for a duration ≤13 min (P = 0.043). Serum NSE levels significantly correlated with the no-flow duration (r = 0.892). Longer durations of CA were characterized by lower LVEF and CO compared to shorter durations (P flow time, the higher was the number of defibrillations delivered (P = 0.043). The defibrillations delivered significantly correlated with LVEF and plasma hs-cTnT. Longer no-flow durations caused greater postresuscitation myocardial and neurological dysfunction and reduced survival. An untreated CA of 12-13 min may be an optimal choice for a clinically relevant model.

  10. Clinical Relevance of Adipokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Blüher

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of obesity has increased dramatically during recent decades. Obesity increases the risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases and may therefore contribute to premature death. With increasing fat mass, secretion of adipose tissue derived bioactive molecules (adipokines changes towards a pro-inflammatory, diabetogenic and atherogenic pattern. Adipokines are involved in the regulation of appetite and satiety, energy expenditure, activity, endothelial function, hemostasis, blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues, adipogenesis, fat distribution and insulin secretion in pancreatic β-cells. Therefore, adipokines are clinically relevant as biomarkers for fat distribution, adipose tissue function, liver fat content, insulin sensitivity, chronic inflammation and have the potential for future pharmacological treatment strategies for obesity and its related diseases. This review focuses on the clinical relevance of selected adipokines as markers or predictors of obesity related diseases and as potential therapeutic tools or targets in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Grieco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominoplasty is one of the most popular body-contouring procedures. It is associated with a significant number of complications: the most common ones are seroma, hematoma, infection, wound-healing problems, and skin flap necrosis. From January 2012 to December 2014, 25 patients (18 women and 7 men (mean age: 51 years underwent abdominoplastic surgery at the Plastic Surgery Section, Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Parma, Italy. All patients reported a weight loss between 15 kg and 47 kg. All of the of 25 patients were included in the study; minor and major complications were seen in 17 (68% and 8 (32% patients, respectively. The percentage of complications in our patients was as follows: 9 patients with seroma (36%; 4 patients with wound dehiscence with delayed wound healing (16%; 3 cases with hematoma (12%; 2 patients with postoperative bleeding (8%; 1 patient (4% with an umbilical necrosis; 1 patient (4% with a deep vein thrombosis; 3 patients with infected seroma (12%; and 2 patients with wound infection (8%. There were no cases of postoperative mortality. The aim of this study is to analyze our complications in postbariatric abdominoplasty.

  12. Significant accomplishments, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    BTS data is vital to improve transportation decision making, as well as evaluations of performance and what works in the nations transportation systems. As BTS continues its course of producing relevant, accurate, and timely transportation d...

  13. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  14. Evolutionary relevance facilitates visual information processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Russell E; Calvillo, Dusti P

    2013-11-03

    Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  15. Evolutionary Relevance Facilitates Visual Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell E. Jackson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual search of the environment is a fundamental human behavior that perceptual load affects powerfully. Previously investigated means for overcoming the inhibitions of high perceptual load, however, generalize poorly to real-world human behavior. We hypothesized that humans would process evolutionarily relevant stimuli more efficiently than evolutionarily novel stimuli, and evolutionary relevance would mitigate the repercussions of high perceptual load during visual search. Animacy is a significant component to evolutionary relevance of visual stimuli because perceiving animate entities is time-sensitive in ways that pose significant evolutionary consequences. Participants completing a visual search task located evolutionarily relevant and animate objects fastest and with the least impact of high perceptual load. Evolutionarily novel and inanimate objects were located slowest and with the highest impact of perceptual load. Evolutionary relevance may importantly affect everyday visual information processing.

  16. Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mirapeix, Rosa-M; Mompeo-Corredera, Blanca; Sañudo-Tejero, Jose-Ramón

    2010-12-20

    the aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). a total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. the response rate was 42.9% (n=536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Relevance-based control over visual attention is fast and interdependent with stimulus-driven capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordfang, Maria; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    or distractor) was a color singleton, but the probability that the singleton was a target was just the same as the probability that a nonsingleton was a target. Participants showed significant effects of both feature contrast and task relevance. The probability of correctly reporting a singleton target...... that high local feature contrast attracts attention independently of task-relevance. Yet, recent studies have provided evidence that effects of task-irrelevant feature contrast interact with the task-relevance of the object in question (Nordfang, 2011). In a new experiment, display size was kept constant...... was significantly higher than the probability of reporting a nonsingleton target. The probability of correctly reporting a given target also was significantly higher for the displays with 2 targets and 6 distractors than for the 8-target displays, revealing selectivity based on task-relevance. This effect...

  18. Other relevant biological papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, M.

    1989-01-01

    A considerable number of CRESP-relevant papers concerning deep-sea biology and radioecology have been published. It is the purpose of this study to call attention to them. They fall into three general categories. The first is papers of general interest. They are mentioned only briefly, and include text references to the global bibliography at the end of the volume. The second are papers that are not only mentioned and referenced, but for various reasons are described in abstract form. The last is a list of papers compiled by H.S.J. Roe specifically for this volume. They are listed in bibliographic form, and are also included in the global bibliography at the end of the volume

  19. HIV in Harare: The role and relevance of social stigma | O'Brien ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To provide theoretical context to this issue, we utilised the ideas of Erving Goffman for exploring the individual experience of stigma and the concept of structural violence to understand stigma as a social phenomenon. This paper considers the relevance and role of stigma in the context of a country undergoing significant ...

  20. User perspectives on relevance criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maglaughlin, Kelly L.; Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2002-01-01

    , partially relevant, or not relevant to their information need; and explained their decisions in an interview. Analysis revealed 29 criteria, discussed positively and negatively, that were used by the participants when selecting passages that contributed or detracted from a document's relevance......This study investigates the use of criteria to assess relevant, partially relevant, and not-relevant documents. Study participants identified passages within 20 document representations that they used to make relevance judgments; judged each document representation as a whole to be relevant...... matter, thought catalyst), full text (e.g., audience, novelty, type, possible content, utility), journal/publisher (e.g., novelty, main focus, perceived quality), and personal (e.g., competition, time requirements). Results further indicate that multiple criteria are used when making relevant, partially...

  1. Task relevance modulates successful retrieval effects during explicit and implicit memory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeremy A; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2011-05-01

    The successful retrieval effect refers to greater activation for items identified as old compared to those identified as new. This effect is particularly apparent in the ventral posterior parietal cortex (vPPC), though its functional properties remain unclear. In two experiments, we assessed the activation for old and new items during explicit and implicit tests of memory. In Experiment 1, significant effects were observed during explicit recognition performance and during an implicit lexical decision task. In both tasks, determining mnemonic status provides relevant information to task goals. Experiment 2 included a second implicit task in which determining mnemonic status was not relevant (color discrimination task). In this case, vPPC activation did not distinguish between old and new items. These findings suggest that automatic or implicit processes can drive retrieval-related activation in the vPPC, though such processes are gated by stimulus relevancy and task goals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neutrophil programming dynamics and its disease relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Taojing; Geng, Shuo; Li, Liwu

    2017-11-01

    Neutrophils are traditionally considered as first responders to infection and provide antimicrobial host defense. However, recent advances indicate that neutrophils are also critically involved in the modulation of host immune environments by dynamically adopting distinct functional states. Functionally diverse neutrophil subsets are increasingly recognized as critical components mediating host pathophysiology. Despite its emerging significance, molecular mechanisms as well as functional relevance of dynamically programmed neutrophils remain to be better defined. The increasing complexity of neutrophil functions may require integrative studies that address programming dynamics of neutrophils and their pathophysiological relevance. This review aims to provide an update on the emerging topics of neutrophil programming dynamics as well as their functional relevance in diseases.

  3. Mortality salience increases personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Simon; Reinhard, Marc-André; Stahlberg, Dagmar

    2012-10-01

    Research on terror management theory found evidence that people under mortality salience strive to live up to salient cultural norms and values, like egalitarianism, pacifism, or helpfulness. A basic, strongly internalized norm in most human societies is the norm of reciprocity: people should support those who supported them (i.e., positive reciprocity), and people should injure those who injured them (i.e., negative reciprocity), respectively. In an experiment (N = 98; 47 women, 51 men), mortality salience overall significantly increased personal relevance of the norm of reciprocity (M = 4.45, SD = 0.65) compared to a control condition (M = 4.19, SD = 0.59). Specifically, under mortality salience there was higher motivation to punish those who treated them unfavourably (negative norm of reciprocity). Unexpectedly, relevance of the norm of positive reciprocity remained unaffected by mortality salience. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  4. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  5. Relevance of tidal heating on large TNOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Prabal; Renaud, Joe P.; Henning, Wade G.; Jutzi, Martin; Hurford, Terry

    2018-03-01

    We examine the relevance of tidal heating for large Trans-Neptunian Objects, with a focus on its potential to melt and maintain layers of subsurface liquid water. Depending on their past orbital evolution, tidal heating may be an important part of the heat budget for a number of discovered and hypothetical TNO systems and may enable formation of, and increased access to, subsurface liquid water. Tidal heating induced by the process of despinning is found to be particularly able to compete with heating due to radionuclide decay in a number of different scenarios. In cases where radiogenic heating alone may establish subsurface conditions for liquid water, we focus on the extent by which tidal activity lifts the depth of such conditions closer to the surface. While it is common for strong tidal heating and long lived tides to be mutually exclusive, we find this is not always the case, and highlight when these two traits occur together. We find cases where TNO systems experience tidal heating that is a significant proportion of, or greater than radiogenic heating for periods ranging from100‧s of millions to a billion years. For subsurface oceans that contain a small antifreeze component, tidal heating due to very high initial spin states may enable liquid water to be preserved right up to the present day. Of particular interest is the Eris-Dysnomia system, which in those cases may exhibit extant cryovolcanism.

  6. A relevância das metáforas como conceitualização das experiências: uma reflexão sobre o ensino/aprendizagem de inglês no ensino regular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela da Cunha Barbosa Saldanha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Concebendo a metáfora como um meio de conceitualização do mundo a partir de nossas experiências cotidianas, o presente estudo tem como objetivo central identificar as metáforas de estudantes do ensino médio acerca de sua aprendizagem de inglês no ensino fundamental. A pesquisa, realizada em agosto de 2015, apresenta uma natureza mista, utilizando dados qualitativos e quantitativos. A análise do corpus se apoiou nos pressupostos da Teoria da Metáfora Conceitual, em trabalhos já realizados por autores renomados nesse campo, bem como no marco de referência de experiências. Os resultados revelam que, apesar de haver um número maior de metáforas sobre experiências de insucesso relativas à aprendizagem e ao professor, também foram identificadas metáforas acerca de experiências bem-sucedidas, o que demonstra um rompimento com a lógica do “inglês de colégio” e corrobora a tese de que é possível, sim, aprender inglês na escola regular.Palavras-chave: Metáforas. Experiências. Ensino/aprendizagem de inglês. Escola regular.

  7. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  8. Inferring relevance in a changing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement learning models of human and animal learning usually concentrate on how we learn the relationship between different stimuli or actions and rewards. However, in real world situations stimuli are ill-defined. On the one hand, our immediate environment is extremely multi-dimensional. On the other hand, in every decision-making scenario only a few aspects of the environment are relevant for obtaining reward, while most are irrelevant. Thus a key question is how do we learn these relevant dimensions, that is, how do we learn what to learn about? We investigated this process of representation learning experimentally, using a task in which one stimulus dimension was relevant for determining reward at each point in time. As in real life situations, in our task the relevant dimension can change without warning, adding ever-present uncertainty engendered by a constantly changing environment. We show that human performance on this task is better described by a suboptimal strategy based on selective attention and serial hypothesis testing rather than a normative strategy based on probabilistic inference. From this, we conjecture that the problem of inferring relevance in general scenarios is too computationally demanding for the brain to solve optimally. As a result the brain utilizes approximations, employing these even in simplified scenarios in which optimal representation learning is tractable, such as the one in our experiment.

  9. HIV in Harare: the role and relevance of social stigma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Broom, Alex

    2014-01-01

    HIV is a significant social, political and economic problem in Zimbabwe. However, few researchers have explored peoples' experiences of living with HIV in that country. Drawing on 60 qualitative interviews conducted with Zimbabweans living in Harare in 2010, this paper focuses on how people from four different urban communities cope with HIV-related social stigma. To provide theoretical context to this issue, we utilised the ideas of Erving Goffman for exploring the individual experience of stigma and the concept of structural violence to understand stigma as a social phenomenon. This paper considers the relevance and role of stigma in the context of a country undergoing significant social, political and economic crisis. We investigated the strategies adopted by the Zimbabwean state and the influence of traditional and religious interpretations to appreciate the historical roots of HIV-related stigma. We took into account the ways in which the articulation of HIV with gender has caused women to experience stigma differently than men, and more intensely, and how grassroots activism and biomedical technologies have transformed the experience of stigma.

  10. Profiles of Dialogue for Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses argument diagrams, argumentation schemes, and some tools from formal argumentation systems developed in artificial intelligence to build a graph-theoretic model of relevance shown to be applicable (with some extensions as a practical method for helping a third party judge issues of relevance or irrelevance of an argument in real examples. Examples used to illustrate how the method works are drawn from disputes about relevance in natural language discourse, including a criminal trial and a parliamentary debate.

  11. Passage relevance models for genomics search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frieder Ophir

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a passage relevance model for integrating syntactic and semantic evidence of biomedical concepts and topics using a probabilistic graphical model. Component models of topics, concepts, terms, and document are represented as potential functions within a Markov Random Field. The probability of a passage being relevant to a biologist's information need is represented as the joint distribution across all potential functions. Relevance model feedback of top ranked passages is used to improve distributional estimates of query concepts and topics in context, and a dimensional indexing strategy is used for efficient aggregation of concept and term statistics. By integrating multiple sources of evidence including dependencies between topics, concepts, and terms, we seek to improve genomics literature passage retrieval precision. Using this model, we are able to demonstrate statistically significant improvements in retrieval precision using a large genomics literature corpus.

  12. Relevance theory: pragmatics and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wearing, Catherine J

    2015-01-01

    Relevance Theory is a cognitively oriented theory of pragmatics, i.e., a theory of language use. It builds on the seminal work of H.P. Grice(1) to develop a pragmatic theory which is at once philosophically sensitive and empirically plausible (in both psychological and evolutionary terms). This entry reviews the central commitments and chief contributions of Relevance Theory, including its Gricean commitment to the centrality of intention-reading and inference in communication; the cognitively grounded notion of relevance which provides the mechanism for explaining pragmatic interpretation as an intention-driven, inferential process; and several key applications of the theory (lexical pragmatics, metaphor and irony, procedural meaning). Relevance Theory is an important contribution to our understanding of the pragmatics of communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  14. Clinical relevance in anesthesia journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Møller, Ann M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles.......The purpose of this review is to present the latest knowledge and research on the definition and distribution of clinically relevant articles in anesthesia journals. It will also discuss the importance of the chosen methodology and outcome of articles....

  15. Evaporative evolution of a Na–Cl–NO3–K–Ca–SO4–Mg–Si brine at 95°C: Experiments and modeling relevant to Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A synthetic Topopah Spring Tuff water representative of one type of pore water at Yucca Mountain, NV was evaporated at 95°C in a series of experiments to determine the geochemical controls for brines that may form on, and possibly impact upon the long-term integrity of waste containers and drip shields at the designated high-level, nuclear-waste repository. Solution chemistry, condensed vapor chemistry, and precipitate mineralogy were used to identify important chemical divides and to validate geochemical calculations of evaporating water chemistry using a high temperature Pitzer thermodynamic database. The water evolved toward a complex "sulfate type" brine that contained about 45 mol % Na, 40 mol % Cl, 9 mol % NO3, 5 mol % K, and less than 1 mol % each of SO4, Ca, Mg, ∑CO2(aq, F, and Si. All measured ions in the condensed vapor phase were below detection limits. The mineral precipitates identified were halite, anhydrite, bassanite, niter, and nitratine. Trends in the solution composition and identification of CaSO4 solids suggest that fluorite, carbonate, sulfate, and magnesium-silicate precipitation control the aqueous solution composition of sulfate type waters by removing fluoride, calcium, and magnesium during the early stages of evaporation. In most cases, the high temperature Pitzer database, used by EQ3/6 geochemical code, sufficiently predicts water composition and mineral precipitation during evaporation. Predicted solution compositions are generally within a factor of 2 of the experimental values. The model predicts that sepiolite, bassanite, amorphous silica, calcite, halite, and brucite are the solubility controlling mineral phases.

  16. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  17. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  18. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  19. Significance of antioxidant potential of plants and its relevance to therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasote, Deepak M; Katyare, Surendra S; Hegde, Mahabaleshwar V; Bae, Hanhong

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been identified as the root cause of the development and progression of several diseases. Supplementation of exogenous antioxidants or boosting endogenous antioxidant defenses of the body is a promising way of combating the undesirable effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced oxidative damage. Plants have an innate ability to biosynthesize a wide range of non-enzymatic antioxidants capable of attenuating ROS- induced oxidative damage. Several in vitro methods have been used to screen plants for their antioxidant potential, and in most of these assays they revealed potent antioxidant activity. However, prior to confirming their in vivo therapeutic efficacy, plant antioxidants have to pass through several physiopharmacological processes. Consequently, the findings of in vitro and in vivo antioxidant potential assessment studies are not always the same. Nevertheless, the results of in vitro assays have been irrelevantly extrapolated to the therapeutic application of plant antioxidants without undertaking sufficient in vivo studies. Therefore, we have briefly reviewed the physiology and redox biology of both plants and humans to improve our understanding of plant antioxidants as therapeutic entities. The applications and limitations of antioxidant activity measurement assays were also highlighted to identify the precise path to be followed for future research in the area of plant antioxidants.

  20. Significance of the thickness of the anal sphincters with age and its relevance in faecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachrysostomou, M; Pye, S D; Wild, S R; Smith, A N

    1994-08-01

    Ultrasonographic studies in healthy volunteers showed that the external anal sphincter (EAS) and internal anal sphincter (IAS) thicknesses were inversely related at rest. The functional importance of the two sphincters in continence control was demonstrated in the relationship between the sum of the thicknesses of the two sphincters and the anal canal resting pressure. The aims of the present study were to assess the morphometric appearance of the anal sphincters by endosonography in faecally incontinent patients and to contrast this with that of older healthy subjects. Twenty-eight female patients with neurogenic faecal incontinence (FI) were studied. An older group of 7 healthy women, aged 41-75 years, and a young group of 11 nulliparous healthy women, aged 20-23 years, served as control groups. Anal endosonography was performed with a radial rotating endoprobe, with the subject in the left lateral position. Conventional anal manometry was performed in all subjects. The EAS in the FI group was thicker than the EAS in the old (p IAS thickness in the FI group did not differ from that in the older group. In both these groups the IAS was thicker than in the young women (p IAS in the FI group does not seem to compensate for function and results in a failure of the sphincter mechanism to maintain continence, whereas in healthy elderly subjects the increased IAS thickness appears to be compensatory and important for continence control.

  1. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  2. Relevance in the science classroom: A multidimensional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, Matthew F.

    While perceived relevance is considered a fundamental component of adaptive learning, the experience of relevance and its conceptual definition have not been well described. The mixed-methods research presented in this dissertation aimed to clarify the conceptual meaning of relevance by focusing on its phenomenological experience from the students' perspective. Following a critical literature review, I propose an identity-based model of perceived relevance that includes three components: a contextual target, an identity target, and a connection type, or lens. An empirical investigation of this model that consisted of two general phases was implemented in four 9th grade-biology classrooms. Participants in Phase 1 (N = 118) completed a series of four open-ended writing activities focused on eliciting perceived personal connections to academic content. Exploratory qualitative content analysis of a 25% random sample of the student responses was used to identify the main meaning-units of the proposed model as well as different dimensions of student relevance perceptions. These meaning-units and dimensions provided the basis for the construction of a conceptual mapping sentence capturing students' perceived relevance, which was then applied in a confirmatory analysis to all other student responses. Participants in Phase 2 (N = 139) completed a closed survey designed based on the mapping sentence to assess their perceived relevance of a biology unit. The survey also included scales assessing other domain-level motivational processes. Exploratory factor analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling indicated a coherent conceptual structure, which included a primary interpretive relevance dimension. Comparison of the conceptual structure across various groups (randomly-split sample, gender, academic level, domain-general motivational profiles) provided support for its ubiquity and insight into variation in the experience of perceived relevance among students of different

  3. The policy relevance of global environmental change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarnal, Brent

    1996-01-01

    Many scientists are striving to identify and promote the policy implications of their global change research. Much basic research on global environmental change cannot advance policy directly, but new projects can determine the relevance of their research to decision makers and build policy-relevant products into the work. Similarly, many ongoing projects can alter or add to the present science design to make the research policy relevant. Thus, this paper shows scientists working on global change how to make their research policy relevant. It demonstrates how research on physical global change relates to human dimensions studies and integrated assessments. It also presents an example of how policy relevance can be fit retroactively into a global change project (in this case, SRBEX-the Susquehanna River Basin Experiment) and how that addition can enhance the project's status and science. The paper concludes that policy relevance is desirable from social and scientific perspectives

  4. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  5. Shippingport: A relevant decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crimi, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    Because of Shippingport's low electrical power rating (72 MWe), there has been some misunderstanding on the relevancy of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP) to a modern 1175 MWe commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR) power station. This paper provides a comparison of the major components of the reactor plant of the 72 MWe Shippingport Atomic Power Station and an 1175 MWe nuclear plant and the relevancy of the Shippingport decommissioning as a demonstration project for the nuclear industry. For the purpose of this comparison, Portland General Electric Company's 1175 MWe Trojan Nuclear Plant at Rainier, Oregon, has been used as the reference nuclear power plant. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Happiness: origins, forms, and technical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Salman

    2010-09-01

    By critically reviewing Freud's views on happiness, and also those of Helene Deutsch, Bertram Lewin, Melanie Klein, and Heinz Kohut, the author evolves a complex and multilayered perspective on the phenomenon. He categorizes happiness into four related and occasionally overlapping varieties: pleasure-based happiness (elation), assertion-based happiness (joy), merger-based happiness (ecstasy), and fulfillment-based happiness (contentment). After entering some caveats and drawing from his clinical experience, the author then demonstrates the relevance of these ideas to the conduct of psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.

  7. EXPERIENCIAS SIGNIFICATIVAS DE INTEGRACIÓN SOCIAL DE UNIVERSITARIOS MEDIANTE LA PRODUCCIÓN TEXTUAL DE RAP I SIGNIFICANT EXPERIENCES OF SOCIAL INTEGRATION OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS BY TEXTUAL PRODUCTION OF RAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana María Pérez Cedeño

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Universities are beginning to promote policies aimed at eliminating discrimination, promoting spaces for community, social and educational participation. Therefore, the incorporation of college students to their academic discourse community is encouraged, since they are young people with a particular history and complex social life, which are included in different ways into the educational system. The overall purpose is to assess the intercultural resource "rap" in the academic practice of textual compositions by new students in the Extensión Región Centro- Sur of the Universidad de Oriente. In this qualitative research, the content analysis is used to account for the experiences of eight key informants interviewed, students of Industrial Engineering or Systems Engineering. It is intended to understand the reasons for the behavior of these students, analyzing both the thematic as the overall quality of writing, the reality in which they arise, and how they express their living experiences. The findings indicate that, despite the difficulties in the writing of texts: a students, in addition to reporting, are identified with this musical style, because its main purpose lies in provoking reactions, b the strategy allows to cater a heterogeneous population academically and culturally, c university students may recognize, as any artistic expression, musical text resulting from this interpretation, which has a social impact in a given group of persons. This strategy provides an opportunity to reflect on the process of integral development and deepens in the construction of a new model of society

  8. Dramatic lives and relevant becomings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ann-Karina; Miller, Jody

    2012-01-01

    of marginality into positions of relevance. The analysis builds on empirical data from Copenhagen, Denmark, gained through ethnographic fieldwork with the participation of 20 female informants aged 13–22. The theoretical contribution proposes viewing conflicts as multi-linear, multi-causal and non...

