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Sample records for significant positive impact

  1. Reporting instructions significantly impact false positive rates when reading chest radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Lewis, Sarah J. [The University of Sydney, Medical Image Optimisation and Perception Group, Discipline of Medical Radiation Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Lidcombe, NSW (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    To determine the impact of specific reporting tasks on the performance of radiologists when reading chest radiographs. Ten experienced radiologists read a set of 40 postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs: 21 nodule free and 19 with a proven solitary nodule. There were two reporting conditions: an unframed task (UFT) to report any abnormality and a framed task (FT) reporting only lung nodule/s. Jackknife free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM), specificity, location sensitivity and number of true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) decisions were used for analysis. JAFROC FOM for tasks showed a significant reduction in performance for framed tasks (P = 0.006) and an associated decrease in specificity (P = 0.011) but no alteration to the location sensitivity score. There was a significant increase in number of FP decisions made during framed versus unframed tasks for nodule-containing (P = 0.005) and nodule-free (P = 0.011) chest radiographs. No significant differences in TP were recorded. Radiologists report more FP decisions when given specific reporting instructions to search for nodules on chest radiographs. The relevance of clinical history supplied to radiologists is called into question and may induce a negative effect. (orig.)

  2. Reporting instructions significantly impact false positive rates when reading chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, John W.; Brennan, Patrick C.; Mello-Thoms, Claudia; Lewis, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of specific reporting tasks on the performance of radiologists when reading chest radiographs. Ten experienced radiologists read a set of 40 postero-anterior (PA) chest radiographs: 21 nodule free and 19 with a proven solitary nodule. There were two reporting conditions: an unframed task (UFT) to report any abnormality and a framed task (FT) reporting only lung nodule/s. Jackknife free-response operating characteristic (JAFROC) figure of merit (FOM), specificity, location sensitivity and number of true positive (TP), false positive (FP), true negative (TN) and false negative (FN) decisions were used for analysis. JAFROC FOM for tasks showed a significant reduction in performance for framed tasks (P = 0.006) and an associated decrease in specificity (P = 0.011) but no alteration to the location sensitivity score. There was a significant increase in number of FP decisions made during framed versus unframed tasks for nodule-containing (P = 0.005) and nodule-free (P = 0.011) chest radiographs. No significant differences in TP were recorded. Radiologists report more FP decisions when given specific reporting instructions to search for nodules on chest radiographs. The relevance of clinical history supplied to radiologists is called into question and may induce a negative effect. (orig.)

  3. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  4. Impact significance determination-Back to basics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    Impact significance determination is widely recognized as a vital and critical EIA activity. But impact significance related concepts are poorly understood. And the quality of approaches for impact significance determination in EIA practice remains highly variable. This article seeks to help establish a sound and practical conceptual foundation for formulating and evaluating impact significance determination approaches. It addresses the nature (what is impact significance?), the core characteristics (what are the major properties of significance determination?), the rationale (why are impact significance determinations necessary?), the procedural and substantive objectives (what do impact significance determinations seek to achieve?), and the process for making impact significance judgments (how is impact significance determination conducted?). By identifying fundamental attributes and key distinctions associated with impact significance determinations, a basis is provided for designing and evaluating impact significance determination procedures at both the regulatory and applied levels

  5. Impact significance determination-Designing an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how best to go about determining the significance of impacts has, to date, only been addressed in a partial and preliminary way. The assumption tends to be made that it is either only necessary to provide explicit, justified reasons for a judgment about significance and/or to explicitly apply a prescribed procedure-a procedure usually involving the staged application of thresholds and/or criteria. The detailed attributes, strengths and limitations of such approaches and possible alternative approaches have yet to be explored systematically. This article addresses these deficiencies by analyzing the characteristics, specific methods and positive and negative tendencies of three general impact significance determination approaches-the technical approach, the collaborative approach and the reasoned argumentation approach. A range of potential composite approaches are also described. With an enhanced understanding of these approaches, together with potential combinations, EIA practitioners and other EIA participants can be in a better position to select an approach appropriate to their needs, to reinforce the positive tendencies and offset the negative tendencies of the selected approach and to combine the best qualities of more than one approach

  6. Online formative MCQs to supplement traditional teaching: a very significant positive impact on student performance in the short and long run

    OpenAIRE

    Catley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The paper builds on the research underpinning One Lecturer’s Experience of Blending E-learning with Traditional Teaching (Catley, 2005). It analyses the earlier findings in more depth and examines the longer term impact of online quizzes on student performance. Engagement with formative online MCQs is explored generally and the links between MCQ engagement and a range of student characteristics: seminar attendance, “A” level performance, age, nationality, gender and prior study of the discipl...

  7. The significance of a uniform definition of pathological lymph nodes in Hodgkin lymphoma: Impact of different thresholds for positive lymph nodes in CT imaging on staging and therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorwerk, Hilke; Obenauer, Silvia; Schmidberger, Heinz; Hess, Clemens F.; Weiss, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The most commonly used approach for the assessment for differentiating malignant versus reactive lymph nodes is the measurement of the cross-section diameter of the lymph nodes in the transversal CT-planes. The intention of this article is to assess the impact of varying definitions of pathological lymph node size in CT-imaging in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and to evaluate its effect on staging, chemotherapy regimes and radiation field size. Materials and methods: Pretherapeutic CT-scans of 10 consecutive patients with Hodgkin lymphoma have been evaluated based on two different definitions for malignant lymph node size; the classification of the German study group for Hodgkin lymphoma (1.0 cm) and the classification according to the results of the Cotswold consensus meeting 1989 (1.5 cm). Results: Applying the definitions of the DHSG and the Cotswold meeting we found more affected lymph node regions compared to the evaluation of the referring institutions in 9/10 and 6/10 patients, higher stages in 2/10 and 1/10 patients, more intense chemotherapy regimes in 3/10 and 1/10 and larger radiation fields in 10/10 and 6/10 patients, respectively. Conclusions: Varying definitions of pathologic lymph node size and inconsequent application of definitions reduce the comparability between different studies and within each study

  8. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  9. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekis, Nejc; Mc Entee, Mark F.; Stegnar, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p ≤ 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p ≤ 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p ≤ 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p ≤ 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p ≤ 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p ≤ 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  10. Neuroscientists' classroom visits positively impact student attitudes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Fitzakerley

    Full Text Available The primary recommendation of the 2010 President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology report on K-12 education was to inspire more students so that they are motivated to study science. Scientists' visits to classrooms are intended to inspire learners and increase their interest in science, but verifications of this impact are largely qualitative. Our primary goal was to evaluate the impact of a longstanding Brain Awareness classroom visit program focused on increasing learners understanding of their own brains. Educational psychologists have established that neuroscience training sessions can improve academic performance and shift attitudes of students from a fixed mindset to a growth mindset. Our secondary goal was to determine whether short interactive Brain Awareness scientist-in-the-classroom sessions could similarly alter learners' perceptions of their own potential to learn. Teacher and student surveys were administered in 4(th-6(th grade classrooms throughout Minnesota either before or after one-hour Brain Awareness sessions that engaged students in activities related to brain function. Teachers rated the Brain Awareness program as very valuable and said that the visits stimulated students' interest in the brain and in science. Student surveys probed general attitudes towards science and their knowledge of neuroscience concepts (particularly the ability of the brain to change. Significant favorable improvements were found on 10 of 18 survey statements. Factor analyses of 4805 responses demonstrated that Brain Awareness presentations increased positive attitudes toward science and improved agreement with statements related to growth mindset. Overall effect sizes were small, consistent with the short length of the presentations. Thus, the impact of Brain Awareness presentations was positive and proportional to the efforts expended, demonstrating that short, scientist-in-the-classroom visits can make a positive contribution to

  11. Significance of Waterway Navigation Positioning Systems On Ship's Manoeuvring Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, W.

    The main goal of navigation is to lead the ship to the point of destination safety and efficiently. Various factors may affect ship realisating this process. The ship movement on waterway are mainly limited by water area dimensions (surface and depth). These limitations cause the requirement to realise the proper of ship movement trajectory. In case when this re requirement cant't fulfil then marine accident may happend. This fact is unwanted event caused losses of human health and life, damage or loss of cargo and ship, pollution of natural environment, damage of port structures or blocking the port of its ports and lost of salvage operation. These losses in same cases can be catas- trophical especially while e.i. crude oil spilling could be place. To realise of safety navigation process is needed to embrace the ship's movement trajectory by waterways area. The ship's trajectory is described by manoeuvring lane as a surface of water area which is require to realise of safety ship movement. Many conditions affect to ship manoeuvring line. The main are following: positioning accuracy, ship's manoeuvring features and phenomena's of shore and ship's bulk common affecting. The accuracy of positioning system is most important. This system depends on coast navigation mark- ing which can range many kinds of technical realisation. Mainly used systems based on lights (line), radionavigation (local system or GPS, DGPS), or radars. If accuracy of positiong is higer, then safety of navigation is growing. This article presents these problems exemplifying with approaching channel to ports situated on West Pomera- nian water region.

  12. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... assessment is included, the finding need not repeat any of the discussion in the assessment but may... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32... Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of...

  13. Positive Selection or Free to Vary? Assessing the Functional Significance of Sequence Change Using Molecular Dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane R Allison

    Full Text Available Evolutionary arms races between pathogens and their hosts may be manifested as selection for rapid evolutionary change of key genes, and are sometimes detectable through sequence-level analyses. In the case of protein-coding genes, such analyses frequently predict that specific codons are under positive selection. However, detecting positive selection can be non-trivial, and false positive predictions are a common concern in such analyses. It is therefore helpful to place such predictions within a structural and functional context. Here, we focus on the p19 protein from tombusviruses. P19 is a homodimer that sequesters siRNAs, thereby preventing the host RNAi machinery from shutting down viral infection. Sequence analysis of the p19 gene is complicated by the fact that it is constrained at the sequence level by overprinting of a viral movement protein gene. Using homology modeling, in silico mutation and molecular dynamics simulations, we assess how non-synonymous changes to two residues involved in forming the dimer interface-one invariant, and one predicted to be under positive selection-impact molecular function. Interestingly, we find that both observed variation and potential variation (where a non-synonymous change to p19 would be synonymous for the overprinted movement protein does not significantly impact protein structure or RNA binding. Consequently, while several methods identify residues at the dimer interface as being under positive selection, MD results suggest they are functionally indistinguishable from a site that is free to vary. Our analyses serve as a caveat to using sequence-level analyses in isolation to detect and assess positive selection, and emphasize the importance of also accounting for how non-synonymous changes impact structure and function.

  14. Defining and determining the significance of impacts: concepts and methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, S.W.; Van Winkle, W.; Mattice, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    The term impact is conceptually and mathematically defined to be the difference in the state or value of an ecosystem with versus without the source of impact. Some resulting problems associated with the measurement of impacts based on comparisons of baseline and operational data are discussed briefly. The concept of a significant adverse impact on a biological system is operationally defined in terms of an adverse impact which, according to a proposed decision-tree, justifies rejection of a project or a change in its site, design, or mode of operation. A gradient of increasing difficulty in the prediction of impacts exists as the scope of the assessment is expanded to consider long-term, far-field impacts with respect to higher levels of biological organization (e.g., communities or ecosystems). The analytical methods available for predicting short-term, near-field impacts are discussed. Finally, the role of simulation modeling as an aid to professional judgment in predicting the long-term, far-field consequences of impacts is considered, and illustrated with an example. (U.S.)

  15. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... note any other environmental documents related to it (§ 1501.7(a)(5)). If the assessment is included, the finding need not repeat any of the discussion in the assessment but may incorporate it by... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508...

  16. [Physical activity: positive impact on brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Kalron, Alon

    2008-03-01

    The central nervous system has a unique capability of plasticity that enables a single neuron or a group of neurons to undergo functional and constructional changes that are important to learning processes and for compensation of brain damage. The current review aims to summarize recent data related to the effects of physical activity on brain plasticity. In the last decade it was reported that physical activity can affect and manipulate neuronal connections, synaptic activity and adaptation to new neuronal environment following brain injury. One of the most significant neurotrophic factors that is critical for synaptic re-organization and is influenced by physical activity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The frequency of physical activity and the intensity of exercises are of importance to brain remodeling, support neuronal survival and positively affect rehabilitation therapy. Physical activity should be employed as a tool to improve neural function in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from neurological damage.

  17. Bolide impacts and their significance in fossil fuel geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxby, J.D. (CSIRO Division of Coal Technology (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    One of the most dramatic scientific theories of the past ten years has been that a collision between the earth and a large meteor or bolide about 10 km in diameter caused mass extinctions of most of the then-existing species (including dinosaurs) at the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years ago. Controversy continues but, by and large, organic geochemists researching fossil fuels have not been active participants. Only recently has a relationship between kerogen and the all-important iridium anomaly been investigated (Schmitz et al., 1988). Sediment samples at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary contain anomalously high concentrations of iridium, an element whose abundance in the earth's crust is only one ten thousandth of that found in meteorites and presumably in other solar system debris. The purpose of this paper is to briefly raise some questions regarding the bolide impact theory as it affects coal and petroleum deposits. It may well be that organic geochemical evidence will be crucial in either supporting or refuting the impact hypothesis or one of its variations. Even if future research tends to favor widespread explosive volcanism, rather than bolide impacts, the significance of such catastrophic events to the formation and characteristics of fossil fuels needs to be assessed.

  18. Bolide impacts and their significance in fossil fuel geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxby, J D [CSIRO Division of Coal Technology (Australia)

    1989-01-01

    One of the most dramatic scientific theories of the past ten years has been that a collision between the earth and a large meteor or bolide about 10 km in diameter caused mass extinctions of most of the then-existing species (including dinosaurs) at the end of the Cretaceous, 65 million years ago. Controversy continues but, by and large, organic geochemists researching fossil fuels have not been active participants. Only recently has a relationship between kerogen and the all-important iridium anomaly been investigated (Schmitz et al., 1988). Sediment samples at the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary contain anomalously high concentrations of iridium, an element whose abundance in the earth's crust is only one ten thousandth of that found in meteorites and presumably in other solar system debris. The purpose of this paper is to briefly raise some questions regarding the bolide impact theory as it affects coal and petroleum deposits. It may well be that organic geochemical evidence will be crucial in either supporting or refuting the impact hypothesis or one of its variations. Even if future research tends to favor widespread explosive volcanism, rather than bolide impacts, the significance of such catastrophic events to the formation and characteristics of fossil fuels needs to be assessed.

  19. Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberstein, Jonathan L; Eastham, James A

    2014-10-01

    Positive surgical margins (PSM) at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP) result in an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR) and secondary treatment. We review current literature with a focus on stratifying the characteristics of the PSM that may define its significance, the impact of modern imaging and surgical approaches in avoidance of PSM, and management strategies when PSM do occur. We performed a review of the available literature to identify factors associated with PSM and their management. PSM have been repeatedly demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of BCR following RP. The specific characteristics (size, number, location, Gleason score at the margin) of the PSM may influence the risk of recurrence. Novel imaging and surgical approaches are being investigated and may allow for reductions of PSM in the future. The use of adjuvant treatment for a PSM remains controversial and should be decided on an individual basis after a discussion about the risks and benefits. The goal of RP is complete resection of the tumor. PSM are associated with increased risk of BCR and secondary treatments. Of the risk factors associated with BCR after RP, a PSM is directly influenced by surgical technique.

  20. Significance and management of positive surgical margins at the time of radical prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L. Silberstein

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive surgical margins (PSM at the time of radical prostatectomy (RP result in an increased risk of biochemical recurrence (BCR and secondary treatment. We review current literature with a focus on stratifying the characteristics of the PSM that may define its significance, the impact of modern imaging and surgical approaches in avoidance of PSM, and management strategies when PSM do occur. We performed a review of the available literature to identify factors associated with PSM and their management. PSM have been repeatedly demonstrated to be associated with an increased risk of BCR following RP. The specific characteristics (size, number, location, Gleason score at the margin of the PSM may influence the risk of recurrence. Novel imaging and surgical approaches are being investigated and may allow for reductions of PSM in the future. The use of adjuvant treatment for a PSM remains controversial and should be decided on an individual basis after a discussion about the risks and benefits. The goal of RP is complete resection of the tumor. PSM are associated with increased risk of BCR and secondary treatments. Of the risk factors associated with BCR after RP, a PSM is directly influenced by surgical technique.

  1. The Health Significance of Positive Emotions in Adulthood and Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Anthony D; Mroczek, Daniel K; Riffin, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    A growing body of literature supports a link between positive emotions and health in older adults. In this article, we review evidence of the effects of positive emotions on downstream biological processes and meaningful clinical endpoints, such as adult morbidity and mortality. We then present relevant predictions from lifespan theories that suggest changes in cognition and motivation may play an important role in explaining how positive emotions are well maintained in old age, despite pervasive declines in cognitive processes. We conclude by discussing how the application of psychological theory can inform greater understanding of the adaptive significance of positive emotions in adulthood and later life.

  2. Significance and impact of nuclear research in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The main purpose of this conference was to gather representatives of universities, research institutes, governmental agencies and industry, as well as IAEA staff, to report on and to assess the significance and impact of nuclear science and technology in developing countries. Thirty-four papers from 17 countries were presented, which are included in the proceedings, as well as reports of three workshops on ''Basic and applied research'', on ''The IAEA's involvement in the implementation of national nuclear programmes'', and on ''Policy and management issues''. The presentation of these reports clearly reflects the fact that all the nuclear activities involved in the programmes of industrialized countries are in progress in developing countries, i.e. most of the aspects of applications in the field of nuclear power, research reactors, food and agriculture, industry and earth sciences, and life sciences. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  3. Geomagnetic Storm Impact On GPS Code Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uray, Fırat; Varlık, Abdullah; Kalaycı, İbrahim; Öǧütcü, Sermet

    2017-04-01

    This paper deals with the geomagnetic storm impact on GPS code processing with using GIPSY/OASIS research software. 12 IGS stations in mid-latitude were chosen to conduct the experiment. These IGS stations were classified as non-cross correlation receiver reporting P1 and P2 (NONCC-P1P2), non-cross correlation receiver reporting C1 and P2 (NONCC-C1P2) and cross-correlation (CC-C1P2) receiver. In order to keep the code processing consistency between the classified receivers, only P2 code observations from the GPS satellites were processed. Four extreme geomagnetic storms October 2003, day of the year (DOY), 29, 30 Halloween Storm, November 2003, DOY 20, November 2004, DOY 08 and four geomagnetic quiet days in 2005 (DOY 92, 98, 99, 100) were chosen for this study. 24-hour rinex data of the IGS stations were processed epoch-by-epoch basis. In this way, receiver clock and Earth Centered Earth Fixed (ECEF) Cartesian Coordinates were solved for a per-epoch basis for each day. IGS combined broadcast ephemeris file (brdc) were used to partly compensate the ionospheric effect on the P2 code observations. There is no tropospheric model was used for the processing. Jet Propulsion Laboratory Application Technology Satellites (JPL ATS) computed coordinates of the stations were taken as true coordinates. The differences of the computed ECEF coordinates and assumed true coordinates were resolved to topocentric coordinates (north, east, up). Root mean square (RMS) errors for each component were calculated for each day. The results show that two-dimensional and vertical accuracy decreases significantly during the geomagnetic storm days comparing with the geomagnetic quiet days. It is observed that vertical accuracy is much more affected than the horizontal accuracy by geomagnetic storm. Up to 50 meters error in vertical component has been observed in geomagnetic storm day. It is also observed that performance of Klobuchar ionospheric correction parameters during geomagnetic storm

  4. Estimates of statistical significance for comparison of individual positions in multiple sequence alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadreyev Ruslan I

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Profile-based analysis of multiple sequence alignments (MSA allows for accurate comparison of protein families. Here, we address the problems of detecting statistically confident dissimilarities between (1 MSA position and a set of predicted residue frequencies, and (2 between two MSA positions. These problems are important for (i evaluation and optimization of methods predicting residue occurrence at protein positions; (ii detection of potentially misaligned regions in automatically produced alignments and their further refinement; and (iii detection of sites that determine functional or structural specificity in two related families. Results For problems (1 and (2, we propose analytical estimates of P-value and apply them to the detection of significant positional dissimilarities in various experimental situations. (a We compare structure-based predictions of residue propensities at a protein position to the actual residue frequencies in the MSA of homologs. (b We evaluate our method by the ability to detect erroneous position matches produced by an automatic sequence aligner. (c We compare MSA positions that correspond to residues aligned by automatic structure aligners. (d We compare MSA positions that are aligned by high-quality manual superposition of structures. Detected dissimilarities reveal shortcomings of the automatic methods for residue frequency prediction and alignment construction. For the high-quality structural alignments, the dissimilarities suggest sites of potential functional or structural importance. Conclusion The proposed computational method is of significant potential value for the analysis of protein families.

  5. Evaluation of significance of positive familial history in prevalence of hypertension in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavassoli A

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most important modifiable risk factors of vascular heart disease. Control of hypertension in different age groups has a significant effect upon the control and prevention of vascular heart disease. A familial pattern is observed in the distribution of blood pressure in different societies. Family history of hypertension has a profound effect on the future risk of developing hypertension. The blood pressure of approximately 8150 inhabitants of Isfahan aged above 18 years was measured during 1993-94. Blood pressure measurements were performed according to the standards set by WHO i.e., on two separate occasions, in the sitting position, and from both arms. A questionnaire was completed consisting of 26 questions, including questions regarding history of hypertension in first and second-degree relatives. Cases with a blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more, were referred to the Cardiovascular Research Center of Isfahan for further evaluation. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was higher in cases with a positive family history of hypertension. In this study, 37.4% of the men with hypertension and 45.4% of hypertensive women had positive history of hypertension in first-degree relatives. The association between positive family history and hypertension was not significant in men (P=0.62, but it was significant in women (P=0.000. This difference was less pronounced in the older age groups, which could be explained by the illiteracy of most of the older cases and their ignorance of the existence of hypertension in family members. After correcting for the effects of confounding factors, it appears that positive family history has a stronger association with the development of hypertension in women. Moreover, positive family history is a strong prognostic factor in the likelihood of hypertension in the children of affected cases. These findings emphasize the importance of routine blood pressure measurement in children and

  6. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Rømer Thomsen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human

  7. Prognostic Significance of Progesterone Receptor–Positive Tumor Cells Within Immunohistochemically Defined Luminal A Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, Aleix; Cheang, Maggie Chon U.; Martín, Miguel; Parker, Joel S.; Carrasco, Eva; Caballero, Rosalía; Tyldesley, Scott; Gelmon, Karen; Bernard, Philip S.; Nielsen, Torsten O.; Perou, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Current immunohistochemical (IHC)-based definitions of luminal A and B breast cancers are imperfect when compared with multigene expression-based assays. In this study, we sought to improve the IHC subtyping by examining the pathologic and gene expression characteristics of genomically defined luminal A and B subtypes. Patients and Methods Gene expression and pathologic features were collected from primary tumors across five independent cohorts: British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) tamoxifen-treated only, Grupo Español de Investigación en Cáncer de Mama 9906 trial, BCCA no systemic treatment cohort, PAM50 microarray training data set, and a combined publicly available microarray data set. Optimal cutoffs of percentage of progesterone receptor (PR) –positive tumor cells to predict survival were derived and independently tested. Multivariable Cox models were used to test the prognostic significance. Results Clinicopathologic comparisons among luminal A and B subtypes consistently identified higher rates of PR positivity, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) negativity, and histologic grade 1 in luminal A tumors. Quantitative PR gene and protein expression were also found to be significantly higher in luminal A tumors. An empiric cutoff of more than 20% of PR-positive tumor cells was statistically chosen and proved significant for predicting survival differences within IHC-defined luminal A tumors independently of endocrine therapy administration. Finally, no additional prognostic value within hormonal receptor (HR) –positive/HER2-negative disease was observed with the use of the IHC4 score when intrinsic IHC-based subtypes were used that included the more than 20% PR-positive tumor cells and vice versa. Conclusion Semiquantitative IHC expression of PR adds prognostic value within the current IHC-based luminal A definition by improving the identification of good outcome breast cancers. The new proposed IHC-based definition of luminal A

  8. A Short Review on Journal Impact Factor; Significance and Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Eisa Khajelou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact Factor (IF is considered as one of the most common subjects in academic environments. Individuals who would like to publish their productions and/or research results confront with various indicators, brands and labels that indicate relative importance, academic discipline and quality of journals. Diversity of the indicators induces confusion to select applicable journals and often, the authors would not be able to distinguish IF, ISI and their relations with the acceptance of the journal. Meanwhile, they have difficulties to find IF. Hence, this short paper aimed to provide useful information for authors to familiarize them with the concept of IF.​

  9. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-09-15

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  10. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  11. Extra-nodal extension is a significant prognostic factor in lymph node positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sura Aziz

    Full Text Available Presence of lymph node (LN metastasis is a strong prognostic factor in breast cancer, whereas the importance of extra-nodal extension and other nodal tumor features have not yet been fully recognized. Here, we examined microscopic features of lymph node metastases and their prognostic value in a population-based cohort of node positive breast cancer (n = 218, as part of the prospective Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program NBCSP (1996-2009. Sections were reviewed for the largest metastatic tumor diameter (TD-MET, nodal afferent and efferent vascular invasion (AVI and EVI, extra-nodal extension (ENE, number of ENE foci, as well as circumferential (CD-ENE and perpendicular (PD-ENE diameter of extra-nodal growth. Number of positive lymph nodes, EVI, and PD-ENE were significantly increased with larger primary tumor (PT diameter. Univariate survival analysis showed that several features of nodal metastases were associated with disease-free (DFS or breast cancer specific survival (BCSS. Multivariate analysis demonstrated an independent prognostic value of PD-ENE (with 3 mm as cut-off value in predicting DFS and BCSS, along with number of positive nodes and histologic grade of the primary tumor (for DFS: P = 0.01, P = 0.02, P = 0.01, respectively; for BCSS: P = 0.02, P = 0.008, P = 0.02, respectively. To conclude, the extent of ENE by its perpendicular diameter was independently prognostic and should be considered in line with nodal tumor burden in treatment decisions of node positive breast cancer.

  12. Clinical significance of orthostatic dizziness in the diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Eun-Ju; Park, Yong-Soo; Park, Shi-Nae; Park, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Nam, In-Chul; Chang, Ki-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Orthostatic dizziness (OD) and positional dizziness (PD) are considerably common conditions in dizziness clinic, whereas those two conditions are not clearly separated. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of simple OD and OD combined with PD for the diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) and orthostatic intolerance (OI). Patients presenting with OD (n=102) were divided into two groups according to their symptoms: group PO, presenting with PD as well as OD; group O, presenting with OD. A thorough medical history, physical examination, and vestibular function tests were performed to identify the etiology of the dizziness. Orthostatic vital sign measurement (OVSM) was used to diagnose OI. The majority of patients were in group PO (87.3%). BPPV was the most common cause of OD for entire patients (36.3%) and group PO (37.1%), while OI was most common etiology for group O (38.5%). Total of 17 (16.7%) OI patients were identified by OVSM test. Orthostatic hypotension (n=10) was most frequently found, followed by orthostatic hypertension (n=5), and orthostatic tachycardia (n=2). Group O showed significantly higher percentage (38.5%) of OI than group PO (13.5%) (P=0.039). It is suggested that orthostatic testing such as OVSM or head-up tilt table test should be performed as an initial work up for the patients with simple OD. Positional tests for BPPV should be considered as an essential diagnostic test for patients with OD, even though their dizziness is not associated with PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The significance and impact of the new French electricity organisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batail, J.

    2000-01-01

    The years 1996 to 1998 saw the introduction of 'internal electricity market' and 'internal gas market' directives. In France, the year 2000 has recently been marked by the enactment of the new electricity law and soon a gas law will also be brought into force. The issues are technical-economic, industrial, social and political. This article points out the particular nature of the 'power supply network industries', recalls the arguments presented during communal debates about electricity and explains the solutions that have resulted in agreement. Finally, it details the practical impact of the recent electricity law, aimed at revitalizing the electricity network by the introduction of competition, whilst clarify and consolidating the public service in a competitive context and equipping the energy policy with suitable tools for this new context. What is required is a balance between the advantages of moderate liberalization and a certain number features to which France adheres to i.e. the security of national supplies, the involvement of public authorities in the preparation for the collective and access to cheap electricity for all, etc. (authors)

  14. Developing the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) in the context of impact significance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ijaes, Asko; Kuitunen, Markku T.; Jalava, Kimmo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the applicability of the RIAM method (rapid impact assessment matrix) is evaluated in the context of impact significance assessment. The methodological issues considered in the study are: 1) to test the possibilities of enlarging the scoring system used in the method, and 2) to compare the significance classifications of RIAM and unaided decision-making to estimate the consistency between these methods. The data used consisted of projects for which funding had been applied for via the European Union's Regional Development Trust in the area of Central Finland. Cases were evaluated with respect to their environmental, social and economic impacts using an assessment panel. The results showed the scoring framework used in RIAM could be modified according to the problem situation at hand, which enhances its application potential. However the changes made in criteria B did not significantly affect the final ratings of the method, which indicates the high importance of criteria A1 (importance) and A2 (magnitude) to the overall results. The significance classes obtained by the two methods diverged notably. In general the ratings given by RIAM tended to be smaller compared to intuitive judgement implying that the RIAM method may be somewhat conservative in character.

  15. Significant positive relationship between serum magnesium and muscle quality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hisanori; Ishimura, Eiji; Okuno, Senji; Norimine, Kyoko; Yamakawa, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Shigeichi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Serum magnesium (Mg) levels have been associated with muscle performance in the general population. We hypothesized that serum Mg would be associated with muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. A total of 310 patients were examined (age: 58 ± 12 years, hemodialysis duration: 6.4 ± 6.0 years, 60.6% men, and 36.1% diabetics). Arm lean mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on the dominant side. Arm muscle quality was defined as the ratio of the handgrip strength to the arm lean mass of the same side (kg/kg). Serum Mg was 1.15 ± 0.16 mmol/L (2.8 ± 0.4 mg/dL), being higher than the reference range of normal subjects. There was a significant negative correlation between muscle quality and age (r = -0.326, p<0.0001) and duration of hemodialysis (r = -0.253, p<0.0001). The muscle quality of the diabetics was significantly lower than that of the non-diabetics (p<0.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between muscle quality and serum Mg (r = 0.118, p<0.05), but not serum calcium or phosphate. In multiple regression analysis, age, gender, hemodialysis duration, diabetes, and serum Mg (β = 0.129, p<0.05) were significantly and independently associated with muscle quality (R(2) = 0.298, p<0.0001). These results demonstrated that a lower serum Mg concentration was significantly associated with poor muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanism by which lower serum Mg affects muscle quality.

  16. Activity in ventromedial prefrontal cortex during self-related processing: positive subjective value or personal significance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungmi; Johnson, Marcia K

    2015-04-01

    Well-being and subjective experience of a coherent world depend on our sense of 'self' and relations between the self and the environment (e.g. people, objects and ideas). The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vMPFC) is involved in self-related processing, and disrupted vMPFC activity is associated with disruptions of emotional/social functioning (e.g. depression and autism). Clarifying precise function(s) of vMPFC in self-related processing is an area of active investigation. In this study, we sought to more specifically characterize the function of vMPFC in self-related processing, focusing on two alternative accounts: (i) assignment of positive subjective value to self-related information and (ii) assignment of personal significance to self-related information. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants imagined owning objects associated with either their perceived ingroup or outgroup. We found that for ingroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with increased than decreased post-ownership preference. In contrast, for outgroup-associated objects, vMPFC showed greater activity for objects with decreased than increased post-ownership preference. Our findings support the idea that the function of vMPFC in self-related processing may not be to represent/evaluate the 'positivity' or absolute preference of self-related information but to assign personal significance to it based on its meaning/function for the self. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Can gravity waves significantly impact PSC occurrence in the Antarctic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Woollands

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A combination of POAM III aerosol extinction and CHAMP RO temperature measurements are used to examine the role of atmospheric gravity waves in the formation of Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs. POAM III aerosol extinction observations and quality flag information are used to identify Polar Stratospheric Clouds using an unsupervised clustering algorithm.

    A PSC proxy, derived by thresholding Met Office temperature analyses with the PSC Type Ia formation temperature (TNAT, shows general agreement with the results of the POAM III analysis. However, in June the POAM III observations of PSC are more abundant than expected from temperature threshold crossings in five out of the eight years examined. In addition, September and October PSC identified using temperature thresholding is often significantly higher than that derived from POAM III; this observation probably being due to dehydration and denitrification. Comparison of the Met Office temperature analyses with corresponding CHAMP observations also suggests a small warm bias in the Met Office data in June. However, this bias cannot fully explain the differences observed.

    Analysis of CHAMP data indicates that temperature perturbations associated with gravity waves may partially explain the enhanced PSC incidence observed in June (relative to the Met Office analyses. For this month, approximately 40% of the temperature threshold crossings observed using CHAMP RO data are associated with small-scale perturbations. Examination of the distribution of temperatures relative to TNAT shows a large proportion of June data to be close to this threshold, potentially enhancing the importance of gravity wave induced temperature perturbations. Inspection of the longitudinal structure of PSC occurrence in June 2005 also shows that regions of enhancement are geographically associated with the Antarctic Peninsula; a known mountain wave "hotspot". The

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Women with Positive Urine Culture: Does Menopausal Status Make a Significant Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Miotla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n=2748 and postmenopausal (n=1705 women with uncomplicated UTI. Methods. Urinary samples (n=4453 collected from women with UTI were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. These were considered as positive if bacterial growth was ≥105 colony forming units (CFUs/mL. Susceptibility and resistance testing for commonly used antibiotics was subsequently assessed. Results. The most common uropathogens cultured from urine samples were Escherichia coli (65.5%, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (12.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%, and Proteus mirabilis (4.2%. The resistance to ampicillin exceeded 40%, independently of menopausal status. Of note, resistance to ciprofloxacin exceeded 25% among postmenopausal patients. Moreover, resistance of all uropathogens to commonly used antimicrobials was significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Conclusion. Due to the high resistance rate, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination should be avoided in treating postmenopausal women affected by UTI without being indicated by initial urine culture report. Finally, cephalexin and cefuroxime are promising alternatives as initial treatment in postmenopausal women.

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary. I...

  20. Thinking back about a positive event: The impact of processing style on positive affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eNelis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70 or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159, followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects: In Study 1, a ‘concrete/imagery’ vs. ‘abstract/verbal’ processing style was compared. In Study 2, a ‘concrete/imagery’, ‘abstract/verbal’, and ‘comparative/verbal’ processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavourable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather then general abstract/verbal processing per se. The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant’s tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information.

  1. The Health Significance of Positive Emotions in Adulthood and Later Life

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Anthony D.; Mroczek, Daniel K.; Riffin, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of literature supports a link between positive emotions and health in older adults. In this article, we review evidence of the effects of positive emotions on downstream biological processes and meaningful clinical endpoints, such as adult morbidity and mortality. We then present relevant predictions from lifespan theories that suggest changes in cognition and motivation may play an important role in explaining how positive emotions are well maintained in old age, despite perva...

  2. Allied health research positions: a qualitative evaluation of their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenke, Rachel J; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hickman, Ingrid; Hulcombe, Julie; Phillips, Rachel; Mickan, Sharon

    2017-02-06

    Research positions embedded within healthcare settings have been identified as an enabler to allied health professional (AHP) research capacity; however, there is currently limited research formally evaluating their impact. In 2008, a Health Practitioner industrial agreement funded a research capacity building initiative within Queensland Health, Australia, which included 15 new allied health research positions. The present project used a qualitative and realist approach to explore the impact of these research positions, as well as the mechanisms which facilitated or hindered their success within their respective organisations. Forty-four AHP employees from six governmental health services in Queensland, Australia, participated in the study. Individual interviews were undertaken, with individuals in research positions (n = 8) and their reporting line managers (n = 8). Four stakeholder focus groups were also conducted with clinicians, team leaders and professional heads who had engaged with the research positions. Nine key outcomes of the research positions were identified across individual, team/service and organisational/community levels. These outcomes included clinician skill development, increased research activity, clinical and service changes, increased research outputs and collaborations, enhanced research and workplace culture, improved profile of allied health, development of research infrastructure, and professional development of individuals in the research positions. Different mechanisms that influenced these outcomes were identified. These mechanisms were grouped by those related to the (1) research position itself, (2) organisational factors and (3) implementation factors. The present findings highlight the potential value of the research positions for individuals, teams and clinical services across different governmental healthcare services, and demonstrate the impact of the roles on building the internal and external profile of allied health

  3. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports and Students with Significant Disabilities: Where Are We?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Jennifer A.; Enyart, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Although the number of schools implementing schoolwide positive behavior supports (SWPBS) has increased dramatically, the inclusion of students with severe disabilities in these efforts remains negligible. This article describes the evolution of positive behavior intervention and supports into the SWPBS approach used in many schools today,…

  4. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption From 10 CFR 30, 40, and 70... Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption from Commencement of Construction Requirements... has reached a Finding of No Significant Impact. II. Summary of the Environmental Assessment Background...

  5. 78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood Control Improvements to the Rio Grande... Supplemental Environmental Assessment (SEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). SUMMARY: Pursuant to... Significant Impact for Flood Control Improvements to the Rio Grande Canalization Project in Vado, New Mexico...

  6. Impacts of GNSS position offsets on global frame stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jake; Ray, Jim

    2014-05-01

    Positional offsets appear in Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) time series for a variety of reasons. Antenna or radome changes are the most common cause for these discontinuities. Many others are from earthquakes, receiver changes, and different anthropogenic modifications at or near the stations. Some jumps appear for unknown or undocumented reasons. The accurate determination of station velocities, and therefore geophysical parameters and terrestrial reference frames, requires that positional offsets be correctly found and compensated. Williams (2003) found that undetected offsets introduce a random walk error component in individual station time series. The topic of detecting positional offsets has received considerable attention in recent years (e.g., Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiment; DOGEx), and most research groups using GNSS have adopted a combination of manual and automated methods for finding them. The removal of a positional offset is usually handled by estimating the average station position on both sides of the discontinuity, assuming a constant, continuous velocity. This is sufficient in the absence of time-correlated errors. However, GNSS time series contain systematic and power-law errors (white to random walk noise). In this paper, we aim to evaluate the impact to both individual station results and the overall stability of the global reference frame from adding increasing numbers of positional discontinuities. We use the International GNSS Service (IGS) weekly SINEX files, and iteratively insert positional offset parameters at the midpoint of each data segment. Each iteration includes a restacking of the modified SINEX files using the CATREF software from Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) to estimate: regularized station positions, secular velocities, Earth orientation parameters, Helmert frame alignment parameters, and the empirical shifts across all positional discontinuities. A comparison of the

  7. Impacts of a book reading club intervention on enhancing parents' positive thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Zuway-R; Lin, Huann-shyang

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of participating in a book reading club on improving parents' positive interactions with children and positive thinking. A total of 85 parent volunteers were randomized into the experimental or comparison group. The Parent Questionnaire was used to measure positive thinking and interaction with children. Additionally interview results were used to triangulate and elucidate the findings. The findings revealed a positive impact on parents' positive thinking and interaction with children and that these were significant predictors of parents' positive thinking. Implications and recommendations are presented.

  8. Adolescent Literacy Practices and Positive Youth Development through Fink's Taxonomy of Significant Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Greathouse, Paula

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was not to disprove the effects of the current, common remedial literacy course design and the literacy practices within that help adolescent RLLs pass statewide assessment tests, but to describe the potential long-term impact of an innovative comprehensive approach to literacy (CAL) framed through an integrated course…

  9. Frequency of head-impact-related outcomes by position in NCAA division I collegiate football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugh, Christine M; Kiernan, Patrick T; Kroshus, Emily; Daneshvar, Daniel H; Montenigro, Philip H; McKee, Ann C; Stern, Robert A

    2015-03-01

    Concussions and subconcussive impacts sustained in American football have been associated with short- and long-term neurological impairment, but differences in head impact outcomes across playing positions are not well understood. The American Medical Society for Sports Medicine has identified playing position as a key risk factor for concussion in football and one for which additional research is needed. This study examined variation in head impact outcomes across primary football playing positions in a group of 730 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Championship Series athletes, using a self-report questionnaire. Although there were no significant differences between position groups in the number of diagnosed concussions during the 2012 football season, there were significant differences between groups in undiagnosed concussions (p=0.008) and "dings" (pfootball season, with offensive linemen reporting significantly more symptoms compared to most other groups. There were also positional differences in frequency of returning to play while symptomatic (p<0.001) and frequency of participating in full-contact practice (p<0.001). Offensive linemen reported having returned to play while experiencing symptoms more frequently and participating in more full-contact practices than other groups. These findings suggest that offensive linemen, a position group that experiences frequent, but low-magnitude, head impacts, develop more postimpact symptoms than other playing positions, but do not report these symptoms as a concussion.

  10. Impact of Ménière's Disease on Significant Others' Health and Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchaiah, Vinaya; Pyykkő, Ilmari; Levo, Hilla; Kentala, Erna

    2018-01-01

    Ménière's disease (MD) is a chronic and, in part, intermittent illness that poses multiple challenges for both the physical and psychological well-being of patients, as well as on those around them. The patients face psychosocial consequences, which include disruptions to life goals, employment, income, relationships, leisure activities, and daily living activities that also influence their family members and friends. However, there is a limited understanding of the impact of MD on significant others (SOs). The current study was aimed at identifying how the SOs of patients with MD respond to different aspects of the impact of the disorder on health and life (i.e., psychological aspects, activities, participation, and positive aspects). The study employed a cross-sectional survey design. The study sample was 186 SOs of patients with MD who were recruited through Finnish Ménière's Federation. Participants completed a 25-item structured questionnaire focusing on different aspects of the impact of the disorder on health and life, and also provided some demographic information. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Pearson's correlation, and K-means cluster analysis techniques. Examination of response patterns suggests that the disorder had, on average, a marginal effect on SOs' psychological aspects, activities, and participation as the SOs generally focused on complaints. Interestingly, SOs reported some positive consequences as a result of their partners' condition. The results show a limited association between SOs' demographic variables and response patterns. The Pearson's correlation suggested a strong association between the subscales psychological aspects, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Also, a weak negative correlation was observed among positive aspects and participation restrictions. The cluster analysis resulted in three clusters, namely, (1) "nonengaged," (2) "supportive," and (3) "concerned." The current study results

  11. Investor Outlook: Significance of the Positive LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Spark Therapeutics recently reported positive phase III results for SPK-RPE65 targeting the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders), marking an important inflection point for the field of gene therapy. The results highlight the ability to successfully design and execute a randomized trial of a gene therapy and also reinforce the potentially predictive nature of early preclinical and clinical data. The results are expected to pave the way for the first approved gene therapy product in the United States and should sustain investor interest and confidence in gene therapy for many approaches, including retina targeting and beyond.

  12. Significance of the Resonance Condition for Controlling the Seam Position in Laser-assisted TIG Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, B.; Huse, M.; Hermsdorf, J.; Kaierle, S.; Wesling, V.; Overmeyer, L.; Kozakov, R.; Uhrlandt, D.

    As an energy-preserving variant of laser hybrid welding, laser-assisted arc welding uses laser powers of less than 1 kW. Recent studies have shown that the electrical conductivity of a TIG welding arc changes within the arc in case of a resonant interaction between laser radiation and argon atoms. This paper presents investigations on how to control the position of the arc root on the workpiece by means of the resonant interaction. Furthermore, the influence on the welding result is demonstrated. The welding tests were carried out on a cooled copper plate and steel samples with resonant and non-resonant laser radiation. Moreover, an analysis of the weld seam is presented.

  13. The prognostic significance and relationship with body composition of CCR7-positive cells in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Bernardo, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Knight, Stella C; Moorghen, Morgan; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Jenkins, John T

    2015-07-01

    The host local immune response (LIR) to cancer is a determinant of cancer outcome. Regulation of this local response is largely achieved through chemokine synthesis from the tumor microenvironment such as C-Chemokine-Receptor-7 (CCR7). We examined the LIR measured as CCR7 expression, in colorectal cancers (CRC) and explored relationships with body composition (BC) and survival. A study of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens was carried out in 116 patients with non-metastatic CRC. CCR7 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of computer tomography scans was used to calculate BC parameters. Survival analyses and multivariate regression models were used. High CCR7(+) cell density within the tumor stroma and at the margin was significantly associated with increased age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, higher tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, high Klintrup-Makinen immune score, and myosteatosis. High CCR7(+) cell density in the tumor margin was significantly associated with shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). This was also significantly associated with shorter survival in multivariate analysis (HR = 8.87; 95%CI [2.51-31.3]; P < 0.01 for OS and HR = 4.72; 95%CI (1.24-12.9); P = 0.02 for DFS). Our results suggest that a specific immune microenvironment may be associated with altered host's BC and tumor behavior, and that CCR7 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Tourism's impacts on natural resources: A positive case from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  15. Tourism's Impacts on Natural Resources: A Positive Case from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjun; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Chunyan; Xue, Qifu

    2006-10-01

    Tourism development may result in negative impacts on natural resources owing to overuse and mismanagement. However, tourism may also play positive roles in natural resource conservation, which has rarely been verified in practice, although some researchers have demonstrated this in theory. In this article, taking the Jiuzhaigou Biosphere Reserve as a case study area, we conducted an analysis for the environmental impacts from tourism development based on social survey and interpretation of remote sensing images. The results show that the natural environment was not degraded and some indicators are even improving because all the residents have participated in tourism and given up farming and hunting. It is concluded that it is possible to use tourism as a way to balance natural resource conservation and economic development under the preconditions of making effective policies to encourage and help local people participate in tourism business and to benefit from it.

  16. Significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennig, E.M.; Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo; Kvinnsland, S.; Holm, R.; Nesland, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 has previously been found in 19/41 breast carcinomas (46%) in women with a history of HPV 16 positive CIN III lesions. There was no significant difference in distribution of histological subtypes, mean or median tumour diameter or number of regional lymph node metastases in the HPV positive and HPV negative breast carcinoma groups. P53, p21 and c-erbB-2 proteins were analyzed by immunohistochemistry in the HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas. There was a significant difference in p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity between HPV 16 positive and HPV negative breast carcinomas (p=0.0091 and p=0.0040), with a significant less detectable p53 and p21 protein immunoreactivity in the HPV 16 positive cases. There was also a significant difference in the coexpression of p53/p21 between the HPV 16 positive and HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas (p=0.002). No significant difference in immunostaining for c-erbB-2 protein in the two groups was found (p=0.15), or for the coexpression of p53/c-erbB-2 (p=0.19). The significantly lower expression of p53 and p21 proteins in HPV 16 positive than in HPV 16 negative breast carcinomas supports the hypothesis of inactivation and degradation of wild-type p53 proteins by HPV 16 E6 and that p53 mutation is not necessary for transformation in the HPV 16 positive cases. (orig.)

  17. Continuing Education Workshops in Bioinformatics Positively Impact Research and Careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazas, Michelle D; Ouellette, B F Francis

    2016-06-01

    Bioinformatics.ca has been hosting continuing education programs in introductory and advanced bioinformatics topics in Canada since 1999 and has trained more than 2,000 participants to date. These workshops have been adapted over the years to keep pace with advances in both science and technology as well as the changing landscape in available learning modalities and the bioinformatics training needs of our audience. Post-workshop surveys have been a mandatory component of each workshop and are used to ensure appropriate adjustments are made to workshops to maximize learning. However, neither bioinformatics.ca nor others offering similar training programs have explored the long-term impact of bioinformatics continuing education training. Bioinformatics.ca recently initiated a look back on the impact its workshops have had on the career trajectories, research outcomes, publications, and collaborations of its participants. Using an anonymous online survey, bioinformatics.ca analyzed responses from those surveyed and discovered its workshops have had a positive impact on collaborations, research, publications, and career progression.

  18. SU-E-T-377: Inaccurate Positioning Might Introduce Significant MapCheck Calibration Error in Flatten Filter Free Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S; Chao, C; Chang, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigates the calibration error of detector sensitivity for MapCheck due to inaccurate positioning of the device, which is not taken into account by the current commercial iterative calibration algorithm. We hypothesize the calibration is more vulnerable to the positioning error for the flatten filter free (FFF) beams than the conventional flatten filter flattened beams. Methods: MapCheck2 was calibrated with 10MV conventional and FFF beams, with careful alignment and with 1cm positioning error during calibration, respectively. Open fields of 37cmx37cm were delivered to gauge the impact of resultant calibration errors. The local calibration error was modeled as a detector independent multiplication factor, with which propagation error was estimated with positioning error from 1mm to 1cm. The calibrated sensitivities, without positioning error, were compared between the conventional and FFF beams to evaluate the dependence on the beam type. Results: The 1cm positioning error leads to 0.39% and 5.24% local calibration error in the conventional and FFF beams respectively. After propagating to the edges of MapCheck, the calibration errors become 6.5% and 57.7%, respectively. The propagation error increases almost linearly with respect to the positioning error. The difference of sensitivities between the conventional and FFF beams was small (0.11 ± 0.49%). Conclusion: The results demonstrate that the positioning error is not handled by the current commercial calibration algorithm of MapCheck. Particularly, the calibration errors for the FFF beams are ~9 times greater than those for the conventional beams with identical positioning error, and a small 1mm positioning error might lead to up to 8% calibration error. Since the sensitivities are only slightly dependent of the beam type and the conventional beam is less affected by the positioning error, it is advisable to cross-check the sensitivities between the conventional and FFF beams to detect

  19. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Wang, Gaojing; Han, Xianquan; Guo, Jiming

    2017-06-12

    Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS) predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm-dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  20. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm–dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  1. 77 FR 49457 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... will it cause a loss or destruction of significant scientific, cultural, or historic resources. The... significantly impact unique characteristics of the geographic area such as historical or cultural resources... community. 10. The proposed action will result in the irretrievable loss of some individual salt cedar. The...

  2. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Significant association between renal function and amyloid-positive area in renal biopsy specimens in AL amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuroda Takeshi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The kidney is a major target organ for systemic amyloidosis that often affects the kidney including proteinura, and elevated serum creatinine (Cr. The correlation between amount of amyloid deposits and clinical parameters is not known. The aim of this study was to clarify correlation the amyloid area in all renal biopsy specimen and clinical parameters. Methods Fifty-eight patients with an established diagnosis of AL amyloidosis participated in the study. All patients showed amyloid deposits in renal biopsies. We retrospectively investigated the correlation between clinical data and amyloid occupied area in whole renal biopsy specimens. Results The area occupied by amyloid was less than 10% in 57 of the 58 patients, and was under 2% in 40. For statistical analyses, %amyloid-positive areas were transformed to common logarithmic values (Log10%amyloid. Cr showed significant correlation with Log10%amyloid and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR showed the significant negative correlation. Patient age, cleatinine clearance (Ccr, blood urea nitorogen, and urinary protein was not significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. The correlation with other clinical factors such as sex, and serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, immunoglobulins, compliments was evaluated. None of these factors significantly correlated with Log10%amyloid. According to sex- and age- adjusted multiple linear regression analysis, Log10%amyloid had significant positive association with Cr and significant negative association with eGFR. Conclusion There is significant association between amyloid-positive area in renal tissue and renal function, especially Cr and eGFR. The level of Cr and eGFR may be a marker of amount of amyloid in renal tissue.

  4. Impact of selected troposphere models on Precise Point Positioning convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jakub; Rzepecka, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) absolute method is currently intensively investigated in order to reach fast convergence time. Among various sources that influence the convergence of the PPP, the tropospheric delay is one of the most important. Numerous models of tropospheric delay are developed and applied to PPP processing. However, with rare exceptions, the quality of those models does not allow fixing the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here we present comparison of several PPP result sets, each of which based on different troposphere model. The respective nominal values are adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS and ZERO-WET. The PPP solution admitted as reference is based on the final troposphere product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). The VMF1 mapping function was used for all processing variants in order to provide capability to compare impact of applied nominal values. The worst case initiates zenith wet delay with zero value (ZERO-WET). Impact from all possible models for tropospheric nominal values should fit inside both IGS and ZERO-WET border variants. The analysis is based on data from seven IGS stations located in mid-latitude European region from year 2014. For the purpose of this study several days with the most active troposphere were selected for each of the station. All the PPP solutions were determined using gLAB open-source software, with the Kalman filter implemented independently by the authors of this work. The processing was performed on 1 hour slices of observation data. In addition to the analysis of the output processing files, the presented study contains detailed analysis of the tropospheric conditions for the selected data. The overall results show that for the height component the VMF1 model outperforms GPT2w and MOPS by 35-40% and ZERO-WET variant by 150%. In most of the cases all solutions converge to the same values during first

  5. Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact--FDA. Notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-18

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that it has reviewed environmental assessments (EA's) and issued findings of no significant impact (FONSI's) relating to the 167 new drug applications (NDA's) and supplemental applications listed in this document. FDA is publishing this notice because Federal regulations require public notice of the availability of environmental documents.

  6. Teachers' Perceptions of Their Most Significant Change: Source, Impact, and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, John E.; Rice, Linda J.; Dani, Danielle E.; Weade, Ginger; McKeny, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the differences among significant changes in the practice of individual teachers. Seventeen US teachers were interviewed about the most successful change in their teaching career. The differences in teacher change were based primarily on the source and impact of the change. The sources of change were divided…

  7. 78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-21

    ... (truck, rail, and marine). DLA Energy's implementation of a systemic change to the use of commercial..., Terrestrial, and Cultural Resources--Transport and storage of fuel products is highly regulated. DLA Energy's... of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact Regarding DLA Energy's...

  8. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... determined that there is no significant difference in the environmental impacts that result from WEC decision... Environmental Quality, and is not an NRC-licensed facility. Pursuant to 10 CFR 30.11 and 70.17, WEC's... amendment request, the July 28, 2009, public meeting, the July 2009 WEC Environmental Report, and other...

  9. 75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ...: I. Introduction The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is considering the issuance of a license.... II. Finding of No Significant Impact Based on the analysis contained in this EA, the staff concluded... access the NRC's Agencywide Document Access and Management System (ADAMS), which provides text and image...

  10. 76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... . From this site, you can access the NRC's Agency Wide Document Access and Management System (ADAMS... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment for the University of Alaska... the release of an incinerator previously used at the Arctic Health Research Building for unrestricted...

  11. 76 FR 56820 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    .... Ken Yale, of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment regarding the environmental...; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is..., the NRC performed an environmental assessment. Based on the results of the environmental assessment...

  12. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... license renewal. Staff considered the following environmental resource areas in its evaluation: Land use... Protection and Performance Assessment Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection... Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal for Uranium One USA Inc...

  13. [False positive results or what's the probability that a significant P-value indicates a true effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucherat, Michel; Laporte, Silvy

    2017-09-01

    The use of statistical test is central in the clinical trial. At the statistical level, obtaining a Pinformation about the plausibility of the existence of treatment effect. With "Pfalse positive is very high. This is the case if the power is low, if there is an inflation of the alpha risk or if the result is exploratory or chance discoveries. This possibility is important to take into consideration when interpreting the results of clinical trials in order to avoid pushing ahead significant results in appearance, but which are likely to be actually false positive results. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical significance of isolated anti-HBc positivity in cases of chronic liver disease in New Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Jain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of anti-HBc IgG in the absence of HBsAg is usually indicative of a past self-limiting HBV infection. But it is frequently associated with co-infection with HCV which can worsen the existing status of chronic liver disease (CLD. Objectives: The present study was planned to evaluate the significance of isolated HBc IgG positivity in patients of CLD and look for the presence of HCV co-infection in such patients. Methods: Clinical profiles and biochemical tests were done for all the 77 CLD cases included in the study. Blood samples were taken from these patients and tested by the commercially available EIA for the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG, anti-HBs and anti-HCV. HBV DNA was detected by amplifying the surface region in all the cases. Results: Isolated anti-HBc IgG positivity defined as the presence of anti-HBc IgG in absence of any other serological markers of HBV infection was detected in 28 patients . Out of 64 patients positive for anti-HBc IgG 36 had the markers of HBV, either HBsAg, HBV DNA or anti-HBs alone or in combination. There was a significant association between isolated anti-HBc IgG positivity and HCV co-infection. Conclusion: Anti-HBc IgG should be tested in all patients with CLD as it is frequently the only marker of HBV infection in such patients and they should be monitored closely as such patients can develop CLD. Presence of co-infection with HCV should be actively searched for in such patients.

  15. A Noise Trimming and Positional Significance of Transposon Insertion System to Identify Essential Genes in Yersinia pestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng Rong; Bullifent, Helen L.; Moore, Karen; Paszkiewicz, Konrad; Saint, Richard J.; Southern, Stephanie J.; Champion, Olivia L.; Senior, Nicola J.; Sarkar-Tyson, Mitali; Oyston, Petra C. F.; Atkins, Timothy P.; Titball, Richard W.

    2017-02-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technology coupled with saturation mutagenesis has provided new and global insights into gene functions and roles. At a simplistic level, the frequency of mutations within genes can indicate the degree of essentiality. However, this approach neglects to take account of the positional significance of mutations - the function of a gene is less likely to be disrupted by a mutation close to the distal ends. Therefore, a systematic bioinformatics approach to improve the reliability of essential gene identification is desirable. We report here a parametric model which introduces a novel mutation feature together with a noise trimming approach to predict the biological significance of Tn5 mutations. We show improved performance of essential gene prediction in the bacterium Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. This method would have broad applicability to other organisms and to the identification of genes which are essential for competitiveness or survival under a broad range of stresses.