  9. Regularization in Matrix Relevance Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schneider, Petra; Bunte, Kerstin; Stiekema, Han; Hammer, Barbara; Villmann, Thomas; Biehl, Michael

    A In this paper, we present a regularization technique to extend recently proposed matrix learning schemes in learning vector quantization (LVQ). These learning algorithms extend the concept of adaptive distance measures in LVQ to the use of relevance matrices. In general, metric learning can

  10. Astrobiological significance of chemolithoautotrophic acidophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2004-02-01

    For more than a century (since Winogradsky discovered lithautotrophic bacteria) there has been a dilemma in microbiology about life that first inhabited the Earth. Which types of life forms first appeared in the primordial oceans during the earliest geological period on Earth as the primary ancestors of modern biological diversity? How did a metabolism of ancestors evolve: from lithoautotrophic to lithoheterotrophic and organoheterotrophic or from organoheterotrophic to organautotrophic and lithomixotrophic types? At the present time, it is known that chemolithoheterotrophic and chemolithoautotrophic metabolizing bacteria are wide spread in different ecosystems. On Earth the acidic ecosystems are associated with geysers, volcanic fumaroles, hot springs, deep sea hydrothermal vents, caves, acid mine drainage and other technogenic ecosystems. Bioleaching played a significant roel on a global geological scale during the Earth's formation. This important feature of bacteria has been successfully applied in industry. The lithoautotrophs include Bacteria and Archaea belonging to diverse genera containing thermophilic and mesophilic species. In this paper we discuss the lithotrophic microbial acidophiles and present some data with a description of new acidophilic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Chena Hot Springs in Alaska. We also consider the possible relevance of microbial acidophiles to Venus, Io, and acidic inclusions in glaciers and icy moons.

  11. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally-Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah; Woodward, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To test young children's false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N=162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered three tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an "accidental transgressor" task, which measured a…

  12. First-line endoscopic treatment with over-the-scope clips significantly improves the primary failure and rebleeding rates in high-risk gastrointestinal bleeding: A single-center experience with 100 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter-Schrag, Hans-Jürgen; Glatz, Torben; Walker, Christine; Fischer, Andreas; Thimme, Robert

    2016-11-07

    To evaluate rebleeding, primary failure (PF) and mortality of patients in whom over-the-scope clips (OTSCs) were used as first-line and second-line endoscopic treatment (FLET, SLET) of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB, LGIB). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database identified all patients with UGIB and LGIB in a tertiary endoscopic referral center of the University of Freiburg, Germany, from 04-2012 to 05-2016 ( n = 93) who underwent FLET and SLET with OTSCs. The complete Rockall risk scores were calculated from patients with UGIB. The scores were categorized as < or ≥ 7 and were compared with the original Rockall data. Differences between FLET and SLET were calculated. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed to evaluate the factors that influenced rebleeding after OTSC placement. Primary hemostasis and clinical success of bleeding lesions (without rebleeding) was achieved in 88/100 (88%) and 78/100 (78%), respectively. PF was significantly lower when OTSCs were applied as FLET compared to SLET (4.9% vs 23%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, patients who had OTSC placement as SLET had a significantly higher rebleeding risk compared to those who had FLET (OR 5.3; P = 0.008). Patients with Rockall risk scores ≥ 7 had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality compared to those with scores < 7 (35% vs 10%, P = 0.034). No significant differences were observed in patients with scores < or ≥ 7 in rebleeding and rebleeding-associated mortality. Our data show for the first time that FLET with OTSC might be the best predictor to successfully prevent rebleeding of gastrointestinal bleeding compared to SLET. The type of treatment determines the success of primary hemostasis or primary failure.

  13. Two Curriculum-Relevant/Open Day Physics Experiments Concerning Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosabowski, Michael Hal; Young, Clive; Matkin, Judy; Ponikwer, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Gravity is an intangible abstract force when considered theoretically and yet we are affected by it constantly. The apparently "strong" nature of gravity, which in the layperson's mind causes him or her to stick to the Earth, is belied by the fact that it is the weakest of the fundamental forces. Demonstrations that allow pupils,…

  14. The PRT Concept -- US Experiences and Their Relevance for Norway

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vaagland, Per O

    2008-01-01

    ...) in Afghanistan, and Norway's concept of operations of PRTs in that country. One of the goals of this study is to examine the challenges connected with the establishment of such a concept, which is interagency and civilian-military in nature...

  15. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira

    2013-01-01

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  16. Tomographic diagnosis and relevant aspects of otosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotti, Juliana Oggioni; Gomes, Natalia Delage; Costa, Ana Maria Doffemond; Villela, Caroline Laurita Batista Couto; Moreira, Wanderval; Diniz, Renata Lopes Furletti Caldeira, E-mail: jugaiotti@gmail.com [Hospital Mater Dei-Mater Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    A literature review and pictorial essay were developed to discuss the importance of knowing the main findings and locations of otosclerosis at multidetector computed tomography (MDCT). The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of otosclerosis diagnosed in their institution by means of high resolution multidetector computed tomography. Otosclerosis corresponds to otic capsule dysplasia characterized by metabolic derangement of its endochondral layer. Such condition constitutes a relevant cause of sensorineural hearing loss, affecting about 7% to 10% of the general population. The diagnosis is usually clinical, but imaging methods play a significant role in the anatomical detailing, differential diagnosis, surgical planning and evaluation of postoperative complications. Among such methods, the relevance of MDCT is highlighted. Radiologists should be familiar with the MDCT findings of otosclerosis, as well as with the temporal bone anatomy to assist in the appropriate clinical management of this disease. (author)

  17. The Improved Relevance Voxel Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganz, Melanie; Sabuncu, Mert; Van Leemput, Koen

    The concept of sparse Bayesian learning has received much attention in the machine learning literature as a means of achieving parsimonious representations of features used in regression and classification. It is an important family of algorithms for sparse signal recovery and compressed sensing....... Hence in its current form it is reminiscent of a greedy forward feature selection algorithm. In this report, we aim to solve the problems of the original RVoxM algorithm in the spirit of [7] (FastRVM).We call the new algorithm Improved Relevance Voxel Machine (IRVoxM). Our contributions...... and enables basis selection from overcomplete dictionaries. One of the trailblazers of Bayesian learning is MacKay who already worked on the topic in his PhD thesis in 1992 [1]. Later on Tipping and Bishop developed the concept of sparse Bayesian learning [2, 3] and Tipping published the Relevance Vector...

  18. Mid-crust fluid and water-rock interaction kinetic experiments and their geophysical significance: 1. Basalt and pyroxene in water at high temperatures up to 450°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Hu, S.

    2013-12-01

    The water-basaltic rock interaction (or pyroxene-water ) kinetic experiments are carried out using flow through a packed bed reactor (PBR) and a mixed flow reactor(MFR) in the temperature range(T) from 20 to 450°C and at 23-34MPa. The experimental apparatus consisted of a titanium vessel, a liquid pump, a backpressure regulator, an electrical conductivity detector and a computer for data acquisition and monitoring. The basaltic rock and pyroxene were collected from natural volcanic area, Anhui Province, China. Rock or mineral sample was crushed and sieved to 20-40 mesh and cleaned. The surface area of representative basalt samples is 9.978 m2/g, for pyroxene it is 1.987 m2 /g (BET method). As using PBR system, rock samples (10. 2526g) were placed in the vessel. De-ionized and degassed (DDW) water was passed through the rock, or mineral grains at flow rates of 0.5-8 ml/min. As using MFR system mineral and rock sample of 5 grams was put in the vessel. Here, the measured release rates for each metal of the rock are the sum of release rates of the metal in various minerals of the rock. Steady-state kinetics is defined as conditions where dissolution rates are time independent. For water-basalt interaction, the dissolution rates (dis.r.) of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Na, K and Si vary with T from 25 to 435°C(or to 550°C). The dis.r. of Si, rSi increase with T from 25°C to 300°C, and then decrease from 300°C to 435°C (to 550°C). Maximum dis.r. for Si, rSi, Mx is reached at 300°C(or 300 to 400°C, using MFR). The maximum dis.r. for various metals occurred at different T, e.g. rAl, Mx and rNa, Mx are nearly at 350°C, rK, Mx is at 300°C, rCa, Mx is at 100°C and rMg, Mx is at 20°C. As T increase above 400°C, dis.r. of Ca, Mg and Fe decrease to very small. The experiments for pyroxene (diopside, hedenbergite)in water indicated that the dis.r. of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, K and Si also vary with T. The rSi increase with T from 25 to 300°C, and then decrease with T from 300 to 400

  19. What's past is past: Neither perceptual preactivation nor prior motivational relevance decrease subsequent inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitz, Carina; Schnuerch, Robert; Furley, Philip A; Memmert, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Inattentional blindness-the phenomenon that clearly visible, yet currently unexpected objects go unnoticed when our attention is focused elsewhere-is an ecologically valid failure of awareness. It is currently subject to debate whether previous events and experiences determine whether or not inattentional blindness occurs. Using a simple two-phase paradigm in the present study, we found that the likelihood of missing an unexpected object due to inattention did not change when its defining characteristic (its color) was perceptually preactivated (Experiment 1; N = 188). Likewise, noticing rates were not significantly reduced if the object's color was previously motivationally relevant during an unrelated detection task (Experiment 2; N = 184). These results corroborate and extend recent findings questioning the influence of previous experience on subsequent inattentional blindness. This has implications for possible countermeasures intended to thwart the potentially harmful effects of inattention. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Microdosing: Concept, application and relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Tewari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of microdose pharmacokinetic studies as an essential tool in drug development is still to catch on. While this approach promises potential cost savings and a quantum leap in efficiencies of the drug development process, major hurdles still need to be overcome before the technique becomes commonplace and part of routine practice. Clear regulations in Europe and the USA have had an enabling effect. The lack of enabling provisions for microdosing studies in Indian regulation, despite low risk and manifest relevance for the local drug development industry, is inconsistent with the country′s aspirations to be among the leaders in pharmaceutical research.

  1. Researching experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Lisa; Ingemann, Bruno

    In the beginning was - not the word - but the experience. This phenomenological approach provides the basis for this book, which focuses on how a person-in-situation experiences and constructs meaning from a variety of cultural visual events. This book presents video-based processual methods......, dialogue, moods, values and narratives have been investigated qualitatively with more than sixty informants in a range of projects. The processual methodological insights are put into a theoretical perspective and also presented as pragmatic dilemmas. Researching Experiences is relevant not only...

  2. Agreement among readers on what is relevant in self-help psychology books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, James J; Del Ben, Kevin; Toews, Stuart B

    2003-12-01

    It was hypothesized that text marking in self-help psychology books would indicate that readers agree on which pages and lines contain relevant information. Previously owned copies of two self-help book titles (n=48, n=38), all with marked text, were collected from second-hand book stores and scored for line and page marking. Chi-squares for goodness-of-fit yielded significant differences between observed and chance agreement in marking behavior. Intraclass and KR-20 correlations were significantly different from zero, suggesting that readers agreed on what information was relevant and irrelevant. Actual users of self-help books may have similar standards because of cultural values, social group relations, or common problem experiences.

  3. Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günther Mohr

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann   Citation - APA format: Mohr, G. (2017. Review: Mäder, Maya (2017: Selbsterfahrung in der Psychotherapie (Self experience in Psychotherapy, Die Bedeutung für den Kompetenzerwerb in der Aus- und Weiterbildung zum transaktionalytischen Psychotherapeuten (The significance for getting competence in training of transactional psychotherapy Münster: Waxmann. International Journal of Transactional Analysis Research & Practice, 8(2, 49-50.

  4. Alpha power gates relevant information during working memory updating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manza, Peter; Hau, Chui Luen Vera; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2014-04-23

    Human working memory (WM) is inherently limited, so we must filter out irrelevant information in our environment or our mind while retaining limited important relevant contents. Previous work suggests that neural oscillations in the alpha band (8-14 Hz) play an important role in inhibiting incoming distracting information during attention and selective encoding tasks. However, whether alpha power is involved in inhibiting no-longer-relevant content or in representing relevant WM content is still debated. To clarify this issue, we manipulated the amount of relevant/irrelevant information using a task requiring spatial WM updating while measuring neural oscillatory activity via EEG and localized current sources across the scalp using a surface Laplacian transform. An initial memory set of two, four, or six spatial locations was to be memorized over a delay until an updating cue was presented indicating that only one or three locations remained relevant for a subsequent recognition test. Alpha amplitude varied with memory maintenance and updating demands among a cluster of left frontocentral electrodes. Greater postcue alpha power was associated with the high relevant load conditions (six and four dots cued to reduce to three relevant) relative to the lower load conditions (four and two dots reduced to one). Across subjects, this difference in alpha power was correlated with condition differences in performance accuracy. In contrast, no significant effects of irrelevant load were observed. These findings demonstrate that, during WM updating, alpha power reflects maintenance of relevant memory contents rather than suppression of no-longer-relevant memory traces.

  5. PREDICTING RELEVANT EMPTY SPOTS IN SOCIAL INTERACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2008-01-01

    An empty spot refers to an empty hard-to-fill space which can be found in the records of the social interaction, and is the clue to the persons in the underlying social network who do not appear in the records. This contribution addresses a problem to predict relevant empty spots in social interaction. Homogeneous and inhomogeneous networks are studied as a model underlying the social interaction. A heuristic predictor function method is presented as a new method to address the problem. Simulation experiment is demonstrated over a homogeneous network. A test data set in the form of market baskets is generated from the simulated communication. Precision to predict the empty spots is calculated to demonstrate the performance of the presented method.

  6. Reach and Relevance of Prison Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Tubex

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this contribution I reflect on the changes in the penal landscape and how they impact on prison research. I do this from my experiences as a prison researcher in a variety of roles, in both Europe and Australia. The growing dominance of managerialism has impacted on both corrective services and universities, in ways that have changed the relationship between current prison practices and academically oriented research. Therefore, academics have to question how their contemporary prison research can bridge the emerging gap: how they can not only produce research that adheres to the roots of criminology and provides a base for a rational penal policy, but also how they can develop strategies to get recognition of and funding for this broader contextual work which, although it might not produce results that are immediately identifiable, can be of relevance in indirect ways and in the longer term.

  7. ¿CÓMO SE TRADUCE EL CURRICULUM FORMAL EN UNA EXPERIENCIA ESCOLAR RELEVANTE PARA LOS ALUMNOS DE UNA ESCUELA TELESECUNDARIA DE MÉXICO? (HOW DO THE STUDENTS OF A TELESECONDARY SCHOOL IN MEXICO TRANSLATE THE FORMAL CURRICULUM IN A RELEVANT SCHOOL EXPERIENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez Tepatzi José de la luz

    2011-08-01

    ways how students translate the formal curriculum in a relevant school experience and how this meanings influences on the permanence. The main results indicate that the teacher-student relationship, peer treatment and family support are important elements for improving retention and quality of learning also influence the assignment of relevant meanings to the school experience. The conclusions of the study shows that the positive value to the school and the importance of school experience, are not sufficient to ensure the permanence, other factors affect that decision. That is, each student, in their world of life builds a sense of reality and it guides their decisions, one of which is to remain or withdraw from school. In this context of relative autonomy, the teachers are required to offer students the opportunity to enjoy a relevant school experience to enable them to function in a complex world and to learn throughout life, regardless of their status and willingness to stay at school.

  8. Other relevant numerical modelling papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, M.

    1989-01-01

    The ocean modelling is a rapidly evolving science and a large number of results have been published. Several categories of papers are of particular interest for this review: the papers published by the international atomic institutions, such as the NEA (for the CRESP or Subseabed Programs), the IAEA (for example the Safety Series, the Technical Report Series or the TECDOC), and the ICRP, and the papers concerned by more fundamental research, which are published in specific scientific literature. This paper aims to list some of the most relevant publications for the CRESP purposes. It means by no way to be exhaustive, but informative on the incontestable progress recently achieved in that field. One should note that some of these papers are so recent that their final version has not yet been published

  9. Industrial relevance of thermophilic Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorova, Ksenia; Antranikian, Garabed

    2005-12-01

    The dramatic increase of newly isolated extremophilic microorganisms, analysis of their genomes and investigations of their enzymes by academic and industrial laboratories demonstrate the great potential of extremophiles in industrial (white) biotechnology. Enzymes derived from extremophiles (extremozymes) are superior to the traditional catalysts because they can perform industrial processes even under harsh conditions, under which conventional proteins are completely denatured. In particular, enzymes from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic Archaea have industrial relevance. Despite intensive investigations, our knowledge of the structure-function relationships of their enzymes is still limited. Information concerning the molecular properties of their enzymes and genes has to be obtained to be able to understand the mechanisms that are responsible for catalytic activity and stability at the boiling point of water.

  10. The Relevance of Hegel's Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John W Burbidge

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Hegel defines his Logic as the science that thinks about thinking.nbsp; But when we interpret that work as outlining what happens when we reason we are vulnerable to Fregersquo;s charge of psychologism.nbsp; I use Hegelrsquo;s tripartite distinction among understanding, dialectical and speculative reason as operations of pure thought to suggest how thinking can work with objective concepts.nbsp; In the last analysis, however, our ability to move from the subjective contingency of representations and ideas to the pure concepts we think develops from mechanical memory, which separates sign from sense so hat we can focus simply on the latter.nbsp; By becoming aware of the connections that underlie our thinking processes we may be able to both move beyond the abstractions of symbolic logic and clarify what informal logicians call relevance.

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy: clinical relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howman-Giles, R.

    2002-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an important technique in the management of patients with intermediate level melanoma, clinical operable breast cancer and some other cancers. The technique relies on lymphatic mapping to define the lymph drainage from a primary tumour with the premise that the lymph nodes, which directly drain from that area, will reflect the tumour status of the remainder of the node field. Current techniques use lymphoscintigraphy where a radioactive labelled particle and / or blue dye are injected intradermally or intraparenchymally to map the lymph drainage, often in conjunction with a radioactive gamma probe at surgery. In patients with melanoma the SLNB has improved the staging and prognostic information by more accurate determination of whether regional lymph nodes have metastatic spread. This has a major impact on patient management as those patients with negative nodes do not require regional lymph node dissection and have a significantly better prognosis. In our experience of over 3000 patients the combined sentinel node biopsy technique localised accurately 98% of sentinel lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy in patients with melanoma to locate the sentinel lymph nodes involves the intradermal injection of a radiocolloid around the melanoma site or the excision biopsy site. Injections of 5 -10 MBq in 0.05-0.1ml/inj are used and typically 4 injections are usually required. Following tracer injection dynamic imaging is performed to follow the lymphatic collecting vessels until they reach the draining sentinel nodes. An image should be acquired as the vessels reach the node field so that the sentinel nodes directly receiving the channels can be identified and distinguished from any second tier nodes which may sometimes be seen. Delayed scans are performed 2 hours later at which time all regions which can possible drain the primary melanoma site are examined with 5-10 minute static images. The surface location of all sentinel nodes is

  12. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  13. Task-relevant information is prioritized in spatiotemporal contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Yoko; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Ogawa, Hirokazu; Saiki, Jun

    2016-11-01

    Implicit learning of visual contexts facilitates search performance-a phenomenon known as contextual cueing; however, little is known about contextual cueing under situations in which multidimensional regularities exist simultaneously. In everyday vision, different information, such as object identity and location, appears simultaneously and interacts with each other. We tested the hypothesis that, in contextual cueing, when multiple regularities are present, the regularities that are most relevant to our behavioral goals would be prioritized. Previous studies of contextual cueing have commonly used the visual search paradigm. However, this paradigm is not suitable for directing participants' attention to a particular regularity. Therefore, we developed a new paradigm, the "spatiotemporal contextual cueing paradigm," and manipulated task-relevant and task-irrelevant regularities. In four experiments, we demonstrated that task-relevant regularities were more responsible for search facilitation than task-irrelevant regularities. This finding suggests our visual behavior is focused on regularities that are relevant to our current goal.

  14. Relevance of equilibrium in multifragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuta, Takuya; Ono, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The relevance of equilibrium in a multifragmentation reaction of very central 40 Ca + 40 Ca collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon is investigated by using simulations of antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD). Two types of ensembles are compared. One is the reaction ensemble of the states at each reaction time t in collision events simulated by AMD, and the other is the equilibrium ensemble prepared by solving the AMD equation of motion for a many-nucleon system confined in a container for a long time. The comparison of the ensembles is performed for the fragment charge distribution and the excitation energies. Our calculations show that there exists an equilibrium ensemble that well reproduces the reaction ensemble at each reaction time t for the investigated period 80≤t≤300 fm/c. However, there are some other observables that show discrepancies between the reaction and equilibrium ensembles. These may be interpreted as dynamical effects in the reaction. The usual static equilibrium at each instant is not realized since any equilibrium ensemble with the same volume as that of the reaction system cannot reproduce the fragment observables

  15. Ligand Exchange Kinetics of Environmentally Relevant Metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panasci, Adele Frances [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    The interactions of ground water with minerals and contaminants are of broad interest for geochemists but are not well understood. Experiments on the molecular scale can determine reaction parameters (i.e. rates of ligand exchange, activation entropy, activation entropy, and activation volume) that can be used in computations to gain insight into reactions that occur in natural groundwaters. Experiments to determine the rate of isotopic ligand exchange for three environmentally relevant metals, rhodium (Rh), iron (Fe), and neptunium (Np), are described. Many environmental transformations of metals (e.g. reduction) in soil occur at trivalent centers, Fe(III) in particular. Contaminant ions absorb to mineral surfaces via ligand exchange, and the reversal of this reaction can be dangerous, releasing contaminants into the environment. Ferric iron is difficult to study spectroscopically because most of its complexes are paramagnetic and are generally reactive toward ligand exchange; therefore, Rh(III), which is diamagnetic and less reactive, was used to study substitution reactions that are analogous to those that occur on mineral oxide surfaces. Studies on both Np(V) and Np(VI) are important in their own right, as 237Np is a radioactive transuranic element with a half-life of 2 million years.

  16. Polarization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halzen, F.

    1977-02-01

    In a theoretical review of polarization experiments two important points are emphasized: (a) their versatility and their relevance to a large variety of aspects of hadron physics (tests of basic symmetries; a probe of strong interaction dynamics; a tool for hadron spectroscopy); (b) the wealth of experimental data on polarization parameters in pp and np scattering in the Regge language and in the diffraction language. (author)

  17. Reflections on relevance: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics in 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Relevance of an article is a highly desirable yet hardly predictable quality at the time of its publication. Article relevance is frequently measured by the impact factor of the journal where the article is published. Furthermore, impact factor, citation index and citation analysis are used as a measure of research progress and scientific wealth of a nation. The wisdom and significance of this approach to relevance is debatable and thus discussed here. In 2004, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics published a variety of articles which, in the author's view, are clinically relevant. Several selected clinically relevant issues reviewed in this article include: the conceptualization of fibromyalgia as a stress disorder; the psychosocial impact and psychosocial interventions in cancer; the impact of alexithymia on patient care; the possible relationship between depression and nutrition (namely intake of folate and pyridoxal phosphate); the significance of hypercoagulability in panic-like anxiety; the questionable value of single isomer drugs, and the relevance and adequacy of clinimetrics versus psychometrics in clinical research. The reviewed issues seem to be relevant to clinical practice, research or both, but also to our critical thinking, and the critical review of the developments in psychiatry and psychology. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  19. Retrieving relevant and interesting tweets during live television broadcasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaptein, R.; Zhu, Y.; Koot, G.; Redi, J.; Niamut, O.

    2015-01-01

    The use of social TV applications to enhance the experience of live event broadcasts has become an increasingly common practice. An event profile, defined as a set of keywords relevant to an event, can help to track messages related to these events on social networks. We propose an event profiler

  20. Operations Management Teaching: Establishing Content and Relevance to Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Desmond; Hill, Alex; Brown, Steve; Aktas, Emel; Kuula, Markku

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance to industry's needs of operations management (OM) teaching in higher education, by researching the content of OM modules delivered by UK academics and comparing the results of this research with the views of business practitioners having had first-hand experience of OM teaching on MBA programmes. To determine…

  1. Snippet-based relevance predictions for federated web search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeester, Thomas; Nguyen, Dong-Phuong; Trieschnigg, Rudolf Berend; Develder, Chris; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    How well can the relevance of a page be predicted, purely based on snippets? This would be highly useful in a Federated Web Search setting where caching large amounts of result snippets is more feasible than caching entire pages. The experiments reported in this paper make use of result snippets and

  2. Relevance of Programs for Emotionally Disturbed Youth in Other Lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Henry P.

    1970-01-01

    A survey of current trends was conducted in more than 40 countries. Focus was on the organization of services and their relevance for evolving practices in the United States. Apparent was a willingness to experiment with administrative and therapeutic roles. Ideological differences are important determinants of the organization, range, and quality…

  3. Testing aggressive behaviour in a feeding context: Importance of ethologically relevant stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Daniel; Szenczi, Péter; Bánszegi, Oxána; Hudson, Robyn

    2018-05-01

    The choice of stimuli used in tests of animal behaviour can have a critical effect on the outcome. Here we report two experiments showing how different foods influenced aggressive behaviour in competition tests at weaning among littermates of the domestic cat. Whereas in Experiment 1 canned food elicited almost no overt competition, a piece of raw beef rib elicited clearly aggressive behaviour among littermates. In Experiment 2 the food stimuli were chosen to differ from raw beef rib in various combinations of taste/smell, texture and monopolizability. Kittens showed different levels of aggression in response to the five stimuli tested, which suggests that the strong effect of beef rib in eliciting aggressive behaviour was due to a complex combination of features. We suggest that using stimuli approximating the evolved, functional significance to the species concerned is more likely to result in robust, biologically relevant behaviours than more artificial stimuli. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Cellular effects and their relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    Exposure of aerated cell suspensions to intensities of c.w. ultrasound in excess of about one watt/cm 2 usually results in the production of some form of vapour/gas bubble activity commonly referred to as acoustic cavitation. Hydrodynamic shear stresses and shock waves associated with this phenomenon may disrupt cells, or at least subject them to mechanical trauma which may result in some form of 'sub-lethal' damage. Experiments on cell suspensions in vitro are found to provide an excellent model system for investigating the effects of acoustically-induced cavitation on living tissues. (C.F./Auth.)

  5. Poetic Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahab Yar Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature of poetic experience is hereby redefined. The present article initially deals with the perennial nature of true poetic experience and its essential relevance to the world. It attempts to elaborate the process through which a poet is uplifted in a creative moment beyond terrestrial boundaries and is aligned with the ‘state of Perfection'. The role of successive generations of audiences in rediscovering the meaning of a poetic image is defined as life principle of all great poetry. Shakespeare is discussed as the ultimate example of this principle since his popularity remains an irreversible phenomenon

  6. Change detection in urban and rural driving scenes: Effects of target type and safety relevance on change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Filtness, Ashleigh J; Jeans, Rhiannon

    2017-03-01

    The ability to detect changes is crucial for safe driving. Previous research has demonstrated that drivers often experience change blindness, which refers to failed or delayed change detection. The current study explored how susceptibility to change blindness varies as a function of the driving environment, type of object changed, and safety relevance of the change. Twenty-six fully-licenced drivers completed a driving-related change detection task. Changes occurred to seven target objects (road signs, cars, motorcycles, traffic lights, pedestrians, animals, or roadside trees) across two environments (urban or rural). The contextual safety relevance of the change was systematically manipulated within each object category, ranging from high safety relevance (i.e., requiring a response by the driver) to low safety relevance (i.e., requiring no response). When viewing rural scenes, compared with urban scenes, participants were significantly faster and more accurate at detecting changes, and were less susceptible to "looked-but-failed-to-see" errors. Interestingly, safety relevance of the change differentially affected performance in urban and rural environments. In urban scenes, participants were more efficient at detecting changes with higher safety relevance, whereas in rural scenes the effect of safety relevance has marginal to no effect on change detection. Finally, even after accounting for safety relevance, change blindness varied significantly between target types. Overall the results suggest that drivers are less susceptible to change blindness for objects that are likely to change or move (e.g., traffic lights vs. road signs), and for moving objects that pose greater danger (e.g., wild animals vs. pedestrians). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Feedback on the significant events of radiation protection declared to Asn in external radiotherapy, from necessity of a quality management to the service of risk management; Retour d'experience sur les evenements significatifs de radioprotection declares a l'asn en radiotherapie externe, de la necessite d'un management de la qualite au service de la gestion des risques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, C. [ASN, 75 - Paris (France); Garandel, S.; Godet, J.L. [Angers Univ., 49 (France)

    2009-10-15

    The declaration of events in the perspective of a experience feedback towards the professionals contributes to improve the treatments safety. The stakes in term of treatments safety is in the capitalization of these experience feedbacks from declarations. Well, the publication of regulatory obligations in matter of quality assurance and their appropriation by the whole of medical teams should improve the treatment safety and and increase their quality. To the end, without being unaware of the current difficulties encountered y some centers because of the lack of radio physicists, the approach of significant events declaration and risk analysis should allow to the french radiotherapy to become an international reference. (N.C.)

  8. The Strategic Value of Affiliation Partnerships in Securing Future Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Ninfa M

    2017-01-01

    Finding the best route to navigate the changing landscape of healthcare has become an obsession for many organizations. Their quest to stay competitive, significant, and ultimately relevant is a continuous discovery process. Many hospitals and health systems have considered affiliations and partnerships as important tactical options. Partnerships can range from loose arrangements, such as nonequity collaborations and management agreements, to total affiliation, as in a merger and acquisition. Whichever option an organization decides to pursue, a comprehensive assessment is necessary to find the best partner-the right fit. Addressing the "why," "when," "how," and "with whom" questions is fundamental. Having the depth and breadth of resources to manage the discovery process is equally important.Learning from others who have experienced this journey is helpful, as is the support of industry experts. However, one task that cannot be delegated is discerning whether affiliation is right for an organization. That is the responsibility of an organization's leadership team, which must consider the dynamic forces in play when evaluating an affiliation partnership. Many of the suggested modalities revolve around how the affiliation partnership can provide a value proposition for the entities involved. Furthermore, inevitable challenges emerge when fiercely independent and successful organizations come together at different levels of need and readiness. Anticipating and providing for the potential exit of any member are matters that the partnership must accept and prepare for, and the ability to execute can make or break the trajectory toward a value proposition. A strong resolve to monitor, measure, calibrate, and recalibrate can give a partnership the agility to pivot toward relevance and sustainability.Stratus Healthcare applied principles of alignment and affiliation in creating the largest collaborative partnership of hospitals in the southeastern United States. Drawing

  9. ERP investigation of attentional disengagement from suicide-relevant information in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Seung Yeon; Jeong, Minkyung; Kim, Hyang Sook; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies suggest the presence of attentional bias towards suicide-relevant information in suicidal individuals. However, the findings are limited by their reliance on behavioral measures. This study investigates the role of difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli using the P300 component of event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty-four adults with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) were administered the spatial cueing task using suicide-relevant and negatively-valenced words as cue stimuli. Disengagement difficulty was measured using reaction time and P300 during invalid trials. P300 amplitudes at Pz were higher in suicide-relevant compared to negatively-valenced word condition on invalid trials for participants with low rates of suicidal behavior. However, no such difference was found among participants with high rates of suicidal behavior. P300 amplitudes for suicide-relevant word condition were negatively correlated with "lifetime suicide ideation and attempt" at Pz. No significant results were found for the reaction time data, indicating that the ERP may be more sensitive in capturing the attentional disengagement effect. The groups were divided according to Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) total score. Neutral stimulus was not included as cue stimuli. Most participants were under medication during the experiment. Our results indicate that patients with MDD and low rates of suicidal behavior show difficulty in disengaging attention from suicide-relevant stimuli. We suggest that suicide-specific disengagement difficulties may be related to recentness of suicide attempt and that acquired capability for suicide may contribute to reduced disengagement difficulties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Does relevance matter in academic policy research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars.......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research. A debate among tourism scholars....

  11. Clinical significance of anismus in encopresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto-Smith, A G; Nolan, T M; Coffey, C M

    1998-09-01

    Treatments designed to relieve paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincters during defecation (anismus) have had limited success in children with encopresis. This has raised doubts as to the clinical relevance of this diagnosis in childhood as anorectal dysfunction. Our aim was to determine whether, in patients who had treatment-resistant encopresis, the presence of electromyographic anismus was associated with increased faecal retention. Sixty-eight children with soiling (mean age 8.7+/-2.06 years) were assessed by clinical examination, abdominal radiography and then with anorectal manometry. Patients with electromyographic anismus (n=32; 47%) had significantly increased radiographic rectal faecal retention and were significantly less likely to be able to defecate water-filled balloons. There were no significant differences in response to prior therapy, history of primary encopresis, behavioural adjustment or in sociodemographic data. Our results suggest that electromyographic anismus is associated with obstructed defecation and faecal retention.

  12. Establishment of ITER: Relevant documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    At the Geneva Summit Meeting in November, 1985, a proposal was made by the Soviet Union to build a next-generation tokamak experiment on a collaborative basis involving the world's four major fusion blocks. In October, 1986, after consulting with Japan and the European Community, the United States responded with a proposal on how to implement such an activity. Ensuing diplomatic and technical discussions resulted in the establishment, under the auspices of the IAEA, of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Conceptual Design Activities. This tome represents a collection of all documents relating to the establishment of ITER, beginning with the initial meeting of the ITER Quadripartite Initiative Committee in Vienna on 15-16 March, 1987, through the meeting of the Provisional ITER Council, also in Vienna, on 8-9 February, 1988

  13. Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Simpson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Gandhi’s example has inspired countless political struggles worldwide over the past century. We might then ask how his thought has been transferred and translated when taken out of the particular historical and geographic context in which he lived. How have Gandhi’s ideas been changed or altered when adopted in different contexts? Which aspects of Gandhi’s thinking remain most relevant to struggles for social and environmental justice today? These are just a few of the questions that were discussed at the “Perspectives on Gandhi’s Significance Workshop” hosted by Reed College in Portland Oregon (USA, on April 16th, 2016.

  14. Non-destructive testing: significant facts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejo, Hector; Ruch, Marta C.

    2006-01-01

    In the last fifty years different organisations, both public and private, have been assigned to the mission of introducing into the country the most relevant aspects of the modern technological discipline 'Non Destructive Testing' (NDT) through a manifold of activities, such as training and education, research, development, technical assistance and services, personnel qualification/certification and standardisation. A review is given of the significant facts in this process, in which the Argentine Atomic Energy Commission, CNEA, played a leading part, a balance of the accomplishments is made and a forecast of the future of the activity is sketched. (author) [es

  15. Science and the struggle for relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304832863

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with struggles for relevance of university researchers, their efforts to make their work correspond with ruling standards of relevance and to influence these standards. Its general research question is: How to understand changes in the struggle for relevance of Dutch academic

  16. The Personal Relevance of the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanSickle, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptualizes a personal-relevance framework derived from Ronald L. VanSickle's five areas of life integrated with four general motivating goals from Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs and Richard and Patricia Schmuck's social motivation theory. Illustrates ways to apply the personal relevance framework to make social studies more relevant to…

  17. The Development of Relevance in Information Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to investigate the notion of relevance in information retrieval. It discusses various definitions for relevance from historical viewpoints and the characteristics of relevance judgments. Also, it introduces empirical results of important related researches.[Article content in Chinese

  18. Social relevance enhances memory for impressions in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Brittany S; Gutchess, Angela H

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that older adults have difficulty retrieving contextual material over items alone. Recent research suggests this deficit can be reduced by adding emotional context, allowing for the possibility that memory for social impressions may show less age-related decline than memory for other types of contextual information. Two studies investigated how orienting to social or self-relevant aspects of information contributed to the learning and retrieval of impressions in young and older adults. Participants encoded impressions of others in conditions varying in the use of self-reference (Experiment 1) and interpersonal meaningfulness (Experiment 2), and completed memory tasks requiring the retrieval of specific traits. For both experiments, age groups remembered similar numbers of impressions. In Experiment 1 using more self-relevant encoding contexts increased memory for impressions over orienting to stimuli in a non-social way, regardless of age. In Experiment 2 older adults had enhanced memory for impressions presented in an interpersonally meaningful relative to a personally irrelevant way, whereas young adults were unaffected by this manipulation. The results provide evidence that increasing social relevance ameliorates age differences in memory for impressions, and enhances older adults' ability to successfully retrieve contextual information.

  19. Students' perceptions of the relevance of mathematics in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegg, Jennifer; Mallet, Dann; Lupton, Mandy

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we report on the findings of an exploratory study into the experience of students as they learn first year engineering mathematics. Here we define engineering as the application of mathematics and sciences to the building and design of projects for the use of society [M. Kirschenman and B. Brenner, Education for Civil Engineering: A Profession of Practice, Leader. Manag. Eng. 10 (2010), p. 54]. Qualitative and quantitative data on students' views of the relevance of their mathematics study to their engineering studies and future careers in engineering was collected. The students described using a range of mathematics techniques (mathematics skills developed, mathematics concepts applied to engineering and skills developed relevant for engineering) for various usages (as a subject of study, a tool for other subjects or a tool for real world problems). We found a number of themes relating to the design of engineering mathematics curriculum emerged from the data. These included the relevance of mathematics within different engineering majors, the relevance of mathematics to future studies, the relevance of learning mathematical rigour and the effectiveness of problem-solving tasks in conveying the relevance of mathematics more effectively than other forms of assessment. We make recommendations for the design of engineering mathematics curriculum based on our findings.

  20. Nostalgia's place among self-relevant emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, Wijnand A P; Wildschut, Tim; Sedikides, Constantine

    2017-07-24

    How is nostalgia positioned among self-relevant emotions? We tested, in six studies, which self-relevant emotions are perceived as most similar versus least similar to nostalgia, and what underlies these similarities/differences. We used multidimensional scaling to chart the perceived similarities/differences among self-relevant emotions, resulting in two-dimensional models. The results were revealing. Nostalgia is positioned among self-relevant emotions characterised by positive valence, an approach orientation, and low arousal. Nostalgia most resembles pride and self-compassion, and least resembles embarrassment and shame. Our research pioneered the integration of nostalgia among self-relevant emotions.

  1. Silk-polypyrrole biocompatible actuator performance under biologically relevant conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagler, Jo'elen; Peterson, Ben; Murphy, Amanda; Leger, Janelle

    Biocompatible actuators that are capable of controlled movement and can function under biologically relevant conditions are of significant interest in biomedical fields. Previously, we have demonstrated that a composite material of silk biopolymer and the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) can be formed into a bilayer device that can bend under applied voltage. Further, these silk-PPy composites can generate forces comparable to human muscle (>0.1 MPa) making them ideal candidates for interfacing with biological tissues. Here silk-PPy composite films are tested for performance under biologically relevant conditions including exposure to a complex protein serum and biologically relevant temperatures. Free-end bending actuation performance, current response, force generation and, mass degradation were investigated . Preliminary results show that when exposed to proteins and biologically relevant temperatures, these silk-PPy composites show minimal degradation and are able to generate forces and conduct currents comparable to devices tested under standard conditions. NSF.

  2. Accreditation - Its relevance for laboratories measuring radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palsson, S E [Icelandic Radiation Protection Inst. (Iceland)

    2001-11-01

    Accreditation is an internationally recognised way for laboratories to demonstrate their competence. Obtaining and maintaining accreditation is, however, a costly and time-consuming procedure. The benefits of accreditation also depend on the role of the laboratory. Accreditation may be of limited relevance for a research laboratory, but essential for a laboratory associated with a national authority and e.g. issuing certificates. This report describes work done within the NKSBOK-1.1 sub-project on introducing accreditation to Nordic laboratories measuring radionuclides. Initially the focus was on the new standard ISO/IEC 17025, which was just in a draft form at the time, but which provides now a new framework for accreditation of laboratories. Later the focus was widened to include a general introduction to accreditation and providing through seminars a forum for exchanging views on the experience laboratories have had in this field. Copies of overheads from the last such seminar are included in the appendix to this report. (au)

  3. Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yueyuan

    2014-01-01

    Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may

  4. Effects of space-relevant radiation on pre-osteoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yueyuan

    2014-02-12

    Until now limited research has been conducted to address the mechanisms leading ionizing radiation exposure induced bone loss. This is relevant for cancer radiotherapy and human spaceflight. Exposure to radiation can result in elevated bone fracture risk in patients receiving cancer radiotherapy. In human spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to space radiation which is a very complex mixture consisting primarily of high-energy charged particles. Osteoblasts are of mesenchymal origin and responsible for creating and maintaining skeletal architecture; these cells produce extracellular matrix proteins and regulators of matrix mineralization during initial bone formation and later bone remodeling. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of ionizing radiation on pre-osteoblasts including cellular survival, cell cycle regulation and differentiation modification. Experiments with the pre-osteoblast cell line OCT-1 and the mesenchymal stem cell line C3H10T1/2 showed that radiation cell killing depends on dose and linear energy transfer (LET) and is most effective at an LET of ∝150 keV/μm. High-LET radiation has a much more pronounced ability to induce cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. After both X-rays and heavy ions exposure, expression of the cell cycle regulator CDKN1A was significantly up-regulated in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that cell cycle regulation is more sensitive to high-LET radiation than cell survival, which is not solely regulated through elevated CDKN1A expression. Radiation exposure enhances osteoblastic differentiation and maturation, and mediates Runx2 and TGF-β1 expression during early differentiation of pre-osteoblasts. Osteogenic differentiation did not alter cellular radiosensitivity, DNA repair of radiation-induced damages and the effects of radiation on proliferation. Further experiments are needed to elucidate possible synergistic effects of microgravity and radiation on osteoblast differentiation. This may

  5. Autonomia e relevância dos regimes The autonomy and relevance of regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Seignemartin de Carvalho

    2005-12-01

    of norms and rules that create patterns of behavior and allow the convergence of the expectations of their participants in specific issue areas, in order to solve coordination problems that could lead to non-pareto-efficient outcomes. Considering that such definitions based merely on the "efficiency" of regimes do not seem to be sufficient to explain their effectiveness, the present article proposes a different definition for regimes: political arrangements that allow a redistribution of the gains of cooperation among the participants in certain issue areas, within an interdependence context. Regimes would thus be effective due to their autonomy and relevance - that is, due to their objective existence autonomously from their participants and their influence on the participants' behavior and expectations in ways that cannot be reduced to the individual action of any of them. This article begins with a brief discussion about terminological problems related to regime studies and with a definition of the concepts of autonomy and relevance. Then it classifies the authors that take part in this debate according to two distinct perspectives, one that denies (non-autonomists and the other that attributes (autonomists autonomy and relevance to regimes, briefly analyzing the authors and traditions that are more significant for this debate, focusing on autonomist authors and on arguments that back the hypothesis here presented. Finally, the article proposes an analytic decomposition of regimes into four main elements that give them autonomy and relevance: normativity, actors, specificity of the issue area and complex interdependence as context.

  6. The pricing relevance of insider information; Die Preiserheblichkeit von Insiderinformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Dominik

    2011-07-01

    The publication attempts to describe the so far discussion concerning the feature of pricing relevance and to develop it further with the aid of new research approaches. First, a theoretical outline is presented of the elementary regulation problem of insider trading, its historical development, and the regulation goals of the WpHG. This is followed by an analysis of the concrete specifications of the law. In view of the exemplarity of US law, a country with long experience in regulation of the capital market, the materiality doctrine of US insider law is gone into in some detail. The goals and development of the doctrine are reviewed in the light of court rulings. The third part outlines the requirements of German law in order to forecast the pricing relevance of insider information, while the final part presents a critical review of the current regulations on pricing relevance. (orig./RHM)

  7. Significance of NTM infections in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Katalinic-Jankovic

    2015-01-01

    laboratory are sent to the National Reference Laboratory for identification. NTM strains have been systematically recorded and reported since 1982. In the last decade, two retrospective analyses were done to assess the clinical relevance of different NTM species and the burden of pulmonary NTM disease. Over the past decade, a 30-fold increase in overall NTM isolation rates and a 4-fold increase in PNTM incidence were observed. Mycobacterium xenopi was the most frequently seen causative agent of pulmonary NTM disease, but the degree of clinical relevance (i.e., percentage of patients meeting the diagnosis criteria, per species was higher for isolates of MAC (66.5% and M. kansasii (57.2%. Only about 30% of the M. xenopi isolates represented true disease. Further, interesting regional differences were observed. Clinically relevant NTM isolates were significantly more often found in the coastal region of Croatia, and the average annual incidence of the PNTM was twice as high in coastal compared with the continental region. The overall burden of PNTM in Croatia is still low compared with tuberculosis. This can, in part, explain the observed lack of knowledge of NTM infections among respiratory specialists. Since these pathogens are increasingly common worldwide, especially in countries where the incidence of tuberculosis is declining, a constant rising of awareness and knowledge is necessary.

  8. Stimulus fear relevance and the speed, magnitude, and robustness of vicariously learned fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Güler; Reynolds, Gemma; Askew, Chris

    2017-08-01

    Superior learning for fear-relevant stimuli is typically indicated in the laboratory by faster acquisition of fear responses, greater learned fear, and enhanced resistance to extinction. Three experiments investigated the speed, magnitude, and robustness of UK children's (6-10 years; N = 290; 122 boys, 168 girls) vicariously learned fear responses for three types of stimuli. In two experiments, children were presented with pictures of novel animals (Australian marsupials) and flowers (fear-irrelevant stimuli) alone (control) or together with faces expressing fear or happiness. To determine learning speed the number of stimulus-face pairings seen by children was varied (1, 10, or 30 trials). Robustness of learning was examined via repeated extinction procedures over 3 weeks. A third experiment compared the magnitude and robustness of vicarious fear learning for snakes and marsupials. Significant increases in fear responses were found for snakes, marsupials and flowers. There was no indication that vicarious learning for marsupials was faster than for flowers. Moreover, vicariously learned fear was neither greater nor more robust for snakes compared to marsupials, or for marsupials compared to flowers. These findings suggest that for this age group stimulus fear relevance may have little influence on vicarious fear learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  10. MememxGATE: Unearthing Latent Content Features for Improved Search and Relevancy Ranking Across Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B. D.; McGibbney, L. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.; Joyce, M.; Whitehall, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying scientific relevancy is of increasing importance to NASA and the research community. Scientific relevancy may be defined by mapping the impacts of a particular NASA mission, instrument, and/or retrieved variables to disciplines such as climate predictions, natural hazards detection and mitigation processes, education, and scientific discoveries. Related to relevancy, is the ability to expose data with similar attributes. This in turn depends upon the ability for us to extract latent, implicit document features from scientific data and resources and make them explicit, accessible and useable for search activities amongst others. This paper presents MemexGATE; a server side application, command line interface and computing environment for running large scale metadata extraction, general architecture text engineering, document classification and indexing tasks over document resources such as social media streams, scientific literature archives, legal documentation, etc. This work builds on existing experiences using MemexGATE (funded, developed and validated through the DARPA Memex Progrjam PI Mattmann) for extracting and leveraging latent content features from document resources within the Materials Research domain. We extend the software functionality capability to the domain of scientific literature with emphasis on the expansion of gazetteer lists, named entity rules, natural language construct labeling (e.g. synonym, antonym, hyponym, etc.) efforts to enable extraction of latent content features from data hosted by wide variety of scientific literature vendors (AGU Meeting Abstract Database, Springer, Wiley Online, Elsevier, etc.) hosting earth science literature. Such literature makes both implicit and explicit references to NASA datasets and relationships between such concepts stored across EOSDIS DAAC's hence we envisage that a significant part of this effort will also include development and understanding of relevancy signals which can ultimately

  11. Relevance: An Interdisciplinary and Information Science Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Greisdorf

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although relevance has represented a key concept in the field of information science for evaluating information retrieval effectiveness, the broader context established by interdisciplinary frameworks could provide greater depth and breadth to on-going research in the field. This work provides an overview of the nature of relevance in the field of information science with a cursory view of how cross-disciplinary approaches to relevance could represent avenues for further investigation into the evaluative characteristics of relevance as a means for enhanced understanding of human information behavior.