  16. Teaching Positive Networking for Life-Long Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addams, Lon; Woodbury, Denise; Addams, Lindsey

    2010-01-01

    As college communication instructors, we could further assist students by teaching the value of positive networking. This article provides (1) a foundation for positive networking and (2) several successful ways in which students can begin building a strong long-lasting network of professional relationships during the semester…and for their entire…

  17. A significant positive correlation between endogenous trans-zeatin content and total arsenic in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica var. nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Qinchun; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Yanyan

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa compared to the control, but a significant decrease of height and endogenous Z was observed in P. ensiformis. The concentrations of As (III) and As (V) increased significantly in the fronds of two plants, but this increase was much higher in P. cretica var. nervosa. Compared to the control, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein were significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa but decreased in P. ensiformis in the 200mg/kg As treatment, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the contents of endogenous Z and total As in P. cretica var. nervosa, but such a correlation was not found in P. ensiformis. Additionally, in the time-course effect experiment, a peak value of each index was appeared in the 43rd day in two plants, except for chlorophyll in P. ensiformis, but this value was significantly higher in P. cretica var. nervosa than that in P. ensiformis. In conclusion, a higher endogenous Z content contributed to As accumulation of P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The significance of lower jaw position in relation to postural stability. Comparison of a premanufactured occlusal splint with the Dental Power Splint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlendorf, D; Riegel, M; Lin Chung, T; Kopp, S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on postural stability of two different lower jaw positions held in place by splints with eyes open and eyes closed. The postural stability in 21 healthy adult volunteers was investigated using two different sets of occlusal conditions with the lower jaw being at rest either with the eyes opened or closed. Two occlusal splints (standard splint and DPS splint) were used in order to maintain this lower jaw position. The balance behaviour was recorded using a balance platform. In a comparison of the habitual occlusion with the two occlusal splints, the balance posturographic values with the eyes opened fell between 7-9% and those for weight distribution with the eyes closed between 22-26% (with greater improvement being achieved with DPS) with the result that the variability in the range of fluctuations was reduced. The level of positioning accuracy deteriorated with the wearing of a splint between 13% with the DPS splint and 30% with the standard splint. Gender-specific differences of minor importance in relation to the positioning accuracy were recorded, with there being significant differences in the female participants (P≤0.00). An occlusal change in the stomatognathic system impacts on postural stability. Balance deficits seem to correlate with deteriorated body sway, which, according to the results, can be improved by a myocentric bite position using a DPS splint. This is more the case with the eyes closed than with the eyes opened.

  19. Exercise in obese pregnant women: positive impacts and current perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Z

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Zhixian Sui,1 Jodie M Dodd1,21The University of Adelaide, Robinson Institute, Discipline of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, 2Department of Perinatal Medicine, Women’s and Babies Division, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Overweight and obesity have significant implications during pregnancy and childbirth. The objective of this review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the effect of physical activity on pregnancy outcomes, the change of physical activity during pregnancy, and women’s perception of being physically active during pregnancy, with a particular focus on women who are overweight or obese. Many studies have investigated the beneficial effect of exercise during pregnancy, including reduced risk of gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and operative birth, in addition to improved cardiovascular function, overall fitness, psychological well-being, and mood stability. Benefits for the infant include reduced risks of prematurity and improved fetal growth, although there is more limited information about longer-term health benefits for both women and infants. The existing literature examining physical activity patterns during pregnancy has generally focused on women of all body mass index categories, consistently indicating a reduction in activity over the course of pregnancy. However, the available literature evaluating physical activity during pregnancy among women who are overweight or obese is more limited and contradictory. A number of studies identified barriers preventing women from being active during pregnancy, including pregnancy symptoms, lack of time, access to child care, and concerns about their safety and that of their unborn baby. Conversely, significant enablers included positive psychological feelings, family influence, and receiving advice from health professionals. Very few studies have provided insights about perceptions of being active during

  20. Significant changes in sexual behavior after a diagnosis of human papillomavirus-positive and human papillomavirus-negative oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberna, Miren; Inglehart, Ronald C; Pickard, Robert K L; Fakhry, Carole; Agrawal, Amit; Katz, Mira L; Gillison, Maura L

    2017-04-01

    Sexual behavior and oral human papillomavirus (HPV) infection are risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The effects of OSCC diagnosis and treatment on subsequent relationship stress and sexual behavior are unknown. Incident cases of HPV-positive or HPV-negative OSCC in patients who had a partnered relationship and partners of patients with oropharyngeal cancer were eligible for a study in which surveys were administered at diagnosis and at the 6-month follow-up time point to assess relationship distress, HPV transmission and concerns about health consequences, and sexual behavior. The frequency distributions of responses, stratified by tumor HPV status, were compared at baseline and follow-up. In total, 262 patients with OSCC and 81 partners were enrolled. Among the patients, 142 (54.2%) had HPV-positive OSCC, and 120 (45.8%) had HPV-negative OSCC. Relationship distress was infrequently reported, and 69% of patients felt that their relationship had strengthened since the cancer diagnosis. Both HPV-positive patients (25%) and their partners (14%) reported feelings of guilt or responsibility for the diagnosis of an HPV-caused cancer. Concern over sexual, but not nonsexual, HPV transmission to partners was reported by 50%. Significant declines in the frequency of vaginal and oral sexual behaviors were reported at follow-up, regardless of tumor HPV status. From baseline to 6 months, significant increases in abstinence from vaginal sex (from 10% to 34%; P oral sex (from 25% to 80%; P oral sex, regardless of tumor HPV status. Sexual behavior is an important quality-of-life outcome to assess within clinical trials. [See related editorial on pages 000-000, this issue.] Cancer 2017. © 2017 American Cancer Society. Cancer 2017;123:1156-1165. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  1. Systematic comparative and sensitivity analyses of additive and outranking techniques for supporting impact significance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cloquell-Ballester, Vicente-Agustin; Monterde-Diaz, Rafael; Cloquell-Ballester, Victor-Andres; Santamarina-Siurana, Maria-Cristina

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the significance of environmental impacts is one of the most important and all together difficult processes of Environmental Impact Assessment. This is largely due to the multicriteria nature of the problem. To date, decision techniques used in the process suffer from two drawbacks, namely the problem of compensation and the problem of identification of the 'exact boundary' between sub-ranges. This article discusses these issues and proposes a methodology for determining the significance of environmental impacts based on comparative and sensitivity analyses using the Electre TRI technique. An application of the methodology for the environmental assessment of a Power Plant project within the Valencian Region (Spain) is presented, and its performance evaluated. It is concluded that contrary to other techniques, Electre TRI automatically identifies those cases where allocation of significance categories is most difficult and, when combined with sensitivity analysis, offers greatest robustness in the face of variation in weights of the significance attributes. Likewise, this research demonstrates the efficacy of systematic comparison between Electre TRI and sum-based techniques, in the solution of assignment problems. The proposed methodology can therefore be regarded as a successful aid to the decision-maker, who will ultimately take the final decision

  2. A prospective study of the psychosocial impact of a positive Chlamydia trachomatis laboratory test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Sami L; Stoner, Bradley P; Zaidi, Akbar A; Buckel, Christina; Tran, Molly; Leichliter, Jami S; Berman, Stuart M; Markowitz, Lauri E

    2011-11-01

    Few data exist on potential harms of chlamydia screening. We assessed the psychosocial impact of receiving a positive Chlamydia trachomatis test result. We prospectively studied women ≥16 years of age undergoing chlamydia testing in 2 Midwestern family planning clinics. We surveyed women at baseline and about 1 month after receiving test results, using 9 validated psychosocial scales/subscales and chlamydia-specific questions. Changes in scale scores were calculated for each woman. Mean percent changes in scores for chlamydia-positive and -negative women were compared using a t test. We enrolled 1807 women (response rate, 84%). Of the 1688 women with test results, 149 (8.8%) tested positive. At follow-up, chlamydia-positive women (n = 71) had a 75% increase in anxiety about sexual aspects of their life on the Multidimensional Sexual Self-Concept Questionnaire (P < 0.001), significantly greater than the 26% increase among 280 randomly selected chlamydia-negative women (P = 0.02). There were no differences for the other 8 scales/subscales, including general measures of anxiety, depression, and self-esteem. Chlamydia-positive women were more likely than chlamydia-negative women to be "concerned about chlamydia" (80% vs. 40%, P < 0.001) and to report breaking up with a main partner (33% vs. 11%, P < 0.001) at follow-up. Women testing positive reported a range of chlamydia-specific concerns. Chlamydia-positive women had significant increases in anxiety about sex and concern about chlamydia, but did not have marked changes in more general measures of psychosocial well-being about 1 month after diagnosis. Chlamydia diagnoses were associated with some disruption of relationships with main partners. Chlamydia-specific concerns may guide counseling messages to minimize psychosocial impact.

  3. Determination of significance in Ecological Impact Assessment: Past change, current practice and future improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Sam; Hudson, Malcolm D., E-mail: mdh@soton.ac.uk

    2013-01-15

    Ecological Impact Assessment (EcIA) is an important tool for conservation and achieving sustainable development. 'Significant' impacts are those which disturb or alter the environment to a measurable degree. Significance is a crucial part of EcIA, our understanding of the concept in practice is vital if it is to be effective as a tool. This study employed three methods to assess how the determination of significance has changed through time, what current practice is, and what would lead to future improvements. Three data streams were collected: interviews with expert stakeholders, a review of 30 Environmental Statements and a broad-scale survey of the United Kingdom Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (IEEM) members. The approach taken in the determination of significance has become more standardised and subjectivity has become constrained through a transparent framework. This has largely been driven by a set of guidelines produced by IEEM in 2006. The significance of impacts is now more clearly justified and the accuracy with which it is determined has improved. However, there are limitations to accuracy and effectiveness of the determination of significance. These are the quality of baseline survey data, our scientific understanding of ecological processes and the lack of monitoring and feedback of results. These in turn are restricted by the limited resources available in consultancies. The most notable recommendations for future practice are the implementation of monitoring and the publication of feedback, the creation of a central database for baseline survey data and the streamlining of guidance. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The assessment of significance has changed markedly through time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The IEEM guidelines have driven a standardisation of practice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Currently limited by quality of baseline data and scientific understanding. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monitoring

  4. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  5. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  6. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. section 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  7. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  8. How organisational behaviours and human factors can positively impact contractors to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaldos Gonzalez, A.; Walker-Sutton, J.; Shannon, M.; Mendoza Garcia, J.

    2012-01-01

    Organisational behaviours have a significant impact on individual and group behaviours but are frequently ignored during the design, planning and scheduling of work or when conducting an investigation of events. Why should it matter? It is important to calculate the personal and organisational impact and cost of those elements which contribute to organisational safety. We look at two nuclear contractor organisations (one in Spain and one in the UK) that are actively making a positive difference to their behaviours in a commercial nuclear environment. They are creating a better business environment for their staff, and a robust business differentiator for future work with their clients. We consider what the cost and impact is of the changes they have made to their organisational behaviours.

  9. The power of Nutrition Impact and Positive Practice (NIPP) Circles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    family members we identify existing, positive behaviours of mothers or caretakers in ..... foods is practice to reinforce that idea. In order to help the volunteer ... exercises are only covered in theory, whereas the women's groups need to practice ...

  10. Impact evaluation of positive deviance hearth in Migori County, Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based nutrition program for children who are at risk for protein-energy malnutrition in a low resource community. The intervention uses the 'Positive Deviance' approach to identify those behaviors practiced by the mothers or caretakers of ...

  11. Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Runway 22 or on Rogers Dry Lakebed at Edwards AFB. 17 On the basis of the findings of the Environmental Assessment, no significant impact to human...FLIGHT TEST CENTER Environmental Assessment for Flight Test to the Edge of Space Page 5-3 Bowles, A.E., S. Eckert, L . Starke, E. Berg, L . Wolski, and...Numbers. Anne Choate, Laura 20 Pederson , Jeremy Scharfenberg, Henry Farland. Washington, D.C. September. 21 Jeppesen Sanderson, Incorporated 22

  12. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner's Dilemma Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjell, Oscar N E; Thompson, Sam

    2013-12-19

    Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game. Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma Game. Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants' pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO). Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  13. Student Attitudes towards Enterprise Education in Poland: A Positive Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Jones, Amanda; Packham, Gary; Miller, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to appraise the delivery of an enterprise education course to a cohort of Polish students evaluating its impact in encouraging entrepreneurial activity. The Polish economy continues its expansion with adoption of free market economies post communism. To encourage this growth, entrepreneurial activity must be encouraged…

  14. The effects of positive versus negative impact reflection on change in job performance and work-life conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardador, M Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Research on task significance and relational job design suggests that information from beneficiaries of one's work fosters perceptions of impact, and thus improved work outcomes. This paper presents results from a longitudinal field experiment examining the effect of another strategy for fostering perceptions of impact - engaging employees in regular reflection about how their work benefits others. With a sample of professionals from multiple organizations, this longitudinal study examined the effect on job performance and work-life conflict of both positive and negative impact reflection. Results show that negative impact reflection had a pronounced negative effect on job performance, but no effect on work-life conflict. Positive impact reflection had a weak positive effect on work-life conflict, but no significant effect on job performance. The direction of effects seen in the no intervention condition mirrored that of the negative impact reflection condition, suggesting a possible buffering effect for positive impact reflection. This research provides empirical and theoretical contributions to the literatures on relational job design and task significance.

  15. 10578 IMPACT EVALUATION OF POSITIVE DEVIANCE HEARTH IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles Anino

    nutrition program for children who are at risk for protein-energy malnutrition in a low ... method was used to collect data and perform statistical analyses. ... Studies have identified Positive Deviance (PD) Hearth approach as the most .... Germany). ... The questionnaire was tested for internal reliability using Cronbach.

  16. Positive and negative impacts of agricultural production of liquid biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural production of liquid biofuels can have positive effects. It can decrease dependence on fossil fuels and increase farmers’ incomes. Agricultural production of mixed perennial biofuel crops may increase pollinator and avian richness. Most types of agricultural crop-based liquid biofuel

  17. Determination of global positioning system (GPS) receiver clock errors: impact on positioning accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Ta-Kang; Hwang, Cheinway; Xu, Guochang; Wang, Chuan-Sheng; Lee, Chien-Chih

    2009-01-01

    Enhancing the positioning precision is the primary pursuit of global positioning system (GPS) users. To achieve this goal, most studies have focused on the relationship between GPS receiver clock errors and GPS positioning precision. This study utilizes undifferentiated phase data to calculate GPS clock errors and to compare with the frequency of cesium clock directly, to verify estimated clock errors by the method used in this paper. The frequency stability calculated from this paper (the indirect method) and measured from the National Standard Time and Frequency Laboratory (NSTFL) of Taiwan (the direct method) match to 1.5 × 10 −12 (the value from this study was smaller than that from NSTFL), suggesting that the proposed technique has reached a certain level of quality. The built-in quartz clocks in the GPS receivers yield relative frequency offsets that are 3–4 orders higher than those of rubidium clocks. The frequency stability of the quartz clocks is on average two orders worse than that of the rubidium clock. Using the rubidium clock instead of the quartz clock, the horizontal and vertical positioning accuracies were improved by 26–78% (0.6–3.6 mm) and 20–34% (1.3–3.0 mm), respectively, for a short baseline. These improvements are 7–25% (0.3–1.7 mm) and 11% (1.7 mm) for a long baseline. Our experiments show that the frequency stability of the clock, rather than relative frequency offset, is the governing factor of positioning accuracy

  18. Three dimensional analysis of impacted maxillary third molars: A cone-beam computed tomographic study of the position and depth of impaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Andrade, Priscila Ferreira; Silva, Jesca Neftali Nogueira; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Sales; Devito, Karina Lopes; Assis, Neuza Maria Souza Picorelli [Faculty of Dentistry, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, Juiz de Fora (Brazil); Ribeiro, CleideGisele [Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences - SUPREMA, Juiz de Fora (Brazil)

    2017-09-15

    The classification of impacted maxillary third molars (IMTMs) facilitates interdisciplinary communication and helps estimate the degree of surgical difficulty. Thus, this study aimed to develop a 3-dimensional classification of the position and depth of impaction of IMTMs and to estimate their prevalence with respect to gender and age. This cross-sectional retrospective study analyzed images in sagittal and coronal cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) sections of 300 maxillary third molars. The proposed classification was based on 3 criteria: buccolingual position (buccal, lingual, or central), mesial-distal position (mesioangular, vertical, or distoangular), and depth of impaction (low, medium, or high). CBCT images of IMTMs were classified, and the associations of the classifications with gender and age were examined using analysis of variance with the Scheffé post-hoc test. To determine the associations among the 3 classifications, the chi-square test was used (P<.05). No significant association of the classifications with gender was observed. Age showed a significant relationship with depth of impaction (P=.0001) and mesial-distal position (P=.005). The most common positions were buccal (n=222), vertical (n=184), and low (n=124). Significant associations among the 3 tested classifications were observed. CBCT enabled the evaluation of IMTMs in a 3-dimensional format, and we developed a proposal for a new classification of the position and depth of impaction of IMTMs.

  19. Transitions in the Swedish school system and the impact on student's positive self-reported-health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2014-10-07

    To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self-reported-health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6-10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13 y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16 y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were collected in the middle of Sweden during 2007-2012 with school children age 6-16 years old. Several significant factors were identified with an impact for a positive self-reported-health among children age 6-16 y; not feeling sad or depressed, afraid or worried, positive school environment (schoolyard and restrooms), not bullied, good sleep, daily physical activity and ability to concentrate. There was no single factor identified, the factors differed according to gender and age. The study have identified several gender and age specific factors for successful school transitions relevant for a positive SRH. This is valuable information for school staff, parents and school children and provides a possibility to provide support and assistance when needed.

  20. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir: Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA's decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI

  1. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  2. Irrigation in the Lower Durance: positive impacts of the agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, M.; Blavoux, B.

    1995-01-01

    The water of river Durance is used to produce hydroelectricity and as stretch of water for tourism and since the thirteenth century for irrigation. The inherited situation is a well extended network of gravitation irrigation canals. This system is spendthrift of water, the water supplies are roughly 5 times the farming needs. The impact of this irrigation on the alluvial aquifer of the Lower Durance is the generalisation of the highest level of the water table in summer on the plain though the water budget has an average deficit of 550 mm. In addition, the nitrate concentration is maintained to an average of 17 mg/l in groundwater and 5 mg/l in streams by dilution. In fact, the irrigation dictates an average input of water with 25.4 mg/l of NO 3- . The natural isotopic tracing (oxygen 18) allows to say that 50 to 75% of the water of the alluvial aquifer come from irrigation. To improve the knowledge about the efficiency of irrigation, a mathematical groundwater model has been created. As a result, 53% of the water is lost while reaching the agricultural parcels, 19% is infiltrated during watering at the parcel and only 28% are used to satisfy the needs of plants. The realisation of this model has allowed to simulate the impact on groundwater of changes in irrigation practices which would lead to reduce the consummation of water. In the case of Lower Durance, the reduction of irrigation losses would have a strong impact on the quantity and quality of water in the alluvial aquifer. (J.S.). 10 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Positioned for impact: Haiti's first baccalaureate nursing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Jeanne M

    2011-01-01

    Haiti's first baccalaureate nursing programn the Faculty of Nursing Science of the Episcopal University of Haiti (FSIL), educates professional nurses as clinicians, leaders, and change agents, preparing graduates to a global standard set by the World Health Organization. FSIL was founded on Christian principles, expressing a vision of nursing as a ministry of Jesus Christ. Near the epicenter of the 2010 Haiti earthquake, the remarkable response of FSIL students and faculty saved lives, gave hope to a community in need, and demonstrated the impact of well-educated nurses on the health of a nation.

  4. Middle age has a significant impact on gene expression during skin wound healing in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Hagai; Lumenta, David Benjamin; Vierlinger, Klemens; Hofner, Manuela; Kitzinger, Hugo-Benito; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Nöhammer, Christa; Chilosi, Marco; Fraifeld, Vadim E

    2016-08-01

    The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level. We pinpointed several pathways which were over-activated in the middle-aged mice, both in the intact skin and during WH. Among them were various metabolic, immune-inflammatory and growth-promoting pathways. These transcriptional changes were much more pronounced in the head than in the back. In summary, the middle age has a significant impact on gene expression in intact and healing skin. It seems that the head punch model is more sensitive to the effect of age than the back model, and we suggest that it should be more widely applied in aging research on wound healing.

  5. Method of administration of PROMIS scales did not significantly impact score level, reliability, or validity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the impact of the method of administration (MOA) on score level, reliability, and validity of scales developed in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Two nonoverlapping parallel forms each containing eight items from......, no significant mode differences were found and all confidence intervals were within the prespecified minimal important difference of 0.2 standard deviation. Parallel-forms reliabilities were very high (ICC = 0.85-0.93). Only one across-mode ICC was significantly lower than the same-mode ICC. Tests of validity...... questionnaire (PQ), personal digital assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Method equivalence was evaluated through analyses of difference scores, intraclass correlations (ICCs), and convergent/discriminant validity. RESULTS: In difference score analyses...

  6. Impact of Lesion Length on Functional Significance in Intermediate Coronary Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Safi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed at assessing the role of lesion length in predicting Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR value for physiological evaluation of intermediate coronary lesions.Methods: In the current study, 68 patients with 83 coronary lesions were enrolled. All of the patients in this study underwent routine coronary angiography, according to appropriate indications. To evaluate physiologically significant intermediate coronary stenosis (defined between 40% and 70% on visual estimation, the Fractional Flow Reserve (FFR study was performed and the Quantitative Coronary Angiography (QCA data were also assessed for measurement of lesion length. The correlation between QCA data and FFR values was also examined.Results: Eighty-three lesions were evaluated from 68 patients. Stenosis was considered physiologically significant when FFR was lower than 0.75. The FFR was significant in twelve lesions (14.5%. There was a negative correlation between FFR value and lesion length (r = -0.294 and P = 0.013. Moreover, lesion length in physiologically significant FFR group (21.07  ± 6.9 was greater than that of the non-significant FFR group (15.23 ± 6.5 (P value < 0.05. Furthermore, the correlation between QCA data and FFR values was also investigated, yet, there was only a positive correlation between FFR and Minimum Luminal Diameter (MLD values (r = 0.248 and P value = 0.04. The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis for predicting the significant FFR value demonstrated that a lesion length greater than 17.5 mm was the best cut-off point for prediction of the significant FFR value with acceptable sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 68.8%, respectively.Conclusions: There is a negative correlation between lesion length and FFR value in intermediate coronary lesions. In addition, a lesion length greater than 17.5 mm is the best cut- off point for prediction of significant FFR values.

  7. Significance of the impact of motion compensation on the variability of PET image features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carles, M.; Bach, T.; Torres-Espallardo, I.; Baltas, D.; Nestle, U.; Martí-Bonmatí, L.

    2018-03-01

    In lung cancer, quantification by positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging presents challenges due to respiratory movement. Our primary aim was to study the impact of motion compensation implied by retrospectively gated (4D)-PET/CT on the variability of PET quantitative parameters. Its significance was evaluated by comparison with the variability due to (i) the voxel size in image reconstruction and (ii) the voxel size in image post-resampling. The method employed for feature extraction was chosen based on the analysis of (i) the effect of discretization of the standardized uptake value (SUV) on complementarity between texture features (TF) and conventional indices, (ii) the impact of the segmentation method on the variability of image features, and (iii) the variability of image features across the time-frame of 4D-PET. Thirty-one PET-features were involved. Three SUV discretization methods were applied: a constant width (SUV resolution) of the resampling bin (method RW), a constant number of bins (method RN) and RN on the image obtained after histogram equalization (method EqRN). The segmentation approaches evaluated were 40% of SUVmax and the contrast oriented algorithm (COA). Parameters derived from 4D-PET images were compared with values derived from the PET image obtained for (i) the static protocol used in our clinical routine (3D) and (ii) the 3D image post-resampled to the voxel size of the 4D image and PET image derived after modifying the reconstruction of the 3D image to comprise the voxel size of the 4D image. Results showed that TF complementarity with conventional indices was sensitive to the SUV discretization method. In the comparison of COA and 40% contours, despite the values not being interchangeable, all image features showed strong linear correlations (r  >  0.91, p\\ll 0.001 ). Across the time-frames of 4D-PET, all image features followed a normal distribution in most patients. For our patient cohort, the

  8. Impact of positive thyroid autoimmunity on pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Tinoco, Cristina; Rodríguez-Mengual, Amparo; Lara-Barea, Almudena; Barcala, Julia; Larrán, Laura; Saez-Benito, Ana; Aguilar-Diosdado, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The impact of subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) and thyroid autoimmunity on obstetric and perinatal complications continues to be a matter of interest and highly controversial. To assess the impact of SH and autoimmunity in early pregnancy on the obstetric and perinatal complications in our population. A retrospective cohort study in 435 women with SH (TSH ranging from 3.86 and 10 μIU/mL and normal FT4 values) in the first trimester of pregnancy. Epidemiological and clinical parameters were analyzed and were related to obstetric and perinatal complications based on the presence of autoimmunity (thyroid peroxidase antibodies [TPO] > 34 IU/mL). Mean age was 31.3 years (SD 5.2). Seventeen percent of patients had positive TPO antibodies. Presence of positive autoimmunity was associated to a family history of hypothyroidism (P=.04) and a higher chance of miscarriage (P=.009). In the multivariate analysis, positive TPO antibodies were associated to a 10.25-fold higher risk of miscarriage. No statistically significant associations were found with all other obstetric and perinatal complications. In our region, pregnant women with SH and thyroid autoimmunity had a higher risk of miscarriage but not of other obstetric and perinatal complications. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The problem of "significant risk": exploring the public health impact of criminalizing HIV non-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhalovskiy, Eric

    2011-09-01

    Using criminal law powers to respond to people living with HIV (PHAs) who expose sexual partners to HIV or transmit the virus to them is a prominent global HIV public policy issue. While there are widespread concerns about the public health impact of HIV-related criminalization, the social science literature on the topic is limited. This article responds to that gap in knowledge by reporting on the results of qualitative research conducted with service providers and PHAs in Canada. The article draws on a studies in the social organization of knowledge perspective and insights from critical criminology and work on the "medico-legal borderland." It investigates the role played by the legal concept of "significant risk" in coordinating criminal law governance and its interface with public health and HIV prevention. In doing so, the article emphasizes that exploring the public health impact of criminalization must move past the criminal law--PHA dyad to address broader social and institutional processes relevant to HIV prevention. Drawing on individual and focus group interviews, this article explores how criminal law governance shapes the activities of providers engaged in HIV prevention counseling, conceptualized as a complex of activities linking clinicians, public health officials, front-line counselors, PHAs, and others. It emphasizes three key findings: (1) the concept of significant risk poses serious problems to risk communication in HIV counseling and contributes to contradictory advice about disclosure obligations; (2) criminalization discourages PHAs' openness about HIV non-disclosure in counseling relationships; and (3) the recontextualization of public health interpretations of significant risk in criminal proceedings can intensify criminalization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The impact of arm position on the measurement of orthostatic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guss, David A; Abdelnur, Diego; Hemingway, Thomas J

    2008-05-01

    Blood pressure is a standard vital sign in patients evaluated in an Emergency Department. The American Heart Association has recommended a preferred position of the arm and cuff when measuring blood pressure. There is no formal recommendation for arm position when measuring orthostatic blood pressure. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of different arm positions on the measurement of postural changes in blood pressure. This was a prospective, unblinded, convenience study involving Emergency Department patients with complaints unrelated to cardiovascular instability. Repeated blood pressure measurements were obtained using an automatic non-invasive device with each subject in a supine and standing position and with the arm parallel and perpendicular to the torso. Orthostatic hypotension was defined as a difference of >or= 20 mm Hg systolic or >or= 10 mm Hg diastolic when subtracting standing from supine measurements. There were four comparisons made: group W, arm perpendicular supine and standing; group X, arm parallel supine and standing; group Y, arm parallel supine and perpendicular standing; and group Z, arm perpendicular supine and parallel standing. There were 100 patients enrolled, 55 men, mean age 44 years. Four blood pressure measurements were obtained on each patient. The percentage of patients meeting orthostatic hypotension criteria in each group was: W systolic 6% (95% CI 1%, 11%), diastolic 4% (95% CI 0%, 8%), X systolic 8% (95% CI 3%, 13%), diastolic 9% (95% CI 3%, 13%), Y systolic 19% (95% CI 11%, 27%), diastolic 30% (95% CI 21%, 39%), Z systolic 2% (95% CI 0%, 5%), diastolic 2% (95% CI 0%, 5%). Comparison of Group Y vs. X, Z, and W was statistically significant (p postural changes in blood pressure. The combination of the arm parallel when supine and perpendicular when standing may significantly overestimate the orthostatic change. Arm position should be held constant in supine and standing positions when assessing for orthostatic

  11. Impact of Vertical Canopy Position on Leaf Spectral Properties and Traits across Multiple Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawanda W. Gara

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the vertical pattern of leaf traits across plant canopies provide critical information on plant physiology, ecosystem functioning and structure and vegetation response to climate change. However, the impact of vertical canopy position on leaf spectral properties and subsequently leaf traits across the entire spectrum for multiple species is poorly understood. In this study, we examined the ability of leaf optical properties to track variability in leaf traits across the vertical canopy profile using Partial Least Square Discriminatory Analysis (PLS-DA. Leaf spectral measurements together with leaf traits (nitrogen, carbon, chlorophyll, equivalent water thickness and specific leaf area were studied at three vertical canopy positions along the plant stem: lower, middle and upper. We observed that foliar nitrogen (N, chlorophyll (Cab, carbon (C, and equivalent water thickness (EWT were higher in the upper canopy leaves compared with lower shaded leaves, while specific leaf area (SLA increased from upper to lower canopy leaves. We found that leaf spectral reflectance significantly (P ≤ 0.05 shifted to longer wavelengths in the ‘red edge’ spectrum (685–701 nm in the order of lower > middle > upper for the pooled dataset. We report that spectral bands that are influential in the discrimination of leaf samples into the three groups of canopy position, based on the PLS-DA variable importance projection (VIP score, match with wavelength regions of foliar traits observed to vary across the canopy vertical profile. This observation demonstrated that both leaf traits and leaf reflectance co-vary across the vertical canopy profile in multiple species. We conclude that canopy vertical position has a significant impact on leaf spectral properties of an individual plant’s traits, and this finding holds for multiple species. These findings have important implications on field sampling protocols, upscaling leaf traits to canopy level

  12. Create positive contraceptive images for strongest impact in single lesson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    Health educators attempting to deliver contraceptive information to adolescents in the classroom must seek ways to make a major impact in a very short period of time. A Planned Parenthood professional from New Jersey has developed a single-shot birth control lesson that, rather than presenting the pros and cons of various contraceptive methods, has teenagers identify themselves as at high, low, or no risk of pregnancy. Students estimate the number of classmates who are in each category and then assess whether they personally are at risk of an unintended pregnancy. In general, teens overestimate the number of classmates who are sexually active. This approach seems to make the ensuing discussion of contraceptive methods more meaningful. This discussion presents the condom and foam, the sponge, and visiting a family planning clinic. After this 40 minute presentation, fewer adolescents report being afraid of contraceptive side effects; they also have more knowledge about the efficacy and availability of different methods. A lesson in preparation is centered around a videotape entitled "Swept Away is Not Okay." It shows a teen couple going to a family planning clinic before they ever have intercourse. This strategy of encouraging adolescents to seek contraception before sexual involvement begins is considered more realistic than pressuring teens to abstain from sex. School officials and teachers have been receptive to this educational approach, viewing it as presenting important public health information.

  13. Photoaffinity labeling of pituitary GnRH receptors: significance of the position of photolabel on the ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolics, K.; Szonyi, E.; Ramachandran, J.

    1988-01-01

    Photoreactive derivatives of GnRH and its analogues were prepared by incorporation of the 2-nitro-4(5)-azidophenylsulfenyl [2,4(5)-NAPS] group into amino acid residues at position 1, 3, 6, or 8 of the decapeptide sequence. The modification of Trp 3 by the 2,4-NAPS group led to a complete loss of the luteinizing hormone (LH) releasing as well as LH-release-inhibiting activity of the peptide. The [D-Lys(2,4-NAPS)] 6 analog was a very potent agonist that, after covalent attachment by photoaffinity labeling, caused prolonged LH secretion at a submaximal rate. [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH, a full agonist with a relative potency of 7% of GnRH, after photoaffinity labeling caused prolonged maximal LH release from cultured pituitary cells. In contrast, [Orn(2,5-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH, although being equipotent with the 2,4-NAPS isomer in terms of LH releasing ability, was unable to cause prolonged LH release after photoaffinity labeling. Thus, [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 GnRH is very effective photolabeling ligand of the functionally significant pituitary GnRH receptor. Based on this compound, a pituitary peptidase resistant derivative, D-Phe 6 , [Orn(2,4-NAPS)] 8 -GnRH-(1-9)-ethylamide, was synthesized. This derivative showed high-affinity binding to pituitary membranes with a K/sub d/ comparable to those of other GnRH analogues. A radioiodinated form of this peptide was used for pituitary GnRH-receptor labeling. This derivative labeled 59- and 57-kDa proteins in rat and 58- and 56-kDa proteins in bovine pituitary membrane preparations, respectively. This peptide also labeled pituitary GnRH receptors in the solubilized state and therefore appears to be a suitable ligand for the isolation and further characterization of the receptor

  14. Botulinum toxin a can positively impact first impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Steven H; Lieberman, Elliot D; Thakkar, Nirav N; Larimer, Karen A; Anstead, Amy

    2008-06-01

    BACKGROUND First impression is influenced by facial appearance and improved by cosmetic surgery. OBJECTIVE We wanted to determine if treatment with botulinum toxin A (BTxnA) would improve first impression. MATERIALS AND METHODS Women received BTxnA in the forehead. Photos were taken prior to, and 1 week after, final BTxnA injection in smiling and relaxed poses. Photos were divided into books with each subject represented only once. Evaluators completed a survey rating first impression on various measures of success for each photo. RESULTS No differences were seen for social skills, financial, or relationship success scales. A significant decrease in first impression scores between treatment photos was seen for academic performance and occupational success. However, analysis of between-subject effects found that "smile/relax" accounted for the decreased score in both scales. Significant increases in first impression scores were seen for dating success, attractiveness, and athletic success scales where smile/relax and BTxnA contributed significantly to the improved scores. CONCLUSIONS BTxnA improved first impression scores for dating success, attractiveness, and athletic success scales. Academic performance and occupational success scores were not affected by BTxnA when the smile/relax variable was included. The smile/relax variable was a more important predictor for academic performance and occupational success scores.

  15. Artisanal fishing of spiny lobsters with gillnets — A significant anthropic impact on tropical reef ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Welter Giraldes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal fishing activity with gillnets to capture the spiny lobster is a common practice along the coastal reefs of Brazil. This research aims to understand the impact that this artisanal fishing practice is having on the coastal reef systems analysing its associated fauna (bycatch and the stock of the target species Panulirus echinatus. The study compared an area which was subjected to intense gillnet fishing against one were the practice was absent. The analysis of target species using nocturnal visual census demonstrated a significantly higher number of P. echinatus at the site where gillnet use was virtually absent within three sampled habitats, fringe, cave and soft bottom. The analysis of bycatch species from artisanal fishermen’s gillnet landings recorded 4 lobster species and 10 crab species. These decapod species play an important ecological role as detritivores, herbivorous and first consumers within the reef ecosystem as well as being natural prey items for several reef fishes. The study concludes that this non-discriminatory fishing technique impacts directly on populations of P. echinatus, P. argus and P. laevicauda as well as other lobster and crab species which in-turn indirectly affects the ecological role of the tropical coastal reefs of Brazil.

  16. Mediterranean food consumption patterns: low environmental impacts and significant health-nutrition benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboussaleh, Y; Capone, R; Bilali, H El

    2017-11-01

    The Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrient intakes. The Mediterranean diet (MD) was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for metabolic chronic diseases. It has also low ecological, carbon and water footprints due to its high share of plant-based foods. In fact, the share of plant-based dietary energy is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2300 plant species. This review paper aims at highlighting the nutrition-health benefits of the MD and analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns. There is a growing body of scientific evidence that the MD has significant health-nutrition benefits and low environmental footprints, so there is urgent need to reverse the ongoing erosion of the MD heritage and to promote it as a sustainable diets model.

  17. Positive impact of hormone replacement therapy on the fibrinolytic system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J S; Kristensen, S R; Gram, J

    2003-01-01

    be of importance. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prolonged effect of HRT on the fibrinolytic system and to determine whether two common polymorphisms in the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) genes modulate this effect. Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (n...... = 248) were randomized to HRT (n = 122) or no substitution (n = 126) 5 years prior to investigation. RESULTS: Significantly higher values of t-PA activity and lower values of PAI-1 activity and PAI-1 antigen were found in the HRT group compared with the control group. This effect was independent...... of smoking and without influence from the two common polymorphisms PAI-1 -675(4G/5G) and t-PA intron8ins311. Furthermore, no difference between opposed estrogen (with norethisterone acetate as the gestagen component) and unopposed estrogen therapy was found. Both an intention-to-treat and a per...

  18. Positive Correlation Between Academic Library Services and High-Impact Practices for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-03-01

    positive correlation with HIP 5. Each of the positive correlations was of high significance. As the rating of library alignment with each HIP increased, so did the total rating of each library scale. Along with the quantitative data, various themes for each HIP relating to the library’s support practices emerged from the qualitative feedback. No significant trends were noted from the demographic questions. Conclusion – Library deans or directors can utilize the conceptual framework presented in this study to connect the impact of library services to terminology and practices commonly understood by university administrators. Further research using the conceptual framework would benefit future discussion on how academic libraries measure impact or success of their library services.

  19. In surgeons performing cardiothoracic surgery is sleep deprivation significant in its impact on morbidity or mortality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfour, Leila; Asfour, Victoria; McCormack, David; Attia, Rizwan

    2014-09-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: is there a difference in cardiothoracic surgery outcomes in terms of morbidity or mortality of patients operated on by a sleep-deprived surgeon compared with those operated by a non-sleep-deprived surgeon? Reported search criteria yielded 77 papers, of which 15 were deemed to represent the best evidence on the topic. Three studies directly related to cardiothoracic surgery and 12 studies related to non-cardiothoracic surgery. Recommendations are based on 18 121 cardiothoracic patients and 214 666 non-cardiothoracic surgical patients. Different definitions of sleep deprivation were used in the studies, either reviewing surgeon's sleeping hours or out-of-hours operating. Surgical outcomes reviewed included: mortality rate, neurological, renal, pulmonary, infectious complications, length of stay, length of intensive care stay, cardiopulmonary bypass times and aortic-cross-clamp times. There were no significant differences in mortality or intraoperative complications in the groups of patients operated on by sleep-deprived versus non-sleep-deprived surgeons in cardiothoracic studies. One study showed a significant increase in the rate of septicaemia in patients operated on by severely sleep-deprived surgeons (3.6%) compared with the moderately sleep-deprived (0.9%) and non-sleep-deprived groups (0.8%) (P = 0.03). In the non-cardiothoracic studies, 7 of the 12 studies demonstrated statistically significant higher reoperation rate in trauma cases (P sleep deprivation in cardiothoracic surgeons on morbidity or mortality. However, overall the non-cardiothoracic studies have demonstrated that operative time and sleep deprivation can have a significant impact on overall morbidity and mortality. It is likely that other confounding factors concomitantly affect outcomes in out-of-hours surgery. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of

  20. The War's Positive Impact on the Canadian Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the beginning of WWI, the Canadian astronomical community was tiny and astrophysical research was just beginning. By the end of the war, the country had established the forerunner of its National Research Council and had the world's largest fully operational telescope, thanks to the late entry of the USA into the conflict. By 1918, Canada was on the verge of making significant contributions to science.In spite of the immense loss of life in this pointless war, I am aware of only one casualty affecting Canadian professional astronomers, and that was the indirect death of James Chant, son of University of Toronto's only professor of astronomy. Other Canadian astronomers, including Tom Parker, Bert Topham, and Harry Plaskett were on active service; each of their stories is unique.Among those engaged in scientific work during the war were two Canadians temporarily in England: John McLennan whose helium research for dirigibles led him to establish a cryogenic lab in Toronto where the green line in the spectrum of the aurora was identified in 1925, and Allie Douglas who worked as a statistician in the War Office. Later work with Eddington led her to become his biographer and to her distinction as the first person in Canada to earn a PhD in astronomy (in 1926).

  1. IMPACTS OF WETLAND DEGRADATION IN NIGER DELTA NIGERIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN FLOOD CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enwere Chidimma Loveline

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available  Wetlands perform a wide variety of functions that include flood control, ground water recharge, shore line stabilization, storm protection and climate moderation. However, despite these huge wetland functions, it has witnessed poor appreciation and dreadful conditions. Niger Delta has witnessed constant coastal erosion and rising sea level, this has led to large portions of the landmass being eroded. This paper aims to review some environmental effects of flooding in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to provide the desired knowledge of role that wetlands play in reducing flood impacts. However, having witnessed the flood, the experience opened my eyes to the environmental challenges facing Niger Delta with respect to Wetlands degradation, poor perception of wetland values and functions, poor environmental practices and non-implementation of environmental regulations. This memorable experience rekindled the desire and motivation to seek a solution to wetland degradation with the aim of recognizing significance of wetlands at the centre of achieving both livelihood and biodiversity improvements to address coastal flooding problem.The study therefore concludes that wetlands are very significant in flood control and thus the conservation and restoration of wetlands, should put in place measures to reduce wetland destruction.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 177-184

  2. 75 FR 11946 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... exposures to plant workers and members of the public. Therefore, no changes or different types of... impacts to historical and cultural resources. There would be no impact to socioeconomic resources...

  3. Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region in MIB-1 positive cells in non-small cell lung cancer: clinicopathological significance and survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobyakov, Dmitriy Sergeevich; Avdalyan, Ashot Merudzhanovich; Lazarev, Aleksandr Fedorovich; Lushnikova, Elena Leonidovna; Nepomnyashchikh, Lev Moiseevich

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the relation between argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNOR)-associated proteins and clinicopathological parameters and survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 207 surgical specimens diagnosed as NSCLC were included in this study. Double-staining procedures were performed using antigen Ki-67 (clone MIB-1) and silver nitrate by immunohistochemical and AgNOR-staining methods. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells of NSCLC is related to clinicopathological parameters under the TNM (tumor, node, and metastasis) system. The survival of patients with small AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is better than that of patients with large AgNOR area. Molecular, biological (AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells), and clinicopathological (greatest tumor dimension, metastases to regional lymph nodes, histology, and differentiation) parameters are independent prognostic factors of NSCLC. The AgNOR area in MIB-1-positive cells is related to clinicopathological parameters and survival in NSCLC

  4. The impact of reorienting cone-beam computed tomographic images in varied head positions on the coordinates of anatomical landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hun; Jeong, Ho Gul; Hwang, Jae Joon; Lee, Jung Hee; Han, Sang Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Yonsei University, College of Dentistry, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare the coordinates of anatomical landmarks on cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images in varied head positions before and after reorientation using image analysis software. CBCT images were taken in a normal position and four varied head positions using a dry skull marked with 3 points where gutta percha was fixed. In each of the five radiographic images, reference points were set, 20 anatomical landmarks were identified, and each set of coordinates was calculated. Coordinates in the images from the normally positioned head were compared with those in the images obtained from varied head positions using statistical methods. Post-reorientation coordinates calculated using a three-dimensional image analysis program were also compared to the reference coordinates. In the original images, statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. However, post-reorientation, no statistically significant differences were found between coordinates in the normal-position and varied-position images. The changes in head position impacted the coordinates of the anatomical landmarks in three-dimensional images. However, reorientation using image analysis software allowed accurate superimposition onto the reference positions.

  5. Preoperative immobility significantly impacts the risk of postoperative complications in bariatric surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Rana M; Helm, Melissa; Gould, Jon C; Kindel, Tammy L

    2018-03-05

    Preoperative immobility in general surgery patients has been associated with an increased risk of postoperative complications. It is unknown if immobility affects bariatric surgery outcomes. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of immobility on 30-day postoperative bariatric surgery outcomes. This study took place at a university hospital in the United States. The Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery Accreditation and Quality Improvement Program 2015 data set was queried for primary minimally invasive bariatric procedures. Preoperative immobility was defined as limited ambulation most or all the time. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine if immobile patients are at increased risk (odds ratio [OR]) for 30-day complications. There were 148,710 primary minimally invasive bariatric procedures in 2015. Immobile patients had an increased risk of mortality (OR 4.59, Pbariatric surgery outcomes. Immobile patients have a significantly increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study provides an opportunity for the development of multiple quality initiatives to improve the safety and perioperative complication profile for immobile patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Stratification of antibody-positive subjects by antibody level reveals an impact of immunogenicity on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Hoofring, Sarah A; Wu, Yu; Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Swanson, Steven J; Chirmule, Narendra; Starcevic, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive immunoassays enables the detection of antidrug antibody (ADA) responses of various concentrations and affinities. The analysis of the impact of antibody status on drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is confounded by the presence of low-affinity or low-concentration antibody responses within the dataset. In a phase 2 clinical trial, a large proportion of subjects (45%) developed ADA following weekly dosing with AMG 317, a fully human monoclonal antibody therapeutic. The antibody responses displayed a wide range of relative concentrations (30 ng/mL to >13 μg/mL) and peaked at various times during the study. To evaluate the impact of immunogenicity on PK, AMG 317 concentration data were analyzed following stratification by dose group, time point, antibody status (positive or negative), and antibody level (relative concentration). With dose group as a stratifying variable, a moderate reduction in AMG 317 levels (AMG 317 levels was revealed when antibody data was stratified by both time point and antibody level. In general, high ADA concentrations (>500 ng/mL) and later time points (week 12) were associated with significantly (up to 97%) lower trough AMG 317 concentrations. The use of quasi-quantitative antibody data and appropriate statistical methods was critical for the most comprehensive evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity on PK.

  7. The impact of shifting vantage perspective when recalling and imagining positive events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Nicholas C; Moulds, Michelle L

    2014-01-01

    The vantage perspective from which memories are recalled influences their emotional impact. To date, however, the impact of vantage perspective on the emotions elicited by positive memories and images of positive future events has been minimally explored. We experimentally manipulated the vantage perspective from which a sample of undergraduate students (n =80) recalled positive memories and imagined positive future events. Participants who naturally recalled their positive memories from a field perspective reported decreased vividness and positive affect (i.e., happiness, optimism, hopefulness) when they were instructed to shift to an observer perspective. The same pattern of emotionality ratings was observed when participants' vantage perspective of imagined future events was manipulated. In contrast, shifting participants from observer to field perspective recall of positive memories did not result in changes in ratings of memory-related emotion, although we found an unexpected trend towards reduced vividness. For positive future events, shifting from an observer to a field perspective resulted in decreased vividness but did not lead to any changes in positive emotion. Our findings confirm that vantage perspective plays a key role in determining the emotional impact of positive memories, and demonstrate that this relationship is also evident for images of future positive events.

  8. The regiochemical distribution of positive charges along cholesterol polyamine carbamates plays significant roles in modulating DNA binding affinity and lipofection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geall, A J; Eaton, M A; Baker, T; Catterall, C; Blagbrough, I S

    1999-10-15

    We have quantified the effects of the regiochemical distribution of positive charges along the polyamine moiety in lipopolyamines for DNA molecular recognition. High affinity binding leads to charge neutralisation, DNA condensation and ultimately to lipofection. Binding affinities for calf thymus DNA were determined using an ethidium bromide displacement assay and condensation was detected by changes in turbidity using light scattering. The in vitro transfection competence of cholesterol polyamine carbamates was measured in CHO cells. In the design of DNA condensing and transfecting agents for non-viral gene therapy, the interrelationship of ammonium ions, not just their number, must be considered.

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact: Military Family Housing Revitalization Project Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-02-01

    park, tennis courts, and basketball courts. Other amenities such as a clubhouse , bike trails, picnic areas, dog park, and community swimming pools...impacts result from “the incremental impact of actions when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions, regardless of what

  10. Infertility diagnosis has a significant impact on the transcriptome of developing blastocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallie, Blair R; Parks, Jason C; Griffin, Darren K; Schoolcraft, William B; Katz-Jaffe, Mandy G

    2017-08-01

    Is the human blastocyst transcriptome associated with infertility diagnosis, specifically: polycystic ovaries (PCO), male factor (MF) and unexplained (UE)? The global blastocyst transcriptome was significantly altered in association with a PCO, MF and UE infertility diagnosis. Infertility diagnosis has an impact on the probability for a successful outcome following an IVF cycle. Limited information is known regarding the relationship between a specific infertility diagnosis and blastocyst transcription during preimplantation development. Blastocysts created during infertility treatment from patients with specific infertility diagnoses (PCO, MF and UE) were analyzed for global transcriptome compared to fertile donor oocyte blastocysts (control). Surplus cryopreserved blastocysts were donated with patient consent and institutional review board approval. Female patients were infertility diagnosis: PCO (n = 50), MF (n = 50), UE (n = 50) and fertile donor oocyte controls (n = 50). Pooled blastocysts were lysed for RNA isolation followed by microarray analysis using the SurePrint G3 Human Gene Expression Microarray. Validation was performed on significant genes of interest using real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Transcription alterations were observed for all infertility etiologies compared to controls, resulting in differentially expressed genes: PCO = 869, MF = 348 and UE = 473 (P 2-fold). Functional annotation of biological and molecular processes revealed both similarities, as well as differences, across the infertility groups. All infertility etiologies displayed transcriptome alterations in signal transducer activity, receptor binding, reproduction, cell adhesion and response to stimulus. Blastocysts from PCO patients were also enriched for apoptotic genes while MF blastocysts displayed enrichment for genes involved in cancer processes. Blastocysts from couples with unexplained infertility displayed transcription alterations related to various disease states

  11. Caprine brucellosis: A historically neglected disease with significant impact on public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Gamboa, Angela M.; Maurizio, Estefanía

    2017-01-01

    Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock’s productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality. Historical observations indicate that goats have been the hosts of B. melitensis for centuries; but around 1905, the Greek physician Themistokles Zammit was able to build the epidemiological link between “Malta fever” and the consumption of goat milk. While the disease has been successfully managed in most industrialized countries, it remains a significant burden on goat and human health in the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, Central and Southeast Asia (including India and China), sub-Saharan Africa, and certain areas in Latin America, where approximately 3.5 billion people live at risk. In this review, we describe a historical evolution of the disease, highlight the current worldwide distribution, and estimate (by simple formula) the approximate costs of brucellosis outbreaks to meat- and milk-producing farms and the economic losses associated with the disease in humans. Successful control leading to eradication of caprine brucellosis in the developing world will require a coordinated Global One Health approach involving active involvement of human and animal health efforts to enhance public health and improve livestock productivity. PMID:28817647

  12. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Huaiyu; Huang, Shanqian [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Zhou, Sen [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Bi, Peng [Discipline of Public Health, University of Adelaide, Adelaide (Australia); Yang, Zhicong, E-mail: yangzc@gzcdc.org.cn [Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou (China); Li, Xiujun [School of Public Health, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Lifan [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Cazelles, Bernard [UMMISCO, UMI 209 IRD – UPMC, 93142 Bondy (France); Eco-Evolutionary Mathematic, IBENS UMR 8197, ENS, 75230 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Yang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Luo, Lei; Jing, Qinlong [Guangzhou Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Wenping [State Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Resource Ecology, College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing (China); Pei, Yao; Sun, Zhe [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modelling, Center for Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Yue, Tianxiang [State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environment Information System, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Kwan, Mei-Po [Department of Geography and Geographic Information Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Champaign, IL 61820 (United States); and others

    2016-10-15

    Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment–mosquito–urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion. The dengue epidemics in Guangzhou are highly episodic and were not associated with annual rainfall over time. Our results indicate that urban environmental changes, especially variations in surface area covered by water in urban areas, can substantially alter the virus population and dengue transmission. The recent severe dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou may be due to the surge in an artificial lake construction, which could increase infection force between vector (mainly Aedes albopictus) and host when urban water area significantly increased. Impacts of urban environmental change on dengue dynamics may not have been thoroughly investigated in the past studies and more work needs to be done to better understand the consequences of urbanization processes in our changing world. - Highlights: • Urban dengue outbreak is associated with water area in Guangzhou, 1978–2014. • Surface water area can alter population size of dengue virus in urban area. • Urban dengue outbreak is not associated with annual rainfall in Guangzhou. • Spatiotemporal satellite image fusion can investigate urban environmental change. • Urban environmental change could induce virus, vector, and dengue epidemic change.

  13. Maternal undernutrition significantly impacts ovarian follicle number and increases ovarian oxidative stress in adult rat offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica B Bernal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have shown recently that maternal undernutrition (UN advanced female pubertal onset in a manner that is dependent upon the timing of UN. The long-term consequence of this accelerated puberty on ovarian function is unknown. Recent findings suggest that oxidative stress may be one mechanism whereby early life events impact on later physiological functioning. Therefore, using an established rodent model of maternal UN at critical windows of development, we examined maternal UN-induced changes in offspring ovarian function and determined whether these changes were underpinned by ovarian oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our study is the first to show that maternal UN significantly reduced primordial and secondary follicle number in offspring in a manner that was dependent upon the timing of maternal UN. Specifically, a reduction in these early stage follicles was observed in offspring born to mothers undernourished throughout both pregnancy and lactation. Additionally, antral follicle number was reduced in offspring born to all mothers that were UN regardless of whether the period of UN was restricted to pregnancy or lactation or both. These reductions were associated with decreased mRNA levels of genes critical for follicle maturation and ovulation. Increased ovarian protein carbonyls were observed in offspring born to mothers UN during pregnancy and/or lactation and this was associated with peroxiredoxin 3 hyperoxidation and reduced mRNA levels; suggesting compromised antioxidant defence. This was not observed in offspring of mothers UN during lactation alone. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that maternal UN, particularly at a time-point that includes pregnancy, results in reduced offspring ovarian follicle numbers and mRNA levels of regulatory genes and may be mediated by increased ovarian oxidative stress coupled with a decreased ability to repair the resultant oxidative damage. Together these data are suggestive of

  14. Surface water areas significantly impacted 2014 dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Huaiyu; Huang, Shanqian; Zhou, Sen; Bi, Peng; Yang, Zhicong; Li, Xiujun; Chen, Lifan; Cazelles, Bernard; Yang, Jing; Luo, Lei; Jing, Qinlong; Yuan, Wenping; Pei, Yao; Sun, Zhe; Yue, Tianxiang; Kwan, Mei-Po

    2016-01-01

    Dengue transmission in urban areas is strongly influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors, yet the key drivers still need further exploration. To better understand mechanisms of environment–mosquito–urban dengue transmission, we propose an empirical model parameterized and cross-validated from a unique dataset including viral gene sequences, vector dynamics and human dengue cases in Guangzhou, China, together with a 36-year urban environmental change maps investigated by spatiotemporal satellite image fusion. The dengue epidemics in Guangzhou are highly episodic and were not associated with annual rainfall over time. Our results indicate that urban environmental changes, especially variations in surface area covered by water in urban areas, can substantially alter the virus population and dengue transmission. The recent severe dengue outbreaks in Guangzhou may be due to the surge in an artificial lake construction, which could increase infection force between vector (mainly Aedes albopictus) and host when urban water area significantly increased. Impacts of urban environmental change on dengue dynamics may not have been thoroughly investigated in the past studies and more work needs to be done to better understand the consequences of urbanization processes in our changing world. - Highlights: • Urban dengue outbreak is associated with water area in Guangzhou, 1978–2014. • Surface water area can alter population size of dengue virus in urban area. • Urban dengue outbreak is not associated with annual rainfall in Guangzhou. • Spatiotemporal satellite image fusion can investigate urban environmental change. • Urban environmental change could induce virus, vector, and dengue epidemic change.

  15. Skipping one or more dialysis sessions significantly increases mortality: measuring the impact of non-adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gottlieb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis sessions frequency ranges from 2% to 50% of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of detecting and measuring the non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis frequency and to determine the importance of a multidisciplinary approach with the aim of improving adherence. Methods: longitudinal cohort study including 8,164 prevalent hemodialysis patients in April 2010, with more than 90 days of treatment, in Fresenius Medical Care Argentina units that were monitored for 3 years. The survey evaluated: interruption of at least one dialysis session in a month or reduction at least 10 minutes of a dialysis session in a month, during 6 months prior to the survey. Relative mortality risks were evaluated among groups. Results: 648 patients (7.9% interrupted dialysis sessions: 320 (3.9% interrupted one session per month and 328 (4.01% interrupted more than one session per month. After 3 years monitoring, 349 patients (53.8 % remained active in hemodialysis and 299 were inactive due to different reasons: 206 deceased (31.8 %, 47 transfers or monitoring losses (7.25 %, 36 transplanted (5.55 %, 8 changes to PD modality (1.2% and 2 recovered their kidney function (0.3 %.Interrupting one session per month significantly increased the mortality risk comparing both groups (interrupters and non-interrupters: RR 2.65 (IC 95% 2.24 – 3.14. Interrupting more than one dialysis session also increased significantly mortality risk comparing to the non-interrupters: RR 2.8 (IC 95% 2.39 – 3.28. After 3 years monitoring, 41.6 % of interrupters at the beginning had improved their adherence through a multidisciplinary program of quality improvement. Conclusion: Global mortality was greater among patients who interrupted dialysis sessions. A considerable proportion of interrupter patients at the beginning modified their behavior through the implementation of a multidisciplinary program of quality

  16. Impact of knee support and shape of tabletop on rectum and prostate position

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbakkers, Roel J. H. M.; Duppen, Joop C.; Betgen, Anja; Lotz, Heidi Th; Remeijer, Peter; Fitton, Isabelle; Nowak, Peter J. C. M.; van Herk, Marcel; Rasch, Coen R. N.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the impact of different tabletops with or without a knee support on the position of the rectum, prostate, and bulb of the penis; and to evaluate the effect of these patient-positioning devices on treatment planning. METHODS AND MATERIALS: For 10 male volunteers, five MRI scans

  17. A Contingency Approach to Communication Skill Importance: The Impact of Occupation, Direction, and Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Salvo, Vincent S.; Larsen, Janet K.

    1987-01-01

    Examines the impact of direction and occupation on the importance of communication skills for entry-level positions in finance, management, engineering, and law. Results substantiate a three-dimensional model (based on direction, occupation, and position) for the examination and application of communication skill importance in organization. (JD)

  18. Minimotif Miner 3.0: database expansion and significantly improved reduction of false-positive predictions from consensus sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Tian; Merlin, Jerlin Camilus; Deverasetty, Sandeep; Gryk, Michael R; Bill, Travis J; Brooks, Andrew W; Lee, Logan Y; Rathnayake, Viraj; Ross, Christian A; Sargeant, David P; Strong, Christy L; Watts, Paula; Rajasekaran, Sanguthevar; Schiller, Martin R

    2012-01-01

    Minimotif Miner (MnM available at http://minimotifminer.org or http://mnm.engr.uconn.edu) is an online database for identifying new minimotifs in protein queries. Minimotifs are short contiguous peptide sequences that have a known function in at least one protein. Here we report the third release of the MnM database which has now grown 60-fold to approximately 300,000 minimotifs. Since short minimotifs are by their nature not very complex we also summarize a new set of false-positive filters and linear regression scoring that vastly enhance minimotif prediction accuracy on a test data set. This online database can be used to predict new functions in proteins and causes of disease.

  19. Are stormwater pollution impacts significant in life cycle assessment? A new methodology for quantifying embedded urban stormwater impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Robert; Jeswani, Harish Kumar; Azapagic, Adisa; Apul, Defne

    2018-09-15

    Current life cycle assessment (LCA) models do not explicitly incorporate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution. To address this issue, a framework to estimate the impacts from urban stormwater pollution over the lifetime of a system has been developed, laying the groundwork for subsequent improvements in life cycle databases and LCA modelling. The proposed framework incorporates urban stormwater event mean concentration (EMC) data into existing LCA impact categories to account for the environmental impacts associated with urban land occupation across the whole life cycle of a system. It consists of five steps: (1) compilation of inventory of urban stormwater pollutants; (2) collection of precipitation data; (3) classification and characterisation within existing midpoint impact categories; (4) collation of inventory data for impermeable urban land occupation; and (5) impact assessment. The framework is generic and can be applied to any system using any LCA impact method. Its application is demonstrated by two illustrative case studies: electricity generation and production of construction materials. The results show that pollutants in urban stormwater have an influence on human toxicity, freshwater and marine ecotoxicity, marine eutrophication, freshwater eutrophication and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Among these, urban stormwater pollution has the highest relative contribution to the eutrophication potentials. The results also suggest that stormwater pollution from urban areas can have a substantial effect on the life cycle impacts of some systems (construction materials), while for some systems the effect is small (e.g. electricity generation). However, it is not possible to determine a priori which systems are affected so that the impacts from stormwater pollution should be considered routinely in future LCA studies. The paper also proposes ways to incorporate stormwater pollution burdens into the life cycle databases. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. 75 FR 81316 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... radioactive effluents that affect radiation exposures to plant workers and members of the public. No changes... socioeconomic or environmental justice impacts associated with such proposed action. Therefore, there are no...

  1. The Impact of Eclipsing GNSS Satellites on the Precise Point Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyun Cao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When satellites enter into the noon maneuver or the shadow crossing regimes, the actual attitudes will depart from their nominal values. If improper attitude models are used, the induced-errors due to the wind-up effect and satellite antenna PCO (Phase Center Offset will deteriorate the positioning accuracy. Because different generations of satellites adopt different attitude control models, the influences on the positioning performances deserve further study. Consequently, the impact of three eclipsing strategies on the single-system and multi-GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System Precise Point Positioning (PPP are analyzed. According to the results of the eclipsing monitor, 65 globally distributed MGEX (Multi-GNSS EXperiment stations for 31-day period in July 2017 are selected to perform G/R/E/C/GR/GREC PPP in both static and kinematic modes. The results show that the influences of non-nominal attitudes are related to the magnitude of the PCO values, maximum yaw angle differences, the duration of maneuver, the value of the sun angle and the satellite geometric strength. For single-system, using modeled attitudes rather than the nominal ones will greatly improve the positioning accuracy of GLONASS-only and BDS-only PPP while slightly contributions to the GPS-only and GALILEO-only PPP. Deleting the eclipsing satellites may sometimes induce a longer convergence time and a worse solution due to the poor satellite geometry, especially for GLONASS kinematic PPP when stations are located in the low latitude and BDS kinematic PPP. When multi-GNSS data are available, especially four navigation systems, the accuracy improvements of using the modeled attitudes or deleting eclipsing satellites are non-significant.

  2. 75 FR 27583 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... CFR 11.11(d), gives final notice of the proposed construction of a small vertical axis wind turbine... (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and Solar Installation at the Paul Simon Job Corps Center Located... impact. This notice serves as the Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind...

  3. 75 FR 74131 - Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Washington State Portion of the Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), United States Department of... Transportation (WSDOT) prepared a Tier-1 Environmental Assessment (Tier-1 EA) that evaluates the impacts of a... have a significant impact on the quality of the human or natural environment and has issued a Finding...

  4. 76 FR 8708 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ...] Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent... have been prepared by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service relative to a proposed biological... review and analysis of environmental impacts associated with the proposed biological control program...

  5. A technique for position sensing and improved momentum evaluation of microparticle impacts in space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Abellanas, C.

    1972-01-01

    The design of a three element piezoelectric microparticle impact sensing diaphragm is described which is sensitive to the detection of momentum propagated by the bending wave. The design achieves a sensitivity of .03 microdyn/sec and optimizes the detection of the direct-path pulse from impact relative to secondary reflections and interference from discontinuities. Measurement of the relative arrival times and the maximum amplitudes of the outputs from the three piezoelectric sensors leads to the determination of the impact position and the normally resolved impact momentum exchange. Coincidence of the signals and a partial redundancy of data leads to a very high noise discrimination.

  6. Finding of no significant impact for the State Energy Conservation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), DOE/EA 1068, to assess the environmental impacts associated with the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). DOE previously funded SECP projects under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). The State Energy Efficiency Programs Improvements Act of 1990 (SEEPIA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) amended EPCA to broaden the range of state initiatives qualifying for Federal assistance under the SECP. The PEA presents a general analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with broad types of projects that can be funded under the SECP. It does not analyze specific environmental effects or alternatives associated with individual energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy projects. Individual actions are to be evaluated in detail on a project-by-project basis to determine whether their impacts fall within the bounding analysis of the impacts analyzed in the SECP PEA

  7. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands

  8. 76 FR 71583 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact for Field Release of Insects for Biological Control of Carrizo Cane... insects, the Arundo scale and the Arundo wasp as biological control agents for the non-native and invasive... [[Page 71584

  9. 78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Afghanistan, while reducing spending without sacrificing critical national defense capabilities. The draft... military personnel to maximum increases of 3,000 at the Army's largest installations) was chosen for the... a total of 1,000 military personnel. The PEA analyzes the environmental impact of two Action...

  10. SU-F-T-24: Impact of Source Position and Dose Distribution Due to Curvature of HDR Transfer Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A; Yue, N [Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Brachytherapy is a highly targeted from of radiotherapy. While this may lead to ideal dose distributions on the treatment planning system, a small error in source location can lead to change in the dose distribution. The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact on source position error due to curvature of the transfer tubes and the impact this may have on the dose distribution. Methods: Since the source travels along the midline of the tube, an estimate of the positioning error for various angles of curvature was determined using geometric properties of the tube. Based on the range of values a specific shift was chosen to alter the treatment plans for a number of cervical cancer patients who had undergone HDR brachytherapy boost using tandem and ovoids. Impact of dose to target and organs at risk were determined and checked against guidelines outlined by radiation oncologist. Results: The estimate of the positioning error was 2mm short of the expected position (the curved tube can only cause the source to not reach as far as with a flat tube). Quantitative impact on the dose distribution is still in the process of being analyzed. Conclusion: The accepted positioning tolerance for the source position of a HDR brachytherapy unit is plus or minus 1mm. If there is an additional 2mm discrepancy due to tube curvature, this can result in a source being 1mm to 3mm short of the expected location. While we do always attempt to keep the tubes straight, in some cases such as with tandem and ovoids, the tandem connector does not extend as far out from the patient so the ovoid tubes always contain some degree of curvature. The dose impact of this may be significant.

  11. Impact of knee support and shape of tabletop on rectum and prostate position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenbakkers, Roel; Duppen, Joop C.; Betgen, Anja; Lotz, Heidi; Remeijer, Peter; Fitton, Isabelle; Nowak, Peter; Herk, Marcel van; Rasch, Coen

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of different tabletops with or without a knee support on the position of the rectum, prostate, and bulb of the penis; and to evaluate the effect of these patient-positioning devices on treatment planning. Methods and materials: For 10 male volunteers, five MRI scans were made in four different positions: on a flat tabletop with knee support, on a flat tabletop without knee support, on a rounded tabletop with knee support, and on a rounded tabletop without knee support. The fifth scan was in the same position as the first. With image registration, the position differences of the rectum, prostate, and bulb of the penis were measured at several points in a sagittal plane through the central axis of the prostate. A planning target volume was generated from the delineated prostates with a margin of 10 mm in three dimensions. A three-field treatment plan with a prescribed dose of 78 Gy to the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements point was automatically generated from each planning target volume. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for all rectal walls. Results: The shape of the tabletop did not affect the rectum and prostate position. Addition of a knee support shifted the anterior and posterior rectal walls dorsally. For the anterior rectal wall, the maximum dorsal shift was 9.9 mm (standard error of the mean [SEM] 1.7 mm) at the top of the prostate. For the posterior rectal wall, the maximum dorsal shift was 10.2 mm (SEM 1.5 mm) at the middle of the prostate. Therefore, the rectal filling was pushed caudally when a knee support was added. The knee support caused a rotation of the prostate around the left-right axis at the apex (i.e., a dorsal rotation) by 5.6 deg (SEM 0.8 deg ) and shifts in the caudal and dorsal directions of 2.6 mm (SEM 0.4 cm) and 1.4 mm (SEM 0.6 mm), respectively. The position of the bulb of the penis was not influenced by the use of a knee support or rounded tabletop. The volume of the

  12. MEDITERRANEAN FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: LOW ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS AND SIGNIFICANT HEALTH AND NUTRITION BENEFITS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elbilali, H.; Capone, R.; Lamaddalena, N.; Lamberti, L.; Elferchichi, A.; Aboussaleh, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Nutrition is central in the prevention of food-related non-communicable diseases representing an important health risk factor and an enormous socio-economic burden for Mediterranean societies. Nevertheless, assessment of food systems and diets sustainability should take into account not only their health benefits but also their environmental impacts. This work aims at analysing the main environmental impacts of the Mediterranean food consumption patterns (MFCPs) and at highlighting their nutrition and health benefits. The paper provides a review on nutrition and health benefits of the traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) as well as on water and land resources and biodiversity in the Mediterranean. FAO food consumption statistics and standard footprint data were used to characterise the MFCP and to calculate and discuss environmental impacts, i.e. water, carbon and ecological footprints. The Mediterranean hotspot is a major centre of plant and crop diversity. Mediterranean people gather and consume about 2,300 plant species. The share of plant-based energy in the diet is higher in the Mediterranean than in Northern Europe and America. Peoples adhering to the Mediterranean dietary patterns comply better with recommended nutrient and micronutrients intakes. The MD was associated with reduced mortality and lower risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and some cancers. During the last decades, the ecological footprint (EF) per capita in the Mediterranean increased while the biocapacity decreased thus the ecological deficit increased. The carbon footprint alone is generally higher than the biocapacity. MENA region has a lower EF than North America. Food consumption represents the highest share of water footprint of consumption (WFC) in the Mediterranean. WFC is lower in Mediterranean countries, especially MENA ones, than in North America. The traditional MD offers considerable health benefits and has lower environmental impacts than Northern

  13. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  14. Control of secondary electrons from ion beam impact using a positive potential electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, T. P., E-mail: tpcrowley@xanthotechnologies.com; Demers, D. R.; Fimognari, P. J. [Xantho Technologies, LLC, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Secondary electrons emitted when an ion beam impacts a detector can amplify the ion beam signal, but also introduce errors if electrons from one detector propagate to another. A potassium ion beam and a detector comprised of ten impact wires, four split-plates, and a pair of biased electrodes were used to demonstrate that a low-voltage, positive electrode can be used to maintain the beneficial amplification effect while greatly reducing the error introduced from the electrons traveling between detector elements.

  15. The impact of significant other expressed emotion on patient outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, Rebecca; Barrowclough, Christine; Wearden, Alison

    2014-09-01

    Previous literature has identified the importance of interpersonal processes for patient outcomes in chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), particularly in the context of significant other relationships. The current study investigated expressed emotion (EE), examining the independent effects of critical comments and emotional overinvolvement (EOI) in association with patient outcomes. Fifty-five patients with CFS/ME and their significant others were recruited from specialist CFS/ME services. Significant other EE status was coded from a modified Camberwell Family Interview. Patient outcomes (fatigue severity, disability, and depression) were derived from questionnaire measures. Forty-four patients (80%) completed follow-up questionnaires 6-months after recruitment. Significant other high-EE categorized by both high levels of critical comments and high EOI was predictive of worse fatigue severity at follow-up. High-critical EE was associated with higher levels of patient depressive symptoms longitudinally; depressive symptoms were observed to mediate the relationship between high critical comments and fatigue severity reported at follow-up. There were higher rates of high-EE in parents than in partners, and this was because of higher rates of EOI in parents. Patients with high-EE significant others demonstrated poorer outcomes at follow-up compared with patients in low-EE dyads. One mechanism for this appears to be as a result of increased patient depression. Future research should seek to further clarify whether the role of interpersonal processes in CFS/ME differs across different patient-significant other relationships. The development of significant other-focused treatment interventions may be particularly beneficial for both patients and significant others. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Identification of Significant Impact of Silicon Foundry Sands Mining on LCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study based on a LCA (Life Cycle Assessment research program of the silicon foundry sand (SFS due to the large quantity of produced waste foundry sand (WFS. The foundry waste is a high priority sector within the growing European foundry industry. It is necessary to understand the full life cycle of the foundry waste in order to correctly identify magnitude and types of impacts it has on the environment. System boundary includes the processes: mining, modification, packing, storage and transport to foundry. Inventory analysis data were analyzed and finally converted to the functional unit, which has been defined as one ton of SFS. The resulting environmental impact of SFS production in endpoint is: consumption of natural resources 70.9%, ecosystem quality 18.2% and human health 10.9%. The following portions, with respective percentages, have the greatest overall effect on these results: diesel fuel consumption 32.4% and natural gas consumption 28.7%, electricity usage 17.2%, transport 12.2%, devastation caused by the SFS 5.35% and oil (engine, gear and hydraulic consumption 4.14%. The highest contributor to the diesel fuel consumption is the SFS exploitation. The overall effect of desiccation was 35.8% and was caused by high consumption of resources and electricity.

  17. Characterization and management trends of negative and positive impacts of tourism in show caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heros Augusto Santos Lobo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Caves are one of the most fragile environments on Earth ’s surface, in function of physical, atmospheric and biological specificities. The natural characteristics associated with cultural aspects of local people are the reasons to tourist potential of caves. However, the tourist use of caves can generate negative impacts on the environment. This consequence happens when inappropriate procedures of planning and management of tourism are used. Negative impacts are described in this review, as also indications of management techniques to avoid, decrease or eliminate the negative consequences of tourism in caves. Positive impacts are also presented, in order to achieve a sustainable tourism in show caves. The conclusion argues that the negative impacts should not be considered as impediments to tourism in caves. It is important to know these impacts and use it as a key to get previous answers which allow to raise the sustainability of show caves.

  18. Difference in method of administration did not significantly impact item response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjorner, Jakob B; Rose, Matthias; Gandek, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    assistant (PDA), or personal computer (PC) on the Internet, and a second form by PC, in the same administration. Structural invariance, equivalence of item responses, and measurement precision were evaluated using confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory methods. RESULTS: Multigroup...... levels in IVR, PQ, or PDA administration as compared to PC. Availability of large item response theory-calibrated PROMIS item banks allowed for innovations in study design and analysis.......PURPOSE: To test the impact of method of administration (MOA) on the measurement characteristics of items developed in the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS). METHODS: Two non-overlapping parallel 8-item forms from each of three PROMIS domains (physical function...

  19. Non-organ-specific autoantibodies in children with chronic hepatitis C: clinical significance and impact on interferon treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Muratori, Luigi; Verucchi, Gabriella; Attard, Luciano; Bianchi, Francesco B; Lenzi, Marco

    2003-11-15

    We evaluated the prevalence and clinical significance of non-organ-specific autoantibodies (NOSAs) in 47 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-positive children with abnormal alanine transaminase levels and analyzed the association between NOSAs and virus level, genotype, human leukocyte antigen status, and interferon (IFN) response. Forty-two hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive children and 25 age- and sex-matched healthy children served as control subjects. NOSAs were found in 34% of the HCV-positive children, 12% of the HBV-positive controls, and none of the healthy control subjects. Liver-kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) was detected in 11% of the HCV-positive children but in none of the controls. The HCV load was significantly higher in NOSA-negative than in NOSA-positive children. HCV genotype distribution and human leukocyte antigen alleles were similar, irrespective of NOSA status. Long-term response to IFN therapy was achieved by 18% of the NOSA-positive and 55% of the NOSA-negative subjects. Two LKM1-positive children developed acute, self-limited hepatocellular necrosis while receiving IFN therapy. NOSAs are frequently present in children with hepatitis C, who are less likely to benefit from IFN therapy.

  20. The Impact of a Positive Environment and Shared Leadership to Empower Collegial School Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretz, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an empowered collegial school culture to systemically improve the function of the academic institution through the impact of a positive environment and shared leadership. When compared to the other middle schools in the district, Eagle Middle School had the lowest math achievement growth index during the…

  1. The Impact of Budget Cutbacks on Music Teaching Positions and District Funding in Three Midwestern States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Frederick William; Payne, Phillip; Bazan, Dale E.; Hellman, Daniel S.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence and impact of budgetary cutbacks to music teaching positions and district funding in three Midwestern states, namely Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri. The results revealed cuts to staffing and district funding of music programs without a reduction in student enrollments in 2011-2012…

  2. Impact of socioeconomic position and distance on mental health care utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Packness, Aake; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Christensen, René dePont

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the impact of socioeconomic position (SEP) and distance to provider on outpatient mental health care utilization among incident users of antidepressants. Method: A nationwide register-based cohort study of 50,374 person-years. Results: Persons in low SEP were more likely...

  3. Prognostic Significance of the Number of Positive Lymph Nodes in Women With T1-2N1 Breast Cancer Treated With Mastectomy: Should Patients With 1, 2, and 3 Positive Lymph Nodes Be Grouped Together?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Kubicky, Charlotte, E-mail: charlottedai@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine and Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Mongoue-Tchokote, Solange [Biostatistics Shared Resource, Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with 1, 2, or 3 positive lymph nodes (LNs) have similar survival outcomes. Methods and Materials: We analyzed the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry of breast cancer patients diagnosed between 1990 and 2003. We identified 10,415 women with T1-2N1M0 breast cancer who were treated with mastectomy with no adjuvant radiation, with at least 10 LNs examined and 6 months of follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier method and log–rank test were used for survival analysis. Multivariate analysis was performed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results: Median follow-up was 92 months. Ten-year overall survival (OS) and cause-specific survival (CSS) were progressively worse with increasing number of positive LNs. Survival rates were 70%, 64%, and 60% (OS), and 82%, 76%, and 72% (CSS) for 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs, respectively. Pairwise log–rank test P values were <.001 (1 vs 2 positive LNs), <.001 (1 vs 3 positive LNs), and .002 (2 vs 3 positive LNs). Multivariate analysis showed that number of positive LNs was a significant predictor of OS and CSS. Hazard ratios increased with the number of positive LNs. In addition, age, primary tumor size, grade, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, race, and year of diagnosis were significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: Our study suggests that patients with 1, 2, and 3 positive LNs have distinct survival outcomes, with increasing number of positive LNs associated with worse OS and CSS. The conventional grouping of 1-3 positive LNs needs to be reconsidered.

  4. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS OF AUTOMATION IN ASSET MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin L. Britton; David G. Atkinson

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the implications of applying automation, a technological force in which computer systems can fulfill human tasks, into the asset management industry. The investigation explores a number of significant topics in which managers should begin contemplating, including workforce origination post automation, the primary skills necessary to facilitate augmentation, and how robo advisors could challenge an organization’s value proposition. The investigation was centered on Jupiter ...

  5. Impact of preoperative patient characteristics on posturethroplasty recurrence: The significance of stricture length and prior treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibril Oyekunle Bello

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Urethral strictures are common in urologic practice of Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. We determine the rate of stricture recurrence following urethroplasty for anterior urethral strictures and evaluate preoperative variables that predict of stricture recurrence in our practice. Subjects and Methods: Thirty-six men who had urethroplasty for proven anterior urethral stricture disease between February 2012 and January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Preoperative factors including age, socioeconomic factors, comorbidities, etiology of strictures, stricture location, stricture length, periurethral spongiofibrosis, and prior stricture treatments were assessed for independent predictors of stricture recurrence. Results: The median age was 49.5 years (range 21-90, median stricture length was 4 cm (range 1-18 cm and the overall recurrence rate was 27.8%. Postinfectious strictures, pan urethral strictures or multiple strictures involving the penile and bulbar urethra were more common. Most patients had penile circular fasciocutaneous flap urethroplasty. Following univariate analysis of potential preoperative predictors of stricture recurrence, stricture length, and prior treatments with dilations or urethrotomies were found to be significantly associated with stricture recurrence. On multivariate analysis, they both remained statistically significant. Patients who had prior treatments had greater odds of having a recurrent stricture (odds ratio 18, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-224.3. Stricture length was dichotomized based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis, and strictures of length ≥5 cm had significantly greater recurrence (area under ROC curve of 0.825, 95% CI 0.690-0.960, P = 0.032. Conclusion: Patients who had prior dilatations or urethrotomies and those with long strictures particularly strictures ≥5 cm have significantly greater odds of developing a recurrence following urethroplasty in Nigerian

  6. Impact of emotional intelligence on risk behaviour with mediating effect of positive and negative affect

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, I. (Iqra)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Emotional intelligence and risk taking behaviour are considered as significant factors through which people engage in organizations and in daily life. This dissertation formulates the linkage between emotional intelligence, positive affect, negative affect and risk taking behavior. The underlying principle of this study was to develop a sense of relationship between emotional intelligence, positive affect, negative...

  7. Positive Youth Development Interventions Impacting the Sexual Health of Young Minority Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, LaNita W.; Cheney, Marshall K.

    2018-01-01

    A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the utility of Positive Youth Development (PYD) concepts in promoting positive sexual health behaviors in young minority adolescents (n = 12 studies). Interventions reported significant associations between PYD-focused interventions and ever having sex, sexual partners in the last 30 days,…

  8. The Impact of Childhood Bullying among HIV-Positive Men: Psychosocial Correlates and Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Bergstrom, Jessica; Vorasarun, Chaniga; Mardini, Mona; Patrick, Rudy; Lee, Susanne; Lazar, Rachael; Koopman, Cheryl; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives While some studies have examined the deleterious effects of childhood bullying on adults, no studies to date have focused on the effects of bullying on Persons Living with HIV (PLH), a particularly at-risk population. PLH experience higher rates of childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse than the population at large, and experience of childhood abuse appears to be predictive of sexual and other risk behaviors in this population. Thus it remains critical to examine rates of childhood bullying and correlates of bullying in adult PLH. Methods A sample of 171 HIV-positive men over 18 years of age were recruited from the San Francisco Bay Area. All participants reported experiencing symptoms of traumatic stress. The participants were recruited as part of a larger study assessing a group intervention for individuals with HIV and symptoms of trauma. Self-report questionnaires were administered to assess participants’ exposure to bullying in childhood and trauma symptoms in adulthood. Results Bullying was commonly reported by men in the current sample, with 91% of the sample endorsing having experienced some level of bullying before age 18. Having been bullied in childhood was significantly (p bullying in childhood predicted additional, unique variance in trauma symptoms in adulthood above and beyond the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma, resulting in a better-fitting model. Conclusions The current study highlights the association between rate of childhood bullying and symptoms of trauma in adulthood, accounting for the effect of exposure to other forms of trauma. Given the impact of trauma symptoms on disease progression in PLH, exposure to bullying must be considered in any intervention aiming to reduce trauma symptoms or improve mental or physical health among HIV-positive populations. PMID:23294606

  9. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  11. Significance of direct and indirect impacts of climate change on groundwater resources in the Olifants River basin: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhonjera, German K.; Dinka, Megersa O.

    2017-11-01

    This paper considers the extent and usefulness of reviewing existing literature on the significance of direct and indirect impacts of climate change on groundwater resources with emphasis on examples from the Olifants River basin. Here, the existing literature were extensively reviewed, with discussions centred mainly on the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and challenges in modelling climate change impacts on groundwater resources. Since in the hydrological cycle, the hydrological components such as evaporation, temperature, precipitation, and groundwater, are the major drivers of the present and future climate, a detailed discussion is done on the impact of climate change on these hydrological components to determine to what extent the hydrological cycle has already been affected as a result of climate change. The uncertainties, constraints and limitations in climate change research have also been reviewed. In addition to the research gaps discussed here, the emphasis on the need of extensive climate change research on the continent, especially as climate change impacts on groundwater, is discussed. Overall, the importance of conducting further research in climate change, understanding the significance of the impact of climate change on water resources such as groundwater, and taking actions to effectively meet the adaptation needs of the people, emerge as an important theme in this review.

  12. Isopycnal mixing by mesoscale eddies significantly impacts oceanic anthropogenic carbon uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand; Pradal, Marie-Aude; Abernathey, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide uptake varies across Earth System Models for reasons that have remained obscure. When varied within a single model, the lateral eddy mixing coefficient ARedi produces a range of uptake similar to the modeled range. The highest uptake, resulting from a simulation with a constant ARedi of 2400 m2/s, simulates 15% more historical carbon uptake than a model with ARedi = 400 m2/s. A sudden doubling in carbon dioxide produces a 21% range in carbon uptake across the models. Two spatially dependent representations of ARedi produce uptake that lies in the middle of the range of constant values despite predicting very large values in the subtropical gyres. One-dimensional diffusive models of the type used for integrated assessments can be fit to the simulations, with ARedi accounting for a substantial fraction of the effective vertical diffusion. Such models, however, mask significant regional changes in stratification and biological carbon storage.

  13. Business Organizations’ Positive Socio-Economic Impact on Society - a Step Beyond CSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela POPA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors argue the necessity of taking a step beyond CSR and tackling the issue of measuring the impact businesses have on society, in general. Even if CSR points out the idea that organizations have responsibilities regarding the well-being of the entire society, it has certain limitations listed in this article. Furthermore, the authors briefly present the socio-economic impact of business organizations including (1 some basic concepts, (2 the most relevant areas/fields for measuring the impact, and (3 the main advantages regarding the development and implementation of effective impact measurement practices. The general purpose of the empirical study refers to the identification of perceptions related to the Romanian business organizations’ socio-economic impact. In this regard, we set the following main objectives: (1 identifying the extent to which Romanian organizations undertake a process of measuring, assessing and managing their impacts on society, (2 analyzing clients, managers and owners’ perceptions regarding the positive impact of seven Romanian organizations’ activities, and (3 identifying the perceptional differences between clients and managers plus owners. The empirical results show that in the managers’ plus owners’ opinions the areas in which the organization’s activities always or almost always have a positive impact are: collecting and paying taxes, keeping a strict control over the costs, and fulfilling government regulations plus obeying laws. The highest differences in clients’ and managers’ plus owners’ perceptions refer to creating jobs and improving people’s personal security and the general well-being of society.

  14. Significant impacts of nutrient enrichment on High Arctic vegetation and soils despite two decades of recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L. E.; Burns, N. R.; Woodin, S. J.

    2012-04-01

    We re-visit a unique field manipulation study in Svalbard to assess the long-term recovery of plant species composition, leaf tissue chemistry and total ecosystem carbon storage from nutrient enrichment. The experiment was established in 1991. The original aim was to quantify the 'critical load' of nitrogen (N) for tundra; that is, the minimum rate of N deposition affecting ecosystem structure and function. Dissolved N was applied to heath vegetation, both alone and in combination with phosphorous (P), during the growing season over three years. The rates of N addition were lower than in most other nutrient manipulation studies, and were designed to represent typical rates of deposition in the Scottish highlands (50 kg N ha-1 yr-1) and maximum deposition rates experienced in the Arctic (10 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Significant changes in shrub cover, the greenness and N content of the moss layer, and the extent of ecosystem N saturation had occurred by the end of the treatment period. After 18 years of recovery without further treatment, we assessed primary productivity using CO2 flux measurements, and the 'greenness' of vegetation using the Normalised Difference Vegetation Index. We made destructive measurements of above- and below-ground carbon and nutrient stocks, quantified species composition and sampled leaf tissue for chemical analysis. Total carbon storage in organic soils and vegetation was c. 40 % lower in the plots treated with 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 compared to controls. Species composition in N treated plots also differed significantly, but there was no clear treatment effect on primary productivity. Where 50 kg N ha-1 yr-1 was applied in combination with P (at 5 kg P ha-1 yr-1 ), organic carbon storage was c. 70 % greater than controls, the vegetation was greener, and primary productivity higher. Effects of the treatments were also still clearly apparent in moss tissue nutrient status, even at the lower nitrogen application rate. Our results imply that the effects

  15. Impact of CD133 positive stem cell proportion on survival in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kase, Marju; Minajeva, Ave; Niinepuu, Kristi; Kase, Sandra; Vardja, Markus; Asser, Toomas; Jaal, Jana

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of CD133-positive (CD133+) cancer stem cell proportions on treatment results of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Patients with GBM (n = 42) received postoperative radiotherapy (± chemotherapy). Surgically excised GBM tissue sections were immunohistochemically examined for CD133 expression. The proportions of CD133+ GBM cells were determined (%). The proportion of CD133+ GBM stem cells was established by 2 independent researchers whose results were in good accordance (R = 0.8, p < 0.01). Additionally, CD133 expression levels were correlated with patients overall survival. The proportion of CD133+ cells varied between patients, being from 0.5% to 82%. Mean and median proportions of CD133+ cells of the entire study group were 33% ± 24% (mean ± SD) and 28%, respectively. Clinical data do not support the association between higher proportion of stem cells and the aggressiveness of GBM. Median survival time of the study group was 10.0 months (95% CI 9.0–11.0). The survival time clearly depended on the proportion of CD133+ cells (log rank test, p = 0.02). Median survival times for patients with low (< median) and high (≥ median) proportion of CD133+ cells were 9.0 months (95% CI 7.6–10.5) and 12.0 months (95% CI 9.3–14.7), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the proportion of CD133+ cells emerged as a significant independent predictor for longer overall survival (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.0–3.8, p = 0.04). In patients with higher stem cell proportion, significantly longer survival times after postoperative radiotherapy were achieved. Underlying reasons and possible higher sensitivity of GBM stem cells to fractionated radio-therapy should be clarified in further studies

  16. Impact of Surface Type, Wheelchair Weight, and Axle Position on Wheelchair Propulsion by Novice Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Rachel E.; Nash, Mark S.; Collinger, Jennifer L.; Koontz, Alicia M.; Boninger, Michael L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of surface type, wheelchair weight, and rear axle position on older adult propulsion biomechanics. Design Crossover trial. Setting Biomechanics laboratory. Participants Convenience sample of 53 ambulatory older adults with minimal wheelchair experience (65−87y); men = 20, women = 33. Intervention Participants propelled 4 different wheelchair configurations over 4 surfaces; tile, low carpet, high carpet, and an 8% grade ramp (surface, chair order randomized). Chair configurations included: (1) unweighted chair with an anterior axle position, (2) 9.05kg weighted chair with an anterior axle position, (3) unweighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m), and (4) 9.05kg weighted chair with a posterior axle position (Δ0.08m). Weight was added to a titanium folding chair, simulating the weight difference between very light and depot wheelchairs. Instrumented wheels measured propulsion kinetics. Main Outcome Measures Average self-selected velocity, push-frequency, stroke length, peak resultant and tangential force. Results Velocity decreased as surface rolling resistance or chair weight increased. Peak resultant and tangential forces increased as chair weight increased, surface resistance increased, and with a posterior axle position. The effect of a posterior axle position was greater on high carpet and the ramp. The effect of weight was constant, but more easily observed on high carpet and ramp. The effects of axle position and weight were independent of one another. Conclusion Increased surface resistance decreases self-selected velocity and increases peak forces. Increased weight decreases self-selected velocity and increases forces. Anterior axle positions decrease forces, more so on high carpet. Effects of weight and axle position are independent. Greatest reductions in peak forces occur in lighter chairs with anterior axle positions. PMID:19577019

  17. Clinical impact of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. A cytohistologic comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lousuebsakul, V; Knutsen, S M; Gram, I T; Akin, M R

    2000-01-01

    To assess the percentage of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) in the atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) cytologic diagnosis. From January 1994 to December 1995, 421 cervical Pap smears with a diagnosis of ASCUS were followed with cervical biopsies within three months. The ASCUS cytologic diagnosis was correlated with the histologic findings and stratified according to age group, previous abnormal history and cell type of ASCUS (squamoid vs. metaplastic). Histologic diagnosis showed that of ASCUS diagnoses, 13% were normal, 34% were reactive, 4.8% were atypical, 43% were low grade SIL, 4% were high grade SIL, 1% were carcinoma in situ, and none were invasive lesions. The patients in the youngest group, up to 25 years, demonstrated the highest percentage of SIL. Patients with a previous abnormal gynecologic history showed a higher percentage of SIL than those without an abnormal history. SILs were observed in 51.5% of squamoid ASCUS and 36.5% of metaplastic ASCUS. Forty-eight percent of females having an ASCUS diagnosis on Pap smears had SIL and thus a preneoplastic lesion. The highest percentage of SIL was found in females 25 years and younger. Our findings suggest that an ASCUS diagnosis warrants ongoing follow-up.

  18. AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE SIGNIFICANT IMPACTS OF AUTOMATION IN ASSET MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Britton

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the implications of applying automation, a technological force in which computer systems can fulfill human tasks, into the asset management industry. The investigation explores a number of significant topics in which managers should begin contemplating, including workforce origination post automation, the primary skills necessary to facilitate augmentation, and how robo advisors could challenge an organization’s value proposition. The investigation was centered on Jupiter Asset Management (JAM to support their preparations for automation, as well as to provide insight from the ‘grass roots’. Research centered on interviews with experienced individuals within automative and asset management. The findings identify that current entry level occupations with systematic, repetitive tasks in a fixed domain, will be automated. Placing a greater demand for analytical abilities in junior recruits as the cognitive understanding of what data represents is a weakness of artificial intelligence (AI thus strengthening augmentation between employees and technology. Automated investment profilers known as robo advisors will challenge the value proposition of organizations, such as JAM, which in time will need to be onboard with the technology to remain competitive within a growing millennial market. The paper concludes that there is an evident need for asset management firms to design training processes that blend enhanced senior level shadowing, with programmes focused on broadening juniors’ abilities to interpret and apply AI generated data through a series of newly identified skills.

  19. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses

  20. Recognition of American Physiological Society Members Whose Research Publications Had a Significant Impact on the Discipline of Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the…

  1. 76 FR 13597 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hawkweeds AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... States as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of infestations of hawkweeds (Hieracium spp..., into the continental United States for the biological control of hawkweeds (Hieracium pilosella, H...

  2. 75 FR 17161 - Job Corps: Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Installation of a Small...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of the Secretary Job Corps: Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Installation of a Small Wind Turbine at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located at... the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center, 15710 Highway 385, Chadron, NE 69337. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the...

  3. 75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located at 15710 Highway... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps....11(d), gives final notice of the proposed construction of a small wind turbine at the Pine Ridge Job...

  4. Addendum to the article: Misuse of null hypothesis significance testing: Would estimation of positive and negative predictive values improve certainty of chemical risk assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Newman, Michael C; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-03-01

    We argued recently that the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) are valuable metrics to include during null hypothesis significance testing: They inform the researcher about the probability of statistically significant and non-significant test outcomes actually being true. Although commonly misunderstood, a reported p value estimates only the probability of obtaining the results or more extreme results if the null hypothesis of no effect was true. Calculations of the more informative PPV and NPV require a priori estimate of the probability (R). The present document discusses challenges of estimating R.

  5. Significant impact of transient deterioration of renal function on dosimetry in PRRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Binnebeek, S.; Baete, K.; Terwinghe, C.

    2013-01-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT), with 90 Y-DOTATOC and 177 Lu-DOTATATE as most clinically used radiopeptides, is widely used in the management of metastatic neuroendocrine tumors. With respect to radiation dosimetry, the kidneys are the critical organ for 90 Y-DOTATOC. Renal irradiation is significant because of reabsorption of the radiopeptide from the proximal tubuli and the resulting retention in the interstitium, mainly in the inner cortical zone. The high energy and consequently wide range in tissue of the yttrium-90 beta particle result in high absorbed doses to the kidney cortex and medulla. Accurate renal dosimetry can help minimizing radiation nephropathy. We report a case of a 69-year-old candidate for PRRT with an acceptable kidney function at the time of screening. When performing 111 In-octreotide pretreatment dosimetry 3 weeks later, we observed a drastic deterioration in kidney function, caused by undisclosed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug intake. The calculated kidney biological effective dose (BED) was 153 Gy after four projected cycles. PRRT was canceled as our full-course BED limit is 37 Gy and the patient was switched to morphine analgesics. Renal function normalized after 3 months and repeated dosimetry yielded an acceptable kidney BED of 28 Gy after four projected cycles (7 Gy/cycle). This case emphasizes that acute kidney insufficiency can yield toxic kidney doses in a single therapy cycle, with an inherent risk of persistent renal insufficiency. All clinical factors which might influence kidney function should be verified at screening and before PRRT administration. (author)

  6. Positive and Negative Impacts of Non-Native Bee Species around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Laura

    2016-11-28

    Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks. The potential positive impacts of non-native bees include agricultural pollination, availability for scientific research, rescue of native species, and resilience to human-mediated disturbance and climate change. Most non-native bee species are accidentally introduced and nest in stems, twigs, and cavities in wood. In terms of number of species, the best represented families are Megachilidae and Apidae, and the best represented genus is Megachile . The best studied genera are Apis and Bombus , and most of the species in these genera were deliberately introduced for agricultural pollination. Thus, we know little about the majority of non-native bees, accidentally introduced or spreading beyond their native ranges.

  7. Positive and Negative Impacts of Non-Native Bee Species around the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Russo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Though they are relatively understudied, non-native bees are ubiquitous and have enormous potential economic and environmental impacts. These impacts may be positive or negative, and are often unquantified. In this manuscript, I review literature on the known distribution and environmental and economic impacts of 80 species of introduced bees. The potential negative impacts of non-native bees include competition with native bees for nesting sites or floral resources, pollination of invasive weeds, co-invasion with pathogens and parasites, genetic introgression, damage to buildings, affecting the pollination of native plant species, and changing the structure of native pollination networks. The potential positive impacts of non-native bees include agricultural pollination, availability for scientific research, rescue of native species, and resilience to human-mediated disturbance and climate change. Most non-native bee species are accidentally introduced and nest in stems, twigs, and cavities in wood. In terms of number of species, the best represented families are Megachilidae and Apidae, and the best represented genus is Megachile. The best studied genera are Apis and Bombus, and most of the species in these genera were deliberately introduced for agricultural pollination. Thus, we know little about the majority of non-native bees, accidentally introduced or spreading beyond their native ranges.

  8. The impact of whole-hand vibration exposure on the sense of angular position about the wrist joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radovanovic, Sasa; Day, Scott Jason; Johansson, Håkan

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the impact of whole-hand vibration on the capacity of subjects to identify previously presented positions of the hand in both wrist flexion and extension. In each movement direction, targets of 15 or 30 degrees were presented with an imposed passive movement from the start position. During the second imposed movement, subjects were required to identify when the target position had been reached. For the vibration condition, 15 s of whole-hand vibration exposure was repeated immediately prior to each target position trial. Proprioceptive capacity was assessed by comparing the identified angular position with the reference position-angular distance expressed in terms of absolute error (AE), constant error (CE), and variable error (VE). For three of the four target positions (15 and 30 degrees flexion and 15 degrees extension), the absolute, constant, and VEs of target identification were insensitive to vibration, whereas for the 30 degrees extension target, both the absolute and CE were significantly different before and after the vibration application, showing the subjects overshooting previously presented target position. All three error measures were larger for the long targets than the short targets. Short-duration exposure to whole-hand vibration is insufficient to compromise post-vibration position sense in the wrist joint, except near the end range of joint movement in wrist extension. Complement contribution of different proprioceptive receptors (muscle, joint, and skin receptors) seems to be crucial for accuracy to reproduce passive movements, since the capacity of any individual class of receptor to deliver information about movement and position of the limbs is limited.

  9. IMPACT OF MEDICAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS ON SURGICAL OUTCOMES OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS IN HIV POSITIVE PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Аlkаz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the study of the impact of social and medical factors and bad habits on the outcomes of planned surgery in 95 patients with concurrent respiratory tuberculosis and HIV infection The correlation analysis was performed which discovered the factors providing a positive impact on treatment outcomes The following factors have the strongest association with treatment outcome: patient's regular job, family, no alcohol or nicotine addiction, a form of tuberculosis, and administration of antiretroviral therapy It was noted that surgery outcome could be predicted and potential complications prevented 

  10. Macro-indicators of citation impacts of six prolific countries: InCites data and the statistical significance of trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz Bornmann

    Full Text Available Using the InCites tool of Thomson Reuters, this study compares normalized citation impact values calculated for China, Japan, France, Germany, United States, and the UK throughout the time period from 1981 to 2010. InCites offers a unique opportunity to study the normalized citation impacts of countries using (i a long publication window (1981 to 2010, (ii a differentiation in (broad or more narrow subject areas, and (iii allowing for the use of statistical procedures in order to obtain an insightful investigation of national citation trends across the years. Using four broad categories, our results show significantly increasing trends in citation impact values for France, the UK, and especially Germany across the last thirty years in all areas. The citation impact of papers from China is still at a relatively low level (mostly below the world average, but the country follows an increasing trend line. The USA exhibits a stable pattern of high citation impact values across the years. With small impact differences between the publication years, the US trend is increasing in engineering and technology but decreasing in medical and health sciences as well as in agricultural sciences. Similar to the USA, Japan follows increasing as well as decreasing trends in different subject areas, but the variability across the years is small. In most of the years, papers from Japan perform below or approximately at the world average in each subject area.

  11. An Analysis of Impact Factors for Positioning Performance in WLAN Fingerprinting Systems Using Ishikawa Diagrams and a Simulation Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keqiang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors influence the positioning performance in WLAN RSSI fingerprinting systems, and summary of these factors is an important but challenging job. Moreover, impact analysis on nonalgorithm factors is significant to system application and quality control but little research has been conducted. This paper analyzes and summarizes the potential impact factors by using an Ishikawa diagram considering radio signal transmitting, propagating, receiving, and processing. A simulation platform was developed to facilitate the analysis experiment, and the paper classifies the potential factors into controllable, uncontrollable, nuisance, and held-constant factors considering simulation feasibility. It takes five nonalgorithm controllable factors including APs density, APs distribution, radio signal propagating attenuation factor, radio signal propagating noise, and RPs density into consideration and adopted the OFAT analysis method in experiment. The positioning result was achieved by using the deterministic and probabilistic algorithms, and the error was presented by RMSE and CDF. The results indicate that the high APs density, signal propagating attenuation factor, and RPs density, with the low signal propagating noise level, are favorable to better performance, while APs distribution has no particular impact pattern on the positioning error. Overall, this paper has made great potential contribution to the quality control of WLAN fingerprinting solutions.

  12. Impact of patient positioning on radiotherapy dose distribution: An assessment in parotid tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We intended to study the impact of patient positioning on the dose distribution within target volume and organs at risk in patients with parotid malignancies treated with 3D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT with photon wedge pair (WP or intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT.Methods: Three patients with a non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma of the right parotid gland were consecutively immobilized using thermoplastic cast in 2 positions: supine with head in neutral position (HN and with head turned 90° to the left side (HT. Images for treatment planning purpose were acquired in both positions. For both positions, photon WP plans and 5 field IMRT plans were generated, after contouring clinical target volume (CTV, planning target volume (PTV= CTV + 5 mm margin and organs at risk (OAR. All plans were evaluated for target coverage and dose to OARs.Results: Both CTV and PTV were apparently larger in HN compared with HT (31.76±8.89 cc, 30.31±7.83 cc and 62.49±19.01 cc, 58.89±15.33 cc respectively. The CI value for PTV was slightly better for HT compared to HN position in both the WP and IMRT plans. The homogeneity was comparable in both the head positions in case of WP plan. The mean HI of PTV was increased in case of IMRT plan at HT versus HN position (1.108 vs. 1.097. A change in head position from HN to HT with wedge pair plan resulted in a reduction of brainstem Dmax and Dmean. Lesser dose was observed in HN position for contralateral parotid. A difference of 0.9 Gy in the average Dmax to spinal cord was seen. The values of Dmean to mandible, oral cavity, ipsilateral and contralateral cochlea were higher in the HT position. A change in head position from HN to HT with IMRT plan resulted in a dose reduction in average Dmax to brainstem. The spinal cord Dmax increased at the HT position by 1.2 Gy. The dose to contralateral parotid and cochlea was comparable in both the positions. However, the Dmean to oral cavity was reduced at HT position. Whereas

  13. Prevention measures for avoiding unexpected drifting of marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from sea water. Positioning and monitoring system for marine component and improvement of its positioning accuracy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamada, Masao; Kasai, Noboru; Seko, Noriaki; Hasegawa, Shin; Takeda, Hayato; Katakai, Akio; Sugo, Takanobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; Kawabata, Yukiya [Ebara Reseach Co., Ltd., Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Onuma, Kenji [Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    Positioning and monitoring system for marine component in recovery equipment of significant metals from seawater with adsorbent was designed and assembled to avoid unexpected drifting accident. This system which was set on float part of the marine component obtains the positioning data from GPS satellites and sends them to Takasaki and Mutsu establishments through satellite communication. In both establishments, the position data were shown in computer displays. As characteristic test for 20 days in the real sea, 262 data were obtained every 2 hours. The twice of the distance root mean square (2DRMS) was 223.7 m. To improve this performance, three new functions were added to the present firmware. There are to raise positioning resolutions in longitude and latitude from 0.001 to 0.00001 degree, to remove the reflection of GPS signal from sea surface, and to average remaining three positioning data after maximum and minimum data were omitted from continuous five positioning data. The improved system shows the 2DRMS positioning of 15.5 m. This performance is enough to prevent marine component from its drifting accident. (author)

  14. The impact of a focally positive resection margin on the local control in patients treated with breast-conserving therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seho; Park, Hyung-Seok; Kim, Seung-ll; Koo, Ja-Seung; Park, Byeong-Woo; Lee, Kyong-Sik

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the parameters affecting positive margin and the impact of positive margin on outcomes after breast-conserving therapy in patients with breast cancer. Characteristics and survival of 705 patients attempted breast-conserving therapy between January 1994 and December 2004 were retrospectively analyzed using χ 2 tests, the Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariate analyses. Ninety-five (13.5%) showed positive margins at initial resection. Among them, 28 (4.0%) had negative margin on the initial frozen section; however, they finally turned out a focally positive margin with intraductal carcinoma on the permanent pathology. Positive margin at initial resection was significantly associated with lobular histology (P=0.001), four or more involved lymph nodes (P=0.015) and the presence of extensive intraductal component (P<0.001). A focally positive margin did not influence local (P=0.250; 95% confidence interval, 0.612-6.592) or regional failure (P=0.756; 95% confidence interval, 0.297-5.311). Patients with a focally positive margin showed an advanced nodal stage and received a higher dose of irradiation and more systemic therapy. Nodal involvements were the most significant factor for locoregional failure. Although the achievement of negative margins is the best way to reduce local failure, patients with a focally positive margin and favorable risk factors such as node negativity and older age could have an option of close follow-up with adequate boost irradiation and adjuvant therapy instead of conversion to total mastectomy. (author)

  15. Interfractional variation in bladder volume and its impact on cervical cancer radiotherapy: Clinical significance of portable bladder scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Huanli; Jin, Fu; Yang, Dingyi; Wang, Ying; Li, Chao; Guo, Mingfang; Ran, Xueqi; Liu, Xianfeng; Zhou, Qi; Wu, Yongzhong, E-mail: jfazj@126.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chongqing Cancer Institute, No. 181, Han Yu Road, Chongqing 400030 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: A constant bladder volume (BV) is essential to direct the radiotherapy (RT) of pelvic tumors with precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in BV and their impact on cervical cancer RT and to assess the clinical significance of a portable bladder scanner (BS) in achieving a constant BV. Methods: A standard bladder phantom (133 ml) and measurements of actual urine volume were both used as benchmarks to evaluate the accuracy of the BS. Comparisons of BS with computed tomography (CT), cone-beam CT (CBCT), and an ultrasound diagnostic device (iU22) were made. Twenty-two consecutive patients with cervical cancer treated with external beam radical RT were divided into an experimental group (13 patients) and a control group (9 patients). In the experimental group, the BV was measured multiple times by BS pre-RT until it was consistent with that found by planning CT. Then a CBCT was performed. The BV was measured again immediately post-RT, after which the patient’s urine was collected and recorded. In the control group, CBCT only was performed pre-RT. Interfractional changes in BV and their impact on cervical cancer RT were investigated in both groups. The time of bladder filling was also recorded and analyzed. Results: In measuring the volume of the standard bladder phantom, the BS deviated by 1.4% in accuracy. The difference between the measurements of the BS and the iU22 had no statistical significance (linear correlation coefficient 0.96, P < 0.05). The BV measured by the BS was strongly correlated with the actual urine volume (R = 0.95, P < 0.05), planning CT (R = 0.95, P < 0.05), or CBCT (R = 0.91, P < 0.05). Compared with the BV at the time of CT, its value changed by −36.1% [1 SD (standard deviation) 42.3%; range, −79.1%–29.4%] in the control group, and 5.2% (1 SD 21.5%; range, −13.3%–22.1%) in the experimental group during treatment. The change in BV affected the target position in the superior–inferior (SI) direction

  16. Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    behavioral therapy for bulimia nervosa: time course and mechanisms of change. Journal of Clinical consulting Psychology 2002, 20, 267-274. [44...RTO-MP-HFM-181 14 - 1 Impact of Positive Emotions Enhancement on Physiological Processes and Psychological Functioning in Military Pilots...practical tool using different techniques in order to improve regulation of emotions before, during and after actions [3]. This psychological training is

  17. Electron impact excitation of positive ions calculated in the Coulomb-Born approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazaki, Shinobu; Hashino, Tasuke

    1979-08-01

    Theoretical results on the electron impact excitation of positive ions are surveyed through the end of 1978. As a guide to the available data, a list of references is made. The list shows ion species, transitions, energy range and methods of calculation for the respective data. Based on the literature survey, the validity of the Coulomb-Born approximation is investigated. Comparisons with the results of the close-coupling and the distorted-wave methods are briefly summarized. (author)

  18. Utility of gastric aspirates for diagnosing tuberculosis in children in a low prevalence area: predictors of positive cultures and significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordy, Faisal; Richardson, Susan E; Stephens, Derek; Lam, Ray; Jamieson, Frances; Kitai, Ian

    2015-01-01

    In countries with low rates of tuberculosis (TB), yields of gastric aspirates (GAs) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) culture are low. The significance of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) isolated from GA is uncertain. We reviewed clinical, microbiologic and radiologic data for children who underwent GA between 1999 and 2011 at Sick Kids, Toronto. Radiologic features of cases were compared with those of age matched controls. 785 GAs were obtained from 285 patients of whom 20 (7%) had positive MTB cultures: in 15 patients the GA was the only positive culture for MTB. Of 15 culture-positive patients who underwent exactly 3 GAs, MTB was isolated from the first lavage in 10 (67%), only from the second in 3 (20%) and only from the third in 2 (13%). On univariate analysis, miliary disease and intrathoracic lymphadenopathy were associated with a positive GA MTB culture. On multiple conditional logistic regression analysis, adenopathy remained significant (OR 10.2 [95% CI 2.0-51.4] p =0.005). Twelve patients had NTM isolated, most commonly M. avium complex: none had evidence of invasive NTM disease during a median duration of 12 months of follow-up. Causal pathogens different from the GA NTM culture were isolated from biopsies or bronchoalveolar lavage in 3. GAs continue to be important for TB diagnosis in children. Three GAs have a yield better than 1. Those with miliary or disseminated TB and intrathoracic lymphadenopathy have highest yields. NTM isolates from GA are likely unimportant and can be clinically misleading.

  19. The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect and Issue Framing on Issue Interpretation and Risk Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal; Ross

    1998-12-01

    Two studies examined the influence of transient affective states and issue framing on issue interpretation and risk taking within the context of strategic decision making. In Study 1, participants in whom transient positive or negative affective states were induced by reading a short story showed systematic differences in issue interpretation and risk taking in a strategic decision making context. Compared to negative mood participants, those in a positive mood were more likely to interpret the strategic issue as an opportunity and displayed lower levels of risk taking. Study 2 replicated and extended these results by crossing affective states with threat and opportunity frames. Results showed that framing an issue (as a threat or an opportunity) had a stronger impact on issue interpretation among negative affect participants than among positive affect participants. Affective states also moderated the impact of issue framing on risk taking: the effect of framing on risk-taking was stronger under negative rather than positive affect. These results are interpreted via information-processing and motivational effects of affect on a decision maker. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  20. Clinical significance of coryneform Gram-positive rods from blood identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and their susceptibility profiles - a retrospective chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Ammara; Chen, Derrick J; Strand, Gregory J; Dylla, Brenda L; Cole, Nicolynn C; Mandrekar, Jayawant; Patel, Robin

    2016-07-01

    With the advent of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), most Gram-positive rods (GPRs) are readily identified; however, their clinical relevance in blood cultures remains unclear. Herein, we assessed the clinical significance of GPRs isolated from blood and identified in the era of MALDI-TOF MS. A retrospective chart review of patients presenting to the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from January 1, 2013, to October 13, 2015, was performed. Any episode of a positive blood culture for a GPR was included. We assessed the number of bottles positive for a given isolate, time to positivity of blood cultures, patient age, medical history, interpretation of culture results by the healthcare team and whether infectious diseases consultation was obtained. We also evaluated the susceptibility profiles of a larger collection of GPRs tested in the clinical microbiology laboratory of the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN from January 1, 2013, to October 31, 2015. There were a total of 246 GPRs isolated from the blood of 181 patients during the study period. 56% (n = 101) were deemed contaminants by the healthcare team and were not treated; 33% (n = 59) were clinically determined to represent true bacteremia and were treated; and 8% (n = 14) were considered of uncertain significance, with patients prescribed treatment regardless. Patient characteristics associated with an isolate being treated on univariate analysis included younger age (P = 0.02), identification to the species level (P = 0.02), higher number of positive blood culture sets (P < 0.0001), lower time to positivity (P < 0.0001), immunosuppression (P = 0.03), and recommendation made by an infectious disease consultant (P = 0.0005). On multivariable analysis, infectious diseases consultation (P = 0.03), higher number of positive blood culture sets (P = 0.0005) and lower time to positivity (P = 0.03) were associated with an isolate being treated. 100, 83, 48 and 34% of GPRs

  1. Positive outcomes influence the rate and time to publication, but not the impact factor of publications of clinical trial results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Suñé

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Publication bias may affect the validity of evidence based medical decisions. The aim of this study is to assess whether research outcomes affect the dissemination of clinical trial findings, in terms of rate, time to publication, and impact factor of journal publications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: All drug-evaluating clinical trials submitted to and approved by a general hospital ethics committee between 1997 and 2004 were prospectively followed to analyze their fate and publication. Published articles were identified by searching Pubmed and other electronic databases. Clinical study final reports submitted to the ethics committee, final reports synopses available online and meeting abstracts were also considered as sources of study results. Study outcomes were classified as positive (when statistical significance favoring experimental drug was achieved, negative (when no statistical significance was achieved or it favored control drug and descriptive (for non-controlled studies. Time to publication was defined as time from study closure to publication. A survival analysis was performed using a Cox regression model to analyze time to publication. Journal impact factors of identified publications were recorded. Publication rate was 48·4% (380/785. Study results were identified for 68·9% of all completed clinical trials (541/785. Publication rate was 84·9% (180/212 for studies with results classified as positive and 68·9% (128/186 for studies with results classified as negative (p<0·001. Median time to publication was 2·09 years (IC95 1·61-2·56 for studies with results classified as positive and 3·21 years (IC95 2·69-3·70 for studies with results classified as negative (hazard ratio 1·99 (IC95 1·55-2·55. No differences were found in publication impact factor between positive (median 6·308, interquartile range: 3·141-28·409 and negative result studies (median 8·266, interquartile range: 4·135-17·157. CONCLUSIONS

  2. Implementation and impact of in-class physical activities in a positive mental health perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars Breum Skov; Holt, Anne-Didde; Smedegaard, Søren

    Introduction School physical activity and other activities with the body in focus hold the potential to benefit student’s positive mental health and psychosocial well-being. In-class activities (ICAs) (e.g. energizers, active breaks, brain breaks) can positively influence social connectedness......, physical self-perception, motivation and emotions. However, if all students are to benefit from the potential qualities of ICA, an inclusive environment is crucial. The purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation and impact of ICA in Danish public schools. Methods ICA is one of three...... tool to promote positive mental health and well-being in schools for all students. For many teachers, ICA is a challenging task, which calls for both competence development, supportive structures, materials and local school leadership....

  3. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI)

  4. Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2008-12-01

    The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.

  6. Whole-body computed tomography in trauma patients: optimization of the patient scanning position significantly shortens examination time while maintaining diagnostic image quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickethier T

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tilman Hickethier,1,* Kamal Mammadov,1,* Bettina Baeßler,1 Thorsten Lichtenstein,1 Jochen Hinkelbein,2 Lucy Smith,3 Patrick Sven Plum,4 Seung-Hun Chon,4 David Maintz,1 De-Hua Chang1 1Department of Radiology, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 3Faculty of Medicine, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John’s, Canada; 4Department of General, Visceral and Cancer Surgery, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The study was conducted to compare examination time and artifact vulnerability of whole-body computed tomographies (wbCTs for trauma patients using conventional or optimized patient positioning. Patients and methods: Examination time was measured in 100 patients scanned with conventional protocol (Group A: arms positioned alongside the body for head and neck imaging and over the head for trunk imaging and 100 patients scanned with optimized protocol (Group B: arms flexed on a chest pillow without repositioning. Additionally, influence of two different scanning protocols on image quality in the most relevant body regions was assessed by two blinded readers. Results: Total wbCT duration was about 35% or 3:46 min shorter in B than in A. Artifacts in aorta (27 vs 6%, liver (40 vs 8% and spleen (27 vs 5% occurred significantly more often in B than in A. No incident of non-diagnostic image quality was reported, and no significant differences for lungs and spine were found. Conclusion: An optimized wbCT positioning protocol for trauma patients allows a significant reduction of examination time while still maintaining diagnostic image quality. Keywords: CT scan, polytrauma, acute care, time requirement, positioning

  7. Creativity as an Attribute of Positive Psychology: The Impact of Positive and Negative Affect on the Creative Personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charyton, Christine; Hutchison, Shannon; Snow, Lindsay; Rahman, Mohammed A.; Elliott, John O.