  12. Evaluation of Term Ranking Algorithms for Pseudo-Relevance Feedback in MEDLINE Retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Sooyoung; Choi, Jinwook

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of query expansion algorithms for MEDLINE retrieval within a pseudo-relevance feedback framework. A number of query expansion algorithms were tested using various term ranking formulas, focusing on query expansion based on pseudo-relevance feedback. The OHSUMED test collection, which is a subset of the MEDLINE database, was used as a test corpus. Various ranking algorithms were tested in combination with different term re-weighting algorithms. Our comprehensive evaluation showed that the local context analysis ranking algorithm, when used in combination with one of the reweighting algorithms - Rocchio, the probabilistic model, and our variants - significantly outperformed other algorithm combinations by up to 12% (paired t-test; p algorithm pairs, at least in the context of the OHSUMED corpus. Comparative experiments on term ranking algorithms were performed in the context of a subset of MEDLINE documents. With medical documents, local context analysis, which uses co-occurrence with all query terms, significantly outperformed various term ranking methods based on both frequency and distribution analyses. Furthermore, the results of the experiments demonstrated that the term rank-based re-weighting method contributed to a remarkable improvement in mean average precision.

  13. Functionally relevant microsatellites in sugarcane unigenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Nagendra K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unigene sequences constitute a rich source of functionally relevant microsatellites. The present study was undertaken to mine the microsatellites in the available unigene sequences of sugarcane for understanding their constitution in the expressed genic component of its complex polyploid/aneuploid genome, assessing their functional significance in silico, determining the extent of allelic diversity at the microsatellite loci and for evaluating their utility in large-scale genotyping applications in sugarcane. Results The average frequency of perfect microsatellite was 1/10.9 kb, while it was 1/44.3 kb for the long and hypervariable class I repeats. GC-rich trinucleotides coding for alanine and the GA-rich dinucleotides were the most abundant microsatellite classes. Out of 15,594 unigenes mined in the study, 767 contained microsatellite repeats and for 672 of these putative functions were determined in silico. The microsatellite repeats were found in the functional domains of proteins encoded by 364 unigenes. Its significance was assessed by establishing the structure-function relationship for the beta-amylase and protein kinase encoding unigenes having repeats in the catalytic domains. A total of 726 allelic variants (7.42 alleles per locus with different repeat lengths were captured precisely for a set of 47 fluorescent dye labeled primers in 36 sugarcane genotypes and five cereal species using the automated fragment analysis system, which suggested the utility of designed primers for rapid, large-scale and high-throughput genotyping applications in sugarcane. Pair-wise similarity ranging from 0.33 to 0.84 with an average of 0.40 revealed a broad genetic base of the Indian varieties in respect of functionally relevant regions of the large and complex sugarcane genome. Conclusion Microsatellite repeats were present in 4.92% of sugarcane unigenes, for most (87.6% of which functions were determined in silico. High level of

  14. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  15. Philosophy in contemporary time: Relevance vs. Public perception ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    What is the relevance of philosophy in this contemporary time? Philosophy is viewed by many people as an irrelevant discipline- one of no social and/or practical significance. It is sometimes seen also as an abstract and drab enterprise fit only for the intellectuals. Overtime also, philosophy has come to be perceived as ...

  16. The development of animal personality : relevance, concepts and perspectives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamps, Judy; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of animal personality have focused on its proximate causation and its ecological and evolutionary significance, but have mostly ignored questions about its development, although an understanding of the latter is highly relevant to these other questions. One possible reason for this

  17. Does relevance matter in academic policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter......A reflection on whether relevance matters in tourism policy research, and if so, to whom/what should it matter...

  18. Inoculating Relevance Feedback Against Poison Pills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehghani, Mostafa; Azarbonyad, Hosein; Kamps, Jaap; Hiemstra, Djoerd; Marx, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    Relevance Feedback is a common approach for enriching queries, given a set of explicitly or implicitly judged documents to improve the performance of the retrieval. Although it has been shown that on average, the overall performance of retrieval will be improved after relevance feedback, for some

  19. Relevant cost information for order acceptance decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, M.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Some economic considerations for order acceptance decisions are discussed. The relevant economic considerations for order acceptance are widely discussed in the literature: only those costs are relevant which would be avoidable by not accepting the order incremental costs plus opportunity costs .

  20. Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    lithium -ion battery that may be replaced by the user (unlike Apple iPod Touch devices), thus spare batteries can be carried. If there is only sporadic...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications by David Sauter ARL-TR-5793 October 2011...Android Smartphone Relevance to Military Weather Applications David Sauter Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL

  1. Using small XML elements to support relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Ramirez Camps (Georgina); T.H.W. Westerveld (Thijs); A.P. de Vries (Arjen)

    2006-01-01

    htmlabstractSmall XML elements are often estimated relevant by the retrieval model but they are not desirable retrieval units. This paper presents a generic model that exploits the information obtained from small elements. We identify relationships between small and relevant elements and use this

  2. Translation as secondary communication. The relevance theory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ernst-August Gutt started one of the greatest translation debates of the past ten years when he suggested that relevance theory holds the key to providing a unified account of translation. The bulk of the debate has been between practitioners of functional equivalence and advocates of a relevance theoretic approach to ...

  3. Correlação entre os resultados laboratoriais e os sinais e sintomas clínicos das pacientes com candidíase vulvovaginal e relevância dos parceiros sexuais na manutenção da infecção em São Paulo, Brasil Relationship of laboratory results with clinical signs and symptoms of patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis and the significance of the sexual partners for the maintenance of the infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Fabio Boatto

    2007-02-01

    reservatórios de Candida spp e estar relacionados à manutenção da candidíase vulvovaginal.PURPOSE: to relate yeasts identified by laboratory tests to clinical signs and symptoms in patients with vulvovaginal candidiasis, and to investigate the importance of the sexual partners in the recurrence of the infection. METHODS: from July 2001 to July 2003, a sample of 179 patients aged from 18 to 65 years old, with clinical suspicion of fungal vaginitis were analyzed in a prospective study in Great São Paulo. Exclusion criteria included: pregnancy, impaired intrinsic or extrinsic immune response (including Aids, diabetes or immunosuppression; patients undergoing corticosteroid, antibiotic or hormone therapy, in post menopause, with intrauterine device (IUD or making use of vaginal douches or spemicides. Samples of vaginal and penis secretions from partners of patients with relapse of vaginitis episodes were collected for microscopy and fungal culture. Fungal colonies isolated in CHROMagar Candida were identified by classical methods. Fisher's exact t-test was used to correlate the clinical picture with the yeasts isolated from patients. RESULTS: the most relevant clinical signs and symptoms were pruritus and vaginal discharge followed by erythema and edema, statistically independent from the etiological agent. Direct microscopy revealed yeasts in 77 patients with vulvovaginitis, and 40 Candida spp cultures were obtained. Candida albicans (70%, C. glabrata (20%, C. tropicalis (7,5% and C. guilliermondii (2,5% were identified. The yeasts prevalent in partners were C. albicans and C. glabrata. The same species were detected in female and male sex partners in 87% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: fungal vulvovaginitis was more frequent in women between 18 and 34 years old. No correlation was observed between the species of yeast detected and clinical symptomatology. Sexual partners are important Candida spp reservoirs and may be related to the maintenance of the vulvovaginal

  4. Historical microbiology, is it relevant in the 21st century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lesley A

    2015-05-01

    Facsimile microscopes have been used to examine the possibilities of van Leeuwenhoek microscopes with a range of magnifications, particularly to confirm that bacteria can be seen if the microscope is strong enough. The relevance of historical microbiology in education is also illustrated by adapting versions of van Leeuwenhoek's pepper water experiment and Beijerinck's use of bioluminescent bacteria as oxygen probes. These experiments can demonstrate fundamentals such as enrichment and isolation cultures, physiology and experimental planning as well as critical reading of published material. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Intracranial Aneurysms of Neuro-Ophthalmologic Relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Newman, Nancy J; Barrow, Daniel L; Biousse, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Intracranial saccular aneurysms are acquired lesions that often present with neuro-ophthalmologic symptoms and signs. Recent advances in neurosurgical techniques, endovascular treatments, and neurocritical care have improved the optimal management of symptomatic unruptured aneurysms, but whether the chosen treatment has an impact on neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes remains debated. A review of the literature focused on neuro-ophthalmic manifestations and treatment of intracranial aneurysms with specific relevance to neuro-ophthalmologic outcomes was conducted using Ovid MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Cavernous sinus aneurysms were not included in this review. Surgical clipping vs endovascular coiling for aneurysms causing third nerve palsies was compared in 13 retrospective studies representing 447 patients. Complete recovery was achieved in 78% of surgical patients compared with 44% of patients treated with endovascular coiling. However, the complication rate, hospital costs, and days spent in intensive care were reported as higher in surgically treated patients. Retrospective reviews of surgical clipping and endovascular coiling for all ocular motor nerve palsies (third, fourth, or sixth cranial nerves) revealed similar results of complete resolution in 76% and 49%, respectively. Improvement in visual deficits related to aneurysmal compression of the anterior visual pathways was also better among patients treated with clipping than with coiling. The time to treatment from onset of visual symptoms was a predictive factor of visual recovery in several studies. Few reports have specifically assessed the improvement of visual deficits after treatment with flow diverters. Decisions regarding the choice of therapy for intracranial aneurysms causing neuro-ophthalmologic signs ideally should be made at high-volume centers with access to both surgical and endovascular treatments. The status of the patient, location of the aneurysm, and experience of the treating physicians

  6. Bootstrapping agency: How control-relevant information affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsh, Noam; Eitam, Baruch; Mark, Ilya; Higgins, E Tory

    2016-10-01

    How does information about one's control over the environment (e.g., having an own-action effect) influence motivation? The control-based response selection framework was proposed to predict and explain such findings. Its key tenant is that control relevant information modulates both the frequency and speed of responses by determining whether a perceptual event is an outcome of one's actions or not. To test this framework empirically, the current study examines whether and how temporal and spatial contiguity/predictability-previously established as being important for one's sense of agency-modulate motivation from control. In 5 experiments, participants responded to a cue, potentially triggering a perceptual effect. Temporal (Experiments 1a-c) and spatial (Experiments 2a and b) contiguity/predictability between actions and their potential effects were experimentally manipulated. The influence of these control-relevant factors was measured, both indirectly (through their effect on explicit judgments of agency) and directly on response time and response frequency. The pattern of results was highly consistent with the control-based response selection framework in suggesting that control relevant information reliably modulates the impact of "having an effect" on different levels of action selection. We discuss the implications of this study for the notion of motivation from control and for the empirical work on the sense of agency. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Bayesian approaches for detecting significant deterioration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, Willy; Aven, Terje

    2009-01-01

    Risk indicators can provide useful input to risk management processes and are given increased attention in the Norwegian petroleum industry. Examples include indicators expressing the proportion of test failures of safety and barrier systems. Such indicators give valuable information about the performance of the systems and provide a basis for trend evaluations. Early warning of a possible deterioration is essential due to the importance of the systems in focus, but what should be the basis for the warning criterion? This paper presents and discusses several Bayesian approaches for the establishment of a warning criterion to disclose significant deterioration. The Norwegian petroleum industry is the starting point for this paper, but the study is relevant for other application areas as well

  8. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical...... significance are presented. First a method using importance sampling. Second a saddlepoint approximation based method. We develop algorithms to efficiently compute the approximations and compare them to naive sampling and the normal approximation. The individual merits of the methods are analysed both from....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  9. Significant Lactic Acidosis from Albuterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Diercks

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acidosis is a clinical entity that demands rapid assessment and treatment to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. With increased lactate use across many clinical scenarios, lactate values themselves cannot be interpreted apart from their appropriate clinical picture. The significance of Type B lactic acidosis is likely understated in the emergency department (ED. Given the mortality that sepsis confers, a serum lactate is an important screening study. That said, it is with extreme caution that we should interpret and react to the resultant elevated value. We report a patient with a significant lactic acidosis. Though he had a high lactate value, he did not require aggressive resuscitation. A different classification scheme for lactic acidosis that focuses on the bifurcation of the “dangerous” and “not dangerous” causes of lactic acidosis may be of benefit. In addition, this case is demonstrative of the potential overuse of lactates in the ED.

  10. Reality = Relevance? Insights from Spontaneous Modulations of the Brain's Default Network when Telling Apart Reality from Fiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anna; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2009-01-01

    Background Although human beings regularly experience fictional worlds through activities such as reading novels and watching movies, little is known about what mechanisms underlie our implicit knowledge of the distinction between reality and fiction. The first neuroimaging study to address this issue revealed that the mere exposure to contexts involving real entities compared to fictional characters led to engagement of regions in the anterior medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices (amPFC, PCC). As these core regions of the brain's default network are involved during self-referential processing and autobiographical memory retrieval, it was hypothesized that real entities may be conceptually coded as being more personally relevant to us than fictional characters. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we directly test the hypothesis that entity-associated personal relevance is the critical factor underlying the differential engagement of these brain regions by comparing the brain's response when processing contexts involving family or friends (high relevance), famous people (medium relevance), or fictional characters (low relevance). In line with predictions, a gradient pattern of activation was observed such that higher entity-associated personal relevance was associated with stronger activation in the amPFC and the PCC. Conclusions/Significance The results of the study have several important implications. Firstly, they provide informed grounds for characterizing the dynamics of reality-fiction distinction. Secondly, they provide further insights into the functions of the amPFC and the PCC. Thirdly, in view of the current debate related to the functional relevance and specificity of brain's default network, they reveal a novel approach by which the functions of this network can be further explored. PMID:19277108

  11. Reality = relevance? Insights from spontaneous modulations of the brain's default network when telling apart reality from fiction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Abraham

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although human beings regularly experience fictional worlds through activities such as reading novels and watching movies, little is known about what mechanisms underlie our implicit knowledge of the distinction between reality and fiction. The first neuroimaging study to address this issue revealed that the mere exposure to contexts involving real entities compared to fictional characters led to engagement of regions in the anterior medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices (amPFC, PCC. As these core regions of the brain's default network are involved during self-referential processing and autobiographical memory retrieval, it was hypothesized that real entities may be conceptually coded as being more personally relevant to us than fictional characters. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, we directly test the hypothesis that entity-associated personal relevance is the critical factor underlying the differential engagement of these brain regions by comparing the brain's response when processing contexts involving family or friends (high relevance, famous people (medium relevance, or fictional characters (low relevance. In line with predictions, a gradient pattern of activation was observed such that higher entity-associated personal relevance was associated with stronger activation in the amPFC and the PCC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results of the study have several important implications. Firstly, they provide informed grounds for characterizing the dynamics of reality-fiction distinction. Secondly, they provide further insights into the functions of the amPFC and the PCC. Thirdly, in view of the current debate related to the functional relevance and specificity of brain's default network, they reveal a novel approach by which the functions of this network can be further explored.

  12. A review of electrochemistry of relevance to environment-assisted cracking in light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.; Psaila-Dombrowski, M.

    1992-01-01

    The electrochemistry of relevance to environment-assisted cracking in high temperature, low conductivity water is critically reviewed. The review covers corrosion potential and electrochemical polarisation measurements, thermodynamics, and also experimental measurements and mathematical modelling of the electrochemistry in cracks and crevices. There is a lack of critical data in relation to the electrode kinetics of relevant cathodic reduction reactions, namely H + , H 2 O, O 2 , H 2 O 2 and steady-state anodic reaction data are limited. Transient anodic current measurements, associated with initially film-free metal, have been made for a range of conditions but there is uncertainty regarding the role of fluid flow and transport processes on the current decay characteristics. A number of experimental measurements of potential and pH in crevices and cracks have been made but the experiments are difficult to carry out reliably and hence the range of data of relevance to practical conditions is very limited. Recent developments in mathematical modelling have significantly enhanced the qualitative understanding of the processes controlling the local electrochemistry in cracks and crevices but the reliability of the quantitative predictions is limited by the paucity of reliable input data. (Author)

  13. The historical significance of oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. V. Thirgood

    1971-01-01

    A brief history of the importance of oak in Europe, contrasting the methods used in France and Britain to propagate the species and manage the forests for continued productivity. The significance of oak as a strategic resource during the sailing-ship era is stressed, and mention is made of the early development of oak management in North America. The international...

  14. Stimulus fear-relevance and the vicarious learning pathway to childhood fears

    OpenAIRE

    Askew, C.; Dunne, G.; Ozdil, A.; Reynolds, G.; Field, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Enhanced fear learning for fear-relevant stimuli has been demonstrated in procedures with adults in the laboratory. Three experiments investigated the effect of stimulus fear-relevance on vicarious fear learning in children (aged 6-11 years). Pictures of stimuli with different levels of fear-relevance (flowers, caterpillars, snakes, worms, and Australian marsupials) were presented alone or together with scared faces. In line with previous studies, children's fear beliefs and avoidance prefere...

  15. Cross-hemispheric dopamine projections have functional significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Megan E.; Mikhailova, Maria A.; Bass, Caroline E.; Takmakov, Pavel; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Budygin, Evgeny A.; Wightman, R. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine signaling occurs on a subsecond timescale, and its dysregulation is implicated in pathologies ranging from drug addiction to Parkinson’s disease. Anatomic evidence suggests that some dopamine neurons have cross-hemispheric projections, but the significance of these projections is unknown. Here we report unprecedented interhemispheric communication in the midbrain dopamine system of awake and anesthetized rats. In the anesthetized rats, optogenetic and electrical stimulation of dopamine cells elicited physiologically relevant dopamine release in the contralateral striatum. Contralateral release differed between the dorsal and ventral striatum owing to differential regulation by D2-like receptors. In the freely moving animals, simultaneous bilateral measurements revealed that dopamine release synchronizes between hemispheres and intact, contralateral projections can release dopamine in the midbrain of 6-hydroxydopamine–lesioned rats. These experiments are the first, to our knowledge, to show cross-hemispheric synchronicity in dopamine signaling and support a functional role for contralateral projections. In addition, our data reveal that psychostimulants, such as amphetamine, promote the coupling of dopamine transients between hemispheres. PMID:27298371

  16. Anomalies of subjective experience in schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parnas, Josef

    2003-01-01

    Symptoms (BSABS). Anomalies of experience were condensed into rational scales with good internal consistencies. RESULTS: Diagnosis of schizophrenia was associated with elevated scores on the scales measuring perplexity (loss of immediate meaning), disorders of perception, disorders of self......-awareness, and marginally so, disorders of cognition. CONCLUSION: These findings, in conjunction with those from other, methodologically similar studies, suggest that certain anomalies of subjective experience aggregate significantly in schizophrenia. These experiential anomalies appear to be relevant for early...

  17. Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauscher, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Synthetic definition of biological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffington, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The central theme of the workshop is recounted and the views of the authors are summarized. Areas of broad agreement or disagreement, unifying principles, and research needs are identified. Authors' views are consolidated into concepts that have practical utility for the scientist making impact assessments. The need for decision-makers and managers to be cognizant of the recommendations made herein is discussed. Finally, bringing together the diverse views of the workshop participants, a conceptual definition of biological significance is synthesized

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. The Value Relevance of IFRS: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Turel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Accounting standards that are mostly compatible with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS are required for consolidatedfinancial statements of all Turkish listed firms starting from 2005 fiscal year end. Before that, financial reporting in Turkey was closely related to taxreporting. Until 2003, all Turkish listed firms were preparing their financial statements in accordance with the local standards issued by the CapitalMarket Board of Turkey. In this study, I examine the relative and incremental value relevance of earnings and the book value of equity under CapitalMarket Board (CMB Accounting Standards (2001-2002 and under IFRS (2005-2006 for Turkish listed firms. I compare these two periods toinvestigate whether the mandatory adoption of IFRS increase relevance of earnings and book value of equity which are accepted as proxies ofaccounting quality. I find evidence that the value relevance of earnings and book value of equity has increased significantly after adopting IFRS. Inaddition, I find that the incremental value relevance of earnings increased between the CMB accounting standards period and the IFRS period.However, the incremental value relevance of book value of equity degreased in the same period.

  2. The foundation of the concept of relevance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2010-01-01

    that what was regarded as the most fundamental view by Saracevic in 1975 has not since been considered (with very few exceptions). Other views, which are based on less fruitful assumptions, have dominated the discourse on relevance in information retrieval and information science. Many authors have...... reexamined the concept of relevance in information science, but have neglected the subject knowledge view, hence basic theoretical assumptions seem not to have been properly addressed. It is as urgent now as it was in 1975 seriously to consider “the subject knowledge view” of relevance (which may also...... be termed “the epistemological view”). The concept of relevance, like other basic concepts, is influenced by overall approaches to information science, such as the cognitive view and the domain-analytic view. There is today a trend toward a social paradigm for information science. This paper offers...

  3. Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploring Educational Quality and Relevance through Integrating Environmental and Social Issues in Science Education. ... However, the new contextualised concept of learning and teaching was applied only to one of them. A post-test was ...

  4. Has Financial Statement Information become Less Relevant?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Frank; Damkier, Jesper

    This paper presents insights into the question of whether accounting information based on the EU’s Accounting Directives has become less value-relevant to investors over time. The study is based on a research design first used by Francis and Schipper (1999), where value-relevance is measured......? The sample is based on non-financial companies listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange in the period 1984-2002. Our analyses show that all the applied accounting measures are value-relevant as investment strategies based on the information earn positive market-adjusted returns in our sample period....... The results provide some indication of a decline in the value-relevance of earnings information in the 1984-2001 period, and mixed, but not statistically reliable, evidence for accounting measures where book value information and asset values are also extracted from financial statements. The results seem...

  5. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S. B.; McNeill, F. E.; Byun, S. H.; Prestwich, W. V.; Seymour, C.; Mothersill, C. E.

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced "bystander effects" studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 × 1013 H+/cm2 s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 × 106 cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 × 103, 10 × 106, and 35 × 106 cps for wavelengths of 280 ± 5 nm, 320 ± 5 nm and 340 ± 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a "damage cross section" of the order of 10-14 cm2. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. Clinical significance of neonatal menstruation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosens, Ivo; Benagiano, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Past studies have clearly shown the existence of a spectrum of endometrial progesterone responses in neonatal endometrium, varying from proliferation to full decidualization with menstrual-like shedding. The bleedings represent, similar to what occurs in adult menstruation, a progesterone withdrawal bleeding. Today, the bleeding is completely neglected and considered an uneventful episode of no clinical significance. Yet clinical studies have linked the risk of bleeding to a series of events indicating fetal distress. The potential link between the progesterone response and major adolescent disorders requires to be investigated by prospective studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-03-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-06-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  4. Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory. PMID:23754441

  5. Moral significance of phenomenal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Neil; Savulescu, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in neuroimaging suggests that some patients diagnosed as being in the persistent vegetative state are actually conscious. In this paper, we critically examine this new evidence. We argue that though it remains open to alternative interpretations, it strongly suggests the presence of consciousness in some patients. However, we argue that its ethical significance is less than many people seem to think. There are several different kinds of consciousness, and though all kinds of consciousness have some ethical significance, different kinds underwrite different kinds of moral value. Demonstrating that patients have phenomenal consciousness--conscious states with some kind of qualitative feel to them--shows that they are moral patients, whose welfare must be taken into consideration. But only if they are subjects of a sophisticated kind of access consciousness--where access consciousness entails global availability of information to cognitive systems--are they persons, in the technical sense of the word employed by philosophers. In this sense, being a person is having the full moral status of ordinary human beings. We call for further research which might settle whether patients who manifest signs of consciousness possess the sophisticated kind of access consciousness required for personhood.