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology explores how optimism can lead to health, happiness, and creativity. However, questions remain as to how affective states influence creativity. Data on creative personality, optimism, pessimism, positive and negative affect, and current and usual happiness ratings were collected on 161 college students enrolled in an…

  8. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery. Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed. All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment. Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar. PMID:27015214

  9. Negative and positive impact of internet addiction on young adults: Empericial study in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shah Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore and identify the impact of internet addictions of young adults in Malaysia. There are six impacts identified, of which five are negative impacts and one is positive impact.Design/methodology/approach: This study comprised sample of 200 young adults in Malaysia. A cross-sectional research design was used to examine the impact of Internet addiction. Data were gathered based on personal administered questionnaire.Findings and Originality/value: This study results show that five negative impacts of excessive internet usages such as interpersonal problem, behavioural problem, physical problem, psychological problem, and work problem of young adults.The young adults believed that the internet usage can help them to improve their skills for doing their work better. This study also reveals that males have a great impact on working problems, psychological problems, behavioural problems and interpersonal problems than female adults. On the other hand, females are leading with their physical problems by getting Internet addiction.Research limitations/implications: The data for this study are collected by self-administered questionnaire, a method with well-known shortcomings. Secondly, this study done only on young adults from only two universities in Malaysia.Practical implications: An important implication of this research is that the interesting findings give some insight to the Internet users to focus on improving Internet usage habits. Originality/value: The findings are original and unique and are based on the literature from different western researches. The results are based on a sample of young adults in Malaysia. The research findings are useful to academics and heavy Internet users those are hooked with Internet to their everyday life.

  10. Positive media portrayals of obese persons: impact on attitudes and image preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to assess the impact of nonstereotypical, positive media portrayals of obese persons on biased attitudes, as well as propose a change in media practices that could reduce public weight bias and consequent negative health outcomes for those who experience weight stigma. Two online experiments were conducted in which participants viewed either a stigmatizing or a positive photograph of an obese model. In Experiment 1 (N = 146), participants viewed a photograph of either a Caucasian or African American obese woman; in Experiment 2 (N = 145), participants viewed either a Caucasian male or female obese model. Multiple linear regression models were used to analyze outcomes for social distance attitudes toward the obese models depicted in the images, in addition to other negative attitudes and image preferences. Participants who viewed the stigmatizing images endorsed stronger social distance attitudes and more negative attitudes toward obese persons than participants who viewed the positive images, and there was a stronger preference for the positive images than the stigmatizing images. These results were consistent regardless of the race or gender of the obese model pictured. The findings indicate that more positive media portrayals of obese individuals may help reduce weight stigma and its associated negative health outcomes.

  11. Impact of MLC leaf position errors on simple and complex IMRT plans for head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, G; Ludlum, E; Xia, P

    2008-01-01

    The dosimetric impact of random and systematic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf position errors is relatively unknown for head and neck intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) patients. In this report we studied 17 head and neck IMRT patients, including 12 treated with simple plans ( 100 segments). Random errors (-2 to +2 mm) and systematic errors (±0.5 mm and ±1 mm) in MLC leaf positions were introduced into the clinical plans and the resultant dose distributions were analyzed based on defined endpoint doses. The dosimetric effect was insignificant for random MLC leaf position errors up to 2 mm for both simple and complex plans. However, for systematic MLC leaf position errors, we found significant dosimetric differences between the simple and complex IMRT plans. For 1 mm systematic error, the average changes in D 95% were 4% in simple plans versus 8% in complex plans. The average changes in D 0.1cc of the spinal cord and brain stem were 4% in simple plans versus 12% in complex plans. The average changes in parotid glands were 9% in simple plans versus 13% for the complex plans. Overall, simple IMRT plans are less sensitive to leaf position errors than complex IMRT plans

  12. Impact of ART on the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Beckles, Zosia; Benton, Lorna; Gregson, Simon; Zaba, Basia

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the fertility of HIV-positive women is critical to estimating HIV epidemic trends from surveillance data and to planning resource needs and coverage of prevention of mother-to-child transmission services in sub-Saharan Africa. In the light of the considerable scale-up in antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage over the last decade, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of ART on the fertility outcomes of HIV-positive women. We searched Medline, Embase, Popline, PubMed and African Index Medicus. Studies were included if they were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and provided estimates of fertility outcomes (live births or pregnancies) among women on ART relative to a comparison group. Of 2070 unique references, 18 published papers met all eligibility criteria. Comparisons fell into four categories: fertility of HIV-positive women relative to HIV-negative women; fertility of HIV-positive women on ART compared to those not yet on ART; fertility differences by duration on ART; and temporal trends in fertility among HIV-positive women. Evidence indicates that fertility increases after approximately the first year on ART and that while the fertility deficit of HIV-positive women is shrinking, their fertility remains below that of HIV-negative women. These findings, however, were based on limited data mostly during the period 2005-2010 when ART scaled up. Existing data are insufficient to characterise how ART has affected the fertility of HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. Improving evidence about fertility among women on ART is an urgent priority for planning HIV resource needs and understanding HIV epidemic trends. Alternative data sources such as antenatal clinic data, general population cohorts and population-based surveys can be harnessed to understand the issue. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. High Prevalence and Significance of Hepatitis D Virus Infection among Treatment-Naïve HBsAg-Positive Patients in Northern Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, Bui Tien; Ratsch, Boris A.; Toan, Nguyen Linh; Song, Le Huu; Wollboldt, Christian; Bryniok, Agnes; Nguyen, Hung Minh; Luong, Hoang Van; Velavan, Thirumalaisamy P.; Wedemeyer, Heiner; Kremsner, Peter G.; Bock, C.-Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis D virus (HDV) infection is considered to cause more severe hepatitis than hepatitis B virus (HBV) monoinfection. With more than 9.5 million HBV-infected people, Vietnam will face an enormous health burden. The prevalence of HDV in Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patients is speculative. Therefore, we assessed the prevalence of HDV in Vietnamese patients, determined the HDV-genotype distribution and compared the findings with the clinical outcome. Methods 266 sera of well-characterized HBsAg-positive patients in Northern Vietnam were analysed for the presence of HDV using newly developed HDV-specific RT-PCRs. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed for HDV-genotyping. Results The HDV-genome prevalence observed in the Vietnamese HBsAg-positive patients was high with 15.4% while patients with acute hepatitis showed 43.3%. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a predominance of HDV-genotype 1 clustering in an Asian clade while HDV-genotype 2 could be also detected. The serum aminotransferase levels (AST, ALT) as well as total and direct bilirubin were significantly elevated in HDV-positive individuals (p<0.05). HDV loads were mainly low (<300 to 4.108 HDV-copies/ml). Of note, higher HDV loads were mainly found in HBV-genotype mix samples in contrast to single HBV-infections. In HBV/HDV-coinfections, HBV loads were significantly higher in HBV-genotype C in comparison to HBV-genotype A samples (p<0.05). Conclusion HDV prevalence is high in Vietnamese individuals, especially in patients with acute hepatitis B. HDV replication activity showed a HBV-genotype dependency and could be associated with elevated liver parameters. Besides serological assays molecular tests are recommended for diagnosis of HDV. Finally, the high prevalence of HBV and HDV prompts the urgent need for HBV-vaccination coverage. PMID:24205106

  14. Towards evidence-based classification in wheelchair sports: impact of seating position on wheelchair acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanlandewijck, Yves C; Verellen, Joeri; Tweedy, Sean

    2011-07-01

    In most Paralympic wheelchair sports, active trunk range of movement is assessed by observing shoulder girdle excursion during active trunk movements and is a key determinant of an athlete's class. However, to date research evaluating the impact of reduced trunk range of movement on wheelchair sports performance has not been conducted. In the present study, 15 non-disabled male participants performed two 20-s sprints on a wheelchair ergometer in each of three seating positions. Positions were typical of those used to enhance sitting stability in wheelchair sport and each impacted available trunk range of movement differently: condition-90 (seated with thighs horizontal; unrestricted range of movement) condition-45 (seated with thighs in 45°), and condition-0 (seated with hips maximally flexed; minimum range of movement). In condition-90, the trunk only actively contributed to the first push; for the remainder of the sprint, the trunk was held almost isometrically at 48.2° to the horizontal (range 42.1-56.4°). Similar patterns were observed for both condition-45 and condition-0. Compared with condition-90, participants in condition-0 had reduced capacity to accelerate of statistical (P sports performance, including strapping, seating position, and impairments of trunk muscle power and coordination.

  15. The relation between gastro-oesophageal reflux, sleeping-position and sudden infant death and its impact on positional therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenplas, Y.; Belli, D. C.; Dupont, C.; Kneepkens, C. M.; Heymans, H. S.

    1997-01-01

    Many infants do regurgitate. The recommended therapeutic approach starts with postural and dietary measures, followed by antacids and prokinetics. However, the recent findings regarding the increased risk for sudden infant death (SID) in the prone sleeping position challenge the current

  16. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  17. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  18. Independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase level

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    LI Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes (SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 116 previously untreated patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load (HBV DNA≥105 copies/ml chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level (<50 U/L who were hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center Affiliated to Fudan University from June 2013 to August 2015. The definition of SLHCs was inflammation ≥G2 and/or fibrosis≥S2. The t-test or Mann-Whitney U rank sum test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine independent predictive factors for SLHCs. ResultsOf all the 116 patients, 47(40.5% had SLHCs. The multivariate analysis showed that age (OR=2.828, P<0.05, ALT (OR=1.011, P<0.05, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT (OR=1.089, P<0.05 were independent predictors for SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level. The patients aged ≤30 years had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those aged>30 years (21.6% vs 49.4%, χ2=6.42, P=0.015, the patients with ALT ≤30 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with 30 U/L<ALT≤50 U/L (17.6% vs 50.0%, χ2=19.86, P<0.001, and the patients with GGT≤40 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with GGT>40 U/L (28.8% vs 66.7%, χ2=28.63, P<0.001. ConclusionIn patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level, those with an age of>30 years, ALT>30 U/L, and GGT>40 U/L tend to develop SLHCs and need liver biopsy.

  19. Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B; Luthans, Fred; Smith, Ronda M; Palmer, Noel F

    2010-01-01

    The recently recognized core construct of psychological capital or PsyCap (consisting of the positive psychological resources of efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience) has been demonstrated to be related to various employee attitudinal, behavioral, and performance outcomes. However, to date, the impact of this positive core construct over time and on important employee well-being outcomes has not been tested. This study meets this need by analyzing the relationship between a broad cross-section of employees' (N = 280) level of PsyCap and two measures of psychological well-being over time. The results indicated that employees' PsyCap was related to both measures of well-being and, importantly, that PsyCap explained additional variance in these well-being measures over time. The limitations, needed future research, and practical implications conclude the article.

  20. Correlational study of impacted and non-functional lower third molar position with occurrence of pathologies

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    Igor Batista Camargo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower third molar (M3 eruption is unpredictable. The purpose of this study was to correlate radiographic position of M3 on a preexistent film with the current clinical, histopathological, and radiographic findings. Methods A retrospective cohort study was performed. The sample was collected from a database of patients covered by Medical Fund of Brazilian Army. Radiographs were obtained a minimum of 5 years prior to the presurgical visit and after their clinical exam. The primary outcome variables were the teeth positions using Pell and Gregory/Winter classifications on panoramic X-rays. Those variables were analyzed at both the beginning (T0 and end of the study (T1. Clinical assessments and histopathological study of the thirds that were extracted were performed only at T1. Correlation between the teeth positions were related to the clinical, histopathological, and radiographic parameters using statistical analysis tests with significance set at p < 0.05. Results Twenty-six patients with 49 M3 were assessed over 10 months. Mean age was 14.92 years at T0 and 21.87 years at T1. The average time between T0 and T1 was 6.77 years. A significant relationship (p = 0.024 was found between the presences of root resorption on the second molar if M3 presented in an IB horizontal position at T1. There was also a significant correlation (p = 0.039 between dental crowding of the anterior lower teeth with IIIB position at T0 and if the patient finished orthodontic treatment without lingual retainers. Conclusions Lower M3 in position IIIB seen in a teenager and IB seen in an adult is more likely to have negative consequences and should be followed closely.

  1. The impact of North Atlantic wind and cyclone trends on European precipitation and significant wave height in the Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Ricardo M; Valente, Maria A; Trigo, Isabel F; Miranda, Pedro M A; Ramos, Alexandre M; Paredes, Daniel; García-Herrera, Ricardo

    2008-12-01

    An analysis of the frequency of cyclones and surface wind velocity for the Euro-Atlantic sector is performed by means of an objective methodology. Monthly and seasonal trends of cyclones and wind speed magnitude are computed and trends between 1960 and 2000 evaluated. Results reveal a significant frequency decrease (increase) in the western Mediterranean (Greenland and Scandinavia), particularly in December, February, and March. Seasonal and monthly analysis of wind magnitude trends shows similar spatial patterns. We show that these changes in the frequency of low-pressure centers and the associated wind patterns are partially responsible for trends in the significant height of waves. Throughout the extended winter months (October-March), regions with positive (negative) wind magnitude trends, of up to 5 cm/s/year, often correspond to regions of positive (negative) significant wave height trends. The cyclone and wind speed trends computed for January-March are well matched by the corresponding trends in significant wave height, with February being the month with the highest trends (negative south of lat 50 degrees N up to -3 cm/year, and positive up to 5 cm/year just north of Scotland). Trends in European precipitation are assessed using the Climatic Research Unit data set. The results of the assessment emphasize the link with the corresponding tendencies of cyclone frequencies. Finally, it is shown that these changes are associated, to a large extent, with the preferred phases of major large-scale atmospheric circulation modes, particularly with the North Atlantic Oscillation, the eastern Atlantic pattern, and the Scandinavian pattern.

  2. Impact of Audio-Coaching on the Position of Lung Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasbeek, Cornelis J.A.; Spoelstra, Femke; Lagerwaard, Frank J.; Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Respiration-induced organ motion is a major source of positional, or geometric, uncertainty in thoracic radiotherapy. Interventions to mitigate the impact of motion include audio-coached respiration-gated radiotherapy (RGRT). To assess the impact of coaching on average tumor position during gating, we analyzed four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans performed both with and without audio-coaching. Methods and Materials: Our RGRT protocol requires that an audio-coached 4DCT scan is performed when the initial free-breathing 4DCT indicates a potential benefit with gating. We retrospectively analyzed 22 such paired scans in patients with well-circumscribed tumors. Changes in lung volume and position of internal target volumes (ITV) generated in three consecutive respiratory phases at both end-inspiration and end-expiration were analyzed. Results: Audio-coaching increased end-inspiration lung volumes by a mean of 10.2% (range, -13% to +43%) when compared with free breathing (p = 0.001). The mean three-dimensional displacement of the center of ITV was 3.6 mm (SD, 2.5; range, 0.3-9.6mm), mainly caused by displacement in the craniocaudal direction. Displacement of ITV caused by coaching was more than 5 mm in 5 patients, all of whom were in the subgroup of 9 patients showing total tumor motion of 10 mm or more during both coached and uncoached breathing. Comparable ITV displacements were observed at end-expiration phases of the 4DCT. Conclusions: Differences in ITV position exceeding 5 mm between coached and uncoached 4DCT scans were detected in up to 56% of mobile tumors. Both end-inspiration and end-expiration RGRT were susceptible to displacements. This indicates that the method of audio-coaching should remain unchanged throughout the course of treatment

  3. Prognostic significance of urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA expression in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leissner, Philippe; Verjat, Thibault; Bachelot, Thomas; Paye, Malick; Krause, Alexander; Puisieux, Alain; Mougin, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    One of the most thoroughly studied systems in relation to its prognostic relevance in patients with breast cancer, is the plasminogen activation system that comprises of, among others, the urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) and its main inhibitor, the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. The study included a retrospective series of 87 patients with hormone-receptor positive and axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer. All patients received radiotherapy, adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and five years of tamoxifen treatment. The median patient age was 54 and the median follow-up time was 79 months. Distant relapse occurred in 30 patients and 22 patients died from breast cancer during follow-up. We investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level as measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. uPA and PAI-1 gene expression was not found to be correlated with any of the established clinical and pathological factors. Metastasis-free Survival (MFS) and Breast Cancer specific Survival (BCS) were significantly shorter in patients expressing high levels of PAI-1 mRNA (p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001; respectively). In Cox multivariate analysis, the level of PAI-1 mRNA appeared to be the strongest prognostic factor for MFS (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 10.12; p = 0.0002) and for BCS (HR = 13.17; p = 0.0003). Furthermore, uPA gene expression was not significantly associated neither with MFS (p = 0.41) nor with BCS (p = 0.19). In a Cox-multivariate regression analysis, uPA expression did not demonstrate significant independent prognostic value. These findings indicate that high PAI-1 mRNA expression represents a strong and independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the development of metastases and for breast cancer specific survival in a population of hormone receptor- and lymph node-positive breast cancer

  4. Prognostic significance of urokinase plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 mRNA expression in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Alexander

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most thoroughly studied systems in relation to its prognostic relevance in patients with breast cancer, is the plasminogen activation system that comprises of, among others, the urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA and its main inhibitor, the Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. In this study, we investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level in lymph node- and hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Methods The study included a retrospective series of 87 patients with hormone-receptor positive and axillary lymph node-positive breast cancer. All patients received radiotherapy, adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy and five years of tamoxifen treatment. The median patient age was 54 and the median follow-up time was 79 months. Distant relapse occurred in 30 patients and 22 patients died from breast cancer during follow-up. We investigated the prognostic value of uPA and PAI-1 at the mRNA level as measured by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Results uPA and PAI-1 gene expression was not found to be correlated with any of the established clinical and pathological factors. Metastasis-free Survival (MFS and Breast Cancer specific Survival (BCS were significantly shorter in patients expressing high levels of PAI-1 mRNA (p PAI-1 mRNA appeared to be the strongest prognostic factor for MFS (Hazard Ratio (HR = 10.12; p = 0.0002 and for BCS (HR = 13.17; p = 0.0003. Furthermore, uPA gene expression was not significantly associated neither with MFS (p = 0.41 nor with BCS (p = 0.19. In a Cox-multivariate regression analysis, uPA expression did not demonstrate significant independent prognostic value. Conclusion These findings indicate that high PAI-1 mRNA expression represents a strong and independent unfavorable prognostic factor for the development of metastases and for breast cancer specific survival in a population of hormone receptor- and lymph node-positive breast cancer patients.

  5. Relatively slow stochastic gene-state switching in the presence of positive feedback significantly broadens the region of bimodality through stabilizing the uninduced phenotypic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Wu, Pingping; Qian, Hong; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    2018-03-01

    Within an isogenic population, even in the same extracellular environment, individual cells can exhibit various phenotypic states. The exact role of stochastic gene-state switching regulating the transition among these phenotypic states in a single cell is not fully understood, especially in the presence of positive feedback. Recent high-precision single-cell measurements showed that, at least in bacteria, switching in gene states is slow relative to the typical rates of active transcription and translation. Hence using the lac operon as an archetype, in such a region of operon-state switching, we present a fluctuating-rate model for this classical gene regulation module, incorporating the more realistic operon-state switching mechanism that was recently elucidated. We found that the positive feedback mechanism induces bistability (referred to as deterministic bistability), and that the parameter range for its occurrence is significantly broadened by stochastic operon-state switching. We further show that in the absence of positive feedback, operon-state switching must be extremely slow to trigger bistability by itself. However, in the presence of positive feedback, which stabilizes the induced state, the relatively slow operon-state switching kinetics within the physiological region are sufficient to stabilize the uninduced state, together generating a broadened parameter region of bistability (referred to as stochastic bistability). We illustrate the opposite phenotype-transition rate dependence upon the operon-state switching rates in the two types of bistability, with the aid of a recently proposed rate formula for fluctuating-rate models. The rate formula also predicts a maximal transition rate in the intermediate region of operon-state switching, which is validated by numerical simulations in our model. Overall, our findings suggest a biological function of transcriptional "variations" among genetically identical cells, for the emergence of bistability and

  6. Significance of FDG-PET in Identification of Diseases of the Appendix – Based on Experience of Two Cases Falsely Positive for FDG Accumulation

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    Shimpei Ogawa

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A discussion of the significance of F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET in the identification of diseases of the appendix is presented based on two cases falsely positive for FDG accumulation. Both cases were palpable for a tumor in the lower right abdominal region and a prominently enlarged appendix was depicted by CT. Although the patients underwent ileocecal resection based on a strong suspicion of appendiceal cancer rather than appendicitis since abnormal accumulation exhibiting maximum standard uptake values (SUVs of 7.27 and 17.11, respectively, was observed at the same site in FDG-PET examination and since there no malignant findings observed histologically, the patients were diagnosed with appendicitis. Although FDG specifically accumulates not only in malignant tumors, but also in diseases such as acute or chronic inflammation, abscesses and lymphadenitis, and identification based on SUVs has been reported to be used as a method of identification, the two cases reported here were both false-positive cases exhibiting high maximum SUVs. At the present time, although the significance of FDG-PET in the identification of diseases of the appendix is somewhat low and there are limitations on its application, various research is currently being conducted with the aim of improving diagnostic accuracy, and it is hoped that additional studies will be conducted in the future.

  7. Prognostic significance of interleukin-8 and CD163-positive cell-infiltration in tumor tissues in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohei Fujita

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: We investigated whether serum interleukin (IL-8 reflects the tumor microenvironment and has prognostic value in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Fifty OSCC patients who received radical resection of their tumor(s were enrolled. Preoperative sera were measured for IL-8 by ELISA. Expression of IL-8 and the infiltration of immune cells in tumor tissues were analyzed by an immunohistochemical staining of surgical specimens. RESULTS: We found that disease-free survival (DFS was significantly longer in the Stage I/II OSCC patients with low serum IL-8 levels compared to those with high levels (p = 0.001. The tumor expression of IL-8, i.e., IL-8(T and the density of CD163-positive cells in the tumor invasive front, i.e., CD163(IF were correlated with the serum IL-8 level (p = 0.033 and p = 0.038, respectively, and they were associated with poor clinical outcome (p = 0.007 and p = 0.002, respectively, in DFS in all patients. A multivariate analysis revealed that N status, IL-8(T and CD163(IF significantly affected the DFS of the patients. Further analysis suggested that combination of N status with serum IL-8, IL-8(T or CD163(IF may be a new criterion for discriminating between OSCC patients at high and low risk for tumor relapse. Interestingly, the in vitro experiments demonstrated that IL-8 enhanced generation of CD163-positive M2 macrophages from peripheral blood monocytes, and that the cells produced IL-10. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that IL-8 may be involved in poor clinical outcomes via generation of CD163-positive M2 macrophages, and that these factors in addition to N status may have prognostic value in patients with resectable OSCSS.

  8. Impact of educational strategies in positioning Samarium-153 EDTMP as a treatment for metastatic bone pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seminario, C.; Morales, R.; Castro, M.; Cano, R.A.; Mendoza, G.

    2005-01-01

    , which has finished in December 2004. Three television spots were delivered to public: 'Hello, Doctor', which has a morning audience and in two interviews in news programs, with high rating performance. Five interviews were given in radio programs, one of them was for a feminine audience, three for general public and the other two with national impact. In every program a web page, an e-mail and a telephone number were given for consultation. In Nuclear Medicine Centers in Lima telephone calls have been received since the beginning of the campaign every day, up to date. In a year, a monthly conference was delivered to physicians. Samarium EDTMP treatment increased substantially after the campaign. The more significant means in mass media for changing management were patient education, continuous meetings with specialists and one of the television spots used ('Hello, doctor'), which continues to be delivered in the closed circuit TV network of the social security system. We conclude that repetitive educational strategies have a positive impact in delivering radiopharmaceuticals for bone pain palliation to patients with bone metastases

  9. The impact of E-Marketing in the positioning of Kosovo Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Shpresa Mehmeti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The following thesis will present the results of a study on the impact of electronic marketing in bank positioning in Kosovo. As a case study we have selected ProCredit Bank and Raiffeisen Bank which are operating in Kosovo for several years now. Development of information technology has brought changes in every day work offering various opportunities to the clients and its activities in particular to financial institutions In this study we have surveyed customers of the banks that operate in Kosovo. For data collection an electronic questionnaire has been used, which was sent to the clients of both banks which are subject of study. The purpose of this paper is to reveal how these banks apply electronic systems for the provision of services and how this service has impact on their position in the banking market in Kosovo. Findings from this study have enabled us to understand that the banking sector still suffers deficiencies regarding Internet usage by customers to perform banking transactions.

  10. Attachment style impacts behavior and early oculomotor response to positive, but not negative, pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Catarina; Chaminade, Thierry; David, Da Fonseca; Santos, Andreia; Esteves, Francisco; Soares, Isabel; Deruelle, Christine

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated whether oculomotor behavior is influenced by attachment styles. The Relationship Scales Questionnaire was used to assess attachment styles of forty-eight voluntary university students and to classify them into attachment groups (secure, preoccupied, fearful, and dismissing). Eye-tracking was recorded while participants engaged in a 3-seconds free visual exploration of stimuli presenting either a positive or a negative picture together with a neutral picture, all depicting social interactions. The task consisted in identifying whether the two pictures depicted the same emotion. Results showed that the processing of negative pictures was impermeable to attachment style, while the processing of positive pictures was significantly influenced by individual differences in insecure attachment. The groups highly avoidant regarding to attachment (dismissing and fearful) showed reduced accuracy, suggesting a higher threshold for recognizing positive emotions compared to the secure group. The groups with higher attachment anxiety (preoccupied and fearful) showed differences in automatic capture of attention, in particular an increased delay preceding the first fixation to a picture of positive emotional valence. Despite lenient statistical thresholds induced by the limited sample size of some groups (p < 0.05 uncorrected for multiple comparisons), the current findings suggest that the processing of positive emotions is affected by attachment styles. These results are discussed within a broader evolutionary framework. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Street connectivity and obesity in Glasgow, Scotland: impact of age, sex and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Kylie; Lamb, Karen; Travaglini, Noemi; Ellaway, Anne

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated associations of street connectivity with body mass index (BMI), and whether these associations varied by sex, age and socioeconomic position, amongst adults in Glasgow, Scotland. Data on socio-demographic variables, height and weight were collected from 1062 participants in the Greater Glasgow Health and Well-being Study, and linked with neighbourhood-level census and geo-referenced data on area level deprivation and street connectivity. Results of multilevel models showed that, after adjustment for individual level covariates, street connectivity was not significantly associated with either BMI or BMI category; nor were there any significant interactions between age, sex or socioeconomic position and street connectivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [A mental health awareness anti-stigma program including user-trainers has a significant impact on knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of job centre professionals in Paris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouet, E; Moineville, M; Favriel, S; Leriche, P; Greacen, T

    2014-04-01

    Developing programs and actions to fight stigma and discrimination against people living with mental disorders is a priority both internationally and in France. Involving mental health service users in these anti-stigma programs has proved to be a key element for effective programs. The present study evaluates the impact of user-trainers in an anti-stigma campaign with job counselors on their knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance with regard to mental illness and the mentally ill. Eighty-nine professionals participated in eight mental health awareness days from December 2008 to June 2009. Each training day was built around two pedagogical units: firstly, a psychiatrist providing a theoretical overview of mental illness and care and secondly, user-trainers describing their point of view on mental illness and exchanging with participants. A questionnaire administered at the beginning and at the end of the mental health awareness day assessed the impact of the day on participants' knowledge, beliefs, and desire for social distance. Answers to open questions were evaluated using thematic qualitative analysis. The intervention had statistically significant positive effects on all three training objectives: knowledge, beliefs and desire for social distance. Analysis of qualitative data confirmed participants' need for information and training with regard to providing support to clients with mental health problems; participants frequently attributed their improved self-confidence at the end of the day with regard to providing job coaching for this population group to the presence of user-trainers. A mental health awareness day using mental health service users and psychiatrists as trainers had significant positive effects in terms of reducing stigma with regard to people with mental illness. Further research is needed to understand whether the impact of such awareness approaches can be maintained in everyday professional practice over time. Copyright © 2013

  13. Use of significance thresholds to integrate cumulative effects into project-level socio-economic impact assessment in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, Chris; Zeeg, Taylor; Angus, David; Usborne, Anna; Mutrie, Erin

    2017-01-01

    A longstanding critique of project-level environmental assessment is that it is weak at addressing cumulative effects, and because of this many argue that cumulative effects are best managed at a regional scale. However, in the absence of regional management it is important that project-level assessment supports cumulative effects management as best as possible. In this paper we present case study socio-economic impact assessments of liquefied natural gas development on Aboriginal groups on Canada's west coast. The case studies use an analytical structure modified from typical Canadian practice including unambiguous and non-arbitrary significance thresholds grounded in stakeholder values to focus baselines, impact assessment, and significance determination on cumulative effects. This approach is found to be more capable of informing decision-makers on cumulative effects as well as more rigorous and transparent than typical assessments. Much of this approach is not conceptually new, but at least in western Canada such an approach is not typically used or meaningfully implemented by practitioners. As such, the case studies serve to illustrate how practice can bolster project-level assessment. - Highlights: •Typical project assessment is weak with respect to cumulative effects. •Modified analysis structure and thresholds enable a focus on cumulative effects. •Clear, value-based thresholds make analysis rigorous, transparent, and democratic.

  14. Adopting the international financial reporting standards: a positive impact on 2004 income and consolidated equity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallet, O.

    2005-03-01

    This document provides preliminary information on the quantitative impact of transition to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) on AREVA 2004 financial position, in accordance with AMF recommendations regarding financial communications during the transition period.The basis for preparing 2004 information on transition to the IFRS comes from: the International Accounting Standards (IAS)/IFRS, as approved by the European Union. The impact of IAS 32/39 and IFRS 4 will not be recognized in shareholders equity until January 1, 2005; AREVA anticipation of the resolution of technical issues and ongoing projects under discussion by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) and the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC). Uncertainty factors on practical methods for applying certain standards and ongoing interpretations by IFRIC and regulatory organizations could impact the exactness of restatements identified at this stage. For all of these reasons, it is conceivable that the opening balance sheet at January 1, 2004, as presented in this document, will not be the balance sheet actually used to establish the consolidated financial statements for 2005. (author)

  15. Self-reported interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are differentially associated with the process and outcome of depression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenstein-Yamanaka, David; Zimmermann, Johannes; Krieger, Tobias; Dörig, Nadja; Grosse Holtforth, Martin

    2017-07-01

    Interpersonal factors play a major role in causing and maintaining depression. This study sought to investigate how patients' self-perceived interpersonal problems and impact messages as perceived by significant others are interrelated, change over therapy, and differentially predict process and outcome in psychotherapy of depression. For the present study, we used data from 144 outpatients suffering from major depression that were treated within a psychotherapy study. Interpersonal variables were assessed pre- and posttherapy with the self-report Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-Circumplex Scale (IIP-32; Thomas, Brähler, & Strauss, 2011) and with the informant-based Impact Message Inventory (Caspar, Berger, Fingerle, & Werner, 2016). Patients' levels on the dimensions of Agency and Communion were calculated from both measures; their levels on Interpersonal Distress were measured with the IIP. Depressive and general symptomatology was assessed at pre-, post-, and at 3-month follow-up; patient-reported process measures were assessed during therapy. The Agency scores of IIP and IMI correlated moderately, but the Communion scores did not. IIP Communion was positively associated with the quality of the early therapeutic alliance and with the average level of cognitive-emotional processing during therapy. Whereas IIP Communion and IMI Agency increased over therapy, IIP Distress decreased. A pre-post-decrease in IIP Distress was positively associated with pre-postsymptomatic change over and above the other interpersonal variables, but pre-post-increase in IMI Agency was positively associated with symptomatic improvement from post- to 3-month follow-up. These findings suggest that significant others seem to provide important additional information about the patients' interpersonal style. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Evaluating the Impact of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences Using the Most Significant Change Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Susan C; Nyaude, Shemiah; Challender, Amelia; Aagaard, Eva; Velez, Christine; Hakim, James

    2017-09-01

    In medical education, evaluating outcomes from programs intended to transform attitudes or influence career trajectories using conventional methods of monitoring is often difficult. To address this problem, the authors adapted the most significant change (MSC) technique to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the impact of the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI) program at the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences. In 2014-2015, the authors applied the MSC to systematically examine the personal significance and level of positive transformation that individuals attributed to their MEPI participation. Interviews were conducted with 28 participants nominated by program leaders. The authors coded results inductively for prevalent themes in participants' stories and prepared profiles with representative quotes to place the stories in context. Stakeholders selected 9 themes and 18 stories to illustrate the most significant changes. Six themes (or outcomes) were expected, as they aligned with MEPI goals-becoming a better teacher, becoming a better clinician, increased interest in teaching, increased interest in research, new career pathways (including commitment to practice in Zimbabwe), and improved research skills. Three themes were unexpected-increased confidence, expanded interprofessional networks, and improved interpersonal interactions. The authors found the MSC to be a useful and systematic evaluation approach for large, complex, and transformative initiatives like MEPI. The MSC seemed to encourage participant reflection, support values inquiry by program leaders, and provide insights into the personal and cultural impacts of MEPI. Additional trial applications of the MSC technique in academic medicine are warranted.

  17. Patient-specific positioning guides for total knee arthroplasty: no significant difference between final component alignment and pre-operative digital plan except for tibial rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Bert; Schotanus, Martijn G M; Kerens, Bart; Hulsmans, Frans-Jan; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Kort, Nanne P

    2017-09-01

    To assess whether there is a significant difference between the alignment of the individual femoral and tibial components (in the frontal, sagittal and horizontal planes) as calculated pre-operatively (digital plan) and the actually achieved alignment in vivo obtained with the use of patient-specific positioning guides (PSPGs) for TKA. It was hypothesised that there would be no difference between post-op implant position and pre-op digital plan. Twenty-six patients were included in this non-inferiority trial. Software permitted matching of the pre-operative MRI scan (and therefore calculated prosthesis position) to a pre-operative CT scan and then to a post-operative full-leg CT scan to determine deviations from pre-op planning in all three anatomical planes. For the femoral component, mean absolute deviations from planning were 1.8° (SD 1.3), 2.5° (SD 1.6) and 1.6° (SD 1.4) in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, respectively. For the tibial component, mean absolute deviations from planning were 1.7° (SD 1.2), 1.7° (SD 1.5) and 3.2° (SD 3.6) in the frontal, sagittal and transverse planes, respectively. Absolute mean deviation from planned mechanical axis was 1.9°. The a priori specified null hypothesis for equivalence testing: the difference from planning is >3 or plan in all planes, except for the tibial rotation in the transverse plane. Possible explanations for outliers are discussed and highlight the importance for adequate training surgeons before they start using PSPG in their day-by-day practise. Prospective cohort study, Level II.

  18. The Clinical Impact of Rapid, Direct MALDI-ToF Identification of Bacteria from Positive Blood Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kathryn; Evans, Jason; Tanner, Hannah; Gossain, Savita; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Faster identification of bacterial isolates from blood cultures can enable earlier clinical intervention for patients with sepsis. We evaluated the clinical impact of direct identification of micro-organisms from positive blood cultures using MALDI-ToF. Positive blood cultures with organisms seen on Gram stain were included over a four week period. For each patient case, comparison was made between the clinical advice given on day one with only a Gram stain result, and the follow up advice given on day two with the benefit of organism identification. Culture results were then compared with direct MALDI-ToF identification. For 73 of 115 cases (63.5%), direct organism identification was obtained by MALDI-ToF. Of those 73, 70 (95.5%) had a result concordant with that of the plate culture. In 28 of the 115 cases (24.3%) direct MALDI-ToF identification on day one would have had a clear clinical benefit. In 11 cases it would have helped to identify the potential source of bacteraemia. In 11 cases it would have indicated a different antibiotic regimen on day one, with five patients receiving appropriate antibiotics 24 hours earlier. For 14 cases the blood culture isolate could have been designated as unlikely to be clinically significant. We have demonstrated that organism identification on day one of blood culture positivity can have a direct clinical impact. Faster identification using MALDI-ToF assists the clinician in assessing the significance of a blood culture isolate on day one. It can allow earlier appropriate choice of antimicrobial agent, even in the absence of susceptibility testing, and help narrow down the potential source of infection providing a focus for further investigation in a more timely way than conventional techniques alone.

  19. The Clinical Impact of Rapid, Direct MALDI-ToF Identification of Bacteria from Positive Blood Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn French

    Full Text Available Faster identification of bacterial isolates from blood cultures can enable earlier clinical intervention for patients with sepsis. We evaluated the clinical impact of direct identification of micro-organisms from positive blood cultures using MALDI-ToF.Positive blood cultures with organisms seen on Gram stain were included over a four week period. For each patient case, comparison was made between the clinical advice given on day one with only a Gram stain result, and the follow up advice given on day two with the benefit of organism identification. Culture results were then compared with direct MALDI-ToF identification.For 73 of 115 cases (63.5%, direct organism identification was obtained by MALDI-ToF. Of those 73, 70 (95.5% had a result concordant with that of the plate culture. In 28 of the 115 cases (24.3% direct MALDI-ToF identification on day one would have had a clear clinical benefit. In 11 cases it would have helped to identify the potential source of bacteraemia. In 11 cases it would have indicated a different antibiotic regimen on day one, with five patients receiving appropriate antibiotics 24 hours earlier. For 14 cases the blood culture isolate could have been designated as unlikely to be clinically significant.We have demonstrated that organism identification on day one of blood culture positivity can have a direct clinical impact. Faster identification using MALDI-ToF assists the clinician in assessing the significance of a blood culture isolate on day one. It can allow earlier appropriate choice of antimicrobial agent, even in the absence of susceptibility testing, and help narrow down the potential source of infection providing a focus for further investigation in a more timely way than conventional techniques alone.

  20. Th-Based Endohedral Metallofullerenes: Anomalous Metal Position and Significant Metal-Cage Covalent Interactions with the Involvement of Th 5f Orbitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Yang, Le; Liu, Chang; Hou, Qinghua; Jin, Peng; Lu, Xing

    2018-05-29

    Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) containing actinides are rather intriguing due to potential 5f-orbital participation in the metal-metal or metal-cage bonding. In this work, density functional theory calculations first characterized the structure of recently synthesized ThC 74 as Th@ D 3 h (14246)-C 74 . We found that the thorium atom adopts an unusual off-axis position inside cage due to small metal ion size and the requirement of large coordination number, which phenomenon was further extended to other Th-based EMFs. Significantly, besides the strong metal-cage electrostatic attractions, topological and orbital analysis revealed that all the investigated Th-based EMFs exhibit obvious covalent interactions between metal and cage with substantial contribution from the Th 5f orbitals. The encapsulation by fullerenes is thus proposed as a practical pathway toward the f-orbital covalency for thorium. Interestingly, the anomalous internal position of Th led to a novel three-dimensional metal trajectory at elevated temperatures in the D 3 h -C 74 cavity, as elucidated by the static computations and molecular dynamic simulations.

  1. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in ARDS patients: the impact of prone positioning. A secondary analysis of the PROSEVA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayzac, L; Girard, R; Baboi, L; Beuret, P; Rabilloud, M; Richard, J C; Guérin, C

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the impact of prone positioning on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and the role of VAP in mortality in a recent multicenter trial performed on patients with severe ARDS. An ancillary study of a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial on early prone positioning in patients with severe ARDS. In suspected cases of VAP the diagnosis was based on positive quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or tracheal aspirate at the 10(4) and 10(7) CFU/ml thresholds, respectively. The VAP cases were then subject to central, independent adjudication. The cumulative probabilities of VAP were estimated in each position group using the Aalen-Johansen estimator and compared using Gray's test. A univariate and a multivariate Cox model was performed to assess the impact of VAP, used as a time-dependent covariate for mortality hazard during the ICU stay. In the supine and prone position groups, the incidence rate for VAP was 1.18 (0.86-1.60) and 1.54 (1.15-2.02) per 100 days of invasive mechanical ventilation (p = 0.10), respectively. The cumulative probability of VAP at 90 days was estimated at 46.5 % (27-66) in the prone group and at 33.5 % (23-44) in the supine group. The difference between the two cumulative probability curves was not statistically significant (p = 0.11). In the univariate Cox model, VAP was associated with an increase in the mortality rate during the ICU stay [HR 1.65 (1.05-2.61), p = 0.03]. HR increased to 2.2 (1.39-3.52) (p position group, age, SOFA score, McCabe score, and immunodeficiency. In severe ARDS patients prone positioning did not reduce the incidence of VAP and VAP was associated with higher mortality.

  2. The Sweet and the Bitter: Intertwined Positive and Negative Social Impacts of a Biodiversity Offset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Bidaud

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Major developments, such as mines, will often have unavoidable environmental impacts. In such cases, investors, governments, or even a company's own standards increasingly require implementation of biodiversity offsets (investment in conservation with a measurable outcome with the aim of achieving 'no net loss' or even a 'net gain' of biodiversity. Where conservation is achieved by changing the behaviour of people directly using natural resources, the offset might be expected to have social impacts but such impacts have received very little attention. Using the case study of Ambatovy, a major nickel mine in the eastern rainforests of Madagascar and a company at the vanguard of developing biodiversity offsets, we explore local perceptions of the magnitude and distribution of impacts of the biodiversity offset project on local wellbeing. We used both qualitative (key informant interviews and focus group discussions and quantitative (household survey methods. We found that the biodiversity offsets, which comprise both conservation restrictions and development activities, influenced wellbeing in a mixture of positive and negative ways. However, overall, respondents felt that they had suffered a net cost from the biodiversity offset. It is a matter of concern that benefits from development activities do not compensate for the costs of the conservation restrictions, that those who bear the costs are not the same people as those who benefit, and that there is a mismatch in timing between the immediate restrictions and the associated development activities which take some time to deliver benefits. These issues matter both from the perspective of environmental justice, and for the long-term sustainability of the biodiversity benefits the offset is supposed to deliver.

  3. SU-E-T-459: Impact of Source Position and Traveling Time On HDR Skin Surface Applicator Dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J; Barker, C; Zaider, M; Cohen, G

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Observed dosimetric discrepancy between measured and treatment planning system (TPS) predicted values, during applicator commissioning, were traced to source position uncertainty in the applicator. We quantify the dosimetric impact of this geometric uncertainty, and of the source traveling time inside the applicator, and propose corrections for clinical use. Methods: We measured the dose profiles from the Varian Leipzig-style (horizontal) HDR skin applicator, using EBT3 film, photon diode, and optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSLD) and three different GammaMed HDR afterloders. The dose profiles and depth dose of each aperture were measured at several depths (up to about 10 mm, depending on the dosimeter). The measured dose profiles were compared with Acuros calculated profiles in BrachyVision TPS. For the impact of the source position, EBT3 film measurements were performed with applicator, facing-down and facing-up orientations. The dose with and without source traveling was measured with diode detector using HDR timer and electrometer timer, respectively. Results: Depth doses measured using the three dosimeters were in good agreement, but were consistently higher than the Acuros dose calculations. Measurements with the applicator facing-up were significantly lower than those in the facing-down position with maximum difference of about 18% at the surface, due to source sag inside the applicator. Based on the inverse-square law, the effective source sag was evaluated to be about 0.5 mm from the planned position. The additional dose from the source traveling was about 2.8% for 30 seconds with 10 Ci source, decreasing with increased dwelling time and decreased source activity. Conclusion: Due to the short source-to-surface distance of the applicator, the small source sag inside the applicator has significant dosimetric impact, which should be considered before the clinical use of the applicator. Investigation of the effect for other applicators

  4. Musical training and empathy positively impact adults’ sensitivity to infant distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Parsons

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Crying is the most powerful auditory signal of infant need. Adults’ ability to perceive and respond to crying is important for infant survival and in the provision of care. This study investigated a number of listener variables that might impact on adults’ perception of infant cry distress, namely parental status, musical training and empathy. Sensitivity to infant distress was tested using a previously validated task, which experimentally manipulated distress by varying the pitch of infant cries. Parents with musical training showed a significant advantage on this task when compared with parents without. The extent of the advantage was correlated with the amount of self-reported musical training. For non-parents, individual differences in empathy were associated with task performance, with higher empathy scores corresponding to greater sensitivity to infant distress. We suggest that sensitivity to infant distress can be impacted by a number of listener variables, and may be amenable to training.

  5. Reduction of in utero lead exposures in South African populations: Positive impact of unleaded petrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina B Röllin

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to lead (Pb has been shown to have negative and irreversible health impacts on foetal and early childhood development, affecting morbidity and mortality in adulthood. This study aimed to assess in utero Pb exposure, examine birth outcomes, and identify confounding factors in the large cohort of South African population, following the legislated removal of Pb from petrol.Lead was measured in the maternal blood, urine and cord blood using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The statistical analyses included Spearman's correlation, Wilcoxon rank sum (Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis rank tests and multivariate linear regression.Overall, the geometric mean (GM of Pb in maternal blood (PbB was 1.32 μg/dL (n = 640; 95% CI, 1.24-1.40. In the subset cohort, the GM of paired maternal PbB and cord blood (PbC was 1.73 μg/dL (n = 350; 95% CI, 1.60-1.86 and 1.26 μg/dL (n = 317; 95% CI, 1.18-1.35, respectively with a positive correlation between the log PbB and the log PbC (rho = 0.65, p = <0.001. Birth outcomes showed geographical differences in the gestational age (p<0.001, birth length (p = 0.028 and head circumference (p<0.001, Apgar score at 5 min (p<0.001 and parity (p<0.002. In female neonates, a positive association was found between PbC and head circumference (rho = 0.243; p<0.016. The maternal PbB levels were positively correlated with race, educational status, water sources, cooking fuels and use of pesticides at home.This study has demonstrated not only the positive impact that the introduction of unleaded petrol and lead-free paint has had on in utero exposure to Pb in South Africa, but has also contributed new data on the topic, in a region where such data and scientific investigations in this field are lacking. Future research should evaluate if similar effects can be detected in young children and the adult population.

  6. Evaluating dosage effects for the positive action program: How implementation impacts internalizing symptoms, aggression, school hassles, and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokowski, Paul R; Guo, Shenyang; Wu, Qi; Evans, Caroline B R; Cotter, Katie L; Bacallao, Martica

    2016-01-01

    Positive Action (PA) is a school-based intervention for elementary-, middle-, and high-school students that aims to decrease problem behaviors (e.g., violence, substance use) and increase positive behaviors (e.g., academic achievement, school engagement). PA has a long history of documented success achieving these aims, making it an Evidence Based Practice (EBP). Intervention research on EBP's has established the importance of implementation fidelity, especially with regard to program dosage; failure to properly implement an EBP can have negative consequences on targeted outcomes, especially if participants are exposed to a low dosage of the program (e.g., fewer lessons than specified). Much of the current research on PA has neglected to examine how program dosage impacts PA's effect on targeted outcomes. Using propensity score models, multiple imputation, and a 2-level hierarchical linear model, the current study fills this gap and examines how different dosages of PA as measured by years participating in PA and number of PA lessons, impacts adolescent internalizing symptoms, aggression, perceptions of school hassles, and self-esteem over a 3-year period. The current sample included middle school students in grades 6, 7, and 8 (N = 5,894). The findings indicate that students who received 3 years of the PA intervention and a high number of PA lessons had a significantly higher self-esteem score than those who received 0 years of PA or zero lessons. Participants who received 1 year of PA also reported significantly lower school hassle scores than those who received 0 years. Dosage had no statistically significant effects on aggression or internalizing score. Implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. From ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015: Significant changes and their impacts to aspiring organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Y.; Wibisono, E.; Wahyudi, R. D.; Lio, Y.

    2017-11-01

    ISO 9001:2015 is the latest version of ISO Quality Management System standard that has been updated recently from ISO 9001:2008. It is necessary for all organizations that have implemented and been certified with ISO 9001:2008 to prepare the transition and upgrade their Quality Management System because the certification will expire by September 2018. This paper attempts to provide knowledge on the significant changes from ISO 9001:2008 to ISO 9001:2015, what new requirements are added, and how they would impact the organizations. An exploratory and applied research was chosen as the research approach and aimed to explore what transition designs are needed to anticipate the changes as well as their impacts. The research applied a methodology of Plan-Do-Check-Action (PDCA) cycle into four organizations and their results were compared and discussed to explain the transition designs. Some qualitative methods such as observation and interview were used to collect the data. By addressing the new requirements, three transition designs that should be prepared are: (i) identifying needs from interested parties, (ii) analyzing internal and external factors of the organizations to formulate relevant strategies and quality objectives, and (iii) registering risks associated to business processes as well as organizational strategies.

  8. Position paper on the impact of including methane number in natural gas regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    GIIGNL has developed a position paper to describe methane number and the possible impact on the LNG market of a future regulation/specification for this parameter which is linked to natural gas quality. Currently, there are several standards describing calculation methods of natural gas methane number, but there are doubts about their reliability and the results differ from each other. No official regulation which states a minimum value for methane number of natural gas has been identified. A methane number of 80, as recommended by some organisations in Europe, would endanger the LNG supply to the market, limiting acceptable LNG sources, or would require expensive gas treatment. In the long term, if there is a market for high methane number natural gas, this may be an opportunity for LNG terminals able to adjust or manage supplies to the desired methane number

  9. Non-parametric adaptive importance sampling for the probability estimation of a launcher impact position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morio, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    Importance sampling (IS) is a useful simulation technique to estimate critical probability with a better accuracy than Monte Carlo methods. It consists in generating random weighted samples from an auxiliary distribution rather than the distribution of interest. The crucial part of this algorithm is the choice of an efficient auxiliary PDF that has to be able to simulate more rare random events. The optimisation of this auxiliary distribution is often in practice very difficult. In this article, we propose to approach the IS optimal auxiliary density with non-parametric adaptive importance sampling (NAIS). We apply this technique for the probability estimation of spatial launcher impact position since it has currently become a more and more important issue in the field of aeronautics.

  10. The positive impact of structured surfing courses on the wellbeing of vulnerable young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Cath; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Taylor, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Involvement in positive leisure activities is a key way for young people to develop resilience and social and emotional skills. This paper outlines the evaluation of a six-week surfing intervention, the Wave Project, which aimed to boost wellbeing and confidence among 84 young people aged eight to 18, all of whom faced mental health issues or social exclusion. The intervention resulted in a significant and sustained increase in wellbeing. One year later, 70% of clients regularly attend a surf club and many have become trained as session volunteers. Parents and referrers noticed an increase in positive attitude and better communication, as well as improved self-management and behaviour at both home and school It is concluded that the Wave Project provides a demonstrable and cost-effective way to deliver mental health care, mentoring and social integration of young people. Further service evaluation of accessibility and long-term outcomes is also recommended.

  11. Interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in persons aged 55 and older with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Carl I; Solanki, Dishal; Sodhi, Dimple

    2013-01-01

    Although interpersonal interactions are thought to affect psychopathology in schizophrenia, there is a paucity of data about how older adults with schizophrenia manage interpersonal conflicts. This paper examines interpersonal conflict strategies and their impact on positive symptom remission in older adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. The schizophrenia group consisted of 198 persons aged 55 years and over living in the community who developed schizophrenia before age 45. A community comparison group (n = 113) was recruited using randomly selected block-groups. Straus' Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) was used to assess the ways that respondents handled interpersonal conflicts. Seven conflict management subscales were created based on a principal component analysis with equamax rotation of items from the CTS. The order of the frequency of the tactics that was used was similar for both the schizophrenia and community groups. Calm and Pray tactics were the most commonly used, and the Violent and Aggressive tactics were rarely utilized. In two separate logistic regression analysis, after controlling for confounding variables, positive symptom remission was found to be associated significantly with both the Calm and Pray subscales. The findings suggest that older persons with schizophrenia approximate normal distribution patterns of conflict management strategies and the most commonly used strategies are associated with positive symptom remission.

  12. Impact of antibiotic administration on blood culture positivity at the beginning of sepsis: a prospective clinical cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, Christian S; Fuchs, Christian; Gründling, Matthias; Vollmer, Marcus; Bast, Juliane; Bohnert, Jürgen A; Zimmermann, Kathrin; Hahnenkamp, Klaus; Rehberg, Sebastian; Kuhn, Sven-Olaf

    2018-06-04

    Sepsis guidelines recommend obtaining blood cultures before starting anti-infective therapy in patients with sepsis. However, little is known how antibiotic treatment prior to sampling affects bacterial growth. The aim of this study was to compare the results of blood cultures drawn prior to and under antibiotic therapy. Prospective clinical cohort study of septic patients. Adult ICU patients with 2 or 3 blood culture (BC) sets at the beginning of sepsis between 2010 and 2017 were included. Patients with blood culture samplings obtained prior to antibiotic therapy were compared to patients with samplings under antibiotic therapy. Blood culture positivity, defined as microbiological pathogen finding, was compared between the groups. Logistic regression was performed to adjust the impact of different factors with respect to blood culture positivity. In total, 559 patients with 1364 blood culture sets at the beginning of sepsis were analyzed. BC positivity was 50.6% (78/154) among septic patients who did not receive antibiotics and only 27.7% (112/405) in those who were already under antibiotics (Pcultures under antibiotic therapy is associated with a significant loss of pathogen detection. This strongly emphasizes the current recommendation to obtain blood cultures prior to antibiotic administration in patients with sepsis. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Clinical impact of culture-positive preservation fluid on solid organ transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Sabé, N; Tebé, C; Veroux, M; Boin, I F S F; Carratalà, J

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of the preservation fluid (PF) used for donated organs is a potential source of post-transplant infection. However, the information on this issue is scarce. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the incidence of culture-positive PF and its impact on solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Seventeen studies were identified and included. The overall incidence of culture-positive PF was 37% (95% CI: 27% to 49%), and the incidence of PF-related infections among SOT recipients with PF cultures that grew pathogenic microorganisms was 10% (95% CI: 7% to 15%). There were differences in the rates of infections due to pathogenic microorganisms between SOT recipients who received pre-emptive treatment and those who did not, but without statistical significance. The mortality rate among SOT recipients with PF-related infection was 35% (95% CI: 21% to 53%). In conclusion, although contamination of the PF of donated organs is frequent, the incidence of PF-related infection is relatively low. A closely clinical and microbiologic monitoring of the SOT recipient in case of culture-positive PF, regardless of the type of microorganism isolated might be do in order to establish a prompt diagnosis of PF-related infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Node-positive cervical cancer: impact of pelvic irradiation and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stock, Richard G.; Chen, Alex S. J.; Flickinger, John C.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Seski, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The roles of postoperative pelvic and prophylactic paraaortic irradiation in pelvic node positive cervical cancer are currently controversial. A retrospective study was undertaken to examine the effect of pelvic irradiation on pelvic control and survival and to analyze the patterns of recurrence to determine whether indications exist for prophylactic paraaortic irradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1964 to 1991, 143 cases of FIGO Stage I and II cervical cancer undergoing exploratory laparotomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and radical hysterectomy had positive pelvic lymph nodes. Postoperatively, 108 cases were treated with whole pelvic irradiation while 35 patients were observed. Prophylactic paraaortic irradiation was not given. Results: Patients who received postoperative whole pelvic irradiation compared with those treated with radical hysterectomy alone had a significantly improved pelvic control rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 78% vs. 45% (p = <0.0001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial DFS was 65% vs. 41% (p = 0.0004). The 5-year actuarial overall survival was 58% vs. 46% (p 0.02). In multivariate analysis, pelvic irradiation continued to show a positive effect on DFS (p = 0.0001) and overall survival (p = 0.0035). Lymphatic invasion and the total number of positive lymph nodes were the only other independent predictors of overall survival and DFS. The actuarial 5-year pelvic, paraaortic, and distant failure rates were 30%, 10%, and 28%, respectively. An isolated first recurrence in the paraaortic nodes occurred in only three cases. Conclusion: Postoperative pelvic irradiation significantly improves pelvic control, DFS, and overall survival, and should be used in patients with early stage cervical cancer and pathologically proven pelvic nodal metastases. The low incidence of isolated paraaortic nodal failure calls into question the value of routine prophylactic paraaortic

  15. Node-positive cervical cancer: impact of pelvic irradiation and patterns of failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stock, Richard G; Chen, Alex S. J.; Flickinger, John C; Kalnicki, Shalom; Seski, Jan

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: The roles of postoperative pelvic and prophylactic paraaortic irradiation in pelvic node positive cervical cancer are currently controversial. A retrospective study was undertaken to examine the effect of pelvic irradiation on pelvic control and survival and to analyze the patterns of recurrence to determine whether indications exist for prophylactic paraaortic irradiation. Methods and Materials: From 1964 to 1991, 143 cases of FIGO Stage I and II cervical cancer undergoing exploratory laparotomy, pelvic lymph node dissection, and radical hysterectomy had positive pelvic lymph nodes. Postoperatively, 108 cases were treated with whole pelvic irradiation while 35 patients were observed. Prophylactic paraaortic irradiation was not given. Results: Patients who received postoperative whole pelvic irradiation compared with those treated with radical hysterectomy alone had a significantly improved pelvic control rate, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival. The 5-year actuarial pelvic control rate was 78% vs. 45% (p = <0.0001), respectively. The 5-year actuarial DFS was 65% vs. 41% (p = 0.0004). The 5-year actuarial overall survival was 58% vs. 46% (p 0.02). In multivariate analysis, pelvic irradiation continued to show a positive effect on DFS (p = 0.0001) and overall survival (p = 0.0035). Lymphatic invasion and the total number of positive lymph nodes were the only other independent predictors of overall survival and DFS. The actuarial 5-year pelvic, paraaortic, and distant failure rates were 30%, 10%, and 28%, respectively. An isolated first recurrence in the paraaortic nodes occurred in only three cases. Conclusion: Postoperative pelvic irradiation significantly improves pelvic control, DFS, and overall survival, and should be used in patients with early stage cervical cancer and pathologically proven pelvic nodal metastases. The low incidence of isolated paraaortic nodal failure calls into question the value of routine prophylactic paraaortic

  16. The positive impact of radiologic imaging on high-stage cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Emily Stamell; Karia, Pritesh S; Morgan, Frederick C; Schmults, Chrysalyne D

    2017-02-01

    There is limited evidence on the utility of radiologic imaging for prognostic staging of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Review utilization of radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCCs to evaluate whether imaging impacted management and outcomes. Tumors classified as Brigham and Women's Hospital (BWH) tumor (T) stage T2B or T3 over a 13-year period were reviewed to identify whether imaging was performed and whether results affected treatment. Disease-related outcomes (DRO: local recurrence, nodal metastasis, death from disease) were compared between patients by type of imaging used. 108 high-stage CSCCs in 98 patients were included. Imaging (mostly computed tomography, 79%) was utilized in 45 (46%) patients and management was altered in 16 (33%) patients who underwent imaging. Patients that received no imaging were at higher risk of developing nodal metastases (nonimaging, 30%; imaging, 13%; P = .041) and any DRO (nonimaging, 42%; imaging, 20%; P = .028) compared to the imaging group. Imaging was associated with a lower risk for DRO (subhazard ratio, 0.5; 95% CI 0.2-0.9; P = .046) adjusted for BWH T stage, sex, and location. Single institution retrospective design and changes in technology overtime. Radiologic imaging of high-stage CSCC may influence management and appears to positively impact outcomes. Further prospective studies are needed to establish which patients benefit from imaging. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Health impact assessment research and practice: A place for paradigm positioning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haigh, Fiona; Harris, Patrick; Haigh, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we provide a critical review of the place of paradigm in health impact assessment (HIA) research and practice. We contend that most HIA practitioners have given insufficient attention to paradigm positioning when developing and applying HIA methodologies and that some concerns about current HIA practice can be attributed to this. We review HIA literature to assess the extent and nature of attention given to paradigm positioning and these related concerns. We then respond to our critique by exploring the implications, opportunities and challenges of adopting a critical realist paradigm, which we believe has the potential to help HIA practitioners to develop HIA methodology in a way that addresses these issues. - Highlights: ► We provide a critical review of the place of paradigm in HIA. ► We demonstrate that HIA practitioners give insufficient attention to paradigm. ► The implications, opportunities and challenges of adopting a critical realist paradigm are explored. ► This is the first paper, to our knowledge, that discusses a critical realist approach to HIA.

  18. Cooperation for a competitive position: The impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büchner, Vera Antonia; Hinz, Vera; Schreyögg, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Several public policy initiatives, particularly those involving managed care, aim to enhance cooperation between partners in the health care sector because it is expected that such cooperation will reduce costs and generate additional revenue. However, empirical evidence regarding the effects of cooperation on hospital performance is scarce, particularly with respect to creating a comprehensive measure of cooperation behavior. The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of hospital cooperation behavior on organizational performance. We differentiate between horizontal and vertical cooperation using two alternative measures-cooperation depth and cooperation breadth-and include the interaction effects between both cooperation directions. Data are derived from a survey of German hospitals and combined with objective performance information from annual financial statements. Generalized linear regression models are used. The study findings provide insight into the nature of hospitals' cooperation behavior. In particular, we show that there are negative synergies between horizontal administrative cooperation behavior and vertical cooperation behavior. Whereas the depth and breadth of horizontal administrative cooperation positively affect financial performance (when there is no vertical cooperation), vertical cooperation positively affects financial performance (when there is no horizontal administrative cooperation) only when cooperation is broad (rather than deep). Horizontal cooperation is generally more effective than vertical cooperation at improving financial performance. Hospital managers should consider the negative interaction effect when making decisions about whether to recommend a cooperative relationship in a horizontal or vertical direction. In addition, managers should be aware of the limited financial benefit of cooperation behavior.

  19. Impact of employment instability on socio-economic position of employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Nikolaevich Bobkov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article is the relationships in labor utilization. The article analyzes the impact of employment instability on the socio-economic situation of employees in Russia. Questions revealing the concept content of employment instability, its real forms and socio-economic consequences for employees are considered. Methods of statistical and sociological data analysis are applied. Indicators to measure the scope and level of employment instability of employees are calculated. The dynamics in the time of the size of employment instability in Russia are analyzed. The obtained results can be applied within national economic and social policy. The findings indicate that employment instability is high, and it threatens socio-economic position of the great number of employees in Russia. It is argued that, in these conditions, the most appropriate in the fight against the spread of employment instability are the set of government initiatives, proactive position of the Russian society and the expansion of societal forms of control over the government.

  20. The impact of socioeconomic position on severe maternal morbidity outcomes among women in Australia: a national case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, A; Noor, N; Sullivan, E; Knight, M

    2015-11-01

    Studies in other developed countries have suggested that socioeconomic position may be a risk factor for poorer pregnancy outcomes. This analysis aimed to explore the independent impact of socioeconomic position on selected severe maternal morbidities among women in Australia. A case-control study using data on severe maternal morbidities associated with direct maternal death collected through the Australasian Maternity Outcomes Surveillance System. Australia. 623 cases, 820 controls. Logistic regression analysis to investigate differences in outcomes among different socioeconomic groups, classified by Socio-Economic Indexes for Areas (SEIFA) quintile. Severe maternal morbidity (amniotic fluid embolism, placenta accreta, peripartum hysterectomy, eclampsia or pulmonary embolism). SEIFA quintile was statistically significantly associated with maternal morbidity, with cases being twice as likely as controls to reside in the most disadvantaged areas (adjusted OR 2.00, 95%CI 1.29-3.10). Maternal age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 2.20 for women aged 35 or over compared with women aged 25-29, 95%CI 1.64-3.15] and previous pregnancy complications (aOR 1.30, 95%CI 1.21-1.87) were significantly associated with morbidity. A parity of 1 or 2 was protective (aOR 0.58, 95%CI 0.43-0.79), whereas previous caesarean delivery was associated with maternal morbidity (aOR 2.20 for women with one caesarean delivery, 95%CI 1.44-2.85, compared with women with no caesareans). The risk of severe maternal morbidity among women in Australia is significantly increased by social disadvantage. This study suggests that future efforts in improving maternity care provision and maternal outcomes in Australia should include socioeconomic position as an independent risk factor for adverse outcome. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  1. Exploring the impact of positive and negative emotions on cooperative behaviour in a Prisoner’s Dilemma Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar N.E. Kjell

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To explore the influences of discrete positive and negative emotions on cooperation in the context of a social dilemma game.Design. Two controlled studies were undertaken. In Study 1, 69 participants were randomly assigned to an essay emotion manipulation task designed to induce either guilt, joy or no strong emotion. In Study 2, 95 participants were randomly assigned to one of the same three tasks, and the impact of emotional condition on cooperation was explored using a repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma Game.Results. Study 1 established that the manipulation task was successful in inducing the specified emotions. The analysis from Study 2 revealed no significant main effects for emotions, in contrast to previous research. However, there was a significant effect for participants’ pre-existing tendency to cooperate (social value orientation; SVO.Conclusion. Methodological explanations for the result are explored, including the possible impact of trial-and-error strategies, different cooperation games and endogenous vs exogenous emotions.

  2. Recognition of American Physiological Society members whose research publications had a significant impact on the discipline of physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2013-03-01

    Society members whose research publication during the past 125 yr had an important impact on the discipline of physiology were featured at the American Physiological Society (APS)'s 125th Anniversary symposium. The daunting and challenging task of identifying and selecting significant publications was assumed by the Steering Committee of the History of Physiology Interest Group, who requested recommendations and rationales from all Sections, select Interest Groups, and active senior APS members. The request resulted in recommendations and rationales from nine Sections, one Interest Group, and 28 senior members, identifying 38 publications and 43 members for recognition purposes. The publication recommendations included 5 individuals (Cournand, Erlanger, Gasser, Hubel, and Wiesel) whose research significantly contributed to their selection for the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 4 individuals who received multiple recommendations [i.e., Cannon (3), Curran (2), Fenn (3), and Hamilton (2)], and 11 members who had been APS Presidents. Of the recommended articles, 33% were from the American Journal of Physiology, with the earliest being published in 1898 (Cannon) and the latest in 2007 (Sigmund). For the brief oral presentations, the History of Physiology Steering Committee selected the first choices of the Sections or Interest Group, whereas rationales and representation of the membership were used for the presentations by senior members.

  3. COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY: IMPACT OF POSITIVE SELF TALK TRAINING ON JUNIOR LEVEL FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdussalam Kanniyan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last few decades, coaches and athletes from a wide variety of sports have begun to realize the importance of the mental side of athletic performance. Sport specialists agree that athletic performance is influenced not only by physical skills but also by psychological ones. In order to achieve peak performance athletes need a “total package” including physical skills, psychological skills, fitness and injury prevention (Singh 2011. Study was aimed to examine the effect of Positive Self-Talk training on the Competition anxiety and self-confidence of junior level football players. 36 junior level football players, aged 18.7 ± 2.8 years, were randomly assigned into experimental group and control group. Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2 was used to assess cognitive and somatic anxiety and self-confidence. Positive Self-Talk training was given to the experimental group for 8 weeks. Results of ANOVA revealed significant difference between the pre- test and post test scores of cognitive and somatic anxiety and self- confidence in the experimental group while no significant difference in the control group.

  4. Thresholds and criteria for evaluating and communicating impact significance in environmental statements: 'See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Graham

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation and communication of the significance of environmental effects remains a critical yet poorly understood component of EIA theory and practice. Following a conceptual overview of the generic dimensions of impact significance in EIA, this paper reports upon the findings of an empirical study of recent environmental impact statements that considers the treatment of significance for impacts concerning landscape ('see no evil') and noise ('hear no evil'), focussing specifically upon the evaluation and communication of impact significance ('speak no evil') in UK practice. Particular attention is given to the use of significance criteria and thresholds, including the development of a typology of approaches applied within the context of noise and landscape/visual impacts. Following a broader discussion of issues surrounding the formulation, application and interpretation of significance criteria, conclusions and recommendations relevant to wider EIA practice are suggested

  5. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Echappé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing (RS is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985–2015 combining high-resolution (30 m Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before–after control-impact (BACI experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our

  6. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echappé, Caroline; Gernez, Pierre; Méléder, Vona; Jesus, Bruno; Cognie, Bruno; Decottignies, Priscilla; Sabbe, Koen; Barillé, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985-2015) combining high-resolution (30 m) Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before-after control-impact (BACI) experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact) negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our study provides the

  7. Type of mask may impact on continuous positive airway pressure adherence in apneic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Jean Christian; Tamisier, Renaud; Dias-Domingos, Sonia; Sapene, Marc; Martin, Francis; Stach, Bruno; Grillet, Yves; Muir, Jean François; Levy, Patrick; Series, Frederic; Pepin, Jean-Louis

    2013-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence is crucial to improve symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The choice of mask may influence CPAP adherence but this issue has never been addressed properly. To evaluate the impact of nasal pillows, nasal and oronasal masks on CPAP adherence in a cohort of OSA. Newly CPAP treated OSA participating in "Observatoire Sommeil de la Fédération de Pneumologie", a French national prospective cohort, were included between March 2009 and December 2011. Anthropometric data, medical history, OSA severity, sleepiness, depressive status, treatment modalities (auto-CPAP versus fixed pressure, pressure level, interface type, use of humidifiers) and CPAP-related side effects were included in multivariate analysis to determine independent variables associated with CPAP adherence. 2311 OSA (age = 57(12) years, apnea+hypopnea index = 41(21)/h, 29% female) were included. Nasal masks, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were used by 62.4, 26.2 and 11.4% of the patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were associated with higher risk of CPAP non-adherence. CPAP non-adherence was also associated with younger age, female gender, mild OSA, gastroesophageal reflux, depression status, low effective pressure and CPAP-related side effects. In multivariate analysis, CPAP non-adherence was associated with the use of oronasal masks (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.6; 2.5), depression, low effective pressure, and side effects. As oronasal masks negatively impact on CPAP adherence, a nasal mask should be preferred as the first option. Patients on oronasal masks should be carefully followed.

  8. Type of mask may impact on continuous positive airway pressure adherence in apneic patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Christian Borel

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: In obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP adherence is crucial to improve symptoms and cardiometabolic outcomes. The choice of mask may influence CPAP adherence but this issue has never been addressed properly. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of nasal pillows, nasal and oronasal masks on CPAP adherence in a cohort of OSA. METHODS: Newly CPAP treated OSA participating in "Observatoire Sommeil de la Fédération de Pneumologie", a French national prospective cohort, were included between March 2009 and December 2011. Anthropometric data, medical history, OSA severity, sleepiness, depressive status, treatment modalities (auto-CPAP versus fixed pressure, pressure level, interface type, use of humidifiers and CPAP-related side effects were included in multivariate analysis to determine independent variables associated with CPAP adherence. RESULTS: 2311 OSA (age = 57(12 years, apnea+hypopnea index = 41(21/h, 29% female were included. Nasal masks, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were used by 62.4, 26.2 and 11.4% of the patients, respectively. In univariate analysis, oronasal masks and nasal pillows were associated with higher risk of CPAP non-adherence. CPAP non-adherence was also associated with younger age, female gender, mild OSA, gastroesophageal reflux, depression status, low effective pressure and CPAP-related side effects. In multivariate analysis, CPAP non-adherence was associated with the use of oronasal masks (OR = 2.0; 95%CI = 1.6; 2.5, depression, low effective pressure, and side effects. CONCLUSION: As oronasal masks negatively impact on CPAP adherence, a nasal mask should be preferred as the first option. Patients on oronasal masks should be carefully followed.

  9. Have a little faith: measuring the impact of illness on positive and negative aspects of faith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsman, John M; Garcia, Sofia F; Lai, Jin-Shei; Cella, David

    2012-12-01

    The importance of faith and its associations with health are well documented. As part of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System, items tapping positive and negative impact of illness (PII and NII) were developed across four content domains: Coping/Stress Response, Self-Concept, Social Connection/Isolation, and Meaning and Spirituality. Faith items were included within the concept of meaning and spirituality. This measurement model was tested on a heterogeneous group of 509 cancer survivors. To evaluate dimensionality, we applied two bi-factor models, specifying a general factor (PII or NII) and four local factors: Coping/Stress Response, Self-Concept, Social Connection/Isolation, and Meaning and Spirituality. Bi-factor analysis supported sufficient unidimensionality within PII and NII item sets. The unidimensionality of both PII and NII item sets was enhanced by extraction of the faith items from the rest of the questions. Of the 10 faith items, nine demonstrated higher local than general factor loadings (range for local factor loadings = 0.402 to 0.876), suggesting utility as a separate but related 'faith' factor. The same was true for only two of the remaining 63 items across the PII and NII item sets. Although conceptually and to a degree empirically related to Meaning and Spirituality, Faith appears to be a distinct subdomain of PII and NII, better handled by distinct assessment. A 10-item measure of the impact of illness upon faith (II-Faith) was therefore assembled. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The positive impact of a facilitated peer mentoring program on academic skills of women faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varkey Prathibha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In academic medicine, women physicians lag behind their male counterparts in advancement and promotion to leadership positions. Lack of mentoring, among other factors, has been reported to contribute to this disparity. Peer mentoring has been reported as a successful alternative to the dyadic mentoring model for women interested in improving their academic productivity. We describe a facilitated peer mentoring program in our institution's department of medicine. Methods Nineteen women enrolled in the program were divided into 5 groups. Each group had an assigned facilitator. Members of the respective groups met together with their facilitators at regular intervals during the 12 months of the project. A pre- and post-program evaluation consisting of a 25-item self-assessment of academic skills, self-efficacy, and academic career satisfaction was administered to each participant. Results At the end of 12 months, a total of 9 manuscripts were submitted to peer-reviewed journals, 6 of which are in press or have been published, and another 2 of which have been invited to be revised and resubmitted. At the end of the program, participants reported an increase in their satisfaction with academic achievement (mean score increase, 2.32 to 3.63; P = 0.0001, improvement in skills necessary to effectively search the medical literature (mean score increase, 3.32 to 4.05; P = 0.0009, an improvement in their ability to write a comprehensive review article (mean score increase, 2.89 to 3.63; P = 0.0017, and an improvement in their ability to critically evaluate the medical literature (mean score increased from 3.11 to 3.89; P = 0.0008. Conclusions This facilitated peer mentoring program demonstrated a positive impact on the academic skills and manuscript writing for junior women faculty. This 1-year program required minimal institutional resources, and suggests a need for further study of this and other mentoring programs for women faculty.

  11. The positive impact of a facilitated peer mentoring program on academic skills of women faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varkey, Prathibha; Jatoi, Aminah; Williams, Amy; Mayer, Anita; Ko, Marcia; Files, Julia; Blair, Janis; Hayes, Sharonne

    2012-03-23

    In academic medicine, women physicians lag behind their male counterparts in advancement and promotion to leadership positions. Lack of mentoring, among other factors, has been reported to contribute to this disparity. Peer mentoring has been reported as a successful alternative to the dyadic mentoring model for women interested in improving their academic productivity. We describe a facilitated peer mentoring program in our institution's department of medicine. Nineteen women enrolled in the program were divided into 5 groups. Each group had an assigned facilitator. Members of the respective groups met together with their facilitators at regular intervals during the 12 months of the project. A pre- and post-program evaluation consisting of a 25-item self-assessment of academic skills, self-efficacy, and academic career satisfaction was administered to each participant. At the end of 12 months, a total of 9 manuscripts were submitted to peer-reviewed journals, 6 of which are in press or have been published, and another 2 of which have been invited to be revised and resubmitted. At the end of the program, participants reported an increase in their satisfaction with academic achievement (mean score increase, 2.32 to 3.63; P = 0.0001), improvement in skills necessary to effectively search the medical literature (mean score increase, 3.32 to 4.05; P = 0.0009), an improvement in their ability to write a comprehensive review article (mean score increase, 2.89 to 3.63; P = 0.0017), and an improvement in their ability to critically evaluate the medical literature (mean score increased from 3.11 to 3.89; P = 0.0008). This facilitated peer mentoring program demonstrated a positive impact on the academic skills and manuscript writing for junior women faculty. This 1-year program required minimal institutional resources, and suggests a need for further study of this and other mentoring programs for women faculty.

  12. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Significant Event Analysis: Exploring Personal Impact and Applying Systems Thinking in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; McNaughton, Elaine; Bruce, David; Holly, Deirdre; Forrest, Eleanor; Macleod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; Power, Ailsa; Toppin, Denis; Black, Irene; Pooley, Janet; Taylor, Audrey; Swanson, Vivien; Kelly, Moya; Ferguson, Julie; Stirling, Suzanne; Wakeling, Judy; Inglis, Angela; McKay, John; Sargeant, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Significant event analysis (SEA) is well established in many primary care settings but can be poorly implemented. Reasons include the emotional impact on clinicians and limited knowledge of systems thinking in establishing why events happen and formulating improvements. To enhance SEA effectiveness, we developed and tested "guiding tools" based on human factors principles. Mixed-methods development of guiding tools (Personal Booklet-to help with emotional demands and apply a human factors analysis at the individual level; Desk Pad-to guide a team-based systems analysis; and a written Report Format) by a multiprofessional "expert" group and testing with Scottish primary care practitioners who submitted completed enhanced SEA reports. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaire, telephone interviews, and thematic analysis of SEA reports. Overall, 149/240 care practitioners tested the guiding tools and submitted completed SEA reports (62.1%). Reported understanding of how to undertake SEA improved postintervention (P systems issues (85/123, 69.1%), while most found the Report Format clear (94/123, 76.4%) and would recommend it (88/123, 71.5%). Most SEA reports adopted a systems approach to analyses (125/149, 83.9%), care improvement (74/149, 49.7), or planned actions (42/149, 28.2%). Applying human factors principles to SEA potentially enables care teams to gain a systems-based understanding of why things go wrong, which may help with related emotional demands and with more effective learning and improvement.

  13. Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance in patients with HPV positive DNA testing and correlation with disease progression by age group: an institutional experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Erika F; Reynolds, Jordan P; Jenkins, Sarah M; Winter, Stephanie M; Henry, Michael R; Nassar, Aziza

    2012-01-01

    Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) is a broad diagnostic category that could be attributed to human papillomavirus infection (HPV), malignant neoplasia and reactive conditions. We evaluated our institutional experience with ASC-US in women who are positive for high risk HPV (HRHPV+) by the Digene hybrid capture method from 2005-2009 to identify the risk of progression to squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in association with age. We reviewed cytologic and follow-up surgical pathology reports for all specimens available. Progression was defined as a diagnosis of at least CINI on follow-up biopsy or resection or SIL on cytology. We identified 2613 cases and follow-up was available in 1839 (70.4%). Of these 74.2% had just one follow-up, 16.2% had a total of 2 follow-ups, 5.3% had a total of 3 follow-ups, and the remaining had as many as 6 follow-ups. Among the 1839 patients, 69.4% were age 30 or younger, 16.0% were between 31 to 40, 9.0% were between 41 to 50, and 5.6% were 51 or older. Among these, 25-30% progressed to dysplasia. The risk of progression varied by age (p=0.04) and was lowest among women between the ages of 41-50. Our findings highlight the importance of continued cytologic follow-up in women with HRHPV+ ASC-US in order to detect progression of disease, although the risk of progression is age dependent.

  14. Interfraction Liver Shape Variability and Impact on GTV Position During Liver Stereotactic Radiotherapy Using Abdominal Compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccles, Cynthia L.; Dawson, Laura A.; Moseley, Joanne L.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: For patients receiving liver stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), abdominal compression can reduce organ motion, and daily image guidance can reduce setup error. The reproducibility of liver shape under compression may impact treatment delivery accuracy. The purpose of this study was to measure the interfractional variability in liver shape under compression, after best-fit rigid liver-to-liver registration from kilovoltage (kV) cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans to planning computed tomography (CT) scans and its impact on gross tumor volume (GTV) position. Methods and Materials: Evaluable patients were treated in a Research Ethics Board-approved SBRT six-fraction study with abdominal compression. Kilovoltage CBCT scans were acquired before treatment and reconstructed as respiratory sorted CBCT scans offline. Manual rigid liver-to-liver registrations were performed from exhale-phase CBCT scans to exhale planning CT scans. Each CBCT liver was contoured, exported, and compared with the planning CT scan for spatial differences, by use of in house-developed finite-element model-based deformable registration (MORFEUS). Results: We evaluated 83 CBCT scans from 16 patients with 30 GTVs. The mean volume of liver that deformed by greater than 3 mm was 21.7%. Excluding 1 outlier, the maximum volume that deformed by greater than 3 mm was 36.3% in a single patient. Over all patients, the absolute maximum deformations in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior directions were 10.5 mm (SD, 2.2), 12.9 mm (SD, 3.6), and 5.6 mm (SD, 2.7), respectively. The absolute mean predicted impact of liver volume displacements on GTV by use of center of mass displacements was 0.09 mm (SD, 0.13), 0.13 mm (SD, 0.18), and 0.08 mm (SD, 0.07) in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. Conclusions: Interfraction liver deformations in patients undergoing SBRT under abdominal compression after rigid liver

  15. The Impact on locomotor skills in children. The promotion of significant Knowledge supported by the use of videogames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caviativa Yaneth P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on attentional processes and their relationship to the maturation of locomotor patterns involved in the use of some types of video games. For this reason, the aim of this study is to identify the influence of the practice of virtual reality games in attentional processes related to the jump motor pattern in children of 5 years. The research was conducted by a quantitative study design using SPSS crosstabulation longitudinal observational period with a pre-test, post-test and a control group. There are few studies on the effect of virtual reality games in the development of locomotor patterns, the study is consistent with research that finds positive effects of this type of games in learning motor activities. In this investigation it was found According to statistical chi-square can conclude that the development of motor skills SI influences meaningful learning of children, Most children engaged in meaningful learning, but they have a necessary guide or a process to follow, according to research must always be supervised by an adult sometimes do not need any supervision, in addition to the significant knowledge not articulated with educational processes guided by the teacher before the motor skills expected

  16. The creation of special economic zones in China: Positive and negative impacts in its implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Orozco Plascencia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available At the end of seventies, Deng Xioaping, President applied a modernization policy in China, that during more than 30 years allow to reach high economic growth rates above 8% average per year. This reform included the instauration of four Special Economic Zones (SEZ in the southeast of the country, three in Guangdong (Shenzhen, Zhuhai and Shantao and one in Xiamen, Fujian.The purpose of this paper is to analyze the backgrounds of SEZ, the reasons of Chinese Government to implement its and the positive impacts and barriers to become operational.The conclusion in this article is that sez arise like an experiment of the Chinese central government economic policy to apply capitalist measures in design previous regions, the most important benefit has been the strong attraction of Foreing Direct Investment, explained in a surplus trade balance, sustanaible economic growht and technological transference. However, the most significative operational barrier has been the legal rigidity in the imported overseas products, a change of nacional politicideology system and problem asociated with burocracy and corruption.

  17. Adaptation to the waste anesthesia gas system: Gaps in knowledge and opportunities for positive environmental impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Palmisano

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canisters containing activated charcoal are commonly used in the laboratory setting to collect waste anesthetic gas (WAG. This requires the weighing of the WAG canister after each use and for investigators to maintain an accurate time log of anesthesia duration. A typical rodent anesthesia station may include the use of 3 WAG canisters; one for the anesthesia induction box, one for the operative table, and one for gas monitoring. To simplify the anesthesia breathing circuit, we have developed a “T” connector that replaces the need for having multiple WAG canisters. The “T” connector directs the waste anesthetic from multiple sources; the anesthesia induction box, operative table and gas monitor into a single WAG canister. Use of the “T” connector appears to be a safe, acceptable device that conveniently directs waste gas while improving charcoal adsorption within the canister. In addition, this device may have a positive impact on the environment with a secondary benefit of possible cost savings associated with the purchase and disposal of the hazardous waste contents.

  18. Positive and Negative Impacts of Cross-border M&A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴长洪; 林江

    2007-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions of Chinese enterprises by foreign investors have moved onto the public radar in recent years.To date,the M&A frenzy has drawn widespread attention,with a mixed reaction from proponents and opponents.Proponents consider such mergers and acquisitions conducive to realizing strategic readjustment of the national economic structure,optimizing resource allocation and improving the corporate governance structure.Opponents,however,are concerned that foreign mergers and acquisitions may jeopardize China’s industrial security and erode the executive power of the central government in undertaking industrial development planning.Are the benefits of M&A outweighed by the costs,or vice versa? The focus column of this edition features two articles which debate this issue from opposing viewpoints.In the article"Positive and Negative Impacts of Cross-border M&A",the authors consider foreign M(?)A to be a new way of boosting the level of foreign investment utilization,and advocate China taking full advantage of this approach.The authors of the article"Self-Improvement Or Self-Mutilation",meanwhile,hold foreign M&A to blame for state-owned asset erosion,and insist that China should oppose mergers and acquisitions of key state- owned enterprises by foreign investors at fire-sale prices.

  19. Clinical significance of the position of dorsal root ganglia in degenerative lumbar diseases. Correlation between anatomic study and imaging study with MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tomiichi [Fukushima Medical Coll., Matsuoka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    In order to estimate the ralationship between the position of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and radicular symptoms, anatomical study was done on 81 cadavers, and a clinical study with MRI was done on 20 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 20 of lumbar spondylosis with L{sub 5} radiculopathy. The position of DRG is not related to the occurrence of radicular symptoms in disc herniation, while in lumbar spondylosis proximally placed DRG are related to both of unilateral and bilateral occurrence of redicular symptoms. Unilateral occurrence of radicular symptoms is influenced by surrounding tissues of the nerve root, rather than the position of DRG. (author).

  20. Clinical significance of the position of dorsal root ganglia in degenerative lumbar diseases. Correlation between anatomic study and imaging study with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Masahiro; Kikuchi, Tomiichi

    1995-01-01

    In order to estimate the ralationship between the position of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and radicular symptoms, anatomical study was done on 81 cadavers, and a clinical study with MRI was done on 20 cases of lumbar disc herniation and 20 of lumbar spondylosis with L 5 radiculopathy. The position of DRG is not related to the occurrence of radicular symptoms in disc herniation, while in lumbar spondylosis proximally placed DRG are related to both of unilateral and bilateral occurrence of redicular symptoms. Unilateral occurrence of radicular symptoms is influenced by surrounding tissues of the nerve root, rather than the position of DRG. (author)

  1. The impact of structured support groups for pregnant South African women recently diagnosed HIV positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Jonathan P; Visser, Maretha J; Makin, Jennifer D; Kershaw, Trace S; Forsyth, Brian W C; Jeffery, Bridget; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2011-08-31

    The authors of this study evaluated a structured 10-session psychosocial support group intervention for newly HIV-diagnosed pregnant South African women. Participants were expected to display increases in HIV disclosure, self-esteem, active coping and positive social support, and decreases in depression, avoidant coping, and negative social support. Three hundred sixty-one pregnant HIV-infected women were recruited from four antenatal clinics in Tshwane townships from April 2005 to September 2006. Using a quasi-experimental design, assessments were conducted at baseline and two and eight months post-intervention. A series of random effects regression analyses were conducted, with the three assessment points treated as a random effect of time. At both follow-ups, the rate of disclosure in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the comparison group (p<0.001). Compared to the comparison group at the first follow-up, the intervention group displayed higher levels of active coping (t=2.68, p<0.05) and lower levels of avoidant coping (t=-2.02, p<0.05), and those who attended at least half of the intervention sessions exhibited improved self-esteem (t=2.11, p<0.05). Group interventions tailored for newly HIV positive pregnant women, implemented in resource-limited settings, may accelerate the process of adjusting to one's HIV status, but may not have sustainable benefits over time.

  2. The impact of positive and negative intraoperative surgeons' leadership behaviors on surgical team performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Akers, Amy; Beiko, Darren

    2018-01-01

    The effects of surgeons' leadership on team performance are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to examine the simultaneous effects of transformational, passive, abusive supervision and over-controlling leadership behaviors by surgeons on surgical team performance. Trained observers attended 150 randomly selected operations at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Observers recorded instances of the four leadership behaviors enacted by the surgeon. Postoperatively, team members completed validated questionnaires rating team cohesion and collective efficacy. Multiple regression analyses were computed. Data were analyzed using the complex modeling function in MPlus. Surgeons' abusive supervision was negatively associated with psychological safety (unstandardized B = -0.352, p leadership (unstandardized B = -0.230, p leadership behaviors on intraoperative team performance. Significant effects only surfaced for negative leadership behaviors; transformational leadership did not positively influence team performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Finding of No Significant Impact for Porposed Replacement of Senior Officers Quarters Project, McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-08

    renovation from the four existing units would nearly equal tbe cost of reconstructing new lll’lils. No Action Alternative: tinder the11o action...cumulative impacts." 4.10 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN-TERM USES AND ENHANCEMENT OF LONG- TERM PRODUCTIVITY Preferred Action: Implementation of the preferred...Indirect and Cumulative Impacts ........................................................................ 24 3.10 Relationship between Short-Term Uses

  4. 78 FR 29201 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed Vantage Pipeline US...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... Impact for the Proposed Vantage Pipeline US LP Ethane Pipeline Project SUMMARY: The purpose of this... Impact on the proposed Vantage Pipeline US LP Ethane Pipeline Project. Under E.O. 13337, the Secretary of... petroleum, petroleum products, or other non-gaseous fuels to or from a foreign country. Vantage Pipeline US...

  5. Impact of floating mass transducer coupling and positioning in round window vibroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Gunesh P; Lampacher, Peter; Ambett, Ranjeeta; Dittrich, Gregor; Kuthubutheen, Jafri; Wood, Bradley; McArthur, Anne; Marino, Roberta

    2011-02-01

    The round window application of the Vibrant Sound bridge, the so-called round window vibroplasty, is gaining increasing popularity for hearing rehabilitation of patients with mixed hearing loss or conductive hearing loss. In these patients, conventional hearing amplification and/or surgical restoration is either not possible or has failed because of chronic ear disease, extensive otosclerosis, or malformations. The exact mechanisms of direct cochlear stimulation via the round window membrane are not yet completely understood. It is unclear what kind and what degree of contact is required between the floating mass transducer (FMT) and the round window membrane (RWM) to elicit a functional hearing perception with the implant. We investigated the coupling efficiency between the FMT and the RWM and how the efficiency is altered by the FMT position, the degree of FMT-RWM contact, and the use of a soft tissue coupler. Prospective cohort study. Tertiary referral center in Western Australia. Patients undergoing round window vibroplasty for a mixed or conductive hearing loss otherwise not aidable. Patients underwent round window vibroplasty and received audiological and coupling analysis in the follow-up. These data were then correlated with FMT positioning and the extent of FMT-RWM interface as determined by postoperative high-resolution temporal bone computed tomography. Coupling and hearing levels in relation to FMT positioning and degree of FMT-RWM contact. Of 10 patients, 8 were available for vibroplasty behavioral threshold testing. In 2 patients, testing could not be done because of wound breakdown requiring device explantation in 1 case, and in the other case, the bone conduction thresholds dropped 2 months after implantation, thus falling out of the performance range of the device. Postoperative FMT migration occurred in 50% of the patients (3/6) with recurrent chronic ear disease and status after multiple previous ear operations. All patients, including the 3

  6. Fertilization of sea urchin eggs and sperm motility are negatively impacted under low hypergravitational forces significant to space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tash, J. S.; Kim, S.; Schuber, M.; Seibt, D.; Kinsey, W. H.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm and other flagellates swim faster in microgravity (microG) than in 1 G, raising the question of whether fertilization is altered under conditions of space travel. Such alterations have implications for reproduction of plant and animal food and for long-term space habitation by man. We previously demonstrated that microG accelerates protein phosphorylation during initiation of sperm motility but delays the sperm response to the egg chemotactic factor, speract. Thus sperm are sensitive to changes in gravitational force. New experiments using the NiZeMi centrifugal microscope examined whether low hypergravity (hyperG) causes effects opposite to microG on sperm motility, signal transduction, and fertilization. Sperm % motility and straight-line velocity were significantly inhibited by as little as 1.3 G. The phosphorylation states of FP130, an axonemal phosphoprotein, and FP160, a cAMP-dependent salt-extractable flagellar protein, both coupled to motility activation, showed a more rapid decline in hyperG. Most critically, hyperG caused an approximately 50% reduction in both the rate of sperm-egg binding and fertilization. The similar extent of inhibition of both fertilization parameters in hyperG suggests that the primary effect is on sperm rather than eggs. These results not only support our earlier microG data demonstrating that sperm are sensitive to small changes in gravitational forces but more importantly now show that this sensitivity affects the ability of sperm to fertilize eggs. Thus, more detailed studies on the impact of space flight on development should include studies of sperm function and fertilization.

  7. High-protein intake enhances the positive impact of physical activity on BMC in prepubertal boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalley, Thierry; Bonjour, Jean-Philippe; Ferrari, Serge; Rizzoli, René

    2008-01-01

    In 232 healthy prepubertal boys, increased physical activity was associated with greater BMC at both axial and appendicular sites under high-protein intake. Physical activity is an important lifestyle determinant of bone mineral mass acquisition. Its impact during childhood can be modulated by nutrition, particularly by protein and calcium intakes. We analyzed the relationship between physical activity levels and protein compared with calcium intake on BMC. In 232 healthy prepubertal boys (age: 7.4 +/- 0.4 [SD] yr; standing height: 125.7 +/- 5.9 cm; body weight: 25.3 +/- 4.6 kg), physical activity and protein and calcium intakes were recorded. BMC was measured by DXA at the radial metaphysis, radial diaphysis, total radius, femoral neck, total hip, femoral diaphysis, and L(2)-L(4) vertebrae. In univariate analysis, the correlation coefficients r with BMC of the various skeletal sites were as follows: physical activity, from 0.26 (p = 0.0001) to 0.40 (p = 0.0001); protein intake, from 0.18 (p = 0.005) to 0.27 (p = 0.0001); calcium intake, from 0.09 (p = 0.181) to 0.17 (p = 0.007). By multiple regression analysis, the beta-adjusted values remained correlated with BMC, ranging as follows: physical activity, from 0.219 (p = 0.0007) to 0.340 (p BMC Z-score (+0.6, p = 0.0005). In contrast with protein intake (mean = 1.5 g/kg body weight/d) below the median, increased physical activity from 167 to 312 kcal/d was not associated with a significantly greater mean BMC Z-score (+0.2, p = 0.371). The interaction between physical activity and protein intake was close to statistical significance for mean BMC Z-score (p = 0.055) and significant for femoral neck BMC (p = 0.012). In keeping with the results derived from multiple regression analysis, the increased physical activity on mean BMC Z-score was not influenced by difference in calcium intake above (mean = 945 mg/d) and below (mean = 555 mg/d) the median. In healthy prepubertal boys, the impact in increased physical activity

  8. Analyses of direct and indirect impacts of a positive list system on pharmaceutical R&D investments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Euna; Kim, Tae Hyun; Jeung, Myung Jin; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2013-07-01

    The South Korean government recently enacted a Positive List System (PLS) as a major change of the national formulary listing system and reimbursed prices for pharmaceutical products. Regardless of the primary goal of the PLS, its implementation might have spillover effects by influencing the pharmaceutical industry's research and development (R&D), potentially leading to a variety of responses by firms in relation to their R&D activities. We investigated the spillover effect of the PLS on R&D investments of the pharmaceutical industry in Korea through both direct and indirect channels, examining the influence of the PLS on sales profit and cash flow. Data from 9 years (5 before and 4 after PLS implementation) were drawn from the financial statements of firms whose stocks were exchanged in 2 official stock markets in Korea (526 firms) and additional pharmaceutical firms whose financial performance was officially audited by external reviewers (263 firms). Longitudinal analyses were conducted, using the panel nature of the data to control for permanent unobserved firm heterogeneity. Our results showed that the PLS was directly associated with R&D investments. In contrast, its indirect impacts stemming from the influence on sales profit and cash flow were minimal and statistically nonsignificant. The gross impact of the PLS on R&D investments increased moving further from the enactment year; R&D investments were reduced by 18.3% to 25.8% in 2009-2010 (compared with before PLS implementation) in the firm fixed-effects model. We also found that such negative direct and gross impacts of the PLS on R&D investments were significant only in firms without newly developed chemical entities. Considering the gross negative impact of the PLS on R&D investments of pharmaceutical firms and the heterogeneous response of these firms by the R&D activities, governmental efforts of cost-containment may need to consider the spillover impact of the PLS on pharmaceutical innovation

  9. Diagnostic impact of thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy when the exercise ECG is strongly positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitman, B.R.; Brevers, G.; Dupras, G.; Lesperance, J.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    We studied 83 men, who had a chest pain syndrome, no prior history of myocardial infarction, and exercise-induced horizontal or downsloping ST segment depression greater than or equal to 0.2 mV. The 38 patients unable to complete Bruce stage II had a significant increased risk of coronary (0.97 vs 0.71) and multivessel (0.88 vs 0.61) disease (p less than 0.01) compared to the pretest risk; data obtained from exercise-reperfusion thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy did not alter the risk of coronary or multivessel disease. The 45 patients who had ST depression greater than or equal to 0.2 mV and a peak work capacity greater than or equal to Bruce stage III did not have a significant increased risk of coronary (0.76) or multivessel disease (0.44). When both exercise-reperfusion thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy were abnormal in this latter patient subgroup, the post-test risk of multivessel disease was increased from 0.44 to 0.82 (p less than 0.03); when both tests were normal, none of the patients had multivessel disease (p less than 0.03) and only 0.18 had coronary artery disease. Thus, cardiac fluoroscopy and exercise thallium scintigraphy increase the diagnostic content of the strongly positive exercise ECG, particularly in men who have a peak work capacity greater than or equal to Bruce stage III

  10. Reducing the environmental impact of hydraulic fracturing through design optimisation of positive displacement pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josifovic, Aleksandar; Roberts, Jennifer J.; Corney, Jonathan; Davies, Bruce; Shipton, Zoe K.

    2016-01-01

    The current approach to hydraulic fracturing requires large amounts of industrial hardware to be transported, installed and operated in temporary locations. A significant proportion of this equipment is comprised of the fleet of pumps required to provide the high pressures and flows necessary for well stimulation. Studies have shown that over 90% of the emissions of CO_2 and other pollutants that occur during a hydraulic fracturing operation are associated with these pumps. Pollution and transport concerns are of paramount importance for the emerging hydraulic fracturing industry in Europe, and so it is timely to consider these factors when assessing the design of high pressure pumps for the European resources. This paper gives an overview of the industrial plant required to carry out a hydraulic fracturing operation. This is followed by an analysis of the pump's design space that could result in improved pump efficiency. We find that reducing the plunger diameter and running the pump at higher speeds can increase the overall pump efficiency by up to 4.6%. Such changes to the pump's parameters would results in several environmental benefits beyond the obvious economic gains of lower fuel consumption. The paper concludes with a case study that quantifies these benefits. - Highlights: • We develop a parameterized model of hydraulic fracturing pumps. • We explore performance variation to optimise pump efficiency and performance. • New design could increase pump energy efficiency up to 4.6% and improve reliability. • The new design could also reduce environmental and social impacts of pumping. • This illustrates how optimised mechanical design can lower impacts and cost.

  11. Impact of right-ventricular apical pacing on the optimal left-ventricular lead positions measured by phase analysis of SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Guang-Uei; Huang, Jin-Long; Lin, Wan-Yu; Tsai, Shih-Chung; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Chen, Shih-Ann; Lloyd, Michael S.; Chen, Ji

    2014-01-01

    The use of SPECT phase analysis to optimize left-ventricular (LV) lead positions for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) was performed at baseline, but CRT works as simultaneous right ventricular (RV) and LV pacing. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of RV apical (RVA) pacing on optimal LV lead positions measured by SPECT phase analysis. This study prospectively enrolled 46 patients. Two SPECT myocardial perfusion scans were acquired under sinus rhythm with complete left bundle branch block and RVA pacing, respectively, following a single injection of 99m Tc-sestamibi. LV dyssynchrony parameters and optimal LV lead positions were measured by the phase analysis technique and then compared between the two scans. The LV dyssynchrony parameters were significantly larger with RVA pacing than with sinus rhythm (p ∝0.01). In 39 of the 46 patients, the optimal LV lead positions were the same between RVA pacing and sinus rhythm (kappa = 0.861). In 6 of the remaining 7 patients, the optimal LV lead positions were along the same radial direction, but RVA pacing shifted the optimal LV lead positions toward the base. The optimal LV lead positions measured by SPECT phase analysis were consistent, no matter whether the SPECT images were acquired under sinus rhythm or RVA pacing. In some patients, RVA pacing shifted the optimal LV lead positions toward the base. This study supports the use of baseline SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging to optimize LV lead positions to increase CRT efficacy. (orig.)

  12. Impact of heated humidification with automatic positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado, Sara Moreira da Silva Trindade; Boléo-Tomé, José Pedro Correia Fernandes; Canhão, Cristina Maria Sardinha; Dias, Ana Rita Tavares; Teixeira, Joana Isaac; Pinto, Paula Maria Gonçalves; Caetano, Maria Cristina de Brito Eusébio Bárbara Prista

    2008-09-01

    To study the impact that heated humidification instituted in the beginning of automatic positive airway pressure (APAP) therapy has on compliance with and the side effects of the treatment. Thirty-nine treatment-naïve patients with obstructive sleep apnea were randomized into two groups to receive APAP using one of two modalities: with heated humidification (APAPwith group); and without heated humidification (APAPw/o group).Patients were evaluated at 7 and 30 days after APAP initiation. The following parameters were analyzed: compliance with treatment (mean number of hours/night); side effects (dry nose or mouth, nasal obstruction and rhinorrhea); daytime sleepiness (Epworth sleepiness scale score) and subjective comfort (visual analog scale score). Patients were also evaluated in terms of residual apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), as well as mean pressures and leaks registered in the ventilators. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of mean age (APAPwith: 57.4 +/- 9.2; APAPw/o: 56.5 +/- 10.7 years), AHI (APAPwith: 28.1 +/- 14.0; APAPw/o: 28.8 +/- 20.5 events/hour of sleep), baseline Epworth score (APAPwith: 11.2 +/- 5.8; APAPw/o: 11.9 +/- 6.3) and initial nasal symptoms. Compliance was similar in both groups (APAPwith: 5.3 +/- 2.4; APAPw/o: 5.2 +/- 2.3 h/night). There were no differences in any of the other parameters analyzed. The introduction of heated humidification at the beginning of APAP therapy provided no advantage in terms of treatment compliance or side effects of treatment.

  13. Efficient detection of human circulating tumor cells without significant production of false-positive cells by a novel conditionally replicating adenovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Sakurai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are promising biomarkers in several cancers, and thus methods and apparatuses for their detection and quantification in the blood have been actively pursued. A novel CTC detection system using a green fluorescence protein (GFP–expressing conditionally replicating adenovirus (Ad (rAd-GFP was recently developed; however, there is concern about the production of false-positive cells (GFP-positive normal blood cells when using rAd-GFP, particularly at high titers. In addition, CTCs lacking or expressing low levels of coxsackievirus–adenovirus receptor (CAR cannot be detected by rAd-GFP, because rAd-GFP is constructed based on Ad serotype 5, which recognizes CAR. In order to suppress the production of false-positive cells, sequences perfectly complementary to blood cell–specific microRNA, miR-142-3p, were incorporated into the 3′-untranslated region of the E1B and GFP genes. In addition, the fiber protein was replaced with that of Ad serotype 35, which recognizes human CD46, creating rAdF35-142T-GFP. rAdF35-142T-GFP efficiently labeled not only CAR-positive tumor cells but also CAR-negative tumor cells with GFP. The numbers of false-positive cells were dramatically lower for rAdF35-142T-GFP than for rAd-GFP. CTCs in the blood of cancer patients were detected by rAdF35-142T-GFP with a large reduction in false-positive cells.

  14. Resting venous plasma adrenalin in 70-year-old men correlated positively to survival in a population study: the significance of the physical working capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Niels Juel; Schultz-Larsen, K

    1994-01-01

    in a comprehensive medical examination. INTERVENTIONS. Plasma NA and A were measured in blood samples collected after the subjects had rested in the supine position for 15 min. The subjects have now been followed for 7 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. Seven years later, 115 men and 63 women had died. RESULTS. Cox...... of physical working capacity was included in the Cox regression analysis, both plasma NA and plasma A became insignificant, whereas a strong positive correlation appeared between physical working capacity and survival (P

  15. On the Impact of a Quadratic Acceleration Term in the Analysis of Position Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, Janusz; Klos, Anna; Bos, Machiel Simon; Hunegnaw, Addisu; Teferle, Felix Norman

    2016-04-01

    different types of noise are determined. Furthermore, we have selected 40 globally distributed stations that have a clear non-linear behaviour from two different International GNSS Service (IGS) analysis centers: JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) and BLT (British Isles continuous GNSS Facility and University of Luxembourg Tide Gauge Benchmark Monitoring (TIGA) Analysis Center). We obtained maximum accelerations of -1.8±1.2 mm2/y and -4.5±3.3 mm2/y for the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. The noise analysis tests have shown that the addition of the non-linear term has significantly whitened the power spectra of the position time series, i.e. shifted the spectral index from flicker towards white noise.

  16. The illusion of the positive: the impact of natural and induced mood on older adults' false recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Lisa; Hess, Thomas M; Elliot, Tonya

    2012-11-01

    Recent research suggests that affective and motivational processes can influence age differences in memory. In the current study, we examine the impact of both natural and induced mood state on age differences in false recall. Older and younger adults performed a version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Roediger & McDermott, 1995 , Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803) false memory paradigm in either their natural mood state or after a positive or negative mood induction. Results indicated that, after accounting for age differences in basic cognitive function, age-related differences in positive mood during the testing session were related to increased false recall in older adults. Inducing older adults into a positive mood also exacerbated age differences in false memory. In contrast, veridical recall did not appear to be systematically influenced by mood. Together, these results suggest that positive mood states can impact older adults' information processing and potentially increase underlying cognitive age differences.

  17. [Rare earth magnets in conjunction with fixed orthodontics. An "attractive" solution for the positioning of impacted teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereudre, B

    2001-11-01

    Two rare earth permanent magnets are used to align impacted teeth: one is bonded on the crown of the ectopic tooth, the other, intraoral, guides the impacted tooth to the desired place by its attractive power. The intraoral magnet is fixed to an edgewise arch. The adjustments allowed by fixed appliance create better final tooth position than with removable appliance. Our experience depicts an improvement of stability in results and a diminution of periodontal breakdown.

  18. Interventions that facilitate sustainable jobs and have a positive impact on workers’ health: an overview of systematic reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle M. Haby

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To identify interventions that facilitate sustainable jobs and have a positive impact on the health of workers in health sector workplaces. Methods This overview utilized systematic review methods to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations. A comprehensive search was conducted based on a predefined protocol, including specific inclusion criteria. To be classified as “sustainable,” interventions needed to aim (explicitly or implicitly to 1 have a positive impact on at least two key dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and 2 include measures of health impact. Only interventions conducted in, or applicable to, health sector workplaces were included. Results Fourteen systematic reviews and no economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria for the overview. The interventions that had a positive impact on health included 1 enforcement of occupational health and safety regulations; 2 use of the “degree of experience rating” feature of workers’ compensation; 3 provision of flexible working arrangements that increase worker control and choice; 4 implementation of certain organizational changes to shift work schedules; and 5 use of some employee participation schemes. Interventions with negative impacts on health included 1 downsizing/restructuring; 2 temporary and insecure work arrangements; 3 outsourcing/home-based work arrangements; and 4 some forms of task restructuring. Conclusions What is needed now is careful implementation, in health sector workplaces, of interventions likely to have positive impacts, but with careful evaluation of their effects including possible adverse impacts. Well-evaluated implementation of the interventions (including those at the pilot-study stage will contribute to the evidence base and inform future action. Interventions with negative health impacts should be withdrawn from practice (through regulation, where possible. If

  19. Interventions that facilitate sustainable jobs and have a positive impact on workers' health: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haby, Michelle M; Chapman, Evelina; Clark, Rachel; Galvão, Luiz A C

    2016-11-01

    To identify interventions that facilitate sustainable jobs and have a positive impact on the health of workers in health sector workplaces. This overview utilized systematic review methods to synthesize evidence from multiple systematic reviews and economic evaluations. A comprehensive search was conducted based on a predefined protocol, including specific inclusion criteria. To be classified as "sustainable," interventions needed to aim (explicitly or implicitly) to 1) have a positive impact on at least two key dimensions of the integrated framework for sustainable development and 2) include measures of health impact. Only interventions conducted in, or applicable to, health sector workplaces were included. Fourteen systematic reviews and no economic evaluations met the inclusion criteria for the overview. The interventions that had a positive impact on health included 1) enforcement of occupational health and safety regulations; 2) use of the "degree of experience rating" feature of workers' compensation; 3) provision of flexible working arrangements that increase worker control and choice; 4) implementation of certain organizational changes to shift work schedules; and 5) use of some employee participation schemes. Interventions with negative impacts on health included 1) downsizing/restructuring; 2) temporary and insecure work arrangements; 3) outsourcing/home-based work arrangements; and 4) some forms of task restructuring. What is needed now is careful implementation, in health sector workplaces, of interventions likely to have positive impacts, but with careful evaluation of their effects including possible adverse impacts. Well-evaluated implementation of the interventions (including those at the pilot-study stage) will contribute to the evidence base and inform future action. Interventions with negative health impacts should be withdrawn from practice (through regulation, where possible). If use of these interventions is necessary, for other reasons

  20. Evaluating the impacts of landscape positions and nitrogen fertilizer rates on dissolved organic carbon on switchgrass land seeded on marginally yielding cropland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Liming; Kumar, Sandeep; Mbonimpa, Eric G; Hong, Chang Oh; Owens, Vance N; Neupane, Ram P

    2016-04-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) through leaching into the soils is another mechanism of net C loss. It plays an important role in impacting the environment and impacted by soil and crop management practices. However, little is known about the impacts of landscape positions and nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates on DOC leaching in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.). This experimental design included three N fertilizer rates [0 (low); 56 (medium); 112 (high) kg N ha(-1)] and three landscape positions (shoulder, backslope and footslope). Daily average DOC contents at backslope were significantly lower than that at shoulder and footslope. The DOC contents from the plots that received medium N rate were also significantly lower than the plots that received low N rates. The interactions of landscape and N rates on DOC contents were different in every year from 2009 to 2014, however, no significant consistent trend of DOC contents was observed over time. Annual average DOC contents from the plots managed with low N rate were higher than those with high N rate. These contents at the footslope were higher than that at the shoulder position. Data show that there is a moderate positive relationship between the total average DOC contents and the total average switchgrass biomass yields. Overall, the DOC contents from leachate in the switchgrass land were significantly influenced by landscape positions and N rates. The N fertilization reduced DOC leaching contents in switchgrass field. The switchgrass could retain soil and environment sustainability to some extent. These findings will assist in understanding the mechanism of changes in DOC contents with various parameters in the natural environment and crop management systems. However, use of long-term data might help to better assess the effects of above factors on DOC leaching contents and loss in the switchgrass field in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The impact of financial position on investment: an analysis for non-financial corporations in the euro area

    OpenAIRE

    Carmen Martínez-Carrascal; Annalisa Ferrando

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact that firms financial position has on investment decisions using panel data from a large sample of non-financial corporations(around 120,000 firms) in six euro area countries(Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, the Netherlands and Spain). The results indicate that financial position is important to explain capital expenditures, as financial pressure appears relevant in explaining investment dynamics when it is proxied by cash flow, indebtedness and debt burden. The ...

  2. The impact of sensor errors and building structures on particle filter-based inertial positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftkjær, Thomas; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2012-01-01

    Positioning systems that do not depend on in-building infrastructures are critical for enabling a range of applications within pervasive computing. Particle filter-based inertial positioning promises infrastructure-less positioning, but previous research has not provided an understanding of how t...

  3. Significance of buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation on the level of the midbuccal mucosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Meijer, Henny J A

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed whether buccopalatal implant position, biotype, platform switching, and pre-implant bone augmentation affects the level of the midbuccal mucosa (MBM). Ninety patients with a single-tooth implant in the esthetic zone were included. The level of the MBM was measured on photographs

  4. Fiction reading has a small positive impact on social cognition: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodell-Feder, David; Tamir, Diana I

    2018-02-26

    Scholars from both the social sciences and the humanities have credited fiction reading with a range of positive real-world social effects. Research in psychology has suggested that readers may make good citizens because fiction reading is associated with better social cognition. But does fiction reading causally improve social cognition? Here, we meta-analyze extant published and unpublished experimental data to address this question. Multilevel random-effects meta-analysis of 53 effect sizes from 14 studies demonstrated that it does: compared to nonfiction reading and no reading, fiction reading leads to a small, statistically significant improvement in social-cognitive performance (g = .15-.16). This effect is robust across sensitivity analyses and does not appear to be the result of publication bias. We recommend that in future work, researchers use more robust reading manipulations, assess whether the effects transfer to improved real-world social functioning, and investigate mechanisms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Moderating effects of sex on the impact of diagnosis and amyloid positivity on verbal memory and hippocampal volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Berg, Jody-Lynn; Cummings, Jeffrey L; Banks, Sarah J

    2017-09-12

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) impacts men and women differently, but the effect of sex on predementia stages is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine whether sex moderates the impact of florbetapir positron emission tomography (PET) amyloid positivity (A + ) on verbal learning and memory performance and hippocampal volume (HV) in normal cognition (NC) and early mild cognitive impairment (eMCI). Seven hundred forty-two participants with NC and participants with eMCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (second cohort [ADNI2] and Grand Opportunity Cohort [ADNI-GO]) were included. All had baseline florbetapir PET measured, and 526 had screening visit HV measured. Regression moderation models were used to examine whether A + effects on Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test learning and delayed recall and right and left HV (adjusted for total intracranial volume) were moderated by diagnosis and sex. Age, cognition at screening, education, and apolipoprotein E ε4 carrier status were controlled. Women with A + , but not those with florbetapir PET amyloid negative (A-),eMCI showed poorer learning. For women with NC, there was no relationship of A + with learning. In contrast, A + men trended toward poorer learning regardless of diagnosis. A similar trend was found for verbal delayed recall: Women with A + , but not A-, eMCI trended toward reduced delayed recall; no effects were observed for women with NC or for men. Hippocampal analyses indicated that women with A + , but not those with A - , eMCI, trended toward smaller right HV; no significant A + effects were observed for women with NC. Men showed similar, though nonsignificant, patterns of smaller right HV in A + eMCI, but not in men with A - eMCI or NC. No interactive effects of sex were noted for left HV. Women with NC showed verbal learning and memory scores robust to A + , and women with A + eMCI lost this advantage. In contrast, A + impacted men's scores less significantly or not at all, and

  6. The Impact of School Design and Arrangement on Learning Experiences: A Case Study of an Architecturally Significant Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Deirdre Lyne

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the impact of architectural design and arrangement on the learning experiences of students. Specifically, it examined how school design and arrangement foster interactions and relationships among students and adults relevant to integral learning experiences. This case study was limited to the breadth of knowledge…

  7. Field evaluation of personal digital assistant enabled by global positioning system : impact on quality of activity and diary data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bellemans, T.; Kochan, B.; Janssens, D.; Wets, G.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Stopher, P.

    2016-01-01

    Tom Bellemans, Bruno Kochan, Davy Janssens, Geert Wets and Harry Timmermans (2008), ‘Field Evaluation of Personal Digital Assistant Enabled by Global Positioning System: Impact on Quality of Activity and Diary Data’, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No.

  8. The Impact of Personal and Program Characteristics on the Placement of School Leadership Preparation Program Graduates in School Leader Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Edward J.; Hollingworth, Liz; An, Brian P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of personal and program characteristics on the placement of graduates of principal preparation programs in assistant principal, principal, and school leadership positions. Research Design: This study relies on Texas principal production data from 1993 through 2007 matched to employment…

  9. Budget impact analysis of antiretroviral less drug regimen simplification in HIV-positive patients on the Italian National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restelli U

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Umberto Restelli,1,2 Massimo Andreoni,3 Andrea Antinori,4 Marzia Bonfanti,2 Giovanni Di Perri,5 Massimo Galli,6 Adriano Lazzarin,7 Giuliano Rizzardini,8,9 Davide Croce1,2 1Department of Community Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Centro di Ricerca in Economia e Management in Sanità e nel Sociale (CREMS, Università Carlo Cattaneo – LIUC, Castellanza (VA, Italy; 3Clinical Infectious Diseases, Tor Vergata University (PTV, Rome, Italy; 4Clinical Department, National Institute for Infectious Diseases "L. Spallanzani," Rome, Italy; 5Department of Medical Sciences, Infectious Diseases, Amedeo di Savoia Hospital, Turin, Italy; 6Third Division of Infectious Diseases, "Luigi Sacco" Hospital, Milan, Italy; 7Department of Infectious Diseases, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy; 8First and Second Divisions of Infectious Diseases, "Luigi Sacco" Hospital, Milan, Italy; 9School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa Background: Deintensification and less drug regimen (LDR antiretroviral therapy (ART strategies have proved to be effective in terms of maintaining viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive patients, increasing tolerability, and reducing toxicity of antiretroviral drugs administered to patients. However, the economic impact of these strategies have not been widely investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the economic impact that ART LDR could have on the Italian National Health Service (INHS budget. Methods: A budget impact model was structured to assess the potential savings for the INHS by the use of ART LDR for HIV-positive patients with a 3 year perspective. Data concerning ART cost, patient distribution within different ARTs, and probabilities for patients to change ART on a yearly basis were collected within four Italian infectious diseases departments, providing

  10. Prognostic Impact of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients with One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Ansari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Radiotherapy, as an adjuvant treatment, plays a well-known role in prevention of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the impact of radiotherapy in patients with N1 disease. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the characteristics and treatment outcomes of 316 patients with a biopsy proven diagnosis of breast carcinoma and 1-3 positive axillary lymph nodes. The patients received treatment between 1995 and 2014. The patients had a median follow-up of 60 (range: 6-182 months. Results: This study was conducted on 316 patients with a median age of 48 (range: 26-86 years. Among patients, 215 underwent modified radical mastectomy and 101 had breast-conserving surgery before adjuvant treatment. Indeed, 259 patients received radiotherapy (radiation group and 57 did not (control group. There was locoregional recurrence in one control group patient and two patients in the radiation group. Multivariate analysis results indicated hormone receptor status as an independent prognostic factor for the 5-year disease-free survival rate. Estrogen and progesterone receptor negativity (HR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.02-3.19, P=0.043 also had a negative influence on the 5-year disease-free survival rate. However, radiotherapy had no significant effect on disease-free survival (P=0.446 and overall survival (P=0.058 rates. Conclusion: The results showed that adjuvant radiotherapy had no prognostic impacts on locoregional and distant disease control in breast cancer patients with N1 disease.

  11. Position statement on 'Economic Impact of Oil and Gas Development within the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This document contains the statement outlining the official position of the Newfoundland Ocean Industries Association (NOIA) concerning the report on the 'Economic Impact of Oil and Gas Development within the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador'. NOIA's position reflects the concern that Newfoundland businesses and individuals be involved in this emerging industry. Not unexpectedly, the statement is directed primarily towards improving economic opportunity for its members, but it also argues in favour of increasing economic activity within the province as whole. The Position Statement addresses six major issues of concern. These are: a full and fair opportunity for Newfoundland-resident supply and service companies to bid on an internationally competitive basis; a level playing field for all those who submit bids for contracts; enhancement of Newfoundland technology, expertise and facilities, as well as support of technology transfer to interested and capable Newfoundland businesses or companies; a life-of-field approach to planning, or linking capital expenditure and operational expenditure in order to achieve long-term positive economic impact within Newfoundland and Labrador; a supplier development program to encourage the development of an internationally competitive Newfoundland supply community; and the encouragement of operators and major contractors to fulfill specific requirements for positive economic impact within the province

  12. Positive Impacts of a Vegetable Cooking Skills Program among Low-Income Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Francine; Ritter, Allison; Mann, Traci; Mykerezi, Elton; Redden, Joseph; Rendahl, Aaron; Vickers, Zata; Reicks, Marla

    2017-12-12

    To evaluate the impact of a vegetable-focused cooking skills and nutrition program on parent and child psychosocial measures, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Baseline and postcourse surveys collected 1-week after the course. Low-income communities in Minneapolis-St Paul. Parent-child dyads (n = 89; one third each Hispanic, African American, and white) with complete pre-post course data; flyer and e-mail recruitment. Six 2-hour-weekly sessions including demonstration, food preparation, nutrition education lessons, and a meal. Parental cooking confidence and barriers, food preparation/resource management, child self-efficacy and cooking attitudes, vegetable liking, vegetable variety, and vegetable home availability. Pre-post changes analyzed with paired t test or Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results were significant at P cooking confidence (4.0 to 4.4/5.0), healthy food preparation (3.6 to 3.9/5.0), child self-efficacy (14.8 to 12.4; lower score = greater self-efficacy), parent liking of vegetables used in the course (7.8 to 8.1/10.0), vegetable variety (30 to 32/37 for parent, 22 to 24/37 for child), and home vegetable availability (16 to 18/35) (all P cooking and nutrition program for parents and children showed improvements in psychosocial factors, vegetable liking, variety, and home availability. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The significance of pretreatment CD4 count on the outcome and treatment tolerance of HIV-positive patients with anal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, Rex; Welton, Mark L.; Klencke, Barbara; Weinberg, Vivian; Krieg, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the outcome and tolerance of HIV-positive patients with anal cancer to standard therapy based on their pretreatment CD4 count. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 1997, 17 HIV-positive patients with anal cancer and documented pretreatment CD4 counts were treated at the University of California, San Francisco or its affiliated hospitals with either concurrent chemotherapy and radiation or radiation alone. The outcome and complications of treatment were correlated with the patients' pretreatment CD4 count. Results: Disease for all 9 patients with pretreatment CD4 counts ≥ 200 was controlled with chemoradiation. Although four required a treatment break of 2 weeks because of toxicity, none required hospitalization. Of the 8 patients with pretreatment CD4 counts < 200, 4 experienced decreased counts, intractable diarrhea, or moist desquamation requiring hospitalization. Additionally, 4 of these 8 ultimately required a colostomy either for a therapy-related complication or for salvage. Nevertheless, 6/7 in this group who received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation had their disease controlled, whereas the patient treated with radiation alone failed and required a colostomy for salvage. Conclusion: Patients with CD4 ≥ 200 had excellent disease control with acceptable morbidity. Patients with CD4 < 200 had markedly increased morbidity; however, disease was ultimately controlled in 7/8 patients

  14. Longitudinal Models of Socio-Economic Status: Impact on Positive Parenting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Gazi; Blacher, Jan; Marcoulides, George

    2014-01-01

    Parenting research is frequently conducted without a thorough examination of socio-economic characteristics. In this study, longitudinal observations of positive parenting were conducted across six time points. Participants were 219 mothers of children with and without developmental delays. Mothers' positive parenting increased during early and…

  15. Environmental Assessment with Finding of No Significant Impact (EA/FONSI) for New Mobile Aircraft Fire Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    communities. The major compositional trend of the vegetation over time is toward an increased density of conifers , especially in the Montane zone...important plant or animal species; interfered substantially with wildlife movement or reproductive behavior; resulted in a substantial infusion of...with wildlife movement or reproductive behavior. The MAFT site is adjacent to know PMJM habitat. Potential impacts to vegetation would not be

  16. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs.

  17. Environmental assessment for the Waste Water Treatment Facility at the West Valley Demonstration Project and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The possible environmental impacts from the construction and operation of a waste water treatment facility for the West Valley Demonstration Project are presented. The West Valley Project is a demonstration project on the solidification of high-level radioactive wastes. The need for the facility is the result of a rise in the work force needed for the project which rendered the existing sewage treatment plant incapable of meeting the nonradioactive waste water treatment needs

  18. Women's participation in rural credit programmes in Bangladesh and their demand for formal health care: is there a positive impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, P

    1999-08-01

    Within the overall aim of poverty alleviation, development efforts have included credit and self-employment programmes. In Bangladesh, the major beneficiaries of such group-based credit programmes are rural women who use the loans to initiate small informal income-generating activities. This paper explores the benefits of women's participation in credit programmes on their own health seeking. Using data from a sample of 1798 households from rural Bangladesh, conducted in 1991-1992 through repeated random sampling of 87 districts covered by Grameen Bank, Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee (BRAC) and Bangladesh Rural Development Board (BRDB), this paper addresses the question: does women's participation in credit programmes significantly affect their use of formal health care? A non-unitary household preference model is suggested to test the hypothesis that women's empowerment through participation in these programmes results in greater control of resources for their own demand for formal health care. The analysis controls for endogeneity due to self-selection and other unobserved village level factors through the use of a weighted two stage instrumental variable approach with village level fixed effects. The findings indicate a positive impact of women's participation in credit programmes on their demand for formal health care. The policy simulations on the results of this study highlight the importance of credit programmes as a health intervention in addition to being a mechanism for women's economic empowerment.

  19. Significant clinical impact and prognostic stratification provided by FDG-PET in the staging of oesophageal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duong, Cuong P.; Demitriou, Helen; Thompson, Anne; Williams, David; Thomas, Robert J.S.; Weih, LeAnn; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical impact of FDG-PET in staging oesophageal cancer and whether this information improves prognostic stratification. Impact was based on comparison of a prospectively recorded pre-PET plan with post-PET treatment in 68 consecutive patients undergoing primary staging. Survival was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model. FDG-PET findings impacted on the management of 27/68 patients (40%): in 12 therapy was changed from curative to palliative and in three from palliative to curative, while in 12 other patients there was a change in the treatment modality or delivery but not in the treatment intent. The median survival was 21 months, with post-PET stage and treatment intent both strongly associated with survival (p<0.001). Conventional stage was not able to clearly stratify this population. The use of FDG-PET for primary staging of oesophageal cancer changed the clinical management of more than one-third of patients and provided superior prognostic stratification compared with conventional investigations. (orig.)

  20. The impact of positive affect on health cognitions and behaviours: a meta-analysis of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, David S; Bertenshaw, Emma J; Sheeran, Paschal

    2015-01-01

    Several reviews suggest that positive affect is associated with improved longevity, fewer physical symptoms, and biological indicators of good health. It is possible that positive affect could influence these outcomes by promoting healthful cognitions and behaviours. The present review identified conceptual pathways from positive affect to health cognitions and behaviour, and used random effects meta-analysis to quantify the impact of positive affect inductions (versus neutral affect conditions) on these outcomes. Literature searches located 54 independent tests that could be included in the review. Across all studies, the findings revealed no reliable effects on intentions (d+ = -.12, 95% CI = -.32 to .08, k = 15) or behaviour (d+ = .15, 95% CI = -.03 to .33, k = 23). There were four reliable effects involving specific cognitions and behaviours, but little clear evidence for generalised benefits or adverse effects of positive emotions on health-related cognitions or actions. Conclusions must be cautious given the paucity of tests available for analysis. The review offers suggestions about research designs that might profitably be deployed in future studies, and calls for additional tests of the impact of discrete positive emotions on health cognitions and behaviour.

  1. AllergoOncology - the impact of allergy in oncology: EAACI position paper

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jensen-Jarolim, E.; Bax, H. J.; Bianchini, R.; Capron, M.; Corrigan, C.; Castells, M.; Dombrowicz, D.; Daniels-Wells, T. R.; Fazekas, J.; Fiebiger, E.; Gatault, S.; Gould, H. J.; Janda, Jozef; Josephs, D. H.; Karagiannis, P.; Levi-Schaffer, F.; Meshcheryaková, A.; Mechtcheriakova, D.; Mekori, Y.; Mungenast, F.; Nigro, E. A.; Penichet, M. L.; Redegeld, F.; Saul, L.; Singer, J.; Spicer, J. F.; Siccardi, A. G.; Spillner, E.; Turner, M. C.; Untersmayr, E.; Vangelista, L.; Karagiannis, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 6 (2017), s. 866-887 ISSN 0105-4538 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : allergooncology * allergy * atopy Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Allergy Impact factor: 7.361, year: 2016

  2. Of PCOS symptoms, hirsutism has the most significant impact on the quality of life of Iranian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Bahri Khomami

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting women both physically and psychologically and can lead to a poor quality of life compared to their normal counterparts. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of various clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome on the health-related quality of life of Iranian women diagnosed with this syndrome.A total of 796 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 15-49 years, completed the questionnaires, interviews, and medical assessments required for this study. A reliable and validated Persian version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome patients was used. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life.The mean age of participants was 28.02 years. 35.4% of the subjects were classified as overweight or obese. Hirsutism, was reported to have the strongest impact on the patients' health-related quality of life, followed in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses and infertility. The relative level of hirsutism was directly proportional to decrease in health-related quality of life score (p<0.001.The results of the study found that hirsutism had the strongest impact on the health-related quality of life measures in Iranian women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. Health care officials need to evaluate in depth the effect of each clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome separately and design management strategies, keeping in mind the psychological and physical manifestations.

  3. Of PCOS symptoms, hirsutism has the most significant impact on the quality of life of Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomami, Mahnaz Bahri; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani; Hashemi, Somayeh; Farahmand, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a common endocrine disorder affecting women both physically and psychologically and can lead to a poor quality of life compared to their normal counterparts. The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of various clinical features of polycystic ovary syndrome on the health-related quality of life of Iranian women diagnosed with this syndrome. A total of 796 women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome, aged 15-49 years, completed the questionnaires, interviews, and medical assessments required for this study. A reliable and validated Persian version of the health-related quality of life questionnaire for polycystic ovary syndrome patients was used. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome and health-related quality of life. The mean age of participants was 28.02 years. 35.4% of the subjects were classified as overweight or obese. Hirsutism, was reported to have the strongest impact on the patients' health-related quality of life, followed in descending order by body mass index, irregular menses and infertility. The relative level of hirsutism was directly proportional to decrease in health-related quality of life score (p<0.001). The results of the study found that hirsutism had the strongest impact on the health-related quality of life measures in Iranian women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome. Health care officials need to evaluate in depth the effect of each clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome separately and design management strategies, keeping in mind the psychological and physical manifestations.

  4. Clinical and angiographic predictors of haemodynamically significant angiographic lesions: development and validation of a risk score to predict positive fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sareen, Nishtha; Baber, Usman; Kezbor, Safwan; Sayseng, Sonny; Aquino, Melissa; Mehran, Roxana; Sweeny, Joseph; Barman, Nitin; Kini, Annapoorna; Sharma, Samin K

    2017-04-07

    Coronary revascularisation based upon physiological evaluation of lesions improves clinical outcomes. Angiographic or visual stenosis assessment alone is insufficient in predicting haemodynamic stenosis severity by fractional flow reserve (FFR) and therefore cannot be used to guide revascularisation, particularly in the lesion subset system formulated. Of 1,023 consecutive lesions (883 patients), 314 (31%) were haemodynamically significant. Characteristics associated with FFR ≤0.8 include male gender, higher SYNTAX score, lesions ≥20 mm, stenosis >50%, bifurcation, calcification, absence of tortuosity and smaller reference diameter. A user-friendly integer score was developed with the five variables demonstrating the strongest association. On prospective validation (in 279 distinct lesions), the increasing value of the score correlated well with increasing haemodynamic significance (C-statistic 0.85). We identified several clinical and angiographic characteristics and formulated a scoring system to guide the approach to intermediate lesions. This may translate into cost savings. Larger studies with prospective validation are required to confirm our results.

  5. Study of the Impact of the Global Positioning System on Army Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    be introduced to those who will be in positions of leadership and/or decision making at the time of system implementation. This is particularly true...These officers may well be in positions of decision making relative to methods, techniques and unit missions employing GPS. Maintenance, and...the time cf measurement with the aid of auxillary equipment. . TeU2wometeA MRA-1) - This is the oldest type of microwave instrument is the Army

  6. High resolution microscopy reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification and warming on larval shell development in Laternula elliptica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylenga, Christine H; Cummings, Vonda J; Ryan, Ken G

    2017-01-01

    Environmental stressors impact marine larval growth rates, quality and sizes. Larvae of the Antarctic bivalve, Laternula elliptica, were raised to the D-larvae stage under temperature and pH conditions representing ambient and end of century projections (-1.6°C to +0.4°C and pH 7.98 to 7.65). Previous observations using light microscopy suggested pH had no influence on larval abnormalities in this species. Detailed analysis of the shell using SEM showed that reduced pH is in fact a major stressor during development for this species, producing D-larvae with abnormal shapes, deformed shell edges and irregular hinges, cracked shell surfaces and even uncalcified larvae. Additionally, reduced pH increased pitting and cracking on shell surfaces. Thus, apparently normal larvae may be compromised at the ultrastructural level and these larvae would be in poor condition at settlement, reducing juvenile recruitment and overall survival. Elevated temperatures increased prodissoconch II sizes. However, the overall impacts on larval shell quality and integrity with concurrent ocean acidification would likely overshadow any beneficial results from warmer temperatures, limiting populations of this prevalent Antarctic species.

  7. High resolution microscopy reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification and warming on larval shell development in Laternula elliptica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine H Bylenga

    Full Text Available Environmental stressors impact marine larval growth rates, quality and sizes. Larvae of the Antarctic bivalve, Laternula elliptica, were raised to the D-larvae stage under temperature and pH conditions representing ambient and end of century projections (-1.6°C to +0.4°C and pH 7.98 to 7.65. Previous observations using light microscopy suggested pH had no influence on larval abnormalities in this species. Detailed analysis of the shell using SEM showed that reduced pH is in fact a major stressor during development for this species, producing D-larvae with abnormal shapes, deformed shell edges and irregular hinges, cracked shell surfaces and even uncalcified larvae. Additionally, reduced pH increased pitting and cracking on shell surfaces. Thus, apparently normal larvae may be compromised at the ultrastructural level and these larvae would be in poor condition at settlement, reducing juvenile recruitment and overall survival. Elevated temperatures increased prodissoconch II sizes. However, the overall impacts on larval shell quality and integrity with concurrent ocean acidification would likely overshadow any beneficial results from warmer temperatures, limiting populations of this prevalent Antarctic species.

  8. The environmental impact of mine wastes - roles of microorganisms and their significance in treatment of mine wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledin, M.; Pedersen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Mine wastes constitute a potential source of contamination to the environment, as heavy metals and acid are released in large amounts. A great variety of microorganisms has been found in mine wastes and microbiological processes are usually responsible for the environmental hazard created by mine wastes. However, microorganisms can also be used to retard the adverse impact of mine wastes on the environment. Conventionally, the mine drainage as well as the waste itself can be treated with alkali to increase pH and precipitate metals. The main drawback of this method is that it has to be continuously repeated to be fully effective. There may also be negative effects on beneficial microorganisms. Several other treatment methods have been developed to stop weathering processes thereby reducing the environmental impact of mine wastes. The other main approach is to treat the drainage water. Various methods aim at using microorganisms for this in natural or engineered systems. Recently, much interest has been focused on the use of natural or artificial wetlands for treatment. In general, the activity of microorganisms is neglected in the design of mine waste treatment systems, and the treatments are created merely from a technical point of view. This can result in situations where unexpected microbial processes take over, and, in the worst scenario, the overall effect is opposite to the desired

  9. Impact of patient position on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexiou, Vangelis G; Ierodiakonou, Vrettos; Dimopoulos, George; Falagas, Matthew E

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study is to summarize the effect of position (prone and semirecumbent 45 degrees ) of mechanically ventilated patients on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and other outcomes. A systematic search for randomized control trials (RCTs) was done. We estimated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fixed effects model or random effects model, where appropriate. For continuous variables, we calculated the estimation of weighted mean differences. We analyzed data extracted from 3 RCTs studying the semirecumbent 45 degrees and 4 RCTs studying the prone position with a total of 337 and 1018 patients, respectively. The odds of developing clinically diagnosed VAP were significantly lower among patients in the semirecumbent 45 degrees position compared to patients in the supine position (OR = 0.47; 95% CI, 0.27-0.82; 337 patients). The comparison of prone vs supine position group showed a moderate trend toward better outcomes regarding the incidence of clinically diagnosed VAP among patients in the prone position (OR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.60-1.08; 1018 patients). The subanalysis regarding the incidence of microbiologically documented VAP, the length of intensive care unit stay, and the duration of mechanical ventilation showed that patients in the semirecumbent 45 degrees position have a moderate trend toward better clinical outcomes. This meta-analysis provides additional evidence that the usual practice of back-rest elevation of 15 degrees to 30 degrees is not sufficient to prevent VAP in mechanically ventilated patients. Patients positioned semirecumbently 45 degrees have significantly lower incidence of clinically diagnosed VAP compared to patients positioned supinely. On the other hand, the incidence of clinically diagnosed VAP among patients positioned pronely does not differ significantly from the incidence of clinically diagnosed VAP among patients positioned supinely.

  10. Impact of asymmetric lamp positioning on the performance of a closed-conduit UV reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tipu Sultan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analyses for the performance improvement of a closed-conduit ultraviolet (UV reactor were performed by changing the lamp positions from symmetric to asymmetric. The asymmetric lamp positioning can be useful for UV reactor design and optimization. This goal was achieved by incorporating the two performance factors, namely reduction equivalent dose (RED and system dose performance. Four cases were carried out for asymmetric lamp positioning within the UV reactor chamber and each case consisted of four UV lamps that were simulated once symmetrically and four times asymmetrically. The results of the four asymmetric cases were compared with the symmetric one. Moreover, these results were evaluated by using CFD simulations of a closed-conduit UV reactor. The fluence rate model, UVCalc3D was employed to validate the simulations results. The simulation results provide detailed information about the dose distribution, pathogen track modeling and RED. The RED value was increased by approximately 15% by using UVCalc3D fluence rate model. Additionally, the asymmetric lamp positioning of the UV lamps had more than 50% of the pathogens received a better and a higher UV dose than in the symmetric case. Consequently, the system dose performance was improved by asymmetric lamp positioning. It was concluded that the performance parameters (higher RED and system dose performance were improved by using asymmetric lamp positioning.

  11. Impact on reproducibility of the treatment position by improving immobilization device in image guided radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Yuko; Sasaki, Junichi; Shiomi, Hiroya; Oh, Ryoongjin; Inoue, Toshihiko; Tajiri, Shingo

    2012-01-01

    The immobilization device for treatment becomes important to obtain fixation and reproducibility of the treatment position. It was confirmed that reproducibility of the treatment position obtains higher accuracy by the method of using immobilization device. We divided into three terms by the methods of immobilization. An infrared reflective marker performs the setup of a position at the start of treatment, and setup of the patient in a fixed implement is performed by ExacTrac. Difference between coordinates of the immobilization device and the patient position was calculated by the vector in three directions. We estimated the position error index (PE index ) by using the square root of the sum of square of each vectors, and evaluated the amount of differences of patient position at three terms. Mean and standard deviation of index values were 9.53±7.21, 8.50±5.93, and 6.42±3.80 at each three terms. With every passing year, the amount of gap and difference of the patient fixation has decreased. By the improvement of the use of the immobilization device, gap and difference of fixation has decreased. Accordingly, we could obtain better accuracy of fixation. (author)

  12. The positive impact of European subsidies on soil erosion rates in orange plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Jordán, Antonio; Novara, Agata; Taguas, Tani; Pereira, Paulo; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    . 2011. Ant Mounds as a Source of Sediment on Citrus Orchard Plantations in Eastern Spain. A Three-Scale Rainfall Simulation Approach. Catena 85 (3): 231-236. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2011.01.008. Cerdà, A., A. G. Morera, and M. B. Bodí. 2009a. Soil and Water Losses from New Citrus Orchards Growing on Sloped Soils in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 34 (13): 1822-1830. doi:10.1002/esp.1889. Cerdà, A., H. Lavee, A. Romero-Díaz, J. Hooke, and L. Montanarella. 2010. Preface: Soil Erosion and Degradation in Mediterranean Type Ecosystems. Land Degradation and Development 21 (2): 71-74. doi:10.1002/ldr.968. Cerdà, A., M. F. Jurgensen, and M. B. Bodi. 2009b. Effects of Ants on Water and Soil Losses from Organically-Managed Orchards in Eastern Spain. Biologia 64 (3): 527-531. doi:10.2478/s11756-009-0114-7. Giménez-Morera, A., J. D. Ruiz Sinoga, and A. Cerdà. 2010. The Impact of Cotton Geotextiles on Soil and Water Losses from Mediterranean Rainfed Agricultural Land. Land Degradation and Development 21 (2): 210-217. doi:10.1002/ldr.971. Keesstra, S. D., Bouma, J., Wallinga, J., Tittonell, P., Smith, P., Cerdà, A., Montanarella, L., Quinton, J. N., Pachepsky, Y., van der Putten, W. H., Bardgett, R. D., Moolenaar, S., Mol, G., Jansen, B., and Fresco, L. O.: The significance of soils and soil science towards realization of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, SOIL, 2, 111-128, doi:10.5194/soil-2-111-2016, 2016. Mwango, S. B., B. M. Msanya, P. W. Mtakwa, D. N. Kimaro, J. Deckers, and J. Poesen. 2016. Effectiveness OF Mulching Under Miraba in Controlling Soil Erosion, Fertility Restoration and Crop Yield in the Usambara Mountains, Tanzania. Land Degradation and Development 27 (4): 1266-1275. doi:10.1002/ldr.2332. Nawaz, A., R. Lal, R. K. Shrestha, and M. Farooq. 2016. Mulching Affects Soil Properties and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Under Long-Term no-Till and Plough-Till Systems in Alfisol of Central Ohio. Land Degradation and

  13. Response to Letter Regarding the Louisiana Department of Environmental Protection's Position on the PSD Significant Emission Level for ODS at Existing Major Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Prognostic significance of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 and 5b expression in Epstein-Barr virus-positive patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis T; Sofotasiou, Maria; Georgoussi, Zafiroula; Giannakopoulou, Nefeli; Papadopoulou, Vasiliki; Galanopoulos, Athanasios; Kontandreopoulou, Elina; Zervakis, Panagiotis; Pallaki, Paschalina; Kalala, Fani; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Dimitrakopoulou, Aglaia; Vassilakopoulos, Theodoros; Angelopoulou, Maria; Spanakis, Nikolaos; Viniou, Nora-Athina

    2016-09-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins have been intensively studied in hematologic malignancies, and the efficacy of agents against STATs in lymphomas is already under research. We investigated the expression of total STAT5 and STAT5b in peripheral blood samples of patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) in correlation with the presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and its major oncoprotein (latent membrane protein 1, LMP1). The EBV load was measured in the peripheral blood by real-time PCR for the BXLF1 gene and the levels of LMP1 by PCR and ELISA. Western blotting was performed for total STAT5 and STAT5b in protein extracts. STAT5b was only expressed in patients (not in healthy subjects) and STAT5 but particularly STAT5b expression was correlated with the presence of the virus (77.3% vs. 51.2%, P = 0.006 for STAT5b) and to the expression of LMP1 (58.3% vs. 21.6%, P = 0.011 for STAT5b). Moreover, the expression of STAT5b and the presence of EBV and LMP1 were strongly negatively correlated with the overall survival of the patients (log-rank test P = 0.011, 0.015, 0.006, respectively). Double positive (for EBV and STAT5b) patients had the lowest overall survival (log-rank test P = 0.013). This is the first report of a survival disadvantage of EBV+ patients with CLL, and the first time that STAT5b expression is correlated with survival. The correlation of STAT5 expression with the presence of the virus, along with our survival correlations defines a subgroup of patients with CLL that may benefit from anti-STAT agents. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. What is the significance of a microscopically positive resection margin in the curative-intent treatment of rectal adenocarcinoma? A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Z; Muntean, A; Irimie, A; Hica, S; Resiga, L; Todor, N; Nagy, V

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the characteristics of patients with rectal cancer operated with a microscopic positive margin (R1) and thus avoid these situations or adapt treatment in these particular cases. We reviewed all the pathology data of resected specimens from patients with rectal or recto-sigmoid cancer operated with curative intent at the Institute of Oncology "Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuta" between 2000-2011 (763 patients in 12 years) and the pathology files of patients from other institutions referred for adjuvant treatment to our hospital (318 patients). We included patients with anterior resection, Hartmann's procedure and abdomino-perineal resection, but we excluded patients with local excision and patients with R2/R1 at first, but R0 after re-resection (56 patients). We have identified 31 patients with R1, but had to exclude one case from analysis because this patient was lost to follow-up. With surgery alone the local relapse (LR) was unavoidable. In the neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) group 85.7% of the patients did not develop LR despite of R1. In the adjuvant CRT cohort 50% of the patients were LR-free at 2 years after conventional radiotherapy (p<0.01). Based on these results it is concluded that a clear resection margin is extremely important for the local control of rectal cancer, because it cannot be always compensated by adjuvant CRT. In R1 cases neoadjuvant CRT seems to offer better prognosis than adjuvant CRT. To avoid R1 and its consequences a good quality control of total mesorectal excision (TME) is needed and CRT should be done before and not after surgery. R1 after primary surgery needs to be compensated by re-resection if possible, otherwise probably high dose radiotherapy with chemotherapy is needed.

  16. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project.

  17. Economic significance of noxious insects in pine stands under the permanent impact of the industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierpinski, Z

    1970-01-01

    Studies revealed that numerous species of noxious insects, particularly those from the group of so-called harassing and secondary pests, found favorable conditions for their development in areas under permanent impact of industrial air pollution. The most numerous and most important species in pine stands is Exoteleia dodecella L., the larvae of which at first mine needles, then destroy the buds. Feeding by this pest causes deformations as a result of which younger trees acquire a shrubby form, while older ones are umbrella-shaped. Among the primary pests, Acantholyda nemoralis Thoms. and sometimes Lymantria monacha L., may occur more abundantly in the areas containing little industrial emissions. In older stands secondary pests which could be divided into two groups were of great economic importance. The first group includes Phaenops cyanea F., Pissodes piniphilus Hbst., and Paururus juvencus L. which infest trees in gappy stands, strongly thinned ones, and those adjoining industrial plants.

  18. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final Environmental Assessment/Management Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property.

  19. Burlington Bottoms Wildlife Mitigation Project. Final environmental assessment/management plan and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund wildlife management and enhancement activities for the Burlington bottoms wetlands mitigation site. Acquired by BPA in 1991, wildlife habitat at Burlington bottoms would contribute toward the goal of mitigation for wildlife losses and inundation of wildlife habitat due to the construction of Federal dams in the lower Columbia and Willamette River Basins. Target wildlife species identified for mitigation purposes are yellow warbler, great blue heron, black-capped chickadee, red-tailed hawk, valley quail, spotted sandpiper, wood duck, and beaver. The Draft Management Plan/Environmental Assessment (EA) describes alternatives for managing the Burlington Bottoms area, and evaluates the potential environmental impacts of the alternatives. Included in the Draft Management Plan/EA is an implementation schedule, and a monitoring and evaluation program, both of which are subject to further review pending determination of final ownership of the Burlington Bottoms property

  20. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Biorecycling Technologies, Inc., Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant, Fresno County, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is considering a proposal from the California Energy Commission for partial funding up to $1,500,000 of the construction of the biorecycling Technologies, Inc., (BTI) Noble Biogas and Fertilizer Plant in Fresno County, California. BTI along with its contractors and business partners would develop the plant, which would use manure and green waste to produce biogas and a variety of organic fertilizer products. The California Energy Commission has requested funding from the DOE Commercialization Ventures program to assist in the construction of the plant, which would produce up to one megawatt of electricity by burning biogas in a cogeneration unit. The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with funding development of the proposed project

  1. The impact of tamoxifen on breast recurrence, cosmesis, complications, and survival in estrogen receptor positive early stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowble, B; Fein, D A; Hanlon, A L; Eisenberg, B L; Hoffman, J P; Sigurdson, E R; Daly, M B; Goldstein, L J

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: In the NSABP B14 trial evaluating tamoxifen (tam) in axillary node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors fewer breast recurrences were observed in patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation who received tam compared to the observation arm. An additional series, however, has suggested that tam adversely impacts on the cosmetic result. To further address these issues we compared the outcome of estrogen receptor positive tumors treated with conservative surgery and radiation with or without tam. Materials and Methods: From 1982 to 1991, 491 women with estrogen receptor positive stage I-II breast cancer underwent excisional biopsy, axillary dissection and radiation. The median age of the patient population was 60 years (range 39-85). The median followup was 5.3 years (range .1-12.8). 69% had T1 tumors and 83% had histologically negative axillary nodes. Reexcision was performed in 49%. The final margin of resection was negative in 64%, unknown in 18%, and close or positive in 19%. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 154 patients received tam and 337 received no adjuvant therapy. Patients who received tam were more often axillary node positive (44% tam vs 5% no tam) and less often had unknown margins (9% tam vs 22% no tam). There were no significant differences for the 2 groups for median age, primary tumor size, histology, race, or use of reexcision. Results: The 5 yr act rate of breast recurrence was 4% for the tam patients compared to 7% for patients not receiving tam (p=.21). At 8 yrs, the breast recurrence rates were 4% for the tam patients compared to 11% for the no tam patients (p=.05). However, at 9 years the rates were 17% tam vs 14% no tam (p=.21). The benefit from tam in terms of a decreased 5 year actuarial breast recurrence rate was most evident for patients who did not have a reexcision (3% tam vs 10% no tam, p=.15), had unknown margins (7% tam vs 13% no tam, p=.37) or close margins (0% tam vs 11% no tam, p=.34

  2. The impact of tamoxifen on breast recurrence, cosmesis, complications, and survival in estrogen receptor positive early stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowble, B.; Fein, D.A.; Hanlon, A.L.; Eisenberg, B.L.; Hoffman, J.P.; Sigurdson, E.R.; Daly, M.B.; Goldstein, L.J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: In the NSABP B14 trial evaluating tamoxifen (tam) in axillary node negative, estrogen receptor positive tumors fewer breast recurrences were observed in patients treated with conservative surgery and radiation who received tam compared to the observation arm. An additional series, however, has suggested that tam adversely impacts on the cosmetic result. To further address these issues we compared the outcome of estrogen receptor positive tumors treated with conservative surgery and radiation with or without tam. Materials and Methods: From 1982 to 1991, 491 women with estrogen receptor positive stage I-II breast cancer underwent excisional biopsy, axillary dissection and radiation. The median age of the patient population was 60 years (range 39-85). The median followup was 5.3 years (range .1-12.8). 69% had T1 tumors and 83% had histologically negative axillary nodes. Reexcision was performed in 49%. The final margin of resection was negative in 64%, unknown in 18%, and close or positive in 19%. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. 154 patients received tam and 337 received no adjuvant therapy. Patients who received tam were more often axillary node positive (44% tam vs 5% no tam) and less often had unknown margins (9% tam vs 22% no tam). There were no significant differences for the 2 groups for median age, primary tumor size, histology, race, or use of reexcision. Results: The 5 yr act rate of breast recurrence was 4% for the tam patients compared to 7% for patients not receiving tam (p=.21). At 8 yrs, the breast recurrence rates were 4% for the tam patients compared to 11% for the no tam patients (p=.05). However, at 9 years the rates were 17% tam vs 14% no tam (p=.21). The benefit from tam in terms of a decreased 5 year actuarial breast recurrence rate was most evident for patients who did not have a reexcision (3% tam vs 10% no tam, p=.15), had unknown margins (7% tam vs 13% no tam, p=.37) or close margins (0% tam vs 11% no tam, p=.34

  3. 76 FR 30397 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-25

    .... The NRC staff considered the following environmental resource areas in its evaluation: Air quality... concludes that the proposed action will not result in a significant effect on the quality of the human... North, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD 20852. The PDR reproduction contractor will copy documents...

  4. An evaluation of CPD learning and impact upon positive practice change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nancy-Jane

    2011-05-01

    This paper explores positive practice change in nursing and health care practice following continuing professional development (CPD). It is derived from a commissioned evaluation study within the United Kingdom (UK). Evaluation data was gathered using semi structured discussions with CPD participants, a convenience sample of line managers and University module leaders. Findings suggest that professional peer attitudes and support, when harnessed effectively in the practice setting, strongly enhance positive change. Conversely a lack of engagement with practice peers, a lack of strategic support and not knowing how to access support hinder change. The study found that learning need was often explored through personal development planning and appraisal, however there was little systematic follow up, review and support following learning. Interestingly the individual personal drive and enthusiasm of practitioners was perceived as the strongest factor helping practice change, while policy drivers and national health targets were secondary. Possible strategies to enhance positive practice change are explored. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact and characteristics of positive and fearful emotional messages during infant social referencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra A; Knieps, Linda J

    2010-04-01

    Studies of infant social referencing have indicated that infants might be more influenced by vocal information contained in emotional messages than by facial expression, especially during fearful message conditions. The present study investigated the characteristics of emotional channels that parents used during social referencing, and corresponding infants' behavioral changes. Results of Study 1 indicated that parents used more vocal information during positive message conditions. Unlike previous findings, infants' behavioral change was related to the frequency of vocal information during positive condition. For fearful messages, infants were more influenced by the number of multi-modal channels used and the frequency of visual information. Study 2 further showed that the intensity of vocal tone was related to infant regulation only during positive message conditions. The results imply that understanding of social context is important to make sense of parent-infant's emotional interaction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toward an Optimal Position for IVC Filters: Computational Modeling of the Impact of Renal Vein Inflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S L; Singer, M A

    2009-07-13

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of renal vein inflow and filter position on unoccluded and partially occluded IVC filters using three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics. Three-dimensional models of the TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters, spherical thrombi, and an IVC with renal veins were constructed. Hemodynamics of steady-state flow was examined for unoccluded and partially occluded TrapEase and Gunther Celect IVC filters in varying proximity to the renal veins. Flow past the unoccluded filters demonstrated minimal disruption. Natural regions of stagnant/recirculating flow in the IVC are observed superior to the bilateral renal vein inflows, and high flow velocities and elevated shear stresses are observed in the vicinity of renal inflow. Spherical thrombi induce stagnant and/or recirculating flow downstream of the thrombus. Placement of the TrapEase filter in the suprarenal vein position resulted in a large area of low shear stress/stagnant flow within the filter just downstream of thrombus trapped in the upstream trapping position. Filter position with respect to renal vein inflow influences the hemodynamics of filter trapping. Placement of the TrapEase filter in a suprarenal location may be thrombogenic with redundant areas of stagnant/recirculating flow and low shear stress along the caval wall due to the upstream trapping position and the naturally occurring region of stagnant flow from the renal veins. Infrarenal vein placement of IVC filters in a near juxtarenal position with the downstream cone near the renal vein inflow likely confers increased levels of mechanical lysis of trapped thrombi due to increased shear stress from renal vein inflow.

  7. Unconditional Positive Regard, Empathetic Listening, and the Impact of Digital Text Driven Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuny, Kimberly M.

    2012-01-01

    Generally speaking, Generation N students are known to enjoy working in groups yet they often do not communicate effectively when measured by traditional expectations. This activity calls into question the impact that our daily nonvocal digital communicating has on our ability to empathetically listen.

  8. Assessing Input Enhancement as Positive Factor and Its Impact on L2 Vocabulary Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motlagh, Seyyed Fariborz Pishdadi; Nasab, Mahdiyeh Seyed Beheshti

    2015-01-01

    Input enhancement's role to promote learners' awareness in L2 contexts has caused a tremendous amount of research. Conspicuously, by regarding all aspects of input enhancement, the study aimed to find out how differently many kinds of input enhancement factors such as bolding, underlining, and capitalizing impact on L2 learners' vocabulary…

  9. Significant human impact on the flux and δ(34)S of sulfate from the largest river in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Bryan A; Bao, Huiming

    2015-04-21

    Riverine dissolved sulfate (SO4(2-)) flux and sulfur stable isotope composition (δ(34)S) yield information on the sources and processes affecting sulfur cycling on different spatial and temporal scales. However, because pristine preindustrial natural baselines of riverine SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S cannot be directly measured, anthropogenic impact remains largely unconstrained. Here we quantify natural and anthropogenic SO4(2-) flux and δ(34)S for North America's largest river, the Mississippi, by means of an exhaustive source compilation and multiyear monitoring. Our data and analysis show that, since before industrialization to the present, Mississippi River SO4(2-) has increased in flux from 7.0 to 27.8 Tg SO4(2-) yr(-1), and in mean δ(34)S from -5.0‰, within 95% confidence limits of -14.8‰ to 4.1‰ (assuming normal distribution for mixing model input parameters), to -2.7 ± 1.6‰, reflecting an impressive footprint of bedrocks particular to this river basin and human activities. Our first-order modern Mississippi River sulfate partition is 25 ± 6% natural and 75% ± 6% anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, anthropogenic coal usage is implicated as the dominant source of modern Mississippi River sulfate, with an estimated 47 ± 5% and 13% of total Mississippi River sulfate due to coal mining and burning, respectively.

  10. Conventional treatment of functional constipation has a positive impact on the behavioural difficulties in children with and without faecal incontinence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Skytte

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Constipation studies have only evaluated behavioural difficulties in children with faecal incontinence. This study evaluated changes in behavioural difficulties in childhood with functional constipation (FC) with and without faecal incontinence, based on treatment outcomes. METHODS: Children...... treatment of FC had a positive impact on behavioural difficulties in constipated children with and without faecal incontinence. This study highlights the importance of proactive detection and treatment of FC in paediatric patients....

  11. Prognostic Impact of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients with One to Three Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    Mansour Ansari; Behnam Kadkhodaei; Mehdi Shariat; Abdolrasoul Talei; Majid Akrami; Vahid Zangouri; Niloofar Ahmadloo; Mohammad Mohammadianpanah; Sayed Hasan Hamedi; Hamid Nasrolahi; Shapour Omidvari; Ahmad Mosalaei

    2018-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy, as an adjuvant treatment, plays a well-known role in prevention of locoregional recurrence in breast cancer patients. This study aims to investigate the impact of radiotherapy in patients with N1 disease. Methods: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the characteristics and treatment outcomes of 316 patients with a biopsy proven diagnosis of breast carcinoma and 1-3 positive axillary lymph nodes. The patients received treatment between 1995 and 201...

  12. Impact of ultrasound probe pressure on uterine positional displacement in gynecologic cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Juhler-Nøttrup, Trine; Behrens, Claus F.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to quantify the uterine positional displacement induced by ultrasound probe pressure on a phantom and address the daily uterine motion in a healthy volunteer. Materials & methods: The phantom mimics the female pelvic region. The incorporated organs were subjected to...

  13. Meetings as a positive boost? How and when meeting satisfaction impacts employee empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allen, J.A.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Sands, S.

    2016-01-01

    Meetings constitute an important context for understanding organizational behavior and employee attitudes. Employees spend ever-increasing time in meetings and often complain about their meetings. In contrast, we explore the positive side of meetings and argue that satisfying meetings can empower

  14. Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employee Attitudes, Behaviors, and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avey, James B.; Reichard, Rebecca J.; Luthans, Fred; Mhatre, Ketan H.

    2011-01-01

    The positive core construct of psychological capital (or simply PsyCap), consisting of the psychological resources of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism, has recently been demonstrated to be open to human resource development (HRD) and performance management. The research stream on PsyCap has now grown to the point that a quantitative…

  15. The impact of induced positive mood on symptomatic behaviour in eating disorders. An experimental, AB/BA crossover design testing a multimodal presentation during a test-meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardi, Valentina; Esposito, Mirko; Clarke, Ariana; Schifano, Sylvia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the impact of a multimodal positive mood vodcast including pleasant images, background uplifting music and a script designed to elicit positive mood on eating disorders-related symptoms in participants suffering from an Eating Disorder (ED) and healthy controls (HCs). Forty-two women with an ED (Anorexia Nervosa [AN]: N = 19; Bulimia Nervosa [BN]: N = 23) and 36 HCs were included in an AB/BA cross-over design which compared the use of a positive mood induction procedure ("positive mood vodcast") with a control condition (i.e. blue static background, neutral music, and script describing objective facts) during a test-meal. Self-report measures and behavioural tasks were completed before and after the test-meal. The positive mood vodcast was associated with greater consumption of the test meal in the AN group; reduced vigilance to food stimuli and lower anxiety in the BN sample; and no significant changes in the HC group. The use of a positive mood vodcast was associated with some beneficial effects in the context of an experimental test-meal in participants with an ED. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The impact of the microphone position on the frequency analysis of snoring sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Michael; Kühnel, Thomas; Bremert, Thomas; Herzog, Beatrice; Hosemann, Werner; Kaftan, Holger

    2009-08-01

    Frequency analysis of snoring sounds has been reported as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between different sources of snoring. Several studies have been published presenting diverging results of the frequency analyses of snoring sounds. Depending on the position of the used microphones, the results of the frequency analysis of snoring sounds vary. The present study investigated the influence of different microphone positions on the outcome of the frequency analysis of snoring sounds. Nocturnal snoring was recorded simultaneously at six positions (air-coupled: 30 cm middle, 100 cm middle, 30 cm lateral to both sides of the patients' head; body contact: neck and parasternal) in five patients. The used microphones had a flat frequency response and a similar frequency range (10/40 Hz-18 kHz). Frequency analysis was performed by fast Fourier transformation and frequency bands as well as peak intensities (Peaks 1-5) were detected. Air-coupled microphones presented a wider frequency range (60 Hz-10 kHz) compared to contact microphones. The contact microphone at cervical position presented a cut off at frequencies above 300 Hz, whereas the contact microphone at parasternal position revealed a cut off above 100 Hz. On an exemplary base, the study demonstrates that frequencies above 1,000 Hz do appear in complex snoring patterns, and it is emphasised that high frequencies are imported for the interpretation of snoring sounds with respect to the identification of the source of snoring. Contact microphones might be used in screening devices, but for a natural analysis of snoring sounds the use of air-coupled microphones is indispensable.

  17. Cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position: comparing general to regional anesthesia and the impact on neurobehavioral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J; Borgeat, A; Trachsel, T; Cobo Del Prado, I; De Andrés, J; Bühler, P

    2014-02-01

    Ischemic brain damage has been reported in healthy patients after beach chair position for surgery due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been described as a non-invasive, continuous method to monitor cerebral oxygen saturation. However, its impact on neurobehavioral outcome comparing different anesthesia regimens has been poorly described. In this prospective, assessor-blinded study, 90 patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position following general (G-group, n=45) or regional anesthesia (R-group; n=45) were enrolled to assess the prevalence of cerebral desaturation events comparing anesthesia regimens and their impact on neurobehavioral and neurological outcome. Anesthesiologists were blinded to regional cerebral oxygen saturation values. Baseline data assessed the day before surgery included neurological and neurobehavioral tests, which were repeated the day after surgery. The baseline data for regional cerebral oxygen saturation/bispectral index and invasive blood pressure both at heart and auditory meatus levels were taken prior to anesthesia, 5 min after induction of anesthesia, 5 min after beach chair positioning, after skin incision and thereafter all 20 min until discharge. Patients in the R-group showed significantly less cerebral desaturation events (psurgery (pshoulder surgery in beach chair position influencing neurobehavioral test results at 24h. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. Cerebral oxygenation in the beach chair position for shoulder surgery in regional anesthesia: impact on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, José A; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Brada, Muriel; Saporito, Andrea; Borgeat, Alain; Bühler, Philipp

    2016-12-01

    Beach chair position is considered a potential risk factor for central neurological events particularly if combined with low blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of regional anesthesia on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome. This is a prospective, assessor-blinded observational study evaluating patients in the beach chair position undergoing shoulder surgery under regional anesthesia. University hospital operating room. Forty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I-II physical status scheduled for elective shoulder surgery. Cerebral saturation and blood flow of the middle cerebral artery were measured prior to anesthesia and continued after beach chair positioning until discharge to the postanesthesia care unit. The anesthesiologist was blinded for these values. Controlled hypotension with systolic blood pressure≤100mm Hg was maintained during surgery. Neurobehavioral tests and values of regional cerebral saturation, bispectral index, the mean maximal blood flow of the middle cerebral artery, and invasive blood pressure were measured prior to regional anesthesia, and measurements were repeated after placement of the patient on the beach chair position and every 20 minutes thereafter until discharge to postanesthesia care unit. The neurobehavioral tests were repeated the day after surgery. The incidence of cerebral desaturation events was 5%. All patients had a significant blood pressure drop 5 minutes after beach chair positioning, measured at the heart as well as the acoustic meatus levels, when compared with baseline values (Psurgery (Pshoulder surgery had no major impact on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation. However, some impact on neurobehavioral outcome 24 hours after surgery was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific journals in the SciELO database, indicators of impact and the relative position of Ambiente & Água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This editorial describes the process of periodic evaluation by CAPES, based on commercial indices proposed by companies such as the ISI FI by Thomson Reuters and SCImago by Scopus and public indices as proposed by SciELO and other freely calculated indices based on Google Scholar and investigates the impact position of the journal Ambiente & Agua compared with journals from the SciELO base. Results show that Ambiente & Agua is in the right path in the search for quality. Its editorial board strongly recommends that Brazilian public scientific agencies consider tools that are cost free and have large coverage for impact evaluation to allow the impact assessment of a range of emerging journals in a common and wide basis for all scientific journals.

  20. THE IMPACT OF FINANCIAL OPERATIONS OF UTILITY COMPANIES ON THE FINANCIAL POSITION OF THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Stanić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the main topic will be the financing of utility companies and the financial impact on the budget of the local business units. A special emphasis will be placed on the financing of utility companies in Slavonski Brod. The paper defines each area of utility services and presents the utilities as services of public interest as well their privatization in general. The paper reports on the financing of these services and on the European Union regulations and directives concerning them. In addition, the paper includes an overview of the sources of funding of utility companies and loan opportunities. Guarantees and subsidies are included as financing measures of the activities of communal companies. The practical part presents an interview with key individuals of the city of Slavonski Brod with regard to the impact of the budget on the financing of utility services of the utility company in this city – “Komunalac Ltd.”.

  1. The positive impact of women's employment on divorce: Context, selection, or anticipation?

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Vignoli; Anna Matysiak; Marta Styrc; Valentina Tocchioni

    2018-01-01

    Background: Empirical findings regarding the impact of women's employment on divorce are mixed. One explanation is that the effects are moderated by the country context. Another is that previous studies have failed to account for unobserved factors that introduce bias into the estimated effects. Studies also rarely consider possible anticipatory employment behavior on the part of women who are thinking of divorce. Objective: The aim of this study is to deepen our understanding of the nexus...

  2. Stratification of Antibody-Positive Subjects by Antibody Level Reveals an Impact of Immunogenicity on Pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Lei; Hoofring, Sarah A.; Wu, Yu; Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Swanson, Steven J.; Chirmule, Narendra; Starcevic, Marta

    2012-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive immunoassays enables the detection of antidrug antibody (ADA) responses of various concentrations and affinities. The analysis of the impact of antibody status on drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is confounded by the presence of low-affinity or low-concentration antibody responses within the dataset. In a phase 2 clinical trial, a large proportion of subjects (45%) developed ADA following weekly dosing with AMG 317, a fully human monoclonal antibody therapeutic....

  3. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the United States government announced the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) that included a proposal directed at doubling the nation's investment in nanotechnology to ensure the United States' competitive position in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. As part of the NNI, the National Science and Technology Council Interagency Working Group on Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (IWGN) concluded that research centers would permit activities that cannot be accomplished in the traditional mode of small groups or single investigators or with the current research infrastructure. The IWGN recognized the importance of establishing research centers with major Department of Energy (DOE) specialized and user facilities. Consequently, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) plans to support the NNI, in part, through the establishment of an integrated national program of Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC) affiliated with major facilities at DOE's national laboratories. Specific objectives of the NSRCs are to accomplish the following: (1) Advance the fundamental understanding and control of materials at the nanoscale regime; (2) Provide an environment to support research of a scope, complexity, and disciplinary breadth not possible under traditional investigator or small group efforts; (3) Provide the foundation for the development of nanotechnologies important to the DOE; (4) Provide state-of-the-art equipment to in-house laboratory, university, and industry researchers and optimize the use of national user facilities for materials characterization employing electrons, photons, and neutrons; (5) Provide a formal mechanism for both short- and long-term collaborations and partnerships among DOE laboratory, academic, and industrial researchers; and (6) Provide training for graduate students and postdoctoral associates in interdisciplinary nanoscale science, engineering, and technology research

  4. Impact of relative position vehicle-wind blower in a roller test bench under climatic chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Yáñez, P.; Armas, O.; Martínez-Martínez, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Air simulation model was developed for a vehicle test bench under climatic chamber. • Good accuracy between experimental data and simulated values were obtained. • Wind blower-vehicle relative position alters external cooling of after-treatment devices. • Vehicle emission certification can be affected by wind blower-vehicle relative position. - Abstract: In terms of energy efficiency and exhaust emissions control, an appropriate design of cooling systems of climatic chambers destined to vehicle certification and/or perform scientific research is becoming increasingly important. European vehicle emissions certification (New European Driving Cycle, NEDC) establishes the position of the wind-simulation blower at 200 mm above floor level. This height is fixed and kept constant independently of the vehicle tested. The position of the blower with respect to the vehicle can modify the external forced convection under the car, where after-treatment devices are located. Consequently, the performance of such devices could be modified and emission results during the certification cycle could be non-representative of real-world driving conditions. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different wind blower-vehicle relative heights on the air velocity and temperature profiles under the car by means of a simple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. A steady state three-dimensional CFD model was developed and applied to the estimation of the air velocity and temperature profiles inside of a climatic chamber equipped with a vehicle roller (chassis dyno) test bench. The simulations reproduce one steady-state condition from NEDC, specifically the EU17 mode (120 km/h, maximum velocity during the cycle). The cool air propelling temperature was 20 °C (minimum temperature in the NEDC range). Simulations were performed employing the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach with the realizable k-ε model to provide closure. Air velocity and

  5. Impact of variation in the BDNF gene on social stress sensitivity and the buffering impact of positive emotions: replication and extension of a gene-environment interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Winkel, Mark; Peeters, Frenk; van Winkel, Ruud; Kenis, Gunter; Collip, Dina; Geschwind, Nicole; Jacobs, Nele; Derom, Catherine; Thiery, Evert; van Os, Jim; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Wichers, Marieke

    2014-06-01

    A previous study reported that social stress sensitivity is moderated by the brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor(Val66Met) (BDNF rs6265) genotype. Additionally, positive emotions partially neutralize this moderating effect. The current study aimed to: (i) replicate in a new independent sample of subjects with residual depressive symptoms the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity, (ii) replicate the neutralizing impact of positive emotions, (iii) extend these analyses to other variations in the BDNF gene in the new independent sample and the original sample of non-depressed individuals. Previous findings were replicated in an experience sampling method (ESM) study. Negative Affect (NA) responses to social stress were stronger in "Val/Met" carriers of BDNF(Val66Met) compared to "Val/Val" carriers. Positive emotions neutralized the moderating effect of BDNF(Val66Met) genotype on social stress sensitivity in a dose-response fashion. Finally, two of four additional BDNF SNPs (rs11030101, rs2049046) showed similar moderating effects on social stress-sensitivity across both samples. The neutralizing effect of positive emotions on the moderating effects of these two additional SNPs was found in one sample. In conclusion, ESM has important advantages in gene-environment (GxE) research and may attribute to more consistent findings in future GxE research. This study shows how the impact of BDNF genetic variation on depressive symptoms may be explained by its impact on subtle daily life responses to social stress. Further, it shows that the generation of positive affect (PA) can buffer social stress sensitivity and partially undo the genetic susceptibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  7. Skipping of meals has a significant impact on dietary intake and nutritional status of old (65+ y) nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, A M; Ovesen, L

    2004-01-01

    In spite of a high prevalence of undernutrition among old nursing home residents, studies have generally reported a mean intake of energy sufficient to cover the mean estimated energy requirement. This discrepancy could be due to skipping of meals and hence periods of insufficient energy intake too intermittent to be identified, when mean results are presented. To examine the significance of skipping of (part of) meals on dietary intake and nutritional status of old (65+y) nursing home residents. Participants were 132 nursing home residents (84 (82-85) y). They were characterised according to activity of daily living-functions (ADL-functions), cognitive performance, intake of energy and protein (4-days dietary record), skipping of meals, energy and protein balance, and nutritional status (body mass index (BMI)). The participants had an energy intake, which was significantly higher than the estimated energy requirement (p eat or only had desert at one or more meals during the 4-day registration period. Participants who were skipping meals had a lower BMI, energy and protein intake (all p <0.001) and a higher prevalence of negative protein balance (p <0.01), than the other residents. More focus should be given to individualized nutritional assessment in order to discover the cause to this problem and target individuals who could be helped by nutritional intervention.

  8. COMPETITIVE STATE ANXIETY: IMPACT OF POSITIVE SELF TALK TRAINING ON JUNIOR LEVEL FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Abdussalam Kanniyan

    2015-01-01

    During the last few decades, coaches and athletes from a wide variety of sports have begun to realize the importance of the mental side of athletic performance. Sport specialists agree that athletic performance is influenced not only by physical skills but also by psychological ones. In order to achieve peak performance athletes need a “total package” including physical skills, psychological skills, fitness and injury prevention (Singh 2011). Study was aimed to examine the effect of Positive ...

  9. The Marketing & Positive Impacts of Behavioral Control System on Societies & Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Adel Mostafa; Ahmed Mohamed Tawfik

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral control systems are one of the most prominent tools used by managers and marketers for different internal and external purposes. One of the most important external purposes they have been used for is influencing consumer behavior. This paper explores the positive effects of implementing such systems on societies. It discusses consumer perception of the systems, their influence on their financial behavior in different contexts, how can they create order and how as well ...

  10. The Impact of the Application of IFRS on Reporting the Financial Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela-Cristina ONICA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of IFRS in an economic entity’s accounting imposes the paying of special attention to not necessarily the similarities but most importantly to the differences which appear between the national referential and the IASB one. As regards the financial position of the entity, we may say that, more or less, all standards influence it, but some impose differences which must be mentioned.

  11. The Marketing & Positive Impacts of Behavioral Control System on Societies & Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Adel Mostafa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Behavioral control systems are one of the most prominent tools used by managers and marketers for different internal and external purposes. One of the most important external purposes they have been used for is influencing consumer behavior. This paper explores the positive effects of implementing such systems on societies. It discusses consumer perception of the systems, their influence on their financial behavior in different contexts, how can they create order and how as well as to what extent should it be implemented and finally how can minimize negative consumer behavior. A judgment based sample of typical consumers was surveyed using questionnaires for collecting primary data on these aspects. Secondary data from Egypt, Singapore and Malaysia was also used as an example of using behavioral control systems. Results show that consumers in general have a positive attitude towards imposing such systems. However, there were worries about misuse, abuse and overuse of theses systems’ policies. Consequently, data shows that behavioral control systems can positively enhance and influence consumer behavior as long as it is used to balance both consumer and retailer interests in a moderate, risk free manner.

  12. Significant impact of electrical storm on mortality in patients with structural heart disease and an implantable cardiac defibrillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Takashi; Kurita, Takashi; Nitta, Takashi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Furushima, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Naoki; Toyoshima, Takeshi; Shimizu, Akihiko; Mitamura, Hideo; Okumura, Ken; Ohe, Tohru; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2018-03-15

    Electrical storm (E-Storm), defined as multiple episodes of ventricular arrhythmias within a short period of time, is an important clinical problem in patients with an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) including cardiac resynchronization therapy devices capable of defibrillation. The detailed clinical aspects of E-Storm in large populations especially for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), however, remain unclear. This study was performed to elucidate the detailed clinical aspects of E-Storm, such as its predictors and prevalence among patients with structural heart disease including DCM. We analyzed the data of the Nippon Storm Study, which was a prospective observational study involving 1570 patients enrolled from 48 ICD centers. For the purpose of this study, we evaluated 1274 patients with structural heart disease, including 482 (38%) patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 342 (27%) patients with DCM. During a median follow-up of 28months (interquartile range: 23 to 33months), E-Storm occurred in 84 (6.6%) patients. The incidence of E-Storm was not significantly different between patients with IHD and patients with DCM (log-rank p=0.52). Proportional hazard regression analyses showed that ICD implantation for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (p=0.0001) and QRS width (p=0.015) were the independent risk factors for E-storm. In a comparison between patients with and without E-Storm, survival curves after adjustment for clinical characteristics showed a significant difference in mortality. E-Storm was associated with subsequent mortality in patients with structural heart disease including DCM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48–100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20–30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals. (letter)

  14. Infrastructure and automobile shifts: positioning transit to reduce life-cycle environmental impacts for urban sustainability goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chester, Mikhail; Pincetl, Stephanie; Elizabeth, Zoe; Eisenstein, William; Matute, Juan

    2013-03-01

    Public transportation systems are often part of strategies to reduce urban environmental impacts from passenger transportation, yet comprehensive energy and environmental life-cycle measures, including upfront infrastructure effects and indirect and supply chain processes, are rarely considered. Using the new bus rapid transit and light rail lines in Los Angeles, near-term and long-term life-cycle impact assessments are developed, including consideration of reduced automobile travel. Energy consumption and emissions of greenhouse gases and criteria pollutants are assessed, as well the potential for smog and respiratory impacts. Results show that life-cycle infrastructure, vehicle, and energy production components significantly increase the footprint of each mode (by 48-100% for energy and greenhouse gases, and up to 6200% for environmental impacts), and emerging technologies and renewable electricity standards will significantly reduce impacts. Life-cycle results are identified as either local (in Los Angeles) or remote, and show how the decision to build and operate a transit system in a city produces environmental impacts far outside of geopolitical boundaries. Ensuring shifts of between 20-30% of transit riders from automobiles will result in passenger transportation greenhouse gas reductions for the city, and the larger the shift, the quicker the payback, which should be considered for time-specific environmental goals.

  15. The impact of HIV-related stigma on the lives of HIV-positive women: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Szu-Szu; Holloway, Aisha

    2016-01-01

    To critically explore how Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma impacts on the lives of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women through an integrative review of the literature. Throughout history Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection has been associated with sex trade, injecting drug use and other deviant behaviours within society. These historical associations can lead to the generation of negative perceptions of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women. As such, women who contract Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection can be susceptible to societal stigma. An integrative literature review. To identify the publications on the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma among women, a search was performed using the following databases: CINAHL, Medline, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstract covering the period from 2000-2014. The following key words were included in the search: 'women', 'Human Immunodeficiency Virus', and 'stigma'. Twenty-six articles were retrieved and reviewed. From the results, four key themes merged in relation to the impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-related stigma on Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women's lives: the individual, relationships, work and the community. Despite great advances in the management and treatment of those who are Human Immunodeficiency Virus positive, it appears the lives of many women living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus remain greatly affected by their Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection with gender-specific stigma and stereotypes. Having a holistic understanding of this impact offers the potential for those responsible for the funding and draws the attention of researchers and policy makers on promoting medical services specifically for Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women, minimising social stigmatisation towards this client group, and optimising their health outcomes. In an attempt to amplify Human Immunodeficiency Virus-positive women

  16. Impact of Close and Positive Margins in Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Tis-T2 Glottic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiz, Ivana; Mazzola, Francesco; Fiz, Francesco; Marchi, Filippo; Filauro, Marta; Paderno, Alberto; Parrinello, Giampiero; Piazza, Cesare; Peretti, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) represents one of the most effective treatment strategies for Tis-T2 glottic squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). The prognostic influence of close/positive margins is still debated, and the role of narrow band imaging (NBI) in their intraoperative definition is still to be validated on large cohort of patients. This study analyzed the influence of margin status on recurrence-free survival (RFS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). We retrospectively studied 507 cases of pTis-T1b (Group A) and 127 cases of pT2 (Group B) glottic SCC. We identified the following margin status: negative ( n  = 232), close superficial ( n  = 79), close deep (CD) ( n  = 35), positive single superficial ( n  = 146), positive multiple superficial ( n  = 94), and positive deep ( n  = 48) and analyzed their impact on RFS and DSS. Close margins were defined by tumor-margin distance <1 mm. Pre-TLM margins were defined by white light in 323 patients, whereas NBI was employed in 311 patients. In Group A, DSS and RFS were reduced in positive multiple superficial and positive deep margins (DSS = 96.1 and 97%, both p  < 0.05; RFS = 72%, p  < 0.001 and 75.8%, p  < 0.01). In Group B, DSS was reduced in positive multiple superficial margins (82.4%, p  < 0.05). RFS was reduced in positive single superficial, positive multiple superficial, and positive deep margins (62.5, 41.2, and 53.3%, p  < 0.01). In the entire population, RFS was reduced in CD margins (77.1%, p  < 0.05). Use of NBI led to improvement in RFS and DSS. The study indicates that close and positive single superficial margins do not affect DSS. By contrast, all types of margin positivity predict the occurrence of relapses, albeit with different likelihood, depending on stage/margin type. CD margins should be considered as a single risk factor. Use of NBI granted better intraoperative margins definition.

  17. Impact of Close and Positive Margins in Transoral Laser Microsurgery for Tis–T2 Glottic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Fiz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionTransoral laser microsurgery (TLM represents one of the most effective treatment strategies for Tis–T2 glottic squamous cell carcinomas (SCC. The prognostic influence of close/positive margins is still debated, and the role of narrow band imaging (NBI in their intraoperative definition is still to be validated on large cohort of patients. This study analyzed the influence of margin status on recurrence-free survival (RFS and disease-specific survival (DSS.MethodsWe retrospectively studied 507 cases of pTis–T1b (Group A and 127 cases of pT2 (Group B glottic SCC. We identified the following margin status: negative (n = 232, close superficial (n = 79, close deep (CD (n = 35, positive single superficial (n = 146, positive multiple superficial (n = 94, and positive deep (n = 48 and analyzed their impact on RFS and DSS. Close margins were defined by tumor-margin distance <1 mm. Pre-TLM margins were defined by white light in 323 patients, whereas NBI was employed in 311 patients.ResultsIn Group A, DSS and RFS were reduced in positive multiple superficial and positive deep margins (DSS = 96.1 and 97%, both p < 0.05; RFS = 72%, p < 0.001 and 75.8%, p < 0.01. In Group B, DSS was reduced in positive multiple superficial margins (82.4%, p < 0.05. RFS was reduced in positive single superficial, positive multiple superficial, and positive deep margins (62.5, 41.2, and 53.3%, p < 0.01. In the entire population, RFS was reduced in CD margins (77.1%, p < 0.05. Use of NBI led to improvement in RFS and DSS.ConclusionThe study indicates that close and positive single superficial margins do not affect DSS. By contrast, all types of margin positivity predict the occurrence of relapses, albeit with different likelihood, depending on stage/margin type. CD margins should be considered as a single risk factor. Use of NBI granted better intraoperative margins definition.

  18. Positive Impact of Art as a Communication Instrument on Economical Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Cereci

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many factors that affect economical productivity like climate, or like raw materials or like international relationships or like physchology of employers. Professional organisations or companies use different instruments to increase producticity on economy. Spiritual conditions of employers and employees are especially regarded for economical productivity recently. Though economy is mostly a concrete area, main component of economy is human and human need spiritual support and impacts in his life. It is known that spiritual support always feed human and provide him much energy. Employers or companies who are interested in art and who participate in artistic activities become more productive than others and attract people to their productions.

  19. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact: Hungry Horse--Columbia Falls line rebuild and relocation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has identified a need to rebuild the Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 115,000-volt (115-kV) transmission line to 230-kV. This line supplies power to customers in the area of Columbia Falls, Montana, and integrates generation at the US Bureau of Reclamation's (USBR) Hungry Horse Dam into BPA's transmission grid. There are several problems with the existing system. The Hungry Horse-Columbia Falls 1 15-kV line is 45 years old and requires excessive maintenance. The USBR has decided to replace their aging 115-kV transformers at the dam with 230-kV transformers, which also would increase their operational flexibility. With the small conductor size and voltage of the line presently being used, significant amounts of energy are lost as the power moves across the line. Transformer failure at Hungry Horse Dam has led to joint planning between BPA and the USBR. (USBR and the US Forest Service are cooperating agencies on the proposed project.) The proposal to eliminate the 115-kV equipment and convert to 230-kV operation was the least costly of the options studied. By rebuilding the line, maintenance costs (and time required for outages) would be reduced. The increased generation at the USBR dam would be safely and consistently transmitted over the improved system, and less energy would be lost from the line, a cost and energy savings

  20. Piezosurgery for the Lingual Split Technique in Lingual Positioned Impacted Mandibular Third Molar Removal: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Yang, Chi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qian, Wentao

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and safety of lingual split technique using piezosurgery for the extraction of lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars with the goal of proposing a more minimally invasive choice for this common surgery.Eighty-nine consecutive patients with 110 lingual positioned impacted mandibular 3rd molars requiring extraction were performed the lingual split technique using piezosurgery. One sagittal osteotomy line and 2 transverse osteotomy line were designed for lingual and occlusal bone removal. The success rate, operative time, postoperative outcome, and major complications (including nerve injury, mandible fracture, severe hematoma or edema, and severe pyogenic infection) were documented and analyzed.All impacted mandibular 3rd molars were successfully removed (110/110). The average time of operation was 14.6 minutes (ranged from 7 to 28 minutes). One hundred and seven extraction sites (97.3%) were primary healing. Pain, mouth opening, swelling, and PoSSe scores on postoperative 7-day were 0.34 ± 0.63, 3.88 ± 0.66(cm), 2.4 ± 0.2(cm), and 23.7 ± 5.9, respectively. There were 6 cases (5.5%) had lingual nerve disturbance and 3 cases (2.7%) developed inferior alveolar nerve impairment, and achieved full recovery within 2 months by neurotrophic drug treatment.Our study suggested piezosurgery for lingual split technique provided an effective way for the extraction of lingual positioned and deeply impacted mandibular 3rd molar.

  1. Residual pathological stage at radical cystectomy significantly impacts outcomes for initial T2N0 bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbarn, Hendrik; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Shariat, Shahrokh F; Capitanio, Umberto; Palapattu, Ganesh S; Sagalowsky, Arthur I; Lotan, Yair; Schoenberg, Mark P; Amiel, Gilad E; Lerner, Seth P; Sonpavde, Guru

    2009-08-01

    We hypothesized that in patients with T2N0 stage disease at transurethral bladder tumor resection a lower residual cancer stage (P1N0 or less) at radical cystectomy may correlate with improved outcomes relative to those with residual P2N0 disease. We analyzed 208 patients with T2N0 stage disease at transurethral bladder tumor resection whose tumors were organ confined at radical cystectomy (P2 or lower, pN0). None received perioperative chemotherapy. Kaplan-Meier as well as univariable and multivariable Cox regression models addressed the effect of residual pT stage at radical cystectomy on recurrence and cancer specific mortality rates. Covariates consisted of age, gender, grade, lymphovascular invasion, carcinoma in situ, number of lymph nodes removed and year of surgery. Residual pT stage at radical cystectomy was P0 in 24 (11.5%) patients, Pa in 9 (4.3%), PCIS in 22 (10.6%), P1 in 35 (16.8%) and P2 in 118 (56.7%). Median followup of censored patients was 55.7 months for recurrence and 52.1 months for cancer specific mortality analyses. The 5-year recurrence-free survival rates of patients with P0/Pa/PCIS, P1 and P2 stage disease were 100%, 85% and 75%, respectively. The 5-year cancer specific survival rates for the same cohorts were 100%, 93% and 81%, respectively. On multivariable analysis the effect of residual stage P1 or lower at radical cystectomy achieved independent predictor status for recurrence (adjusted HR 0.20, p = 0.002) and cancer specific mortality (adjusted HR 0.24, p = 0.02). Down staging from initial T2N0 bladder cancer at transurethral bladder tumor resection to lower stage at radical cystectomy significantly reduces recurrence and cancer specific mortality. Further validation of this finding is warranted.

  2. Doctrinal gnosis in Islam: Position and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halilović Tehran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical, rational and intuitive methods in scientific considerations formulate various scientific disciplines. Doctrinal gnosis and philosophy are two rational-demonstrative doctrines that consider ontological questions. Although the basis of their Gnostic experience is intuitive knowledge, Gnostics describe and explain their experience in a rational way, with a view to making the content of such Gnostic knowledge in their scientific work available to the general public. In that way, doctrinal gnosis is established which, like philosophy, uses general terms. To get a clear picture of the essence of doctrinal gnosis in Islam, in this paper we will try to present the main characteristics of doctrinal gnosis and its relationship with similar disciplines. On this front, in addition to the importance of clarifying the differences between doctrinal gnosis and other aspects of the Gnostic knowledge in Islam, such as transmitted gnosis and practical gnosis, special attention will have to be paid to a clear analysis of the differences between doctrinal gnosis and philosophy.

  3. The Position of Slovakia in Competitiveness Ranking – the Causes, Impacts and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Stredná

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A country’s competitiveness could be translated as its ability to successfully compete within international comparison also as a prosperity which is expressed by productivity growth of economy and living standards. Is Slovakia competitive? What are its strengths and weaknesses? What are the leading countries of the European Union in competitiveness ranking? In what aspects is Slovakia falling behind countries of V4? Strengthening of which competitive advantages is perspective for the Slovak Republic? We will try to find answers to these questions in an analysis of competitiveness based on the Global Competitiveness Reports. This thesis focuses on definition of the competitiveness in general, apprises of measuring methodology based on multicriterial evaluation and summarises pros and cons of this benchmark. The main focus is on the Slovak Republic and its position in the international ranking. In detail we will focus on comparison of the Slovak Republic with countries of V4 region. It is the authors’ ambition to bring critical view on position of the Slovak Republic in the international comparison and to formulate recommendations for the future that could contribute to strengthening of competitiveness and success of our country.

  4. Enhancing student engagement to positively impact mathematics anxiety, confidence and achievement for interdisciplinary science subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everingham, Yvette L.; Gyuris, Emma; Connolly, Sean R.

    2017-11-01

    Contemporary science educators must equip their students with the knowledge and practical know-how to connect multiple disciplines like mathematics, computing and the natural sciences to gain a richer and deeper understanding of a scientific problem. However, many biology and earth science students are prejudiced against mathematics due to negative emotions like high mathematical anxiety and low mathematical confidence. Here, we present a theoretical framework that investigates linkages between student engagement, mathematical anxiety, mathematical confidence, student achievement and subject mastery. We implement this framework in a large, first-year interdisciplinary science subject and monitor its impact over several years from 2010 to 2015. The implementation of the framework coincided with an easing of anxiety and enhanced confidence, as well as higher student satisfaction, retention and achievement. The framework offers interdisciplinary science educators greater flexibility and confidence in their approach to designing and delivering subjects that rely on mathematical concepts and practices.

  5. Impact of low-energy CT imaging on selection of positive oral contrast media concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, Manuel; Murcia, Diana J; Iamurri, Andrea Prochowski; Kambadakone, Avinash R; Hahn, Peter F; Sahani, Dushyant V

    2017-05-01

    To determine to what extent low-energy CT imaging affects attenuation of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) opacified with positive oral contrast media (OCM). Second, to establish optimal OCM concentrations for low-energy diagnostic CT exams. One hundred patients (38 men and 62 women; age 62 ± 11 years; BMI 26 ± 5) with positive OCM-enhanced 120-kVp single-energy CT (SECT), and follow-up 100-kVp acquisitions (group A; n = 50), or 40-70-keV reconstructions from rapid kV switching-single-source dual-energy CT (ssDECT) (group B; n = 50) were included. Luminal attenuation from different GIT segments was compared between exams. Standard dose of three OCM and diluted solutions (75%, 50%, and 25% concentrations) were introduced serially in a gastrointestinal phantom and scanned using SECT (120, 100, and 80 kVp) and DECT (80/140 kVp) acquisitions on a ssDECT scanner. Luminal attenuation was obtained on SECT and DECT images (40-70 keV), and compared to 120-kVp scans with standard OCM concentrations. Luminal attenuation was higher on 100-kVp (328 HU) and on 40-60-keV images (410-924 HU) in comparison to 120-kVp scans (298 HU) in groups A and B (p < 0.05). Phantom: There was an inverse correlation between luminal attenuation and X-ray energy, increasing up to 527 HU on low-kVp and 999 HU on low-keV images (p < 0.05). 25% and 50% diluted OCM solutions provided similar or higher attenuation than 120 kVp, at low kVp and keV, respectively. Low-energy CT imaging increases the attenuation of GIT opacified with positive OCM, permitting reduction of 25%-75% OCM concentration.

  6. Impact of positive and negative lesion site remodeling on clinical outcomes: insights from PROSPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Shinji; Mintz, Gary S; Farhat, Naim Z; Fajadet, Jean; Dudek, Dariusz; Marzocchi, Antonio; Templin, Barry; Weisz, Giora; Xu, Ke; de Bruyne, Bernard; Serruys, Patrick W; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated coronary artery remodeling patterns associated with clinical outcomes. In the prospective, multicenter PROSPECT (Providing Regional Observations to Study Predictors of Events in the Coronary Tree: An Imaging Study in Patients With Unstable Atherosclerotic Lesions) study, reported predictors of nonculprit lesion (NCL) major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) minimal lumen area (MLA) ≤4 mm(2), a plaque burden ≥70%, and a IVUS-virtual histology (VH) thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), but not lesion site remodeling. Overall, 697 consecutive patients with an acute coronary syndrome were enrolled and underwent 3-vessel gray-scale and IVUS-VH; 3,223 NCLs were identified by IVUS. The remodeling index (RI) was calculated as the external elastic membrane area at the MLA site divided by the average of the proximal and distal reference external elastic membrane areas. First, one third of the patients were randomly selected to determine RI cutoffs related to NCL MACE (development cohort). Receiver-operating characteristic analysis showed that there were 2 separate cut points that predicted NCL MACE: RI = 0.8789 and RI = 1.0046 (area under the curve = 0.663). These cut points were used to define negative remodeling as an RI 1.00. Second, we used the remaining two-thirds of patients to validate these cut points with respect to lesion morphology and clinical outcomes (validation cohort). Kaplan-Meier curve analysis in the validation cohort showed that NCL MACE occurred more frequent (and equally) in negative and positive remodeling lesions compared with intermediate remodeling lesions. In this cohort, negative remodeling lesions had the smallest MLA, positive remodeling lesions had the largest plaque burden, and VH TCFA, especially VH TCFA with multiple necrotic cores, was most common in negatively remodeling lesions. The present study showed the novel concept that positive and negative lesion site remodeling was

  7. Autotransplantation of a Strange Positioned Impacted Central Incisor in a surgically Prepared Socket: A Miracle Esthetic Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswara, Chandresh; Srivastava, Vinay K; Dhiman, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Esthetics is a prime concern for a young lady. Any anomaly in the anterior tooth may create anxiety and depression. This anxiety and depression may hamper her married life and overall personality. This case report reveals an unerupted right central incisor situated in a strange position, creating space in the maxillary anterior region and giving an unesthetic appearance. Autotransplantation is a method of choice for a strangely positioned impacted central incisor in a new appropriate site. This method offers a new treatment option for some clinical situations if orthodontic approach is not possible. It permits tooth movement to a distant or the opposite side of the same dental arch as well as to the opposite jaw. This procedure also offers potential benefits of reestablishment of normal alveolar process development, esthetics, functions, and arch integrity. This procedure has the potential to become a viable alternative treatment plan for young patients of low socioeconomic status, allowing the reestablish-ment and restoration of a missing tooth and their functions. This article discusses methods of auto-reimplantation of a tooth in a fresh surgically prepared socket, its biological principle, and establishment of functions, esthetics, and phonetics. Jaiswara C, Srivastava VK, Dhiman N. Autotransplantation of a Strange Positioned Impacted Central Incisor in a surgically Prepared Socket: A Miracle Esthetic Concept. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(3):269-272.

  8. Positive impact of infection prevention on the management of nosocomial outbreaks at an academic hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H; Sinha, Bhanu; Lokate, Mariëtte; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; Dinkelacker, Ariane G; Postma, Maarten J; Friedrich, Alexander W

    2016-10-01

    Infection prevention (IP) measures are vital to prevent (nosocomial) outbreaks. Financial evaluations of these are scarce. An incremental cost analysis for an academic IP unit was performed. On a yearly basis, we evaluated: IP measures; costs thereof; numbers of patients at risk for causing nosocomial outbreaks; predicted outbreak patients; and actual outbreak patients. IP costs rose on average yearly with €150,000; however, more IP actions were undertaken. Numbers of patients colonized with high-risk microorganisms increased. The trend of actual outbreak patients remained stable. Predicted prevented outbreak patients saved costs, leading to a positive return on investment of 1.94. This study shows that investments in IP can prevent outbreak cases, thereby saving enough money to earn back these investments.

  9. Young Investigator Perspectives. Teaching and the postdoctoral experience: impact on transition to faculty positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uno, Jennifer; Walton, Kristen L W

    2014-05-01

    This editorial continues with our Young Investigator Perspectives series. Drs. Uno and Walton are young investigators who hold faculty positions. They completed a K12 postdoctoral program through the IRACDA (Individual Research and Career Development Award) program sponsored through the NIGMS institute at NIH. IRACDA programs exist at multiple institutions in the USA to combine postdoctoral training with formal training in academic skills and teaching at partner institutions. I thank Drs. Walton and Uno for a thoughtful perspective on how this experience shaped their career goals to combine teaching and research and inspire undergraduates to science careers. Given the current national dialog on broadening career paths and outcomes for PhD scientists, this is a timely perspective. -P. Kay Lund.

  10. Measures of Physical and Mental Independence Among HIV-Positive Individuals: Impact of Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Bianca; Qin, Zijian; Byrd, Desiree A; Yu, Fang; Morgello, Susan; Gelman, Benjamin B; Moore, David J; Grant, Igor; Singer, Elyse J; Fox, Howard S; Baccaglini, Lorena

    2017-10-01

    With the transition of HIV infection from an acute to a chronic disease after the introduction of antiretroviral medications, there has been an increased focus on long-term neurocognitive and other functional outcomes of HIV patients. Thus, we assessed factors, particularly history of a substance use disorder, associated with time to loss of measures of physical or mental independence among HIV-positive individuals. Data were obtained from the National NeuroAIDS Tissue Consortium. Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the time since HIV diagnosis to loss of independence, and to identify associated risk factors. HIV-positive participants who self-identified as physically (n = 698) or mentally (n = 616) independent on selected activities of daily living at baseline were eligible for analyses. A history of substance use disorder was associated with a higher hazard of loss of both physical and mental independence [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.71, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.07-2.78; adjusted HR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.11-2.52, respectively]. After adjusting for substance use disorder and other covariates, older age at diagnosis and female gender were associated with higher hazards of loss of both physical and mental independence, non-white participants had higher hazards of loss of physical independence, whereas participants with an abnormal neurocognitive diagnosis and fewer years of education had higher hazards of loss of mental independence. In summary, history of substance use disorder was associated with loss of measures of both physical and mental independence. The nature of this link and the means to prevent such loss of independence need further investigation.

  11. Impact of relay station positioning on LTE uplink performance at flow level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennepe, D.H. te; Berg, J.L. van den; Karagiannis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the latest cellular system that is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and is expected to substantially improve end-user throughput and reduce user plane latency, while at the same time significantly improve user experience with full

  12. Impact of Relay Station Positioning on LTE Uplink Performance at Flow Level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Hennepe, D.H.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Karagiannis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    Long Term Evolution (LTE) is the latest cellular system that is being standardized by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and is expected to substantially improve end-user throughput and reduce user plane latency, while at the same time significantly improve user experience with full

  13. Reproduction Alters Hydration State but Does Not Impact the Positive Effects of Dehydration on Innate Immune Function in Children's Pythons (Antaresia childreni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusch, George A; Billy, Gopal; Blattman, Joseph N; DeNardo, Dale F

    Resource availability can impact immune function, with the majority of studies of such influences focusing on the allocation of energy investment into immune versus other physiological functions. When energy is a limited resource, performance trade-offs can result, compromising immunity. Dehydration is also considered a physiological challenge resulting from the limitation of a vital resource, yet previous research has found a positive relationship between dehydration and innate immune performance. However, these studies did not examine the effects of dehydration on immunity when there was another concurrent, substantial physiological challenge. Thus, we examined the impact of reproduction and water deprivation, individually and in combination, on immune performance in Children's pythons (Antaresia childreni). We collected blood samples from free-ranging A. childreni to evaluate osmolality and innate immune function (lysis, agglutination, bacterial growth inhibition) during the austral dry season, when water availability is limited and this species is typically reproducing. To examine how reproduction and water imbalance, both separately and combined, impact immune function, we used a laboratory-based 2 × 2 experiment. Our results demonstrate that A. childreni experience significant dehydration during the dry season and that, overall, osmolality, regardless of the underlying cause (seasonal rainfall, water deprivation, or reproduction), is positively correlated with increased innate immune performance.

  14. The positive cognitive impact of aerobic fitness is associated with peripheral inflammatory and brain-derived neurotrophic biomarkers in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jungyun; Castelli, Darla M; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2017-10-01

    There is ample evidence for supporting the positive impact of aerobic fitness on cognitive function, but little is known about the physiological mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the positive cognitive impact of aerobic fitness is associated with inflammatory and neurotrophic peripheral biomarkers in young adults aged 18 to 29years (n=87). For the objective assessment of aerobic fitness, we measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) as a parametric measure of cardiorespiratory capacity. We demonstrated that young adults with the higher levels of VO 2 max performed better on computerized cognitive tasks assessing sustained attention and working memory. This positive VO 2 max-cognitive performance association existed independently of confounders (e.g., years of education, intelligence scores) but was significantly dependent on resting peripheral blood levels of inflammatory (C-reactive protein, CRP) and neurotrophic (brain-derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) biomarkers. Statistical models showed that CRP was a mediator of the effect of VO 2 max on working memory. Further, BDNF was a moderator of the effect of VO 2 max on working memory. These mediating and moderating effects occurred in individuals with higher levels of aerobic fitness. The results suggest that higher aerobic fitness, as measured by VO 2 max, is associated with enhanced cognitive functioning and favorable resting peripheral levels of inflammatory and brain-derived neurotrophic biomarkers in young adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Setting the Record Straight: Strong Positive Impacts Found from the National Evaluation of Upward Bound. Re-Analysis Documents Significant Positive Impacts Masked by Errors in Flawed Contractor Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Margaret; Goodwin, David

    2014-01-01

    In January 2009, in the last week of the Bush Administration, the U.S. Department of Education (ED), upon orders from the departing political appointee staff, published the final report in a long running National Evaluation of Upward Bound (UB). The study was conducted by the contractor, Mathematica Policy Research. After more than a year in…

  16. The positive impact of women's employment on divorce: Context, selection, or anticipation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vignoli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirical findings regarding the impact of women's employment on divorce are mixed. One explanation is that the effects are moderated by the country context. Another is that previous studies have failed to account for unobserved factors that introduce bias into the estimated effects. Studies also rarely consider possible anticipatory employment behavior on the part of women who are thinking of divorce. Objective: The aim of this study is to deepen our understanding of the nexus between women's employment and divorce in a comparative perspective. Methods: We adopt an analytical strategy that allows us to account for selection and anticipation mechanisms. Namely, we estimate marital disruption and employment jointly, and monitor the timing of divorce after employment entry. This approach is implemented using micro-level data for Germany, Hungary, Italy, and Poland. Results: We find that women's employment facilitates marital disruption in Italy and Poland, but not in Germany and Hungary. We also show that selection effects play out differently in different contexts. Finally, we notice traces of anticipatory behavior in Italy. Contribution: We conclude that women's employment is less likely to be linked to divorce in countries with easier access to divorce and in countries with more generous financial support for families and single mothers, which in turn makes women less reliant on the market. With this study we hope to encourage future researchers to consider the potentially distorting effects of selection and anticipation strategies in (comparative divorce research.

  17. Impact of faculty development programs for positive behavioural changes among teachers: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuh Shing Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Faculty development (FD is essential to prepare faculty members to become effective teachers to meet the challenges in medical education. Despite the growth of FD programmes, most evaluations were often conducted using short questionnaires to assess participants’ satisfaction immediately after they attended a programme. Consequently, there were calls for more rigorous evaluations based on observed changes in participants’ behaviours. Hence, this study aims to explore how the FD workshops run by the Centre for Medical Education, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore have impacted behavioural changes in the educators. Methods We followed up with the educators at least half a year after they have attended the workshops. With limited literature as reference, we initiated a small-scale case-study research design involving semi-structured interviews with six educators which was triangulated with three focus group discussions with their students. This allowed us to explore behavioural changes among the educators as well as evaluate the feasibility of this research methodology. Results We identified three emerging categories among the educators: ignorance to awareness, from intuition to confirmation and expansion, and from individualism to community of practice. Conclusion Although FD have placed much emphasis on teaching and learning approaches, we found that the teacher-student interaction or human character components (passionate, willing to sacrifice, are open to feedback in becoming a good educator are lacking in our FD workshops.

  18. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure on the pulmonary changes promoted by immersion in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danize Aparecida Rizzetti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine whether different levels of CPAP improve the lung volumes and capacities of healthy subjects immersed in water. Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial, conducted between April and June of 2016, involving healthy female volunteers who were using oral contraceptives. Three 20-min immersion protocols were applied: control (no CPAP; CPAP5 (CPAP at 5 cmH2O; and CPAP10 (CPAP at 10 cmH2O. We evaluated HR, SpO2, FVC, FEV1, the FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and FEF25-75% at three time points: pre-immersion; 10 min after immersion; and 10 min after the end of each protocol. Results: We evaluated 13 healthy volunteers. The CPAP10 protocol reversed the restrictive pattern of lung function induced by immersion in water, maintaining pulmonary volumes and capacities for a longer period than did the CPAP5 protocol. Conclusions: When the hemodynamic change causing a persistent lung disorder, only the application of higher positive pressures is effective in maintaining long-term improvements in the pulmonary profile.

  19. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure on the pulmonary changes promoted by immersion in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzetti, Danize Aparecida; Quadros, Janayna Rodembuch Borba; Ribeiro, Bruna Esmerio; Callegaro, Letícia; Veppo, Aline Arebalo; Wiggers, Giulia Alessandra; Peçanha, Franck Maciel

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether different levels of CPAP improve the lung volumes and capacities of healthy subjects immersed in water. This was a randomized clinical trial, conducted between April and June of 2016, involving healthy female volunteers who were using oral contraceptives. Three 20-min immersion protocols were applied: control (no CPAP); CPAP5 (CPAP at 5 cmH2O); and CPAP10 (CPAP at 10 cmH2O). We evaluated HR, SpO2, FVC, FEV1, the FEV1/FVC ratio, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), and FEF25-75%) at three time points: pre-immersion; 10 min after immersion; and 10 min after the end of each protocol. We evaluated 13 healthy volunteers. The CPAP10 protocol reversed the restrictive pattern of lung function induced by immersion in water, maintaining pulmonary volumes and capacities for a longer period than did the CPAP5 protocol. When the hemodynamic change causing a persistent lung disorder, only the application of higher positive pressures is effective in maintaining long-term improvements in the pulmonary profile.

  20. [The positive psychological impact of rich childbirth experiences on child-rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological implications of emotionally enriching childbirth experiences for problems such as awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress among women after childbirth. All women who gave birth at five study centers (four birthing homes and one maternity hospital) during May 2002 and August 2003 were asked to participate in the cohort study. All 2314 women were approached and 1004 eligible women agreed to take part. Analyses were conducted using a baseline survey and four follow-up surveys conducted at 4 months, 9 months, 2 and a half years, and 3 years after childbirth. The questionnaire included four scales to evaluate the subjects' childbirth experiences, awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress and difficulties. Data were collected via structured interviews and transcription from medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis indicated that women who had good childbirth experiences had positive feelings concerning motherhood and parenting stress and anxiety were lower. Bivariate analysis also indicated that childbirth experience had an inverse relationship with postnatal depression. This study revealed that having good childbirth experiences inhibits negative awareness of motherhood and abusive behavior towards children. These results show that it is important for mothers to be provided with appropriate care during pregnancy and labor for preventing child abuse and parenting stress and anxiety. More research is needed to identify the determinants of childbirth

  1. Positive benefits: preventive impact of post-exposure prophylaxis awareness among those with diagnosed HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, C

    2008-04-01

    To consider the extent to which those presenting for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) after sexual risk had been encouraged to do so by their PEP-aware partners with (diagnosed) HIV. Thirty men who had completed the 2005 UK Gay Men's Sex Survey who said they had ever tried to get PEP took part in a 30 minute telephone interview. Fifteen men in the sample described a sexual exposure incident where they had knowledge that their partner was diagnosed with having HIV. Of these, only five knew about their partner's HIV diagnosis prior to sexual contact. The remaining 10 sought PEP because their sexual partner revealed his positive status following potential sexual exposure. Our analysis revealed that word of mouth from friends, sexual partners and health professionals played a key role in men's knowledge about the existence of PEP. It is important for HIV and sexual health specialists to ensure that PEP information is not only targeted at those who are tested negative for HIV or are untested but also to people with diagnosed HIV.

  2. Both preparing to teach and teaching positively impact learning outcomes for peer teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alexander; Walker, Ian; McLaughlin, Kevin; Peets, Adam D

    2011-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the independent effects of preparing to teach and teaching on peer teacher learning outcomes. To evaluate the independent contributions of both preparing to teach and teaching to the learning of peer teachers in medical education. In total, 17 third-year medical students prepared to teach second-year students Advanced Cardiac Life Support algorithms and electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation. Immediately prior to teaching they were randomly allocated to not teach, to teach algorithms, or to teach ECG. Peer teachers were tested on both topics prior to preparation, immediately after teaching and 60 days later. Compared to baseline, peer teachers' mean examination scores (±SD) demonstrated the greatest gains for content areas they prepared for and then taught (43.0% (13.9) vs. 66.3% (8.8), p teach but did not teach, less dramatic gains were evident (43.6% (8.3) vs. 54.7% (9.4), p teaching were greater than those for preparation (23.3% (10.9) vs. 8% (9.6), p teach and actively teaching may have independent positive effects on peer teacher learning outcomes.

  3. Transitions in the Swedish school system and the impact on student’s positive self-reported-health

    OpenAIRE

    Holmström, Malin Rising; Olofsson, Niclas; Asplund, Kenneth; Kristiansen, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Background To explore three school based transitions and their impact on positive self- reported- health (SRH), pre-school to elementary school (6–10 y), elementary school to junior high school (10-13y), and junior high school to upper secondary school/high school (13-16y), in a long-term longitudinal population based study. Methods The study followed three cohorts through one school transition each. A longitudinal study with data from 6693 Health Dialogue questionnaires were used. Data were ...

  4. Dosimetric impact of systematic MLC positional errors on step and shoot IMRT for prostate cancer: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung, N.M.; Harper, C.S.; Wee, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The positional accuracy of multileaf collimators (MLC) is crucial in ensuring precise delivery of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this planning study was to investigate the dosimetric impact of systematic MLC positional errors on step and shoot IMRT of prostate cancer. A total of 12 perturbations of MLC leaf banks were introduced to six prostate IMRT treatment plans to simulate MLC systematic positional errors. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) were generated for the extraction of dose endpoint parameters. Plans were evaluated in terms of changes to the defined endpoint dose parameters, conformity index (CI) and healthy tissue avoidance (HTA) to planning target volume (PTV), rectum and bladder. Negative perturbations of MLC had been found to produce greater changes to endpoint dose parameters than positive perturbations of MLC (p 9 5 of -1.2 and 0.9% respectively. Negative and positive synchronised MLC perturbations of I mm in one direction resulted in median changes in D 9 5 of -2.3 and 1.8% respectively. Doses to rectum were generally more sensitive to systematic MLC en-ors compared to bladder (p < 0.01). Negative and positive synchronised MLC perturbations of I mm in one direction resulted in median changes in endpoint dose parameters of rectum and bladder from 1.0 to 2.5%. Maximum reduction of -4.4 and -7.3% were recorded for conformity index (CI) and healthy tissue avoidance (HT A) respectively due to synchronised MLC perturbation of 1 mm. MLC errors resulted in dosimetric changes in IMRT plans for prostate. (author)

  5. Relations Between Positive Impacts Of CSR, External Support, CSR Knowledge And The Degree Of CSR Practices In Thai Small And Medium Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Pornpimon Eua-anant; Dusadee Ayuwat; Buapun Promphakping

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the relations between positive impacts from Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), external support, knowledge about CSR and the degree of CSR practices according to international standards in the viewpoint of small and medium enterprises in Thailand. The survey among 262 small and medium enterprises in five sections in the northeastern region of Thailand reveals that positive impacts of CSR on internal issues have shown to be positively related to the degree of CSR ...

  6. Coaching to vision versus coaching to improvement needs: a preliminary investigation on the differential impacts of fostering positive and negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Anita R

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on intentional change theory (ICT; Boyatzis, 2006), this study examined the differential impact of inducing coaching recipients' vision/positive emotion versus improvement needs/negative emotion during real time executive coaching sessions. A core aim of the study was to empirically test two central ICT propositions on the effects of using the coached person's Positive Emotional Attractor (vision/PEA) versus Negative Emotional Attractor (improvement needs/NEA) as the anchoring framework of a onetime, one-on-one coaching session on appraisal of 360° feedback and discussion of possible change goals. Eighteen coaching recipients were randomly assigned to two coaching conditions, the coaching to vision/PEA condition and the coaching to improvement needs/NEA condition. Two main hypotheses were tested. Hypothesis1 predicted that participants in the vision/PEA condition would show higher levels of expressed positive emotion during appraisal of 360° feedback results and discussion of change goals than recipients in the improvement needs/NEA condition. Hypothesis2 predicted that vision/PEA participants would show lower levels of stress immediately after the coaching session than improvement needs/NEA participants. Findings showed that coaching to vision/the PEA fostered significantly lower levels of expressed negative emotion and anger during appraisal of 360° feedback results as compared to coaching to improvements needs/the NEA. Vision-focused coaching also fostered significantly greater exploration of personal passions and future desires, and more positive engagement during 360° feedback appraisal. No significant differences between the two conditions were found in emotional processing during discussion of change goals or levels of stress immediately after the coaching session. Current findings suggest that vision/PEA arousal versus improvement needs/NEA arousal impact the coaching process in quite different ways; that the coach's initial framing of the

  7. Expecting the unexpected: applying the Develop-Distort Dilemma to maximize positive market impacts in health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, David H; Paina, Ligia; Bennett, Sara

    2012-10-01

    Although health interventions start with good intentions to develop services for disadvantaged populations, they often distort the health market, making the delivery or financing of services difficult once the intervention is over: a condition called the 'Develop-Distort Dilemma' (DDD). In this paper, we describe how to examine whether a proposed intervention may develop or distort the health market. Our goal is to produce a tool that facilitates meaningful and systematic dialogue for practitioners and researchers to ensure that well-intentioned health interventions lead to productive health systems while reducing the undesirable distortions of such efforts. We apply the DDD tool to plan for development rather than distortions in health markets, using intervention research being conducted under the Future Health Systems consortium in Bangladesh, China and Uganda. Through a review of research proposals and interviews with principal investigators, we use the DDD tool to systematically understand how a project fits within the broader health market system, and to identify gaps in planning for sustainability. We found that while current stakeholders and funding sources for activities were easily identified, future ones were not. The implication is that the projects could raise community expectations that future services will be available and paid for, despite this actually being uncertain. Each project addressed the 'rules' of the health market system differently. The China research assesses changes in the formal financing rules, whereas Bangladesh and Uganda's projects involve influencing community level providers, where informal rules are more important. In each case, we recognize the importance of building trust between providers, communities and government officials. Each project could both develop and distort local health markets. Anyone intervening in the health market must recognize the main market perturbations, whether positive or negative, and manage them so

  8. Osteochondritis Dissecans Lesions in Family Members: Does a Positive Family History Impact Phenotypic Potency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gornitzky, Alex L; Mistovich, R Justin; Atuahuene, Brittany; Storey, Eileen P; Ganley, Theodore J

    2017-06-01

    Although repetitive microtrauma and athletic overuse patterns are most commonly associated with osteochondritis dissecans (OCD), recent studies have identified a potential genetic predisposition for OCD. Several case series have documented family pedigrees that support autosomal-dominant inheritance, but the families in these studies were all selected as a result of unique histories that may not accurately represent OCD inheritance patterns at large. Because there has been little investigation beyond these case reports, we aimed to describe a broader, more representative pattern of OCD inheritance applicable to all affected patients. (1) What proportion of patients treated for OCD of the knee have one or more immediate and/or extended family members with a history of OCD lesions? (2) Do patients with more phenotypically potent lesions, which we defined as patients with bilateral OCD lesions or patients who have undergone multiple procedures for OCD, have a higher frequency of affected relatives than those with less potent lesions? This retrospective study queried patient databases, diagnosis codes (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision), and surgical logs at a regional, tertiary care children's hospital to identify all patients treated over a 10-year period (March 2004-March 2014) by the senior author for OCD of the knee. All patients aged 0-18 years at the time of diagnosis were included. At our institution, patients with intact lesions are treated with a trial of conservative therapy; conversely, patients with a break in the articular cartilage and/or loose fragments of bone/cartilage are treated surgically. There were no OCD-specific contraindications to surgery. This search identified 543 patients. After patient identification, a questionnaire was designed that asked for the number, age, and gender of all immediate family members and the history of OCD lesions in any family member (immediate or extended). For all positive family members

  9. The impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position on cardiovascular disease events in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreab, Samson Y; Diez Roux, Ana V; Brenner, Allison B; Hickson, DeMarc A; Sims, Mario; Subramanyam, Malavika; Griswold, Michael E; Wyatt, Sharon B; James, Sherman A

    2015-05-27

    Few studies have examined the impact of lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among African Americans. We used data from the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) to examine the associations of multiple measures of lifecourse SEP with CVD events in a large cohort of African Americans. During a median of 7.2-year follow-up, 362 new or recurrent CVD events occurred in a sample of 5301 participants aged 21 to 94. Childhood SEP was assessed by using mother's education, parental home ownership, and childhood amenities. Adult SEP was assessed by using education, income, wealth, and public assistance. Adult SEP was more consistently associated with CVD risk in women than in men: age-adjusted hazard ratios for low versus high income (95% CIs), 2.46 (1.19 to 5.09) in women and 1.50 (0.87 to 2.58) in men, P for interaction=0.1244, and hazard ratio for low versus high wealth, 2.14 (1.39 to 3.29) in women and 1.06 (0.62 to 1.81) in men, P for interaction=0.0224. After simultaneous adjustment for all adult SEP measures, wealth remained a significant predictor of CVD events in women (HR=1.73 [1.04, 2.85] for low versus high). Education and public assistance were less consistently associated with CVD. Adult SEP was a stronger predictor of CVD events in younger than in older participants (HR for high versus low summary adult SEP score 3.28 [1.43, 7.53] for participants ≤50 years, and 1.90 (1.36 to 2.66) for participants >50 years, P for interaction 0.0846). Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD risk in women or men. Adult SEP is an important predictor of CVD events in African American women and in younger African Americans. Childhood SEP was not associated with CVD events in this population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  10. Policies to contend with climate change : positive impacts on employment in Europe and France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudin, T.; Bouchereau, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on the evolution of our society and economy was discussed. Studies have shown that the fight against climate change could result in the creation of many jobs. This article proposed several strategies to undertake, with particular reference to investment in energy conservation and the use of renewable energy. It promoted the frugal use of energy resources, notably fossil fuels, which are becoming scare. It also argued that investment in energy conservation and renewable energy sources is no long a luxury, but a necessity. It provided examples of how these investments are guided by profitability. For example, an investment to insulate a house in 1998 will be completely recuperated by 2005 due to savings in energy costs, after which time energy savings will continue. In addition to environmental protection and energy conservation, another benefit associated with the fight against climate change is job creation in areas such as insulating houses or the production of biofuels. By nature, renewable energy is local and decentralized. As such, it offers the opportunity for local jobs at or near the site of consumption. Examples of direct employment were depicted. In the transportation sector, half the amount of energy is needed to move in mass transit compared to individual cars, while creating twice the employment. Although the initial investment in mass transit is costly, the advantages are far from limited to energy conservation and employment. They include security, and improved health of people in cities which results in lower social costs. In France, the insulation of old buildings constructed before the introduction of new laws on thermal standards also generated employment. It is expected that 20,000 to 30,000 perennial jobs in agriculture and industrial manufacturing will been created in France by 2010 for the biofuel industry alone. Energy conservation will result in a drop in traditional energy consumption, this being the first goal

  11. The cognitive impact of chronic low back pain: Positive effect of multidisciplinary pain therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiltenwolf, Marcus; Akbar, Michael; Neubauer, Eva; Gantz, Simone; Flor, Herta; Hug, Andreas; Wang, Haili

    2017-10-01

    Little is known about the affected cognitive problems in chronic low back pain patients. For this patient cohort research mostly focused on memory of pain, rather than cognitive difficulties related to pain. Chronic pain may be associated with specific (yet undefined) cognitive deficits that affect everyday behaviour. We set out to compare the cognitive function of patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in the course of multidisciplinary pain treatments before and after therapy. Thirty-three patients with cLBP and 25 healthy controls between 20 and 70 years were recruited into the study. The inclusion criteria for patients were: (1) a history of at least 12 weeks of chronic myofascial low back pain without radicular pain sensation before enrolment; (2) grade II and higher chronicity according to von Korff; (3) no opioid medication. The patients recruited had a mean pain duration of 7.13±7.16 years and reported a mean pain intensity of 6.62±2.04 (visual analogue score, VAS). Their mean back function according to the Funktionsfragebogen Hannover (FFbH, a questionnaire comparable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire) was 52.39±20.23%. At three time points (before therapy, 3 weeks and 6 months after therapy) the study subjects were assessed prospectively with a battery of visual memory tests from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB). These included choice reaction time (CRT), pattern recognition memory (PRM) and spatial span (SSP). In parallel, the Trail-Making Test (TMT-A, TMT-B) and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) were used to evaluate intelligence and cognitive flexibility. At the beginning of MDPT (T1), it took patients with cLBP significantly longer than HC to complete TMT-A (38.29±19.99s vs 30.25±14.19s, p=0.047) and TMT-B (72.10±26.98s vs 55.99±22.14s, p=0.034). There were no significant differences between patients and HC in CRT, PRM and SSP. Three weeks (T2) and 6 months (T3) after MDPT, TMT

  12. Positive impact of integrating histology and physiology teaching at a medical school in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Renslow; Wan, Yu; Dong, Hongmei; Cooper, Brian; Morgan, Ivy; Peng, Biwen; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lin; Xu, David

    2014-12-01

    To modernize its stagnant, traditional curriculum and pedagogy, the Medical School of Wuhan University in China adopted (with modifications) the University of Chicago's medical curriculum model. The reform effort in basic sciences was integrating histology and physiology into one course, increasing the two subjects' connection to clinical medicine, and applying new pedagogies and assessment methods. This study assessed the results of the reform by comparing the attitudes and academic achievements of students in the reform curriculum (n = 41) and their traditional curriculum peers (n = 182). An attitude survey was conducted to obtain students' views of their respective histology and physiology instruction. Survey items covered lectures, laboratory teaching, case analyses and small-group case discussions, assessment of students, and overall quality of the courses and instruction. A knowledge test consisting of questions from three sources was given to measure students' mastery of topics that they had learned. Results showed that reform curriculum students were rather satisfied with their course and new teaching methods in most cases. When these students' attitudes were compared with those of their traditional curriculum peers, several significant differences favoring the reform were identified regarding physiology teaching. No other significant difference was found for physiology or histology teaching. Reform curriculum students outperformed their peers on four of five subcategories of the knowledge test questions. These findings support the benefits of integration and state-of-the-art teaching methods. Our study may offer lessons to medical schools in China and other countries whose medical education is in need of change. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  13. Innovation in retail: impact on creating a positive experience when buying fashion products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Vasiliu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovation in fashion retail is critical in order to ensure competitive advantage in a constantly evolving market, in terms of consumer expectations. The modern customer is mobile, permanently connected to the Internet, well-informed about international trends, mindful of the quality of products, but more price sensitive and less loyal to a brand. The shopping experience provided by retailers is a crucial factor in purchase decision, encompassing all these variables in a complex concept of exogenous variable. As retailers’ efforts to provide excellence in shopping experience are focused on operating costs and thus on the profit margins, it is important to consider and identify which are the most relevant variables that form the perception of excellence for Romanian customers, so that retailers can innovate according to their expectations. The purpose of this article was to highlight the role of innovation in creating a positive experience for consumers buying clothes, shoes and accessories. The approach was based on the conduct of exploratory research. The research ? represented by five original objectives and as many different working scenarios ? resulted in the identification of thematic outlined exploratory opinions, exploiting a first investigation of its kind in Romania, less Pearson coefficients used in the analysis of ordinal variables or hierarchical, but quickly assessed using SPSS, version 21. As a pioneering research emphasis was on identifying potential associations and quantified correlations and less on rigorous delimitation of exogenous or endogenous quality in general, leaving room for future studies, sharper and with a higher degree of representation. Thus, we could highlight some useful aspects of the investigated retailers, by the dominant character of interested customers’ opinions according to their volunteer responses. Consumers are accustomed to using the Internet to obtain information; they rarely express opinions on

  14. Impacts of Reinsurance Operations on Significant Items of the Financial Statements of Commercial Insurance Companies According to Czech Accounting Legislation and International Accounting Standards

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Gláserová; Eva Vávrová

    2015-01-01

    The principal aim of the paper is to determine the impact of reinsurance operations in commercial insurance companies, in accordance with the relevant accounting legislation, for certain significant items of the financial statements. In actual fact, the reinsurance operations affect the profit of a commercial insurance company, following the financial statements. The prerequisite for fulfilling the objective of the paper is to analyse the accounting legislation for reinsurance operations in c...

  15. Impact of age on the false negative rate of human papillomavirus DNA test in patients with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance

    OpenAIRE

    Won, Kyu-Hee; Lee, Jae Yeon; Cho, Hye-Yon; Suh, Dong Hoon; No, Jae Hong; Kim, Yong-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Objective Human papillomavirus (HPV) test was incorporated into the triage of lesser abnormal cervical cytologies: atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LSIL). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of age on the efficacy of HPV testing in patients with lesser abnormal cervical cytologies. Methods A total of 439 patients with ASCUS or LSIL were included. The association between age groups and the diagnostic performances of ...

  16. River food webs: an integrative approach to bottom-up flow webs, top-down impact webs, and trophic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benke, Arthur C

    2018-03-31

    The majority of food web studies are based on connectivity, top-down impacts, bottom-up flows, or trophic position (TP), and ecologists have argued for decades which is best. Rarely have any two been considered simultaneously. The present study uses a procedure that integrates the last three approaches based on taxon-specific secondary production and gut analyses. Ingestion flows are quantified to create a flow web and the same data are used to quantify TP for all taxa. An individual predator's impacts also are estimated using the ratio of its ingestion (I) of each prey to prey production (P) to create an I/P web. This procedure was applied to 41 invertebrate taxa inhabiting submerged woody habitat in a southeastern U.S. river. A complex flow web starting with five basal food resources had 462 flows >1 mg·m -2 ·yr -1 , providing far more information than a connectivity web. Total flows from basal resources to primary consumers/omnivores were dominated by allochthonous amorphous detritus and ranged from 1 to >50,000 mg·m -2 ·yr -1 . Most predator-prey flows were much lower (1,000  mg·m -2 ·yr -1 . The I/P web showed that 83% of individual predator impacts were weak (90%). Quantitative estimates of TP ranged from 2 to 3.7, contrasting sharply with seven integer-based trophic levels based on longest feeding chain. Traditional omnivores (TP = 2.4-2.9) played an important role by consuming more prey and exerting higher impacts on primary consumers than strict predators (TP ≥ 3). This study illustrates how simultaneous quantification of flow pathways, predator impacts, and TP together provide an integrated characterization of natural food webs. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.

  17. Laboratory simulation reveals significant impacts of ocean acidification on microbial community composition and host-pathogen interactions between the blood clam and Vibrio harveyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Shanjie; Liu, Saixi; Su, Wenhao; Shi, Wei; Xiao, Guoqiang; Yan, Maocang; Liu, Guangxu

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that climate change may promote the outbreaks of diseases in the sea through altering the host susceptibility, the pathogen virulence, and the host-pathogen interaction. However, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on the pathogen components of bacterial community and the host-pathogen interaction of marine bivalves are still poorly understood. Therefore, 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and host-pathogen interaction analysis between blood clam (Tegillarca granosa) and Vibrio harveyi were conducted in the present study to gain a better understanding of the ecological impacts of ocean acidification. The results obtained revealed a significant impact of ocean acidification on the composition of microbial community at laboratory scale. Notably, the abundance of Vibrio, a major group of pathogens to many marine organisms, was significantly increased under ocean acidification condition. In addition, the survival rate and haemolytic activity of V. harveyi were significantly higher in the presence of haemolymph of OA treated T. granosa, indicating a compromised immunity of the clam and enhanced virulence of V. harveyi under future ocean acidification scenarios. Conclusively, the results obtained in this study suggest that future ocean acidification may increase the risk of Vibrio pathogen infection for marine bivalve species, such as blood clams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of positive gated myocardial SPECT in diabetic and non-diabetic women and impact of other factors; KIHD perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maseeh-uz-Zaman; Fatima, N.; Samad, A.; Rasheed, S.Z.; Ishaq, M.; Rehman, K.; Wali, A.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) among diabetic (DM) and nondiabetic (NDM) women using Gated SPECT (GSPECT) and to study the impact of other. risk factors like hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia, family history and menopause. This is a prospective cross-sectional study on a consecutive sample of 287 women referred to Nuclear Cardiology Department of Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases (KIHD) for GSPECT for evaluation of known or suspected CAD (from January 2009 till June 2009). Women with a history of DM diagnosed less than 5 years were excluded. Same day (reststress) GSPECT study was conducted and fixed or reversible perfusion defects were considered positive GSPECT for CAD. GSPECT was positive for CAD in 41/115 (36%, P 0.002) diabetic women and 37/172 (21 %, P 0.005) non-diabetic cohort. In diabetic cohort, GSPECT was positive in 5/9 (56%, P 0.013) women with diabetes only, 17/35 (48%, P 0.02) DM with HTN, 12/15 (80%, P value 0.02) DM with dyslipidemia and 11/43 (26%, P 0.001) DM with >2 risk factors. GSPECT was normal in all 3 diabetic women with positive family history for CAD. In nondiabetic cohort, GSPECT was positive in 9/32 (28%, P value 0.739) women with no risk factor, 5/58 (26%, P 0.866) HTN only, 2/5 (40%, P value 0.655) only dyslipidemic women, 1/12. (8%, P 0.004) with family history only and 4/23 (17%, P value 0.166) non-diabetic with >2 risk factors. Interestingly, 35/93 post-menopausal diabetic (38%, p value 0.017) had positive GSPECT while 33/123 non-diabetic postmenopausal women (27%, p 0.03) had positive perfusion scans. GSPECT was positive in 6/26 (23%, P 0.006) and 4/49 (8%, P 0.05) in diabetic and non-diabetic pre-menopausal women. The prevalence of CAD in our diabetic women is as high as internationally reported and diabetes is a strong risk factor for CAD. Dyslipidemia with diabetes is a major contributor to CAD than HTN and F/H. Diabetes erases the protective effect of estrogen

  19. Prevalence of positive gated myocardial SPECT in diabetic and non-diabetic women and impact of other factors; KIHD perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maseeh-uz-Zaman,; Fatima, N; Samad, A; Rasheed, S Z; Ishaq, M; Rehman, K; Wali, A [Karachi, Inst. of Heart Diseases, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2009-07-15

    The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) among diabetic (DM) and nondiabetic (NDM) women using Gated SPECT (GSPECT) and to study the impact of other. risk factors like hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia, family history and menopause. This is a prospective cross-sectional study on a consecutive sample of 287 women referred to Nuclear Cardiology Department of Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases (KIHD) for GSPECT for evaluation of known or suspected CAD (from January 2009 till June 2009). Women with a history of DM diagnosed less than 5 years were excluded. Same day (reststress) GSPECT study was conducted and fixed or reversible perfusion defects were considered positive GSPECT for CAD. GSPECT was positive for CAD in 41/115 (36%, P 0.002) diabetic women and 37/172 (21 %, P 0.005) non-diabetic cohort. In diabetic cohort, GSPECT was positive in 5/9 (56%, P 0.013) women with diabetes only, 17/35 (48%, P 0.02) DM with HTN, 12/15 (80%, P value 0.02) DM with dyslipidemia and 11/43 (26%, P 0.001) DM with >2 risk factors. GSPECT was normal in all 3 diabetic women with positive family history for CAD. In nondiabetic cohort, GSPECT was positive in 9/32 (28%, P value 0.739) women with no risk factor, 5/58 (26%, P 0.866) HTN only, 2/5 (40%, P value 0.655) only dyslipidemic women, 1/12. (8%, P 0.004) with family history only and 4/23 (17%, P value 0.166) non-diabetic with >2 risk factors. Interestingly, 35/93 post-menopausal diabetic (38%, p value 0.017) had positive GSPECT while 33/123 non-diabetic postmenopausal women (27%, p 0.03) had positive perfusion scans. GSPECT was positive in 6/26 (23%, P 0.006) and 4/49 (8%, P 0.05) in diabetic and non-diabetic pre-menopausal women. The prevalence of CAD in our diabetic women is as high as internationally reported and diabetes is a strong risk factor for CAD. Dyslipidemia with diabetes is a major contributor to CAD than HTN and F/H. Diabetes erases the protective effect of estrogen

  20. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  1. Positive Impact of Social Media Use on Depression in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farpour, Hamid Reza; Habibi, Leila; Owji, Seyed Hossein

    2017-11-26

    Objective: The focus of attention was the prevalence of depression among cancer patients using social networks. An attempt was made to determine if social media could help cancer patients overcome their stress and depression, causes of serious emotional and mental problems for them and their families. Methods: To ascertain the prevalence of depression among cancer patients with reference to use of social networks, 316 cancer patients in the Association of Cancer Patients and cancer-related centers in Tehran at 2015 were evaluated. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were analyzed by the Chi-square test with SPSS software. Results: Using the Beck criteria, 61% (N=192) of patients were depressed. Interestingly, a significant difference was observed between depression in users and non-users of social networks (p=0.001), 33.9% and 66.1% being affected, respectively. Conclusion: These results verified a high incidence of depression in cancer patients, but a beneficial effect of social network use. Therefore access to social networks should be promoted for prevention and amelioration of depression. Moreover, it is recommended that particular attention be paid to the patient sex and educational level in designing counseling and psychological skill training programs. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. The Anticipated Positive Psychosocial Impact of Present Web-Based E-Health Services and Future Mobile Health Applications: An Investigation among Older Swedes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund Axelsson, S; Nyberg, L; Näslund, A; Melander Wikman, A

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the anticipated psychosocial impact of present web-based e-health services and future mobile health applications among older Swedes. Random sample's of Swedish citizens aged 55 years old and older were given a survey containing two different e-health scenarios which respondents rated according to their anticipated psychosocial impact by means of the PIADS instrument. Results consistently demonstrated the positive anticipation of psychosocial impacts for both scenarios. The future mobile health applications scored more positively than the present web-based e-health services. An increase in age correlated positively to lower impact scores. These findings indicate that from a psychosocial perspective, web-based e-health services and mobile health applications are likely to positively impact quality of life. This knowledge can be helpful when tailoring and implementing e-health services that are directed to older people.

  3. Positive futures? The impact of HIV infection on achieving health, wealth and future planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Richard; Molloy, Tim

    2008-05-01

    Although HIV is now cast as a chronic condition with favourable clinical outcomes under new treatments, it is unclear how living with HIV affects expectations and planning for the future. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate UK gay men's expectations of their own future when living with HIV, and to identify the heath and social interventions required to enhance roles, participation and personal fulfilment. A preliminary focus group identified relevant domains of enquiry for a subsequent online cross-sectional survey. A total of 347 gay men living in the UK with HIV participated in the survey, and 56.6% were currently on treatment. However, high 7-day prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms was identified (42.6% in pain, 80.2% worrying); 57.8% perceived reduced career options due to their infection and 71.8% reduced life expectancy. Being on treatment was not significantly associated with perceived life expectancy. Coded open-ended survey data identified eight principle themes related to goal planning and attainment. The integrated open and closed data items offer an understanding of barriers and challenges that focus on poor mental health due to clinical inattention, discrimination and stigma, poor career and job opportunities due to benefit and workplace inflexibility and lack of understanding, a lack of personal goals and associated skills deficit related to confidence and self esteem. Gay men living with HIV require an integrated holistic approach to wellbeing that incorporates clinical, social and individual intervention in order to lead productive lives with maximum benefit from treatment gains.

  4. Into the Woods or a Stroll in the Park: How Virtual Contact with Nature Impacts Positive and Negative Affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Elizabeth; Bhullar, Navjot; Schutte, Nicola S

    2017-07-14

    This study examined the effects of virtual contact with nature on positive and negative affect, and investigated the psychological process of perceived restorativeness as a mediator of this relationship. A sample of 220 Australians aged between 18 and 75 years (M = 49.07, SD = 14.34, female = 72%) participated in the study. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the three experimental conditions experienced through video presentations: (1) 'wild' nature, (2) 'urban' nature, and (3) non-nature control. They then completed measures of perceived restorativeness as well as positive and negative affect. Compared to the non-nature control condition, the experience of wild nature resulted in significantly higher levels of positive affect and lower levels of negative affect. The experience of urban nature resulted in significantly lower levels of negative affect only compared to the non-nature control video. Experience of wild and urban nature resulted in greater perceptions of restorativeness as compared to the non-nature control video. Restorativeness was a significant underlying psychological mediating path through which nature experience exerted its influence on affect. These results have the potential to inform nature-based green care interventions for mental health as well as for urban planning to maximize beneficial effects of natural environments.

  5. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs

  6. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  7. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Impact of bowtie filter and object position on the two-dimensional noise power spectrum of a clinical MDCT system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Cruz-Bastida, Juan Pablo [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States); Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong, E-mail: gchen7@wisc.edu [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 600 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53792 (United States); Budde, Adam; Hsieh, Jiang [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison School of Medicine and Public Health, 1111 Highland Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 and GE Healthcare, 3000 N Grandview Boulevard, Waukesha, Wisconsin 53188 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: Noise characteristics of clinical multidetector CT (MDCT) systems can be quantified by the noise power spectrum (NPS). Although the NPS of CT has been extensively studied in the past few decades, the joint impact of the bowtie filter and object position on the NPS has not been systematically investigated. This work studies the interplay of these two factors on the two dimensional (2D) local NPS of a clinical CT system that uses the filtered backprojection algorithm for image reconstruction. Methods: A generalized NPS model was developed to account for the impact of the bowtie filter and image object location in the scan field-of-view (SFOV). For a given bowtie filter, image object, and its location in the SFOV, the shape and rotational symmetries of the 2D local NPS were directly computed from the NPS model without going through the image reconstruction process. The obtained NPS was then compared with the measured NPSs from the reconstructed noise-only CT images in both numerical phantom simulation studies and experimental phantom studies using a clinical MDCT scanner. The shape and the associated symmetry of the 2D NPS were classified by borrowing the well-known atomic spectral symbols s, p, and d, which correspond to circular, dumbbell, and cloverleaf symmetries, respectively, of the wave function of electrons in an atom. Finally, simulated bar patterns were embedded into experimentally acquired noise backgrounds to demonstrate the impact of different NPS symmetries on the visual perception of the object. Results: (1) For a central region in a centered cylindrical object, an s-wave symmetry was always present in the NPS, no matter whether the bowtie filter was present or not. In contrast, for a peripheral region in a centered object, the symmetry of its NPS was highly dependent on the bowtie filter, and both p-wave symmetry and d-wave symmetry were observed in the NPS. (2) For a centered region-ofinterest (ROI) in an off-centered object, the symmetry of

  9. Impact of bowtie filter and object position on the two-dimensional noise power spectrum of a clinical MDCT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Cruz-Bastida, Juan Pablo; Li, Ke; Chen, Guang-Hong; Budde, Adam; Hsieh, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Noise characteristics of clinical multidetector CT (MDCT) systems can be quantified by the noise power spectrum (NPS). Although the NPS of CT has been extensively studied in the past few decades, the joint impact of the bowtie filter and object position on the NPS has not been systematically investigated. This work studies the interplay of these two factors on the two dimensional (2D) local NPS of a clinical CT system that uses the filtered backprojection algorithm for image reconstruction. Methods: A generalized NPS model was developed to account for the impact of the bowtie filter and image object location in the scan field-of-view (SFOV). For a given bowtie filter, image object, and its location in the SFOV, the shape and rotational symmetries of the 2D local NPS were directly computed from the NPS model without going through the image reconstruction process. The obtained NPS was then compared with the measured NPSs from the reconstructed noise-only CT images in both numerical phantom simulation studies and experimental phantom studies using a clinical MDCT scanner. The shape and the associated symmetry of the 2D NPS were classified by borrowing the well-known atomic spectral symbols s, p, and d, which correspond to circular, dumbbell, and cloverleaf symmetries, respectively, of the wave function of electrons in an atom. Finally, simulated bar patterns were embedded into experimentally acquired noise backgrounds to demonstrate the impact of different NPS symmetries on the visual perception of the object. Results: (1) For a central region in a centered cylindrical object, an s-wave symmetry was always present in the NPS, no matter whether the bowtie filter was present or not. In contrast, for a peripheral region in a centered object, the symmetry of its NPS was highly dependent on the bowtie filter, and both p-wave symmetry and d-wave symmetry were observed in the NPS. (2) For a centered region-ofinterest (ROI) in an off-centered object, the symmetry of

  10. Impact of Polysomnographic Parameters on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patient with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mozafari

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives : O bstructive sleep apnea is a preventable and prevalent major health hazard with serious health consequences including excessive daytime sleepiness, cognitive disturbances, depression, cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. Obstructive sleep apnea is a disorder affecting 2 to 4% of the adult population. The continuous positive airway pressur e (CPAP i s the most efficacious therapy and is often the first option for these patients. The pressure titration during laboratory polysomnography is required for treatment by CPAP.   Methods: The patients with obstructive sleep apnea requiring continuous positive airway pressure treatment were selected . CPAP titration was done according to American Academy of Sleep Medicine protocol. Comparison among continuous positive airway pressure with polysomnographic parameters was performed and analyzed with Pearson correlation coefficient. For analysis of qualitative parameters, we used chi-square and then checked with SPSS version 18 software.   Results: From 125 patients with obstructive sleep apnea, there were 112 cases with inclusion criteria. Mean age of participants was 55.07 ± 12, male frequency was 59.2%, apnea hypopnea index was 43.62 and mean continuous positive airway pressure was 12.50 . There was significant relationship among the pressure of continuous positive airway pressure with apnea hypopnea index (P=0.028, arousal index (P=0.011, body mass index (P=0.041 and O2 desaturation index (P=0.022, although age was not significantly related.   Conclusion: In accordance to this data, we found out a prediction equation for optimal CPAP in our patients

  11. Poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestation: a broad impact parasitological disease that still remains a significant challenge for the egg-laying industry in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigognault Flochlay, Annie; Thomas, Emmanuel; Sparagano, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, has been described for decades as a threat to the egg production industry, posing serious animal health and welfare concerns, adversely affecting productivity, and impacting public health. Research activities dedicated to controlling this parasite have increased significantly. Their veterinary and human medical impact, more particularly their role as a disease vector, is better understood. Nevertheless, red mite infestation remains a serious concern, particularly in Europe, where the prevalence of red mites is expected to increase, as a result of recent hen husbandry legislation changes, increased acaricide resistance, climate warming, and the lack of a sustainable approach to control infestations. The main objective of the current work was to review the factors contributing to this growing threat and to discuss their recent development in Europe. We conclude that effective and sustainable treatment approach to control poultry red mite infestation is urgently required, included integrated pest management.

  12. The impact of the initial stance position on lower limb joint kinetics in the taekwondo roundhouse kick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Jandačka

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To achieve good performance, taekwondo athletes should optimize the stance position of the foot on the ground. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to compare generated net joint power (hip, knee and ankle during stance phase, magnitude of peak foot velocity of the attacking lower extremity and execution stance time produced from three stance positions (forward "0°", diagonal "45°", orthogonal "90°" in the taekwondo roundhouse kick. METHODS: Ten taekwondo athletes participated in the study; their experience of practicing taekwondo ranged between 13.8 ± 5.8 years. The kinetics and kinematics of the athletes’ movement during the roundhouse kick were recorded. The execution stance time and the magnitude of peak foot velocity were determined. The net joint power of the kicking lower extremity during the stance phase was calculated using the inverse dynamics method. Then the peak net joint power was determined. RESULTS: The analysis of variance for repeated measures showed that there is a significant main effect of the stance position on the peak net hip joint power in the three planes. In addition, the stance position does not affect the magnitude of the peak foot velocity of the kicking lower extremity and execution stance time. CONCLUSIONS: The necessity to produce a higher net hip joint power in the stance phase of the roundhouse kick from the position when the feet are placed orthogonal to the target of the kick, compared with the execution of the kick from the forward or diagonal position, must be taken into account for purposes of rationalizing strength training of taekwondo athletes or for selecting the technique of the roundhouse kick.

  13. The impact of tamoxifen on breast recurrence, cosmesis, complications, and survival in estrogen receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowble, Barbara; Fein, Douglas A.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Eisenberg, Burton L.; Hoffman, John P.; Sigurdson, Elin R.; Daly, Mary B.; Goldstein, Lori J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of tamoxifen on breast recurrence, cosmesis, complications, overall and cause-specific survival in women with Stage I-II breast cancer and estrogen receptor positive tumors undergoing conservative surgery and radiation. Methods and Materials: From 1982 to 1991, 491 women with estrogen receptor positive Stage I-II breast cancer underwent excisional biopsy, axillary dissection, and radiation. The median age of the patient population was 60 years with 21% < 50 years of age. The median follow-up was 5.3 years (range 0.1 to 12.8). Sixty-nine percent had T1 tumors and 83% had histologically negative axillary nodes. Reexcision was performed in 49% and the final margin of resection was negative in 64%. One hundred fifty-four patients received tamoxifen and 337 patients received no adjuvant therapy. None of the patients received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: There were no significant differences between the two groups for age, race, clinical tumor size, histology, the use of reexcision, or median total dose to the primary. Patients who received tamoxifen were more often axillary node positive (44% tamoxifen vs. 5% no tamoxifen), and, therefore, a greater percentage received treatment to the breast and regional nodes. The tamoxifen patients less often had unknown margins of resection (9% tamoxifen vs. 22% no tamoxifen). The 5-year actuarial breast recurrence rate was 4% for the tamoxifen patients compared to 7% for patients not receiving tamoxifen (p 0.21). Tamoxifen resulted in a modest decrease in the 5-year actuarial risk of a breast recurrence in axillary node-negative patients, in those with unknown or close margins of resection, and in those who underwent a single excision. Axillary node-positive patients had a clinically significant decrease in the 5-year actuarial breast recurrence rate (21 vs. 4%; p 0.08). The 5-year actuarial rate of distant metastasis was not significantly decreased by the addition of adjuvant tamoxifen in all

  14. Open table-top device positioning technique to reduce small bowel obstruction. Positioning accuracy and impact on conformal radiation therapy techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudat, V.; Flentje, M.; Engenhart, R.; Metzger, M.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    The immobilization error of patients positioned on the opern table-top device in prone prosition as well as the movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis by this positioning technique was determined. The positioning error is of special importance for the 3-dimensional treatment planning for conformal radiotherapy. The positioning error was determined by superposing 106 portal films with the corresponding simultor films from 21 patients with carcinoma of the rectum who received 3D-planned conformal radiotherapy (o-field technique with irregular blocks). The movement of the small bowel out of the pelvis was studied by comparing simulator films after barium swallow in supine and open table-top position as well with 3D-treatment plans of the same patient in both positions in 3 cases. The positioning error along the medio-lateral, dorso-ventral und cranio-caudal axis was 1.4/-0.6/1.8 mm and the standard deviation 4.4/6.8/6.3 mm, respectively. In comparison to the supine position more rotation errors in the sagittal view were observed (37% and 9% respectively) with a media of 5.1 . Six out of 22 patients showed no adhesions of the small bowel and a complete movement out of the tratment field was achieved. 14 out of 16 Patients with adhesions revealed a partial movement of the small bowel out of the treatment field. Comparing 3D-treatment plans in both positions again demonstrated a marked reduction of the irradiated small bowel volume with the use of the open table-top decive. (orig.) [de

  15. Positive Impacts of Social Media at Work: Job Satisfaction, Job Calling, and Facebook Use among Co-Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Brittany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of Facebook users grew rapidly since its conception. Within today’s workplace, employees are increasingly connecting with each other on Facebook for interpersonal reasons. Due to sensational reports by media outlets of inappropriate social media use, many organizations are taking extreme measures about how their employees who utilize Facebook to connect with colleagues. Contrary to the negative assumptions, McAfee [1] states that social media within the workplace can promote positive dynamics. The present study uses McAfee’s argument to examine if a positive connection exists between colleagues who use Facebook to connect with each other. An online survey with questions involving Facebook use with co-workers, job satisfaction, and perceived job calling was completed by employees (N=70 at two high-tech companies in Northern California, USA. Results revealed that job satisfaction is positively correlated with intensity of Facebook use among co-workers. Furthermore, feeling called to one’s line of work was statistically significantly higher for the group of employees who spent the most amount of time interacting on Facebook with their co-workers than the group that spent the least amount of time. These results suggest that companies could begin to explore the positive benefits of social media use within the workplace.

  16. Impact of habitat-specific GPS positional error on detection of movement scales by first-passage time analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Williams

    Full Text Available Advances in animal tracking technologies have reduced but not eliminated positional error. While aware of such inherent error, scientists often proceed with analyses that assume exact locations. The results of such analyses then represent one realization in a distribution of possible outcomes. Evaluating results within the context of that distribution can strengthen or weaken our confidence in conclusions drawn from the analysis in question. We evaluated the habitat-specific positional error of stationary GPS collars placed under a range of vegetation conditions that produced a gradient of canopy cover. We explored how variation of positional error in different vegetation cover types affects a researcher's ability to discern scales of movement in analyses of first-passage time for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus. We placed 11 GPS collars in 4 different vegetative canopy cover types classified as the proportion of cover above the collar (0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75%, and 76-100%. We simulated the effect of positional error on individual movement paths using cover-specific error distributions at each location. The different cover classes did not introduce any directional bias in positional observations (1 m≤mean≤6.51 m, 0.24≤p≤0.47, but the standard deviation of positional error of fixes increased significantly with increasing canopy cover class for the 0-25%, 26-50%, 51-75% classes (SD = 2.18 m, 3.07 m, and 4.61 m, respectively and then leveled off in the 76-100% cover class (SD = 4.43 m. We then added cover-specific positional errors to individual deer movement paths and conducted first-passage time analyses on the noisy and original paths. First-passage time analyses were robust to habitat-specific error in a forest-agriculture landscape. For deer in a fragmented forest-agriculture environment, and species that move across similar geographic extents, we suggest that first-passage time analysis is robust with regard to

  17. The impact of diabetes on mobility, balance, and recovery after repositioning maneuvers in individuals with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Linda J; Whitney, Susan L; Santos, Marcio; Dai, Hongying; Kluding, Patricia M

    2017-06-01

    The prevalence of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is higher in people with type 2 diabetes (DM). The impact of DM on mobility, balance, and management of BPPV is unknown. This prospective study compared symptom severity, mobility and balance before and after the canalith repositioning maneuver (CRM) in people with posterior canal BPPV canalithiasis, with and without DM. Fifty participants, BPPV (n=34) and BPPV+DM (n=16) were examined for symptom severity (dizziness handicap inventory, DHI), mobility (functional gait assessment, FGA), and postural sway (using an accelerometer in five conditions) before and after the CRM. The number of maneuvers required for symptom resolution was recorded. At baseline, no differences in DHI or FGA scores were seen between groups, however, people with BPPV+DM had higher sway velocity in the medio-lateral direction in tandem stance (pdiabetes, as well as the influence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on functional performance are essential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of sitting position on the formation of spinal curvatures in the sagittal plane of taxi drivers - preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Turon-Skrzypinska

    2018-04-01

    Results: The average work time in the examined group was 57.7 and the control group 6.8 hours per week. The mean values of thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis in the examined group were 36.3 and 17.9 degrees, respectively, versus 30.3 and 20.8 in the control group. Age and length of service had an impact on the shaping of the spinal curvatures. Greater value of BMI was associated with deeper thoracic kyphosis, but not with shallower lumbar lordosis. Conclusions: Adverse changes in shaping spinal curvatures progress with increasing age and length of the employment performed in the sitting position. Body mass index and body weight above the normal level contribute to deepening thoracic kyphosis.

  19. Impact of subject related factors and position of flight control stick on acquisition of simulated flying skills using a flight simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Bo-Keun

    Increasing demand on aviation industry calls for more pilots. Thus, pilot training systems and pilot-candidate screening systems are essential for civil and military flying training institutes. Before actual flight training, it is not easy to determine whether a flight trainee will be successful in the training. Due to the high cost of actual flight training, it would be better if there were low cost methods for screening and training candidates prior to the actual flight training. This study intended to determine if subject related factors and flight control stick position have an impact on acquisition of simulated flying skills using a PC-based flight simulator. The experimental model was a factorial design with repeated measures. Sixty-four subjects participated in the experiment and were divided into 8 groups. Experiment consisted of 8 sessions in which performance data, such as heading, altitude and airspeed were collected every 15 seconds. Collected data were analyzed using SAS statistical program. Result of multivariate analysis of variance indicated that the three independent variables: nationality, computer game experience, and flight stick position have significant impact on acquiring simulated flying skill. For nationality, Americans recorded higher scores in general (mean: 81.7) than Koreans (mean: 78.9). The difference in mean scores between Americans and Koreans was 2.8 percent. Regarding computer game experience, the difference between high experience group (82.3) and low experience group (78.3) is significant. For high experience group, American side-stick group recorded the highest (mean: 85.6), and Korean side-stick group (mean: 77.2) scored the lowest. For the low experience group, American center-stick group scored the highest (80.6), and the Korean side-stick group (74.2) scored the lowest points. Therefore, there is a significant difference between high experience group and low experience group. The results also reveal that the center

  20. The Impact of Gender Norms on Condom Use among HIV-Positive Adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner’s HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95–26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality. PMID:25853870

  1. The impact of gender norms on condom use among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladseth, Kristin; Gafos, Mitzy; Newell, Marie Louise; McGrath, Nuala

    2015-01-01

    Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave) may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372) and men (158) who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18). Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75); the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality.

  2. The impact of gender norms on condom use among HIV-positive adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Fladseth

    Full Text Available Critical to preventing the spread of HIV is promoting condom use among HIV-positive individuals. Previous studies suggest that gender norms (social and cultural constructions of the ways that women and men are expected to behave may be an important determinant of condom use. However, the relationship has not been evaluated among HIV-positive women and men in South Africa. We examined gender norms and condom use at last sex among 550 partnerships reported by 530 sexually-active HIV-positive women (372 and men (158 who had sought care, but not yet initiated antiretroviral therapy in a high HIV-prevalence rural setting in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa between January 2009 and March 2011. Participants enrolled in the cohort study completed a baseline questionnaire that detailed their socio-demographic characteristics, socio-economic circumstances, religion, HIV testing history and disclosure of HIV status, stigma, social capital, gender norms and self-efficacy. Gender norms did not statistically differ between women and men (p = 0.18. Overall, condoms were used at last sex in 58% of partnerships. Although participants disclosed their HIV status in 66% of the partnerships, 60% did not have knowledge of their partner's HIV status. In multivariable logistic regression, run separately for each sex, women younger than 26 years with more equitable gender norms were significantly more likely to have used a condom at last sex than those of the same age group with inequitable gender norms (OR = 8.88, 95% CI 2.95-26.75; the association between condom use and gender norms among women aged 26+ years and men of all ages was not statistically significant. Strategies to address gender inequity should be integrated into positive prevention interventions, particularly for younger women, and supported by efforts at a societal level to decrease gender inequality.

  3. Positive predictive value and impact of misdiagnosis of a heart failure diagnosis in administrative registers among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mard, Shan; Nielsen, Finn Erland

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF.......To evaluate the positive predictive value (PPV) of a diagnosis of heart failure (HF) in the Danish National Registry of Patients (NRP) among patients admitted to a University Hospital cardiac care unit, and to evaluate the impact of misdiagnosing HF....

  4. Vicious circles of gender bias, lower positions, and lower performance: Gender differences in scholarly productivity and impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, Peter; Sandström, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that female researchers publish on average less than male researchers do, but male and female authored papers have an equal impact. In this paper we try to better understand this phenomenon by (i) comparing the share of male and female researchers within different productivity classes, and (ii) by comparing productivity whereas controlling for a series of relevant covariates. The study is based on a disambiguated Swedish author dataset, consisting of 47,000 researchers and their WoS-publications during the period of 2008-2011 with citations until 2015. As the analysis shows, in order to have impact quantity does make a difference for male and female researchers alike-but women are vastly underrepresented in the group of most productive researchers. We discuss and test several possible explanations of this finding, using a data on personal characteristics from several Swedish universities. Gender differences in age, authorship position, and academic rank do explain quite a part of the productivity differences.

  5. Impact of body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position in early life on the epigenome: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Jane; Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Hardy, Rebecca

    2017-07-05

    Body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position (SEP) in early life have been associated with a range of later life health outcomes. Epigenetic regulation is one mechanism through which these early life factors may impact later life health. The aim of this review protocol is to outline procedures to document the influence of body size, nutrition and SEP in early life on the epigenome. MEDLINE, Embase and BIOSIS will be systematically searched using pre-defined keywords. Additional studies will be identified through manual searching of reference lists. Two independent researchers will assess the eligibility and quality of each study, with disagreements being resolved through discussion or a third reviewer. Studies will be included if they have epigenetic markers measured either at the same time as, or after, the early life exposure and, have a measure of body size, nutrition or SEP in early life (up to 12 years), are in the English language and are from a sample of community-dwelling participants. This protocol will be used to collate the evidence for the effect of early life factors on the epigenome. Findings will form a component of a wider research study examining epigenetic responses to exposures in early life and over the life course and its impact on healthy ageing using data from population-based cohort studies. PROSPERO CRD42016050193.

  6. The impact of arm position and pulse pressure on the validation of a wrist-cuff blood pressure measurement device in a high risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khoshdel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ali Reza Khoshdel1,2, Shane Carney2, Alastair Gillies21Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 2John Hunter Hospital, Faculty of Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NS W, AustraliaAbstract: Despite the increasing popularity of blood pressure (BP wrist monitors for self-BP measurement at home, device validation and the effect of arm position remains an issue. This study focused on the validation of the Omron HEM-609 wrist BP device, including an evaluation of the impact of arm position and pulse pressure on BP measurement validation. Fifty patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease were selected (age 65 ± 10 years. Each patient had two measurements with a mercury sphygmomanometer and three measurements with the wrist BP device (wrist at the heart level while the horizontal arm supported [HORIZONTAL], hand supported on the opposite shoulder [SHOULDER], and elbow placed on a desk [DESK], in random order. The achieved systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP wrist-cuff readings were compared to the mercury device and the frequencies of the readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg of the gold standard were computed and compared with the British Hypertension Society (BHS and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI protocols. The results showed while SBP readings with HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions were significantly different from the mercury device (mean difference = 7.1 and 13.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05, the DESK position created the closest reading to mercury (mean difference = 3.8, P > 0.1. Approximately 71% of SBP readings with the DESK position were within ±10 mmHg, whereas it was 62.5% and 34% for HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions, respectively. Wrist DBP attained category D with BHS criteria with all three arm positions. Bland–Altman plots illustrated that the wrist monitor systematically underestimated SBP and DBP values. However a reading adjustment of 5 and 10 mm

  7. Threat appeals in health communication: messages that elicit fear and enhance perceived efficacy positively impact on young male drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Rachel N; Sarma, Kiran M

    2016-07-27

    Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These 'threat appeals' feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. To address limitations of previous research, we first identified a road safety advertisement that objectively and subjectively elicited fear using physiological and subjective measures. Study 1 (n = 62) examined the effect of this advertisement, combined with a manipulation designed to increase perceived efficacy, on speed choice. Study 2 (n = 81) investigated whether a state emotion, anger, impacts on the effectiveness of the advertisement in changing four distinct driving behaviours. Both studies examined short-term effects only. Study 1 findings indicated that a high threat message, when combined with high perceived efficacy, can lead to a decrease in speed choice. Study 2 results suggested that increased levels of state anger may counteract the potential value of combining fear-arousing threats and efficacy-building messages. Findings suggest that threat-based road safety communications that target affective (fear) and cognitive (perceived efficacy) mechanisms can positively affect driving behaviours. State emotions, such as anger, may negatively impact on the effectiveness of the message. Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the use of efficacy-building messages in threat-based communications, but highlight the need for further research into the complex array of affective influences on driving.

  8. Threat appeals in health communication: messages that elicit fear and enhance perceived efficacy positively impact on young male drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel N. Carey

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health communications often present graphic, threat-based representations of the potential consequences of health-risk behaviours. These ‘threat appeals’ feature prominently in public health campaigns, but their use is controversial, with studies investigating their efficacy reporting inconsistent, and often negative, findings. This research examined the impact of a threat-based road safety advertisement on the driving behaviour of young male drivers. Methods To address limitations of previous research, we first identified a road safety advertisement that objectively and subjectively elicited fear using physiological and subjective measures. Study 1 (n = 62 examined the effect of this advertisement, combined with a manipulation designed to increase perceived efficacy, on speed choice. Study 2 (n = 81 investigated whether a state emotion, anger, impacts on the effectiveness of the advertisement in changing four distinct driving behaviours. Both studies examined short-term effects only. Results Study 1 findings indicated that a high threat message, when combined with high perceived efficacy, can lead to a decrease in speed choice. Study 2 results suggested that increased levels of state anger may counteract the potential value of combining fear-arousing threats and efficacy-building messages. Conclusions Findings suggest that threat-based road safety communications that target affective (fear and cognitive (perceived efficacy mechanisms can positively affect driving behaviours. State emotions, such as anger, may negatively impact on the effectiveness of the message. Taken together, these findings provide additional support for the use of efficacy-building messages in threat-based communications, but highlight the need for further research into the complex array of affective influences on driving.

  9. Impact of intermediate mammography assessment on the likelihood of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascunce, Nieves [Public Health Institute, CIBERESP, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Instituto de Salud Publica, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Ederra, Maria; Delfrade, Josu; Erdozain, Nieves [Public Health Institute, CIBERESP, Navarra Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Pamplona (Spain); Baroja, Araceli [Fundacion Rioja Salud, Logrono (Spain); Zubizarreta, Raquel [Public Health and Planning Directorate, Health Office, Galician Breast Cancer Screening Programme, Galicia (Spain); Salas, Dolores [General Directorate Public Health and Centre for Public Health Research (CSISP), Valencia (Spain); Castells, Xavier [Mar Teaching Hospital, CIBERESP, Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Breast cancer screening is offered to 100% of the target population in Spain and intermediate mammograms (IMs) are sometimes indicated. This study was aimed at analysing the frequency of IMs, the factors determining their recommendation, and their impact on the risk of false-positive results and the detection rate. Data from 3,471,307 mammograms from Spanish breast cancer screening programmes were included. 3.36% of the mammograms were IMs. The factors associated with the use of IMs were age, initial screening, previous invasive tests, a familial history of breast cancer and use of hormone replacement therapy. In screening episodes with an IM, the probability of a false-positive result was 13.74% (95% CI: 13.43-14.05), almost double that in episodes without IMs (6.02%, 95% CI 5.99-6.05). In young women with previous invasive procedures, a familial history of breast cancer or hormone replacement therapy use who were undergoing their initial screen, this probability was lower when IMs were performed. IMs always increased the detection rate. The factors prompting IMs should be characterised so that radiologists can systematise their recommendations according to the presence of the factors maximising the benefits and minimising the adverse effects of this procedure. (orig.)

  10. Impact of intermediate mammography assessment on the likelihood of false-positive results in breast cancer screening programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ascunce, Nieves; Ederra, Maria; Delfrade, Josu; Erdozain, Nieves; Baroja, Araceli; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Salas, Dolores; Castells, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    Breast cancer screening is offered to 100% of the target population in Spain and intermediate mammograms (IMs) are sometimes indicated. This study was aimed at analysing the frequency of IMs, the factors determining their recommendation, and their impact on the risk of false-positive results and the detection rate. Data from 3,471,307 mammograms from Spanish breast cancer screening programmes were included. 3.36% of the mammograms were IMs. The factors associated with the use of IMs were age, initial screening, previous invasive tests, a familial history of breast cancer and use of hormone replacement therapy. In screening episodes with an IM, the probability of a false-positive result was 13.74% (95% CI: 13.43-14.05), almost double that in episodes without IMs (6.02%, 95% CI 5.99-6.05). In young women with previous invasive procedures, a familial history of breast cancer or hormone replacement therapy use who were undergoing their initial screen, this probability was lower when IMs were performed. IMs always increased the detection rate. The factors prompting IMs should be characterised so that radiologists can systematise their recommendations according to the presence of the factors maximising the benefits and minimising the adverse effects of this procedure. (orig.)

  11. Impact on Congestion and Fuel Consumption of a Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control System with Lane-Level Position Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Talavera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, vehicular communications systems have evolved and allowed for the improvement of adaptive cruise control (ACC systems to make them cooperative (cooperative adaptive cruise control, CACC. Conventional ACC systems use sensors on the ego-vehicle, such as radar or computer vision, to generate their behavioral decisions. However, by having vehicle-to-X (V2X onboard communications, the need to incorporate perception in the vehicle is drastically reduced. Thus, in this paper a CACC solution is proposed that only uses communications to make its decisions with the help of previous road mapping. At the same time, a method to develop these maps is presented, combining the information of a computer vision system to correct the positions obtained from the navigation system. In addition, the cut-in and cut-out maneuvers for a CACC platoon are taken into account, showing the tests of these situations in real environments with instrumented vehicles. To show the potential of the system in a larger-scale implementation, simulations of the behavior are provided under dense traffic conditions where the positive impact on the reduction of traffic congestion and fuel consumption is appreciated.

  12. Dosimetric impact of systematic MLC positional errors on step and shoot IMRT for prostate cancer: a planning study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ung, N.M.; Wee, L.; Harper, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The positional accuracy of multi leaf collimators (MLC) is crucial in ensuring precise delivery of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this planning study was to investigate the dosimetric impact of systematic MLC errors on step and shoot IMRT of prostate cancer. Twelve MLC leaf banks perturbations were introduced to six prostate IMRT treatment plans to simulate MLC systematic errors. Dose volume histograms (OYHs) were generated for the extraction of dose endpoint parameters. Plans were evaluated in terms of changes to the defined endpoint dose parameters, conformity index (CI) and healthy tissue avoidance (HTA) to planning target volume (PTY), rectum and bladder. Negative perturbations of MLC had been found to produce greater changes to endpoint dose parameters than positive perturbations of MLC (p < 0.05). Negative and positive synchronized MLC perturbations of I mm resulted in median changes of -2.32 and 1.78%, respectively to 095% of PTY whereas asynchronized MLC perturbations of the same direction and magnitude resulted in median changes of 1.18 and 0.90%, respectively. Doses to rectum were generally more sensitive to systematic MLC errors compared to bladder. Synchronized MLC perturbations of I mm resulted in median changes of endpoint dose parameters to both rectum and bladder from about I to 3%. Maximum reduction of -4.44 and -7.29% were recorded for CI and HTA, respectively, due to synchronized MLC perturbation of I mm. In summary, MLC errors resulted in measurable amount of dose changes to PTY and surrounding critical structures in prostate LMRT. (author)

  13. Assessment of shoulder position variation and its impact on IMRT and VMAT doses for head and neck cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubauer Emily

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For radiotherapy of the head and neck, 5-point mask immobilization is used to stabilize the shoulders. Still, the daily position of the shoulders during treatment may be different from the position in the treatment plan despite correct isocenter setup. The purpose of this study was to determine the interfractional displacement of the shoulders relative to isocenter over the course of treatment and the associated dosimetric effect of this displacement. Methods The extent of shoulder displacements relative to isocenter was assessed for 10 patients in 5-point thermoplastic masks using image registration and daily CT-on-rails scans. Dosimetric effects on IMRT and VMAT plans were evaluated in Pinnacle based on simulation CTs modified to represent shoulder shifts between 3 and 15 mm in the superior-inferior, anterior-posterior, and right-left directions. The impact of clinically observed shoulder shifts on the low-neck dose distributions was examined. Results Shoulder motion was 2-5 mm in each direction on average but reached 20 mm. Superior shifts resulted in coverage loss, whereas inferior shifts increased the dose to the brachial plexus. These findings were generally consistent for both IMRT and VMAT plans. Over a course of observed shifts, the dose to 99% of the CTV decreased by up to 101 cGy, and the brachial plexus dose increased by up to 72 cGy. Conclusions he position of the shoulder affects target coverage and critical structure dose, and may therefore be a concern during the setup of head and neck patients, particularly those with low neck primary disease.

  14. Impact of ambiguity resolution and application of transformation parameters obtained by regional GNSS network in Precise Point Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, S.; Poluzzi, L.; Tavasci, L.

    2012-12-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is one of the possible approaches for GNSS data processing. As known this technique is faster and more flexible compared to the others which are based on a differenced approach and constitute a reliable methods for accurate positioning of remote GNSS stations, even in some remote area such as Antarctica. Until few years ago one of the major limits of the method was the impossibility to resolve the ambiguity as integer but nowadays many methods are available to resolve this aspect. The first software package permitting a PPP solution was the GIPSY OASIS realized, developed and maintained by JPL (NASA). JPL produce also orbits and files ready to be used with GIPSY. Recently, using these products came possible to resolve ambiguities improving the stability of solutions. PPP permit to estimate position into the reference frame of the orbits (IGS) and when coordinate in others reference frames, such al ITRF, are needed is necessary to apply a transformation. Within his products JPL offer, for each day, a global 7 parameter transformation that permit to locate the survey into the ITRF RF. In some cases it's also possible to create a costumed process and obtain analogous parameters using local/regional reference network of stations which coordinates are available also in the desired reference frame. In this work some tests on accuracy has been carried out comparing different PPP solutions obtained using the same software packages (GIPSY) but considering the ambiguity resolution, the global and regional transformation parameters. In particular two test area have been considered, first one located in Antarctica and the second one in Italy. Aim of the work is the evaluation of the impact of ambiguity resolution and the use of local/regional transformation parameter in the final solutions. Tests shown how the ambiguity resolution improve the precision, especially in the EAST component with a scattering reduction about 8%. And the use of global

  15. SU-E-P-21: Impact of MLC Position Errors On Simultaneous Integrated Boost Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chengqiang, L; Yin, Y; Chen, L [Shandong Cancer Hospital and Institute, 440 Jiyan Road, Jinan, 250117 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of MLC position errors on simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT) for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: To compare the dosimetric differences between the simulated plans and the clinical plans, ten patients with locally advanced NPC treated with SIB-IMRT were enrolled in this study. All plans were calculated with an inverse planning system (Pinnacle3, Philips Medical System{sub )}. Random errors −2mm to 2mm{sub )},shift errors{sub (} 2mm,1mm and 0.5mm) and systematic extension/ contraction errors (±2mm, ±1mm and ±0.5mm) of the MLC leaf position were introduced respectively into the original plans to create the simulated plans. Dosimetry factors were compared between the original and the simulated plans. Results: The dosimetric impact of the random and system shift errors of MLC position was insignificant within 2mm, the maximum changes in D95% of PGTV,PTV1,PTV2 were-0.92±0.51%,1.00±0.24% and 0.62±0.17%, the maximum changes in the D0.1cc of spinal cord and brainstem were 1.90±2.80% and −1.78±1.42%, the maximum changes in the Dmean of parotids were1.36±1.23% and −2.25±2.04%.However,the impact of MLC extension or contraction errors was found significant. For 2mm leaf extension errors, the average changes in D95% of PGTV,PTV1,PTV2 were 4.31±0.67%,4.29±0.65% and 4.79±0.82%, the averaged value of the D0.1cc to spinal cord and brainstem were increased by 7.39±5.25% and 6.32±2.28%,the averaged value of the mean dose to left and right parotid were increased by 12.75±2.02%,13.39±2.17% respectively. Conclusion: The dosimetric effect was insignificant for random MLC leaf position errors up to 2mm. There was a high sensitivity to dose distribution for MLC extension or contraction errors.We should pay attention to the anatomic changes in target organs and anatomical structures during the course,individual radiotherapy was recommended to ensure adaptive doses.

  16. Final environmental assessment and Finding-of-No-Significant-Impact - drum storage facility for interim storage of materials generated by environmental restoration operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-0995, for the construction and operation of a drum storage facility at Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, Golden, Colorado. The proposal for construction of the facility was generated in response to current and anticipated future needs for interim storage of waste materials generated by environmental restoration operations. A public meeting was held on July 20, 1994, at which the scope and analyses of the EA were presented. The scope of the EA included evaluation of alternative methods of storage, including no action. A comment period from July 5, 1994 through August 4, 1994, was provided to the public and the State of Colorado to submit written comment on the EA. No written comments were received regarding this proposed action, therefore no comment response is included in the Final EA. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact

  17. What Factors Are Associated with Positive Effects of Dog Ownership in Families with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? The Development of the Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Susannah Hall

    Full Text Available Scientific literature exploring the value of assistance dogs to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is rapidly emerging. However, there is comparably less literature reporting the effects of pet (as opposed to assistance dogs to these children. In particular, there are no known validated scales which assess how children may alter their behaviours in the presence of the dog, to evaluate the efficacy of pet dogs to these families. Additionally, given the highly individualised nature of ASD it is likely that some children and families gain more benefits from dog ownership than others, yet no research has reported the effect of individual differences. This pilot study reports the development of a 28-item scale based on the perceived impact of a pet dog on a child with autism by parents (Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale--LAPDIS. The scale is comprised of three mathematically derived factors: Adaptability, Social Skills and Conflict Management. We assessed how individual differences (aspects may be associated with scores on these three factors. Family Aspects and Dog Aspects were not significantly associated with ratings on the three factors, but Child Aspects (including: contact with horses, child age, disability level and language abilities were related to impact of the dog on all factors. Training Aspects were related to scores on Social Skills (formal training with children with ASD and dogs and attendance at PAWS workshops run by Dogs for Good. These results suggest that individual differences associated with the child and the training approach may be important considerations for a positive impact from dog ownership on families with children with ASD. Differences in family features and the dog may not be so important, but may be worthy of further investigations given the early stage of development in this field.

  18. What Factors Are Associated with Positive Effects of Dog Ownership in Families with Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder? The Development of the Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sophie Susannah; Wright, Hannah F; Mills, Daniel Simon

    2016-01-01

    Scientific literature exploring the value of assistance dogs to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is rapidly emerging. However, there is comparably less literature reporting the effects of pet (as opposed to assistance) dogs to these children. In particular, there are no known validated scales which assess how children may alter their behaviours in the presence of the dog, to evaluate the efficacy of pet dogs to these families. Additionally, given the highly individualised nature of ASD it is likely that some children and families gain more benefits from dog ownership than others, yet no research has reported the effect of individual differences. This pilot study reports the development of a 28-item scale based on the perceived impact of a pet dog on a child with autism by parents (Lincoln Autism Pet Dog Impact Scale--LAPDIS). The scale is comprised of three mathematically derived factors: Adaptability, Social Skills and Conflict Management. We assessed how individual differences (aspects) may be associated with scores on these three factors. Family Aspects and Dog Aspects were not significantly associated with ratings on the three factors, but Child Aspects (including: contact with horses, child age, disability level and language abilities) were related to impact of the dog on all factors. Training Aspects were related to scores on Social Skills (formal training with children with ASD and dogs and attendance at PAWS workshops run by Dogs for Good). These results suggest that individual differences associated with the child and the training approach may be important considerations for a positive impact from dog ownership on families with children with ASD. Differences in family features and the dog may not be so important, but may be worthy of further investigations given the early stage of development in this field.

  19. Deliberate Rumination and Positive Reappraisal as Serial Mediators Between Life Impact and Posttraumatic Growth in Victims of State Terrorism in Chile (1973-1990).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Castro, Manuel; Arnoso Martínez, Maitane; Faúndez Abarca, Ximena

    2016-04-06

    This study examines the role of coping strategies related to positive reappraisal versus other cognitive strategies (deliberate rumination) as mediators between life impact and posttraumatic growth in survivors of the military dictatorship in Chile between 1973 and 1990 (tortured political prisoners and family members of political prisoners executed and missing). Survey data from 251 political violence survivors were analyzed using the SPSS PROCESS macro for bootstrapping indirect effects (Hayes, 2013). Results indicated that positive reappraisal (or reframing) coping mediated the relationship between life impact and posttraumatic growth. A serial multiple mediation model indicates that in the life impact to growth moderation process, rumination must be followed by positive reappraisal to drive this growth. These findings suggest that positive reappraisal of the traumatic experience is essential to achieve growth reports. Implications of these more complex relations are discussed for both counseling interventions and further research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. The significance of climate change in the Netherlands. An analysis of historical and future trends (1901-2020) in weather conditions, weather extremes and temperature-related impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Visser, H.

    2005-07-01

    A rigorous statistical analysis reveals changes in Dutch climate that are statistically significant over the last century. Annually averaged temperatures have increased by 1.5 about 0.5 degrees Centigrade; the number of summer days has roughly doubled from 14 about 5 to 27 about 9 days; annual precipitation has increased by 120 about 100 mm; and the number of extremely wet days has increased by about 40%, from 19 about 3 to 26 about 3 days. Several other changes in Dutch climate, such as spring temperatures rising more rapidly than winter temperatures, the increase of the coldest temperature in each year by 0.9 degrees Centigrade and the annual maximum day sum of precipitation, turn out to be not (yet) statistically significant. The changes in Dutch climate have already led to several statistically significant impacts. The length of the growing season has increased by nearly a month, and the number of heating-degree days, a measure for the energy needed for the heating of houses and buildings, has decreased by 14 about 5%. Projections of future temperature increase in 2020 based on the statistical analysis closely resemble projections based on climate models: temperatures continue to increase from 10.4 about 0.4 degrees Centigrade in 2003 to 10.7 about 0.6 degrees Centigrade in 2010 and 11.1 about 1.0 degrees Centigrade in 2020. The energy needed for heating of houses and buildings is expected to decrease further. This warming effect is expected to lower projections of future Dutch greenhouse-gas emissions by 3.5 Mton CO2 equivalents, which is relevant in the context of commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. Finally, over the course of the 20th century the chance on an 'Elfstedentocht', an outdoor skating event in the Netherlands, has decreased from once every five years to once every ten years. Even though this impact change is not yet statistically significant, it resides 'on the edge' of significance: within a few years more evidence may

  1. MDEP Common Position No DICWG08. Common position on the impact of cyber security features on digital I and C safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Cyber security measures are generally implemented at nuclear facilities to protect against cyber-attacks that may compromise safety. The implementation of such cyber security measures may vary based on site specific requirements and each country's regulatory frameworks. Safety measures and cyber security measures for a nuclear power plant should be designed and implemented so that they do not compromise one another. This common position is intended to only apply to systems classified to the highest level of safety. The Digital Instrumentation and Controls Working Group (DICWG) has agreed that a common position on this topic is warranted given the increase of use of Digital I and C in new reactor designs, its safety implications, and the need to develop a common understanding from the perspectives of regulatory authorities. This action follows the DICWG examination of the regulatory requirements of the participating members and of relevant industry standards and IAEA documents. The DICWG proposes a common position based on its recent experience with the new reactor application reviews and operating plant issues

  2. Positive and negative affect mediate the bidirectional relationship between emotional processing and symptom severity and impact in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibelli, Alice; Chalder, Trudie; Everitt, Hazel; Chilcot, Joseph; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with IBS report higher levels of psychological distress compared to healthy controls. Distress has been associated with emotional processing difficulties but studies have not explored how the relationship between distress and emotional processing affects IBS. There is little research on the role of positive affect (PA) in IBS. (a) If difficulties in self-reported emotional processing are associated with affect and IBS measures (i.e., symptom severity, interference in life roles) (b1) If affect mediates the relationship between emotional processing and IBS measures (b2) Alternative model: if affect mediates the relationship between IBS and emotional processing (c) If PA moderates the relationship between distress and IBS. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of IBS (n=558) completed a questionnaire including measures of emotional processing (i.e., unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions, impoverished emotional experience), distress, PA, and IBS symptoms/interference. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted with Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Distress and PA mediated or partly mediated the relationship between unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions/impoverished emotional experience and both IBS measures. The alternative models were also valid, suggesting a two-way relationship between emotional processing and IBS through affect. PA did not moderate the relationship between distress and IBS. Future interventions in IBS may benefit from not only targeting the management of physical symptoms and their daily impact but also aspects related to the experience of both negative and positive affect, and the acceptance and expression of negative emotions. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm causal relationships within the explored models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibition of infection and transmission of HIV-1 and lack of significant impact on the vaginal commensal lactobacilli by carbohydrate-binding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Mariya I; Mathys, Leen; Lebeer, Sarah; Noppen, Sam; Van Damme, Els J M; Tanaka, Haruo; Igarashi, Yasuhiro; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vanderleyden, Jos; Balzarini, Jan

    2013-09-01

    A selection of carbohydrate-binding agents (CBAs) with different glycan specificities were evaluated for their inhibitory effect against HIV infection and transmission, and their interaction with vaginal commensal bacteria. Several assays were used for the antiviral evaluation: (i) cell-free virus infection of human CD4+ T lymphocyte C8166 cells; (ii) syncytium formation in co-cultures of persistently HIV-1-infected HUT-78/HIV-1 and non-infected CD4+ SupT1 cells; (iii) DC-SIGN-directed capture of HIV-1 particles; and (iv) transmission of DC-SIGN-captured HIV-1 particles to uninfected CD4+ C8166 cells. CBAs were also examined for their interaction with vaginal commensal lactobacilli using several viability, proliferation and adhesion assays. The CBAs showed efficient inhibitory activity in the nanomolar to low-micromolar range against four events that play a crucial role in HIV-1 infection and transmission: cell-free virus infection, fusion between HIV-1-infected and non-infected cells, HIV-1 capture by DC-SIGN and transmission of DC-SIGN-captured virus to T cells. As candidate microbicides should not interfere with the normal human microbiota, we examined the effect of CBAs against Lactobacillus strains, including a variety of vaginal strains, a gastrointestinal strain and several non-human isolates. None of the CBAs included in our studies inhibited the growth of these bacteria in several media, affected their viability or had any significant impact on their adhesion to HeLa cell monolayers. The CBAs in this study were inhibitory to HIV-1 in several in vitro infection and transmission models, and may therefore qualify as potential microbicide candidates. The lack of significant impact on commensal vaginal lactobacilli is an important property of these CBAs in view of their potential microbicidal use.

  4. Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI

  5. From position-specific isotope labeling towards soil fluxomics: a novel toolbox to assess the microbial impact on biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostel, C.; Dippold, M. A.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the microbial impact on C and nutrient cycles is one of the most important challenges in terrestrial biogeochemistry. Transformation of low molecular weight organic substances (LMWOS) is a key step in all biogeochemical cycles because 1) all high molecular substances pass the LMWOS pool during their degradation and 2) only LMWOS can be taken up by microorganisms intact. Thus, the transformations of LMWOS are dominated by biochemical pathways of the soil microorganisms. Thus, understanding fluxes and transformations in soils requires a detailed knowledge on the microbial metabolic network and its control mechanism. Tracing C fate in soil by isotopes became on of the most applied and promising biogeochemistry tools but studies were nearly exclusively based on uniformly labeled substances. However, such tracers do not allow the differentiation of the intact use of the initial substances from its transformation to metabolites. The novel tool of position-specific labeling enables to trace molecule atoms separately and thus to determine the cleavage of molecules - a prerequisite for metabolic tracing. Position-specific labeling of basic metabolites and quantification of isotope incorporation in CO2 and bulk soil enabled following the basic metabolic pathways of microorganisms. However, the combination of position-specific 13C labeling with compound-specific isotope analysis of microbial biomarkers and metabolites like phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) or amino sugars revealed new insights into the soil fluxome: First, it enables tracing specific anabolic pathways in diverse microbial communities in soils e.g. carbon starvation pathways versus pathways reflecting microbial growth. Second, it allows identification of specific pathways of individual functional microbial groups in soils in situ. Tracing metabolic pathways and understanding their regulating factors are crucial for soil C fluxomics i.e. the unravaling of the complex network of C transformations

  6. Impact of organic Rankine cycle system installation on light duty vehicle considering both positive and negative aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Yang, Youngmin; Park, Byung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Positive and negative effects of waste heat recovery unit on vehicle were studied. • Organic Rankine cycle based power system for waste heat recovery. • Relationship of ORC unit weight and power was developed. • Impact of added weight, Part load operation and back pressure are presented. • Power enhancement of 5.82% of engine when positive & negative effects considered. - Abstract: This paper presents the analysis of organic Rankine cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery system. Both the positive and negative effects of ORC system installation on a light duty vehicle were evaluated. Engine exhaust data for a light duty vehicle was used to design an ORC based system. Optimum cycle design suggests that ORC system installation is feasible. Results presented that for the vehicle operation at 100 km/h, engine power can be enhanced by 10.88% which is 5.92 kW of additional power and at the lower speed of 23.5 km/h, the engine power enhancement was 2.34%. ORC component weight data from manufacturers were used to estimate the weight of the designed system. The performance decline due to added weight is calculated. Effects of added back pressure and performance decline due to the part-load operation of ORC unit were also calculated and an overall effect of waste heat recovery system was evaluated. The results then suggested that maximum power enhancement is 5.82% at the vehicle speed of 100 km/h instead of previously mentioned 10.88% can be achieved if negative effects are also considered. Furthermore, it was concluded that at speeds lower than 48 km/h the waste heat recovery system was not beneficial at all and low-speed operation was in fact not preferable as it results in additional power demand from the engine by 6.39% at 23.5 km/h. The vehicles for city driving cycles are not recommended for ORC installation. Another finding revealed that if exhaust heat recovery heat exchanger is designed for maximum heat recovery, at part load operation, the

  7. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    release of tritium from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

  8. Relationship between Joint Position Sense, Force Sense, and Muscle Strength and the Impact of Gymnastic Training on Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Niespodziński

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to assess the relationship between joint position (JPS and force sense (FS and muscle strength (MS and (2 to evaluate the impact of long-term gymnastic training on particular proprioception aspects and their correlations. 17 elite adult gymnasts and 24 untrained, matched controls performed an active reproduction (AR and passive reproduction (PR task and a force reproduction (FR task at the elbow joint. Intergroup differences and the relationship between JPS, FS, and MS were evaluated. While there was no difference in AR or PR between groups, absolute error in the control group was higher during the PR task (7.15 ± 2.72° than during the AR task (3.1 ± 1.93°. Mean relative error in the control group was 61% higher in the elbow extensors than in the elbow flexors during 50% FR, while the gymnast group had similar results in both reciprocal muscles. There was no linear correlation between JPS and FS in either group; however, FR was negatively correlated with antagonist MS. In conclusion, this study found no evidence for a relationship between the accuracy of FS and JPS at the elbow joint. Long-term gymnastic training improves the JPS and FS of the elbow extensors.

  9. Positive and Negative Impacts of Oil Palm Expansion in Indonesia and the Prospect to Achieve Sustainable Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahputra, M. A.; Zen, Z.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the study is to deepen understanding the role of palm oil on Indonesian economy, poverty elevation and to investigate the positive and negative impacts of oil palm expansion, due to the burden of GHG emissions; and prospect to be more sustainable palm oil industry. The statistics show that average rural poverty tends to be lower and Gross Regional Product tends to be higher in provinces which have greater levels of oil palm cultivation. Indonesian oil palm will grow from 10.6 in 2013 to 13.7 million ha by 2020. This will release 135.59 million tons of CO2 if nothing is done to mitigate BAU emissions. Unless there are sustained efforts to redirect development and expansion of oil palm, plantation growth will continue to encroach on intact forest and peat land.. In fact Indonesia has large areas of degraded land, an estimated total 19,144,000 ha is available for planting oil palm and other crops. A large-scale expansion program driven by estate companies needs to be accompanied by effective smallholder development program in order to achieve the best outcome for local farmers and avoid the conflicts.

  10. Does integrating nonurgent, clinically significant radiology alerts within the electronic health record impact closed-loop communication and follow-up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stacy D; Dalal, Anuj K; Sahni, V Anik; Lacson, Ronilda; Khorasani, Ramin

    2016-03-01

    To assess whether integrating critical result management software--Alert Notification of Critical Results (ANCR)--with an electronic health record (EHR)-based results management application impacts closed-loop communication and follow-up of nonurgent, clinically significant radiology results by primary care providers (PCPs). This institutional review board-approved study was conducted at a large academic medical center. Postintervention, PCPs could acknowledge nonurgent, clinically significant ANCR-generated alerts ("alerts") within ANCR or the EHR. Primary outcome was the proportion of alerts acknowledged via EHR over a 24-month postintervention. Chart abstractions for a random sample of alerts 12 months preintervention and 24 months postintervention were reviewed, and the follow-up rate of actionable alerts (eg, performing follow-up imaging, administering antibiotics) was estimated. Pre- and postintervention rates were compared using the Fisher exact test. Postintervention follow-up rate was compared for EHR-acknowledged alerts vs ANCR. Five thousand nine hundred and thirty-one alerts were acknowledged by 171 PCPs, with 100% acknowledgement (consistent with expected ANCR functionality). PCPs acknowledged 16% (688 of 4428) of postintervention alerts in the EHR, with the remaining in ANCR. Follow-up was documented for 85 of 90 (94%; 95% CI, 88%-98%) preintervention and 79 of 84 (94%; 95% CI, 87%-97%) postintervention alerts (P > .99). Postintervention, 11 of 14 (79%; 95% CI, 52%-92%) alerts were acknowledged via EHR and 68 of 70 (97%; 95% CI, 90%-99%) in ANCR had follow-up (P = .03). Integrating ANCR and EHR provides an additional workflow for acknowledging nonurgent, clinically significant results without significant change in rates of closed-loop communication or follow-up of alerts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Impact of HIV on and the constructions of masculinities among HIV-positive men in South Africa: implications for secondary prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikweyiya, Yandisa M; Jewkes, Rachel; Dunkle, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    To date, whilst there have been many published studies exploring the links between masculinity and HIV, not much work has been done to explore how an HIV-positive diagnosis impacts men's sense of masculinity and contextualizing the masculinities as fluid and changing. To explore how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) impacts the lives of men and their constructions of masculinity through interviews with 18 men living with HIV. Qualitative study involving conveniently and purposively selected black South African adult men who lived with HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 men who resided in Johannesburg and Mthatha, South Africa. Our analysis suggests that the performance of risky masculinity may influence the acquisition of HIV. Yet, it also reveals that HIV can have a significant effect on men and their masculinities. Men's constructions of harmful notions of hegemonic masculinity pre-HIV diagnosis negatively affected their help-seeking behavior and coping and adjustment to living with HIV, post-diagnosis. The dominant discourse that men are strong and healthy visibly presented challenges for men when faced with an HIV-positive status. They interpreted HIV diagnosis as a loss, a sign of failure as a man, and evidence of an inability to retain control. Being sick undermined their ability to perform roles expected of them, and this led to feelings of powerlessness, worthlessness, and distress. Interventions with men living with HIV need to provide safe spaces for men to critically explore gender and constructions of social identities and the pressures these place on men and implications for their health. With this approach, harmful constructions of masculinities may be challenged and mitigated, and this process may render men amenable to change.

  12. Impact of HIV on and the constructions of masculinities among HIV-positive men in South Africa: implications for secondary prevention programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandisa M. Sikweyiya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, whilst there have been many published studies exploring the links between masculinity and HIV, not much work has been done to explore how an HIV-positive diagnosis impacts men's sense of masculinity and contextualizing the masculinities as fluid and changing. Objective: To explore how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV impacts the lives of men and their constructions of masculinity through interviews with 18 men living with HIV. Design: Qualitative study involving conveniently and purposively selected black South African adult men who lived with HIV. In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 men who resided in Johannesburg and Mthatha, South Africa. Results: Our analysis suggests that the performance of risky masculinity may influence the acquisition of HIV. Yet, it also reveals that HIV can have a significant effect on men and their masculinities. Men's constructions of harmful notions of hegemonic masculinity pre-HIV diagnosis negatively affected their help-seeking behavior and coping and adjustment to living with HIV, post-diagnosis. The dominant discourse that men are strong and healthy visibly presented challenges for men when faced with an HIV-positive status. They interpreted HIV diagnosis as a loss, a sign of failure as a man, and evidence of an inability to retain control. Being sick undermined their ability to perform roles expected of them, and this led to feelings of powerlessness, worthlessness, and distress. Conclusions: Interventions w