  6. Clinical significance of the fabella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodevski, A.; Lazarova-Tosovska, D.; Zhivadinovik, J.; Lazareska, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: There is variable number of sesamoid bones in the human body; one of them is fabella, located in the tendon of the gastrocnemius muscle. Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of fabella in the Macedonian population and to discuss about clinical importance of this bone. Materials and methods: We retrospectively examined radiographs of 53 patients who had knee exams undertaken for a variety of clinical reasons, performed as a part of their medical treatment. Over a time span of six months, 53 patients (38 males and 15 females, age range 19-60 years, mean age of 36.7±12.3 years) were examined. Results: In seven (13.2%) patients of 53 analyzed reports, fabella was found in the lateral tendon of gastrocnemius muscle. We did not find a significant gender or side difference in the appearance of fabella. Conclusion: Although anatomic studies emphasized a lack of significance of the fabella, this bone has been associated with a spectrum of pathology affecting the knee as fabellar syndrome, perineal nerve injury and fracture. We should think of this sesamoid bone while performing diagnostic and surgical procedures

  7. Nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations affects atrial inward rectifier potassium current sensitive to acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bébarová, Markéta; Matejovič, Peter; Švecová, Olga; Kula, Roman; Šimurdová, Milena; Šimurda, Jiří

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine abuse is associated with variety of diseases including arrhythmias, most often atrial fibrillation (AF). Altered inward rectifier potassium currents including acetylcholine-sensitive current I K(Ach) are known to be related to AF pathogenesis. Since relevant data are missing, we aimed to investigate I K(Ach) changes at clinically relevant concentrations of nicotine. Experiments were performed by the whole cell patch clamp technique at 23 ± 1 °C on isolated rat atrial myocytes. Nicotine was applied at following concentrations: 4, 40 and 400 nM; ethanol at 20 mM (∼0.09%). Nicotine at 40 and 400 nM significantly activated constitutively active component of I K(Ach) with the maximum effect at 40 nM (an increase by ∼100%); similar effect was observed at -110 and -50 mV. Changes at 4 nM nicotine were negligible on average. Coapplication of 40 nM nicotine and 20 mM ethanol (which is also known to activate this current) did not show cumulative effect. In the case of acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) , a dual effect of nicotine and its correlation with the current magnitude in control were apparent: the current was increased by nicotine in the cells showing small current in control and vice versa. The effect of 40 and 400 nM nicotine on acetylcholine-induced component of I K(Ach) was significantly different at -110 and -50 mV. We conclude that nicotine at clinically relevant concentrations significantly increased constitutively active component of I K(Ach) and showed a dual effect on its acetylcholine-induced component, similarly as ethanol. Synchronous application of nicotine and ethanol did not cause additive effect.

  8. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  9. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  10. Origin and significance of defects in welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundin, C.D.

    1984-01-01

    In the past 10 to 15 years significant advances have taken place in the understanding of the origin and nature of weld discontinuities. The furthering of the knowledge of hot cracking, cold cracking, lamellar tearing and porosity formation is due to the development and utilization of sophisticated techniques for microscopy and microanalysis and the concerted efforts of many researchers in the U.S. and abroad. Concurrent with the progress toward better definition of the metallurgical mechanisms for discontinuity formation, the development of the fracture mechanics approach for the assessment of the significance of the discontinuities was brought into focus. It is the marriage of the metallurgical understanding of formation and the mechanics assessment of relevance that permits discontinuities to be treated with a new degree of sophistication. The many types of cracking and porosity formation were the subjects of numerous studies in the intervening years. This presentation will treat the various types of weld discontinuities which have their origin closely related to a metallurgical mechanism. Emphasis will be placed on hot cracking, and porosity formation with information presented on cold cracking, reheat cracking and lamellar tearing. The employment of the newer metallurgical tools will be discussed in terms of their utilization in determining the cause of discontinuity formation

  11. When Does Air Resistance Become Significant in Projectile Motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohazzabi, Pirooz

    2018-01-01

    In an article in this journal, it was shown that air resistance could never be a significant source of error in typical free-fall experiments in introductory physics laboratories. Since projectile motion is the two-dimensional version of the free-fall experiment and usually follows the former experiment in such laboratories, it seemed natural to…

  12. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  13. No significant fuel failures (NSFF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domaratzki, Z.

    1979-01-01

    It has long been recognized that no emergency core cooling system (ECCS) could be absolutely guaranteed to prevent fuel failures. In 1976 the Atomic Energy Control Board decided that the objective for an ECCS should be to prevent fuel failures, but if the objective could not be met it should be shown that the consequences are acceptable for dual failures comprising any LOCA combined with an assumed impairment of containment. Out of the review of the Bruce A plant came the definition of 'no significant fuel failures': for any postulated LOCA combined with any one mode of containment impairment the resultant dose to a person at the edge of the exclusion zone is less than the reference dose limits for dual failures

  14. Ritual Significance in Mycenaean Hairstyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu, Florence Sheng-chieh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Although the frescoes excavated from Bronze Age sites on the Greek mainland provide evidence for female figures in the Mycenaean society, the hairstyles of these figures have not been studied in detail. As in many other ancient cultures, hairstyles were not only an exhibition of beauty and fashion, but they also represented certain age groups or a person’s social status. The Mycenaeans inherited many of their hairstyles from their Minoan predecessors, although differences existed as well. It is also possible there may have been a shift in meaning for seemingly similar looking hairstyles from the Minoan to the Mycenaean periods. Female figures, which compose most of the Mycenaean figures in frescoes known to date, are fine examples for discussing the artistic representation and potential significance of Mycenaean hairstyles. By comparing with Minoan hairstyles, discussions of Mycenaean examples lead to conclusions in the relationship between hairstyles and ritual activities in the Mycenaean society.

  15. The energetic significance of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmody, Rachel N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2009-10-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein, and lipid, and we therefore consider plant and animal foods separately. Evidence of compromised physiological performance among individuals on raw diets supports the hypothesis that cooked diets tend to provide energy. Mechanisms contributing to energy being gained from cooking include increased digestibility of starch and protein, reduced costs of digestion for cooked versus raw meat, and reduced energetic costs of detoxification and defence against pathogens. If cooking consistently improves the energetic value of foods through such mechanisms, its evolutionary impact depends partly on the relative energetic benefits of non-thermal processing methods used prior to cooking. We suggest that if non-thermal processing methods such as pounding were used by Lower Palaeolithic Homo, they likely provided an important increase in energy gain over unprocessed raw diets. However, cooking has critical effects not easily achievable by non-thermal processing, including the relatively complete gelatinisation of starch, efficient denaturing of proteins, and killing of food borne pathogens. This means that however sophisticated the non-thermal processing methods were, cooking would have conferred incremental energetic benefits. While much remains to be discovered, we conclude that the adoption of cooking would have led to an important rise in energy availability. For this reason, we predict that cooking had substantial evolutionary significance.

  16. Clinical relevance of findings in trials of CBT for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepping, P; Whittington, R; Sambhi, R S; Lane, S; Poole, R; Leucht, S; Cuijpers, P; McCabe, R; Waheed, W

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is beneficial in depression. Symptom scores can be translated into Clinical Global Impression (CGI) scale scores to indicate clinical relevance. We aimed to assess the clinical relevance of findings of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of CBT in depression. We identified RCTs of CBT that used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). HAMD scores were translated into Clinical Global Impression - Change scale (CGI-I) scores to measure clinical relevance. One hundred and seventy datasets from 82 studies were included. The mean percentage HAMD change for treatment arms was 53.66%, and 29.81% for control arms, a statistically significant difference. Combined active therapies showed the biggest improvement on CGI-I score, followed by CBT alone. All active treatments had better than expected HAMD percentage reduction and CGI-I scores. CBT has a clinically relevant effect in depression, with a notional CGI-I score of 2.2, indicating a significant clinical response. The non-specific or placebo effect of being in a psychotherapy trial was a 29% reduction of HAMD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Significant relationships between a simple marker of redox balance and lifestyle behaviours; Relevance to the Framingham risk score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Seyedsadjadi

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been closely linked to the progressive cell damage associated with emerging non-communicable disease (NCDs. Early detection of these biochemical abnormalities before irreversible cell damage occurs may therefore be useful in identifying disease risk at an individual level. In order to test this hypothesis, this study assessed the relationship between a simple measure of redox status and lifestyle risk factors for NCDs, and the population-based risk score of Framingham. In a cross-sectional study design, 100 apparently healthy middle-aged males (n = 48 and females (n = 52 were asked to complete a comprehensive lifestyle assessment questionnaire, followed by body fat percentage and blood pressure measurements, and blood collection. The ratio of plasma total antioxidant capacity to hydroperoxide (TAC/HPX was used as an index of redox balance. One-way ANOVA and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyse the association between TAC/HPX, lifestyle components and other plasma biomarkers. The TAC/HPX ratio was higher in males compared to females (t96 = 2.34, P = 0.021. TAC/HPX was also lower in participants with poor sleep quality (t93 = 2.39, P = 0.019, with high sleep apnoea risk (t62.2 = 3.32, P = 0.002, with high caffeine (F(2, 93 = 3.97, P = 0.022 and red meat intake (F(2, 93 = 5.55, P = 0.005. These associations were independent of gender. Furthermore, the TAC/HPX ratio decreased with increasing body fat percentage (F(2, 95 = 4.74, P = 0.011 and depression score (t94 = 2.38, P = 0.019, though these associations were dependent on gender. Importantly, a negative association was observed between TAC/HPX levels and the Framingham risk score in both males (r(45 = -0.39, P = 0.008 and females (r(50 = -0.33, P = 0.019 that was independent of other Framingham risk score components. Findings from this study suggests that a relatively simple measure of redox balance such as the TAC/HPX ratio may be a sensitive indicator of redox stress, and may therefore serve as a useful biomarker for assessing an individual's specific NCD risk linked to unhealthy lifestyle practices.

  18. The legacy of Black Consciousness: Its continued relevance for democratic South Africa and its significance for theological education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramathate T. Dolamo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Black Consciousness as a philosophy transcends all political organisations and ideologies, because its architects were interested in rallying the whole country to fight apartheid regardless of political affiliation. The same consciousness that was raised in the 1960s could still influence political business today in democratic South Africa. To this end, a selection of values and principles of Black Consciousness has been examined that could be used in various sectors to ensure that our democracy is strengthened and protected. Some of those values and principles include: (1 a sense of solidarity in the face of adversity; before 1994, it was apartheid and today it is poverty; (2 the importance of the value of self-reliance in the face of unemployment and joblessness; (3 the value of self-understanding in Africa and globally as a country and (4 the critical role that education plays towards the total liberation of the whole person.

  19. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  20. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  1. Statistical Significance for Hierarchical Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimes, Patrick K.; Liu, Yufeng; Hayes, D. Neil; Marron, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Cluster analysis has proved to be an invaluable tool for the exploratory and unsupervised analysis of high dimensional datasets. Among methods for clustering, hierarchical approaches have enjoyed substantial popularity in genomics and other fields for their ability to simultaneously uncover multiple layers of clustering structure. A critical and challenging question in cluster analysis is whether the identified clusters represent important underlying structure or are artifacts of natural sampling variation. Few approaches have been proposed for addressing this problem in the context of hierarchical clustering, for which the problem is further complicated by the natural tree structure of the partition, and the multiplicity of tests required to parse the layers of nested clusters. In this paper, we propose a Monte Carlo based approach for testing statistical significance in hierarchical clustering which addresses these issues. The approach is implemented as a sequential testing procedure guaranteeing control of the family-wise error rate. Theoretical justification is provided for our approach, and its power to detect true clustering structure is illustrated through several simulation studies and applications to two cancer gene expression datasets. PMID:28099990

  2. Discovering relevance knowledge in data: a growing cell structures approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuaje, F; Dubitzky, W; Black, N; Adamson, K

    2000-01-01

    Both information retrieval and case-based reasoning systems rely on effective and efficient selection of relevant data. Typically, relevance in such systems is approximated by similarity or indexing models. However, the definition of what makes data items similar or how they should be indexed is often nontrivial and time-consuming. Based on growing cell structure artificial neural networks, this paper presents a method that automatically constructs a case retrieval model from existing data. Within the case-based reasoning (CBR) framework, the method is evaluated for two medical prognosis tasks, namely, colorectal cancer survival and coronary heart disease risk prognosis. The results of the experiments suggest that the proposed method is effective and robust. To gain a deeper insight and understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the proposed model, a detailed empirical analysis of the models structural and behavioral properties is also provided.

  3. Significant events caused by extraneous acts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verlaeken, J.

    1987-01-01

    The operating experience feedback system of VINCOTTE, called ARIANE, consists, among others, of preparing synthesis reports on specific safety concerns. A recent report deals with significant events caused by extranous acts. Events attributable to human error are numerous. Confusion errors have already been analysed in several publications (NES IRS 664 etc.). However, are described here some ten incidents where extranous acts occurred: ZION 2 (September 76), OYSTER CREEK (May 79), PALISADES (January 81), CATAWBA (August 85), etc. The contributing factors for these unfortunate initiatives are explained; several resort to psychological influences. Corrective actions are discussed, and some general lessons are drawn. (author)

  4. Detection of significant protein coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, David; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2015-07-01

    The evolution of proteins cannot be fully understood without taking into account the coevolutionary linkages entangling them. From a practical point of view, coevolution between protein families has been used as a way of detecting protein interactions and functional relationships from genomic information. The most common approach to inferring protein coevolution involves the quantification of phylogenetic tree similarity using a family of methodologies termed mirrortree. In spite of their success, a fundamental problem of these approaches is the lack of an adequate statistical framework to assess the significance of a given coevolutionary score (tree similarity). As a consequence, a number of ad hoc filters and arbitrary thresholds are required in an attempt to obtain a final set of confident coevolutionary signals. In this work, we developed a method for associating confidence estimators (P values) to the tree-similarity scores, using a null model specifically designed for the tree comparison problem. We show how this approach largely improves the quality and coverage (number of pairs that can be evaluated) of the detected coevolution in all the stages of the mirrortree workflow, independently of the starting genomic information. This not only leads to a better understanding of protein coevolution and its biological implications, but also to obtain a highly reliable and comprehensive network of predicted interactions, as well as information on the substructure of macromolecular complexes using only genomic information. The software and datasets used in this work are freely available at: http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/pMT/. pazos@cnb.csic.es Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Characterization of load dependent creep behavior in medically relevant absorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Maureen L; Nagaraja, Srinidhi; Bui, Hieu; Hong, Danny

    2014-01-01

    While synthetic absorbable polymers have a substantial history of use in medical devices, their use is expanding and becoming more prevalent for devices where long term loading and structural support is required. In addition, there is evidence that current absorbable medical devices may experience permanent deformations, warping (out of plane twisting), and geometric changes in vivo. For clinical indications with long term loading or structural support requirements, understanding the material's viscoelastic properties becomes increasingly important whereas these properties have not been used historically as preclinical indications of performance or design considerations. In this study we measured the static creep, creep recovery and cyclic creep responses of common medically relevant absorbable materials (i.e., poly(l-lactide, PLLA) and poly(l-co-glycolide, PLGA) over a range of physiologically relevant loading magnitudes. The results indicate that both PLLA and PLGA exhibit creep behavior and failure at loads significantly less than the yield or ultimate properties of the material and that significant material specific responses to loading exist. In addition, we identified a strong correlation between the extent of creep in the material and its crystallinity. Results of the study provide new information on the creep behavior of PLLA and PLGA and support the use of viscoelastic properties of absorbable polymers as part of the material selection process. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Creation of reliable relevance judgments in information retrieval systems evaluation experimentation through crowdsourcing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Parnia; Ravana, Sri Devi

    2014-01-01

    Test collection is used to evaluate the information retrieval systems in laboratory-based evaluation experimentation. In a classic setting, generating relevance judgments involves human assessors and is a costly and time consuming task. Researchers and practitioners are still being challenged in performing reliable and low-cost evaluation of retrieval systems. Crowdsourcing as a novel method of data acquisition is broadly used in many research fields. It has been proven that crowdsourcing is an inexpensive and quick solution as well as a reliable alternative for creating relevance judgments. One of the crowdsourcing applications in IR is to judge relevancy of query document pair. In order to have a successful crowdsourcing experiment, the relevance judgment tasks should be designed precisely to emphasize quality control. This paper is intended to explore different factors that have an influence on the accuracy of relevance judgments accomplished by workers and how to intensify the reliability of judgments in crowdsourcing experiment.

  7. Corrosion on Mars: An Investigation of Corrosion Mechanisms Under Relevant Simulated Martian Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz M.; Li, Wenyan; Johansen, Michael R.; Buhrow, Jerry W.; Calle, Carlos I.

    2017-01-01

    This one-year project was selected by NASA's Science Innovation Fund in FY17 to address Corrosion on Mars which is a problem that has not been addressed before. Corrosion resistance is one of the most important properties in selecting materials for landed spacecraft and structures that will support surface operations for the human exploration of Mars. Currently, the selection of materials is done by assuming that the corrosion behavior of a material on Mars will be the same as that on Earth. This is understandable given that there is no data regarding the corrosion resistance of materials in the Mars environment. However, given that corrosion is defined as the degradation of a metal that results from its chemical interaction with the environment, it cannot be assumed that corrosion is going to be the same in both environments since they are significantly different. The goal of this research is to develop a systematic approach to understand corrosion of spacecraft materials on Mars by conducting a literature search of available data, relevant to corrosion in the Mars environment, and by performing preliminary laboratory experiments under relevant simulated Martian conditions. This project was motivated by the newly found evidence for the presence of transient liquid brines on Mars that coincided with the suggestion, by a team of researchers, that some of the structural degradation observed on Curiosity's wheels may be caused by corrosive interactions with the brines, while the most significant damage was attributed to rock scratching. An extensive literature search on data relevant to Mars corrosion confirmed the need for further investigation of the interaction between materials used for spacecraft and structures designed to support long-term surface operations on Mars. Simple preliminary experiments, designed to look at the interaction between an aerospace aluminum alloy (AA7075-T73) and the gases present in the Mars atmosphere, at 20degC and a pressure of 700 Pa

  8. Stimulus variability and the phonetic relevance hypothesis: effects of variability in speaking style, fundamental frequency, and speaking rate on spoken word identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Mitchell S; Barcroft, Joe

    2006-04-01

    Three experiments were conducted to examine the effects of trial-to-trial variations in speaking style, fundamental frequency, and speaking rate on identification of spoken words. In addition, the experiments investigated whether any effects of stimulus variability would be modulated by phonetic confusability (i.e., lexical difficulty). In Experiment 1, trial-to-trial variations in speaking style reduced the overall identification performance compared with conditions containing no speaking-style variability. In addition, the effects of variability were greater for phonetically confusable words than for phonetically distinct words. In Experiment 2, variations in fundamental frequency were found to have no significant effects on spoken word identification and did not interact with lexical difficulty. In Experiment 3, two different methods for varying speaking rate were found to have equivalent negative effects on spoken word recognition and similar interactions with lexical difficulty. Overall, the findings are consistent with a phonetic-relevance hypothesis, in which accommodating sources of acoustic-phonetic variability that affect phonetically relevant properties of speech signals can impair spoken word identification. In contrast, variability in parameters of the speech signal that do not affect phonetically relevant properties are not expected to affect overall identification performance. Implications of these findings for the nature and development of lexical representations are discussed.

  9. The Accidental Transgressor: Morally Relevant Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, Melanie; Mulvey, Kelly Lynn; Richardson, Cameron; Jampol, Noah

    2014-01-01

    To test young children’s false belief theory of mind in a morally relevant context, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, children (N = 162) at 3.5, 5.5, and 7.5 years of age were administered 3 tasks: prototypic moral transgression task, false belief theory of mind task (ToM), and an “accidental transgressor” task, which measured a morally relevant false belief theory of mind (MoToM). Children who did not pass false belief ToM were more likely to attribute negative intentions to an accidental transgressor than children who passed false belief ToM, and to use moral reasons when blaming the accidental transgressor. In Experiment 2, children (N = 46) who did not pass false belief ToM viewed it as more acceptable to punish the accidental transgressor than did participants who passed false belief ToM. Findings are discussed in light of research on the emergence of moral judgment and theory of mind. PMID:21377148

  10. Natural brain-information interfaces: Recommending information by relevance inferred from human brain signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Manuel J. A.; Ruotsalo, Tuukka; Spapé, Michiel M.; Barral, Oswald; Ravaja, Niklas; Jacucci, Giulio; Kaski, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Finding relevant information from large document collections such as the World Wide Web is a common task in our daily lives. Estimation of a user’s interest or search intention is necessary to recommend and retrieve relevant information from these collections. We introduce a brain-information interface used for recommending information by relevance inferred directly from brain signals. In experiments, participants were asked to read Wikipedia documents about a selection of topics while their EEG was recorded. Based on the prediction of word relevance, the individual’s search intent was modeled and successfully used for retrieving new relevant documents from the whole English Wikipedia corpus. The results show that the users’ interests toward digital content can be modeled from the brain signals evoked by reading. The introduced brain-relevance paradigm enables the recommendation of information without any explicit user interaction and may be applied across diverse information-intensive applications. PMID:27929077

  11. Identity theory and personality theory: mutual relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Sheldon

    2007-12-01

    Some personality psychologists have found a structural symbolic interactionist frame and identity theory relevant to their work. This frame and theory, developed in sociology, are first reviewed. Emphasized in the review are a multiple identity conception of self, identities as internalized expectations derived from roles embedded in organized networks of social interaction, and a view of social structures as facilitators in bringing people into networks or constraints in keeping them out, subsequently, attention turns to a discussion of the mutual relevance of structural symbolic interactionism/identity theory and personality theory, looking to extensions of the current literature on these topics.

  12. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  13. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-01-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. ‘Significant’ or ‘influential’ works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play. PMID:28791169

  14. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [The significance of meat quality in marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, E

    1994-07-01

    Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.

  16. [The G-DRG System 2009--relevant changes for rheumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, W; Liedtke-Dyong, A; Lakomek, H-J; Buscham, K; Lehmann, H; Liman, W; Fuchs, A-K; Bessler, F; Roeder, N

    2010-05-01

    The following article presents the major general and specific changes in the G-DRG system, in the classification systems for diagnoses and procedures as well as for the billing process for 2010. Since the G-DRG system is primarily a tool for the redistribution of resources, every hospital needs to analyze the economic effects of the changes by applying the G-DRG transition-grouper to its own cases. Depending on their clinical focus, rheumatological departments may experience positive or negative consequences from the adjustments. In addition, relevant current case law is considered.

  17. Test Management Framework for the ATLAS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, Andrei; The ATLAS collaboration; Avolio, Giuseppe

    2018-01-01

    Test Management Framework for the Data Acquisition of the ATLAS Experiment Data Acquisition (DAQ) of the ATLAS experiment is a large distributed and inhomogeneous system: it consists of thousands of interconnected computers and electronics devices that operate coherently to read out and select relevant physics data. Advanced diagnostics capabilities of the TDAQ control system are a crucial feature which contributes significantly to smooth operation and fast recovery in case of the problems and, finally, to the high efficiency of the whole experiment. The base layer of the verification and diagnostic functionality is a test management framework. We have developed a flexible test management system that allows the experts to define and configure tests for different components, indicate follow-up actions to test failures and describe inter-dependencies between DAQ or detector elements. This development is based on the experience gained with the previous test system that was used during the first three years of th...

  18. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory | Deist | Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics Plus. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (1992) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Bible Translation And Relevance Theory. F Deist ...

  19. Relevant Scatterers Characterization in SAR Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabouni, Houda; Datcu, Mihai

    2006-11-01

    Recognizing scenes in a single look meter resolution Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images, requires the capability to identify relevant signal signatures in condition of variable image acquisition geometry, arbitrary objects poses and configurations. Among the methods to detect relevant scatterers in SAR images, we can mention the internal coherence. The SAR spectrum splitted in azimuth generates a series of images which preserve high coherence only for particular object scattering. The detection of relevant scatterers can be done by correlation study or Independent Component Analysis (ICA) methods. The present article deals with the state of the art for SAR internal correlation analysis and proposes further extensions using elements of inference based on information theory applied to complex valued signals. The set of azimuth looks images is analyzed using mutual information measures and an equivalent channel capacity is derived. The localization of the "target" requires analysis in a small image window, thus resulting in imprecise estimation of the second order statistics of the signal. For a better precision, a Hausdorff measure is introduced. The method is applied to detect and characterize relevant objects in urban areas.

  20. Seeking Relevance: American Political Science and America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…

  1. Is Enterprise Education Relevant to Social Enterprise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Both enterprise education and social enterprise have become fashionable but what, if any, should be the connections between them? The purpose of this paper is to explore those connections and to reflect on what relevance the two concepts might have for each other. Design/methodology/approach: Both enterprise education and social…

  2. The Relevant Physical Trace in Criminal Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdica Hazard

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.

  3. Interpersonal communication: It's relevance to nursing practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper is aimed at highlighting how essential interpersonal communication is necessary for establishing rapport, understanding the needs of the patients and planning effective intervention for meeting holistic health care. To be continually relevant, Nurses have to improve on their communication skills to meet the ...

  4. Inferring feature relevances from metric learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulz, Alexander; Mokbel, Bassam; Biehl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Powerful metric learning algorithms have been proposed in the last years which do not only greatly enhance the accuracy of distance-based classifiers and nearest neighbor database retrieval, but which also enable the interpretability of these operations by assigning explicit relevance weights...

  5. The Relevance of Causal Social Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Social constructionist claims are surprising and interesting when they entail that presumably natural kinds are in fact socially constructed. The claims are interesting because of their theoretical and political importance. Authors like Díaz-León argue that constitutive social construction is more relevant for achieving social justice than causal social construction. This paper challenges this claim. Assuming there are socially salient groups that are discriminated against, the paper presents a dilemma: if there were no constitutively constructed social kinds, the causes of the discrimination of existing social groups would have to be addressed, and understanding causal social construction would be relevant to achieve social justice. On the other hand, not all possible constitutively socially constructed kinds are actual social kinds. If an existing social group is constitutively constructed as a social kind K, the fact that it actually exists as a K has social causes. Again, causal social construction is relevant. The paper argues that (i for any actual social kind X, if X is constitutively socially constructed as K, then it is also causally socially constructed; and (ii causal social construction is at least as relevant as constitutive social construction for concerns of social justice. For illustration, I draw upon two phenomena that are presumed to contribute towards the discrimination of women: (i the poor performance effects of stereotype threat, and (ii the silencing effects of gendered language use.

  6. The economic lot size and relevant costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corbeij, M.H.; Jansen, R.A.; Grübström, R.W.; Hinterhuber, H.H.; Lundquist, J.

    1993-01-01

    In many accounting textbooks it is strongly argued that decisions should always be evaluated on relevant costs; that is variable costs and opportunity costs. Surprisingly, when it comes to Economic Order Quantities or Lot Sizes, some textbooks appear to be less straightforward. The question whether

  7. Bootstrapping Visual Categorization with Relevant Negatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Worring, M.; Koelma, D.; Smeulders, A.W.M.

    Learning classifiers for many visual concepts are important for image categorization and retrieval. As a classifier tends to misclassify negative examples which are visually similar to positive ones, inclusion of such misclassified and thus relevant negatives should be stressed during learning.

  8. Why ritual plant use has ethnopharmacological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quiroz, Diana; Sosef, Marc; Andel, Van Tinde

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Although ritual plant use is now recognised both for its socio-cultural importance and for its contribution to nature conservation, its potential pharmacological effects remain overlooked. Aim of the study Our objective was to see whether ritual plant use could have

  9. Bradford's Law and Its Relevance to Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenton, Andrew K.; Hay-Gibson, Naomi V.

    2009-01-01

    Bradford's Law has been the subject of much discussion and analysis in library and information science since its formulation in the 1930s and remains frequently debated to this day. It has been applied to various practices within the discipline, especially with regard to collection development, but its relevance to researchers and the potential it…

  10. The relevance of cosmopolitanism for moral education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.; de Ruyter, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that

  11. Ranking Music Data by Relevance and Importance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruxanda, Maria Magdalena; Nanopoulos, Alexandros; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2008-01-01

    Due to the rapidly increasing availability of audio files on the Web, it is relevant to augment search engines with advanced audio search functionality. In this context, the ranking of the retrieved music is an important issue. This paper proposes a music ranking method capable of flexibly fusing...

  12. Fast multi-output relevance vector regression

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to decrease the time complexity of multi-output relevance vector regression from O(VM^3) to O(V^3+M^3), where V is the number of output dimensions, M is the number of basis functions, and V

  13. Pragmatic inferences and self-relevant judgments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puente-Diaz, Rogelio; Cavazos Arroyo, Judith; Brem, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Three studies examined the influence of type of scale on self-relevant judgments and the moderating role of age, prevention, focus, and need for cogni- tion. Participants were randomly assigned to a bipolar or a unipolar scale condition in all three studies. Results from study 1 with a representa...

  14. Making Chemistry Relevant to the Engineering Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Dutt, Sharmistha; Slappey, Charles; Bartley, Julie K.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a campus-wide, externally funded project to increase performance in, enthusiasm for, and retention within STEM disciplines, we developed an interdisciplinary, team-taught first-year seminar course. The construction and delivery of this course was designed to show the relevance of selected general chemistry topics such as matter and…

  15. Contingent Attentional Capture by Conceptually Relevant Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyble, Brad; Folk, Charles; Potter, Mary C.

    2013-01-01

    Attentional capture is an unintentional shift of visuospatial attention to the location of a distractor that is either highly salient, or relevant to the current task set. The latter situation is referred to as contingent capture, in that the effect is contingent on a match between characteristics of the stimuli and the task-defined…

  16. The Relevance Aura of Bibliographic Records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1997-01-01

    Analyzes relevance assessments of topical descriptors for bibliographic records for two dimensions: (1) a vertical conceptual hierarchy of broad to narrow descriptors, and (2) a horizontal linkage of related terms. The data were analyzed for a semantic distance and semantic direction effect as postulated by the Semantic Distance Model. (Author/LRW)

  17. The Relevance of Cosmopolitanism for Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merry, Michael S.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article we defend a moral conception of cosmopolitanism and its relevance for moral education. Our moral conception of cosmopolitanism presumes that persons possess an inherent dignity in the Kantian sense and therefore they should be recognised as ends-in-themselves. We argue that cosmopolitan ideals can inspire moral educators to awaken…

  18. The value relevance of direct cash flows under international financial reporting standards

    OpenAIRE

    Clacher, I; de Ricquebourg, AD; Hodgson, A

    2013-01-01

    This study examines if there has been a change in the value relevance of direct cash flow components since the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Australia. Our results show that for both industrial and extractive firms direct cash flow statements are value relevant under Australian Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (AGAAP) and remain so after the adoption of IFRS. In addition, for industrial firms there is a significant increase in the value relevance of...

  19. The Effects of Goal Relevance and Perceptual Features on Emotional Items and Associative Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei B. Mao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Showing an emotional item in a neutral background scene often leads to enhanced memory for the emotional item and impaired associative memory for background details. Meanwhile, both top–down goal relevance and bottom–up perceptual features played important roles in memory binding. We conducted two experiments and aimed to further examine the effects of goal relevance and perceptual features on emotional items and associative memory. By manipulating goal relevance (asking participants to categorize only each item image as living or non-living or to categorize each whole composite picture consisted of item image and background scene as natural scene or manufactured scene and perceptual features (controlling visual contrast and visual familiarity in two experiments, we found that both high goal relevance and salient perceptual features (high salience of items vs. high familiarity of items could promote emotional item memory, but they had different effects on associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds. Specifically, high goal relevance and high perceptual-salience of items could jointly impair the associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds, while the effect of item familiarity on associative memory for emotional items would be modulated by goal relevance. High familiarity of items could increase associative memory for negative items and neutral backgrounds only in the low goal relevance condition. These findings suggest the effect of emotion on associative memory is not only related to attentional capture elicited by emotion, but also can be affected by goal relevance and perceptual features of stimulus.

  20. The Effects of Goal Relevance and Perceptual Features on Emotional Items and Associative Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Wei B; An, Shu; Yang, Xiao F

    2017-01-01

    Showing an emotional item in a neutral background scene often leads to enhanced memory for the emotional item and impaired associative memory for background details. Meanwhile, both top-down goal relevance and bottom-up perceptual features played important roles in memory binding. We conducted two experiments and aimed to further examine the effects of goal relevance and perceptual features on emotional items and associative memory. By manipulating goal relevance (asking participants to categorize only each item image as living or non-living or to categorize each whole composite picture consisted of item image and background scene as natural scene or manufactured scene) and perceptual features (controlling visual contrast and visual familiarity) in two experiments, we found that both high goal relevance and salient perceptual features (high salience of items vs. high familiarity of items) could promote emotional item memory, but they had different effects on associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds. Specifically, high goal relevance and high perceptual-salience of items could jointly impair the associative memory for emotional items and neutral backgrounds, while the effect of item familiarity on associative memory for emotional items would be modulated by goal relevance. High familiarity of items could increase associative memory for negative items and neutral backgrounds only in the low goal relevance condition. These findings suggest the effect of emotion on associative memory is not only related to attentional capture elicited by emotion, but also can be affected by goal relevance and perceptual features of stimulus.

  1. Experiments in computing: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedre, Matti; Moisseinen, Nella

    2014-01-01

    Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general.

  2. Identifying public health competencies relevant to family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Bart J; Moloughney, Brent W; Iglar, Karl T

    2011-10-01

    Public health situations faced by family physicians and other primary care practitioners, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and more recently H1N1, have resulted in an increased interest to identify the public health competencies relevant to family medicine. At present there is no agreed-on set of public health competencies delineating the knowledge and skills that family physicians should possess to effectively face diverse public health challenges. Using a multi-staged, iterative process that included a detailed literature review, the authors developed a set of public health competencies relevant to primary care, identifying competencies relevant across four levels, from "post-MD" to "enhanced." Feedback from family medicine and public health educator-practitioners regarding the set of proposed "essential" competencies indicated the need for a more limited, feasible set of "priority" areas to be highlighted during residency training. This focused set of public health competencies has begun to guide relevant components of the University of Toronto's Family Medicine Residency Program curriculum, including academic half-days; clinical experiences, especially identifying "teachable moments" during patient encounters; resident academic projects; and elective public health agency placements. These competencies will also be used to guide the development of a family medicine-public health primer and faculty development sessions to support family medicine faculty facilitating residents to achieve these competencies. Once more fully implemented, an evaluation will be initiated to determine the degree to which these public health competencies are being achieved by family medicine graduates, especially whether they attained the knowledge, skills, and confidence necessary to effectively face diverse public health situations-from common to emergent. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Industrial Relevance of Chromosomal Copy Number Variation in Saccharomyces Yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter de Vries, Arthur R.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chromosomal copy number variation (CCNV) plays a key role in evolution and health of eukaryotes. The unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an important model for studying the generation, physiological impact, and evolutionary significance of CCNV. Fundamental studies of this yeast have contributed to an extensive set of methods for analyzing and introducing CCNV. Moreover, these studies provided insight into the balance between negative and positive impacts of CCNV in evolutionary contexts. A growing body of evidence indicates that CCNV not only frequently occurs in industrial strains of Saccharomyces yeasts but also is a key contributor to the diversity of industrially relevant traits. This notion is further supported by the frequent involvement of CCNV in industrially relevant traits acquired during evolutionary engineering. This review describes recent developments in genome sequencing and genome editing techniques and discusses how these offer opportunities to unravel contributions of CCNV in industrial Saccharomyces strains as well as to rationally engineer yeast chromosomal copy numbers and karyotypes. PMID:28341679

  4. Relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Sten Tronæs; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Sørensen, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Seeking relevant criteria for testing the quality of turbulence models, the scale of turbulence and the gust factor have been estimated from data and compared with predictions from first-order models of these two quantities. It is found that the mean of the measured length scales is approx. 10......% smaller than the IEC model, for wind turbine hub height levels. The mean is only marginally dependent on trends in time series. It is also found that the coefficient of variation of the measured length scales is about 50%. 3sec and 10sec pre-averaging of wind speed data are relevant for MW-size wind...... turbines when seeking wind characteristics that correspond to one blade and the entire rotor, respectively. For heights exceeding 50-60m the gust factor increases with wind speed. For heights larger the 60-80m, present assumptions on the value of the gust factor are significantly conservative, both for 3...

  5. The brain's default network: anatomy, function, and relevance to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Randy L; Andrews-Hanna, Jessica R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-03-01

    Thirty years of brain imaging research has converged to define the brain's default network-a novel and only recently appreciated brain system that participates in internal modes of cognition. Here we synthesize past observations to provide strong evidence that the default network is a specific, anatomically defined brain system preferentially active when individuals are not focused on the external environment. Analysis of connectional anatomy in the monkey supports the presence of an interconnected brain system. Providing insight into function, the default network is active when individuals are engaged in internally focused tasks including autobiographical memory retrieval, envisioning the future, and conceiving the perspectives of others. Probing the functional anatomy of the network in detail reveals that it is best understood as multiple interacting subsystems. The medial temporal lobe subsystem provides information from prior experiences in the form of memories and associations that are the building blocks of mental simulation. The medial prefrontal subsystem facilitates the flexible use of this information during the construction of self-relevant mental simulations. These two subsystems converge on important nodes of integration including the posterior cingulate cortex. The implications of these functional and anatomical observations are discussed in relation to possible adaptive roles of the default network for using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions, and maximize the utility of moments when we are not otherwise engaged by the external world. We conclude by discussing the relevance of the default network for understanding mental disorders including autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease.

  6. Sexuality and spirituality: the relevance of eastern traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francoeur, R T

    1992-01-01

    This article outlines some of the major Eastern sexual and spiritual traditions (primarily Hinduism, Taoism and Tantrism), and discusses their relevance for the contemporary Western world. The article begins by examining the sources of Eastern sexual traditions, before and after the "Axial" period, the turning point at which male consciousness and power gained ascendancy over the female principle. Although a phallocentric view of the world came to dominate the East, Eastern cultures -- unlike the West -- maintained a respect for nature. According to this view, health and spirituality are gained only when humanity respects its place in the cosmos and lives in harmony with nature. The article then examines the sexual traditions of Hinduism, in which sexual asceticism not only coexisted but also complimented the celebration of sexual desire and pleasure. The article then discusses the Taoist traditions, which, among other things, stressed the importance of female sexual satisfaction. Taoism argued that men cannot experience true sexual ecstasy unless they develop the ability to control their ejaculation. The Tantric sexual tradition, the article explains, maintained that ultimate sexual pleasure would enable one to experience the true nature of reality. The article then goes on to review variations of these traditions: the Hindu Tantric Doctrine (Shaktism), the Buddhist Tantric Doctrine, and Tantra and Yoga. Finally, the article considers the relevance of these Eastern philosophies to the Western sexual tradition, which has tended to view sexuality as antagonistic to spiritual liberation.

  7. The strategic significance of negative externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Negative externalities have competitive relevance in a market when they have selective impacts as, for : example, when a product in use imposes greater costs on consumers of rival products than on other people. : Because managers have discretion ...

  8. Adolescents with anxiety and depression: is social recovery relevant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonds, Laura M; Pons, Rebecca A; Stone, Nicola J; Warren, Fiona; John, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Social recovery has become a prominent aspect of mental health service design and delivery in the past decade. Much of the literature on social recovery is derived from first-person accounts or primary research with adult service users experiencing severe mental illness. There is a lack of both theoretical and empirical work that could inform consideration of how the concept of social recovery might apply to adolescents experiencing common (non-psychotic) mental health problems such as anxiety and depression. The current study was conducted to understand the process of experiencing anxiety and depression in young people. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine adolescents with anxiety and depression (seven girls and two boys aged 14-16 years) and 12 mothers who were recruited from a specialist Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in the South of England. Thematic analysis indicated that young people do experience a process of 'recovery'; the processes participants described have some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving biographical disruption and the development of new meanings, in this case of anxiety or depression, and changes in sense of identity. The accounts diverge with regard to later stages of adult models involving the development of hope and responsibility. The findings suggest that services should attend to social isolation and emphasise support for positive aspirations for future selves whilst also attending to young people's and parents' expectations about change. Methodological challenges face enquiry about 'recovery' given its connotations with cure in everyday language. Theoretical and empirical work on social recovery in young people and families is lacking. Using interviews, this study sought to understand the relevance of social recovery for adolescents with anxiety and depression and their mothers. Findings suggest some congruence with the earlier stages of adult recovery models involving

  9. Ion beam induced luminescence: Relevance to radiation induced bystander effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, S.B., E-mail: ahmad.rabilal@gmail.com [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); McNeill, F.E., E-mail: fmcneill@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Byun, S.H., E-mail: soohyun@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Prestwich, W.V., E-mail: prestwic@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Seymour, C., E-mail: seymouc@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Mothersill, C.E., E-mail: mothers@mcmaster.ca [Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, University of McMaster, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this work is quantify the light emitted as a result of charged particle interaction in materials which may be of relevance to radiation induced 'bystander effects' studies. We have developed a system which employs single photon counting to measure the light emitted from samples irradiated under vacuum by a charged particle beam. The system uses a fast photomultiplier tube with a peak cathode response at 420 nm. It has been tested in a proof-of-principle experiment using polystyrene targets. Light output, as a result of irradiation, was measured. The luminescence yield appears to have a non-linear behavior with the incident ion fluence: it rises exponentially to an asymptotic value. The target was irradiated with beam energies varying from 1 to 2 MeV and showed saturation at or before an incident fluence rate of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} H{sup +}/cm{sup 2} s. The average saturation value for the photon output was found to be 40 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cps. Some measurements were performed using filters to study the emission at specific wavelengths. In the case of filtered light measurements, the photon output was found to saturate at 28 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3}, 10 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6}, and 35 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} cps for wavelengths of 280 {+-} 5 nm, 320 {+-} 5 nm and 340 {+-} 5 nm respectively. The light output reaches a maximum value because of damage induced in the polymer. Our measurements indicate a 'damage cross section' of the order of 10{sup -14} cm{sup 2}. The average radiant intensity was found to increase at wavelengths of 280 and 320 nm when the proton energy was increased. This was not found to occur at 340 nm. In conclusion, the light emission at specific wavelengths was found to depend upon the incident proton fluence and the proton energy. The wavelengths of the emitted light measured in this study have significance for the understanding of radiation induced bystander effects.

  10. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    OpenAIRE

    Golz Martin; Wollner Sebastian; Sommer David; Schnieder Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Automatic relevance determination (ARD) was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE) recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC) and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD) averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ) was used as ARD...

  11. Is QCD relevant to nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of recent work on baryon structure in a number of QCD-motivated models. After establishing a prima facie case that the quark model should be relevant in a consistent description of the nucleus over a wide range of momentum transfer, the author looks for experimental confirmation. The discussion includes the search for exotic states, for a six quark component of the deuteron, and an up to date report on the interpretation of the EMC effect. (Auth.)

  12. Trade Off Relevance Dan Reliability: Isu Ifrs

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmudah, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Financial reports containing qualitative characteristic that are useful for usernya.For a long time believed to be the existence of trade off between characteristic of qualitative relevance and reliability. Trade off due to the fact that the use of the method of measurement historical cost and fair value. Trade off occur because of the interests of for the purpose of the preparation of reports on finance. Accountability for the purpose of the measurement of the cost of historical still reliab...

  13. Hydrogen interaction with fusion-relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caorlin, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is an outline of the work carried out at JRC Ispra in the Tritium-materials Interaction Laboratory, on the interaction of gaseous hydrogen with several materials of interest in the field of fusion technology. Experimental work is reported and a concise review of relevant theoretical and numerical supporting activity is given as well. A period of about seven years is covered since 1982. Current work and possible future extensions are also briefly mentioned. 11 figs., 18 refs

  14. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y.; Karlsson, K. F.; Dalessi, S.; Gallinet, B.; Svendsen, G.

    2014-01-01

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented

  15. Nanostructure symmetry: Relevance for physics and computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupertuis, Marc-André; Oberli, D. Y. [Laboratory for Physics of Nanostructure, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Karlsson, K. F. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University (Sweden); Dalessi, S. [Computational Biology Group, Department of Medical Genetics, University of Lausanne (Switzerland); Gallinet, B. [Nanophotonics and Metrology Laboratory, EPF Lausanne (Switzerland); Svendsen, G. [Dept. of Electronics and Telecom., Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-03-31

    We review the research done in recent years in our group on the effects of nanostructure symmetry, and outline its relevance both for nanostructure physics and for computations of their electronic and optical properties. The exemples of C3v and C2v quantum dots are used. A number of surprises and non-trivial aspects are outlined, and a few symmetry-based tools for computing and analysis are shortly presented.

  16. An investigation of the effects of relevant samples and a comparison of verification versus discovery based lab design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieben, James C., Jr.

    This study focuses on the effects of relevance and lab design on student learning within the chemistry laboratory environment. A general chemistry conductivity of solutions experiment and an upper level organic chemistry cellulose regeneration experiment were employed. In the conductivity experiment, the two main variables studied were the effect of relevant (or "real world") samples on student learning and a verification-based lab design versus a discovery-based lab design. With the cellulose regeneration experiment, the effect of a discovery-based lab design vs. a verification-based lab design was the sole focus. Evaluation surveys consisting of six questions were used at three different times to assess student knowledge of experimental concepts. In the general chemistry laboratory portion of this study, four experimental variants were employed to investigate the effect of relevance and lab design on student learning. These variants consisted of a traditional (or verification) lab design, a traditional lab design using "real world" samples, a new lab design employing real world samples/situations using unknown samples, and the new lab design using real world samples/situations that were known to the student. Data used in this analysis were collected during the Fall 08, Winter 09, and Fall 09 terms. For the second part of this study a cellulose regeneration experiment was employed to investigate the effects of lab design. A demonstration creating regenerated cellulose "rayon" was modified and converted to an efficient and low-waste experiment. In the first variant students tested their products and verified a list of physical properties. In the second variant, students filled in a blank physical property chart with their own experimental results for the physical properties. Results from the conductivity experiment show significant student learning of the effects of concentration on conductivity and how to use conductivity to differentiate solution types with the

  17. Review of Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment and its Relevance to Environmental Regulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Singer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The environment is increasingly being recognised for the role it might play in the global spread of clinically-relevant antibiotic resistance. Environmental regulators monitor and control many of the pathways responsible for the release of resistance-driving chemicals into the environment (e.g., antimicrobials, metals, biocides. Hence, environmental regulators should be contributing significantly to the development of global and national antimicrobial resistance (AMR action plans. It is argued that the lack of environment-facing mitigation actions included in existing AMR action plans is likely a function of our poor fundamental understanding of many of the key issues. Here, we aim to present the problem with AMR in the environment through the lens of an environmental regulator, using the Environment Agency (England’s regulator as an example from which parallels can be drawn globally. The issues that are pertinent to environmental regulators are drawn out to answer: What are the drivers and pathways of AMR? How do these relate to the normal work, powers and duties of environmental regulators? What are the knowledge gaps that hinder the delivery of environmental protection from AMR? We offer several thought experiments for how different mitigation strategies might proceed. We conclude that: 1 AMR Action Plans do not tackle all the potentially relevant pathways and drivers of AMR in the environment; and 2 AMR Action Plans are deficient, in part, because the science to inform policy is lacking and this needs to be addressed.

  18. A clinically relevant major cross-reactive allergen from mesquite tree pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, A; Singh, B P; Arora, N; Jain, V K; Sridhara, S

    2008-10-01

    Prosopis juliflora (mesquite) is one of the major sources of pollinosis in tropical and semi-arid countries of the world. The present study was undertaken to purify and characterize a major cross-reactive allergen from this tree species. Mesquite pollen extract was purified using reverse-phase chromatography. Allergen characterization was done by electrophoresis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blotting. Clinical relevance of the purified protein was analyzed by in vivo (skin tests) and in vitro experiments such as ELISA, histamine release, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) proliferation and cytokine assays. Cross-reactivity of purified protein with allergenic tree species and lima bean (food) was assessed by inhibition assays. A 66-kDa protein was purified from mesquite pollen extract using octadecyl silica resin. Purified protein recognized 90% of mesquite-sensitized patients in skin test and ELISA. It induced significant histamine release in allergic patients' blood and interleukin-4 secretion in the PBMC culture supernatants. Inhibition assays suggested close allergenic relationship of this protein with Ailanthus excelsa, Cassia siamea, Salvadora persica pollen and Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean - an edible legume). A 66-kDa major cross-reactive allergen was isolated from mesquite pollen using single-step purification procedure. The protein seems relevant for clinical applications in allergic disorders.

  19. Selection of relevant dietary indicators for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingrímsdóttir, L; Ovesen, L; Moreiras, O; Jacob, S

    2002-05-01

    To define a set of dietary components that are relevant determinants for health in Europe. The selected components are intended to serve as nutrition indicators for health in the European Health Monitoring Programme and, as such, must be limited in number, relevant to health in Europe and practical for all involved countries with respect to data gathering and comparability of data. Major nutrition factors were determined by reviewing relevant epidemiological and clinical literature in nutrition and health as well as referring to reports from international expert groups, including the report from the project Nutrition and Diet for Healthy Lifestyles in Europe. The selection of factors was also based on the relative ease and cost involved for participating countries to obtain comparable and valid data. The selected factors include foods or food groups as well as individual nutrients. Biomarkers are suggested for selected nutrients that pose the greatest difficulty in obtaining valid and comparable data from dietary studies. The following list of diet indicators for health monitoring in Europe was agreed upon by the EFCOSUM group in 2001, in order of priority: vegetables, fruit, bread, fish, saturated fatty acids as percentage of energy (%E), total fat as %E, and ethanol in grams per day. Biomarkers were suggested for the following nutrients: folate, vitamin D, iron, iodine and sodium. Energy has to be assessed in order to calculate %E from total fat and saturated fatty acids.

  20. The value relevance of environmental emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Lydia Nelwan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines whether environmental performance has value relevance by investigating the relations between environmental emissions and stock prices for the U.S. public companies. The previous studies argued that the conjectured relations between accounting performance measures and environmental performance do not have a strong theoretical basis, and the modeling of relations between market per-formance measures and environmental performance do not adequately consider the relevance of accounting performance to market value. Therefore, this study examines whether publicly reported environmental emissions provide incremental information to accounting earnings in pricing companies stocks. It is done among the complete set of industries covered by Toxics Release Inventory (TRI reporting for the period 2007 to 2010. Using Ohlson model but modified to include different types of emis-sions, it is found that ground emissions (underground injection and land emissions are value relevant but other emission types (air and water and transferred-out emis-sions appear to not provide incremental information in the valuation model. The result in this study raise concerns that different types of emissions are assessed differently by the market, confirming that studies should not aggregate such measures.

  1. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 – 4.9 % and 1.9 – 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 – 0.006 % and 0.002 – 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respectively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclusion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  2. EOG feature relevance determination for microsleep detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golz Martin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic relevance determination (ARD was applied to two-channel EOG recordings for microsleep event (MSE recognition. 10 s immediately before MSE and also before counterexamples of fatigued, but attentive driving were analysed. Two type of signal features were extracted: the maximum cross correlation (MaxCC and logarithmic power spectral densities (PSD averaged in spectral bands of 0.5 Hz width ranging between 0 and 8 Hz. Generalised learn-ing vector quantisation (GRLVQ was used as ARD method to show the potential of feature reduction. This is compared to support-vector machines (SVM, in which the feature reduction plays a much smaller role. Cross validation yielded mean normalised relevancies of PSD features in the range of 1.6 - 4.9 % and 1.9 - 10.4 % for horizontal and vertical EOG, respectively. MaxCC relevancies were 0.002 - 0.006 % and 0.002 - 0.06 %, respectively. This shows that PSD features of vertical EOG are indispensable, whereas MaxCC can be neglected. Mean classification accuracies were estimated at 86.6±b 1.3 % and 92.3±b 0.2 % for GRLVQ and SVM, respec-tively. GRLVQ permits objective feature reduction by inclu-sion of all processing stages, but is not as accurate as SVM.

  3. Valerian: No Evidence for Clinically Relevant Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Kelber

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent popular publications as well as in widely used information websites directed to cancer patients, valerian is claimed to have a potential of adverse interactions with anticancer drugs. This questions its use as a safe replacement for, for example, benzodiazepines. A review on the interaction potential of preparations from valerian root (Valeriana officinalis L. root was therefore conducted. A data base search and search in a clinical drug interaction data base were conducted. Thereafter, a systematic assessment of publications was performed. Seven in vitro studies on six CYP 450 isoenzymes, on p-glycoprotein, and on two UGT isoenzymes were identified. However, the methodological assessment of these studies did not support their suitability for the prediction of clinically relevant interactions. In addition, clinical studies on various valerian preparations did not reveal any relevant interaction potential concerning CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4. Available animal and human pharmacodynamic studies did not verify any interaction potential. The interaction potential of valerian preparations therefore seems to be low and thereby without clinical relevance. We conclude that there is no specific evidence questioning their safety, also in cancer patients.

  4. Functional dyspepsia: Are psychosocial factors of relevance?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Barry; Timothy G Dinan

    2006-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Functional Dyspepsia (FD) remains unclear, appears diverse and is thus inadequately understood. Akin to other functional gastrointestinal disorders, research has demonstrated an association between this common diagnosis and psychosocial factors and psychiatric morbidity. Conceptualising the relevance of these factors within the syndrome of FD requires application of the biopsychosocial model of disease.Using this paradigm, dysregulation of the reciprocal communication between the brain and the gut is central to symptom generation, interpretation and exacerbation.Appreciation and understanding of the neurobiological correlates of various psychological states is also relevant.The view that psychosocial factors exert their influence in FD predominantly through motivation of health care seeking also persists. This appears too one-dimensional an assertion in light of the evidence available supporting a more intrinsic aetiological link. Evolving understanding of pathogenic mechanisms and the heterogeneous nature of the syndrome will facilitate effective management.Co-morbid psychiatric illness warrants treatment with conventional therapies. Acknowledging the relevance of psychosocial variables in FD, the degree of which is subject to variation, has implications for assessment and management. Available evidence suggests psychological therapies may benefit FD patients particularly those with chronic symptoms. The rationale for use of psychotropic medications in FD is apparent but the evidence base to support the use of antidepressant pharmacotherapy is to date limited.

  5. Experiments at CERN in 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    This report contains the preliminary abstracts of the current experiments at the CERN SPS synchrotron, the anti p colliding beams, the CERN ISR, the CERN PS synchrotron, and the CERN synchrocyclotron. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)

  6. Encouraging Family Involvement through Culturally Relevant Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Kela; Hooks, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe one teacher education program's experience using an integrated approach to provide preservice teachers with both knowledge of and experience with diverse cultures. Included are three important components within this program that strive to assist preservice teachers as they develop an understanding of…

  7. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  8. Copenhagen Sonic Experience Map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of present European interest for mapping urban noise, it seems increasingly relevant to investigate the multiple ways in which sound intersects with the everyday experiences of urban citizens. Focusing on the polluting effects of infrastructural noise, the EU-initiated project of asse...

  9. Modelling Urban Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Vetner, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    How can urban designers develop an emotionally satisfying environment not only for today's users but also for coming generations? Which devices can they use to elicit interesting and relevant urban experiences? This paper attempts to answer these questions by analyzing the design of Zuidas, a new...

  10. A Simple Adsorption Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirado, Gonzalo; Ayllon, Jose A.

    2011-01-01

    The study of adsorption phenomenon is one of the most relevant and traditional physical chemistry experiments performed by chemistry undergraduate students in laboratory courses. In this article, we describe an easy, inexpensive, and straightforward way to experimentally determine adsorption isotherms using pieces of filter paper as the adsorbent…

  11. A content relevance model for social media health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prybutok, Gayle Linda; Koh, Chang; Prybutok, Victor R

    2014-04-01

    Consumer health informatics includes the development and implementation of Internet-based systems to deliver health risk management information and health intervention applications to the public. The application of consumer health informatics to educational and interventional efforts such as smoking reduction and cessation has garnered attention from both consumers and health researchers in recent years. Scientists believe that smoking avoidance or cessation before the age of 30 years can prevent more than 90% of smoking-related cancers and that individuals who stop smoking fare as well in preventing cancer as those who never start. The goal of this study was to determine factors that were most highly correlated with content relevance for health information provided on the Internet for a study group of 18- to 30-year-old college students. Data analysis showed that the opportunity for convenient entertainment, social interaction, health information-seeking behavior, time spent surfing on the Internet, the importance of available activities on the Internet (particularly e-mail), and perceived site relevance for Internet-based sources of health information were significantly correlated with content relevance for 18- to 30-year-old college students, an educated subset of this population segment.

  12. Identifying Relevant Studies in Software Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, He; Ali Babar, Muhammad; Tell, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Context: Systematic literature review (SLR) has become an important research methodology in software engineering since the introduction of evidence-based software engineering (EBSE) in 2004. One critical step in applying this methodology is to design and execute appropriate and effective search....... Objective: The main objective of the research reported in this paper is to improve the search step of undertaking SLRs in software engineering (SE) by devising and evaluating systematic and practical approaches to identifying relevant studies in SE. Method: We have systematically selected and analytically...

  13. Relevance of physics to the pharmacy major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Richard P

    2007-08-15

    To offer a physics course that is relevant to pharmacy students, yet still contains many of the fundamental principles of physics. The course was modified over a period of several years to include activities and examples that were related to other courses in the curriculum. Course evaluations were given to assess student attitudes about the importance of physics in the pharmacy curriculum. Students' attitudes have changed over time to appreciate the role that physics plays in their studies. Students gained confidence in their ability to learn in other courses.

  14. Clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Moreno, Maria Antonia; Rodríguez-Camacho, Juan Manuel; Calderón-Hernanz, Beatriz; Comas-Díaz, Bernardino; Tarradas-Torras, Jordi

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention on patient care in emergencies, to determine the severity of detected errors. Second, to analyse the most frequent types of interventions and type of drugs involved and to evaluate the clinical pharmacist's activity. A 6-month observational prospective study of pharmacist intervention in the Emergency Department (ED) at a 400-bed hospital in Spain was performed to record interventions carried out by the clinical pharmacists. We determined whether the intervention occurred in the process of medication reconciliation or another activity, and whether the drug involved belonged to the High-Alert Medications Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) list. To evaluate the severity of the errors detected and clinical relevance of the pharmacist intervention, a modified assessment scale of Overhage and Lukes was used. Relationship between clinical relevance of pharmacist intervention and the severity of medication errors was assessed using ORs and Spearman's correlation coefficient. During the observation period, pharmacists reviewed the pharmacotherapy history and medication orders of 2984 patients. A total of 991 interventions were recorded in 557 patients; 67.2% of the errors were detected during medication reconciliation. Medication errors were considered severe in 57.2% of cases and 64.9% of pharmacist intervention were considered relevant. About 10.9% of the drugs involved are in the High-Alert Medications ISMP list. The severity of the medication error and the clinical significance of the pharmacist intervention were correlated (Spearman's ρ=0.728/pclinical pharmacists identified and intervened on a high number of severe medication errors. This suggests that emergency services will benefit from pharmacist-provided drug therapy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Identifying relevant feature-action associations for grasping unmodelled objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    content. The method is provided with a large and structured set of visual features, motivated by the visual hierarchy in primates and finds relevant feature action associations automatically. We apply our method in a simulated environment on three different object sets for the case of grasp affordance...... learning. For box objects, we achieve a 0.90 success probability, 0.80 for round objects and up to 0.75 for open objects, when presented with novel objects. In this work, we in particular demonstrate the effect of choosing appropriate feature representations. We demonstrate a significant performance...

  16. Food as an element in developing tourist experiences. A case study of the Finnmark region in Northern Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Alita Dagmar

    2017-01-01

    The focus on food as a significant element and topic in tourism and tourists’ experiences has increased. How tourists experience food has changed together with tourists’ motivation and needs. Current findings indicate that tourists seek and expect to find local food experiences while travelling to a new destination. This thesis aims to build knowledge on how food as an element in tourism play a role for the tourism and hospitality industry, and their development of relevant tourist produ...

  17. [Terbinafine : Relevant drug interactions and their management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dürrbeck, A; Nenoff, P

    2016-09-01

    The allylamine terbinafine is the probably most frequently prescribed systemic antifungal agent in Germany for the treatment of dermatomycoses and onychomycoses. According to the German drug law, terbinafine is approved for patients who are 18 years and older; however, this antifungal agent is increasingly used off-label for treatment of onychomycoses and tinea capitis in children. Terbinafine is associated with only a few interactions with other drugs, which is why terbinafine can generally be used without problems in older and multimorbid patients. Nevertheless, some potential interactions of terbinafine with certain drug substances are known, including substances of the group of antidepressants/antipsychotics and some cardiovascular drugs. Decisive for the relevance of interactions is-along with the therapeutic index of the substrate and the possible alternative degradation pathways-the genetically determined type of metabolism. When combining terbinafine with tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin/noradrenalin reuptake inhibitors, the clinical response and potential side effects must be monitored. Problematic is the use of terbinafine with simultaneous treatment with tamoxifen. The administration of potent CYP2D6 inhibitors leads to a diminished efficacy of tamoxifen because one of its most important active metabolites-endoxifen-is not sufficiently available. Therefore, combination of tamoxifen and terbinafine should be avoided. In conclusion, the number of substances which are able to cause clinically relevant interactions in case of simultaneously administration with terbinafine is clear and should be manageable in the dermatological office with adequate monitoring.

  18. Relevance of randomised controlled trials in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannock, Ian F; Amir, Eitan; Booth, Christopher M; Niraula, Saroj; Ocana, Alberto; Seruga, Bostjan; Templeton, Arnoud J; Vera-Badillo, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    Well-designed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) can prevent bias in the comparison of treatments and provide a sound basis for changes in clinical practice. However, the design and reporting of many RCTs can render their results of little relevance to clinical practice. In this Personal View, we discuss the limitations of RCT data and suggest some ways to improve the clinical relevance of RCTs in the everyday management of patients with cancer. RCTs should ask questions of clinical rather than commercial interest, avoid non-validated surrogate endpoints in registration trials, and have entry criteria that allow inclusion of all patients who are fit to receive treatment. Furthermore, RCTs should be reported with complete accounting of frequency and management of toxicities, and with strict guidelines to ensure freedom from bias. Premature reporting of results should be avoided. The bar for clinical benefit should be raised for drug registration, which should require publication and review of mature data from RCTs, post-marketing health outcome studies, and value-based pricing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Partial and specific source memory for faces associated to other- and self-relevant negative contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Raoul; Giang, Trang; Buchner, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a source memory advantage for faces presented in negative contexts. As yet it remains unclear whether participants remember the specific type of context in which the faces were presented or whether they can only remember that the face was associated with negative valence. In the present study, participants saw faces together with descriptions of two different types of negative behaviour and neutral behaviour. In Experiment 1, we examined whether the participants were able to discriminate between two types of other-relevant negative context information (cheating and disgusting behaviour) in a source memory test. In Experiment 2, we assessed source memory for other-relevant negative (threatening) context information (other-aggressive behaviour) and self-relevant negative context information (self-aggressive behaviour). A multinomial source memory model was used to separately assess partial source memory for the negative valence of the behaviour and specific source memory for the particular type of negative context the face was associated with. In Experiment 1, source memory was specific for the particular type of negative context presented (i.e., cheating or disgusting behaviour). Experiment 2 showed that source memory for other-relevant negative information was more specific than source memory for self-relevant information. Thus, emotional source memory may vary in specificity depending on the degree to which the negative emotional context is perceived as threatening.

  20. Safety relevant failure mechanisms in the post-operational phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, Gerhard; Stiller, Jan Christopher; Roemer, Sarah

    2017-03-01

    . Finally, national and international operating experience was evaluated with the aim to derive general failure mechanisms from events that have occurred. For this purpose, the database of German reportable events (VERA), the database of the OECD/NEA ''International Common-cause Data Exchange (ICDE)'' project as well as the database of the ''International Reporting Systems for Operating Experience (IRS)'' of the IAEA was searched. As these data sources comprise a total number of about 12,000 events, initially the evaluation focused on the 309 events that occurred in plants that are in the post operation or decommissioning phase. In order to capture events from power operation whose damage phenomena have special relevance for post operation, too, attempts were made to develop automatic searches that would deliver a pre-selection of relevant results. To evaluate this method, 900 events from a German twin unit plant over a period from their construction until the present were analysed manually. It turned out that an automated search did not deliver enveloping results. All in all, 12 events from German plants in post operation or decommissioning and 36 events from plants with power operation licences as well as 6 events from international operating experience (IRS and ICDE) which showed a failure mechanism with special relevance for the post operation phase were identified. The events were presented individually, with special emphasis on the description of the failure mechanism that was particularly relevant for post operation. The failure mechanisms identified can be allocated to the following three general categories: special operating modes; changed operating or ambient conditions; organisational and personnel boundary conditions. The failure mechanisms assigned to these categories are presented in a summarized form and discussed.

  1. The relevance and role of homestays in medical education: a scoping study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Bonnie Olivia; Moshabela, Mosa; Owen, Jenni; Gaede, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    The community-based medical education curriculum is growing in popularity as a strategy to bring universal health coverage to underserved communities by providing medical students with hands-on training in primary health care. Accommodation and immersion of medical students within the community will become increasingly important to the success of community-based curricula. In the context of tourism, homestays, where local families host guests, have shown to provide an immersive accommodation experience. By exploring homestays in the educational context, this scoping study investigates their role in providing an immersive pedagogical experience for medical students. A scoping review was performed using the online databases ScienceDirect and the Duke University Library Database, which searches Academic Search Complete, JSTOR, LexisNexis Academic, Web of Science, Proquest, PubMed and WorldCat. Using the inclusion term 'homestays' and excluding the term 'tourism', 181 results were returned. AClose assessment using inclusion criteria narrowed this to 14 relevant articles. There is very little published research specific to the experience of medical students in community homestays, indicating a gap in the literature. However, the existing educational outcomes suggest homestays may have the potential to serve a significant role in medical education, especially as a component of decentralised or community-based programmes. The literature reveals that educational homestays influence language learning, cultural immersion, and the development of professional skills for health science careers. These outcomes relate to the level of engagement between students and hosts, including the catalytic role of community liaisons. Homestays offer a unique depth of experience that has the potential to enrich the education of participating students, and require further research, particularly in the context of distributed and decentralised training platforms for medical and health sciences

  2. Relevance of the international spinal cord injury basic data sets to youth: an Inter-Professional review with recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, A; Vogel, L C; Zebracki, K; Noonan, V K; Biering-Sørensen, F; Mulcahey, M J

    2017-09-01

    Mixed methods, using the Modified Delphi Technique and Expert Panel Review. To evaluate the utility and relevance of the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Core and Basic Data Sets for children and youth with SCI. International. Via 20 electronic surveys, an interprofessional sample of healthcare professionals with pediatric SCI experience participated in an iterative critical review of the International SCI Data Sets, and submitted suggestions for modifications for use with four pediatric age groups. A panel of 5 experts scrutinized the utility of all data sets, correlated any modifications with the developing National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) pediatric SCI Common Data Elements (CDE) and distributed final recommendations for modifications required to the adult data sets to the International SCI Data Set Committee and the associated Working Groups. Two International SCI Data Sets were considered relevant and appropriate for use with children without any changes. Three were considered not appropriate or applicable for use with children, regardless of age. Recommendations were made for five data sets to enhance their relevance and applicability to children across the age groups, and recommendations for seven data sets were specific to infants and younger children. The results of this critical review are significant in that substantive recommendations to align the International SCI Core and Basic Data Sets to pediatric practice were made. This project was funded by the Rick Hansen Institute Grant# 2015-27.

  3. Current R and D status on material motion and interactions relevant to core disruptive accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Satoru [Safety Engineering Division, O-arai Engineering Center, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, O-arai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1994-07-01

    In this paper, the current status of research and development activities are briefly reviewed on evaluation of material-coolant interactions and material movement and relocation relevant to the safety of liquid-metal fast reactors. Since the status of European activities are well summarized in other papers submitted to the present meeting, the activities in Japan and the United States are highlighted in this paper. The review includes: out-of-pile experiments, in-pile experiments and relevant computer code development. It is emphasized that improved understanding on material motion has contributed to establishing more realistic and rational safety evaluation methods, where various mitigation mechanisms are inherently effective. (author)

  4. Heuristics for Relevancy Ranking of Earth Dataset Search Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, Christopher; Quinn, Patrick; Norton, James

    2016-01-01

    As the Variety of Earth science datasets increases, science researchers find it more challenging to discover and select the datasets that best fit their needs. The most common way of search providers to address this problem is to rank the datasets returned for a query by their likely relevance to the user. Large web page search engines typically use text matching supplemented with reverse link counts, semantic annotations and user intent modeling. However, this produces uneven results when applied to dataset metadata records simply externalized as a web page. Fortunately, data and search provides have decades of experience in serving data user communities, allowing them to form heuristics that leverage the structure in the metadata together with knowledge about the user community. Some of these heuristics include specific ways of matching the user input to the essential measurements in the dataset and determining overlaps of time range and spatial areas. Heuristics based on the novelty of the datasets can prioritize later, better versions of data over similar predecessors. And knowledge of how different user types and communities use data can be brought to bear in cases where characteristics of the user (discipline, expertise) or their intent (applications, research) can be divined. The Earth Observing System Data and Information System has begun implementing some of these heuristics in the relevancy algorithm of its Common Metadata Repository search engine.

  5. Social validation of vocabulary selection: ensuring stakeholder relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornman, Juan; Bryen, Diane Nelson

    2013-06-01

    The vocabulary needs of individuals who are unable to spell their messages continue to be of concern in the field of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). Social validation of vocabulary selection has been suggested as one way to improve the effectiveness and relevance of service delivery in AAC. Despite increased emphasis on stakeholder accountability, social validation is not frequently used in AAC research. This paper describes an investigation of the social validity of a vocabulary set identified in earlier research. A previous study used stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary that could be used by South African adults who use AAC to disclose their experiences as victims of crime or abuse. Another study used this vocabulary to create communication boards for use by adults with complex communication needs. In this current project, 12 South African adults with complex communication needs who use AAC systems used a 5-point Likert scale to score the importance of each of the previously identified 57 vocabulary items. This two-step process of first using stakeholder focus groups to identify vocabulary, and then having literate persons who use AAC provide information on social validity of the vocabulary on behalf of their peers who are illiterate, appears to hold promise as a culturally relevant vocabulary selection approach for sensitive topics such as crime and abuse.

  6. On the Military Significance of Language Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Kurt E.

    1981-01-01

    Argues that facility in a foreign language contributes to the nation's military capability in command, intelligence, operations, logistics, survival skills and in community and official relations. After reviewing relevant historical episodes, suggests that an effort should be made to improve U.S. military personnel language skills. (MES)

  7. Competitive Intelligence: Significance in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Historically noncompetitive, the higher education sector is now having to adjust dramatically to new and increasing demands on numerous levels. To remain successfully operational within the higher educational market universities today must consider all relevant forces which can impact present and future planning. Those institutions that were…

  8. Atomic collision experiments using pulsed synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arikawa, Tatsuo; Watanabe, Tsutomu.

    1982-01-01

    High intensity and continuous nature of the synchrotron radiation are the properties that are fundamentally important for studies of some atomic collision experiments, and many processes have been investigated by using these characteristics. However, so far the property that the radiation is highly polarized and pulsed in time has not been exploited significantly in atomic physics. As an example of the atomic processes relevant to such polarized and pulsed features of the synchrotron radiation, collisions involving optically-allowed excited atoms and molecules will be presented. (author)

  9. Are classical process safety concepts relevant to nanotechnology applications?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyotte, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    The answer to the question posed by the title of this paper is yes - with adaptation to the specific hazards and challenges found in the field of nanotechnology. The validity of this affirmative response is demonstrated by relating key process safety concepts to various aspects of the nanotechnology industry in which these concepts are either already practised or could be further applied. This is accomplished by drawing on the current author's experience in process safety practice and education as well as a review of the relevant literature on the safety of nanomaterials and their production. The process safety concepts selected for analysis include: (i) risk management, (ii) inherently safer design, (iii) human error and human factors, (iv) safety management systems, and (v) safety culture.

  10. [Differences between generations: relevant for medical education in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busari, Jamiu O; Scheele, Fedde

    2015-01-01

    Provision of care is increasingly being tailored to patients' wishes, which means that insight into the ideas, norms and values of the care-consumer are required. This approach is also beginning to filter through into medical education. We can differentiate generations on the basis of shared opinions, because groups with shared experiences usually share the same values. This is a useful line of approach if we wish to serve different generations of consumers better. At the moment there are four different generations influencing the setup and division of the healthcare services and relevant to medical education in the coming decades. Future education methods will have to be in line with the wishes of the generation from which new doctors come. In order to achieve better care for patients it is important to give 'thinking in generations' more attention in medical education.

  11. [G-DRG system 2009: relevant changes for rheumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, W; Liedtke-Dyong, A; Lakomek, H-J; Buscham, K; Lehmann, H; Liman, W; Fuchs, A-K; Bessler, F; Roeder, N

    2009-08-01

    The following article presents the main general and specific changes in the G-DRG (German diagnosis-related groups) system in terms of the classification systems for diagnoses and procedures as well as the billing process for 2009. Of fundamental relevance is the national weighting of the G-DRG I97Z (complex rheumatologic treatment), which up to now had to be negotiated individually by each hospital. Emphasis is also put on case auditing by the health insurers. Being primarily a tool for redistribution of resources, every hospital has to analyze the economic effects of the 2009 G-DRG system by applying the G-DRG transition grouper to its own cases. Depending on their clinical focus rheumatological departments may experience positive or negative consequences from the development. The strain imposed on hospitals by inadequate refunding of rising costs has to be assessed separately from the effects of redistribution by the G-DRG system.

  12. Making the history of psychology clinically and philosophically relevant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    2002-08-01

    The author discusses ways to make the history of psychology course relevant for a clinical psychology doctoral program within a multidenominational Protestant theological seminary. She uses a personalist orientation to emphasize the need to integrate psychology, philosophy, and theology. She differentiates among the intrapersonal, interpersonal, impersonal, and transpersonal dimensions of experience. She illustrates the rich multidisciplinary historical roots of contemporary psychology by tracing the the history of the term psychology and examining its meanings in the existential psychology of Søren Kierkegaard and in the 19th-century novel. She includes brief histories of the "new psychology" and of the unconscious. She describes how she uses the field of psychotheological integration to illustrate principles of historiography and summarizes resources used to supplement traditional textbooks.

  13. Family care work: a policy-relevant research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; DePasquale, Nicole

    2017-03-01

    This article addresses the need for policy-relevant research agendas on family care in transaction with formal care and public as well as organisational norms and policies in light of the crisis in caregiving for older adults. We propose a combined institutional and life-course theoretical approach, suggesting seven ways of organising scholarly enquiry to promote understanding of the changing nature of family care in the 21st century, inform policymakers' efforts at supporting family caregivers and improve caregivers' and care recipients' quality of life. These include: (1) moving beyond snapshots of individuals; (2) conducting comparative cross-cultural and crosscohort analyses; (3) documenting social heterogeneity, vulnerability and inequality; (4) capturing individuals' and families' adaptive strategies and cycles of control during the caregiving process; (5) investigating policy innovations and natural experiments; (6) assessing third parties as mediating institutions between regulatory environments and caregiving families; and (7) attending to the subjective meanings of care.

  14. Constitutional relevance of atomic energy law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettow, S.

    1980-01-01

    In a decision publicized on December 20, 1979 the German Federal Constitutional Court rejected a claim of unconstitutionality in connection with the licensing procedure of the Muelheim-Kaerlich Nuclear Power Station currently under construction. This constitutes confirmation, by the 1st Department of the Court, of a decision in 1978 by the 2nd Department about the Kalkar fast breeder power plant, in which the peaceful utilization of nuclear energy had been found to be constitutional. However, the new decision by the Federal Constitutional Court particularly emphasizes the constitutional relevance of the rules of procedure under the Atomic Energy Act and their function with respect to the protection of civil rights. (orig.) [de

  15. Mirror neurons and their clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena; Cattaneo, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    One of the most exciting events in neurosciences over the past few years has been the discovery of a mechanism that unifies action perception and action execution. The essence of this 'mirror' mechanism is as follows: whenever individuals observe an action being done by someone else, a set of neurons that code for that action is activated in the observers' motor system. Since the observers are aware of the outcome of their motor acts, they also understand what the other individual is doing without the need for intermediate cognitive mediation. In this Review, after discussing the most pertinent data concerning the mirror mechanism, we examine the clinical relevance of this mechanism. We first discuss the relationship between mirror mechanism impairment and some core symptoms of autism. We then outline the theoretical principles of neurorehabilitation strategies based on the mirror mechanism. We conclude by examining the relationship between the mirror mechanism and some features of the environmental dependency syndromes.

  16. The Integrin Receptor in Biologically Relevant Bilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Róg, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo

    2017-01-01

    /talin complex was inserted in biologically relevant bilayers that resemble the cell plasma membrane containing zwitterionic and charged phospholipids, cholesterol and sphingolipids to study the dynamics of the integrin receptor and its effect on bilayer structure and dynamics. The results of this study...... demonstrate the dynamic nature of the integrin receptor and suggest that the presence of the integrin receptor alters the lipid organization between the two leaflets of the bilayer. In particular, our results suggest elevated density of cholesterol and of phosphatidylserine lipids around the integrin....../talin complex and a slowing down of lipids in an annulus of ~30 Å around the protein due to interactions between the lipids and the integrin/talin F2–F3 complex. This may in part regulate the interactions of integrins with other related proteins or integrin clustering thus facilitating signal transduction...

  17. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2010-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focussed. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations.The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers.......The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  18. Mathematical Properties Relevant to Geomagnetic Field Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabaka, Terence J.; Hulot, Gauthier; Olsen, Nils

    2014-01-01

    be directly measured. In this chapter, the mathematical foundation of global (as opposed to regional) geomagnetic field modeling is reviewed, and the spatial modeling of the field in spherical coordinates is focused. Time can be dealt with as an independent variable and is not explicitly considered......Geomagnetic field modeling consists in converting large numbers of magnetic observations into a linear combination of elementary mathematical functions that best describes those observations. The set of numerical coefficients defining this linear combination is then what one refers....... The relevant elementary mathematical functions are introduced, their properties are reviewed, and how they can be used to describe the magnetic field in a source-free (such as the Earth’s neutral atmosphere) or source-dense (such as the ionosphere) environment is explained. Completeness and uniqueness...

  19. Towards increased policy relevance in energy modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Ramesohl, Stephan; Boyd, Gale

    2003-07-29

    Historically, most energy models were reasonably equipped to assess the impact of a subsidy or change in taxation, but are often insufficient to assess the impact of more innovative policy instruments. We evaluate the models used to assess future energy use, focusing on industrial energy use. We explore approaches to engineering-economic analysis that could help improve the realism and policy relevance of engineering-economic modeling frameworks. We also explore solutions to strengthen the policy usefulness of engineering-economic analysis that can be built from a framework of multi-disciplinary cooperation. We focus on the so-called ''engineering-economic'' (or ''bottom-up'') models, as they include the amount of detail that is commonly needed to model policy scenarios. We identify research priorities for the modeling framework, technology representation in models, policy evaluation and modeling of decision-making behavior.

  20. Climate-relevant monitorings in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metternich, P.

    1993-01-01

    This catalogue contains so-called meta-data; i.e. information on data. For each measuring programme or set of data, users find the address (postal address, telephone, fax-number) of the respective contact person at the beginning of the entry. The catalogue has three parts: Part A is a compilation of monitoring programmes using conventional methods adopted on the ground. Part B contains research programmes or sets of data from the field of remote sensing. In part C, data sets from time series of climate-relevant parameters are described. Section A was additionally structured according so the compartments of the climate system: Atmosphere, hydrosphere, cryosphere, biosphere. (orig./KW) [de

  1. Bacteriophage lambda: early pioneer and still relevant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casjens, Sherwood R.; Hendrix, Roger W.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular genetic research on bacteriophage lambda carried out during its golden age from the mid 1950's to mid 1980's was critically important in the attainment of our current understanding of the sophisticated and complex mechanisms by which the expression of genes is controlled, of DNA virus assembly and of the molecular nature of lysogeny. The development of molecular cloning techniques, ironically instigated largely by phage lambda researchers, allowed many phage workers to switch their efforts to other biological systems. Nonetheless, since that time the ongoing study of lambda and its relatives have continued to give important new insights. In this review we give some relevant early history and describe recent developments in understanding the molecular biology of lambda's life cycle. PMID:25742714

  2. Relevance of protection quantities in medical exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) continues to classify the exposures to radiation in three categories; namely 1- occupational exposure, 2- public exposure, and 3- medical exposure. Protection quantities are primarily meant for the regulatory purpose in radiological protection for controlling and limiting stochastic risks in occupational and public exposures. These are based on two basic assumptions of 1- linear no-threshold dose-effect relationship (LNT) at low doses and 2- long-term additivity of low doses. Medical exposure are predominantly delivered to individuals (patients) undergoing diagnostic examinations, interventional procedures and radiation therapy but also include individual caring for or comforting patients incurring exposure and the volunteers of biomedical medical research programmes. Radiation protection is as relevant to occupational and public exposure as to medical exposures except that the dose limits set for the formers are not applicable to medical exposure but reference levels and dose constrains are recommended for diagnostic and interventional medical procedures. In medical institutions, both the occupational and medical exposure takes place. Since the doses in diagnostic examinations are low, it has been observed that not only the protection quantities are often used in such cases but these are extended to estimate the number of cancer deaths due to such practices. One of the striking features of the new ICRP recommendations has been to elaborate the concepts of the dosimetric quantities. The limitation of protection quantities ((Effective dose, E=Σ RT D TR .W T .W R and Equivalent Dose H T =Σ RT D TR .W R ) have been brought out and this has raised a great concern and initiated debates on the use of these quantities in medical exposures. Consequently, ICRP has set a task group to provide more details and the recommendations. It has, therefore, became important to draw the attention of medical physics community

  3. Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Grover, H.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ecological principles outlined are very basic ones; the authors anticipate a readership trained in a broad range of disciplines, including those unfamiliar with the academic discipline of ecology. The authors include substantial discussion on ecophysiology (i.e., the responses of organisms to their environment) because this is relevant to the new understanding of the potential climatic consequences of nuclear war. In particular, the physiological sensitivity of organisms to reduced levels of light and temperature are a key part of the analysis of the potential ecological effects and agricultural effects of nuclear war. Much of the ecological analysis has been organized around major biological units called biomes. The authors describe the biome concept and discuss some of the environmental-climatic factors that are believed to control biome distribution. Emphasis is given to plants because of their controlling influence on ecosystem functions through their role as primary producers. Future reports are needed to address more fully the potential effects on animals. Much more research needs to be done on both plant and animal responses to the types of perturbations possible for the aftermath of a nuclear war. Another important element for analysis of the potential ecological consequences of nuclear war concerns recovery processes. As the post-nuclear war environmental extremes ameliorate, ecological communities in devastated regions would begin to reorganize. It is not possible to predict the course of such a succession precisely, but some principles concerning post-perturbation replacement (such as seed banks and germination), relevant successional patterns, and organism strategies are discussed

  4. Thermochemical data for environmentally-relevant elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markich, S.J.; Brown, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    This study provides an extensive stability constant (log K) database suitable for calculating the speciation of selected environmentally-relevant elements (H, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, U, Al Pb, Zn, Cu and cd) in an aqueous system, where a model fulvic acid (comprising aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids) is used to simulate metal binding by dissolved organic material Stability constants for inorganic metal complexes and minerals were selected primarily from critical literature complications and/or reviews. In contrast, few critically evaluated data were available for metal complexes with aspartic, citric, malonic, salicylic and tricarballylic acids. Consequently, data from original research articles were carefully evaluated and compiled as part of the study, following defined selection criteria. to meet the objective of compiling a comprehensive and reliable database of stability constants, all relevant equilibria and species, ranging from simple binary metal complexes to more complex ternary and even quaternary, metal complexes were included where possible in addition to the selection of stability constants from empirical sources, estimates of stability constants were performed when this could be done reliably, based on the unified theory of metal ion complexation and/or linear tree energy relationships The stability constants are given as common logarithms (logo) in the form required by the HARPHRQ geochemical code and refer to the standard state, i.e 298.15 K (25 deg C), 10 5 Pa (1 atm) and, for all species, infinite dilution (ionic strength = 0 mol L -1 ). In addition to the compilation of stability constant data, an overview is given of geochemical speciation modelling in aqueous systems and available conceptual models of metal binding by humic substances. (authors)

  5. Energy integration experiences at the Europe, at the Nordic countries and at the Central America: considerations relevant to the South America integration process; Experiencias de integracao energetica na Europa, nos paises nordicos e na America Central: consideracoes relevantes ao processo de integracao Sul-Americana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Adriana Fiorotti; Andreza, Fernanda Marques Pereira; Soares, Jeferson Borghetti; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Bacile; Oliveira, Ricardo Gorini de [Empresa de Pesquisa Energetica (EPE), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], Emails: adriana.campos@epe.gov.br, fernanda.andreza@epe.gov.br; jeferson.soares@epe.gov.br, maria.pinheiro, ricardo.gorini@epe.gov.br

    2010-07-01

    In view of institutional/contractual regulatory problems at the South America, some experiences of energy integration at the electrical sectors and natural gas (Nordic countries. European Union and Central America), identifying related vantages and advantageous. Besides, there is an attempt of characterization of the process step of energy integration, and the fitting of regions in these steps, observing that the process of energy integration in the South America it is found in a initial step yet if it is considered the used methodology by the Colombian enterprise Interconexion Electrica S.A.E.S.P. - ISA (2007)

  6. Mechanical Contact Experiments and Simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Martins, P; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanical contact is studied under dynamic development by means of a combined numerical and experimental investigation. The experiments are designed to allow dynamical development of non-planar contact areas with significant expansion in all three directions as the load is increased. Different....... The overall investigation serves for testing and validating the numerical implementation of the mechanical contact, which is one of the main contributions to a system intended for 3D simulation of resistance welding. Correct modelling of contact between parts to be welded, as well as contact with electrodes......, is crucial for satisfactory modelling of the resistance welding process. The resistance heating at the contact interfaces depends on both contact area and pressure, and as the contact areas develop dynamically, the presented tests are relevant for assessing the validity and accuracy of the mechanical contact...

  7. Experimental evidence concerning the significant information depth of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisniewski, Wolfgang, E-mail: wolfgang.w@uni-jena.de [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany); Saager, Stefan [Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, Winterbergstraße 28, 01277 Dresden (Germany); Böbenroth, Andrea [Fraunhofer Institute for the Microstructure of Materials and Systems IMWS, Walter-Huelse-Straße 1, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Rüssel, Christian [Otto-Schott-Institut, Jena University, Fraunhoferstr. 6, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Experiments concerning the information depth of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) are performed on samples featuring an amorphous wedge on a crystalline substrate and a crystalline wedge on an amorphous substrate. The effects of the acceleration voltage and exemplary software settings on the ability to measure through an amorphous layer are presented. Changes in the EBSD-signal could be detected through a ≈142 nm thick layer of amorphous Si while orientation measurements could be performed through a ≈116 nm thick layer when using a voltage of 30 kV. The complexity of the information depth significant to a given EBSD-pattern and the multiple parameters influencing it are discussed. It is suggested that a “core information depth” is significant to high quality patterns while a larger “maximum information depth” becomes relevant when the pattern quality decreases or the sample is inhomogeneous within the information volume, i.e. in the form of partially crystalline materials or crystal layers in the nm scale. - Highlights: • Experimental evidence of the significant information depth of EBSD is presented. • Effects of the voltage and exemplary software settings are discussed. • Dependence of the significant information depth on the pattern quality is proposed. • The information depth may reach up to 142 nm in Si when using a voltage of 30 kV. • The information depth depends on the available technology.

  8. The relevance of accounting information enclosed in performance indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina Onica

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This research study is analyzing the relevance of accounting information reflected through the elaboration of firm performance variables and administration because of the necessity of performance to be administrated. The subject of the theme is enclosed in current development of accounting norms at national , european, (Directives and international levels (IAS/IFRS. The analyised topic is based upon the capabilty of accounting to generate information , throug synthesis calculus being settled the nature , the characteristics and the informational valences of financial performance of an organization. The accounting infromation is base for performing the decison process. The rol of accounting in insurring the relevance and comparability of information increased significantly, being already indispensable. A real solution for communication misunderstanig elimination emerged, as result of diputes in perception and interpretation of economic information, as results for the national speciffic norms.The economic communication is demanding for firm not only in its expression but in thinking and in the process of method conceptualization of organization and administration. A detailed financial situation analysis, which are employing annual financial analysis procedures, underling the performance and risks influencing factors, are considering one starting point for addressing the issue. The introduced variables are insuring a whole vision of firm activity and an appropriate strategy for results significance.

  9. Sport science relevance and application: perceptions of UK coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martindale, Russell; Nash, Christine

    2013-01-01

    While sport science can have significant and positive impact on coaches and athletes, there is still a general consensus that the transfer of sport science knowledge to coaching is poor. Given this apparent dilemma, this study investigated the perceptions of sport science from coaches across four different sports (football, rugby league, curling and judo) across three different levels (elite, developmental and novice). Specifically, 58 coaches (19 football; 21 rugby league; 9 curling; 9 judo) drawn evenly from novice, developmental and elite groups agreed to take part and were interviewed. Three key features emerged from the analysis 1) Practical application and relevance 2) Integration and access, 3) Language. In short, there was significant variability in the extent to which sport science was considered relevant and to whom, although interestingly this was not strongly related to coaching level. This inconsistency of understanding was a barrier to sport science engagement in some instances, as was the challenge of operationalising information for specific contexts. Furthermore, availability of opportunities and resources were often left to chance, while overuse of jargon and inability for research and practitioners to consider sport specific needs were also considered barriers to engagement. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  10. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms – formation, biology,and clinical relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eFiedler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options.

  11. The Relevance of Indigenous Knowledge to Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is based on the experience, often tested over centuries of use, adapted to local culture and environment, dynamic and changing. People have an intimate knowledge of many aspects of their surroundings and their daily lives. Over centuries, people have learnt how to grow food and to survive in difficult environments.

  12. Facing Big Data: Making sociology relevant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Mützel

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Working with computational methods and large textual analysis has been challenging and very rewarding—with all the ups and downs that doing empirical social research entails. In my contribution, I relate some research experiences and reflect upon data construction and the links between theory, data, and methods.

  13. Is a sleeve lobectomy significantly better than a pneumonectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Joseph; Loberg, Anna; Dunning, Joel; Dark, John

    2010-11-01

    A best evidence topic was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was 'whether a sleeve lobectomy results in a better survival rate than a pneumonectomy in suitable patients?' Altogether, more than 327 papers were found using the reported search, of which 15 represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. We conclude in the biggest meta-analysis of nearly 3000 patients, the five-year survival was 50% for sleeve lobectomy compared to 30% for pneumonectomy. Operative mortality was 3% vs. 6% for pneumonectomy, and locoregional recurrence was 17% vs. 30%. These results are broadly consistent across all the 13 cohort studies presented here many of which document a 20-year single centre experience or more. There are significant issues in all cohort studies on this subject as, due to their non-randomized nature, the reason for not performing a sleeve resection may well have been more advanced disease, which would necessarily mean that the pneumonectomy patients would have a lower expected survival and higher local recurrence. In addition, there have been many large cohort studies to date and thus no more are required, as future studies are unlikely to resolve this issue. Thus, the only study that would adequately correct for this issue would be a randomized trial, but to prove a 10% increase in five-year survival a 300 patient study would be needed. This is bigger than any study ever done in this area and as some centres took 30 years to collect these numbers of potential sleeve patients an RCT is not a realistic possibility. Therefore, we conclude that no more cohort studies should be performed, as the results will be consistent with the meta-analyses and an RCT to eliminate their bias is unattainable, and thus no more research should be done on this topic and surgeons should use

  14. Teacher beliefs about the aetiology of individual differences in cognitive ability, and the relevance of behavioural genetics to education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosswaite, Madeline; Asbury, Kathryn

    2018-04-26

    Despite a large body of research that has explored the influence of genetic and environmental factors on educationally relevant traits, few studies have explored teachers' beliefs about, or knowledge of, developments in behavioural genetics related to education. This study aimed to describe the beliefs and knowledge of UK teachers about behavioural genetics and its relevance to education, and to test for differences between groups of teachers based on factors including years of experience and age of children taught. Data were gathered from n = 402 teachers from a representative sample of UK schools. Teachers from primary and secondary schools, and from across the state and independent sectors, were recruited. An online questionnaire was used to gather demographic data (gender, age, years of experience, age of children taught, and state vs. independent) and also data on beliefs about the relative influence of nature and nurture on cognitive ability; knowledge of behavioural genetics; openness to genetic research in education; and mindset. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, correlations, and multiple regression. Teachers perceived genetic and environmental factors as equally important influences on cognitive ability and tended towards a growth mindset. Knowledge about behavioural genetics was low, but openness to learning more about genetics was high. Statistically significant differences were observed between groups based on age of children taught (openness higher among primary teachers) and state versus independent (more growth-minded in state sector). Although teachers have a limited knowledge of behavioural genetics, they are keen to learn more. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  15. Effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on autobiographical memory specificity in dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Noboru; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is a characteristic memory bias observed in depression. To corroborate the capture hypothesis in the CaRFAX (capture and rumination, functional avoidance, executive capacity and control) model, we investigated the effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on rAMS using an adapted Autobiographical Memory Test conducted with a nonclinical population. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that the main effects of depression and self-relevant cues elicited rAMS. Moreover, the three-way interaction among valence, self-relevance, and depression scores was significant. A simple slope test revealed that dysphoric participants experienced rAMS in response to highly self-relevant positive cues and low self-relevant negative cues. These results partially supported the capture hypothesis in nonclinical dysphoria. It is important to consider cue valence in future studies examining the capture hypothesis.

  16. Director Experience and the Performance of IPOs: Evidence from Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Isaksson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available private to public. In this paper the experience of directors is examined to determine the extent of the role they play in ensuring a successful listing. Unique data from 122 IPOs on the Swedish Stock Exchange have been examined in a search for the effect of director experience on aftermarket performance. Specific aspects of director experience within a board, such as interlocking directorships and average tenure, are connected to the underpricing of Swedish IPOs. Contrary to expectations, no statistically significant relationship was found between long-run aftermarket performance and director experience at the time of an IPO. This suggests that the previous experience of directors, as measured in earlier studies, is less relevant to long-term aftermarket performance in Sweden compared to other countries studied in the literature review. This emphasises the importance of examining different institutional contexts.

  17. Significance and basic patterns of risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obermeier, O.P.

    1996-01-01

    The philosophically coloured paper on the aspects of risk communication patterns in society shows that debates about risks are governed by a number of stereotype characters representing the individualist and manager type, bureaucracy and law-and-order type, ego-centered embarrassment activist, and fundamentalist. Every risk-relevant group in the study tries to push forward its own interests. Risk communication is understood as a process of social dealing. (HP) [de

  18. The significance of routines in nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytterström, Patrik; Unosson, Mitra; Arman, Maria

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to illuminate the significance of routines in nursing practice. Clinical nursing is performed under the guidance of routines to varying degrees. In the nursing literature, routine is described as having both negative and positive aspects, but use of the term is inconsistent, and empirical evidence is sparse. In the research on organisational routines, a distinction is made between routine as a rule and routine as action. A qualitative design using a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. Data collection from three focus groups focused on nurses' experience of routines. Seventeen individual interviews from a previous study focusing on caring culture were also analysed in a secondary qualitative analysis. All participants were employed as 'qualified nursing pool' nurses. Routines are experienced as pragmatic, obstructive and meaningful. The aim of the pragmatic routine was to ensure that daily working life works; this routine is practised more on the basis of rational arguments and obvious intentions. The obstructive routine had negative consequences for nursing practice and was described as nursing losing its humanity and violating the patient's integrity. The meaningful routine involved becoming one with the routine and for the nurses, it felt right and meaningful to adapt to it. Routines become meaningful when the individual action is in harmony with the cultural pattern on which the nursing work is based. Instead of letting contemporary practice passively become routine, routines can be assessed and developed using research and theoretical underpinnings as a starting point for nursing practice. Leaders have a special responsibility to develop and support meaningful routines. One approach could be to let wards examine their routines from a patient perspective on the basis of the themes of pragmatic, meaningful and obstructive routine. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Atherogenic index of plasma: a significant indicator for the onset of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hypertension and menopause are independent risk factors for dyslipidaemia. In normotensive subjects, menopause causes significant alteration in lipid levels that may require medical intervention. It is thus expected that this alteration will become more relevant in hypertensive menopausal subjects.

  20. Tag-Based Social Image Search: Toward Relevant and Diverse Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kuiyuan; Wang, Meng; Hua, Xian-Sheng; Zhang, Hong-Jiang

    Recent years have witnessed a great success of social media websites. Tag-based image search is an important approach to access the image content of interest on these websites. However, the existing ranking methods for tag-based image search frequently return results that are irrelevant or lack of diversity. This chapter presents a diverse relevance ranking scheme which simultaneously takes relevance and diversity into account by exploring the content of images and their associated tags. First, it estimates the relevance scores of images with respect to the query term based on both visual information of images and semantic information of associated tags. Then semantic similarities of social images are estimated based on their tags. Based on the relevance scores and the similarities, the ranking list is generated by a greedy ordering algorithm which optimizes Average Diverse Precision (ADP), a novel measure that is extended from the conventional Average Precision (AP). Comprehensive experiments and user studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach.