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Sample records for significant phase delay

  1. PROMPT Ia SUPERNOVAE ARE SIGNIFICANTLY DELAYED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raskin, Cody; Scannapieco, Evan; Rhoads, James; Della Valle, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The time delay between the formation of a population of stars and the onset of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) sets important limits on the masses and nature of SN Ia progenitors. Here, we use a new observational technique to measure this time delay by comparing the spatial distributions of SNe Ia to their local environments. Previous work attempted such analyses encompassing the entire host of each SN Ia, yielding inconclusive results. Our approach confines the analysis only to the relevant portions of the hosts, allowing us to show that even so-called prompt SNe Ia that trace star formation on cosmic timescales exhibit a significant delay time of 200-500 million years. This implies that either the majority of Ia companion stars have main-sequence masses less than 3 M sun , or that most SNe Ia arise from double white dwarf binaries. Our results are also consistent with a SNe Ia rate that traces the white dwarf formation rate, scaled by a fixed efficiency factor.

  2. Atmospheric Phase Delay in Sentinel SAR Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, V.; Monserrat, O.; Crosetto, M.; Crippa, B.

    2018-04-01

    The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR) Interferometry (InSAR) has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth's surface, especially for mapping the Earth's topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth's atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere) are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC) of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR). To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET) and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC) images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate height and deformation

  3. ATMOSPHERIC PHASE DELAY IN SENTINEL SAR INTERFEROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krishnakumar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The repeat-pass Synthetic Aperture Radio Detection and Ranging (RADAR Interferometry (InSAR has been a widely used geodetic technique for observing the Earth’s surface, especially for mapping the Earth’s topography and deformations. However, InSAR measurements are prone to atmospheric errors. RADAR waves traverse the Earth’s atmosphere twice and experience a delay due to atmospheric refraction. The two major layers of the atmosphere (troposphere and ionosphere are mainly responsible for this delay in the propagating RADAR wave. Previous studies have shown that water vapour and clouds present in the troposphere and the Total Electron Content (TEC of the ionosphere are responsible for the additional path delay in the RADAR wave. The tropospheric refractivity is mainly dependent on pressure, temperature and partial pressure of water vapour. The tropospheric refractivity leads to an increase in the observed range. These induced propagation delays affect the quality of phase measurement and introduce errors in the topography and deformation fields. The effect of this delay was studied on a differential interferogram (DInSAR. To calculate the amount of tropospheric delay occurred, the meteorological data collected from the Spanish Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET and MODIS were used. The interferograms generated from Sentinel-1 carrying C-band Synthetic Aperture RADAR Single Look Complex (SLC images acquired on the study area are used. The study area consists of different types of scatterers exhibiting different coherence. The existing Saastamoinen model was used to perform a quantitative evaluation of the phase changes caused by pressure, temperature and humidity of the troposphere during the study. Unless the phase values due to atmospheric disturbances are not corrected, it is difficult to obtain accurate measurements. Thus, the atmospheric error correction is essential for all practical applications of DInSAR to avoid inaccurate

  4. Delayed sleep phase cases and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nievergelt Caroline M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD is a condition in which patients have difficulty falling asleep before the early morning hours and commonly have trouble awakening before late morning or even early afternoon. Several studies have suggested that variations in habitual bedtime are 40–50% heritable. Methods We recruited a case series of 205 participants, along with 221 controls (DSPD-C with normal sleep, roughly matched for age, gender, and ancestry. A representative sample of San Diego adults recruited some years before was already available to confirm the control group. Both DSPD and DSPD-C provided blood or saliva samples for DNA and completed extensive questionnaires about sleep habits, sleep history, family history, sleep quality, morningness-eveningness traits, depression, mania, and seasonality of symptoms. The DSPD group wore wrist actigraphs for a median of 13.2 days. The representative sample collected previously had undergone actigraphic recordings, from which 48 hours of data were generally available. Results The DSPD and DSPD-C samples showed almost no overlap on morningness-eveningness scores. DSPD cases went to bed and arose about 3 hours later than the DSPD-C and the representative sample. DSPD cases reported more difficulties with sleep, poorer sleep quality, and more depression, but there was no significant difference in a history of mania. DSPD cases reported more family history of late bedtimes, but female DSPD reported that their fathers' bedtimes were later than the fathers of male DSPD. Conclusion These results indicate a DSPD phenotype is familial and associated with unipolar depression.

  5. Significant Sleep Dysregulation in a Toddler With Developmental Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Martin T; Owens, Judith; Abbott, Myles

    Derrick's parents made an appointment with a new pediatrician for a second opinion about disordered sleep. Now 22-months old, he was evaluated at 18 months of age for developmental delay when he was found to have "a regulatory disorder associated with delays in language and motor development, hypotonia and significant sleep problems." The parents are now most concerned about his sleeping pattern. Prolonged sleep onset and frequent night awaking occur each night since 6-months of age. These problems are more severe in the past few months when he awakes screaming and cannot be settled. The awakening episodes occur 2 to 4 times each night when "he screams and thrashes his body for up to an hour." Daytime tantrums increased. After the parents read a book about sleep in young children, they provided a calm atmosphere at bedtime including a dark room and singing a quiet lullaby. When these changes did not alter sleep, they purchased a vibrating mattress which was also unsuccessful.Derrick was born full term after an uncomplicated prenatal and perinatal course. He sat at 10 months, crawled at 12 months, and walked at 18 months. He currently drinks from a sippy cup and he can use a utensil to eat. He has few words saying only "no" and "mama" in the past month. Imitation of some words occurred recently. He has responded to simple directions in the past 2 months. Derrick passed the newborn audiology screen. He does not have difficulty swallowing and he does not drool. He plays with many different toys and he plays in parallel with his older brother who also experienced delays in motor and language development. His brother is now doing very well in school. There is no family history of cognitive delay, seizure disorder, cerebral palsy, early developmental delay (other than the brother) or a significant sleep problem. PHYSICAL EXAMINATION:: head circumference, length and weight (75th percentile). He had mild generalized hypotonia, mild weakness, 2+ symmetrical deep tendon

  6. Face to phase: pitfalls in time delay estimation from coherency phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campfens, S.F.; van der Kooij, Herman; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Coherency phase is often interpreted as a time delay reflecting a transmission delay between spatially separated neural populations. However, time delays estimated from corticomuscular coherency are conflicting and often shorter than expected physiologically. Recent work suggests that

  7. Virtual unit delay for digital frequency adaptive T/4 delay phase-locked loop system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    /processor with a fixed sampling rate considering the cost and complexity, where the number of unit delays that have been adopted should be an integer. For instance, in conventional digital control systems, a single-phase T/4 Delay Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) system takes 50 unit delays (i.e., in a 50-Hz system...... Delay PLL system should be done in its implementation. This process will result in performance degradation in the digital control system, as the exactly required number of delays is not realized. Hence, in this paper, a Virtual Unit Delay (VUD) has been proposed to address such challenges to the digital......Digital micro-controllers/processors enable the cost-effective control of grid-connected power converter systems in terms of system monitoring, signal processing (e.g., grid synchronization), control (e.g., grid current and voltage control), etc. Normally, the control is implemented in a micro-controller...

  8. Prognostic significance of delayed structural recovery after macular hole surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulrik C; Krøyer, Kristian; Sander, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    was used; however, secondary macular hole surgery had a significant influence on diameter of photoreceptor layer discontinuity at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: Structural recovery in the form of photoreceptor layer discontinuity with a diameter of more than approximately 1500 microm 3 months after macular hole...

  9. Effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Perc, Matjaž; Kurths, Jürgen

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we study effects of partial time delays on phase synchronization in Watts-Strogatz small-world neuronal networks. Our focus is on the impact of two parameters, namely the time delay τ and the probability of partial time delay pdelay, whereby the latter determines the probability with which a connection between two neurons is delayed. Our research reveals that partial time delays significantly affect phase synchronization in this system. In particular, partial time delays can either enhance or decrease phase synchronization and induce synchronization transitions with changes in the mean firing rate of neurons, as well as induce switching between synchronized neurons with period-1 firing to synchronized neurons with period-2 firing. Moreover, in comparison to a neuronal network where all connections are delayed, we show that small partial time delay probabilities have especially different influences on phase synchronization of neuronal networks.

  10. Phase delaying the human circadian clock with a single light pulse and moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode: no influence of iris color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, Jillian L; Smith, Mark R; Choi, Ho-Sun; Eastman, Charmane I

    2009-07-17

    Light exposure in the late evening and nighttime and a delay of the sleep/dark episode can phase delay the circadian clock. This study assessed the size of the phase delay produced by a single light pulse combined with a moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode for one day. Because iris color or race has been reported to influence light-induced melatonin suppression, and we have recently reported racial differences in free-running circadian period and circadian phase shifting in response to light pulses, we also tested for differences in the magnitude of the phase delay in subjects with blue and brown irises. Subjects (blue-eyed n = 7; brown eyed n = 6) maintained a regular sleep schedule for 1 week before coming to the laboratory for a baseline phase assessment, during which saliva was collected every 30 minutes to determine the time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Immediately following the baseline phase assessment, which ended 2 hours after baseline bedtime, subjects received a 2-hour bright light pulse (~4,000 lux). An 8-hour sleep episode followed the light pulse (i.e. was delayed 4 hours from baseline). A final phase assessment was conducted the subsequent night to determine the phase shift of the DLMO from the baseline to final phase assessment.Phase delays of the DLMO were compared in subjects with blue and brown irises. Iris color was also quantified from photographs using the three dimensions of red-green-blue color axes, as well as a lightness scale. These variables were correlated with phase shift of the DLMO, with the hypothesis that subjects with lighter irises would have larger phase delays. The average phase delay of the DLMO was -1.3 +/- 0.6 h, with a maximum delay of ~2 hours, and was similar for subjects with blue and brown irises. There were no significant correlations between any of the iris color variables and the magnitude of the phase delay. A single 2-hour bright light pulse combined with a moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode

  11. Phase delaying the human circadian clock with a single light pulse and moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode: no influence of iris color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Ho-Sun

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Light exposure in the late evening and nighttime and a delay of the sleep/dark episode can phase delay the circadian clock. This study assessed the size of the phase delay produced by a single light pulse combined with a moderate delay of the sleep/dark episode for one day. Because iris color or race has been reported to influence light-induced melatonin suppression, and we have recently reported racial differences in free-running circadian period and circadian phase shifting in response to light pulses, we also tested for differences in the magnitude of the phase delay in subjects with blue and brown irises. Methods Subjects (blue-eyed n = 7; brown eyed n = 6 maintained a regular sleep schedule for 1 week before coming to the laboratory for a baseline phase assessment, during which saliva was collected every 30 minutes to determine the time of the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO. Immediately following the baseline phase assessment, which ended 2 hours after baseline bedtime, subjects received a 2-hour bright light pulse (~4,000 lux. An 8-hour sleep episode followed the light pulse (i.e. was delayed 4 hours from baseline. A final phase assessment was conducted the subsequent night to determine the phase shift of the DLMO from the baseline to final phase assessment. Phase delays of the DLMO were compared in subjects with blue and brown irises. Iris color was also quantified from photographs using the three dimensions of red-green-blue color axes, as well as a lightness scale. These variables were correlated with phase shift of the DLMO, with the hypothesis that subjects with lighter irises would have larger phase delays. Results The average phase delay of the DLMO was -1.3 ± 0.6 h, with a maximum delay of ~2 hours, and was similar for subjects with blue and brown irises. There were no significant correlations between any of the iris color variables and the magnitude of the phase delay. Conclusion A single 2-hour bright light

  12. Determination of Uncalibrated Phase Delays for Real-Time PPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterberger, Fabian; Weber, Robert; Huber, Katrin; Lesjak, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Today PPP is a well-known technique of GNSS based positioning used for a wide range of post-processing applications. Using observations of a single GNSS receiver and applying precise orbit and clock information derived from global GNSS networks highly precise positions can be obtained. The atmospheric delays are usually mitigated by linear combination (ionosphere) and parameter estimation (troposphere). Within the last years also the demand for real-time PPP increased. In 2012, the IGS real-time working group started a pilot project to broadcast real-time precise orbits and clock correction streams. Nevertheless, real-time PPP is in its starting phase and currently only few applications make use of the technique although SSR-Messages are already implemented in RTCM3.1. The problems of still limited accuracy compared to Network-RTK as well as long convergence times might be solved by almost instantaneous integer ambiguity resolution at zero-difference level which is a major topic of current scientific investigations. Therefore a national consortium has carried out over the past 2 years the research project PPP-Serve (funded by the Austrian Research Promotion Agency - FFG), which aimed at the development of appropriate algorithms for real-time PPP with special emphasis on the ambiguity resolution of zero-difference observations. We have established a module which calculates based on GPS-reference station data-streams of a dense network (obtained from IGS via BKG) so-called wide-lane and narrow-lane satellite specific calibration phase delays. While the wide-lane phase delays are almost stable over longer periods, the estimation of narrow-lane phase delays has to be re-established every 24 hours. These phase-delays are submitted via a real-time module to the rover where they are used for point positioning via a PPP-model. This presentation deals with the process and obstacles of calculating the wide-lane and narrow-lane phase-delays (based on SD -observations between

  13. Optical True Time Delay for Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2×2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Back-Song; Lee; Jong-Dug; Shin; Boo-Gyoun; Kim

    2003-01-01

    We proposed an optical true time delay (TTD) for phased array antennas (PAAs) composed of 2×2 optical MEMS switches, single-mode fiber delay lines, and a fixed wavelength laser diode. A 3-bit TTD for 10 GHz PAAs was implemented with a time delay error less than ± 0.2 ps.

  14. Clinical significant of three phase radionuclide bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-04-15

    Three phase radionuclide bone scan, consisting of a radionuclide angiogram, an immediate postinjection blood pool image, and 4hr delayed images, was randomly performed in 182 patients, who had been suffered from either local pain or tenderness. Authors analysed 3 phase bone scan in 74 patients with correct diagnosis proven surgically or clinically, from July 1987 to August, 1988. The results were as follows: 1. Overall sensitivity of 3 phase bone scan was 85.4%: sensitivity in patients with an osseous lesion was 90.4% as opposed to 72.7% in patients with a nonosseous lesion. 2. There was no difference in the detection rate of the osseous lesions between the 3 phase bone scan and the delayed image bone scan. However, because the detection rate was higher on the 3 phase bone scan than it was on only the delayed image bone scan (55%) in instance of the nonosseous lesion, we would suggest that 3 phase bone scan might be obtained in cases suspected of the nonosseous lesions. 3. When the presumptive diagnosis was a bone tumor, sensitivity and specificity for malignancy were 67%, 100% respectively. 4. In differentiating osteomyelitis from cellulitis, sensitivity was 94%, specificity was 100%. 5. 3 phase bone scan was able to provide the precise information about either vasculaturity or localization of lesion in some cases of soft tissue mass and avascular necrosis of hips.

  15. Academic performance in adolescents with delayed sleep phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivertsen, Børge; Glozier, Nick; Harvey, Allison G; Hysing, Mari

    2015-09-01

    Delayed sleep phase (DSP) in adolescence has been linked to reduced academic performance, but there are few population-based studies examining this association using validated sleep measures and objective outcomes. The youth@hordaland-survey, a large population-based study from Norway conducted in 2012, surveyed 8347 high-school students aged 16-19 years (54% girls). DSP was assessed by self-report sleep measures, and it was operationalized according to the International Classification of Sleep Disorders - Second Edition. School performance (grade point average, GPA) was obtained from official administrative registries, and it was linked individually to health data. DSP was associated with increased odds for poor school performance. After adjusting for age and gender, DSP was associated with a threefold increased odds of poor GPA (lowest quartile) [odds ratio (OR) = 2.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.03-4.30], and adjustment for sociodemographics and lifestyle factors did not, or only slightly, attenuate this association. Adjustment for nonattendance at school reduced the association substantially, and in the fully adjusted model, the effect of DSP on poor academic performance was reduced to a non-significant level. Mediation analyses confirmed both direct and significant indirect effects of DSP on school performance based on school absence, daytime sleepiness, and sleep duration. Poor academic performance may reflect an independent effect of underlying circadian disruption, which in part could be mediated by school attendance, as well as daytime sleepiness and short sleep duration. This suggests that careful assessment of sleep is warranted in addressing educational difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluating the Coda Phase Delay Method for Determining Temperature Ratios in Windy Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, Sarah [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bowman, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodgers, Arthur [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Seastrand, Douglas [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-07-01

    We evaluate the acoustic coda phase delay method for estimating changes in atmospheric phenomena in realistic environments. Previous studies verifying the method took place in an environment with negligible wind. The equation for effective sound speed, which the method is based upon, shows that the influence of wind is equal to the square of temperature. Under normal conditions, wind is significant and therefore cannot be ignored. Results from this study con rm the previous statement. The acoustic coda phase delay method breaks down in non-ideal environments, namely those where wind speed and direction varies across small distances. We suggest that future studies make use of gradiometry to better understand the effect of wind on the acoustic coda and subsequent phase delays.

  17. Significance of Joint Features Derived from the Modified Group Delay Function in Speech Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy Hema A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the significance of combining cepstral features derived from the modified group delay function and from the short-time spectral magnitude like the MFCC. The conventional group delay function fails to capture the resonant structure and the dynamic range of the speech spectrum primarily due to pitch periodicity effects. The group delay function is modified to suppress these spikes and to restore the dynamic range of the speech spectrum. Cepstral features are derived from the modified group delay function, which are called the modified group delay feature (MODGDF. The complementarity and robustness of the MODGDF when compared to the MFCC are also analyzed using spectral reconstruction techniques. Combination of several spectral magnitude-based features and the MODGDF using feature fusion and likelihood combination is described. These features are then used for three speech processing tasks, namely, syllable, speaker, and language recognition. Results indicate that combining MODGDF with MFCC at the feature level gives significant improvements for speech recognition tasks in noise. Combining the MODGDF and the spectral magnitude-based features gives a significant increase in recognition performance of 11% at best, while combining any two features derived from the spectral magnitude does not give any significant improvement.

  18. Confounding effects of phase delays on causality estimation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasily A Vakorin

    Full Text Available Linear and non-linear techniques for inferring causal relations between the brain signals representing the underlying neuronal systems have become a powerful tool to extract the connectivity patterns in the brain. Typically these tools employ the idea of Granger causality, which is ultimately based on the temporal precedence between the signals. At the same time, phase synchronization between coupled neural ensembles is considered a mechanism implemented in the brain to integrate relevant neuronal ensembles to perform a cognitive or perceptual task. Phase synchronization can be studied by analyzing the effects of phase-locking between the brain signals. However, we should expect that there is no one-to-one mapping between the observed phase lag and the time precedence as specified by physically interacting systems. Specifically, phase lag observed between two signals may interfere with inferring causal relations. This could be of critical importance for the coupled non-linear oscillating systems, with possible time delays in coupling, when classical linear cross-spectrum strategies for solving phase ambiguity are not efficient. To demonstrate this, we used a prototypical model of coupled non-linear systems, and compared three typical pipelines of inferring Granger causality, as established in the literature. Specifically, we compared the performance of the spectral and information-theoretic Granger pipelines as well as standard Granger causality in their relations to the observed phase differences for frequencies at which the signals become synchronized to each other. We found that an information-theoretic approach, which takes into account different time lags between the past of one signal and the future of another signal, was the most robust to phase effects.

  19. Cumulative phase delay imaging for contrast-enhanced ultrasound tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demi, Libertario; Van Sloun, Ruud J G; Wijkstra, Hessel; Mischi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Standard dynamic-contrast enhanced ultrasound (DCE-US) imaging detects and estimates ultrasound-contrast-agent (UCA) concentration based on the amplitude of the nonlinear (harmonic) components generated during ultrasound (US) propagation through UCAs. However, harmonic components generation is not specific to UCAs, as it also occurs for US propagating through tissue. Moreover, nonlinear artifacts affect standard DCE-US imaging, causing contrast to tissue ratio reduction, and resulting in possible misclassification of tissue and misinterpretation of UCA concentration. Furthermore, no contrast-specific modality exists for DCE-US tomography; in particular speed-of-sound changes due to UCAs are well within those caused by different tissue types. Recently, a new marker for UCAs has been introduced. A cumulative phase delay (CPD) between the second harmonic and fundamental component is in fact observable for US propagating through UCAs, and is absent in tissue. In this paper, tomographic US images based on CPD are for the first time presented and compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Results show the applicability of this marker for contrast specific US imaging, with cumulative phase delay imaging (CPDI) showing superior capabilities in detecting and localizing UCA, as compared to speed-of-sound US tomography. Cavities (filled with UCA) which were down to 1 mm in diameter were clearly detectable. Moreover, CPDI is free of the above mentioned nonlinear artifacts. These results open important possibilities to DCE-US tomography, with potential applications to breast imaging for cancer localization. (fast track communication)

  20. Delayed-Start Analyses in the Phase 3 Solanezumab EXPEDITION3 Study in Mild Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Seifert, H; Case, M G; Andersen, S W; Holdridge, K C; Aisen, P S; Kollack-Walker, S; Siemers, E

    2018-01-01

    A delayed-start design has been proposed to assess a potential disease-modifying effect in investigational drugs for Alzheimer's disease that target the underlying disease process. We extended this methodology to recently obtained data from the EXPEDITION3. EXPEDITION3 was a Phase 3, double-blind study with participants randomized to solanezumab (400 mg) or placebo every 4 weeks for 80 weeks, with an optional extension of active treatment. The delayed-start analysis was designed to determine if a statistically significant treatment difference established during the placebo-controlled period is maintained (at predefined level) during the delayed-start period, which would suggest the active drug has a disease-modifying effect. The delayed-start analysis was assessed across multiple efficacy measures, and includes data from baseline in the placebo-controlled period and up to 9 months in the delayed-start period. No significant difference was observed between the placebo and solanezumab treatment groups at the end of the placebo-controlled period for the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive 14-item subscale. A significant treatment difference was observed at the end of the placebo-controlled period for the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living instrumental items, an effect also seen at 6 months in the delayed-start period, and the noninferiority criterion was met. No other efficacy measures met these criteria. Delayed-start statistical methodology was used to understand the longitudinal outcomes in EXPEDITION3 and its extension. The small treatment differences observed at the end of the placebo-controlled phase prevented adequate assessment of any putative disease modifying effect.

  1. Testing for significance of phase synchronisation dynamics in the EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Ian; Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Nasuto, Slawomir J

    2013-06-01

    A number of tests exist to check for statistical significance of phase synchronisation within the Electroencephalogram (EEG); however, the majority suffer from a lack of generality and applicability. They may also fail to account for temporal dynamics in the phase synchronisation, regarding synchronisation as a constant state instead of a dynamical process. Therefore, a novel test is developed for identifying the statistical significance of phase synchronisation based upon a combination of work characterising temporal dynamics of multivariate time-series and Markov modelling. We show how this method is better able to assess the significance of phase synchronisation than a range of commonly used significance tests. We also show how the method may be applied to identify and classify significantly different phase synchronisation dynamics in both univariate and multivariate datasets.

  2. Delayed sleep phase disorder: clinical perspective with a focus on light therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiro, Mariana G

    2016-01-01

    Mariana G Figueiro Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USAAbstract: Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD) is common among adolescents and further increases their susceptibility to chronic sleep restriction and associated detrimental outcomes, including increased risk of depression, drug and alcohol use, behavioral problems, and poor scholastic performance. DSPD is characterized by sleep onset that occurs significantly later than desired bedtimes and societal no...

  3. Rehearsal significantly improves immediate and delayed recall on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Erik

    2011-10-01

    A repeated observation during memory assessment with the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is that patients who spontaneously employ a memory rehearsal strategy by repeating the word list more than once achieve better scores than patients who only repeat the word list once. This observation led to concern about the ability of the standard test procedure of RAVLT and similar tests in eliciting the best possible recall scores. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that a rehearsal recall strategy of repeating the word list more than once would result in improved scores of recall on the RAVLT. We report on differences in outcome after standard administration and after experimental administration on Immediate and Delayed Recall measures from the RAVLT of 50 patients. The experimental administration resulted in significantly improved scores for all the variables employed. Additionally, it was found that patients who failed effort screening showed significantly poorer improvement on Delayed Recall compared with those who passed the effort screening. The general clear improvement both in raw scores and T-scores demonstrates that recall performance can be significantly influenced by the strategy of the patient or by small variations in instructions by the examiner.

  4. A clock and data recovery method based on phase detector implemented by delay chain in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Mingpu; Wu Jie; Zhang Jie

    2009-01-01

    A clock and data recovery method based on charge pump PLL was developed to archive medium data rate serial digital communication with simple line transceivers. The phase detector was realized by FPGA. A delay chain was constructed by delay elements with the same fixed delay. Every output of the delay elements was latched by the VCO output clock when the input signal went through the delay chain. The latched result was used to detect the data transition, which reflected the phase difference between the input signal and the VCO output clock. The VCO control voltage was adjust by charge pump to reduce the phase difference and archive phase lock. The loop filter was a passive filter,parameters of which were calculated from parameters of the delay chain and VCO. The experimental result shows that the clock of a 64Mbps transmission was recovered with a jitter less than 200 ps. (authors)

  5. Effects of Phytoplankton Growth Phase on Delayed Settling Behavior of Marine Snow Aggregates at Sharp Density Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, K. W.; Montgomery, Q. W.; Prairie, J. C.

    2016-02-01

    Marine snow aggregates play a fundamental role in the marine carbon cycle. Since marine snow aggregates are larger and thus sink faster than individual phytoplankton, aggregates often dominate carbon flux. Previous studies have shown that marine snow aggregates will significantly decrease their settling velocity when passing through sharp density transitions within the ocean, a phenomenon defined as delayed settling. Given the importance of aggregate settling to carbon export, these small-scale changes in aggregate settling dynamics may have significant impacts on the efficiency of the biological pump. However, there is still a lack of knowledge about how different physical properties of aggregates can affect this delayed settling. In this study, we investigated the effect of phytoplankton growth phase on delayed settling behavior. Using phytoplankton cultures stopped at four different growth phases, we formed marine snow aggregates in the laboratory in rotating cylindrical tanks. We then observed individual aggregates as they settled through a stratified tank. We will present data which illustrates that aggregates experience greatly reduced settling rates when passing through sharp density gradients and that the growth phase of the phytoplankton used to form these aggregates has a significant effect on this delayed settling behavior. A thorough understanding of the impact of phytoplankton growth phase on the delayed settling behavior of marine snow will offer insight into the way phytoplankton growth phase may influence the efficiency of the biological pump, carbon flux, and the carbon cycle as a whole.

  6. Multiple-region directed functional connectivity based on phase delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goelman, Gadi; Dan, Rotem

    2017-03-01

    Network analysis is increasingly advancing the field of neuroimaging. Neural networks are generally constructed from pairwise interactions with an assumption of linear relations between them. Here, a high-order statistical framework to calculate directed functional connectivity among multiple regions, using wavelet analysis and spectral coherence has been presented. The mathematical expression for 4 regions was derived and used to characterize a quartet of regions as a linear, combined (nonlinear), or disconnected network. Phase delays between regions were used to obtain network's temporal hierarchy and directionality. The validity of the mathematical derivation along with the effects of coupling strength and noise on its outcomes were studied by computer simulations of the Kuramoto model. The simulations demonstrated correct directionality for a large range of coupling strength and low sensitivity to Gaussian noise compared with pairwise coherences. The analysis was applied to resting-state fMRI data of 40 healthy young subjects to characterize the ventral visual system, motor system and default mode network (DMN). It was shown that the ventral visual system was predominantly composed of linear networks while the motor system and the DMN were composed of combined (nonlinear) networks. The ventral visual system exhibits its known temporal hierarchy, the motor system exhibits center ↔ out hierarchy and the DMN has dorsal ↔ ventral and anterior ↔ posterior organizations. The analysis can be applied in different disciplines such as seismology, or economy and in a variety of brain data including stimulus-driven fMRI, electrophysiology, EEG, and MEG, thus open new horizons in brain research. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1374-1386, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Multilevel linear modelling of the response-contingent learning of young children with significant developmental delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Melinda; Dunst, Carl J; Hamby, Deborah W

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of the study was to isolate the sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple disabilities and significant developmental delays randomly assigned to contrasting types of early childhood intervention. Multilevel, hierarchical linear growth curve modelling was used to analyze four different measures of child response-contingent learning where repeated child learning measures were nested within individual children (Level-1), children were nested within practitioners (Level-2), and practitioners were nested within the contrasting types of intervention (Level-3). Findings showed that sources of variations in rates of child response-contingent learning were associated almost entirely with type of intervention after the variance associated with differences in practitioners nested within groups were accounted for. Rates of child learning were greater among children whose existing behaviour were used as the building blocks for promoting child competence (asset-based practices) compared to children for whom the focus of intervention was promoting child acquisition of missing skills (needs-based practices). The methods of analysis illustrate a practical approach to clustered data analysis and the presentation of results in ways that highlight sources of variations in the rates of response-contingent learning among young children with multiple developmental disabilities and significant developmental delays. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. The significance of 123I-BMIPP delayed scintigraphic imaging in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kae; Inoue, Koji; Kawasaki, Kensuke; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Musha, Haruki; Anker, Stefan D

    2007-04-25

    Earlier studies have not fully investigated the significance of radionuclide planar imaging in cardiac patients using the fatty acid analogue 123I-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP). This study was to clarify the effectiveness of 123I-BMIPP in assessing the heart-to-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and myocardial washout rate (WR) in patients with heart disease. Myocardial 123I-BMIPP imaging was performed in 33 patients (20 with chronic heart failure [CHF] and 13 with stable angina pectoris [AP]) and 11 control subjects. Myocardial 123I-BMIPP planner images were obtained 30 min (early image) and 4 h (delayed image) after tracer injection. The left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was measured by quantitative gated single photon emission computed tomography. The concentration of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) was measured before the scintigraphic study. (1) Delayed H/M was much lower in CHF than in AP (1.93 +/- 0.37 vs. 2.21 +/- 0.38, p acid metabolism disorders in patients with heart disease in both masked and unmasked conditions.

  9. Advanced gastric cancer. The findings of delayed phase dynamic CT and radiologic-histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzawa, Shuichi; Omata, Kosaku; Nakazima, Hiroto; Yokosuka, Noriko; Ito, Atuko; Araki, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe delayed phase dynamic CT findings of advanced (T2-T4) gastric cancer and to correlate with histopathologic findings. Quadruple phase dynamic CT including delayed imaging taken five minutes after the start of injection of contrast material was performed in 43 patients with 45 advanced gastric cancer and 20 control subjects with no gastric lesions. On delayed phase CT scans, the attenuation of the gastric wall was equal to or lower than that of the liver parenchyma in the control subjects, therefore, the presence of higher attenuation in the gastric wall was considered to be abnormal and defined as delayed enhancement. Histopathologic findings in the tumors showing delayed enhancement were compared with those in the tumors without this feature. Delayed enhancement was seen in 26 (57%) of the 45 tumors. Eleven of 25 differentiated-type tumors and 15 of 20 undifferentiated-type tumors showed delayed enhancement (p<.05). Delayed enhancement was seen in one of five medullary type tumors, in 11 of 25 intermediate-type tumors, and in 14 of 15 scirrhous-type tumors (p<.005). Delayed enhancement was frequently seen in the tumors with abundant fibrous tissue stroma. Delayed phase dynamic CT may be useful for the characterization of advanced gastric cancer. (author)

  10. A novel multi-drug metronomic chemotherapy significantly delays tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Napolitano, Maria; Luciano, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Barbieri, Antonio; Arra, Claudio; Maiolino, Piera; Tornesello, Marialina; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-02-24

    The tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment represents a major obstacle to an effective tumor-specific cellular immune response. In the present study, the counterbalance effect of a novel metronomic chemotherapy protocol on such an immunosuppressive microenvironment was evaluated in a mouse model upon sub-cutaneous ectopic implantation of B16 melanoma cells. The chemotherapy consisted of a novel multi-drug cocktail including taxanes and alkylating agents, administered in a daily metronomic fashion. The newly designed strategy was shown to be safe, well tolerated and significantly efficacious. Treated animals showed a remarkable delay in tumor growth and prolonged survival as compared to control group. Such an effect was directly correlated with CD4(+) T cell reduction and CD8(+) T cell increase. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the percentage of both CD25(+)FoxP3(+) and CD25(+)CD127(low) regulatory T cell population was found both in the spleens and in the tumor lesions. Finally, the metronomic chemotherapy induced an intrinsic CD8(+) T cell response specific to B16 naturally expressed Trp2 TAA. The novel multi-drug daily metronomic chemotherapy evaluated in the present study was very effective in counterbalancing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Consequently, the intrinsic anti-tumor T cell immunity could exert its function, targeting specific TAA and significantly containing tumor growth. Overall, the results show that this represents a promising adjuvant approach to significantly enhance efficacy of intrinsic or vaccine-elicited tumor-specific cellular immunity.

  11. Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    related to the production, use, transmission , storage, control, or conservation of energy that will – (A) reduce the need for additional energy supplies...Conditions set for operation were: a. The computer with the broadband wireless card is to be used for data collection, transmission and...FINAL REPORT Innovative Phase Change Approach for Significant Energy Savings ESTCP Project EW-201138 SEPTEMBER 2016 Dr. Aly H Shaaban Applied

  12. Phase models and clustering in networks of oscillators with delayed coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Sue Ann; Wang, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    We consider a general model for a network of oscillators with time delayed coupling where the coupling matrix is circulant. We use the theory of weakly coupled oscillators to reduce the system of delay differential equations to a phase model where the time delay enters as a phase shift. We use the phase model to determine model independent existence and stability results for symmetric cluster solutions. Our results extend previous work to systems with time delay and a more general coupling matrix. We show that the presence of the time delay can lead to the coexistence of multiple stable clustering solutions. We apply our analytical results to a network of Morris Lecar neurons and compare these results with numerical continuation and simulation studies.

  13. The comparing results of carcinoma between three-phase and delayed whole body bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Hongwei; Li Xianfeng

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Three phase bone scan is an imaging technology in nuclear medicine, which composed of blood flow phase, blood pool phase and delayed phase and the last one is often performed in routine works in department of nuclear medicine. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the merit of three-phase bone scan.Methods: In this study, we chose 54 patients who were having an regional pain which caused by benign or malignant carcinoma that diagnosed by CT, X-ray, ECT, MRI or other examinations. The imaging were acquired simultaneously from both anterior and posterior views, after a bolus injection of 1110 MBq technetium-99m-labelled methylene diphosphonate (MDP), blood phase contains 20 frame sand 3 seconds per frame, blood pool phase contains 5 frames and 1 minute per frame, delayed phase was performed 2.5 hour later. According to the results of three-phase bone scan, the patients were divided into 2 groups: normal and abnormal groups. The abnormal group includes early phase positive,delay positive and all three phase positive sets. The comparing among the 3 sets were analyzed by chi-square test and other statistic means.Results: There were 54 patients who had suffered lung cancer, breast cancer and other cancer,involved in this study, 34 males and 20 females, ranged age 17 to 88 years, were normal in 15 cases,positive in 22 cases, the results in delayed phase were positive in 9 cases, blood flow and blood pool phase showed blood flow changes in 4 cases and soft tissue tumors were seen in 4 cases. Three phase bone scan was more sensitive than delayed whole body bone scan in detecting the abnormal sites (p 0.05) The sensitivity of detecting tumors in blood flow and blood pool phase,delayed phase were respectively lower than in three phase bone scan (p<0.001).Conclusion: It is more sensitivity of detecting tumor lesions in three phase bone scan than in delayed phase whole body bone scan and the changes of blood flow and soft tissue can be seen in three phase bone scan

  14. A simple delay model for two-phase flow dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausse, A.; Delmastro, D.F.; Juanico`, L.E. [Centro Atomico Bariloche (Argentina)

    1995-09-01

    A model based in delay equations for density-wave oscillations is presented. High Froude numbers and moderate ones were considered. The equations were numerically analyzed and compared with more sophisticated models. The influence of the gravity term was studied. Different kinds of behavior were found, particularly sub-critical and super-critical Hopf bifurcations. Moreover the present approach can be used to better understand the complicated dynamics of boiling flows systems.

  15. Delayed sleep phase disorder: clinical perspective with a focus on light therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiro MG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariana G Figueiro Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USAAbstract: Delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD is common among adolescents and further increases their susceptibility to chronic sleep restriction and associated detrimental outcomes, including increased risk of depression, drug and alcohol use, behavioral problems, and poor scholastic performance. DSPD is characterized by sleep onset that occurs significantly later than desired bedtimes and societal norms. Individuals with DSPD exhibit long sleep latencies when attempting to sleep at conventional bedtimes. Circadian sleep disorders such as DSPD can occur when there is misalignment between sleep timing and societal norms. This review discusses studies using light therapy to advance the timing of sleep in adolescents and college students, in particular on those suffering from DSPD. A discussion on how to increase effectiveness of light therapy in the field will also be provided.Keywords: circadian, melatonin, light, sleep, sleep phase disorder, adolescents

  16. The significance of resting thallium-201 delayed SPECT for assessing viability of infarcted regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Takao; Yamabe, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Kazumi; Fukuzaki, Hisashi

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-eight patients with old myocardial infarction (OMI) and 35 patients with effort angina pectoris (EAP) underwent resting thallium-201 (Tl) SPECT one week after exercise (Ex) Tl SPECT. On the basis of both resting and Ex Tl SPECT scans, OMI patients were divided into 3 groups: those who had Tl redistribution (RD) on Ex images and the same perfusion defect (PD) on both resting and Ex delayed images (n=12, Group 1); those who had a lower PD on resting delayed images than Ex delayed images (n=15, Group 2); and those who had no Tl RD on Ex images in spite of the same PD on both resting and EX delayed images (n=11, Group 3). EAP patients were divided into Group 1 (n=18) in whom no PD was seen on Ex delayed image and Group 2 (n=17) in whom PD was not seen on Ex delayed images either, but seen on resting delayed images. EX images showed higher pulmonary artery wedge pressure in Group 2 than Group 1 of both OMI and EAP patients (27±7 mmHg vs 15±6 mmHg for OMI patients; 22±6 mmHg vs 12±7 mmHg for EAP patients). For PD, Tl uptake rate on Ex initial images was higher in Group 1 than Gorup 2 of both OMI and EAP patients (63±7% vs 55±9% for OMI patients; 72±7% vs 65±9% for EAP patients). Resting delayed images for OMI patients showed the highest Tl uptake rate in Group 1 (78±7%), followed by Group 2 (74±8%) and then Group 3 (41±10%). In the group of OMI patients, the incidence of akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion on left ventriculography was the highest in Group 3 (85.7%), followed by Group 2 (52.2%) and Group 1 (24.3%). OMI patients, as well as EAP patients, had lower PD on resting delayed images than EX delayed images. Thus, severer ischemia may be associated with stress and infarcted areas may not involve viable muscle when Tl PD is decreased on resting delayed images. (N.K.)

  17. Water Phase Diagram Is Significantly Altered by Imidazolium Ionic Liquid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, V. V.; Prezhdo, O. V.

    2014-01-01

    We report unusually large changes in the boiling temperature, saturated vapor pressure, and structure of the liquid-vapor interface for a range of 1-butyl-3-methyl tetrafluoroborate, [C4C1IM][BF4]-water mixtures. Even modest molar fractions of [C4C1IM][BF4] significantly affect the phase behavior...... of water, as represented, for instance, by strong negative deviations from Raoult's law, extending far beyond the standard descriptions. The investigation was carried out using classical molecular dynamics employing a specifically refined force field. The changes in the liquid-vapor interface and saturated...

  18. Noise-and delay-induced phase transitions of the dimer–monomer surface reaction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Chunhua; Wang Hua

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the dimer–monomer surface reaction model. ► We show that noise induces first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT). ► Combination of noise and time-delayed feedback induce first- and second-order IPT. ► First- and second-order IPT is viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions. - Abstract: The effects of noise and time-delayed feedback in the dimer–monomer (DM) surface reaction model are investigated. Applying small delay approximation, we construct a stochastic delayed differential equation and its Fokker–Planck equation to describe the state evolution of the DM reaction model. We show that the noise can only induce first-order irreversible phase transition (IPT) characteristic of the DM model, however the combination of the noise and time-delayed feedback can simultaneously induce first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model. Therefore, it is shown that the well-known first- and second-order IPT characteristics of the DM model may be viewed as noise-and delay-induced phase transitions.

  19. ATMOSPHERIC PHASE DELAY CORRECTION OF D-INSAR BASED ON SENTINEL-1A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we used the Generic Atmospheric Correction Online Service for InSAR (GACOS tropospheric delay maps to correct the atmospheric phase delay of the differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (D-InSAR monitoring, and we improved the accuracy of subsidence monitoring using D-InSAR technology. Atmospheric phase delay, as one of the most important errors that limit the monitoring accuracy of InSAR, would lead to the masking of true phase in subsidence monitoring. For the problem, this paper used the Sentinel-1A images and the tropospheric delay maps got from GACOS to monitor the subsidence of the Yellow River Delta in Shandong Province. The conventional D-InSAR processing was performed using the GAMMA software. The MATLAB codes were used to correct the atmospheric delay of the D-InSAR results. The results before and after the atmospheric phase delay correction were verified and analyzed in the main subsidence area. The experimental results show that atmospheric phase influences the deformation results to a certain extent. After the correction, the measurement error of vertical deformation is reduced by about 18 mm, which proves that the removal of atmospheric effects can improve the accuracy of the D-InSAR monitoring.

  20. Clinical significance of segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA hepatobiliary scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, D. Y.; Ryu, J. S.; Moon, D. H.; Lee, S. K.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, H. K.

    1998-01-01

    Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan in caused by intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. However, the diagnostic value for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction is unknown. We conducted this study to assess the positive predictive value of segmental excretion delay for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, and additional benefit over other noninvasive radiologic studies. The study population consisted of 43 patients (48 scans) who showed segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan. The results of abdominal CT or ultrasonography, which was done within 1 month of Tc-99m DISIDA scan, were compared with scintigraphic findings. The etiology of segmental parenchymal excretion delay was determined by ERC or PTC in 31 scans, and follow-up studies in 13 scans. No causes were identified in 4 scans. The positive predictive value of segmental parenchymal excretion delay for intrahepatic bile duct obstruction was 92% (44/48). On the other hand, 13% (5/38) of CT and 28% (5/18) of ultrasonography were normal. In 18% *7/38) of CT and 17% (3/18) of ultrasonography, only intrahepatic bile duct dilatation was noted without any diagnostic findings of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Segmental parenchymal excretion delay on Tc-99m DISIDA scan had a high positive predictive value for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction. Tc-99m DISIDA scan may be useful for the diagnosis of intrahepatic bile duct obstruction, especially in patients with nondiagnostic CT or ultrasonography. The diagnostic usefulness need to be confirmed by further prospective studies

  1. Adjoint method provides phase response functions for delay-induced oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Kiyoshi; Yamaguchi, Ikuhiro; Ogawa, Yutaro; Jimbo, Yasuhiko; Nakao, Hiroya; Ermentrout, G Bard

    2012-07-27

    Limit-cycle oscillations induced by time delay are widely observed in various systems, but a systematic phase-reduction theory for them has yet to be developed. Here we present a practical theoretical framework to calculate the phase response function Z(θ), a fundamental quantity for the theory, of delay-induced limit cycles with infinite-dimensional phase space. We show that Z(θ) can be obtained as a zero eigenfunction of the adjoint equation associated with an appropriate bilinear form for the delay differential equations. We confirm the validity of the proposed framework for two biological oscillators and demonstrate that the derived phase equation predicts intriguing multimodal locking behavior.

  2. ESTIMATION OF PHASE DELAY DUE TO PRECIPITABLE WATER FOR DINSARBASED LAND DEFORMATION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Susaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for using the estimated precipitable water (PW to mitigate atmospheric phase delay in order to improve the accuracy of land-deformation assessment with differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar (DInSAR. The phase difference obtained from multi-temporal synthetic aperture radar images contains errors of several types, and the atmospheric phase delay can be an obstacle to estimating surface subsidence. In this study, we calculate PW from external meteorological data. Firstly, we interpolate the data with regard to their spatial and temporal resolutions. Then, assuming a range direction between a target pixel and the sensor, we derive the cumulative amount of differential PW at the height of the slant range vector at pixels along that direction. The atmospheric phase delay of each interferogram is acquired by taking a residual after a preliminary determination of the linear deformation velocity and digital elevation model (DEM error, and by applying high-pass temporal and low-pass spatial filters. Next, we estimate a regression model that connects the cumulative amount of PW and the atmospheric phase delay. Finally, we subtract the contribution of the atmospheric phase delay from the phase difference of the interferogram, and determine the linear deformation velocity and DEM error. The experimental results show a consistent relationship between the cumulative amount of differential PW and the atmospheric phase delay. An improvement in land-deformation accuracy is observed at a point at which the deformation is relatively large. Although further investigation is necessary, we conclude at this stage that the proposed approach has the potential to improve the accuracy of the DInSAR technique.

  3. Prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Pallesen, Ståle; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Molde, Helge; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2012-02-01

    To investigate prevalence and correlates of delayed sleep phase, characterized by problems falling asleep in the evening and rising at adequate times in the morning, in a large sample of Norwegian high school students. A randomized sample of 1285 high school students (aged 16-19 years) participated in an internet based study answering questions about sleep habits, height, weight, smoking, alcohol use, school grades, and anxiety and depression symptoms. Delayed sleep phase was operationalized as difficulties falling asleep before 2 a.m. at least three nights per week together with much or very much difficulty waking up in the morning. The results show a prevalence of delayed sleep phase of 8.4%. In all, 68% of these students (5.7% of the total sample) also reported problems advancing their sleep period as well as one daytime consequence (oversleeping at least two days a week or experiencing much/very much sleepiness at school). Delayed sleep phase was associated with lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Delayed sleep phase appears to be common amongst Norwegian adolescents and is associated with negative outcomes such as lower average school grades, smoking, alcohol usage, and elevated anxiety and depression scores. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The significance of delayed contrast-enhanced CT in chronic subdural hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Hideharu; Ohya, Shigeru; Ueno, Junji; Watanabe, Saburo; Mikabe, Toshio

    1983-01-01

    We have previously, reported our delayed contrast-enhanced CT (DCECT) findings in traumatic subdural hygromas and chronic subdural hematomas. The purpose of this report is to clarify the relationship between the contrast media within subdural hematomas and the delayed enhancement. The clinical subjects were 35 cases of traumatic subdural hematomas. DCECT examinations were performed in all cases. The concentrations of the contrast media within the hematoma were measured during the operations. DCECT showed that the density of the hematomas increased 3 to 6 hours after the injection of the contrast media. The contrast media were detected within the hematomas a few hours after the injection. The contrast media were still present 24 hours after the injection, but disappeared in 48 hours. These findings suggest that contrast media go in and then come out of the subdural hematomas and that the main factor related to delayed enhancement is the concentration of the contrast media within the hematomas. DCECT examination may be most helpful in evaluating the dynamic changes in subdural collections. (author)

  5. Security-enhanced chaos communication with time-delay signature suppression and phase encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chenpeng; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Yunxin; Wang, Chao; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun

    2016-08-15

    A security-enhanced chaos communication scheme with time delay signature (TDS) suppression and phase-encrypted feedback light is proposed, in virtue of dual-loop feedback with independent high-speed phase modulation. We numerically investigate the property of TDS suppression in the intensity and phase space and quantitatively discuss security of the proposed system by calculating the bit error rate of eavesdroppers who try to crack the system by directly filtering the detected signal or by using a similar semiconductor laser to synchronize the link signal and extract the data. The results show that TDS embedded in the chaotic carrier can be well suppressed by properly setting the modulation frequency, which can keep the time delay a secret from the eavesdropper. Moreover, because the feedback light is encrypted, without the accurate time delay and key, the eavesdropper cannot reconstruct the symmetric operation conditions and decode the correct data.

  6. Significance of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of early and delayed radiation enteropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junru Wang; Marjan Boerma; Qiang Fu; Martin Hauer-Jensen

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding the role of endothelial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of early and delayed intestinal radiation toxicity and discusses various endothelial-oriented interventions aimed at reducing the risk of radiation enteropathy. Studies published in the biomedical literature during the past four decades and cited in PubMed, as well as clinical and laboratory data from our own research program are reviewed. The risk of injury to normal tissues limits the cancer cure rates that can be achieved with radiation therapy. During treatment of abdominal and pelvic tumors, the intestine is frequently a major dose-limiting factor. Microvascular injury is a prominent feature of both early (inflammatory), as well as delayed (fibroproliferative) radiation injuries in the intestine and in many other normal tissues. Evidence from our and other laboratories suggests that endothelial dysfunction, notably a deficiency of endothelial thrombomodulin, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of these radiation responses. Deficient levels of thrombomodulin cause loss of vascular thromboresistance, excessive activation of cellular thrombin receptors by thrombin, and insufficient activation of protein C, a plasma protein with anticoagulant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective properties. These changes are presumed to be critically involved in many aspects of early intestinal radiation toxicity and may sustain the fibroproliferative processes that lead to delayed intestinal dysfunction, fibrosis, and clinical complications. In conclusion, injury of vascular endothelium is important in the pathogenesis of the intestinal radiation response. Endothelial-oriented interventions are appealing strategies to prevent or treat normal tissue toxicity associated with radiation treatment of cancer.

  7. PI and PID controller tuning rule design for processes with delay, to achieve constant gain and phase margins for all values of delay

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Aidan

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss the design of PI and PID controller tuning rules to compensate processes with delay, that are modelled in a number of ways. The rules allow the achievement of constant gain and phase margins as the delay varies.

  8. Binge consumption of ethanol during pregnancy leads to significant developmental delay of mouse embryonic brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can be severely detrimental to the development of the brain in fetuses. This study explores the usage of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the study the effects of maternal consumption of ethanol on brain development in mouse fetuses. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. A swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system was used to acquire 3D images of the brain of ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. The volume of right and left brain ventricles were measured and used to compare between ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. A total of 5 fetuses were used for each of the two groups. The average volumes of the right and left ventricles were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3 for ethanol-exposed and control fetuses, respectively. The results demonstrated that there is an alcohol-induced developmental delay in mouse fetal brains.

  9. Time-delay-induced phase-transition to synchrony in coupled bursting neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Prasad, Awadhesh; Dhamala, Mukeshwar

    2011-06-01

    Signal transmission time delays in a network of nonlinear oscillators are known to be responsible for a variety of interesting dynamic behaviors including phase-flip transitions leading to synchrony or out of synchrony. Here, we uncover that phase-flip transitions are general phenomena and can occur in a network of coupled bursting neurons with a variety of coupling types. The transitions are marked by nonlinear changes in both temporal and phase-space characteristics of the coupled system. We demonstrate these phase-transitions with Hindmarsh-Rose and Leech-Heart interneuron models and discuss the implications of these results in understanding collective dynamics of bursting neurons in the brain.

  10. Phase-coherence transitions and communication in the gamma range between delay-coupled neuronal populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Barardi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Synchronization between neuronal populations plays an important role in information transmission between brain areas. In particular, collective oscillations emerging from the synchronized activity of thousands of neurons can increase the functional connectivity between neural assemblies by coherently coordinating their phases. This synchrony of neuronal activity can take place within a cortical patch or between different cortical regions. While short-range interactions between neurons involve just a few milliseconds, communication through long-range projections between different regions could take up to tens of milliseconds. How these heterogeneous transmission delays affect communication between neuronal populations is not well known. To address this question, we have studied the dynamics of two bidirectionally delayed-coupled neuronal populations using conductance-based spiking models, examining how different synaptic delays give rise to in-phase/anti-phase transitions at particular frequencies within the gamma range, and how this behavior is related to the phase coherence between the two populations at different frequencies. We have used spectral analysis and information theory to quantify the information exchanged between the two networks. For different transmission delays between the two coupled populations, we analyze how the local field potential and multi-unit activity calculated from one population convey information in response to a set of external inputs applied to the other population. The results confirm that zero-lag synchronization maximizes information transmission, although out-of-phase synchronization allows for efficient communication provided the coupling delay, the phase lag between the populations, and the frequency of the oscillations are properly matched.

  11. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder and effects of melatonin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Maanen, Annette; Dewald-Kaufmann, Julia F.; Smits, Marcel G.; Oort, Frans J.; Meijer, Anne Marie

    2013-01-01

    Homeostatic and circadian changes that occur during adolescence can result in chronic sleep reduction. This may particularly be true for adolescents with Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder (DSPD), which is associated with late Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO). This study assessed the influence of

  12. The Use of Exogenous Melatonin in Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder: a Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijlswijk, I.M. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Smits, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: To perform a meta-analysis of the efficacy and safety of exogenous melatonin in advancing sleep-wake rhythm in patients with delayed sleep phase disorder. Design: Meta analysis of papers indexed for PubMed, Embase, and the abstracts of sleep and chronobiologic societies

  13. Using convolutional decoding to improve time delay and phase estimation in digital communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormesher, Richard C [Albuquerque, NM; Mason, John J [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-01-26

    The time delay and/or phase of a communication signal received by a digital communication receiver can be estimated based on a convolutional decoding operation that the communication receiver performs on the received communication signal. If the original transmitted communication signal has been spread according to a spreading operation, a corresponding despreading operation can be integrated into the convolutional decoding operation.

  14. Effect of Phase Response Curve Skew on Synchronization with and without Conduction Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eCanavier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A central problem in cortical processing including sensory binding and attentional gating is how neurons can synchronize their responses with zero or near-zero time lag. For a spontaneously firing neuron, an input from another neuron can delay or advance the next spike by different amounts depending upon the timing of the input relative to the previous spike. This information constitutes the phase response curve (PRC. We present a simple graphical method for determining the effect of PRC shape on synchronization tendencies and illustrate it using type 1 PRCs, which consist entirely of advances (delays in response to excitation (inhibition. We obtained the following generic solutions for type 1 PRCs, which include the pulse coupled leaky integrate and fire model. For pairs with mutual excitation, exact synchrony can be stable for strong coupling because of the stabilizing effect of the causal limit region of the PRC in which an input triggers a spike immediately upon arrival. However, synchrony is unstable for short delays, because delayed inputs arrive during a refractory period and cannot trigger an immediate spike. Right skew destabilizes antiphase and enables modes with time lags that grow as the conduction delay is increased. Therefore, right skew favors near-synchrony at short conduction delays and a gradual transition between synchrony and antiphase for pairs coupled by mutual excitation. For pairs with mutual inhibition, zero time lag synchrony is stable for conduction delays ranging from zero to a substantial fraction of the period for pairs. However, for right skew there is a preferred antiphase mode at short delays. In contrast to mutual excitation, left skew destabilizes antiphase for mutual inhibition so that synchrony dominates at short delays as well. These pairwise synchronization tendencies constrain the synchronization properties of neurons embedded in larger networks.

  15. Staphylococcus aureus Lpl Lipoproteins Delay G2/M Phase Transition in HeLa Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Thu; Deplanche, Martine; Nega, Mulugeta; Le Loir, Yves; Peisl, Loulou; Götz, Friedrich; Berkova, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    The cell cycle is an ordered set of events, leading to cell growth and division into two daughter cells. The eukaryotic cell cycle consists of interphase (G 1 , S, and G 2 phases), followed by the mitotic phase and G 0 phase. Many bacterial pathogens secrete cyclomodulins that interfere with the host cell cycle. In Staphylococcus aureus four cyclomodulins have been described so far that all represent toxins and are secreted into the culture supernatant. Here we show that the membrane-anchored lipoprotein-like proteins (Lpl), encoded on a genomic island called νSaα, interact with the cell cycle of HeLa cells. By comparing wild type and lpl deletion mutant it turned out that the lpl cluster is causative for the G2/M phase transition delay and also contributes to increased invasion frequency. The lipoprotein Lpl1, a representative of the lpl cluster, also caused G2/M phase transition delay. Interestingly, the lipid modification, which is essential for TLR2 signaling and activation of the immune system, is not necessary for cyclomodulin activity. Unlike the other staphylococcal cyclomodulins Lpl1 shows no cytotoxicity even at high concentrations. As all Lpl proteins are highly conserved there might be a common function that is accentuated by their multiplicity in a tandem gene cluster. The cell surface localized Lpls' suggests a correlation between G2/M phase transition delay and host cell invasion.

  16. Graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatoli, Teresa; Conteduca, Donato; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario N

    2016-06-01

    The design of an integrated graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line on silicon nitride for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas is reported. A high value of the optical delay time (τg=920  ps) together with a compact footprint (4.15  mm2) and optical loss graphene-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches and two vertically stacked microring resonators between which a graphene capacitor is placed. The tuning range is obtained by varying the value of the voltage applied to the graphene electrodes, which controls the optical path of the light propagation and therefore the delay time. The graphene provides a faster reconfigurable time and low values of energy dissipation. Such significant advantages, together with a negligible beam-squint effect, allow us to overcome the limitations of conventional RF beamformers. A highly efficient fine-tunable optical delay line for the beamsteering of 20 radiating elements up to ±20° in the azimuth direction of a tile in a phased-array antenna of an X-band synthetic aperture radar has been designed.

  17. Analysis of the effects of time delay in clock recovery circuits based on Phase-locked loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Influence of time delay in a balanced optical phase-locked loops (OPLL) with a proportional integrator (Pl) filter is investigated using a delayed differential equation (DDE) is investigated. The limitations, which a time delay imposes on the Pl filter bandwidth, at increasing values of loop gain...

  18. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo

    2002-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  19. Gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR of VX2 carcinoma in rabbit liver: usefulness of the delayed phase imaging and optimal pulse sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Seung Il; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim, Young Kon; Kim, Chong Soo [College of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of delayed imaging using gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance) and to determine the optimal pulse sequence for the detection of VX2 carcinoma lesions in the rabbit. Twelve VX2 carcinomas implanted in the livers of eleven New Zealand rabbits were studied. All patients underwent an MR protocal consisting of precontrast T2-and T1-weighted sequences, followed by repetition of the T1-weighted sequence at 0 to 30 (arterial phase). 31-60 (portal phase), and 40 minutes (delayed phase) after the intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the liver and VX2 tumor, and the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of precontrast and postcontrast MR images were quantitatively analyzed, and two experienced radiologists evaluated image quality in terms of lesion conspicuity, artifact, mass delineation, and vascular anatomy. Liver SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast, arterial, and portal imaging (p<0.05), while lesion SNR was significantly higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast imaging (p<0.05). Lesion CNR was higher at delayed imaging than at precontrast and portal phase imaging (p<0.05), but there was no difference between arterial and delayed imaging. The latter provided better mass delineation than precontrast, arterial and portal phase imaging (p<0.05). While in terms of lesion conspicuity and vascular anatomy, the delayed phase was better than the arterial phase (p<0.05) but similar to the precontrast and portal phase. During the delayed phase, the gradient-echo sequence showed better results than the spin-echo in terms of liver SNR, and lesion SNR and CNR (p<0.05). Because it provides better lesion conspicuity and mass delineation by improving liver SNR and lesion-to-liver CNR, the addition of the delayed phase to a dynamic MRI sequence after gadobenate dimeglumine adminstration facilitates lesion detection. For delayed-phase imaging, the

  20. Arbitrary-step randomly delayed robust filter with application to boost phase tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wutao; Wang, Xiaogang; Bai, Yuliang; Cui, Naigang

    2018-04-01

    The conventional filters such as extended Kalman filter, unscented Kalman filter and cubature Kalman filter assume that the measurement is available in real-time and the measurement noise is Gaussian white noise. But in practice, both two assumptions are invalid. To solve this problem, a novel algorithm is proposed by taking the following four steps. At first, the measurement model is modified by the Bernoulli random variables to describe the random delay. Then, the expression of predicted measurement and covariance are reformulated, which could get rid of the restriction that the maximum number of delay must be one or two and the assumption that probabilities of Bernoulli random variables taking the value one are equal. Next, the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Kalman filter is derived based on the 5th-degree spherical-radial rule and the reformulated expressions. Finally, the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Kalman filter is modified to the arbitrary-step randomly delayed high-degree cubature Huber-based filter based on the Huber technique, which is essentially an M-estimator. Therefore, the proposed filter is not only robust to the randomly delayed measurements, but robust to the glint noise. The application to the boost phase tracking example demonstrate the superiority of the proposed algorithms.

  1. Staphylococcus aureus-induced G2/M phase transition delay in host epithelial cells increases bacterial infective efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Alekseeva

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a highly versatile, opportunistic pathogen and the etiological agent of a wide range of infections in humans and warm-blooded animals. The epithelial surface is its principal site of colonization and infection. In this work, we investigated the cytopathic effect of S. aureus strains from human and animal origins and their ability to affect the host cell cycle in human HeLa and bovine MAC-T epithelial cell lines. S. aureus invasion slowed down cell proliferation and induced a cytopathic effect, resulting in the enlargement of host cells. A dramatic decrease in the number of mitotic cells was observed in the infected cultures. Flow cytometry analysis revealed an S. aureus-induced delay in the G2/M phase transition in synchronous HeLa cells. This delay required the presence of live S. aureus since the addition of the heat-killed bacteria did not alter the cell cycle. The results of Western blot experiments showed that the G2/M transition delay was associated with the accumulation of inactive cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1, a key inducer of mitosis entry, and with the accumulation of unphosphorylated histone H3, which was correlated with a reduction of the mitotic cell number. Analysis of S. aureus proliferation in asynchronous, G1- and G2-phase-enriched HeLa cells showed that the G2 phase was preferential for bacterial infective efficiency, suggesting that the G2 phase delay may be used by S. aureus for propagation within the host. Taken together, our results divulge the potential of S. aureus in the subversion of key cellular processes such as cell cycle progression, and shed light on the biological significance of S. aureus-induced host cell cycle alteration.

  2. Delayed sleep phase: An important circadian subtype of sleep disturbance in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinan, Mette Kvisten; Morken, Gunnar; Lagerberg, Trine V; Melle, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Vaaler, Arne E; Scott, Jan

    2016-02-01

    Theoretical models of Bipolar Disorder (BD) highlight that sleep disturbances may be a marker of underlying circadian dysregulation. However, few studies of sleep in BD have reported on the most prevalent circadian sleep abnormality, namely Delayed Sleep Phase (DSP). A cross-sectional study of 404 adults with BD who met published clinical criteria for insomnia, hypersomnia or DSP, and who had previously participated in a study of sleep in BD using a comprehensive structured interview assessment. About 10% of BD cases with a sleep problem met criteria for a DSP profile. The DSP group was younger and had a higher mean Body Mass Index (BMI) than the other groups. Also, DSP cases were significantly more likely to be prescribed mood stabilizers and antidepressant than insomnia cases. An exploratory analysis of selected symptom item ratings indicated that DSP was significantly more likely to be associated with impaired energy and activity levels. The cross-sectional design precludes examination of longitudinal changes. DSP is identified by sleep profile, not by diagnostic criteria or objective sleep records such as actigraphy. The study uses data from a previous study to identify and examine the DSP group. The DSP group identified in this study can be differentiated from hypersomnia and insomnia groups on the basis of clinical and demographic features. The association of DSP with younger age, higher BMI and impaired energy and activity also suggest that this clinical profile may be a good proxy for underlying circadian dysregulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploitation of Digital Filters to Advance the Single-Phase T/4 Delay PLL System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    will violate this design rule and it can become a major challenge for digital controllers. To deal with the above issue, this paper first exploits a virtual unit delay (z_v^-1) to emulate the viable sampling behavior in practical digital signal processors with a fixed sampling rate. This exploitation......With the development of digital signal processing technologies, control and monitoring of power electronics conversion systems have been evolving to become fully digital. As the basic element in the design and analysis phase of digital controllers or filters, a number of unit delays (z^-1) have...... been employed, e.g., in a cascaded structure. Practically, the number of unit delays is designed as an integer, which is related to the sampling frequency (e.g., 50 Hz). More common, the sampling frequency is fixed during operation for simplicity and design. Hence, any disturbance in the ac signal...

  4. Delayed-Phase Cone-Beam CT Improves Detectability of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma During Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Chapiro, Julius; Wang, Zhijun; Geschwind, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the detectability of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on dual-phase cone-beam CT (DPCBCT) during conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) compared to that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with respect to pre-procedure contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the liver.MethodsThis retrospective study included 17 consecutive patients (10 male, mean age 64) with ICC who underwent pre-procedure CE-MRI of the liver, and DSA and DPCBCT (early-arterial phase (EAP) and delayed-arterial phase (DAP)) just before cTACE. The visibility of each ICC lesion was graded by two radiologists on a three-rank scale (complete, partial, and none) on DPCBCT and DSA images, and then compared to pre-procedure CE-MRI.ResultsOf 61 ICC lesions, only 45.9 % were depicted by DSA, whereas EAP- and DAP-CBCT yielded a significantly higher detectability rate of 73.8 % and 93.4 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Out of the 33 lesions missed on DSA, 18 (54.5 %) and 30 (90.9 %) were revealed on EAP- and DAP-CBCT images, respectively. DSA depicted only one lesion that was missed by DPCBCT due to streak artifacts caused by a prosthetic mitral valve. DAP-CBCT identified significantly more lesions than EAP-CBCT (p < 0.01). Conversely, EAP-CBCT did not detect lesions missed by DAP-CBCT. For complete lesion visibility, DAP-CBCT yielded significantly higher detectability (78.7 %) compared to EAP (31.1 %) and DSA (21.3 %) (p < 0.01).ConclusionDPCBCT, and especially the DAP-CBCT, significantly improved the detectability of ICC lesions during cTACE compared to DSA. We recommend the routine use of DAP-CBCT in patients with ICC for per-procedure detectability and treatment planning in the setting of TACE

  5. Delayed-Phase Cone-Beam CT Improves Detectability of Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma During Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schernthaner, Ruediger Egbert [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Lin, MingDe [Philips Research North America, Ultrasound and Interventions (United States); Duran, Rafael; Chapiro, Julius; Wang, Zhijun; Geschwind, Jean-François, E-mail: jfg@jhmi.edu [The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States)

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the detectability of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) on dual-phase cone-beam CT (DPCBCT) during conventional transarterial chemoembolization (cTACE) compared to that of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with respect to pre-procedure contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the liver.MethodsThis retrospective study included 17 consecutive patients (10 male, mean age 64) with ICC who underwent pre-procedure CE-MRI of the liver, and DSA and DPCBCT (early-arterial phase (EAP) and delayed-arterial phase (DAP)) just before cTACE. The visibility of each ICC lesion was graded by two radiologists on a three-rank scale (complete, partial, and none) on DPCBCT and DSA images, and then compared to pre-procedure CE-MRI.ResultsOf 61 ICC lesions, only 45.9 % were depicted by DSA, whereas EAP- and DAP-CBCT yielded a significantly higher detectability rate of 73.8 % and 93.4 %, respectively (p < 0.01). Out of the 33 lesions missed on DSA, 18 (54.5 %) and 30 (90.9 %) were revealed on EAP- and DAP-CBCT images, respectively. DSA depicted only one lesion that was missed by DPCBCT due to streak artifacts caused by a prosthetic mitral valve. DAP-CBCT identified significantly more lesions than EAP-CBCT (p < 0.01). Conversely, EAP-CBCT did not detect lesions missed by DAP-CBCT. For complete lesion visibility, DAP-CBCT yielded significantly higher detectability (78.7 %) compared to EAP (31.1 %) and DSA (21.3 %) (p < 0.01).ConclusionDPCBCT, and especially the DAP-CBCT, significantly improved the detectability of ICC lesions during cTACE compared to DSA. We recommend the routine use of DAP-CBCT in patients with ICC for per-procedure detectability and treatment planning in the setting of TACE.

  6. The WS transform for the Kuramoto model with distributed amplitudes, phase lag and time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohe, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    We apply the Watanabe-Strogatz (WS) transform to a generalized Kuramoto model with distributed parameters describing the amplitude of oscillation, phase lag, and time delay at each node of the system. The model has global coupling and identical frequencies, but allows for repulsive interactions at arbitrary nodes leading to conformist-contrarian phenomena together with variable amplitude and time-delay effects. We show how to determine the initial values of the WS system for any initial conditions for the Kuramoto system, and investigate the asymptotic behaviour of the WS variables. For the case of zero time delay the possible asymptotic configurations are determined by the sign of a single parameter μ which measures whether or not the attractive nodes dominate the repulsive nodes. If μ>0 the system completely synchronizes from general initial conditions, whereas if μ<0 one of two types of phase-locked synchronization occurs, depending on the initial values, while for μ=0 periodic solutions can occur. For the case of arbitrary non-uniform time delays we derive a stability condition for completely synchronized solutions.

  7. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peilu; Li, Xinghua; Li, Haopeng; Su, Zhikun; Zhang, Hongxu

    2017-10-12

    In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC) filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter's pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA). In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  8. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilu Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter’s pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA. In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  9. Optimal Control of a Queue With High-Low Delay Announcements: The Significance of the Queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Koshman-Kaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with strategic control of information in a single-server model. It considers an M/M/1 system with identical customers. There is a single cut-off number, and the level of congestion is said to be low (high if the queue length is less than (at least this value. The firm can dynamically change the admission fee according to the level of congestion. Arriving customers cannot observe the queue length, but they are informed about the current level of congestion and the admission fee. The article deals with finding the profit maximizing admission fee, using analytical and numerical methods. We observe that such a pricing regime can be used to increase the profit and the proportion of the increase relative to the single price unobservable queue is unbounded. We observe that the profit maximizing threshold is usually quite small and therefore raise a question whether there is a significant difference in profit when rather than being informed about the congestion level, customers only join the system when the server is idle. We also investigate this question considering the classical observable model.

  10. Pulse Compression of Phase-matched High Harmonic Pulses from a Time-Delay Compensated Monochromator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito Motohiko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulse compression of single 32.6-eV high harmonic pulses from a time-delay compensated monochromator was demonstrated down to 11±3 fs by compensating the pulse front tilt. The photon flux was intensified up to 5.7×109 photons/s on target by implementing high harmonic generation under a phase matching condition in a hollow fiber used for increasing the interaction length.

  11. Phase-Shift Cyclic-Delay Diversity for MIMO OFDM Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Han Nam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase-shift cyclic-delay diversity (PS CDD scheme and space-frequency-block-code (SFBC PS CDD are developed for multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems. The proposed PS CDD scheme preserves the diversity advantage of traditional CDD in uncorrelated multiantenna channels, and furthermore removes frequency-selective nulling problem of the traditional CDD in correlated multiantenna channels.

  12. Sleep and circadian variability in people with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Wyatt, James K; Rizvydeen, Muneer; Fogg, Louis F

    2017-06-01

    To compare sleep and circadian variability in adults with delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD) to healthy controls. Forty participants (22 DSWPD, 18 healthy controls) completed a ten-day protocol, consisting of DLMO assessments on two consecutive nights, a five-day study break, followed by two more DLMO assessments. All participants were instructed to sleep within one hour of their self-reported average sleep schedule for the last four days of the study break. We analyzed the participants' wrist actigraphy data during these four days to examine intraindividual variability in sleep timing, duration and efficiency. We also examined shifts in the DLMO from before and after the study break. Under the same conditions, people with DSWPD had significantly more variable wake times and total sleep time than healthy controls (p ≤ 0.015). Intraindividual variability in sleep onset time and sleep efficiency was similar between the two groups (p ≥ 0.30). The DLMO was relatively stable across the study break, with only 11% of controls but 27% of DSWPDs showed more than a one hour shift in the DLMO. Only in the DSWPD sample was greater sleep variability associated with a larger shift in the DLMO (r = 0.46, p = 0.03). These results suggest that intraindividual variability in sleep can be higher in DSWPD versus healthy controls, and this may impact variability in the DLMO. DSWPD patients with higher intraindividual variability in sleep are more likely to have a shifting DLMO, which could impact sleep symptoms and the optimal timing of light and/or melatonin treatment for DSWPD. Circadian Phase Assessments at Home, http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01487252, NCT01487252. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Forced phase-locked response of a nonlinear system with time delay after Hopf bifurcation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, J.C.; Hansen, Colin H.

    2005-01-01

    The trivial equilibrium of a nonlinear autonomous system with time delay may become unstable via a Hopf bifurcation of multiplicity two, as the time delay reaches a critical value. This loss of stability of the equilibrium is associated with two coincident pairs of complex conjugate eigenvalues crossing the imaginary axis. The resultant dynamic behaviour of the corresponding nonlinear non-autonomous system in the neighbourhood of the Hopf bifurcation is investigated based on the reduction of the infinite-dimensional problem to a four-dimensional centre manifold. As a result of the interaction between the Hopf bifurcating periodic solutions and the external periodic excitation, a primary resonance can occur in the forced response of the system when the forcing frequency is close to the Hopf bifurcating periodic frequency. The method of multiple scales is used to obtain four first-order ordinary differential equations that determine the amplitudes and phases of the phase-locked periodic solutions. The first-order approximations of the periodic solutions are found to be in excellent agreement with those obtained by direct numerical integration of the delay-differential equation. It is also found that the steady state solutions of the nonlinear non-autonomous system may lose their stability via either a pitchfork or Hopf bifurcation. It is shown that the primary resonance response may exhibit symmetric and asymmetric phase-locked periodic motions, quasi-periodic motions, chaotic motions, and coexistence of two stable motions

  14. Celecoxib does not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model: a bone histomorphometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamoto J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Jun Iwamoto1, Azusa Seki2, Yoshihiro Sato3, Hideo Matsumoto11Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Hamri Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Neurology, Mitate Hospital, Fukuoka, JapanBackground and objective: The objective of the present study was to determine whether celecoxib, a cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitor, would delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model by examining bone histomorphometry parameters.Methods: Twenty-one 6-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a unilateral osteotomy of the femoral diaphysis followed by intramedullary wire fixation; the rats were then divided into three groups: the vehicle administration group (control, n = 8, the vitamin K2 administration (menatetrenone 30 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (positive control, n = 5, and the celecoxib administration (4 mg/kg orally, five times a week group (n = 8. After 6 weeks of treatment, the wires were removed, and a bone histomorphometric analysis was performed on the bone tissue inside the callus. The lamellar area relative to the bone area was significantly higher and the total area and woven area relative to the bone area were significantly lower in the vitamin K2 group than in the vehicle group. However, none of the structural parameters, such as the callus and bone area relative to the total area, lamellar and woven areas relative to the bone area, or the formative and resorptive parameters such as osteoclast surface, number of osteoclasts, osteoblast surface, osteoid surface, eroded surface, and bone formation rate per bone surface differed significantly between the vehicle and celecoxib groups.Conclusion: The present study implies that celecoxib may not significantly delay bone healing in a rat femoral osteotomy model based on the results of a bone histomorphometric analysis.Keywords: femoral osteotomy, bone healing, callus, rat, celecoxib

  15. Identifying and comparing states of time-delayed systems: phase diagrams and applications to human motor control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, T.D.; Friedrich, R.; Beek, P.J.

    2005-01-01

    A data driven characterization of time-delayed stochastic systems is proposed in terms of linear delay differential equations and two drift parameters. It is shown how these parameters determine the states of such systems with respect to generalized phase diagrams. This approach allows for a comparison of systems with different parameters as exemplified for two motor control tasks: tracking and force production

  16. Different phase delays of peripheral input to primate motor cortex and spinal cord promote cancellation at physiological tremor frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koželj, Saša; Baker, Stuart N

    2014-05-01

    Neurons in the spinal cord and motor cortex (M1) are partially phase-locked to cycles of physiological tremor, but with opposite phases. Convergence of spinal and cortical activity onto motoneurons may thus produce phase cancellation and a reduction in tremor amplitude. The mechanisms underlying this phase difference are unknown. We investigated coherence between spinal and M1 activity with sensory input. In two anesthetized monkeys, we electrically stimulated the medial, ulnar, deep radial, and superficial radial nerves; stimuli were timed as independent Poisson processes (rate 10 Hz). Single units were recorded from M1 (147 cells) or cervical spinal cord (61 cells). Ninety M1 cells were antidromically identified as pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs); M1 neurons were additionally classified according to M1 subdivision (rostral/caudal, M1r/c). Spike-stimulus coherence analysis revealed significant coupling over a broad range of frequencies, with the strongest coherence at <50 Hz. Delays implied by the slope of the coherence phase-frequency relationship were greater than the response onset latency, reflecting the importance of late response components for the transmission of oscillatory inputs. The spike-stimulus coherence phase over the 6-13 Hz physiological tremor band differed significantly between M1 and spinal cells (phase differences relative to the cord of 2.72 ± 0.29 and 1.72 ± 0.37 radians for PTNs from M1c and M1r, respectively). We conclude that different phases of the response to peripheral input could partially underlie antiphase M1 and spinal cord activity during motor behavior. The coordinated action of spinal and cortical feedback will act to reduce tremulous oscillations, possibly improving the overall stability and precision of motor control. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Circadian phase, dynamics of subjective sleepiness and sensitivity to blue light in young adults complaining of a delayed sleep schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moderie, Christophe; Van der Maren, Solenne; Dumont, Marie

    2017-06-01

    To assess factors that might contribute to a delayed sleep schedule in young adults with sub-clinical features of delayed sleep phase disorder. Two groups of 14 young adults (eight women) were compared: one group complaining of a delayed sleep schedule and a control group with an earlier bedtime and no complaint. For one week, each subject maintained a target bedtime reflecting their habitual sleep schedule. Subjects were then admitted to the laboratory for the assessment of circadian phase (dim light melatonin onset), subjective sleepiness, and non-visual light sensitivity. All measures were timed relative to each participant's target bedtime. Non-visual light sensitivity was evaluated using subjective sleepiness and salivary melatonin during 1.5-h exposure to blue light, starting one hour after target bedtime. Compared to control subjects, delayed subjects had a later circadian phase and a slower increase of subjective sleepiness in the late evening. There was no group difference in non-visual sensitivity to blue light, but we found a positive correlation between melatonin suppression and circadian phase within the delayed group. Our results suggest that a late circadian phase, a slow build-up of sleep need, and an increased circadian sensitivity to blue light contribute to the complaint of a delayed sleep schedule. These findings provide targets for strategies aiming to decreasing the severity of a sleep delay and the negative consequences on daytime functioning and health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The anti-asthmatic drug pranlukast suppresses the delayed-phase vomiting and reverses intracellular indices of emesis evoked by cisplatin in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmani, Nissar A; Chebolu, Seetha; Zhong, Weixia; Kim, William D; Narlesky, Matthew; Adams, Joia; Dong, Fanglong

    2017-08-15

    The introduction of second generation serotonin 5-HT 3 receptor (5-HT 3 ) antagonist palonosetron combined with long-acting substance P neurokinin NK 1 receptor (NK 1 ) antagonists (e.g. netupitant) has substantially improved antiemetic therapy against early- and delayed-phases of emesis caused by highly emetogenic chemotherapeutics such as cisplatin. However, the improved efficacy comes at a cost that many patients cannot afford. We introduce a new class of antiemetic, the antiasthmatic leukotriene CysLT1 receptor antagonist pranlukast for the suppression of cisplatin-evoked vomiting. Pranlukast (10mg/kg) by itself significantly reduced the mean frequency of vomits (70%) and fully protected least shrews from vomiting (46%) during the delayed-phase of cisplatin (10mg/kg)-evoked vomiting. Although, pranlukast tended to substantially reduce both the mean frequency of vomits and the number of shrews vomiting during the early-phase, these reductions failed to attain significance. When combined with a first (tropisetron)- or a second (palonosetron)-generation 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, pranlukast potentiated their antiemetic efficacy during both phases of vomiting. In addition, pranlukast by itself prevented several intracellular signal markers of cisplatin-evoked delayed-vomiting such as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and PKA. When pranlukast was combined with either palonosetron or tropisetron, these combinations suppressed the evoked phosphorylation of: i) ERK1/2 during both acute- and delayed-phase, ii) PKCα/β at the peak acute-phase, and iii) PKA at the peak delayed-phase. The current and our published findings suggest that overall behavioral and intracellular signaling effects of pranlukast via blockade of CysLT1 receptors generally appear to be similar to the NK 1 receptor antagonist netupitant with some differences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear medicine methods in the field of studying the mechanisms of delayed phase of myocardial preconditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuxia

    2001-01-01

    Ischemic preconditioning is the intrinsic and most potently myocardial protection. Its mechanism is the foundation of rational therapeutic application. Nowadays there are some theories about delayed phase of preconditioning such as nitric oxide hypothesis, free radical mechanisms, protective protein synthesis and opening of ATP-sensitive potassium channels. By incorporation 3 H-leucine, using liquid scintillation counter, the authors know there was protective protein synthesis during preconditioning. SPECT could study the characteristics of preconditioned myocardium in vivo, and PET might further show the metabolism, energy consumption and its relationship to myocardium dysfunction

  20. Delay equations modeling the effects of phase-specific drugs and immunotherapy on proliferating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Maria Vittoria; Kuttler, Christina; Zinsl, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    In this work we present a mathematical model for tumor growth based on the biology of the cell cycle. For an appropriate description of the effects of phase-specific drugs, it is necessary to look at the cell cycle and its phases. Our model reproduces the dynamics of three different tumor cell populations: quiescent cells, cells during the interphase and mitotic cells. Starting from a partial differential equations (PDEs) setting, a delay differential equations (DDE) model is derived for an easier and more realistic approach. Our equations also include interactions of tumor cells with immune system effectors. We investigate the model both from the analytical and the numerical point of view, give conditions for positivity of solutions and focus on the stability of the cancer-free equilibrium. Different immunotherapeutic strategies and their effects on the tumor growth are considered, as well.

  1. Mitosis delay in cells of the root meristem of pea seedlings in S and G2-phases when irradiated with gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudkov, I.N.; Zezina, N.V.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiation (800 rads) of pea seedlings, synchronized by a 24-hr treatment with 0.03% hydroxyurea, at the stage of G 1 →S, induced a 12-hr delay of mitosis peak; an 8-hr delay, in the early S-phase; a 4-hr delay, in the middle of S-phase; a 10-hr delay in the late S- and a 14-16-hr delay, in G 2 -phase. The number of cells having chromosome aberrations at the mitosis peak was similar in all the phases under study

  2. Home dim light melatonin onsets with measures of compliance in delayed sleep phase disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Helen J; Park, Margaret; Wyatt, James K; Fogg, Louis F

    2016-06-01

    The dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) assists with the diagnosis and treatment of circadian rhythm sleep disorders. Home DLMOs are attractive for cost savings and convenience, but can be confounded by home lighting and sample timing errors. We developed a home saliva collection kit with objective measures of light exposure and sample timing. We report on our first test of the kit in a clinical population. Thirty-two participants with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD; 17 women, aged 18-52 years) participated in two back-to-back home and laboratory phase assessments. Most participants (66%) received at least one 30-s epoch of light >50 lux during the home phase assessments, but for only 1.5% of the time. Most participants (56%) collected every saliva sample within 5 min of the scheduled time. Eighty-three per cent of home DLMOs were not affected by light or sampling errors. The home DLMOs occurred, on average, 10.2 min before the laboratory DLMOs, and were correlated highly with the laboratory DLMOs (r = 0.93, P light exposure and sample timing, can assist in identifying accurate home DLMOs. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  3. Steady states and outbreaks of two-phase nonlinear age-structured model of population dynamics with discrete time delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimenko, Vitalii; Anguelov, Roumen

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we study the nonlinear age-structured model of a polycyclic two-phase population dynamics including delayed effect of population density growth on the mortality. Both phases are modelled as a system of initial boundary values problem for semi-linear transport equation with delay and initial problem for nonlinear delay ODE. The obtained system is studied both theoretically and numerically. Three different regimes of population dynamics for asymptotically stable states of autonomous systems are obtained in numerical experiments for the different initial values of population density. The quasi-periodical travelling wave solutions are studied numerically for the autonomous system with the different values of time delays and for the system with oscillating death rate and birth modulus. In both cases it is observed three types of travelling wave solutions: harmonic oscillations, pulse sequence and single pulse.

  4. Hybrid Smith predictor and phase lead based divergence compensation for hardware-in-the-loop contact simulation with measurement delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Chenkun; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Xianchao; Wang, Qian; Ren, Anye

    2018-06-01

    On the ground the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation is a good approach to test the contact dynamics of spacecraft docking process in space. Unfortunately, due to the time delay in the system the HIL contact simulation becomes divergent. However, the traditional first-order phase lead compensation approach still result in a small divergence for the pure time delay. The serial Smith predictor and phase lead compensation approach proposed by the authors recently will lead to an over-compensation and an obvious convergence. In this study, a hybrid Smith predictor and phase lead compensation approach is proposed. The hybrid Smith predictor and phase lead compensation can achieve a higher simulation fidelity with a little convergence. The phase angle of the compensator is analyzed and the stability condition of the HIL simulation system is given. The effectiveness of the proposed compensation approach is tested by simulations on an undamped elastic contact process.

  5. Objective measures of sleep and dim light melatonin onset in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder compared to healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxvig, Ingvild W; Wilhelmsen-Langeland, Ane; Pallesen, Ståle; Vedaa, Oystein; Nordhus, Inger H; Sørensen, Eli; Bjorvatn, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    Delayed sleep phase disorder is characterized by a delay in the timing of the major sleep period relative to conventional norms. The sleep period itself has traditionally been described as normal. Nevertheless, it is possible that sleep regulatory mechanism disturbances associated with the disorder may affect sleep duration and/or architecture. Polysomnographic data that may shed light on the issue are scarce. Hence, the aim of this study was to examine polysomnographic measures of sleep in adolescents and young adults with delayed sleep phase disorder, and to compare findings to that of healthy controls. A second aim was to estimate dim light melatonin onset as a marker of circadian rhythm and to investigate the phase angle relationship (time interval) between dim light melatonin onset and the sleep period. Data from 54 adolescents and young adults were analysed, 35 diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder and 19 healthy controls. Results show delayed timing of sleep in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but once sleep was initiated no group differences in sleep parameters were observed. Dim light melatonin onset was delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder, but no difference in phase angle was observed between the groups. In conclusion, both sleep and dim light melatonin onset were delayed in participants with delayed sleep phase disorder. The sleep period appeared to occur at the same circadian phase in both groups, and once sleep was initiated no differences in sleep parameters were observed. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. Automated delay estimation at signalized intersections : phase I concept and algorithm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Currently there are several methods to measure the performance of surface streets, but their capabilities in dynamically estimating vehicle delay are limited. The objective of this research is to develop a method to automate traffic delay estimation ...

  7. Coherent control of interfering wave packets in dissociating HD+ molecules: the role of phase and delay time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Chaochao; Zhang, Lili; Zhang, Xianzhou; Liu, Yufang; Qiu, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    The coherent control of interference between dissociating wave packets of the HD + molecules generated by a pair of time-delayed and phase-locked femtosecond laser pulses is theoretically studied by using the time-dependent quantum wave packet method. The density function in both coordinate and momentum representation are presented and discussed. It is demonstrated that the interference pattern is observed in both coordinate and momentum density functions. The interference undergoes a π-phase shift when the delay time between the two phase-locked femtosecond laser pulses is changed by half an optical period. In particular, the number of interference fringes, the fringe spacing in the R-dependent density distribution |ψ(R)| 2 , and the modulation period of the energy-dependent distribution of the fragments P(E) can be tuned by two phase-locked femtosecond pulses. (paper)

  8. The effect of the inter-phase delay interval in the spontaneous object recognition test for pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Birgitte Rahbek; Thygesen, Kristin Sjølie; Nielsen, Thomas Rune

    2007-01-01

    In the neuroscience community interest for using the pig is growing. Several disease models have been developed creating a need for validation of behavioural paradigms in these animals. Here, we report the effect of different inter-phase delay intervals on the performance of Göttingen minipigs...

  9. Are cognitive "insomnia" processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Cele E; Gradisar, Michael; Barbero, Sebastian C

    2016-04-01

    Although individuals with delayed sleep wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and chronic insomnia disorder (CID) share many of the same phenomenological experiences, theories relating to the development and maintenance of these disorders are distinct in focus. Unlike CID, theory relating to DSWPD is primarily physiologically based and assumes almost no cognitive pathway. However, recent research findings suggest that individuals with DSWPD also display many of the sleep-disordered cognitive processes that were previously assumed to be unique to the insomnia experience. As such, this review aims to summarise current research findings to address the question "Could cognitive processes be involved in the development and maintenance of DSWPD?" In particular, the presence of cognitive and physiological pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related attentional bias, distorted perception of sleep and daytime functioning, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviours will be investigated. As this emerging area of research requires a stronger evidence base, we highlight suggestions for future investigation and provide preliminary practice points for clinicians assessing and treating "insomnia" in patients with DSWPD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal correlations between sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic delay and the S phase of the sea urchin egg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustad, R.C.; Viswanathan, G.; Antonellis, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    Separate samples of eggs from the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata were gamma irradiated (4kR) at different times after fertilisation and division delay measured. The results demonstrated a characteristic post-fertilisation pattern of a rise in sensitivity to radiation-induced mitotic delay, followed by a biphasic decrease in sensitivity to a refractory period. Measurements of the cumulative incorporation of 3 H-TdR showed that the first period of decreasing radiation sensitivity was closely associated with the bulk synthesis of DNA (S phase). (U.K.)

  11. Sleep Phase Delay in Cystic Fibrosis: A Potential New Manifestation of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Judy L; Jones, Christopher R; Kartsonaki, Christiana; Packer, Kristyn A; Adler, Frederick R; Liou, Theodore G

    2017-08-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane regulator (CFTR) protein dysfunction causes CF. Improving survival allows detection of increasingly subtle disease manifestations. CFTR dysfunction in the central nervous system (CNS) may disturb circadian rhythm and thus sleep phase. We studied sleep in adults to better understand potential CNS CFTR dysfunction. We recruited participants from April 2012 through April 2015 and administered the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire (MCTQ). We compared free-day sleep measurements between CF and non-CF participants and investigated associations with CF survival predictors. We recruited 23 female and 22 male adults with CF aged 18 to 46 years and 26 female and 22 male volunteers aged 18 to 45 years. Compared with volunteers without CF, patients with CF had delayed sleep onset (0.612 h; P = .015), midsleep (1.11 h; P < .001), and wake (1.15 h; P < .001) times and prolonged sleep latency (7.21 min; P = .05) and duration (0.489 h; P = .05). Every hour delay in sleep onset was associated with shorter sleep duration by 0.29 h in patients with CF and 0.75 h in subjects without CF (P = .007) and longer sleep latency by 7.51 min in patients with CF and 1.6 min in volunteers without CF (P = .035). Among patients with CF, FEV 1 % predicted, prior acute pulmonary exacerbations, and weight were independent of all free-day sleep measurements. CF in adults is associated with marked delays in sleep phase consistent with circadian rhythm phase delays. Independence from disease characteristics predictive of survival suggests that sleep phase delay is a primary manifestation of CFTR dysfunction in the CNS. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimating fuel octane numbers from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay times

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal

    2017-11-05

    Fuel octane numbers are directly related to the autoignition properties of fuel/air mixtures in spark ignition (SI) engines. This work presents a methodology to estimate the research and the motor octane numbers (RON and MON) from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay time (IDT) data calculated at various pressures and temperatures. The hypothesis under investigation is that at specific conditions of pressure and temperature (i.e., RON-like and MON-like conditions), fuels with IDT identical to that of a primary reference fuel (PRF) have the same octane rating. To test this hypothesis, IDTs with a detailed gasoline surrogate chemical kinetic model have been calculated at various temperatures and pressures. From this dataset, temperatures that best represent RON and MON have been correlated at a specified pressure. Correlations for pressures in the range of 10–50 bar were obtained. The proposed correlations were validated with toluene reference fuels (TRF), toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF), ethanol reference fuels (ERF), PRFs and TPRFs with ethanol, and multi-component gasoline surrogate mixtures. The predicted RON and MON showed satisfactory accuracy against measurements obtained by the standard ASTM methods and blending rules, demonstrating that the present methodology can be a viable tool for a first approximation. The correlations were also validated against an extensive set of experimental IDT data obtained from literature with a high degree of accuracy in RON/MON prediction. Conditions in homogeneous reactors such as shock tubes and rapid compression machines that are relevant to modern SI engines were also identified. Uncertainty analysis of the proposed correlations with linear error propagation theory is also presented.

  13. Polymorphism in the PER3 promoter associates with diurnal preference and delayed sleep phase disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Simon N; Carpen, Jayshan D; Gibson, Mark; Lim, Gim Hui; Johnston, Jonathan D; Skene, Debra J; von Schantz, Malcolm

    2010-05-01

    To screen the PER3 promoter for polymorphisms and investigate the phenotypic associations of these polymorphisms with diurnal preference, delayed sleep phase disorder/syndrome (DSPD/DSPS), and their effects on reporter gene expression. Interspecific comparison was used to define the approximate extent of the PER3 promoter as the region between the transcriptional start site and nucleotide position -874. This region was screened in DNA pools using PCR and direct sequencing, which was also used to screen DNA from individual participants. The different promoter alleles were cloned into a luciferase expression vector and a deletion library created. Promoter activation was measured by chemiluminescence. N/A. DNA samples were obtained from volunteers with defined diurnal preference (3 x 80, selected from a pool of 1,590), and DSPD patients (n=23). N/A. We verified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (G -320T, C -319A, G -294A), and found a novel variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism (-318 1/2 VNTR). The -320T and -319A alleles occurred more frequently in DSPD compared to morning (P = 0.042 for each) or evening types (P = 0.006 and 0.033). The allele combination TA2G was more prevalent in DSPD compared to morning (P 0.033) or evening types (P = 0.002). Luciferase expression driven by the TA2G combination was greater than for the more common GC2A (P < 0.05) and the rarer TA1G (P < 0.001) combinations. Deletion reporter constructs identified two enhancer regions (-703 to -605, and -283 to -80). Polymorphisms in the PER3 promoter could affect its expression, leading to potential differences in the observed functions of PER3.

  14. Estimating fuel octane numbers from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay times

    KAUST Repository

    Naser, Nimal; Sarathy, Mani; Chung, Suk-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Fuel octane numbers are directly related to the autoignition properties of fuel/air mixtures in spark ignition (SI) engines. This work presents a methodology to estimate the research and the motor octane numbers (RON and MON) from homogeneous gas-phase ignition delay time (IDT) data calculated at various pressures and temperatures. The hypothesis under investigation is that at specific conditions of pressure and temperature (i.e., RON-like and MON-like conditions), fuels with IDT identical to that of a primary reference fuel (PRF) have the same octane rating. To test this hypothesis, IDTs with a detailed gasoline surrogate chemical kinetic model have been calculated at various temperatures and pressures. From this dataset, temperatures that best represent RON and MON have been correlated at a specified pressure. Correlations for pressures in the range of 10–50 bar were obtained. The proposed correlations were validated with toluene reference fuels (TRF), toluene primary reference fuels (TPRF), ethanol reference fuels (ERF), PRFs and TPRFs with ethanol, and multi-component gasoline surrogate mixtures. The predicted RON and MON showed satisfactory accuracy against measurements obtained by the standard ASTM methods and blending rules, demonstrating that the present methodology can be a viable tool for a first approximation. The correlations were also validated against an extensive set of experimental IDT data obtained from literature with a high degree of accuracy in RON/MON prediction. Conditions in homogeneous reactors such as shock tubes and rapid compression machines that are relevant to modern SI engines were also identified. Uncertainty analysis of the proposed correlations with linear error propagation theory is also presented.

  15. Small airway function changes and its clinical significance of asthma patients in different clinical phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Hui Zhou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the small airways function changes of asthmatic patients in different clinical phases and to discuss its clinical significance. Methods: A total of 127 patients diagnosed as asthma were selected randomly and pulmonary function (PF of them was determined by conventional method. Then they were divided into A, B and C group based on PF results. All 34 patients in A group suffered from acute asthma attack for the first time. All 93 patients in B group had been diagnosed as asthma but in remission phase. C Group was regarded as Control group with 20 healthy volunteers. Then FEV1, FEF50%, FEF75% levels of patients in each group were analyzed, and ΔFEV1, ΔFEF75% and ΔFEF50% levels of patients in each group were compared after bronchial dilation test. Results: It was found that most patients in group A and B had abnormal small airways function, and their small airways function was significantly different compared with that of group C (P<0.01. In addition, except for group C, ΔFEF75%,ΔFEF50% levels in A and B group were improved more significantly than ΔFEV1 levels (P<0.01. Conclusions: Asthma patients in acute phase all have abnormal small airways function. Most asthma patients in remission phase also have abnormal small airways function. After bronchial dilation test, whether patients in acute phase or in remission phase, major and small airways function of them are improved, but improvement of small airways function is weaker than that of major airways. This indicates that asthma respiratory tract symptoms in different phases exists all the time and so therapeutic process is needed to perform step by step.

  16. VLF group delay of lightning-induced electron precipitation echoes from measurement of phase and amplitude perturbations at two frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, C.D.D.; Dowden, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    Measurement of phase and amplitude perturbations (trimpis) of the NWC signal at Dunedin at both the NWC frequencies, 22,250 Hz and 22,350 Hz, enables measurement of the received phase of the echo signal (phasor difference of the perturbed and unperturbed signals) at each frequency and so the rate of decrease of phase with frequency. This, of course, is the group delay. The 100-Hz difference implies that measurement of echo group delays of up to 5 ms could be made without ambiguity, though other factors limit this to about 2.5 ms. Some 38 difference trimpis during May and June 1988 showed echo delays up to 2 ms corresponding to reflection from points displaced more than 1,000 km from the NWC-Dunedin great circle path. The echo amplitudes observed at such large displacements are much greater than expected from smooth circular depressions of the ionosphere modifying the waveguide phase velocity and so imply sharper discontinuities in the waveguide

  17. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Plus Bright Light Therapy for Adolescent Delayed Sleep Phase Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradisar, Michael; Dohnt, Hayley; Gardner, Greg; Paine, Sarah; Starkey, Karina; Menne, Annemarie; Slater, Amy; Wright, Helen; Hudson, Jennifer L.; Weaver, Edward; Trenowden, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate cognitive-behavior therapy plus bright light therapy (CBT plus BLT) for adolescents diagnosed with delayed sleep phase disorder (DSPD). Design: Randomized controlled trial of CBT plus BLT vs. waitlist (WL) control with comparisons at pre- and post-treatment. There was 6-month follow-up for the CBT plus BLT group only. Setting: Flinders University Child & Adolescent Sleep Clinic, Adelaide, South Australia. Patients: 49 adolescents (mean age 14.6 ± 1.0 y, 53% males) diagnosed with DSPD; mean chronicity 4 y 8 months; 16% not attending school. Eighteen percent of adolescents dropped out of the study (CBT plus BLT: N = 23 vs WL: N = 17). Interventions: CBT plus BLT consisted of 6 individual sessions, including morning bright light therapy to advance adolescents' circadian rhythms, and cognitive restructuring and sleep education to target associated insomnia and sleep hygiene. Measurements and Results: DSPD diagnosis was performed via a clinical interview and 7-day sleep diary. Measurements at each time-point included online sleep diaries and scales measuring sleepiness, fatigue, and depression symptoms. Compared to WL, moderate-to-large improvements (d = 0.65-1.24) were found at post-treatment for CBT plus BLT adolescents, including reduced sleep latency, earlier sleep onset and rise times, total sleep time (school nights), wake after sleep onset, sleepiness, and fatigue. At 6-month follow-up (N = 15), small-to-large improvements (d = 0.24-1.53) continued for CBT plus BLT adolescents, with effects found for all measures. Significantly fewer adolescents receiving CBT plus BLT met DPSD criteria at post-treatment (WL = 82% vs. CBT plus BLT = 13%, P sleep and daytime impairments in the immediate and long-term. Studies evaluating the treatment effectiveness of each treatment component are needed. Clinical Trial Information: Australia – New Zealand Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12610001041044. Citation: Gradisar M; Dohnt H; Gardner G; Paine S; Starkey

  18. Experimental alveolitis in rats: microbiological, acute phase response and histometric characterization of delayed alveolar healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Moacyr Tadeu Vicente; Cardoso, Camila Lopes; Carvalho, Paulo Sérgio Perri de; Cestari, Tânia Mary; Feres, Magda; Garlet, Gustavo Pompermaier; Ferreira, Osny

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of alveolitis is not well known and therefore experimental situations that mimic some features of this disease should be developed. In this study, the evolution of the experimentally induced infection in rat sockets is characterized, which leads to clinical signs of suppurative alveolitis with remarkable wound healing disturbs. Non-infected (Group I) and experimentally infected sockets in Rattus novergicus (Group II) were histometrically evaluated regarding the kinetics of alveolar healing. In addition, the characterization of the present bacteria in inoculation material and the serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were performed. The detected species were Capnocytophaga ochracea, Fusobacterium nucleatum ss nucleatum, Prevotella melaninogenica, Streptococcus anginosus, Treponema socranskii and Streptococcus sanguis. All experimentally infected rats developed suppurative alveolitis, showing higher levels of CRP in comparison to those non-infected ones. Furthermore, infected rats presented a significant delayed wound healing as measured by the histometric analysis (higher persistent polymorphonuclear infiltrate and lower density of newly formed bone). These findings indicate that rat sockets with experimentally induced infection produced higher levels of serum CRP, showing the potential of disseminated infection and a disturb in the alveolar repair process in an interesting experimental model for alveolitis studies.

  19. Study of the phase delay in the amplitude-modulated harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupska, Aldona; Krupski, Marcin

    2003-01-01

    The delayed response of a damped harmonic oscillator (RLC circuit) to a slow periodic disturbance is presented. This communication is supplementary to the paper published recently (Krupska et al 2001 Eur. J. Phys. 22 133-8)

  20. Segmented Spiral Waves and Anti-phase Synchronization in a Model System with Two Identical Time-Delayed Coupled Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoyong; Yang Shiping; Wang Guangrui; Chen Shigang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a model system with two identical time-delayed coupled layers. Synchronization and anti-phase synchronization are exhibited in the reactive system without diffusion term. New segmented spiral waves, which are constituted by many thin trips, are found in each layer of two identical time-delayed coupled layers, and are different from the segmented spiral waves in a water-in-oil aerosol sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) micro-emulsion (ME) (BZ-AOT system), which consists of many small segments. 'Anti-phase spiral wave synchronization' can be realized between the first layer and the second one. For different excitable parameters, we also give the minimum values of the coupling strength to generate segmented spiral waves and the tip orbits of spiral waves in the whole bilayer.

  1. Short-course radiotherapy, with elective delay prior to surgery, in patients with unresectable rectal cancer who have poor performance status or significant co-morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield, Paul; Hingorani, Mohan; Radhakrishna, Ganesh; Cooper, Rachel; Melcher, Alan; Crellin, Adrian; Kwok-Williams, Michelle; Sebag-Montefiore, David

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Standard treatment for rectal cancer which threatens the expected plane of resection on MRI imaging is long-course, pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (1.8-2 Gy, 25-28 fractions). Not all patients are suitable for this because of age, poor performance status or co-morbidities. We describe our experience of short-course (5 x 5 Gy) pre-operative radiotherapy with planned, delayed surgery (SCPRT-delay) in this patient group. Materials and methods: Between April 2001 and October 2007, 43 patients were selected for SCPRT-delay. The clinical records were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Median age was 82 (range 58-87). Forty-one patients had radiotherapy of which 26 (61%) were subsequently able to have surgery. Of these, R0, R1 and R2 resections were performed in 22, 2 and 2 patients, respectively. Treatment was well tolerated, although two patients required hospital admission for management of diarrhoea and one developed significant late small bowel toxicity, attributable to radiotherapy. In those undergoing R0 or R1 resection there have been no local recurrences (median follow-up 18 months). Median survival for the whole group was 23 months, although this was 44 months in those undergoing surgery. Conclusions: SCPRT-delay appears to be a useful alternative to long-course pre-operative chemoradiotherapy in this high-risk group of patients.

  2. Multi-GNSS phase delay estimation and PPP ambiguity resolution: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xingxing; Li, Xin; Yuan, Yongqiang; Zhang, Keke; Zhang, Xiaohong; Wickert, Jens

    2018-06-01

    This paper focuses on the precise point positioning (PPP) ambiguity resolution (AR) using the observations acquired from four systems: GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo (GCRE). A GCRE four-system uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) estimation model and multi-GNSS undifferenced PPP AR method were developed in order to utilize the observations from all systems. For UPD estimation, the GCRE-combined PPP solutions of the globally distributed MGEX and IGS stations are performed to obtain four-system float ambiguities and then UPDs of GCRE satellites can be precisely estimated from these ambiguities. The quality of UPD products in terms of temporal stability and residual distributions is investigated for GPS, BDS, GLONASS, and Galileo satellites, respectively. The BDS satellite-induced code biases were corrected for GEO, IGSO, and MEO satellites before the UPD estimation. The UPD results of global and regional networks were also evaluated for Galileo and BDS, respectively. As a result of the frequency-division multiple-access strategy of GLONASS, the UPD estimation was performed using a network of homogeneous receivers including three commonly used GNSS receivers (TRIMBLE NETR9, JAVAD TRE_G3TH DELTA, and LEICA). Data recorded from 140 MGEX and IGS stations for a 30-day period in January in 2017 were used to validate the proposed GCRE UPD estimation and multi-GNSS dual-frequency PPP AR. Our results show that GCRE four-system PPP AR enables the fastest time to first fix (TTFF) solutions and the highest accuracy for all three coordinate components compared to the single and dual system. An average TTFF of 9.21 min with 7{°} cutoff elevation angle can be achieved for GCRE PPP AR, which is much shorter than that of GPS (18.07 min), GR (12.10 min), GE (15.36 min) and GC (13.21 min). With observations length of 10 min, the positioning accuracy of the GCRE fixed solution is 1.84, 1.11, and 1.53 cm, while the GPS-only result is 2.25, 1.29, and 9.73 cm for the east, north, and vertical

  3. Clinical Significance of Reverse Redistribution Phenomenon on Delayed Tc-99m Tetrofosmin Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Ah; Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Jeong, Jin Won; Kim, Nam Ho; Yun, Kyeong Ho

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the clinical significance of reverse redistribution (RR) phenomenon detected on delayed Tc-99m tetrofosmin myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in patients with acute myocardial infarction after revascularization. A Tc-99m tetrofrosmin myocardial SPECT was performed in 67 consecutive patients after revascularization for acute myocardial infarction. Myocardial SPECT imaging was performed for early imaging at 40 min and for delayed imaging at 180 min after reinjection at myocardial stress. Regional myocardial uptakes were scored by 4-point scoring in the left ventricular wall divided into 17 segments. Reverse redistribution was defined as an increase of more than 2 point in the activity score on the delayed image. Follow-up myocardial SPECT and coronary angiography (CAG) were performed 9 months later. On myocardial SPECT performed following revascularization, RR was observed in 100 of all 319 segments (31%) and in 43 patients (64%). The abnormalities of perfusion and regional wall motion were more severe in the patients with RR compared to those without RR (p<0.05). On follow-up myocardial SPECT, the myocardial perfusion, regional wall motion, and myocardial thickness were significantly improved in the patients with RR (p<0.05) however, these changes were not significant in those without RR. There was no significant difference between the patients with RR and those without RR in the occurrence of restenosis on CAG. In patients with acute myocardial infarction, the regions showing the RR phenomenon on delayed Tc-99m tetrofosmin SPECT may reflect viable myocardium and indicate recovery of salvaged myocardium

  4. The manic phase of Bipolar disorder significantly impairs theory of mind decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawken, Emily R; Harkness, Kate L; Lazowski, Lauren K; Summers, David; Khoja, Nida; Gregory, James Gardner; Milev, Roumen

    2016-05-30

    Bipolar disorder is associated with significant deficits in the decoding of others' mental states in comparison to healthy participants. However, differences in theory of mind decoding ability among patients in manic, depressed, and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder is currently unknown. Fifty-nine patients with bipolar I or II disorder (13 manic, 25 depressed, 20 euthymic) completed the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Task (Eyes task) and the Animals Task developed to control for non-mentalistic response demands of the Eyes Task. Patients also completed self-report and clinician-rated measures of depression, mania, and anxiety symptoms. Patients in the manic phase were significantly less accurate than those in the depressed and euthymic phases at decoding mental states in the Eyes task, and this effect was strongest for eyes of a positive or neutral valence. Further Eyes task performance was negatively correlated with the symptoms of language/thought disorder, pressured speech, and disorganized thoughts and appearance. These effects held when controlling for accuracy on the Animals task, response times, and relevant demographic and clinical covariates. Results suggest that the state of mania, and particularly psychotic symptoms that may overlap with the schizophrenia spectrum, are most strongly related to social cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaporation of multicomponent chemical spills: When is liquid phase resistance significant?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, D.; Mackay, D.

    1993-01-01

    When chemicals are spilled on land or water, it is important to be able to estimate evaporation rates accurately. Conventional models used to predict evaporation rates of multicomponent spills assume that the entire resistance to evaporation lies in the vapor phase. Under certain conditions, an additional liquid phase resistance may be introduced, resulting in retarded evaporation rates. Existing models may thus fail to predict spill behavior accurately. A study is described whose objective is to elucidate the significance of the liquid phase resistance. Evaporation experiments were conducted in which a thin layer of synthetic oil (mineral oil enriched with compounds such as pentane, hexane, toluene, octane, and p-xylene) was exposed to prolonged evaporation in a metal tray at controlled wind speeds. Bulk samples of the spill layer were taken at specific time intervals and their composition was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. The results are compared to those from a theoretical model and to gas stripping experiments. The model is based on the evaporative flux equation incorporating Raoult's law; inputs are the air-oil partition coefficient for each component and the composition of the synthetic oil on a volume and mole fraction basis. The study has enabled the formation of vertical concentration profiles to be examined and liquid phase mass transfer coefficients to be estimated. The results imply that liquid-phase resistance effects are likely to be important for the most volatile components. Contaminated areas may thus continue to be hazardous, even though model predictions indicate otherwise. 7 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Vertical propagation of waves in the solar atmosphere. II. Phase delays in the quiet chromosphere and cell-network distinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lites, B.W.; Chipman, E.G.; White, O.R.

    1982-01-01

    The differences in the phase of the velocity oscillations between a pair of chromospheric Ca II lines was measured using the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Sacramento Peak Observatory. The observed phase differences indicate that the acoustic modes are trapped or envanescent, rather than propagating in the chromosphere. We find systematic distinctions in the phase delays between quiet network and cell interior regions for both intensity and velocity oscillations in photospheric and chromospheric lines. The theory of linear perturbations in a isothermal atmosphere is invoked to interpret these differences. From this analysis we find that one or more of the following explanations is possible. (1) the radiative damping is more effective in the network than in the cell interior; (2) the network features exclude oscillations of large horizontal wavenumber; or (3) the scale height of the chromosphere is larger in the network than in the cell interior

  7. Acute Phase Hyperglycemia among Patients Hospitalized with Acute Coronary Syndrome: Prevalence and Prognostic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hameed Laftah Wanoose

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjectives: Regardless of diabetes status, hyperglycemia on arrival for patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome, has been associated with adverse outcomes including death. The aim of this study is to look at the frequency and prognostic significance of acute phase hyperglycemia among patients attending the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome over the in-hospital admission days.Methods: The study included 287 consecutive patients in the Al- Faiha Hospital in Basrah (Southern Iraq during a one year period from December 2007 to November 2008. Patients were divided into two groups with respect to admission plasma glucose level regardless of their diabetes status (those with admission plasma glucose of <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L and those equal to or more than that. Acute phase hyperglycemia was defined as a non-fasting glucose level equal to or above 140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L regardless of past history of diabetes.Results: Sixty one point seven percent (177 of patients were admitted with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences were found between both groups regarding the mean age, qualification, and smoking status, but males were predominant in both groups. A family history of diabetes, and hypertension, were more frequent in patients with plasma glucose of ≥140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L. There were no differences between the two groups regarding past history of ischemic heart disease, stroke, lipid profile, troponin-I levels or type of acute coronary syndrome. Again heart failure was more common in the admission acute phase hyperglycemia group, but there was no difference regarding arrhythmia, stroke, or death. Using logistic regression with heart failure as the dependent variable we found that only the admission acute phase hyperglycemia (OR=2.1344, 95�0CI=1.0282-4.4307; p=0.0419 was independently associated with heart failure. While male gender, family history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and

  8. Avoiding delayed diagnosis of significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries: Can a scoring tool make the difference? A 7-year retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Tobias; Agri, Fabio; Bourgeat, Mylène; Yersin, Bertrand; Romain, Benoît; Schmidt, Sabine; Keller, Nathalie; Demartines, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    Significant blunt bowel and mesenteric injuries (sBBMI) are frequently missed despite the widespread use of computed tomography (CT). Early treatment improves the outcome related to these injuries. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of sBBMI, the incidence of delayed diagnosis and to test the performance of the Bowel Injury Prediction Score (BIPS), determined by the white blood cell (WBC) count, presence or absence of abdominal tenderness and CT grade of mesenteric injury. Single-centre, registry-based retrospective cohort study, screening all consecutive trauma patients admitted to Lausanne University Hospital Trauma Centre from 2008 to 2015 after a road traffic accident. All patients with reliable information about the presence or absence of sBBMI who underwent abdominal CT and for whom calculation of the BIPS was possible were included for analysis. The incidence of delayed (>24h after admission) diagnosis in the patient group with sBBMI was determined and the diagnostic performance of the BIPS for sBBMI was assessed. For analysis, 766 patients with reliable information about the presence or absence of sBBMI were included. The prevalence of sBBMI was 3.1% (24/766). In 24% (5/21) of stable trauma patients undergoing CT, a diagnostic delay of more than 24h occurred. Abdominal tenderness (p<0.0001) and CT grade ≥4 (p<0.0001) were associated with sBBMI, whereas CT grade 4 alone (p=0.93) and WBC count ≥17G/l (p=0.30) were not. A BIPS ≥2 had a sensitivity of 89% (95% CI, 67-99), specificity of 89% (95% CI, 86-91), positive likelihood ratio of 8 (95% CI, 6.1-10), negative likelihood ratio of 0.12 (95% CI, 0.03-0.44), positive predictive value (PPV) of 19% (95% CI, 15-24) and negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.7% (95% CI, 98.7-99.9). CT alone identified 79% (15/19) and the BIPS 89% (17/19) of patients with sBBMI (p=0.66). Diagnostic delays in patients with sBBMI are common (24%), despite the routine use of abdominal CT. Application of the BIPS

  9. MEMS Keys as a Way to Delay the Phase of the Microwave Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Antonenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a new type of phase shifter antennas scanned beam shows the principle of constructing controlled microwave phase shifters that have a low cost. Also, given the results of a theoretical study of the main characteristics of dependency - controlled phase shift and frequency band working on the design parameters and then refined by calculating finite element program CST Microwave Studio. These inexpensive scanned antenna can be used in radar centimeter and millimeter wavelengths in the frequency range 2 ¸ 30 GHz. The results of calculation of capacitive and inductive coupling during switching detector elements and the simulation results of the phase shift in passing through the phase shifter television signal containing includes microelectromechanical systems - manageable sections that have to change the direction of polarization of the signal. Thus for supplying voltage-controlled permanent magnet field is used. According to the simulation results, which are presented in the conclusions can be drawn about the development of the design of optimal geometric parameters, the values obtained for the results of the optimization modeling. However revealed a high quality factor switching phase.

  10. Prognostic significance of s-phase fraction detected by antithymidine antibodies in epidermoid cervix carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamulaeva, Irina A.; Podgorodnichenko, Vladimir K.; Guseva, Ludmila I.; Krikunova, Ludmila I.; Saenko, Alexander S.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the predictive value of pretreatment proliferative activity of epidermoid cervix carcinoma cells with respect to short- and long-term results of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The proliferative activity of 25 epidermoid cervix carcinomas was evaluated as the immunofluorescent labelling index (LI) by rabbit antithymidine antibodies reacting specifically with single-stranded DNA of replication forks in S-phase cells. The short-term clinical outcome was estimated at 3-6 months after treatment by visual and palpatory examination. Three-year follow-up data were obtained through hospital charts and correspondence with referring physicians for only 19 patients. Results: There was no statistically significant association between LI and such conventional prognostic factors as clinical stage. The LI value of cervix carcinomas was significantly associated with complete regression at 3-6 months after radiotherapy and 3-year disease-free survival. Complete regression at 3-6 months was observed in 87.5% patients with fast proliferating tumors (LI > 7.0%), and only in 41.2% patients with slowly proliferating tumors (p = 0.03). Probability of 3-year disease-free survival was 85.7% in patients with fast proliferating tumors and 50.0% in those with slowly proliferating tumors (p = 0.05). Conclusions: The immunofluorescent LI of epidermoid cervix carcinoma is able to provide prognostic information on short-term tumor response to radiotherapy and disease-free survival

  11. Time Delay of CGM Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzeisen-Redeker, Günther; Schoemaker, Michael; Kirchsteiger, Harald; Freckmann, Guido; Heinemann, Lutz; del Re, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is a powerful tool to support the optimization of glucose control of patients with diabetes. However, CGM systems measure glucose in interstitial fluid but not in blood. Rapid changes in one compartment are not accompanied by similar changes in the other, but follow with some delay. Such time delays hamper detection of, for example, hypoglycemic events. Our aim is to discuss the causes and extent of time delays and approaches to compensate for these. Methods: CGM data were obtained in a clinical study with 37 patients with a prototype glucose sensor. The study was divided into 5 phases over 2 years. In all, 8 patients participated in 2 phases separated by 8 months. A total number of 108 CGM data sets including raw signals were used for data analysis and were processed by statistical methods to obtain estimates of the time delay. Results: Overall mean (SD) time delay of the raw signals with respect to blood glucose was 9.5 (3.7) min, median was 9 min (interquartile range 4 min). Analysis of time delays observed in the same patients separated by 8 months suggests a patient dependent delay. No significant correlation was observed between delay and anamnestic or anthropometric data. The use of a prediction algorithm reduced the delay by 4 minutes on average. Conclusions: Prediction algorithms should be used to provide real-time CGM readings more consistent with simultaneous measurements by SMBG. Patient specificity may play an important role in improving prediction quality. PMID:26243773

  12. Retaining older workers: the effect of phased retirement on delaying early retirement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsmund Hermansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phased retirement involves reducing working time in the final years before retirement. The aim of phased retirement is to extend working careers and retain older workers who would otherwise opt for full early retirement. This article investigates the effect of offering phased retirement on early-retirement behaviour in Norway.Method: The data used in the analysis covers the period between 2000 and 2010 and comprises all employees between 61 and 62 years of age (N= 18 174 who were employed in any of the 442 companies that participated in a 2010 survey carried out by the Fafo Institute for Labour and Social Research and Respons Analyse AS, a Norwegian research firm. I use a difference-in-differences approach and logistic regression, which enables the measurement of changes in the individual relative risk of retiring full-time on the contractual pension (AFP, avtalefestet pensjon, contractual early-retirement pension, before and after the introduction of phased retirement as a retention measure.Results: The results show that working in a company that offers reduced working hours for older workers does not have an effect on the relative risk of a 61- or 62-year-old withdrawing a full contractual pension in the next two years of their employment. This result is evident both before and after controlling for a range of known individual risk factors, as well as after controlling for company characteristics.Discussion: In the search for suitable measures for retaining older workers, offering phased retirement may still be part of the answer. Though my analysis does not support the idea that more flexible working hours is a decisive factor for those who choose to opt for full early retirement, a possible next step could be to investigate the impact of offering flexible working hours on the employment duration of those who do remain in employment.

  13. An Interstitial Deletion at 7q33-36.1 in a Patient with Intellectual Disability, Significant Language Delay, and Severe Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti Kale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial deletions of the distal 7q region are considered a rare entity. In this report, we describe a seven-year-old male with a heterozygous interstitial deletion at 7q33-36.1 with characteristic dysmorphic facial features, intellectual disability, severe microcephaly, and significant language delay. The primary focus of our report is to compare our case with the few others in the literature describing interstitial deletions at the long arm of chromosome 7. Based on the various breakpoints in prior studies, a number of phenotypic variations have been identified that are unique to each of the reports. However, there are also a number of similarities among these cases as well. We hope to provide a concise review of the literature and genes involved within our deletion sequence in the hope that it will contribute to creating a phenotypic profile for this patient population.

  14. An analytical method for PID controller tuning with specified gain and phase margins for integral plus time delay processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wuhua; Xiao, Gaoxi; Li, Xiumin

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, an analytical method is proposed for proportional-integral/proportional-derivative/proportional-integral-derivative (PI/PD/PID) controller tuning with specified gain and phase margins (GPMs) for integral plus time delay (IPTD) processes. Explicit formulas are also obtained for estimating the GPMs resulting from given PI/PD/PID controllers. The proposed method indicates a general form of the PID parameters and unifies a large number of existing rules as PI/PD/PID controller tuning with various GPM specifications. The GPMs realized by existing PID tuning rules are computed and documented as a reference for control engineers to tune the PID controllers. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Zebularine exerts its antiproliferative activity through S phase delay and cell death in human malignant mesothelioma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Yukitoshi; Satoh, Motohiko; Hatanaka, Kenichi; Kubota, Shunichiro

    2018-04-24

    Malignant mesothelioma is an asbestos-related aggressive tumor and current therapy remains ineffective. Zebularine as a DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor has an anti-tumor effect in several human cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether zebularine could induce antiproliferative effect in human malignant mesothelioma cells. Zebularine induced cell growth inhibition in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, zebularine dose-dependently decreased expression of DNMT1 in all malignant mesothelioma cells tested. Cell cycle analysis indicated that zebularine induced S phase delay. Zebularine also induced cell death in malignant mesothelioma cells. In contrast, zebularine did not induce cell growth inhibition and cell death in human normal fibroblast cells. These results suggest that zebularine has a potential for the treatment of malignant mesothelioma by inhibiting cell growth and inducing cell death.

  16. Left is where the L is right. Significantly delayed reaction time in limb laterality recognition in both CRPS and phantom limb pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinersmann, Annika; Haarmeyer, Golo Sung; Blankenburg, Markus; Frettlöh, Jule; Krumova, Elena K; Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Maier, Christoph

    2010-12-17

    The body schema is based on an intact cortical body representation. Its disruption is indicated by delayed reaction times (RT) and high error rates when deciding on the laterality of a pictured hand in a limb laterality recognition task. Similarities in both cortical reorganisation and disrupted body schema have been found in two different unilateral pain syndromes, one with deafferentation (phantom limb pain, PLP) and one with pain-induced dysfunction (complex regional pain syndrome, CRPS). This study aims to compare the extent of impaired laterality recognition in these two groups. Performance on a test battery for attentional performance (TAP 2.0) and on a limb laterality recognition task was evaluated in CRPS (n=12), PLP (n=12) and healthy subjects (n=38). Differences between recognising affected and unaffected hands were analysed. CRPS patients and healthy subjects additionally completed a four-day training of limb laterality recognition. Reaction time was significantly delayed in both CRPS (2278±735.7ms) and PLP (2301.3±809.3ms) compared to healthy subjects (1826.5±517.0ms), despite normal TAP values in all groups. There were no differences between recognition of affected and unaffected hands in both patient groups. Both healthy subjects and CRPS patients improved during training, but RTs of CRPS patients (1874.5±613.3ms) remain slower (pCRPS patients, uninfluenced by attention and pain and cannot be fully reversed by training alone. This suggests the involvement of complex central nervous system mechanisms in the disruption of the body schema. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ullage Compatible Optical Sensor for Monitoring Safety-Significant Malfunctions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The tasks of this Phase I proposal are designed to establish the feasibility of an optical sensor for real-time, in situ monitoring of the ullage environment of an...

  18. A Nanotube Surface Reinforced Graphite Fiber Exhibiting Significantly Enhanced Properties, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The completed Phase I work was directed at the application of nanotechnology to graphite/epoxy composites. A novel approach to the application of the nanotubes onto...

  19. In vivo polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) in the living rat hippocampus does not cause a significant loss of performance in a delayed alternation task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Liangqi; Shaw, Crystal L.; Kuo, Chin-chen; Griffin, Amy L.; Martin, David C.

    2014-04-01

    After extended implantation times, traditional intracortical neural probes exhibit a foreign-body reaction characterized by a reactive glial sheath that has been associated with increased system impedance and signal deterioration. Previously, we have proposed that the local in vivo polymerization of an electronically and ionically conducting polymer, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), might help to rebuild charge transport pathways across the glial scar between the device and surrounding parenchyma (Richardson-Burns et al 2007 J. Neural Eng. 4 L6-13). The EDOT monomer can be delivered via a microcannula/electrode system into the brain tissue of living animals followed by direct electrochemical polymerization, using the electrode itself as a source of oxidative current. In this study, we investigated the long-term effect of local in vivo PEDOT deposition on hippocampal neural function and histology. Rodent subjects were trained on a hippocampus-dependent task, delayed alternation (DA), and implanted with the microcannula/electrode system in the hippocampus. The animals were divided into four groups with different delay times between the initial surgery and the electrochemical polymerization: (1) control (no polymerization), (2) immediate (polymerization within 5 min of device implantation), (3) early (polymerization within 3-4 weeks after implantation) and (4) late (polymerization 7-8 weeks after polymerization). System impedance at 1 kHz was recorded and the tissue reactions were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. We found that under our deposition conditions, PEDOT typically grew at the tip of the electrode, forming an ˜500 µm cloud in the tissue. This is much larger than the typical width of the glial scar (˜150 µm). After polymerization, the impedance amplitude near the neurologically important frequency of 1 kHz dropped for all the groups; however, there was a time window of 3-4 weeks for an optimal decrease in impedance. For all surgery

  20. Neutrophil depletion in the early inflammatory phase delayed cutaneous wound healing in older rats: improvements due to the use of un-denatured camel whey protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebaid, Hossam

    2014-03-04

    While it is known that advanced age alters the recruitment of neutrophils during wound healing, thereby delaying the wound healing process, little is known about prolonged wound healing in advanced ages. Thus, we investigated the correlation of neutrophil recruitment with healing events, and the impact of whey protein (WP) on neutrophil activation. The animals were allocated into wounded young group, wounded older group and wounded older rats with daily treatment of WP at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. Our results pointed to a marked deficiency in the number of neutrophils in the wounds of older rats, which was accompanied with impairment of the healing process. In the group of older rats, phagocytic activity, as tested by fluorescence microscopy, declined throughout the first 24 hours after wounding. Both the neutrophil number and the phagocytic activity recovered in older rats which received WP supplementation. Interestingly, WP was found to significantly up-regulate the MIP-1α and CINC-1 mRNA expression in old rats. On the other hand, the wound size in older rats was significantly higher than that in younger ones. Blood angiogenesis was also significantly delayed in the older group as opposed to the young rats. WP, however, was found to return these indices to normal levels in the older rats. Proliferation and epidermal migration of the keratinocytes and the collagen deposition were also returned to the normal rates. This data confirms the critical role of neutrophil recruitment in the early inflammatory phase of wound healing in older rats. In addition, WP protein was used to improve neutrophil function in older rats, healing events returned to a more normal profile. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2100966986117779.

  1. Contrast enhanced liver MRI in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: inverse appearance of focal confluent fibrosis on delayed phase MR images with hepatocyte specific versus extracellular gadolinium based contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husarik, Daniela B; Gupta, Rajan T; Ringe, Kristina I; Boll, Daniel T; Merkle, Elmar M

    2011-12-01

    To assess the enhancement pattern of focal confluent fibrosis (FCF) on contrast-enhanced hepatic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using hepatocyte-specific (Gd-EOB-DTPA) and extracellular (ECA) gadolinium-based contrast agents in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). After institutional review board approval, 10 patients with PSC (6 male, 4 female; 33-61 years) with 13 FCF were included in this retrospective study. All patients had a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI exam, and a comparison ECA-enhanced MRI. On each T1-weighted dynamic dataset, the signal intensity (SI) of FCF and the surrounding liver as well as the paraspinal muscle (M) were measured. In the Gd-EOB-DTPA group, hepatocyte phase images were also included. SI FCF/SI M, SI liver/SI M, and [(SI liver - SI FCF)/SI liver] were compared between the different contrast agents for each dynamic phase using the paired Student's t-test. There was no significant difference in SI FCF/SI M in all imaging phases. SI liver/SI M was significantly higher for the Gd-EOB-DTPA group in the delayed phase (P DTPA group, mean [(SI liver - SI FCF)/SI liver] were as follows (values for ECA group in parentheses): unenhanced phase: 0.26 (0.26); arterial phase: 0.01 (-0.31); portal venous phase (PVP): -0.05 (-0.26); delayed phase (DP): 0.14 (-0.54); and hepatocyte phase: 0.26. Differences were significant for the DP (P DTPA-enhanced images. Copyright © 2011 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Significance of phase-display technique for diagnosis of WPW-Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mester, J.; Mate, E.; Marosi, G.; Csernay, L.

    1985-01-01

    28 patients with WPW-syndrome were investigated by nuclear cardiology. Phase-display techniques were capable of visualizing and localizing ventricular preexcitations. The prematurely contraction ventricle was diagnosed in 81% of the cases concordant to the results of 12-channel ECG-technique. The control group consisted of 13 LGL-patients and revealed 3 false positives resulting in a specificity of 77%. The results were checked with respect to reproducibility. Additional projections increased the sensitivity of the method. (orig.) [de

  3. Harvesting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at different physiological phases significantly affects its functionality in bread dough fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohammad N; Dornez, Emmie; Jacobs, Pieter; Parsi, Anali; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2014-05-01

    Fermentation of sugars into CO2, ethanol and secondary metabolites by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during bread making leads to leavening of dough and changes in dough rheology. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the impact of yeast on dough related aspects by investigating the effect of harvesting yeast at seven different points of the growth profile on its fermentation performance, metabolite production, and the effect on critical dough fermentation parameters, such as gas retention potential. The yeast cells harvested during the diauxic shift and post-diauxic growth phase showed a higher fermentation rate and, consequently, higher maximum dough height than yeast cells harvested in the exponential or stationary growth phase. The results further demonstrate that the onset of CO2 loss from fermenting dough is correlated with the fermentation rate of yeast, but not with the amount of CO2 that accumulated up to the onset point. Analysis of the yeast metabolites produced in dough yielded a possible explanation for this observation, as they are produced in different levels depending on physiological phase and in concentrations that can influence dough matrix properties. Together, our results demonstrate a strong effect of yeast physiology at the time of harvest on subsequent dough fermentation performance, and hint at an important role of yeast metabolites on the subsequent gas holding capacity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Alcohol Intake Increases in Adolescent C57BL/6J Mice during Intermittent Cycles of Phase-Delayed, Long-Light Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Gamsby

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents naturally go to bed and awaken late, but are forced to awaken early for school and work. This leads to “social jetlag”, a state of circadian desynchrony (CD, in which internal biological rhythms are out of sync with behavioral rhythms. CD is associated with increased alcohol intake in adults, but has been less well-studied in adolescents. The goal of this study was to model adolescent alcohol intake during similar CD conditions in male C57BL/6J mice. Free access alcohol intake, water intake and wheel-running activity were measured during a normal 12HR photoperiod or during alternating photoperiod (Experiment 1: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 18 h light for 3 days, with dark (activity onset delayed 9 h during the 18HR photoperiod; Experiment 2: 12 h light for 4 days followed by 6 h light for 3 days, with dark onset delayed 3 h during the 6HR photoperiod. In Experiment 1, CD produced a small but significant increase in the total alcohol intake per day as well as in intake in bouts, with the greatest increase over controls in the hours following the 6HR dark period. Additionally, the pattern of alcohol intake in bouts shifted to increase alcohol intake during the shorter dark period. In Experiment 2, the opposite effect occurred—the longer dark cycle led to lower alcohol drinking in the second half of the dark period. However, in Experiment 2, CD produced no significant changes in either total alcohol intake or alcohol intake in bouts. Conclusion: shifts in the light cycle that disrupt the regular pattern of day and night, and increase the length of the night phase, are sufficient to increase both drinking in bouts and restricted drinking in adolescent mice, modeling increased alcohol intake in adolescents during CD.

  5. The prevalence of probable delayed-sleep-phase syndrome in students from junior high school to university in Tottori, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazama, Gen-i; Inoue, Yuichi; Kojima, Kazushige; Ueta, Toshiyuki; Nakagome, Kazuyuki

    2008-09-01

    Delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS) is a circadian rhythm sleep disorder with a typical onset in the second decade of life. DSPS is characterized by the sleep-onset insomnia and the difficulty in waking at the desired time in the morning. Although DSPS is associated with inability to attend school, the prevalence has been controversial. To elucidate a change in the prevalence of DSPS among young population, epidemiological survey was conducted on Japanese students. A total of 4,971 students of junior high school, senior high school, and university were enrolled in this cross sectional study in Tottori Prefecture. They answered anonymous screening questionnaire regarding school schedule, sleep hygiene and symptomatic items of sleep disorders. The prevalence of probable DSPS was estimated at 0.48% among the total subject students without gender difference. In university, the prevalence of the last year students showed the highest value (1.66%), while that of the first year students showed the lowest value (0.09%) among all school years from junior high school to university. The prevalence increased with advancing university school years. Thus, a considerable number of Japanese students are affected with DSPS. Senior students of university are more vulnerable to the disorder than younger students. Appropriate school schedule may decrease the mismatch between the individual's sleep-wake cycle and the school schedule. Promotion of a regular sleep habit is necessary to prevent DSPS among this population.

  6. Property Analysis of the Real-Time Uncalibrated Phase Delay Product Generated by Regional Reference Stations and Its Influence on Precise Point Positioning Ambiguity Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The real-time estimation of the wide-lane and narrow-lane Uncalibrated Phase Delay (UPD of satellites is realized by real-time data received from regional reference station networks; The properties of the real-time UPD product and its influence on real-time precise point positioning ambiguity resolution (RTPPP-AR are experimentally analyzed according to real-time data obtained from the regional Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS network located in Tianjin, Shanghai, Hong Kong, etc. The results show that the real-time wide-lane and narrow-lane UPD products differ significantly from each other in time-domain characteristics; the wide-lane UPDs have daily stability, with a change rate of less than 0.1 cycle/day, while the narrow-lane UPDs have short-term stability, with significant change in one day. The UPD products generated by different regional networks have obvious spatial characteristics, thus significantly influencing RTPPP-AR: the adoption of real-time UPD products employing the sparse stations in the regional network for estimation is favorable for improving the regional RTPPP-AR up to 99%; the real-time UPD products of different regional networks slightly influence PPP-AR positioning accuracy. After ambiguities are successfully fixed, the real-time dynamic RTPPP-AR positioning accuracy is better than 3 cm in the plane and 8 cm in the upward direction.

  7. Investor Outlook: Significance of the Positive LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Spark Therapeutics recently reported positive phase III results for SPK-RPE65 targeting the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders), marking an important inflection point for the field of gene therapy. The results highlight the ability to successfully design and execute a randomized trial of a gene therapy and also reinforce the potentially predictive nature of early preclinical and clinical data. The results are expected to pave the way for the first approved gene therapy product in the United States and should sustain investor interest and confidence in gene therapy for many approaches, including retina targeting and beyond.

  8. Ullage Compatible Optical Sensor for Monitoring Safety Significant Malfunctions, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant emphasis has been placed on aircraft fuel tank safety following the TWA Flight 800 accident in July 1996. Upon investigation, the National Transportation...

  9. Performance enhancement of the single-phase series active filter by employing the load voltage waveform reconstruction and line current sampling delay reduction methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senturk, O.S.; Hava, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes the waveform reconstruction method (WRM), which is utilized in the single-phase series active filter's (SAF's) control algorithm, in order to extract the load harmonic voltage component of voltage harmonic type single-phase diode rectifier loads. Employing WRM and the line...... current sampling delay reduction method, a single-phase SAF compensated system provides higher harmonic isolation performance and higher stability margins compared to the system using conventional synchronous-reference-frame-based methods. The analytical, simulation, and experimental studies of a 2.5 k...

  10. Utility of bolus dynamic CT for the detection of hypervascular malignant hepatic tumors. Mainly referring to the comparison with delayed phase contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hiromichi; Abe, Kimihiko; Freeny, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    In order to analyze the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced CT, 84 patients who had hepatocellular carcinoma or suspected hypervascular metastases were studied with conventional incremental dynamic CT (CID-CT) or double helical CT (DH-CT). Delayed phase contrast-enhanced CT studies were consecutively performed in all patients. Thirty-six of 84 patients had malignant hepatic neoplasms; six had hepatocellular carcinoma and 30 had metastatic tumors. At first, the detectability of hepatic lesions was evaluated with bolus dynamic CT and delayed phase CT. Dynamic CT has detected more lesions than delayed CT. Some hepatic lesions described as isodensity were missed on CID-CT. Therefore, delayed phase CT cannot be eliminated when CID-CT is performed. Secondly, hepatic lesion detectability with CID-CT was compared with that of DH-CT. DH-CT did not miss the hepatic lesions picked up by delayed phase CT and was expected to provide excellent detectability of hypervascular hepatic neoplasms. In addition, first helical CT showed most hepatic lesions as areas of obvious hyperdensity, while CID-CT did not show their correct vascularities. So-called hypervascular hepatic tumors, however, were not always hypervascular and were demonstrated as areas of iso-hypodensity even on initial helical scanning. Second helical CT was useful to detect these so-called hypervascular, but actually hypovascular lesions. In conclusion, dynamic CT was helpful in detecting hypervascular hepatic malignant neoplasms, and DH-CT was more accurate than-CID-CT for the detection of hepatic lesions and the evaluation of vascular lesion. (author)

  11. Survival Rate of Delayed Implants Placed in Healed Extraction Sockets is Significantly Higher Than That of Immediate Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antetomaso, Jordan; Kumar, Satish

    2018-03-01

    Immediate implant placement into fresh extraction sockets versus delayed implants into healed sockets: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Mello CC, Lemos CAA, Verri FR, Dos Santos DM, Goiato MC, Pellizzer EP. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2017; 46(9):1162-77. None TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis of data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated High-Speed Digital Optical True-Time-Delay Modules for Synthetic Aperture Radars, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical significance of signal heterogeneity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Nobuhiro; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Moirta, Koichiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kubo, Yuichiro; Aishima, Shinichi [Kyushu University, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Takayama, Yukihisa [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirabe, Ken [Kyushu University, Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    To clarify the relationship between the biological behaviour of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging with a special focus on the signal heterogeneity. A total of 68 patients with 70 pathologically proven HCCs were enrolled. On the basis of the signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase, the lesions were classified into three groups: group 1, homogeneous hypointensity (n = 44); group 2, heterogeneous hyperintensity (n = 20); and group 3, homogeneous hyperintensity (n = 6). The clinicopathological findings were compared among the three groups. The tumour size and the serum level of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) were significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 1 (p = 0.0155, p = 0.0215, respectively) and compared to group 3 (p = 0.0330, p = 0.0220, respectively). The organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) expression in group 2 and group 3 was significantly higher than in group 1 (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). Group 2 showed a significantly lower disease-free survival rate compared to group 1 (p = 0.0125), and group 2 was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p = 0.0308). HCCs in the hepatobiliary phase that are heterogeneously hyperintense on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging have more malignant potential than other types of HCCs. (orig.)

  14. Delayed Sleep and Sleep Loss in University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Leon C.

    1986-01-01

    A sample of 211 first-year psychology students completed a questionnaire of sleep habits and difficulities. It was discovered that Delayed Sleep Phase Syndrome may be a significant problem in university student populations. (Author/JD)

  15. Delayed Orgasm and Anorgasmia

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Lawrence C.; Mulhall, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies; which include: medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation and psychological etiologies, amongst others. Unfortunately, ...

  16. Improved Visibility of Metastatic Disease in the Liver During Intra-Arterial Therapy Using Delayed Arterial Phase Cone-Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schernthaner, Ruediger E., E-mail: ruediger.schernthaner@meduniwien.ac.at [Medical University of Vienna, Section of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy (Austria); Haroun, Reham R., E-mail: rehamharoun1989@gmail.com; Duran, Rafael, E-mail: rafaelduran.md@gmail.com; Lee, Howard, E-mail: mail2howielee@gmail.com; Sahu, Sonia, E-mail: sonia.p.sahu@gmail.com; Sohn, Jae Ho, E-mail: sohn87@gmail.com; Chapiro, Julius, E-mail: j.chapiro@googlemail.com; Zhao, Yan, E-mail: yanzhao211@163.com; Gorodetski, Boris, E-mail: boris.gorodetski@charite.de; Fleckenstein, Florian, E-mail: florian.fleckenstein@charite.de; Smolka, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.smolka@charite.de [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States); Radaelli, Alessandro, E-mail: Alessandro.Radaelli@philips.com; Bom, Imramsjah Martijn van der, E-mail: martijn.van.der.bom@philips.com [Philips Healthcare, Image-Guided Therapy Systems (Netherlands); Lin, MingDe, E-mail: ming.lin@philips.com; Geschwind, Jean Francois, E-mail: jeff.geschwind@yale.edu [Yale University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging (United States)

    2016-10-15

    PurposeTo compare the visibility of liver metastases on dual-phase cone-beam CT (DP-CBCT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA), with reference to preinterventional contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) of the liver.MethodsThis IRB-approved, retrospective study included 28 patients with neuroendocrine (NELM), colorectal (CRCLM), or sarcoma (SLM) liver metastases who underwent DP-CBCT during intra-arterial therapy (IAT) between 01/2010 and 10/2014. DP-CBCT was acquired after a single contrast agent injection in the tumor-feeding arteries at early and delayed arterial phases (EAP and DAP). The visibility of each lesion was graded by two radiologists in consensus on a three-rank scale (complete, partial, none) on DP-CBCT and DSA images using CE-MRI as reference.Results47 NELM, 43 CRCLM, and 16 SLM were included. On DSA 85.1, 44.1, and 37.5 % of NELM, CRCLM, and SLM, were at least partially depicted, respectively. EAP-CBCT yielded significantly higher sensitivities of 88.3 and 87.5 % for CRCLM and SLM, respectively (p < 0.01), but not for NELM (89.4 %; p = 1.0). On DAP-CBCT all NELM, CRCLM, and SLM were visible (p < 0.001). Complete depiction was achieved on DSA for 59.6, 16.3, and 18.8 % of NELM, CRCLM, and SLM, respectively. The complete depiction rate on EAP-CBCT was significantly higher for CRCLM (46.5 %; p < 0.001), lower for NELM (40.4 %; p = 0.592), and similar for SLM (25 %, p = 0.399). On DAP-CBCT however, the highest rates of complete depiction were found—NELM (97.8 %; p = 0.008), CRCLM (95.3 %; p = 0.008), and SLM (100 %; p < 0.001).ConclusionDAP-CBCT substantially improved the visibility of liver metastases during IAT. Future studies need to evaluate the clinical impact.

  17. Enhanced IMC based PID controller design for non-minimum phase (NMP) integrating processes with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghousiya Begum, K; Seshagiri Rao, A; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2017-05-01

    Internal model control (IMC) with optimal H 2 minimization framework is proposed in this paper for design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. The controller design is addressed for integrating and double integrating time delay processes with right half plane (RHP) zeros. Blaschke product is used to derive the optimal controller. There is a single adjustable closed loop tuning parameter for controller design. Systematic guidelines are provided for selection of this tuning parameter based on maximum sensitivity. Simulation studies have been carried out on various integrating time delay processes to show the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed controller provides enhanced closed loop performances when compared to recently reported methods in the literature. Quantitative comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance indices, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Total Variation (TV). Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. STUDY OF CORRELATION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN THE ASSESSMENT OF ACTIVE PHASE OF THYROID EYE DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar P

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM Role of Interleukin-6 and HS-CRP Levels in the assessment of active thyroid eye disease. MATERIALS & METHODS A prospective observational study of 30 patients from the age group of 20-60 years with thyroid eye disease done at Regional Institute of Ophthalmology. All patients were subjected to detailed history, ocular examination, systemic examination, biochemical analysis and Imaging. Patients are categorised as mild, moderate and severe active disease based on clinical activity score. For the period of two years, patients are followed at regular periodic intervals according to the severity of disease and results were analysed. RESULTS Out of 30 patients studied, majority of the patients were females (60%, and 70% of the patients had bilateral disease. Among 30 patients, 83.33% in hyperthyroid state, 3.33% in Hypothyroid state, 13.33% in Euthyroid state (Table 3. Smoking being important risk factor in 30% among males. 50% of patients presented with mild disease, 30% with moderate disease, 0% with severe disease. IL-6, HS-CRP levels are increased only in patients with severe active disease (Table 6. Remission attained in all patients when treated earlier with steroids. CONCLUSION Identifying disease activity early and aggressive treatment with systemic steroids in active phase of moderate and severe disease has reduced the morbidity associated with disease. Correlation of IL-6, HS-CRP, TFT levels are significantly increased only in patients with active phase of severe thyroid eye disease but not significantly elevated in active phase of moderate disease. Another pitfall is IL-6 is an expensive ELISA based diagnosis. Thus, IL-6 & HS-CRP cannot be routinely used to screen patients with Thyroid eye disease.

  19. Sub-nanometer distances and cluster shapes in dense hydrogen and in higher levels of hydrogen Rydberg matter by phase-delay spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmlid, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The inter-atomic distances in potassium clusters of Rydberg matter (RM) at excitation levels n B = 4–8 were recently measured by phase-delay spectroscopy (Holmlid, J Nanopart Res 12: 273, 2010). Excitation levels n B B = 1, 2, and 3 is found. Close-packing is the main structure both in planar and 3D clusters. Planar clusters are only observed for n B = 1 and 3, while 3D clusters are found in excitation levels n B = 1, 2 and 3. The cluster–cluster distance in stacks of planar clusters for n B = 2 and 3 is now observed for the first time.

  20. A randomised controlled trial of bright light therapy and morning activity for adolescents and young adults with Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, C; Cain, N; Bartel, K; Micic, G; Maddock, B; Gradisar, M

    2018-05-01

    A randomised controlled trial evaluated bright light therapy and morning activity for the treatment of Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD) in young people. 60 adolescents and young adults (range = 13-24 years, mean = 15.9 ± 2.2 y, 63% f) diagnosed with DSWPD were randomised to receive three weeks of post-awakening Green Bright Light Therapy (∼507 nm) and Sedentary Activity (sitting, watching TV), Green Bright Light Therapy and Morning Activity (standing, playing motion-sensing videogame), Red Light Therapy (∼643 nm) and Sedentary Activity or Red Light Therapy and Morning Activity. Sleep (ie sleep onset time, wake up time, sleep onset latency, total sleep time) and daytime functioning (ie morning alertness, daytime sleepiness, fatigue, functional impairment) were measured pre-treatment, post-treatment and at one and three month follow-up. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in outcomes between treatment groups; and interaction effects between treatment group and time for all outcome variables were not statistically significant. However, adolescents and young adults in morning activity conditions did not meaningfully increase their objective activity (ie movement frequency). Overall, adolescents reported significantly improved sleep timing (d = 0.30-0.46), sleep onset latency (d = 0.32) and daytime functioning (d = 0.45-0.87) post-treatment. Improvements in sleep timing (d = 0.53-0.61), sleep onset latency (d = 0.57), total sleep time (d = 0.51), and daytime functioning (d = 0.52-1.02) were maintained, or improved upon, at the three month follow-up. However, relapse of symptomology was common and 38% of adolescents and young adults requested further treatment in addition to the three weeks of light therapy. Although there is convincing evidence for the short-term efficacy of chronobiological treatments for DSWPD, long-term treatment outcomes can be improved. To address this gap in our current knowledge

  1. Delayed Puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolby, Nanna; Busch, Alexander Siegfried; Juul, Anders

    2017-01-01

    . The underlying reasons for the large variation in the age at pubertal onset are not fully established; however, nutritional status and socioeconomic and environmental factors are known to be influencing, and a significant amount of influencing genetic factors have also been identified. The challenges...... optimal in discriminating especially CDGP from HH. Management of the delayed puberty depends on the etiology. For boys with CDGP an observational period will often reveal imminent puberty. If puberty is not progressing spontaneously, sex steroid replacement is effective in stimulating the development...

  2. Small-Signal Modeling, Stability Analysis and Design Optimization of Single-Phase Delay-Based PLLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Vidal, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Generally speaking, designing single-phase phaselocked loops (PLLs) is more complicated than three-phase ones, as their implementation often involves the generation of a fictitious orthogonal signal for the frame transformation. In recent years, many approaches to generate the orthogonal signal...... these issues and explore new methods to enhance their performance. The stability analysis, control design guidelines and performance comparison with the state-of-the-art PLLs are presented as well....

  3. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  4. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2017-01-01

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  5. Multi-detector row CT of the kidney: Optimizing scan delays for bolus tracking techniques of arterial, corticomedullary, and nephrographic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Nishibori, Hironori; Kondo, Hiroshi; Tsuge, Yusuke [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Yokoyama, Ryujiro; Miyoshi, Toshiharu [Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka, Kanagawa (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji, Chuo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Purpose: To determine optimal scan delays for renal arterial-, corticomedullary-, and nephrographic-phase imaging with multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) of the kidney using a bolus-tracking technique. Methods and materials: One hundred and twenty-eight patients underwent three-phase CT scan of the kidney with eight-row MDCT after receiving 2 mL/kg of 300 mg I/mL contrast medium at 4 mL/s. Patients were prospectively randomized into three groups with different scan delays for the three scan phases (arterial, corticomedullary, and nephrographic) after bolus-tracking triggered at 50 HU of aortic contrast enhancement: group 1 (5, 20, 45 s); group 2 (10, 25, 50 s); and group 3 (15, 30, 55 s). Mean CT values (HU) of the abdominal aorta, renal artery, renal vein, renal cortex, and renal medulla were measured; increases in CT values pre- to post-contrast were assessed as contrast enhancement. Renal artery-to-vein and renal cortex-to-medulla contrast differences were also assessed. Qualitative analysis was also performed. Results: Mean renal artery enhancement was 240-288 HU at 5-15 s after the trigger and peaked at 10 s (P < .001). Mean renal cortical enhancement was 195-217 HU at 10-30 s and peaked at 25 s (P < .01). Contrast enhancement in the renal medulla increased gradually and reached mean 145 HU at 55 s. Cortex-to-medulla contrast difference was high (110-140 HU) at 5-30 s and decreased below 30 HU at 45 s after the trigger. Renal artery-to-vein contrast difference was high (121-125 HU) at 5-10 s. Qualitative results correlated well with quantitative results. Conclusion: For the injection protocol used in this study, optimal scan delays after the bolus-tracking trigger were 5-10 s for renal arterial, 15-25 s for corticomedullary, and 50-55 s for nephrographic phases.

  6. The nature of delayed dream incorporation ('dream-lag effect'): Personally significant events persist, but not major daily activities or concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenlaub, Jean-Baptiste; van Rijn, Elaine; Phelan, Mairéad; Ryder, Larnia; Gaskell, M Gareth; Lewis, Penelope A; P Walker, Matthew; Blagrove, Mark

    2018-04-22

    Incorporation of details from waking life events into rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams has been found to be highest on the 2 nights after, and then 5-7 nights after, the event. These are termed, respectively, the day-residue and dream-lag effects. This study is the first to categorize types of waking life experiences and compare their incorporation into dreams across multiple successive nights. Thirty-eight participants completed a daily diary each evening and a dream diary each morning for 14 days. In the daily diary, three categories of experiences were reported: major daily activities (MDAs), personally significant events (PSEs) and major concerns (MCs). After the 14-day period each participant identified the correspondence between items in their daily diaries and subsequent dream reports. The day-residue and dream-lag effects were found for the incorporation of PSEs into dreams (effect sizes of .33 and .27, respectively), but only for participants (n = 19) who had a below-median total number of correspondences between daily diary items and dream reports (termed "low-incorporators" as opposed to "high-incorporators"). Neither the day-residue or dream-lag effects were found for MDAs or MCs. This U-shaped timescale of incorporation of events from daily life into dreams has been proposed to reflect REM sleep-dependent memory consolidation, possibly related to emotional memory processing. This study had a larger sample size of dreams than any dream-lag study hitherto with trained participants. Coupled with previous successful replications, there is thus substantial evidence supporting the dream-lag effect and further explorations of its mechanism, including its neural underpinnings, are warranted. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  7. Baird-Pattinson Aetiological Classification and Phases of Delay Contributing to Stillbirths in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Olumuyiwa Awoleke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study aims to identify triggers of stillbirth in the study setting and to make suggestions to reduce the prevalence. Method. A three-year retrospective case-control study of stillbirths at Ekiti State University Teaching Hospital. Results. The stillbirth rate was 33 per 1000 births. Based on Baird-Pattinson classification of the primary obstetric causes of stillbirth, adverse intrapartum events, hypertensive diseases, and unexplained intrapartum fetal deaths were topmost causes of stillbirths. In comparison with the controls, other identified predictors of SB were grand multiparity (p=0.016, delays in seeking medical care and/or in receiving treatment (p=0.001, wrong initial diagnosis (p=0.001, inadequate intrapartum monitoring (p=0.001, and inappropriate clinical management (p=0.001. Conclusion. Stillbirth rate remains high in our setting. Elimination of obstacles to accessing care, effective management of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, updated health facilities, improved dedication to duty, and retraining of health workers will reduce the prevalence.

  8. Clinical validity of delayed recall tests as a gateway biomarker for Alzheimer's disease in the context of a structured 5-phase development framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerami, Chiara; Dubois, Bruno; Boccardi, Marina; Monsch, Andreas U; Demonet, Jean Francois; Cappa, Stefano F

    2017-04-01

    Although Alzheimer's disease criteria promote the use of biomarkers, their maturity in clinical routine still needs to be assessed. In the light of the oncology framework, we conducted a literature review on measures used to assess delayed recall impairment due to medial temporal lobe dysfunction (i.e., free and cued word list recall tests). Ample evidence is available for phases 1 (rationale for use), 2 (discriminative ability), and 3 (early detection ability) for many of the tests in routine use. Evidence about phase 4 (performance in real world) and phase 5 (quantify impact and costs) is yet to come. Administration procedures have been standardized and cutoff scores are well validated in large Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impaired series. Some aspects (e.g., different task formats), however, hamper the comparability of results among different populations and the reproducibility between laboratories. No definite guideline for their use can thus be proposed at the moment. Accordingly, the maturity of such markers is not yet sufficient and requires future investigation to promote the proper use of memory measures in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Multi-Gbit/s optical phase chaos communications using a time-delayed optoelectronic oscillator with a three-wave interferometer nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jérémy; Lavrov, Roman; Chembo, Yanne K.; Larger, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    We propose a chaos communication scheme based on a chaotic optical phase carrier generated with an optoelectronic oscillator with nonlinear time-delay feedback. The system includes a dedicated non-local nonlinearity, which is a customized three-wave imbalanced interferometer. This particular feature increases the complexity of the chaotic waveform and thus the security of the transmitted information, as these interferometers are characterized by four independent parameters which are part of the secret key for the chaos encryption scheme. We first analyze the route to chaos in the system, and evidence a sequence of period doubling bifurcations from the steady-state to fully developed chaos. Then, in the chaotic regime, we study the synchronization between the emitter and the receiver, and achieve chaotic carrier cancellation with a signal-to-noise ratio up to 20 dB. We finally demonstrate error-free chaos communications at a data rate of 3 Gbit/s.

  10. Multi-Gbit/s optical phase chaos communications using a time-delayed optoelectronic oscillator with a three-wave interferometer nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oden, Jérémy; Lavrov, Roman; Chembo, Yanne K; Larger, Laurent

    2017-11-01

    We propose a chaos communication scheme based on a chaotic optical phase carrier generated with an optoelectronic oscillator with nonlinear time-delay feedback. The system includes a dedicated non-local nonlinearity, which is a customized three-wave imbalanced interferometer. This particular feature increases the complexity of the chaotic waveform and thus the security of the transmitted information, as these interferometers are characterized by four independent parameters which are part of the secret key for the chaos encryption scheme. We first analyze the route to chaos in the system, and evidence a sequence of period doubling bifurcations from the steady-state to fully developed chaos. Then, in the chaotic regime, we study the synchronization between the emitter and the receiver, and achieve chaotic carrier cancellation with a signal-to-noise ratio up to 20 dB. We finally demonstrate error-free chaos communications at a data rate of 3 Gbit/s.

  11. Phase time delay and Hartman effect in a one-dimensional photonic crystal with four-level atomic defect layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Rabia; Ali, Abu Bakar; Abbas, Muqaddar; Badshah, Fazal; Qamar, Sajid

    2017-08-01

    The Hartman effect is revisited using a Gaussian beam incident on a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC) having a defect layer doped with four-level atoms. It is considered that each atom of the defect layer interacts with three driving fields, whereas a Gaussian beam of width w is used as a probe light to study Hartman effect. The atom-field interaction inside the defect layer exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The 1DPC acts as positive index material (PIM) and negative index material (NIM) corresponding to the normal and anomalous dispersion of the defect layer, respectively, via control of the phase associated with the driving fields and probe detuning. The positive and negative Hartman effects are noticed for PIM and NIM, respectively, via control of the relative phase corresponding to the driving fields and probe detuning. The advantage of using four-level EIT system is that a much smaller absorption of the transmitted beam occurs as compared to three-level EIT system corresponding to the anomalous dispersion, leading to negative Hartman effect.

  12. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lawrence C; Mulhall, John P

    2015-11-01

    Delayed orgasm/anorgasmia defined as the persistent or recurrent difficulty, delay in, or absence of attaining orgasm after sufficient sexual stimulation, which causes personal distress. Delayed orgasm and anorgasmia are associated with significant sexual dissatisfaction. A focused medical history can shed light on the potential etiologies, which include medications, penile sensation loss, endocrinopathies, penile hyperstimulation, and psychological etiologies. Unfortunately, there are no excellent pharmacotherapies for delayed orgasm/anorgasmia, and treatment revolves largely around addressing potential causative factors and psychotherapy. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Delayed fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatsukawa, Yuichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    Delayed fission is a nuclear decay process that couples {beta} decay and fission. In the delayed fission process, a parent nucleus undergoes {beta} decay and thereby populates excited states in the daughter. If these states are of energies comparable to or greater than the fission barrier of the daughter, then fission may compete with other decay modes of the excited states in the daughter. In this paper, mechanism and some experiments of the delayed fission will be discussed. (author)

  14. The anticipation and outcome phases of reward and loss processing: A neuroimaging meta-analysis of the monetary incentive delay task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Stuart; Murawski, Carsten; Fornito, Alex; Youssef, George; Yücel, Murat; Lorenzetti, Valentina

    2018-04-25

    The processing of rewards and losses are crucial to everyday functioning. Considerable interest has been attached to investigating the anticipation and outcome phases of reward and loss processing, but results to date have been inconsistent. It is unclear if anticipation and outcome of a reward or loss recruit similar or distinct brain regions. In particular, while the striatum has widely been found to be active when anticipating a reward, whether it activates in response to the anticipation of losses as well remains ambiguous. Furthermore, concerning the orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal regions, activation is often observed during reward receipt. However, it is unclear if this area is active during reward anticipation as well. We ran an Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analysis of 50 fMRI studies, which used the Monetary Incentive Delay Task (MIDT), to identify which brain regions are implicated in the anticipation of rewards, anticipation of losses, and the receipt of reward. Anticipating rewards and losses recruits overlapping areas including the striatum, insula, amygdala and thalamus, suggesting that a generalised neural system initiates motivational processes independent of valence. The orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal regions were recruited only during the reward outcome, likely representing the value of the reward received. Our findings help to clarify the neural substrates of the different phases of reward and loss processing, and advance neurobiological models of these processes. © 2018 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Significant effect of substrate temperature on the phase structure, optical and electrical properties of RF sputtered CIGS films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu Zhou; Yan Yong; Li Shasha; Zhang Yanxia; Yan Chuanpeng; Liu Lian; Zhang Yong [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Suspension Technology and Maglev Vehicle, Ministry of Education, Superconductivity and New energy R and D Center (SNERDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Zhao Yong, E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Suspension Technology and Maglev Vehicle, Ministry of Education, Superconductivity and New energy R and D Center (SNERDC), Mail Stop 165, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary phase exist in the RF sputtered CIGS films as it deposited at 150 Degree-Sign C and 500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CIGS films deposited beyond 350 Degree-Sign C show (1 1 2) prefer orientation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E{sub g} of the CIGS films increased with the increase of substrate temperature. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conductivity of the films is affected by 'variable range hopping' mechanism. - Abstract: This work studied the effect of substrate temperature on the phase structure, optical and electrical properties of the one-step radio frequency sputtered Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that all the deposited CIGS films are chalcopyrite phase with polycrystalline structure. The films deposited beyond the substrate temperature of 350 Degree-Sign C show (1 1 2) prefer orientation. Raman spectra reveal that the 150 Degree-Sign C deposited CIGS film coexists with Cu{sub 2-x}Se phase and the 500 Degree-Sign C deposited film contains ordered defect compound (ODC) phase. With the increase of substrate temperature, energy band gap of the CIGS film increase from 0.99 to 1.27 eV. Films deposited at higher temperature exhibit larger electrical conductivity. Conductivity of the CIGS films is dominated by 'variable range hopping' mechanism. The disorder in our CIGS the films is associated with the formation of intrinsic defects such as V{sub Se} and In{sub Cu} for their low formation energy.

  16. Preoperative Short-Course Concurrent Chemoradiation Therapy Followed by Delayed Surgery for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Phase 2 Multicenter Study (KROG 10-01)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeo, Seung-Gu [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Oncology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jae Hwan [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dae Yong, E-mail: radiopiakim@hanmail.net [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Ji Yeon; Kim, Sun Young; Park, Ji Won; Kim, Min Ju; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Tae Hyun [Center for Colorectal Cancer, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Hoon; Jang, Hong Seok [Department of Radiation Oncology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun-Gi [Department of Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myung Ah [Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Taek-Keun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chonnam National University Hospital, Gwang-Ju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase 2 multicenter trial was performed to investigate the efficacy and safety of preoperative short-course concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CRT) followed by delayed surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventy-three patients with cT3-4 rectal cancer were enrolled. Radiation therapy of 25 Gy in 5 fractions was delivered over 5 consecutive days using helical tomotherapy. Concurrent chemotherapy was administered on the same 5 days with intravenous bolus injection of 5-fluorouracil (400 mg/m{sup 2}/day) and leucovorin (20 mg/m{sup 2}/day). After 4 to 8 weeks, total mesorectal excision was performed. The primary endpoint was the pathologic downstaging (ypStage 0-I) rate, and secondary endpoints included tumor regression grade, tumor volume reduction rate, and toxicity. Results: Seventy-one patients completed the planned preoperative CRT and surgery. Downstaging occurred in 20 (28.2%) patients, including 1 (1.4%) with a pathologic complete response. Favorable tumor regression (grade 4-3) was observed in 4 (5.6%) patients, and the mean tumor volume reduction rate was 62.5 ± 21.3%. Severe (grade ≥3) treatment toxicities were reported in 27 (38%) patients from CRT until 3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative short-course concurrent CRT followed by delayed surgery for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer demonstrated poor pathologic responses compared with conventional long-course CRT, and it yielded considerable toxicities despite the use of an advanced radiation therapy technique.

  17. Delayed Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases, it is due to a combination of physical and psychological concerns. Psychological causes of delayed ejaculation include: Depression, anxiety or other mental health conditions Relationship problems due to stress, poor communication ...

  18. Delayed growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Slow rate of growth; Retarded growth and development; Growth delay Images Toddler development References Cooke DW, Divall SA, Radovick S. Normal and aberrant growth in children. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, ...

  19. Dual-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT and bone scintigraphy in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Correlation with clinical or pathological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Zhongling; Shen, Chentian; Zhu, Ruisen; Luo, Quanyong; Wu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy and clinical or pathological variables, including preoperative serum PTH levels and tumor diameter, in patients with newly diagnosed PHPT. Dual phase 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy was performed in 244 patients with PHPT. Of these patients, 155 underwent 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy to detect bone changes before parathyroidectomy. Factors influencing 99m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy detection rate were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis; optimal cutoff values for predicting positive 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy were evaluated using ROC analysis. Among 244 patients, 174 (71.31%) patients with 181 foci had a positive 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy; delayed neck and thorax SPECT/CT could identify and locate the 99m Tc-MIBI lesions but could not find more lesions than planar scintigraphy. 70 (28.69%) patients had a negative 99m Tc-MIBI planar scintigraphy. Tumor diameter, serum PTH level and symptoms were statistically significant predictive factors in predicting positive 9m Tc-MIBI scintigraphy both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.03 cm and 127.60 ng/L, respectively. Among 155 patients with bone scintigraphy, 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy showed positive finding in 80 (51.61%) patients and negative finding in 75 patients. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that patient age, sex, tumor diameter and PTH level (≥150 ng/L) were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed both tumor diameter and PTH ≥150 ng/L were statistically significant in predicting positive 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. The optimal thresholds for tumor diameter and serum PTH by ROC analysis were 1.96 cm and 163

  20. Growth of AlGaN under the conditions of significant gallium evaporation: phase separation and enhanced lateral growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mayboroda, I. O.; Knizhnik, A. A.; Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Ezubchenko, I. S.; Zanaveskin, Maxim L.; Presniakov, M. Yu.; Potapkin, B. V.; Ilyin, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    Growth kinetics of AlGaN in NH3 MBE under significant Ga desorption was studied. It was found that the addition of gallium stimulates 2D growth and provides better morphology of films compared to pure AlN. The effect was experimentally observed at up to 98% desorption of the impinging gallium. We found that, under the conditions of significant thermal desorption, larger amounts of gallium were retained at lateral boundaries of 3D surface features than at flat terraces because of the higher bi...

  1. The Effect of a Reconstruction Technique and Heart Rate in the Evaluation of Optimal Trigger Delay Using Multiphase Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Jun

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the mean optimal trigger delays and the difference between the absolute delay and the relative delay as a function of heart rate, using multiphase reconstruction. A total of 30 patients consecutively underwent a 64-slice MDCT examination. Optimal trigger delays at four planes (the bifurcation of the left main coronary artery, aortic valve, mitral valve and cardiac apex) were measured using multiphase reconstruction based on the absolute and relative delay. For this reason, patients were divided into three groups according to heart rate (group I, < 65 bpm; group II, 65-74 bpm; group III, ≥ 75 bpm), and the mean optimal trigger delays and the difference between the absolute delay and the relative delay were evaluated at the four planes for each group. The mean optimal trigger delay for the relative delay and absolute delay ranged from 46% to 66% and from 327 to 700 msec, respectively. The differences in the mean optimal trigger delay using the relative and the absolute delay at the four planes were 1% and 4 msec (group I), 3% and 27 msec (group II), and 14% and 46 msec (group III). In group III, the difference of the mean optimal trigger delay based on the relative delay, increased significantly compared to the absolute delay (p = 0.040). For the patients analyzed, the results suggest that as the heart rate increased, the mean optimal trigger delays shifted from the mid-diastolic phase to the end-systolic phase and the differences in the mean optimal trigger delay at the four planes were significantly greater for the relative delay

  2. Post-irradiation DNA synthesis inhibition and G2 phase delay in radiosensitive body cells from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients: An indication of cell cycle defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannan, Mohammed A.; Kunhi, Mohammed; Einspenner, Michael; Khan, Bashir A.; Al-Sedairy, Sultan

    1994-01-01

    In the present study, both post-irradiation DNA synthesis and G 2 phase accumulation were analyzed in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) and fibroblast cell strains derived from (Saudi) patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), ataxia telangiectasia (AT), AT heterozygotes and normal subjects. A comparison of the percent DNA synthesis inhibition (assayed by 3 H-thymidine uptake 30 min after irradiation), and a 24 h post-irradiation G 2 phase accumulation determined by flow cytometry placed the AT heterozygotes and the NHL patients in an intermediate position between the normal subjects (with maximum DNA synthesis inhibition and minimum G 2 phase accumulation) and the AT homozygotes (with minimum DNA synthesis inhibition and maximum G 2 accumulation). The similarity between AT heterozygotes and the NHL patients with respect to the two parameters studied after irradiation was statistically significant. The data indicating a moderate abnormality in the control of cell cycle progression after irradiation in the LCLs and fibroblasts from NHL patients may explain the enhanced cellular and chromosomal radiosensitivity in these patients reported by us earlier. In addition to demonstrating a link between cell cycle abnormality and radiosensitivity as a possible basis for cancer susceptibility, particularly in the NHL patients, the present studies emphasized the usefulness of the assay for 24 h post-irradiation G 2 phase accumulation developed elsewhere in characterizing AT heterozygote-like cell cycle anomaly in cancer patients irrespective of whether they carried the AT gene or any other affecting the cell cycle

  3. Delayed power analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamovich, L.A.; Azarov, V.V.

    1999-01-01

    Time dependent core power behavior in a nuclear reactor is described with well-known neutron kinetics equations. At the same time, two portions are distinguished in energy released from uranium nuclei fission; one released directly at fission and another delayed (residual) portion produced during radioactive decay of fission products. While prompt power is definitely described with kinetics equations, the delayed power presentation still remains outstanding. Since in operation the delayed power part is relatively small (about 6%) operation, it can be neglected for small reactivity disturbances assuming that entire power obeys neutron kinetics equations. In case of a high negative reactivity rapidly inserted in core (e.g. reactor scram initiation) the prompt and delayed components can be calculated separately with practically no impact on each other, employing kinetics equations for prompt power and known approximation formulas for delayed portion, named residual in this specific case. Under substantial disturbances the prompt component in the dynamic process becomes commensurable with delayed portion, thus making necessary to take into account their cross impact. A system of differential equations to describe time-dependent behavior of delayed power is presented. Specific NPP analysis shows a way to significantly simplify the task formulation. (author)

  4. Attention bias for sleep-related stimuli in primary insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome using the dot-probe task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Kenneth M A; Broomfield, Niall M; Espie, Colin A

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of primary insomnia (PI) suggest attention bias as a maintaining process. This study used a hallmark measure of attention bias, the dot-probe task, to determine whether attention bias to sleep-related stimuli is present in individuals with PI. Control groups of good sleepers (GS) and individuals with delayed sleep phase syndrome (DSPS), a sleep disorder with no presumed cognitive pathway and, hence, no predicted association with attention bias, were included. A between-groups (PI, DSPS, GS) design was employed. Participants completed a dot-probe task with stimuli comprising sleep-related and neutral words, balanced for length and frequency of usage. It was predicted a priori that PI would show greater attention bias to sleep stimuli compared with GS and DSPS groups. No difference between GS and DSPS was predicted. Sixty-three individuals completed the study (PI = 21; DSPS = 22; GS = 20), with those in PI and DSPS classified by International Classification of Sleep Disorders criteria according to self-report sleep diaries and actigraphy. GS scored Sleep Quality Index, reported being good sleepers, and met no criteria for a current or previous sleep disorder. N/A. As predicted, PI showed increased vigilance for sleep-related stimuli relative to GS and DSPS. No differences between GS and those with DSPS were found. The PI group showed shorter response latencies relative to the GS and DSPS groups. Results support an association between attention bias and PI. Further work must determine whether or not attention bias is a causal factor. Speeded responses in the PI group suggest heightened arousal, indicating that physiologic factors may play a related role.

  5. Developmental delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutrition support is essential for the care of the child with developmental delay. After a thorough evaluation, an individualized intervention plan that accounts for the child’s nutrition status, feeding ability, and medical condition may be determined. Nutrition assessments may be performed at leas...

  6. Significance of delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT scintigraphy in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Comparison between /sup 99m/Tc-PMT and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Nakano, Shunichi; Hashizume, Terumi and others

    1985-03-01

    The usefulness of delayed hepatobiliary imaging with /sup 99m/Tc-PMT in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma was studied in 30 patients with histologically verified hepatocellular carcinoma. Of 30 patients, delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images showed 13 patients (43 %) of increased radioactivity and 4 (13 %) of equilibrated radioactivity in carcinoma as compared with that in the surrounding normal liver tissues. Furthermore, 3 of 6 patients who showed no filling defects in /sup 99m/Tc-Sn colloid liver images, showed increased uptake of radioactivity in carcinoma in delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT images. These results suggest that the complementary use of delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT imaging to /sup 99m/Tc-Sn colloid liver imaging is useful for detecting hepatoma lesions. The hepatic lesions were positively visualized on /sup 99m/Tc-PMT and/or /sup 67/Ga-citrate images in 21 (70 %) of 30 patients. These results indicate that use of delayed /sup 99m/Tc-PMT and /sup 67/Ga-citrate imaging in combination is useful for positive visualization of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  7. Time-Delay Interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Tinto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector. In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths (as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed. It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry (TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements. We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations.

  8. Effects of early versus delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes of HIV-1 infection: results from the phase 3 HPTN 052 randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Ribaudo, Heather J; Swindells, Susan; Eron, Joseph; Chen, Ying Q; Wang, Lei; Ou, San-San; Anderson, Maija; McCauley, Marybeth; Gamble, Theresa; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeshwaran; Hakim, James G; Kumwenda, Johnstone; Pilotto, Jose H S; Godbole, Sheela V; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; de Melo, Marineide Gonçalves; Mayer, Kenneth H; Eshleman, Susan H; Piwowar-Manning, Estelle; Makhema, Joseph; Mills, Lisa A; Panchia, Ravindre; Sanne, Ian; Gallant, Joel; Hoffman, Irving; Taha, Taha E; Nielsen-Saines, Karin; Celentano, David; Essex, Max; Havlir, Diane; Cohen, Myron S

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Use of antiretroviral treatment for HIV-1 infection has decreased AIDS-related morbidity and mortality and prevents sexual transmission of HIV-1. However, the best time to initiate antiretroviral treatment to reduce progression of HIV-1 infection or non-AIDS clinical events is unknown. We reported previously that early antiretroviral treatment reduced HIV-1 transmission by 96%. We aimed to compare the effects of early and delayed initiation of antiretroviral treatment on clinical outcomes. Methods The HPTN 052 trial is a randomised controlled trial done at 13 sites in nine countries. We enrolled HIV-1-serodiscordant couples to the study and randomly allocated them to either early or delayed antiretroviral treatment by use of permuted block randomisation, stratified by site. Random assignment was unblinded. The HIV-1-infected member of every couple initiated antiretroviral treatment either on entry into the study (early treatment group) or after a decline in CD4 count or with onset of an AIDS-related illness (delayed treatment group). Primary events were AIDS clinical events (WHO stage 4 HIV-1 disease, tuberculosis, and severe bacterial infections) and the following serious medical conditions unrelated to AIDS: serious cardiovascular or vascular disease, serious liver disease, end-stage renal disease, new-onset diabetes mellitus, and non-AIDS malignant disease. Analysis was by intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00074581. Findings 1763 people with HIV-1 infection and a serodiscordant partner were enrolled in the study; 886 were assigned early antiretroviral treatment and 877 to the delayed treatment group (two individuals were excluded from this group after randomisation). Median CD4 counts at randomisation were 442 (IQR 373–522) cells per μL in patients assigned to the early treatment group and 428 (357–522) cells per μL in those allocated delayed antiretroviral treatment. In the delayed group

  9. Lesions Responsible for Delayed Oral Transit Time in Post-stroke Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Hyun Im; Yoon, Seo Yeon; Yi, Tae Im; Jeong, Yoon Jeong; Cho, Tae Hwan

    2017-10-11

    Some stroke patients show oral phase dysphagia, characterized by a markedly prolonged oral transit time that hinders oral feeding. The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics and lesions responsible for delayed swallowing. We reviewed 90 patients with stroke. The oral processing time plus the postfaucial aggregation time required to swallow semisolid food was assessed. The patients were divided into two groups according to oral transit time, and we analyzed the differences in characteristics such as demographic factors, lesion factors, and cognitive function. Logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the predictors of delayed oral transit time. Lesion location and volume were measured on brain magnetic resonance images. We generated statistic maps of lesions related to delayed oral phase in swallowing using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM). The group of patients who showed delayed oral transit time had significantly low cognitive function. Also, in a regression model, delayed oral phase was predicted with low K-MMSE (Korean version of the Mini Mental Status Exam). Using VLSM, we found the lesion location to be associated with delayed oral phase after adjusting for K-MMSE score. Although these results did not reach statistical significance, they showed the lesion pattern with predominant distribution in the left frontal lobe. Delayed oral phase in post-stroke patients was not negligible clinically. Patients' cognitive impairments affect the oral transit time. When adjusting it, we found a trend that the lesion responsible for delayed oral phase was located in the left frontal lobe, though the association did not reach significance. The delay might be related to praxis function.

  10. A Phase 1 Pharmacokinetic Study of Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release Capsules Following Oral Administration with Orange Juice, Water, or Omeprazole in Cystinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Danielle; Holt, Robert J; Confer, Nils F; Checani, Gregg C; Obaidi, Mohammad; Xie, Yuli; Brannagan, Meg

    2018-02-01

    Cystinosis is a rare, metabolic, autosomal recessive, genetic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by an accumulation of cystine in various organs and tissues. Cysteamine bitartrate (CB) is a cystine-depleting aminothiol agent approved in the United States and Europe in immediate-release and delayed-release (DR) formulations for the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis in children and adults. It is recommended that CBDR be administered with fruit juice (except grapefruit juice) for maximum absorption. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that inhibits gastric acid secretion and, theoretically, may cause the premature release of cysteamine by increasing intragastric pH, thereby affecting the PK of CBDR. This open-label, three-period, randomized study in healthy adult subjects was designed primarily to compare the pharmacokinetics of CBDR capsules after a single oral dose administered with orange juice, water, or multiple oral doses of omeprazole with water at steady state. A total of 32 subjects were randomly assigned to receive study agents in one of two treatment sequences. All subjects completed the study and baseline characteristics of the overall population and the two treatment sequence populations were similar. Peak mean plasma cysteamine concentrations following co-administration of CBDR capsules with orange juice (1892 ng/mL) were higher compared with co-administration with water (1663 ng/mL) or omeprazole 20 mg and water (1712 ng/mL). Mean time to peak plasma concentration was shorter with omeprazole co-administration (2.5 h) compared with orange juice (3.5 h) or water (3.0 h). Statistical comparisons between treatment groups indicated that exposure as assessed by AUC 0-t , AUC 0-∞ , and C max were all within the 80-125% bioequivalence ranges for all comparisons. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Overall, the pharmacokinetics of cysteamine bitartrate DR capsules are not significantly impacted by co-administration with orange juice

  11. [Active surveillance for prostate cancer: usefulness of endorectal MR at 1.5 Tesla with pelvic phased array coil in detecting significant tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, F; Hallouin, P; Barré, C; Aillet, G; Chauveau, P; Hétet, J-F; Bouchot, O; Rigaud, J

    2011-02-01

    To describe and assess MRI signs of significant tumor in a series of patients who all underwent radical prostatectomy and also fulfilled criteria to choose active surveillance according to French "SurAcaP" protocol. The clinical reports of 681 consecutive patients operated on for prostate cancer between 2002 and 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients had endorectal MR (1.5 Tesla) with pelvic phased array coil. (1.5 T erMR PPA). Sixty-one patients (8.9%) fulfilled "SurAcaP" protocol criteria. Preoperative data (MR+core biopsy) were assessed by comparison to whole-mount step section pathology. 85.3% of the 61 patients entering SurAcaP protocol had significant tumor at pathology. (Non Organ Confined Disease (Non OCD)=8.2%, Gleason sum score>6=39.2%). A new exclusion criterion has been assessed: T3MRI±NPS>1 as a predictor tool of significant tumor. ("T3MRI±NPS>1"=Non OCD at MR±number of positive sextants involved in tumor at MR and/or Core Biopsy > to 1). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of the criterion "T3MRI±NPS>1" in predicting significant tumor were, respectively: 77%, 33%, 86%, 20%. Adding this criterion to other criteria of the "SurAcaP" protocol could allow the exclusion of all Non OCD, and a decrease in Gleason sum Score>6 rates (20%). Endorectal MR at 1.5 Tesla with pelvic-phased array coil should be considered when selecting patients for active surveillance in the management of prostate cancer. A criterion based upon MR and core biopsy findings, called "T3MR±NSP>1" may represent an exclusion citeria due to its ability to predict significant tumor. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Topological Acoustic Delay Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiwang; Tian, Ye; Cheng, Ying; Wei, Qi; Liu, Xiaojun; Christensen, Johan

    2018-03-01

    Topological protected wave engineering in artificially structured media is at the frontier of ongoing metamaterials research that is inspired by quantum mechanics. Acoustic analogues of electronic topological insulators have recently led to a wealth of new opportunities in manipulating sound propagation with strikingly unconventional acoustic edge modes immune to backscattering. Earlier fabrications of topological insulators are characterized by an unreconfigurable geometry and a very narrow frequency response, which severely hinders the exploration and design of useful devices. Here we establish topologically protected sound in reconfigurable phononic crystals that can be switched on and off simply by rotating its three-legged "atoms" without altering the lattice structure. In particular, we engineer robust phase delay defects that take advantage of the ultrabroadband reflection-free sound propagation. Such topological delay lines serve as a paradigm in compact acoustic devices, interconnects, and electroacoustic integrated circuits.

  13. Trigger delay compensation of beam synchronous sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimel, J.

    1996-05-01

    One of the problems of providing beam feedback in a large accelerator is the lack of beam synchronous trigger signals far from the RF signal source. IF single bucket resolutions are required, a cable extending from the RF source to the other side of the accelerator will not provide a synchronous signal if the RF frequency changes significantly with respect to the cable delay. This paper offers a solution to this problem by locking to the RF, at the remote location, using a digital phase locked loop. Then, the digitized frequency value is used to calculate the phase shift required to remain synchronized to the beam. Results are shown for phase lock to the Fermilab Main Ring RF. 1 ref., 4 figs

  14. Solid-solid phase transformation via internal stress-induced virtual melting, significantly below the melting temperature. Application to HMX energetic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitas, Valery I; Henson, Bryan F; Smilowitz, Laura B; Asay, Blaine W

    2006-05-25

    We theoretically predict a new phenomenon, namely, that a solid-solid phase transformation (PT) with a large transformation strain can occur via internal stress-induced virtual melting along the interface at temperatures significantly (more than 100 K) below the melting temperature. We show that the energy of elastic stresses, induced by transformation strain, increases the driving force for melting and reduces the melting temperature. Immediately after melting, stresses relax and the unstable melt solidifies. Fast solidification in a thin layer leads to nanoscale cracking which does not affect the thermodynamics or kinetics of the solid-solid transformation. Thus, virtual melting represents a new mechanism of solid-solid PT, stress relaxation, and loss of coherence at a moving solid-solid interface. It also removes the athermal interface friction and deletes the thermomechanical memory of preceding cycles of the direct-reverse transformation. It is also found that nonhydrostatic compressive internal stresses promote melting in contrast to hydrostatic pressure. Sixteen theoretical predictions are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experiments conducted on the PTs in the energetic crystal HMX. In particular, (a) the energy of internal stresses is sufficient to reduce the melting temperature from 551 to 430 K for the delta phase during the beta --> delta PT and from 520 to 400 K for the beta phase during the delta --> beta PT; (b) predicted activation energies for direct and reverse PTs coincide with corresponding melting energies of the beta and delta phases and with the experimental values; (c) the temperature dependence of the rate constant is determined by the heat of fusion, for both direct and reverse PTs; results b and c are obtained both for overall kinetics and for interface propagation; (d) considerable nanocracking, homogeneously distributed in the transformed material, accompanies the PT, as predicted by theory; (e) the nanocracking does not

  15. Design and development of a surface micro-machined push–pull-type true-time-delay phase shifter on an alumina substrate for Ka-band T/R module application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Sukomal; Koul, Shiban K

    2012-01-01

    A radio frequency micro-electro-mechanical system (RF-MEMS) phase shifter based on the distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) concept towards maximum achievable phase shift with low actuation voltage with good figure of merit (FOM) is presented in this paper. This surface micro-machined analog DMTL phase shifter demonstrates low power consumption for implementation in a Ka-band transmit/receive (T/R) module. The push–pull-type switch has been designed and optimized with an analytical method and validated with simulation, which is the fundamental building block of the design of a true-time-delay phase shifter. Change in phase has been designed and optimized in push and pull states with reference to the up-state performance of the phase shifter. The working principle of this push–pull-type DMTL phase shifter has been comprehensively worked out. A thorough detail of the design and performance analysis of the phase shifter has been carried out with various structural parameters using commercially available simulation tools with reference to a change in phase shift and has been verified using a system level simulation. The phase shifter is fabricated on the alumina substrate, using a suspended gold bridge membrane with a surface micromachining process. Asymmetric behaviour of push–pull bridge configuration has been noted and a corresponding effect on mechanical, electrical and RF performances has been extensively investigated. It is demonstrated 114° dB −1 FOM over 0–40 GHz band, which is the highest achievable FOM from a unit cell on an alumina substrate reported so far. A complete phase shifter contributes to a continuous differential phase shift of 0°–360° over 0–40 GHz band with a minimum actuation voltage of 8.1 V which is the highest achievable phase shift with the lowest actuation voltage as per till date on the alumina substrate with good repeatability and return loss better than 11.5 dB over 0–40 GHz band. (paper)

  16. Delay 25 an ASIC for timing adjustment in LHC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Furtado, H.; Schrader, J.H.R.; Marchioro, A.; Moreira, P.

    A five channel programmable delay line ASIC was designed featuring 4 channels that allow to phase delay periodic or non-periodic digital signals and a master channel that can be used to phase delay a clock signal. The master channel serves as a calibration reference guaranteeing independence from

  17. Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Robert U

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been substantial increase in use of androgen deprivation therapy as adjuvant management of prostate cancer. However, this leads to a range of musculoskeletal toxicities including reduced bone mass and increased skeletal fractures compounded with rapid metabolic alterations, including increased body fat, reduced lean mass, insulin resistance and negative lipoprotein profile, increased incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, greater distress and reduced quality of life. Numerous research studies have demonstrated certain exercise prescriptions to be effective at preventing or even reversing these treatment toxicities. However, all interventions to date have been of rehabilitative intent being implemented after a minimum of 3 months since initiation of androgen deprivation, by which time considerable physical and psychological health problems have manifested. The pressing question is whether it is more efficacious to commence exercise therapy at the same time as initiating androgen deprivation, so treatment induced adverse effects can be immediately attenuated or indeed prevented. Methods/design We are proposing a multi-site randomized controlled trial with partial crossover to examine the effects of timing of exercise implementation (immediate or delayed on preserving long-term skeletal health, reversing short- and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and supporting mental health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. 124 men who are about to initiate androgen deprivation for prostate cancer will be randomized to immediate or delayed groups. Immediate will commence a 6-month exercise program within 7–10 days of their first dose. Delayed will receive usual care for 6 months and then commence the exercise program for 6 months (partial cross-over. Immediate will be free to adopt the lifestyle of their choosing following the initial 6-month intervention. Measurements for primary and

  18. Can exercise ameliorate treatment toxicity during the initial phase of testosterone deprivation in prostate cancer patients? Is this more effective than delayed rehabilitation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, Robert U; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel; Cormie, Prue; Chambers, Suzanne K; Gardiner, Robert A; Shum, David HK; Joseph, David; Galvão, Daniel A

    2012-01-01

    There has been substantial increase in use of androgen deprivation therapy as adjuvant management of prostate cancer. However, this leads to a range of musculoskeletal toxicities including reduced bone mass and increased skeletal fractures compounded with rapid metabolic alterations, including increased body fat, reduced lean mass, insulin resistance and negative lipoprotein profile, increased incidence of cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity, greater distress and reduced quality of life. Numerous research studies have demonstrated certain exercise prescriptions to be effective at preventing or even reversing these treatment toxicities. However, all interventions to date have been of rehabilitative intent being implemented after a minimum of 3 months since initiation of androgen deprivation, by which time considerable physical and psychological health problems have manifested. The pressing question is whether it is more efficacious to commence exercise therapy at the same time as initiating androgen deprivation, so treatment induced adverse effects can be immediately attenuated or indeed prevented. We are proposing a multi-site randomized controlled trial with partial crossover to examine the effects of timing of exercise implementation (immediate or delayed) on preserving long-term skeletal health, reversing short- and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, and supporting mental health in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy. 124 men who are about to initiate androgen deprivation for prostate cancer will be randomized to immediate or delayed groups. Immediate will commence a 6-month exercise program within 7–10 days of their first dose. Delayed will receive usual care for 6 months and then commence the exercise program for 6 months (partial cross-over). Immediate will be free to adopt the lifestyle of their choosing following the initial 6-month intervention. Measurements for primary and secondary endpoints will take place at baseline, 6

  19. Digital Signal Processing Applications and Implementation for Accelerators Digital Notch Filter with Programmable Delay and Betatron Phase Adjustment for the PS, SPS and LHC Transverse Dampers

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, V

    2002-01-01

    In the framework of the LHC project and the modifications of the SPS as its injector, I present the concept of global digital signal processing applied to a particle accelerator, using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology. The approach of global digital synthesis implements in numerical form the architecture of a system, from the start up of a project and the very beginning of the signal flow. It takes into account both the known parameters and the future evolution, whenever possible. Due to the increased performance requirements of today's projects, the CAE design methodology becomes more and more necessary to handle successfully the added complexity and speed of modern electronic circuits. Simulation is performed both for behavioural analysis, to ensure conformity to functional requirements, and for time signal analysis (speed requirements). The digital notch filter with programmable delay for the SPS Transverse Damper is now fully operational with fixed target and LHC-type beams circulating in t...

  20. Delayed puberty in girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sexual development - girls; Pubertal delay - girls; Constitutional delayed puberty ... In most cases of delayed puberty, growth changes just begin later than usual, sometimes called a late bloomer. Once puberty begins, it progresses normally. This pattern runs ...

  1. Delayed Puberty (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Delayed Puberty KidsHealth / For Teens / Delayed Puberty What's in this ... wonder if there's anything wrong. What Is Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your body grows ...

  2. Study of Relationship Between Illness Perception and Delay in Seeking Help for Breast Cancer Patients Based on Leventhal's Self-Regulation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attari, Seyedeh Maryam; Ozgoli, Giti; Solhi, Mahnaz; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    One of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer patients is delay in seeking help. Leventhal's self-regulation model provides an appropriate framework to assess delay in seeking help. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between "illness perception" and "help seeking delay" in breast cancer patients based on Leventhal's self-regulation model. In this correlational descriptive study with convenience sampling conducted in 2013, participants were 120 women with breast cancer who were diagnosed in the last year and referred to chemotherapy and radiotherapy centers in Rasht, Iran. Data collection scales included demographic data, Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire (IPQ-R)and a researcher made questionnaire to measure the delay in seeking help. Pre-hospital delay (help seeking delay) was evaluated in 3 phases (assessment, disease, behavior). The data were analyzed using SPSS-19. The mean (SD) age calculated for the patients was 47.3±10.2. Some 43% of the patients had a high school or higher education level and 82% were married. The "pre-hospital delay" was reported ≥3 months. Logistic regression analysis showed that none of the illness perception components were correlated with appraisal and behavioral delay phases. In the illness delay phase, "time line" (p-value =0.04) and "risk factors"(p-value=0.03) had significant effects on reducing and "psychological attributions" had significant effects on increasing the delay (p-value =0.01). "Illness coherence" was correlated with decreased pre-hospital patient delay (p-valueperceptions of breast cancer influences delay in seeking help. In addition to verifying the validity of Leventhal's self-regulation model in explaining delay in seeking help, the results signify the importance of the "illness delay phase" (decision to seek help) and educational interventions-counseling for women in the community.

  3. A Robust and Multi-Weighted Approach to Estimating Topographically Correlated Tropospheric Delays in Radar Interferograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bangyan Zhu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial and temporal variations in the vertical stratification of the troposphere introduce significant propagation delays in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR observations. Observations of small amplitude surface deformations and regional subsidence rates are plagued by tropospheric delays, and strongly correlated with topographic height variations. Phase-based tropospheric correction techniques assuming a linear relationship between interferometric phase and topography have been exploited and developed, with mixed success. Producing robust estimates of tropospheric phase delay however plays a critical role in increasing the accuracy of InSAR measurements. Meanwhile, few phase-based correction methods account for the spatially variable tropospheric delay over lager study regions. Here, we present a robust and multi-weighted approach to estimate the correlation between phase and topography that is relatively insensitive to confounding processes such as regional subsidence over larger regions as well as under varying tropospheric conditions. An expanded form of robust least squares is introduced to estimate the spatially variable correlation between phase and topography by splitting the interferograms into multiple blocks. Within each block, correlation is robustly estimated from the band-filtered phase and topography. Phase-elevation ratios are multiply- weighted and extrapolated to each persistent scatter (PS pixel. We applied the proposed method to Envisat ASAR images over the Southern California area, USA, and found that our method mitigated the atmospheric noise better than the conventional phase-based method. The corrected ground surface deformation agreed better with those measured from GPS.

  4. Optimal control of M/M/1 two-phase queueing system with state-dependent arrival rate, server breakdowns, delayed repair, and N-policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Hanumantha; Kumar, Vasanta; Srinivasa Rao, T.; Srinivasa Kumar, B.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we examine a two-stage queueing system where the arrivals are Poisson with rate depends on the condition of the server to be specific: vacation, pre-service, operational or breakdown state. The service station is liable to breakdowns and deferral in repair because of non-accessibility of the repair facility. The service is in two basic stages, the first being bulk service to every one of the customers holding up on the line and the second stage is individual to each of them. The server works under N-policy. The server needs preliminary time (startup time) to begin batch service after a vacation period. Startup times, uninterrupted service times, the length of each vacation period, delay times and service times follows an exponential distribution. The closed form of expressions for the mean system size at different conditions of the server is determined. Numerical investigations are directed to concentrate the impact of the system parameters on the ideal limit N and the minimum base expected unit cost.

  5. Speech and Language Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... OTC Relief for Diarrhea Home Diseases and Conditions Speech and Language Delay Condition Speech and Language Delay Share Print Table of Contents1. ... Treatment6. Everyday Life7. Questions8. Resources What is a speech and language delay? A speech and language delay ...

  6. First Delayed Resection Findings After Irreversible Electroporation (IRE) of Human Localised Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC) in the IRENE Pilot Phase 2a Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendler, Johann Jakob, E-mail: johann.wendler@med.ovgu.de [Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology, University Hospital (Germany); Ricke, Jens, E-mail: jens.Ricke@med.ovgu.de; Pech, Maciej, E-mail: macej.pech@med.ovgu.de; Fischbach, Frank, E-mail: frank.fischbach@med.ovgu.de; Jürgens, Julian, E-mail: julian.juergens@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Siedentopf, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.siedentopf@med.ovgu.de; Roessner, Albert, E-mail: albert.roessner@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Porsch, Markus, E-mail: markus.porsch@med.ovgu.de; Baumunk, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.baumunk@med.ovgu.de; Schostak, Martin, E-mail: martin.schostak@med.ovgu.de [Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology, University Hospital (Germany); Köllermann, Jens, E-mail: jens.koellermann@sana.de [Sana Klinikum Offenbach Am Main, Institute of Pathology (Germany); Liehr, Uwe-Bernd, E-mail: uwe-bernd.liehr@med.ovgu.de [Otto von Guericke University of Magdeburg, Department of Urology, University Hospital (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    IntroductionIt is postulated that focal IRE affords complete ablation of soft-tissue tumours while protecting the healthy peritumoral tissue. Therefore, IRE may be an interesting option for minimally invasive, kidney-tissue-sparing, non-thermal ablation of renal tumours.AimWith this current pilot study (“IRENE trial”), we present the first detailed histopathological data of IRE of human RCC followed by delayed tumour resection. The aim of this interim analysis of the first three patients was to investigate the ablation efficiency of percutaneous image-guided focal IRE in RCC, to assess whether a complete ablation of T1a RCC and tissue preservation with the NanoKnife system is possible and to decide whether the ablation parameters need to be altered.MethodsFollowing resection 4 weeks after percutaneous IRE, the success of ablation and detailed histopathological description were used to check the ablation parameters.ResultsThe IRE led to a high degree of damage to the renal tumours (1 central, 2 peripheral; size range 15–17 mm). The postulated homogeneous, isomorphic damage was only partly confirmed. We found a zonal structuring of the ablation zone, negative margins and, enclosed within the ablation zone, very small tumour residues of unclear malignancy.ConclusionAccording to these initial, preliminary study results of the first three renal cases, a new zonal distribution of IRE damage was described and the curative intended, renal saving focal ablation of localised RCC below <3 cm by percutaneous IRE by the NanoKnife system appears to be possible, but needs further, systematic evaluation for this treatment method and treatment protocol.

  7. Two-week course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by delayed surgery for rectal cancer: A phase II multi-institutional clinical trial (KROG 11-02)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Baek, Ji Yeon; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Hee Cheol; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Hong Seok

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-week schedule of radiotherapy with oral capecitabine in locally advanced rectal cancer. Methods and materials: Eighty patients with rectal cancer located in the mid to low rectum, staged cT3-4N0-2M0, were prospectively enrolled. They underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy and delayed surgery 6–8 weeks after the completion of radiation therapy. A radiation dose of 33 Gy in 10 fractions was delivered to the pelvis for 2 weeks. One cycle of oral capecitabine was administered at a dose of 1650 mg/m 2 /day during radiotherapy. Tumor response and toxicity were the study endpoints. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (number, (NCT01431599)). Results: All included patients underwent total mesorectal excisions including 12 cases of robot assisted surgery and 50 cases of laparoscopic surgery. Of the 80 patients, 27 (33.8%) achieved downstaging (ypT0-2N0) of a rectal tumor and 11 (13.8%) had a pathologically complete response (ypCR). Downstaging rates were 45% for T classification and 65% for N classification. Sphincter saving was achieved in 73 (91.3%) of the 80 patients. Of the 80 patients, 3 (3.8%) experienced grade 3 hematologic toxicity, and 2 (2.5%) had grade 3 postoperative complications such as ileus and wound dehiscence. There was no grade 4 toxicity. Conclusion: A two-week schedule of radiotherapy with oral capecitabine in locally advanced rectal cancer patients showed low toxicity profiles and promising results in terms of tumor response

  8. Two-week course of preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by delayed surgery for rectal cancer: a phase II multi-institutional clinical trial (KROG 11-02).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hoon; Kim, Jun-Gi; Oh, Seong Taek; Lee, Myung Ah; Chun, Hoo Geun; Kim, Dae Yong; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Sun Young; Baek, Ji Yeon; Park, Ji Won; Oh, Jae Hwan; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Hee Cheol; Chie, Eui Kyu; Jang, Hong Seok

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a two-week schedule of radiotherapy with oral capecitabine in locally advanced rectal cancer. Eighty patients with rectal cancer located in the mid to low rectum, staged cT3-4N0-2M0, were prospectively enrolled. They underwent preoperative chemoradiotherapy and delayed surgery 6-8 weeks after the completion of radiation therapy. A radiation dose of 33 Gy in 10 fractions was delivered to the pelvis for 2 weeks. One cycle of oral capecitabine was administered at a dose of 1650 mg/m(2)/day during radiotherapy. Tumor response and toxicity were the study endpoints. This study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (number, NCT01431599). All included patients underwent total mesorectal excisions including 12 cases of robot assisted surgery and 50 cases of laparoscopic surgery. Of the 80 patients, 27 (33.8%) achieved downstaging (ypT0-2N0) of a rectal tumor and 11 (13.8%) had a pathologically complete response (ypCR). Downstaging rates were 45% for T classification and 65% for N classification. Sphincter saving was achieved in 73 (91.3%) of the 80 patients. Of the 80 patients, 3 (3.8%) experienced grade 3 hematologic toxicity, and 2 (2.5%) had grade 3 postoperative complications such as ileus and wound dehiscence. There was no grade 4 toxicity. A two-week schedule of radiotherapy with oral capecitabine in locally advanced rectal cancer patients showed low toxicity profiles and promising results in terms of tumor response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Overexpression of catalase delays G0/G1- to S-phase transition during cell cycle progression in mouse aortic endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onumah, Ogbeyalu E; Jules, George E; Zhao, Yanfeng; Zhou, LiChun; Yang, Hong; Guo, ZhongMao

    2009-06-15

    Although it is understood that hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) promotes cellular proliferation, little is known about its role in endothelial cell cycle progression. To assess the regulatory role of endogenously produced H(2)O(2) in cell cycle progression, we studied the cell cycle progression in mouse aortic endothelial cells (MAECs) obtained from mice overexpressing a human catalase transgene (hCatTg), which destroys H(2)O(2). The hCatTg MAECs displayed a prolonged doubling time compared to wild-type controls (44.0 +/- 4.7 h versus 28.6 +/- 0.8 h, pcatalase inhibitor, prevented the observed diminished growth rate in hCatTg MAECs. Inhibition of catalase activity with aminotriazole abrogated catalase overexpression-induced antiproliferative action. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the prolonged doubling time was principally due to an extended G(0)/G(1) phase in hCatTg MAECs compared to the wild-type cells (25.0 +/- 0.9 h versus 15.9 +/- 1.4 h, pinhibitors, p21 and p27, which inhibit the Cdk activity required for the G(0)/G(1)- to S-phase transition. Knockdown of p21 and/or p27 attenuated the antiproliferative effect of catalase overexpression in MAECs. These results, together with the fact that catalase is an H(2)O(2) scavenger, suggest that endogenously produced H(2)O(2) mediates MAEC proliferation by fostering the transition from G(0)/G(1) to S phase.

  10. Validation and Application of a New Reversed Phase HPLC Method for In Vitro Dissolution Studies of Rabeprazole Sodium in Delayed-Release Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Saddam Nawaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a new reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC method to quantify in vitro dissolution assay of rabeprazole sodium in pharmaceutical tablet dosage form. Method development was performed on C 18, 100×4.6 mm ID, and 10 μm particle size column, and injection volume was 20 μL using a diode array detector (DAD to monitor the detection at 280 nm. The mobile phase consisted of buffer: acetonitrile at a ratio of 60 : 40 (v/v, and the flow rate was maintained at 1.0 mL/min. The method was validated in terms of suitability, linearity, specificity, accuracy, precision, stability, and sensitivity. Linearity was observed over the range of concentration 0.05–12.0 μg/mL, and the correlation coefficient was found excellent >0.999. The method was specific with respect to rabeprazole sodium, and the peak purity was found 99.99%. The method was precise and had relative standard deviations (RSD less than 2%. Accuracy was found in the range of 99.9 to 101.9%. The method was robust in different variable conditions and reproducible. This proposed fast, reliable, cost-effective method can be used as quality control tool for the estimation of rabeprazole sodium in routine dissolution test analysis.

  11. β-Phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) films encouraged more homogeneous cell distribution and more significant deposition of fibronectin towards the cell–material interface compared to α-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Y.K.A.; Zou, X. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Fang, Y.M. [School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Wang, J.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Lin, W.S. [School of Computer Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Boey, F.Y.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ng, K.W., E-mail: kwng@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, N4.1 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2014-01-01

    The piezoelectric response from β-phase poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) can potentially be exploited for biomedical application. We hypothesized that α and β-phase PVDF exert direct but different influence on cellular behavior. α- and β-phase PVDF films were synthesized through solution casting and characterized with FT-IR, XRD, AFM and PFM to ensure successful fabrication of α and β-phase PVDF films. Cellular evaluation with L929 mouse fibroblasts over one-week was conducted with AlamarBlue® metabolic assay and PicoGreen® proliferation assay. Immunostaining of fibronectin investigated the extent and distribution of extracellular matrix deposition. Image saliency analysis quantified differences in cellular distribution on the PVDF films. Our results showed that β-phase PVDF films with the largest area expressing piezoelectric effect elicited highest cell metabolic activity at day 3 of culture. Increased fibronectin adsorption towards the cell–material interface was shown on β-phase PVDF films. Image saliency analysis showed that fibroblasts on β-phase PVDF films were more homogeneously distributed than on α-phase PVDF films. Taken collectively, the different molecular packing of α and β-phase PVDF resulted in differing physical properties of films, which in turn induced differences in cellular behaviors. Further analysis of how α and β-phase PVDF may evoke specific cellular behavior to suit particular application will be intriguing. - Highlights: • β-Phase PVDF exhibited strongest piezoelectric effects compared to α-phase PVDF. • β-Phase PVDF induced more homogeneous cell distribution than α-phase PVDF. • β-Phase PVDF encouraged more fibronectin deposition at the cell–material interface.

  12. Dynamics of microbubble oscillators with delay coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. R.; Sah, S. M.; Rand, R. H.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the stability of the in-phase mode in a system of two delay-coupled bubble oscillators. The bubble oscillator model is based on a 1956 paper by Keller and Kolodner. Delay coupling is due to the time it takes for a signal to travel from one bubble to another through the liquid medium that surrounds them. Using techniques from the theory of differential-delay equations as well as perturbation theory, we show that the equilibrium of the in-phase mode can be made unstable if the delay is long enough and if the coupling strength is large enough, resulting in a Hopf bifurcation. We then employ Lindstedt's method to compute the amplitude of the limit cycle as a function of the time delay. This work is motivated by medical applications involving noninvasive localized drug delivery via microbubbles.

  13. Health-related quality of life for immediate versus delayed androgen-deprivation therapy in patients with asymptomatic, non-curable prostate cancer (TROG 03.06 and VCOG PR 01-03 [TOAD]): a randomised, multicentre, non-blinded, phase 3 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Gillian M; Woo, Henry H; King, Madeleine; Bowe, Steven J; Stockler, Martin R; Ames, Alice; D'Este, Catherine; Frydenberg, Mark; Loblaw, Andrew; Malone, Shawn; Millar, Jeremy; Tai, Keen Hun; Turner, Sandra

    2017-09-01

    Androgen-deprivation therapy in patients with prostate cancer who have relapsed with rising prostate-specific antigen concentration only (PSA-only relapse), or with non-curable but asymptomatic disease at diagnosis, could adversely affect quality of life at a time when the disease itself does not. We aimed to compare the effect of immediate versus delayed androgen-deprivation therapy on health-related quality of life over 5 years in men enrolled in the TOAD (Timing of Androgen Deprivation) trial. This randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 3 trial done in 29 public and private cancer centres across Australia, New Zealand, and Canada compared immediate with delayed androgen-deprivation therapy in men with PSA-only relapse after definitive treatment, or de-novo non-curable disease. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) with a database-embedded, dynamically balanced algorithm to immediate androgen-deprivation therapy (immediate therapy group) or to delayed androgen-deprivation therapy (delayed therapy group). Any type of androgen-deprivation therapy was permitted, as were intermittent or continuous schedules. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) quality-of-life questionnaires QLQ-C30 and PR25 were completed before randomisation, every 6 months for 2 years, and annually for a further 3 years. The primary outcome of the trial, reported previously, was overall survival, with global health-related quality of life at 2 years as a secondary endpoint. Here we report prespecified secondary objectives of the quality-of-life endpoint. Analysis was by intention to treat. Statistical significance was set at p=0·0036. The trial was registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12606000301561, and ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00110162. Between Sept 3, 2004, and July 13, 2012, 293 men were recruited and randomly assigned; 151 to the delayed therapy group and 142 to the immediate therapy group. There was no

  14. Peak medial (but not lateral) hamstring activity is significantly lower during stance phase of running. An EMG investigation using a reduced gravity treadmill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Clint; Einarson, Einar; Thomson, Athol; Whiteley, Rodney

    2017-09-01

    The hamstrings are seen to work during late swing phase (presumably to decelerate the extending shank) then during stance phase (presumably stabilizing the knee and contributing to horizontal force production during propulsion) of running. A better understanding of this hamstring activation during running may contribute to injury prevention and performance enhancement (targeting the specific role via specific contraction mode). Twenty active adult males underwent surface EMG recordings of their medial and lateral hamstrings while running on a reduced gravity treadmill. Participants underwent 36 different conditions for combinations of 50%-100% altering bodyweight (10% increments) & 6-16km/h (2km/h increments, i.e.: 36 conditions) for a minimum of 6 strides of each leg (maximum 32). EMG was normalized to the peak value seen for each individual during any stride in any trial to describe relative activation levels during gait. Increasing running speed effected greater increases in EMG for all muscles than did altering bodyweight. Peak EMG for the lateral hamstrings during running trials was similar for both swing and stance phase whereas the medial hamstrings showed an approximate 20% reduction during stance compared to swing phase. It is suggested that the lateral hamstrings work equally hard during swing and stance phase however the medial hamstrings are loaded slightly less every stance phase. Likely this helps explain the higher incidence of lateral hamstring injury. Hamstring injury prevention and rehabilitation programs incorporating running should consider running speed as more potent stimulus for increasing hamstring muscle activation than impact loading. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Group Delay of High Q Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahramzy, Pevand; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2013-01-01

    Group Delay variations versus frequency is an essential factor which can cause distortion and degradation in the signals. Usually this is an issue in wideband communication systems, such as satellite communication systems, which are used for transmitting wideband data. However, group delay can also...... become an issue, when working with high Q antennas, because of the steep phase shift over the frequency. In this paper, it is measured how large group delay variations can become, when going from a low Q antenna to a high Q antenna. The group delay of a low Q antenna is shown to be around 1.3 ns, whereas...... a high Q antenna has group delay of around 22 ns. It is due to this huge group delay variation characteristics of high Q antennas, that signal distortion might occur in the radio system with high Q antennas....

  16. Delayed child-bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jo-Ann; Tough, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    To provide an overview of delayed child-bearing and to describe the implications for women and health care providers. Delayed child-bearing, which has increased greatly in recent decades, is associated with an increased risk of infertility, pregnancy complications, and adverse pregnancy outcome. This guideline provides information that will optimize the counselling and care of Canadian women with respect to their reproductive choices. Maternal age is the most important determinant of fertility, and obstetric and perinatal risks increase with maternal age. Many women are unaware of the success rates or limitations of assisted reproductive technology and of the increased medical risks of delayed child-bearing, including multiple births, preterm delivery, stillbirth, and Caesarean section. This guideline provides a framework to address these issues. Studies published between 2000 and August 2010 were retrieved through searches of PubMed and the Cochrane Library using appropriate key words (delayed child-bearing, deferred pregnancy, maternal age, assisted reproductive technology, infertility, and multiple births) and MeSH terms (maternal age, reproductive behaviour, fertility). The Internet was also searched using similar key words, and national and international medical specialty societies were searched for clinical practice guidelines and position statements. Data were extracted based on the aims, sample, authors, year, and results. The quality of evidence was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Women who delay child-bearing are at increased risk of infertility. Prospective parents, especially women, should know that their fecundity and fertility begin to decline significantly after 32 years of age. Prospective parents should know that assisted reproductive technologies cannot guarantee a live birth or completely

  17. UAVs and Control Delays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    de Vries, S. C

    2005-01-01

    .... Delays of about 250-300 ms often lead to unacceptable airplane handling qualities. Techniques such as filtering and predictive displays may extend the range of acceptable delays up to about 400 ms...

  18. Delayed puberty in boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007695.htm Delayed puberty in boys To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Delayed puberty in boys is when puberty does not begin ...

  19. A Phase II single-arm trial of palonosetron for the prevention of acute and delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in malignant glioma patients receiving multidose irinotecan in combination with bevacizumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affronti ML

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mary Lou Affronti,1–3 Sarah Woodring,1,2 Katherine B Peters,1,4 James E Herndon II,5 Frances McSherry,5 Patrick N Healy,5 Annick Desjardins,1,4 James J Vredenburgh,6 Henry S Friedman1,2 1The Preston Robert Tisch Brain Tumor Center at Duke, South Hospital, Duke University Medical Center, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Duke University Health System, 3Duke University School of Nursing, 4Department of Neurology, 5Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Health System, Durham, NC, 6Saint Francis Cancer Center, Hartford, CT, USA Purpose: Given that the prognosis of recurrent malignant glioma (MG remains poor, improving quality of life (QoL through symptom management is important. Meta-analyses establishing antiemetic guidelines have demonstrated the superiority of palonosetron (PAL over older 5-hydroxytryptamine 3-receptor antagonists in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV prevention, but excluded patients with gliomas. Irinotecan plus bevacizumab is a treatment frequently used in MG, but is associated with low (55% CINV complete response (CR; no emesis or use of rescue antiemetic with commonly prescribed ondansetron. A single-arm Phase II trial was conducted in MG patients to determine the efficacy of intravenous PAL (0.25 mg and dexamethasone (DEX; 10 mg received in conjunction with biweekly irinotecan–bevacizumab treatment. The primary end point was the proportion of subjects achieving acute CINV CR (no emesis or antiemetic ≤24 hours postchemotherapy. Secondary end points included delayed CINV CR (days 2–5, overall CINV CR (days 1–5, and QoL, fatigue, and toxicity.Materials and methods: A two-stage design of 160 patients was planned to differentiate between CINV CR of 55% and 65% after each dose of PAL–DEX. Validated surveys assessed fatigue and QoL.Results: A total of 63 patients were enrolled, after which enrollment was terminated due to slow accrual; 52 patients were evaluable for the primary outcome

  20. The group delay and suppression pattern of the cochlear microphonic potential recorded at the round window.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxuan He

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is commonly assumed that the cochlear microphonic potential (CM recorded from the round window (RW is generated at the cochlear base. Based on this assumption, the low-frequency RW CM has been measured for evaluating the integrity of mechanoelectrical transduction of outer hair cells at the cochlear base and for studying sound propagation inside the cochlea. However, the group delay and the origin of the low-frequency RW CM have not been demonstrated experimentally. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study quantified the intra-cochlear group delay of the RW CM by measuring RW CM and vibrations at the stapes and basilar membrane in gerbils. At low sound levels, the RW CM showed a significant group delay and a nonlinear growth at frequencies below 2 kHz. However, at high sound levels or at frequencies above 2 kHz, the RW CM magnitude increased proportionally with sound pressure, and the CM phase in respect to the stapes showed no significant group delay. After the local application of tetrodotoxin the RW CM below 2 kHz became linear and showed a negligible group delay. In contrast to RW CM phase, the BM vibration measured at location ∼2.5 mm from the base showed high sensitivity, sharp tuning, and nonlinearity with a frequency-dependent group delay. At low or intermediate sound levels, low-frequency RW CMs were suppressed by an additional tone near the probe-tone frequency while, at high sound levels, they were partially suppressed only at high frequencies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the group delay of the RW CM provides no temporal information on the wave propagation inside the cochlea, and that significant group delay of low-frequency CMs results from the auditory nerve neurophonic potential. Suppression data demonstrate that the generation site of the low-frequency RW CM shifts from apex to base as the probe-tone level increases.

  1. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    OpenAIRE

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages) may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. Th...

  2. Report: ECHO Data Quality Audit – Phase I Results: The Integrated Compliance Information System Needs Security Controls to Protect Significant Non-Compliance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #09-P-0226, August 31, 2009. End users of the Permit Compliance System and Integrated Compliance Information System National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System can override the Significant Non-Compliance data field without more access controls.

  3. Weather delay costs to trucking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Estimates of the nations freight sector of transportation range to upwards of $600 billion of total gross domestic product with 70 percent of total value and 60 percent of total weight moving by truck. Weather-related delays can add significantly ...

  4. Livermore blasted for project delay

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    In a 12 page report issued last week, a review committee set up by the University of California has concluded that mismanagement and poor planning are to blame for significant cost overruns and delays in the construction of NIF, the worlds largest laser (1 page).

  5. Delayed breast implant reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Gitte B.; Hölmich, Lisbet R.; Steding-Jessen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the association between radiation therapy and severe capsular contracture or reoperation after 717 delayed breast implant reconstruction procedures (288 1- and 429 2-stage procedures) identified in the prospective database of the Danish Registry for Plastic Surgery of the Breast during...... of radiation therapy was associated with a non-significantly increased risk of reoperation after both 1-stage (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 0.7-2.5) and 2-stage (HR = 1.6; 95% CI: 0.9-3.1) procedures. Reconstruction failure was highest (13.2%) in the 2-stage procedures with a history of radiation therapy. Breast...... reconstruction approaches other than implants should be seriously considered among women who have received radiation therapy....

  6. Evidence of significant energy input in the late phase of a solar flare from NuSTAR x-ray observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Hannah, Iain G.

    2017-01-01

    -size solar flare 1 day before the observations, at ∼18 UT on 2014 December 10, with the post-flare loops still visible at the time of NuSTAR observations. The time evolution of the source emission in the SDO/AIA 335 Å channel reveals the characteristics of an extreme-ultraviolet late-phase event, caused......We present observations of the occulted active region AR 12222 during the third Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) solar campaign on 2014 December 11, with concurrent Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA and FOXSI-2 sounding rocket observations. The active region produced a medium...... by the continuous formation of new post-flare loops that arch higher and higher in the solar corona. The spectral fitting of NuSTAR observations yields an isothermal source, with temperature 3.8–4.6 MK, emission measure (0.3–1.8) × 1046 cm−3, and density estimated at (2.5–6.0) × 108 cm−3. The observed AIA fluxes...

  7. EVIDENCE OF SIGNIFICANT ENERGY INPUT IN THE LATE PHASE OF A SOLAR FLARE FROM NuSTAR X-RAY OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm [University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland, Bahnhofstrasse 6, 5210 Windisch (Switzerland); Hannah, Iain G.; Wright, Paul J. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Glesener, Lindsay [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota—Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Hudson, Hugh S.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona A. [Cahill Center for Astrophysics, 1216 E. California Boulevard, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); White, Stephen M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Smith, David M.; Marsh, Andrew J. [Physics Department and Santa Cruz Institute for Particle Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William W. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2017-01-20

    We present observations of the occulted active region AR 12222 during the third Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray ( NuSTAR ) solar campaign on 2014 December 11, with concurrent Solar Dynamics Observatory ( SDO )/AIA and FOXSI-2 sounding rocket observations. The active region produced a medium-size solar flare 1 day before the observations, at ∼18 UT on 2014 December 10, with the post-flare loops still visible at the time of NuSTAR observations. The time evolution of the source emission in the SDO/ AIA 335 Å channel reveals the characteristics of an extreme-ultraviolet late-phase event, caused by the continuous formation of new post-flare loops that arch higher and higher in the solar corona. The spectral fitting of NuSTAR observations yields an isothermal source, with temperature 3.8–4.6 MK, emission measure (0.3–1.8) × 10{sup 46} cm{sup −3}, and density estimated at (2.5–6.0) × 10{sup 8} cm{sup −3}. The observed AIA fluxes are consistent with the derived NuSTAR temperature range, favoring temperature values in the range of 4.0–4.3 MK. By examining the post-flare loops’ cooling times and energy content, we estimate that at least 12 sets of post-flare loops were formed and subsequently cooled between the onset of the flare and NuSTAR observations, with their total thermal energy content an order of magnitude larger than the energy content at flare peak time. This indicates that the standard approach of using only the flare peak time to derive the total thermal energy content of a flare can lead to a large underestimation of its value.

  8. Dynamic and delayed contrast enhancement in upper abdominal MRI studies: Comparison of gadoxetic acid and gadobutrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizka, Jan [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Sokolska 581, CZ-500 05 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: zizka@fnhk.cz; Klzo, Ludovit [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Sokolska 581, CZ-500 05 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiri [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Mrklovsky, Milan [Department of Radiology and Imaging Centre Pardubice, Regional Hospital, Kyjevska 44, CZ-530 01 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Bukac, Josef [Department of Biophysics, Medical Faculty, Charles University, Simkova 870, CZ-500 38 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Objective: To prospectively compare contrast properties of extracelullar (gadobutrol) and hepatospecific (gadoxetic acid) contrast agents in upper abdominal MRI studies. Materials and methods: Standardized (0.1 ml/kg) dose of gadobutrol (56 subjects) and gadoxetic acid (51 subjects) was administered intravenously by MRI-compatible injector at 2 ml/s, followed by 20 ml saline flush. MR signal intensity changes (SIC) between precontrast scans and arterial phase, portal venous phase, equilibrium, and delayed scans at 10 and 20 min were measured in abdominal aorta, portal vein, common bile duct, liver, and spleen. Mean SIC values for gadobutrol and gadoxetic acid were compared by a two-sample t-test with p-value <0.05 considered significant. Results: In abdominal aorta, the mean SIC in the arterial phase did not significantly differ between gadobutrol (330%) and gadoxetic acid (295%). In portal vein, the mean SIC in the portal venous phase significantly differed between gadobutrol (267%) and gadoxetic acid (176%). Liver parenchyma enhancement was significantly higher for gadobutrol than for gadoxetic acid in both arterial phase (28 versus 13%) and portal venous phase (81 versus 46%). On the contrary, gadobutrol reached significantly lower mean SIC in the liver on delayed scans at 10 min (47 versus 59%) and 20 min (40 versus 67%), as well as in common bile duct at 10 min (54 versus 133%) and 20 min (57 versus 457%), respectively. In the spleen, mean SIC for gadobutrol was significantly higher at all phases. Conclusion: Gadobutrol showed superior enhancement of upper abdominal structures in the dynamic phases whereas gadoxetic acid showed better enhancement of the hepatobiliary structures on delayed scans.

  9. The Significance of Tailored, Web-Based Information on Experiences Regarding Perceived Self-Management in Ovarian Cancer Patients in the Diagnostic Phase-An Experimental Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Marianne Kirstine; Holt, Kamila Adellund; Mogensen, Ole

    2016-01-01

    provided data for statistical analysis. Patients’ difference in change in Sense of Coherence over time was statistically significant in favor of those who had used the website (mean difference 4.42, pwebsite prevented a decrease in self-management of Danish...... of a healthcare-professional developed website, available to both patients and relatives, on patients’ experienced self-management before surgery for ovarian cancer. In an experimental study, Danish women with ovarian cancer were consecutively included if they would participate and had a relative, willing...... to offer attention to the cancer situation. The control group had standard care, the intervention group plus their relatives had additional access to a website with cancer-specific physical, psychical, and practical information. The validated questionnaires Cancer Behavior Inventory and Sense of Coherence...

  10. American Dream Delayed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorunzhina, Natalia; Miller, Robert A.

    This paper investigates the delay in homeownership and a subsequent reduction in homeownership rate observed over the past decades. We focus on the delay in giving birth to children and increased labor market participation as contributing factors to homeownership dynamics for prime-age female hou...

  11. Cognitive person variables in the delay of gratification of older children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, M L; Mischel, W; Shoda, Y

    1989-08-01

    The components of self-regulation were analyzed, extending the self-imposed delay of gratification paradigm to older children with social adjustment problems. Delay behavior was related to a network of conceptually relevant cognitive person variables, consisting of attention deployment strategies during delay, knowledge of delay rules, and intelligence. A positive relationship was demonstrated between concurrent indexes of intelligence, attention deployment, and actual delay time. Moreover, attention deployment, measured as an individual differences variable during the delay process, had a direct, positive effect on delay behavior. Specifically, as the duration of delay and the frustration of the situation increased, children who spent a higher proportion of the time distracting themselves from the tempting elements of the delay situation were able to delay longer. The effect of attention deployment on delay behavior was significant even when age, intelligence, and delay rule knowledge were controlled. Likewise, delay rule knowledge significantly predicted delay time, even when age, attention deployment, and intelligence were controlled.

  12. Acceptable Channel Switching Delays for Mobile TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleury, Alexandre; Pedersen, Jakob Schou; Larsen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    as well as three potential effect factors: the transition type, the test environment and the audiovisual content. The results show that delays longer than 5.7 seconds annoyed test participants, and that the transition type had a significant impact on the rating of channel switching delays. However......, neither the test environment nor the audiovisual content influenced the ratings significantly. Finally, a discussion of these results and directions for future research are proposed....

  13. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Intrinsic Circadian Rhythm Sleep-Wake Disorders: Advanced Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (ASWPD), Delayed Sleep-Wake Phase Disorder (DSWPD), Non-24-Hour Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (N24SWD), and Irregular Sleep-Wake Rhythm Disorder (ISWRD). An Update for 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, R. Robert; Burgess, Helen J.; Emens, Jonathan S.; Deriy, Ludmila V.; Thomas, Sherene M.; Sharkey, Katherine M.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic literature review and meta-analyses (where appropriate) were performed and the GRADE approach was used to update the previous American Academy of Sleep Medicine Practice Parameters on the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders. Available data allowed for positive endorsement (at a second-tier degree of confidence) of strategically timed melatonin (for the treatment of DSWPD, blind adults with N24SWD, and children/ adolescents with ISWRD and comorbid neurological disorders), and light therapy with or without accompanying behavioral interventions (adults with ASWPD, children/adolescents with DSWPD, and elderly with dementia). Recommendations against the use of melatonin and discrete sleep-promoting medications are provided for demented elderly patients, at a second- and first-tier degree of confidence, respectively. No recommendations were provided for remaining treatments/ populations, due to either insufficient or absent data. Areas where further research is needed are discussed. Citation: Auger RR, Burgess HJ, Emens JS, Deriy LV, Thomas SM, Sharkey KM. Clinical practice guideline for the treatment of intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders: advanced sleep-wake phase disorder (ASWPD), delayed sleep-wake phase disorder (DSWPD), non-24-hour sleep-wake rhythm disorder (N24SWD), and irregular sleep-wake rhythm disorder (ISWRD). An update for 2015. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1199–1236. PMID:26414986

  14. Neutron delayed choice experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed choice experiments for neutrons can help extend the interpretation of quantum mechanical phenomena. They may also rule out alternative explanations which static interference experiments allow. A simple example of a feasible neutron test is presented and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Quad nanosecond delay module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.J.; Hunter, J.B.; Wozniak, G.J.

    1986-04-01

    Four nanosecond (ns) delay units have been designed to fit in a single-width NIM module. This module is particularly suited for use in conjunction with quad constant fraction timing discriminators (CFTDs) since it has four delay units that can be placed adjacent to the four units of the CFTD. A series of different length cables connected via DIP toggle switches provide delays of 0.60 ns in 4 ns increments. Thus, the CFTD delay can be optimized for pulses of different rise times from approx.10-100 ns. Design work for the PC board and silkscreening of the front panel were done with the MacDraw program on the Apple Mackintosh computer and printed with the Lasewriter printer. 6 refs

  16. Delayed rule following

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, David R.

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [SD], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the SD. The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative even...

  17. Vernier Delay Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, W.B.

    1984-10-01

    This module will accept differential ECL pulses from the auxiliary rear panel or NIM level pulses from the front panel. The pulses are produced at the output with a fixed delay that is software programmable in steps of 0.1 ns over the range of 0.1 to 10.5 ns. Multiple outputs are available at the front panel. Minimum delay through the module is 9 ns

  18. Quad precision delay generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, Shanti; Gopalakrishnan, K.R.; Marballi, K.R.

    1997-01-01

    A Quad Precision Delay Generator delays a digital edge by a programmed amount of time, varying from nanoseconds to microseconds. The output of this generator has an amplitude of the order of tens of volts and rise time of the order of nanoseconds. This was specifically designed and developed to meet the stringent requirements of the plasma focus experiments. Plasma focus is a laboratory device for producing and studying nuclear fusion reactions in hot deuterium plasma. 3 figs

  19. Modelling delays in pharmacokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, Z.H.; Lambrecht, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    Linear system analysis has come to form the backbone of pharmacokinetics. Natural systems usually involve time delays, thus models incorporating them would be an order closer approximation to the real world compared to those that do not. Delays may be modelled in several ways. The approach considered in this study is to have a discrete-time delay dependent rate with the delay respresenting the duration between the entry of a drug into a compartment and its release in some form (may be as a metabolite) from the compartment. Such a delay may be because of one or more of several physiological reasons, like, formation of a reservoir, slow metabolism, or receptor binding. The mathematical structure this gives rise to is a system of delay-differential equations. Examples are given of simple one and two compartment systems with drugs like bumetanide, carbamazepine, and quinolone-caffeine interaction. In these examples generally a good fit is obtained and the suggested models form a good approximation. 21 refs., 6 figs

  20. Maternal Obesity: Risks for Developmental Delays in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffany, Kathleen O'Connor; McVeigh, Katharine H; Kershaw, Trace S; Lipkind, Heather S; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-02-01

    To assess the risk for neurodevelopmental delays for children of mothers who were obese (≥200 pounds) prior to pregnancy, and to characterize delays associated with maternal obesity among children referred to and found eligible to receive Early Intervention Program services. We conducted a retrospective cohort study (N = 541,816) using a population-based New York City data warehouse with linked birth and Early Intervention data. Risks for children suspected of a delay and 'significantly delayed', with two moderate or one severe delay, were calculated. Among the group of children eligible by delay for Early Intervention, analyses assessed risk for being identified with a moderate-to-severe delay across each of five functional domains as well as risks for multiple delays. Children of mothers who were obese were more likely to be suspected of a delay (adjusted RR 1.19 [CI 1.15-1.22]) and borderline association for 'significantly delayed' (adjusted RR 1.01 [CI 1.00-1.02). Among children eligible by delay, children of mothers who were obese evidenced an increased risk for moderate-to-severe cognitive (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.02-1.07]) and physical (adjusted RR 1.04 [CI 1.01-1.08]) delays and for global developmental delay (adjusted RR 1.05 [CI 1.01-1.08]). Maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of developmental delay in offspring. Among children with moderate or severe delays, maternal obesity is associated with increased risk of cognitive and physical delays as well as with increased risk for global developmental delay. While causation remains uncertain, this adds to the growing body of research reporting an association between maternal obesity and neurodevelopmental delays in offspring.

  1. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Marzouk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  2. Prehospital delay in acute coronary syndrome--an analysis of the components of delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Michael Mundt; Dixen, Ulrik; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prompt hospital admission is essential when treating acute coronary syndrome. Delay prior to admission is unnecessarily long. Therefore, a thorough scrutiny of the influence of characteristics, circumstantial and subjective variables on elements of prehospital delay among patients...... admitted with acute coronary syndrome is warranted. METHODS: A structured interview was conducted on 250 consecutive patients admitted alive with acute coronary syndrome. RESULTS: Median prehospital, decision, physician and transportation delays were 107, 74, 25 and 22 min, respectively. Women (n=77) had...... of acute coronary syndrome among women, and thereby contributes to unnecessary long delay to treatment. The patient's prior experience and interpretation has a significant influence on behaviour....

  3. Heterogeneity of time delays determines synchronization of coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkoski, Spase; Spiegler, Andreas; Proix, Timothée; Aram, Parham; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2016-07-01

    Network couplings of oscillatory large-scale systems, such as the brain, have a space-time structure composed of connection strengths and signal transmission delays. We provide a theoretical framework, which allows treating the spatial distribution of time delays with regard to synchronization, by decomposing it into patterns and therefore reducing the stability analysis into the tractable problem of a finite set of delay-coupled differential equations. We analyze delay-structured networks of phase oscillators and we find that, depending on the heterogeneity of the delays, the oscillators group in phase-shifted, anti-phase, steady, and non-stationary clusters, and analytically compute their stability boundaries. These results find direct application in the study of brain oscillations.

  4. Classic conditioning in aged rabbits: delay, trace, and long-delay conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P R; Groccia-Ellison, M E

    1996-06-01

    Young (0.5 years) and aged (2+, 3+, and 4+ years) rabbits underwent acquisition of the classically conditioned nictitating membrane response in a delay (500-ms conditioned stimulus [CS], 400-ms interstimulus interval [ISI]), long-delay (1,000-ms CS, 900-ms ISI), or trace (500-ms CS, 400-ms stimulus-free period) paradigm. Collapsing across age groups, there is a general tendency for animals to acquire trace conditioning more slowly than delay conditioning. Collapsing across conditioning paradigms, there is a general tendency for aged animals to acquire more slowly than younger animals. Of greater significance, however, are the age differences in the different conditioning paradigms. In the delay and long-delay paradigms, significant conditioning deficits first appeared in the 4(+)-year-old group. In the trace conditioning paradigm, significant conditioning deficits became apparent in the 2(+)-year-old animals.

  5. On the effect of ionospheric delay on geodetic relative GPS positioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadou, P.Y.; Kleusberg, A.

    1988-01-01

    Uncorrected ionospheric delay is one of the factors limiting the accuracy in geodetic relative positioning with single frequency Global Positioning System (GPS) carrier phase observations. Dual frequency measurements can be combined to eliminate the ionospheric delay in the observations. A

  6. Development and testing of a decision aid for women considering delayed breast reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Kelly; Zhong, Toni; O'Neill, Anne C; McCready, David; Chan, Linda; Butler, Kate; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2018-03-01

    The decision to have post-mastectomy breast reconstruction (PMBR) is highly complex and many women feel ill equipped to make this decision. Decision aids have been advocated to promote patient involvement in decision-making by streamlining and standardizing communication between the patient and the health care professional. In this study, we report on the development and testing of a decision aid (DA) for breast cancer survivors considering delayed PMBR. The DA was developed and evaluated in three phases. The first phase included the development of the DA with input and review by practitioners and key stakeholders. The second phase involved pilot testing of the feasibility and acceptability of the DA with a convenience sample of women with delayed PMBR. The third phase involved a pretest/post-test evaluation of the DA for women who were making decisions about their PMBR options. The DA was developed using the Ottawa Decision Support Framework. In the second phase of the study, 21 women completed the acceptability survey, of whom 100% reported that they would recommend the DA to other women. In the third phase, decisional conflict decreased significantly (p < 0.001) and knowledge increased significantly (p < 0.001) from prior to using the DA to 1-2 weeks after using the DA. The DA is feasible and acceptable to women considering delayed PMBR. Furthermore, the DA is effective at reducing decisional conflict and increasing knowledge about delayed PMBR. The DA is an appropriate tool to be used in addition with standard care in women considering PMBR. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Time delay interferometry with moving spacecraft arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Space-borne interferometric gravitational wave detectors, sensitive in the low-frequency (millihertz) band, will fly in the next decade. In these detectors the spacecraft-to-spacecraft light-travel-times will necessarily be unequal, time varying, and (due to aberration) have different time delays on up and down links. The reduction of data from moving interferometric laser arrays in solar orbit will in fact encounter nonsymmetric up- and down-link light time differences that are about 100 times larger than has previously been recognized. The time-delay interferometry (TDI) technique uses knowledge of these delays to cancel the otherwise dominant laser phase noise and yields a variety of data combinations sensitive to gravitational waves. Under the assumption that the (different) up- and down-link time delays are constant, we derive the TDI expressions for those combinations that rely only on four interspacecraft phase measurements. We then turn to the general problem that encompasses time dependence of the light-travel times along the laser links. By introducing a set of noncommuting time-delay operators, we show that there exists a quite general procedure for deriving generalized TDI combinations that account for the effects of time dependence of the arms. By applying our approach we are able to re-derive the 'flex-free' expression for the unequal-arm Michelson combinations X 1 , and obtain the generalized expressions for the TDI combinations called relay, beacon, monitor, and symmetric Sagnac

  8. Nuclear size and cell division delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, R.P.

    1986-01-01

    Radiation-induced division delay has been linked to damage at the nuclear envelope. Further, cells in G 2 phase are drastically arrested by high LET radiation such that single particles traversing cell nuclei may produce measurable division delay. A modest effort was initiated using two related cell lines of different size, near-diploid cells and near-tetraploid cells of Chinese hamster origin, to compare their sensitivity for radiation-induced division delay. If the nuclear surface is the critical target, then a larger nuclear cross-section presented to an alpha-particle beam should exhibit delay induced by a lesser particle fluence. Preliminary estimates of the extent of delay in asynchronous cultures following low doses of gamma-irradiation or of alpha-irradiation were made by in-situ observation of the time of onset of mitosis and by fixation and staining of cultures to determine the mitotic index as a function of time after irradiation. The basic approach to evaluating division delay will be to use Colecemid to accumulate mitotic cells over a period of time

  9. Influence of delayed excitation on vibrations of turbine blades couple

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2013), s. 39-52 ISSN 1802-680X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : time delay * phase delay * blades couple * amplitude reduction * dry friction Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  10. Transcriptional delay stabilizes bistable gene networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Ott, William; Josić, Krešimir; Bennett, Matthew R

    2013-08-02

    Transcriptional delay can significantly impact the dynamics of gene networks. Here we examine how such delay affects bistable systems. We investigate several stochastic models of bistable gene networks and find that increasing delay dramatically increases the mean residence times near stable states. To explain this, we introduce a non-Markovian, analytically tractable reduced model. The model shows that stabilization is the consequence of an increased number of failed transitions between stable states. Each of the bistable systems that we simulate behaves in this manner.

  11. Optimal Joint Expected Delay Forwarding in Delay Tolerant Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Xu; Xin Feng; Wen Jun Yang; Ru Chuan Wang; Bing Qing Han

    2013-01-01

    Multicopy forwarding schemes have been employed in delay tolerant network (DTN) to improve the delivery delay and delivery rate. Much effort has been focused on reducing the routing cost while retaining high performance. This paper aims to provide an optimal joint expected delay forwarding (OJEDF) protocol which minimizes the expected delay while satisfying a certain constant on the number of forwardings per message. We propose a comprehensive forwarding metric called joint expected delay (JE...

  12. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermiah Eramah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. Methods 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008–2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay. Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire during an interview with each patient and from medical records. Results The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3–6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s that did not include a lump (p  Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Conclusions Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast cancer. Especially, guidelines for good practices in managing

  13. A COLD FLARE WITH DELAYED HEATING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleishman, Gregory D.; Pal'shin, Valentin D.; Lysenko, Alexandra L.; Meshalkina, Natalia; Kashapova, Larisa K.; Altyntsev, Alexander T.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, a number of peculiar flares have been reported that demonstrate significant nonthermal particle signatures with low, if any, thermal emission, which implies a close association of the observed emission with the primary energy release/electron acceleration region. This paper presents a flare that appears “cold” at the impulsive phase, while displaying delayed heating later on. Using hard X-ray data from Konus- Wind , microwave observations by SSRT, RSTN, NoRH, and NoRP, context observations, and three-dimensional modeling, we study the energy release, particle acceleration, and transport, and the relationships between the nonthermal and thermal signatures. The flaring process is found to involve the interaction between a small loop and a big loop with the accelerated particles divided roughly equally between them. Precipitation of the electrons from the small loop produced only a weak thermal response because the loop volume was small, while the electrons trapped in the big loop lost most of their energy in the coronal part of the loop, which resulted in coronal plasma heating but no or only weak chromospheric evaporation, and thus unusually weak soft X-ray emission. The energy losses of the fast electrons in the big tenuous loop were slow, which resulted in the observed delay of the plasma heating. We determined that the impulsively accelerated electron population had a beamed angular distribution in the direction of the electric force along the magnetic field of the small loop. The accelerated particle transport in the big loop was primarily mediated by turbulent waves, which is similar to other reported cold flares.

  14. Determinants of developmental delay in infants aged 12 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slykerman, Rebecca F; Thompson, John M D; Clark, Phillipa M; Becroft, David M O; Robinson, Elizabeth; Pryor, Jan E; Wild, Chris J; Mitchell, Edwin A

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which demographic, maternal, obstetric and postnatal variables were associated with achievement of developmental milestones at the age of 12 months in term infants. Mothers and babies were enrolled in the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative Study shortly after birth. All infants were full term (gestation >or= 37 weeks). Approximately half of the sample were small for gestational age (SGA = birthweight 10th percentile). A maternal interview was conducted soon after birth. Phase 2 of the study occurred 12 months later when mothers were sent a postal questionnaire requesting information about the child's health and development during the first year of life using the Denver Prescreening Developmental Questionnaire. Seven hundred and forty-four (85.4%) European mothers returned the postal questionnaire. SGA children were not at increased risk of developmental delay at 12 months of age. In a sample representative of New Zealand European children, after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.1 [95% CI 1.1, 4.0]), maternal smoking during the first year of life (OR = 1.9 [95% CI 1.0, 3.8]) and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 2.4 [95% CI 1.1, 5.2]) were associated with significantly increased risk of developmental delay. In the subgroup of SGA children, maternal smoking during pregnancy (OR = 2.9 [95% CI 1.4, 6.2]), high levels of stress associated with parenting (OR = 2.2 [95% CI 1.2, 4.0]), and low levels of satisfaction with parenting (OR = 4.3 [95% CI 1.3, 13.5]) were significantly associated with developmental delay after adjustment for the effects of potential confounders. In conclusion, maternal and postnatal factors were better predictors of developmental delay than demographic variables.

  15. Optical buffer based on monolithic InP phased-array 1×16 switch with silica-PLC pitch converter and ultra-compact coiled fiber delay lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanemura, T.; Soganci, I. M.; Oyama, T.; Ohyama, T.; Mino, S.; Williams, K. A.; Calabretta, N.; Dorren, H. J S; Nakano, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate large-capacity high-resolution optical buffer, comprising 1×16 InP switch and ultra-compact delay lines based on thin-cladding highly nonlinear fibers. Silica-PLC-based pitch converter is employed to realize uniform coupling from all 16 switch ports simultaneously.

  16. Delayed coking studies on Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govindhakannan, J.; Khulbe, C. [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Devon, AB (Canada); Natural Resources Canada, Devon, AB (Canada). CanmetENERGY

    2009-07-01

    This poster highlighted the results of a study that quantified the delayed coking product yields of Athabasca bitumen and Cold Lake heavy oil. It also investigated the effect of operating pressure and feed rates on product yield and quality. The effect of pressure on conversion of sulphur and nitrogen was also examined. Experimental results revealed that the yield of liquid products decreases and the yields of coke and gases increase as the operating pressure increases. Sulphur and nitrogen conversions increase with increasing pressure. In this study, the yield and quality of delayed coking products were not influenced by the variation in feed rates. It was concluded that feed rate changes do not significantly affect the yield and quality of delayed coking products because the residual liquid and coke trapped in the coker drum reside there for a duration that approaches infinity, compared to much smaller average residence time for vapor-phase compounds. tabs., figs.

  17. Radiation induced early delayed changes in mice brain: a 1h MRS and behavioral evaluation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Mamta; Rana, Poonam; Haridas, Seenu; Manda, Kailash; Hemanth Kumar, B.S.; Khushu, Subash

    2014-01-01

    Radiation induced CNS injury can be classified as acute, early delayed and late delayed. Most of the studies suggest that acute injury is reversible whereas early delayed and late delayed injury is irreversible leading to metabolic and cognitive impairment. Extensive research has been carried out on cranial radiation induced early and late delayed changes, there are no reports on whole body radiation induced early and delayed changes. The present study was designed to observe early delayed effects of radiation during whole body radiation exposure. A total of 20 C57 male mice were divided in two groups of 10 animals each. One group was exposed to a dose of 5 Gy whole body radiation through Tele 60 Co irradiation facility with source operating at 2.496 Gy/min, while other group served as sham irradiated control. Behavioral and MR spectroscopy was carried out 3 months post irradiation. Behavioral parameters such as locomotor activity and working memory were evaluated first then followed by MR spectroscopy at 7T animal MRI system. For MRS, voxel was localised in the cortex-hippocampus region of mouse brain. MR spectra were acquired using PRESS sequence, FID was processed using LC model for quantitation. The data showed impaired cognitive functions and altered metabolite levels during early delayed phase of whole body radiation induced injury. In behavioural experiments, there was a significant impairment in the cognitive as well as exploratory functions at 3 months post irradiation in irradiated group as compared to controls. MRS results explained changes in mI, glutamine and glx levels in irradiated animals compared to controls. Altered mI level has been found to be associated with reduced cognitive abilities in many brain disorders including MCI and Alzheimer's disease. The findings of this study suggest that whole body radiation exposure may have long lasting effect on the cognitive performance. (author)

  18. Delayed repair of the peripheral nerve: a novel model in the rat sciatic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Spinner, Robert J; Gu, Yudong; Yaszemski, Michael J; Windebank, Anthony J; Wang, Huan

    2013-03-30

    Peripheral nerve reconstruction is seldom done in the acute phase of nerve injury due to concomitant injuries and the uncertainty of the extent of nerve damage. A proper model that mimics true clinical scenarios is critical but lacking. The aim of this study is to develop a standardized, delayed sciatic nerve repair model in rats and validate the feasibility of direct secondary neurrorraphy after various delay intervals. Immediately or 1, 4, 6, 8 and 12 weeks after sciatic nerve transection, nerve repair was carried out. A successful tension-free direct neurorraphy (TFDN) was defined when the gap was shorter than 4.0 mm and the stumps could be reapproximated with 10-0 stitches without detachment. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was recorded postoperatively. Gaps between the two nerve stumps ranged from 0 to 9 mm, the average being 1.36, 2.85, 3.43, 3.83 and 6.4 mm in rats with 1, 4, 6, 8 and 12 week delay, respectively. The rate of successful TFDN was 78% overall. CMAP values of 1 and 4 week delay groups were not different from the immediate repair group, whereas CMAP amplitudes of 6, 8 and 12 week delay groups were significantly lower. A novel, standardized delayed nerve repair model is established. For this model to be sensitive, the interval between nerve injury and secondary repair should be at least over 4 weeks. Thereafter the longer the delay, the more challenging the model is for nerve regeneration. The choice of delay intervals can be tailored to meet specific requirements in future studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessing delay discounting in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2014-01-01

    Delay discounting (also intertemporal choice or impulsive choice) is the process by which delayed outcomes, such as delayed food delivery, are valued less than the same outcomes delivered immediately or with a shorter delay. This process is of interest because many psychopathologies, including substance dependence, pathological gambling, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder, are characterized by heightened levels of delay discounting. Some of these disorders are herit...

  20. Estimating Delays In ASIC's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary; Nesheiwat, Jeffrey; Su, Ling

    1994-01-01

    Verification is important aspect of process of designing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Design must not only be functionally accurate, but must also maintain correct timing. IFA, Intelligent Front Annotation program, assists in verifying timing of ASIC early in design process. This program speeds design-and-verification cycle by estimating delays before layouts completed. Written in C language.

  1. Permissible Delay in Payments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Fu Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper wants to investigate the optimal retailer's lot-sizing policy with two warehouses under partially permissible delay in payments within the economic order quantity (EOQ framework. In this paper, we want to extend that fully permissible delay in payments to the supplier would offer the retailer partially permissible delay in payments. That is, the retailer must make a partial payment to the supplier when the order is received. Then the retailer must pay off the remaining balance at the end of the permissible delay period. In addition, we want to add the assumption that the retailer's storage space is limited. That is, the retailer will rent the warehouse to store these exceeding items when the order quantity is larger than retailer's storage space. Under these conditions, we model the retailer's inventory system as a cost minimization problem to determine the retailer's optimal cycle time and optimal order quantity. Three theorems are developed to efficiently determine the optimal replenishment policy for the retailer. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate these theorems and obtained a lot of managerial insights.

  2. Delayed neutrons in ANSTO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, T.

    1988-01-01

    Delayed neutron analysis carried out at the Australian Nuclear Scientific and Technology Organization facilities, provides a fast, high sensitivity, low cost, reliable method, particularly suitable for large batches of samples, and for non destructive analysis of a range of materials. While its main use has been in uranium exploration, other applications include archeological investigations, agriculture, oceanography and biology

  3. Precision phase estimation based on weak-value amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiaodong; Xie, Linguo; Liu, Xiong; Luo, Lan; Li, Zhaoxue; Zhang, Zhiyou; Du, Jinglei

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, we propose a precision method for phase estimation based on the weak-value amplification (WVA) technique using a monochromatic light source. The anomalous WVA significantly suppresses the technical noise with respect to the intensity difference signal induced by the phase delay when the post-selection procedure comes into play. The phase measured precision of this method is proportional to the weak-value of a polarization operator in the experimental range. Our results compete well with the wide spectrum light phase weak measurements and outperform the standard homodyne phase detection technique.

  4. Cell cycle delays induced by heavy ion irradiation of synchronous mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, M.; Kraft-Weyrather, W.; Ritter, S.; Kraft, G.

    1994-01-01

    Cell cycle delays in V79 Chinese hamster cells induced by heavy ion exposure have been investigated using flow cytometry. Synchronous cell populations in G 1 -, S- and late-S/G 2 M-phase were used. Cells were irradiated with particles from Z = 10 (neon) up to Z = 96 (uranium) in the energy range from 2.4 to 17.4 MeV/u and the LET range from 415 to 16225 keV/μm at the UNILAC at GSI, Darmstadt. For comparison, experiments with 250 kV X-rays were performed. For light particles like neon, cell cycle perturbations comparable to those after X-ray irradiation were found, and with increasing LET an increasing delay per particle traversal was observed. For the highest LET-values, extended delays in G 1 -, S- and G 2 M-phase were detected immediately after irradiation. A large fraction of the cells remained in S-phase or G 2 M-phase up to 48 h or longer after irradiation. No significant cell age dependence of cycle delays was detected for the very high LET values. In addition to cell cycle delays, two effects related to the DNA-content as determined by flow cytometry were found after irradiation with very high LET particles, which were attributed to cell fusion and to drastic morphological changes of the cells. Estimations based on the dose deposited by a single particle hit in the cell nucleus and the actual number of hits show, that the basic trend of the experimental results can be explained by the stochastic properties of particle radiation. (orig.)

  5. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    It is crucial for the nuclear power plant project decision makers and management personnel to identify the actual factors of construction delay and their ranking in order to take preventive actions. NPP project is complex in nature and the construction phase is one of the most key phase which is subject to many factors result from many sources. From experience, nuclear projects have faced challenges similar to other complex mega projects with additional nuclear specific issues and life time cost of nuclear reactor is concentrated upfront as capital cost, and therefore delays in construction may become intolerable in terms of both lost revenues and interest on the capital. Budget over-runs and delays on next generation new build nuclear projects in recent years clearly demonstrate that the nuclear industry continues to repeat its failed management and project control processes of the past. Similar to major infra-structure projects, actual completion times can vary substantially from initial estimates but this uncertainty is too crucial to the nuclear industry due to high levels of capital at risk, for every year a project is delayed the levelized cost of electricity increases by approximately 8-10%. causes of delay, to develop a generalized AHP model for delay factors, and to prioritize the risk in different factors in various levels of construction phase in international turnkey NPP project. This paper describes and prioritizes Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction schedule delay factor for turnkey international project. This study also determines the different party's importance in percentage behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), financial and country factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%). Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected

  6. Prioritization of Delay Factors for NPP Construction Risk in International Project by Using AHP Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossen, Muhammed Mufazzal; Kang, Sunkoo; Kim, Jonghyun

    2014-01-01

    It is crucial for the nuclear power plant project decision makers and management personnel to identify the actual factors of construction delay and their ranking in order to take preventive actions. NPP project is complex in nature and the construction phase is one of the most key phase which is subject to many factors result from many sources. From experience, nuclear projects have faced challenges similar to other complex mega projects with additional nuclear specific issues and life time cost of nuclear reactor is concentrated upfront as capital cost, and therefore delays in construction may become intolerable in terms of both lost revenues and interest on the capital. Budget over-runs and delays on next generation new build nuclear projects in recent years clearly demonstrate that the nuclear industry continues to repeat its failed management and project control processes of the past. Similar to major infra-structure projects, actual completion times can vary substantially from initial estimates but this uncertainty is too crucial to the nuclear industry due to high levels of capital at risk, for every year a project is delayed the levelized cost of electricity increases by approximately 8-10%. causes of delay, to develop a generalized AHP model for delay factors, and to prioritize the risk in different factors in various levels of construction phase in international turnkey NPP project. This paper describes and prioritizes Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) construction schedule delay factor for turnkey international project. This study also determines the different party's importance in percentage behind the construction schedule delay of NPP which constitutes main contractor (28.4%), regulatory authority (27.3%), financial and country factor (23.5%), and utility (20.8%). Decision makers of nuclear industry can understand the significance of different factors on NPP construction phase and they can apply risk informed decision making to avoid unexpected

  7. Compensating for telecommunication delays during robotic telerehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consoni, Leonardo J; Siqueira, Adriano A G; Krebs, Hermano I

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation robotic systems may afford better care and telerehabilitation may extend the use and benefits of robotic therapy to the home. Data transmissions over distance are bound by intrinsic communication delays which can be significant enough to deem the activity unfeasible. Here we describe an approach that combines unilateral robotic telerehabilitation and serious games. This approach has a modular and distributed design that permits different types of robots to interact without substantial code changes. We demonstrate the approach through an online multiplayer game. Two users can remotely interact with each other with no force exchanges, while a smoothing and prediction algorithm compensates motions for the delay in the Internet connection. We demonstrate that this approach can successfully compensate for data transmission delays, even when testing between the United States and Brazil. This paper presents the initial experimental results, which highlight the performance degradation with increasing delays as well as improvements provided by the proposed algorithm, and discusses planned future developments.

  8. Does Bilingualism Delay the Development of Dementia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy L Atkinson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that bilingualism (where individuals speak two languages may delay the development of dementia. However, much of the research is inconclusive. Some researchers have reported that bilingualism delays the onset and diagnosis of dementia, whilst other studies have found weak or even detrimental effects. This paper reviews a series of nine empirical studies, published up until March 2016, which investigated whether bilingualism significantly delays the onset of dementia. The article also explores whether the inconsistent findings can be attributed to differences in study designs or the definitions of bilingualism used between studies. Based on current evidence, it appears that lifelong bilingualism, where individuals frequently use both languages, may be protective against dementia. However, becoming bilingual in adulthood or using the second language infrequently is unlikely to substantially delay onset of the disease.

  9. Diagnosis delay in tuberculosis and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habibullah, S.; Sheikh, M.A.; Sadiq, A.; Anwar, T.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To find out the average duration from onset of symptoms to the diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis, reasons for diagnostic delay, its consequences, association of variables and formulation of recommendations. Results: In this study it was found that average time from onset of initial symptoms to diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis was 120 days. In 64% of the patients medical practitioners were responsible for delaying the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Loss of weight in 40% and haemoptysis is 21% were the consequences of diagnostic delay of tuberculosis. Delay in the diagnosis of tuberculosis was statistically significant in those patients who consulted private practitioners, and consequences of tuberculosis were severe in those patients who consulted late. (author)

  10. Effect of caffeine on radiation-induced mitotic delay: delayed expression of G2 arrest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowley, R.; Zorch, M.; Leeper, D.B.

    1984-01-01

    In the presence of 5 mM caffeine, irradiated (1.5 Gy) S and G 2 cells progressed to mitosis in register and without arrest in G 2 . Caffeine (5 mM) markedly reduced mitotic delay even after radiation doses up to 20 Gy. When caffeine was removed from irradiated (1.5 Gy) and caffeine-treated cells, a period of G 2 arrest followed, similar in length to that produced by radiation alone. The arrest expressed was independent of the duration of the caffeine treatment for exposures up to 3 hr. The similarity of the response to the cited effects of caffeine on S-phase delay suggests a common basis for delay induction in S and G 2 phases

  11. Sleep deprivation decreases phase-shift responses of circadian rhythms to light in the mouse: role of serotonergic and metabolic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet, E; Turek, F W; Laute, M; Van Reeth, O

    2001-08-03

    The circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nuclei is primarily synchronized to the daily light-dark cycle. The phase-shifting and synchronizing effects of light can be modulated by non-photic factors, such as behavioral, metabolic or serotonergic cues. The present experiments examine the effects of sleep deprivation on the response of the circadian pacemaker to light and test the possible involvement of serotonergic and/or metabolic cues in mediating the effects of sleep deprivation. Photic phase-shifting of the locomotor activity rhythm was analyzed in mice transferred from a light-dark cycle to constant darkness, and sleep-deprived for 8 h from Zeitgeber Time 6 to Zeitgeber Time 14. Phase-delays in response to a 10-min light pulse at Zeitgeber Time 14 were reduced by 30% in sleep-deprived mice compared to control mice, while sleep deprivation without light exposure induced no significant phase-shifts. Stimulation of serotonin neurotransmission by fluoxetine (10 mg/kg), a serotonin reuptake inhibitor that decreases light-induced phase-delays in non-deprived mice, did not further reduce light-induced phase-delays in sleep-deprived mice. Impairment of serotonin neurotransmission with p-chloroamphetamine (three injections of 10 mg/kg), which did not increase light-induced phase-delays in non-deprived mice significantly, partially normalized light-induced phase-delays in sleep-deprived mice. Injections of glucose increased light-induced phase-delays in control and sleep-deprived mice. Chemical damage of the ventromedial hypothalamus by gold-thioglucose (600 mg/kg) prevented the reduction of light-induced phase-delays in sleep-deprived mice, without altering phase-delays in control mice. Taken together, the present results indicate that sleep deprivation can reduce the light-induced phase-shifts of the mouse suprachiasmatic pacemaker, due to serotonergic and metabolic changes associated with the loss of sleep.

  12. Delayed minocycline but not delayed mild hypothermia protects against embolic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Raza

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory reactions occurring in the brain after ischemia may contribute to secondary damage. In the present study, effects of minocycline, an anti-inflammatory agent, alone or in combination with mild hypothermia on focal embolic cerebral ischemia have been examined. Methods Focal ischemic injury was induced by embolizing a preformed clot into the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Infarction volume was measured at 48 h after the injury. Mortality was also recorded. Results Delayed administration of minocycline alone or delayed minocycline plus delayed mild hypothermia reduced the infarction volume significantly. However, delayed mild hypothermia alone was not protective and delayed mild hypothermia in combination with minocycline did not show any additive effect. Conclusions These results suggest that minocycline is beneficial in focal ischemic brain injury, and the lack of the enhanced neuroprotection may be due to the brief exposure to hypothermia.

  13. Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallmann, L.; Jordan, I.; Wörner, H. J.; Castiglioni, L.; Hengsberger, M.; Osterwalder, J.; Arrell, C. A.; Chergui, M.; Liberatore, E.; Rothlisberger, U.; Keller, U.

    2017-01-01

    Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface. PMID:29308414

  14. Photoemission and photoionization time delays and rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Gallmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ionization and, in particular, ionization through the interaction with light play an important role in fundamental processes in physics, chemistry, and biology. In recent years, we have seen tremendous advances in our ability to measure the dynamics of photo-induced ionization in various systems in the gas, liquid, or solid phase. In this review, we will define the parameters used for quantifying these dynamics. We give a brief overview of some of the most important ionization processes and how to resolve the associated time delays and rates. With regard to time delays, we ask the question: how long does it take to remove an electron from an atom, molecule, or solid? With regard to rates, we ask the question: how many electrons are emitted in a given unit of time? We present state-of-the-art results on ionization and photoemission time delays and rates. Our review starts with the simplest physical systems: the attosecond dynamics of single-photon and tunnel ionization of atoms in the gas phase. We then extend the discussion to molecular gases and ionization of liquid targets. Finally, we present the measurements of ionization delays in femto- and attosecond photoemission from the solid–vacuum interface.

  15. Ignition delay time correlation of fuel blends based on Livengood-Wu description

    KAUST Repository

    Khaled, Fathi; Badra, Jihad; Farooq, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    observed for combustion phasing in homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) predictions between simulations performed with detailed chemistry and calculations using the developed ignition delay correlation.

  16. Delayed traumatic intracranial hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroki

    1984-01-01

    CT was performed serially within 24 hours after head injury in 64 patients having Glasgow Coma Scale of 14 or less or cranial fracture shown on roentgenogram. Delayed traumatic extradural hematoma was observed within 7-12 hours after head injury in 6 cases (9.4%). This was prominent in the frontal and occipital regions (67%). Good recovery was seen in 83.3%. Delayed traumatic intracerebral hematoma was observed within 6-24 hours after head injury in 17 cases (26.6%). This higher incidence was related to contre coup injury. Conservative treatment was possible in 14 of the 17 patients (82.4%), showing good recovery in 70%. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.peter@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Rehli, Michael, E-mail: michael.rehli@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Singer, Katrin, E-mail: katrin.singer@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Renner-Sattler, Kathrin, E-mail: kathrin.renner-sattler@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); Kreutz, Marina, E-mail: marina.kreutz@ukr.de [Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany); RCI Regensburg Center for Interventional Immunology, University Hospital Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauß-Allee 11, 93053 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-02-13

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors.

  18. Lactic acid delays the inflammatory response of human monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, Katrin; Rehli, Michael; Singer, Katrin; Renner-Sattler, Kathrin; Kreutz, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid (LA) accumulates under inflammatory conditions, e.g. in wounds or tumors, and influences local immune cell functions. We previously noted inhibitory effects of LA on glycolysis and TNF secretion of human LPS-stimulated monocytes. Here, we globally analyze the influence of LA on gene expression during monocyte activation. To separate LA-specific from lactate- or pH-effects, monocytes were treated for one or four hours with LPS in the presence of physiological concentrations of LA, sodium lactate (NaL) or acidic pH. Analyses of global gene expression profiles revealed striking effects of LA during the early stimulation phase. Up-regulation of most LPS-induced genes was significantly delayed in the presence of LA, while this inhibitory effect was attenuated in acidified samples and not detected after incubation with NaL. LA targets included genes encoding for important monocyte effector proteins like cytokines (e.g. TNF and IL-23) or chemokines (e.g. CCL2 and CCL7). LA effects were validated for several targets by quantitative RT-PCR and/or ELISA. Further analysis of LPS-signaling pathways revealed that LA delayed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (AKT) as well as the degradation of IκBα. Consistently, the LPS-induced nuclear accumulation of NFκB was also diminished in response to LA. These results indicate that the broad effect of LA on gene expression and function of human monocytes is at least partially caused by its interference with immediate signal transduction events after activation. This mechanism might contribute to monocyte suppression in the tumor environment. - Highlights: • Lactic acid broadly delays LPS-induced gene expression in human monocytes. • Expression of important monocyte effector molecules is affected by lactic acid. • Interference of lactic acid with TLR signaling causes the delayed gene expression. • The profound effect of lactic acid might contribute to immune suppression in tumors

  19. Laryngeal sensation and pharyngeal delay time after (chemo)radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Takashi; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Ozawa, Kikuko; Hiramatsu, Mariko; Suzuki, Atsushi; Nishio, Naoki; Nakashima, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between changes in laryngeal sensation and initiation of swallowing reflex or swallowing function before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. A prospective study was conducted in a tertiary referral university hospital. Thirteen patients who received (chemo)radiotherapy for treatment of laryngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer were included. Laryngeal sensation was evaluated at the tip of the epiglottis before and 1, 3 months, and 1 year after (chemo)radiotherapy. Videofluoroscopy was performed at the same time. Quantitative determinations included changes in laryngeal sensation, computed analysis of pharyngeal delay time, the distance and velocity of hyoid bone movement during the phase of hyoid excursion, and pharyngeal residue rate (the proportion of the bolus that was left as residue in the pharynx at the first swallow). Laryngeal sensation significantly deteriorated 1 month after (chemo)radiotherapy, but there was a tendency to return to pretreatment levels 1 year after treatment. Neither pharyngeal delay time nor displacement of the hyoid bone changed significantly before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. In addition, there was no significant difference in the mean velocity of hyoid bone movement and the amount of stasis in the pharynx at the first swallow before and after (chemo)radiotherapy. After (chemo)radiotherapy, laryngeal sensation deteriorated. But, in this study, videofluoroscopy showed that swallowing reflex and function were maintained.

  20. Optical resonators for true-time-delay beam steering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Leslie H.; Evanko, Stephen M.

    1996-06-01

    Conventional true time delay beamforming and steering devices rely on switching between various lengths of delay line. Therefore only discrete delays are possible. Proposed is a new photonics concept for true time delay beamforming which provides a finely controlled continuum of delays with switching speeds on the order of 10's of nanoseconds or faster. The architecture uses an array of waveguide cavities with different resonate frequencies to channelize the signal. Each spectral component of the signal is phase shifted by an amount proportional to the frequency of that component and the desired time delay. These phase shifted spectral components are then summed to obtain the delayed signal. This paper provides an overview of the results of a Phase I SBIR contract where this concept has been refined and analyzed. The parameters for an operational system are determined and indication of the feasibility of this approach is given. Among the issues addressed are the requirements of the resonators and the methods necessary to implement fiber optic Bragg gratings as these resonators.

  1. Delaying information search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaniv Shani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we examined factors that may temporarily attenuate information search. People are generally curious and dislike uncertainty, which typically encourages them to look for relevant information. Despite these strong forces that promote information search, people sometimes deliberately delay obtaining valuable information. We find they may do so when they are concerned that the information might interfere with future pleasurable activities. Interestingly, the decision to search or to postpone searching for information is influenced not only by the value and importance of the information itself but also by well-being maintenance goals related to possible detrimental effects that negative knowledge may have on unrelated future plans.

  2. Robustness of delayed multistable systems with application to droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, Denis; Schiffer, Johannes; Ortega, Romeo

    2016-05-01

    Motivated by the problem of phase-locking in droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids with delays, the recently developed theory of input-to-state stability (ISS) for multistable systems is extended to the case of multistable systems with delayed dynamics. Sufficient conditions for ISS of delayed systems are presented using Lyapunov-Razumikhin functions. It is shown that ISS multistable systems are robust with respect to delays in a feedback. The derived theory is applied to two examples. First, the ISS property is established for the model of a nonlinear pendulum and delay-dependent robustness conditions are derived. Second, it is shown that, under certain assumptions, the problem of phase-locking analysis in droop-controlled inverter-based microgrids with delays can be reduced to the stability investigation of the nonlinear pendulum. For this case, corresponding delay-dependent conditions for asymptotic phase-locking are given.

  3. Patient Delay, Diagnosis Delay and Treatment Delay for Breast Cancer: Comparison of the Pattern between Patients in Public and Private Health Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Harirchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to compare patient delay, diagnosis delay and treatment delay in breast cancer patients of selected public and private health centers in Tehran, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, female patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer in a public medical complex and a private breast clinic within one year were included. Patient delay was considered positive, if the interval between the detection of the first symptom by the patient and the first visit to a health care provider took longer than one month. Delay in diagnosis was defined as the period of more than one week between the first medical visit for the symptoms and the diagnosis of breast cancer. Following the confirmed diagnosis of breast malignancy, if the medical treatment was initiated later than one week, treatment delay had occurred. The potential reasons for patient, diagnosis and treatment delay according to the patients’ reports were also recorded.Results: Overall, 385 patients were included of whom 52.7% were recruited from the public hospitals and 47.3% from a private clinic. The prevalence of patient delay, diagnosis delay and treatment delay were 31.7%, 17.9% and 28.3%, respectively. Patient delay was significantly more common among patients with lower socio-economic status and those recruited from the public hospitals. All the patients with diagnosis delay were in the group recruited from the public hospitals.Conclusions: Gaps between women of different socio-economic levels of the society need to be addressed in order to decrease patient, diagnosis and treatment delay.

  4. Phased-array radars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookner, E.

    1985-02-01

    The operating principles, technology, and applications of phased-array radars are reviewed and illustrated with diagrams and photographs. Consideration is given to the antenna elements, circuitry for time delays, phase shifters, pulse coding and compression, and hybrid radars combining phased arrays with lenses to alter the beam characteristics. The capabilities and typical hardware of phased arrays are shown using the US military systems COBRA DANE and PAVE PAWS as examples.

  5. Vehicle barrier with access delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swahlan, David J; Wilke, Jason

    2013-09-03

    An access delay vehicle barrier for stopping unauthorized entry into secure areas by a vehicle ramming attack includes access delay features for preventing and/or delaying an adversary from defeating or compromising the barrier. A horizontally deployed barrier member can include an exterior steel casing, an interior steel reinforcing member and access delay members disposed within the casing and between the casing and the interior reinforcing member. Access delay members can include wooden structural lumber, concrete and/or polymeric members that in combination with the exterior casing and interior reinforcing member act cooperatively to impair an adversarial attach by thermal, mechanical and/or explosive tools.

  6. Organization of Anti-Phase Synchronization Pattern in Neural Networks: What are the Key Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zhou, Changsong

    2011-01-01

    Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neural network. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization of anti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding more complicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamical systems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation pattern has usually been considered to relate to time delay in coupling. This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks in the brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials. However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, such as modular organization (connection density) and the coupling types (excitatory or inhibitory), could also play an important role. In this work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation pattern organized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model or neural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delay times, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our results show that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in this organization. The connection densities may have an influence on the stability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors. Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slow oscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there is interaction between slow and fast oscillations. These results are significant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporal dynamics of cortico-cortical communications. PMID:22232576

  7. Delayed rule following.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, D R

    2001-01-01

    Although the elements of a fully stated rule (discriminative stimulus [S(D)], some behavior, and a consequence) can occur nearly contemporaneously with the statement of the rule, there is often a delay between the rule statement and the S(D). The effects of this delay on rule following have not been studied in behavior analysis, but they have been investigated in rule-like settings in the areas of prospective memory (remembering to do something in the future) and goal pursuit. Discriminative events for some behavior can be event based (a specific setting stimulus) or time based. The latter are more demanding with respect to intention following and show age-related deficits. Studies suggest that the specificity with which the components of a rule (termed intention) are stated has a substantial effect on intention following, with more detailed specifications increasing following. Reminders of an intention, too, are most effective when they refer specifically to both the behavior and its occasion. Covert review and written notes are two effective strategies for remembering everyday intentions, but people who use notes appear not to be able to switch quickly to covert review. By focusing on aspects of the setting and rule structure, research on prospective memory and goal pursuit expands the agenda for a more complete explanation of rule effects.

  8. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  9. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  10. The semiquantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy on hemiplegic patients with earlier complex regional pain syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Fang; Liu Xingdang; Lu Zhihui; Liu Congjin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference between the early phases and delay phase of three-phase bone scintigraphy on hemiplegic patients with earlier complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Methods: Twenty-nine stroke patients with hemiplegia complicating CRPS received three-phase bone scintigraphy after intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonate (MDP). The region of interest (ROI) technique was used to obtain the radioactive counts of involved joints and contralateral sites on wrists, metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. The total counts of these four sites in each patient were then obtained and the total uptake ratios of involved joints/contralateral joints for each phase were calculated to compare the difference among the three phases. Wilcoxon test and ANOVA were used in data analyses. Results: The involved joints of hemiplegic side displayed higher tracer uptake. There were significant differences of the radioactive counts between involved joints and uninvolved ones in the perfusion, pool and delay phase (Wilcoxon test, Z: -4.73 to -2.10, P<0.05). There was no significant difference of total uptake ratios of involved joints/contralateral joints among the three phases (ANOVA, F = 0. 807, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Due to higher bone seeking agent accumulation on three-phase bone scintigraphy, both early phases and delay phase imaging showed similar value in stroke patients with hemiplegia complicating earlier CRPS. (authors)

  11. A general formula considering one group delayed neutron under nonequilibrium condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Haofeng; Chen Wenzhen; Zhu Qian; Luo Lei

    2008-01-01

    A general neutron breeder formula is developed when the reactor does not reach the steady state and the reactivity changes in phase. This formula can be used to calculate the results of six groups delayed neutron model through a way of amending λ in one group delayed neutron model. The analysis shows that the solution of amended single group delayed neutron model is approximately equal to that of six-group delayed neutron model, and the amended model meets the engineering accuracy. (authors)

  12. Delayed visual maturation in infants: a disorder of figure-ground separation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C M; Kriss, A; Shawkat, F; Taylor, D; Russell-Eggitt, I

    1996-01-01

    Delayed visual maturation (DVM) is characterised by visual unresponsiveness in early infancy, which subsequently improves spontaneously to normal levels. We studied the optokinetic response and recorded pattern reversal VEPs in six infants with DVM (aged 2-4 months) when they were at the stage of complete visual unresponsiveness. Although no saccades or visual tracking with the eyes or head could be elicited to visual objects, a normal full-field rapid buildup OKN response occurred when viewing biocularly or during monocular stimulation in the temporo-nasal direction of the viewing eye. Almost no monocular OKN could be elicited in the naso-temporal direction, which was significantly poorer than normal age-matched infants. No OKN quick phases were missed, and there were no other signs of "ocular motor apraxia." VEPs were normal in amplitude and latency for age. It appears, therefore, that infants with DVM are delayed in orienting to local regions of the visual field, but can respond to full-field motion. The presence of normal OKN quick-phases and slow-phases suggests normal brain stem function, and the presence of normal pattern VEPs suggests a normal retino-geniculo-striate pathway. These oculomotor and electrophysiological findings suggest delayed development of extra-striate cortical structures, possibly involving either an abnormality in figure-ground segregation or in attentional pathways.

  13. Do health systems delay the treatment of poor children?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuelsen, Helle; Tersbøl, Britt Pinkowski; Mbuyita, Selemani Said

    2013-01-01

    Child mortality remains one of the major public-health problems in Tanzania. Delays in receiving and accessing adequate care contribute to these high rates. The literature on public health often focuses on the role of mothers in delaying treatment, suggesting that they contact the health system too...... late and that they prefer to treat their children at home, a perspective often echoed by health workers. Using the three-delay methodology, this study focus on the third phase of the model, exploring the delays experienced in receiving adequate care when mothers with a sick child contact a health......-care facility. The overall objective is to analyse specific structural factors embedded in everyday practices at health facilities in a district in Tanzania which cause delays in the treatment of poor children and to discuss possible changes to institutions and social technologies....

  14. State-dependent neutral delay equations from population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, M V; Hadeler, K P; Kuttler, C

    2014-10-01

    A novel class of state-dependent delay equations is derived from the balance laws of age-structured population dynamics, assuming that birth rates and death rates, as functions of age, are piece-wise constant and that the length of the juvenile phase depends on the total adult population size. The resulting class of equations includes also neutral delay equations. All these equations are very different from the standard delay equations with state-dependent delay since the balance laws require non-linear correction factors. These equations can be written as systems for two variables consisting of an ordinary differential equation (ODE) and a generalized shift, a form suitable for numerical calculations. It is shown that the neutral equation (and the corresponding ODE--shift system) is a limiting case of a system of two standard delay equations.

  15. Electrically tunable photonic true-time-delay line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmenkov, Yuri O; Cruz, José Luis; Díez, Antonio; Andrés, Miguel V

    2010-08-16

    We present a new application of the acousto-optic superlattice modulation of a fiber Bragg grating based on the dynamic phase and group delay properties of this fiber-optic component. We demonstrate a tunable photonic true-time-delay line based on the group delay change of the light reflected from the grating sidebands. The delay is electrically tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to a piezoelectric transducer that generates the acoustic wave propagating along the grating. In our experiments, a true-time delay of 400 ps is continuously adjusted (300 ps within the 3 dB amplitude range of the first sideband), using a 12 cm long uniform grating.

  16. Stability and delay sensitivity of neutral fractional-delay systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Shi, Min; Wang, Zaihua

    2016-08-01

    This paper generalizes the stability test method via integral estimation for integer-order neutral time-delay systems to neutral fractional-delay systems. The key step in stability test is the calculation of the number of unstable characteristic roots that is described by a definite integral over an interval from zero to a sufficient large upper limit. Algorithms for correctly estimating the upper limits of the integral are given in two concise ways, parameter dependent or independent. A special feature of the proposed method is that it judges the stability of fractional-delay systems simply by using rough integral estimation. Meanwhile, the paper shows that for some neutral fractional-delay systems, the stability is extremely sensitive to the change of time delays. Examples are given for demonstrating the proposed method as well as the delay sensitivity.

  17. Diagnosis delay in Libyan female breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermiah, Eramah; Abdalla, Fathi; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset; Larbesh, Entesar; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Collan, Yrjö

    2012-08-21

    To study the diagnosis delay and its impact on stage of disease among women with breast cancer on Libya. 200 women, aged 22 to 75 years with breast cancer diagnosed during 2008-2009 were interviewed about the period from the first symptoms to the final histological diagnosis of breast cancer. This period (diagnosis time) was categorized into 3 periods: 6 months. If diagnosis time was longer than 3 months, the diagnosis was considered delayed (diagnosis delay). Consultation time was the time taken to visit the general practitioner after the first symptoms. Retrospective preclinical and clinical data were collected on a form (questionnaire) during an interview with each patient and from medical records. The median of diagnosis time was 7.5 months. Only 30.0% of patients were diagnosed within 3 months after symptoms. 14% of patients were diagnosed within 3-6 months and 56% within a period longer than 6 months. A number of factors predicted diagnosis delay: Symptoms were not considered serious in 27% of patients. Alternative therapy (therapy not associated with cancer) was applied in 13.0% of the patients. Fear and shame prevented the visit to the doctor in 10% and 4.5% of patients, respectively. Inappropriate reassurance that the lump was benign was an important reason for prolongation of the diagnosis time. Diagnosis delay was associated with initial breast symptom(s) that did not include a lump (p diagnosis, the clinical stage distribution was as follows: 9.0% stage I, 25.5% stage II, 54.0% stage III and 11.5% stage IV.Diagnosis delay was associated with bigger tumour size (p Diagnosis delay is very serious problem in Libya. Diagnosis delay was associated with complex interactions between several factors and with advanced stages. There is a need for improving breast cancer awareness and training of general practitioners to reduce breast cancer mortality by promoting early detection. The treatment guidelines should pay more attention to the early phases of breast

  18. Delayed neutrons in liquid metal spallation targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridikas, D.; Bokov, P.; David, J.C.; Dore, D.; Giacri, M.L.; Van Lauwe, A.; Plukiene, R.; Plukis, A.; Ignatiev, S.; Pankratov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The next generation spallation neutron sources, neutrino factories or RIB production facilities currently being designed and constructed around the world will increase the average proton beam power on target by a few orders of magnitude. Increased proton beam power results in target thermal hydraulic issues leading to new target designs, very often based on flowing liquid metal targets such as Hg, Pb, Pb-Bi. Radioactive nuclides produced in liquid metal targets are transported into hot cells, past electronics, into pumps with radiation sensitive components, etc. Besides the considerable amount of photon activity in the irradiated liquid metal, a significant amount of the delayed neutron precursor activity can be accumulated in the target fluid. The transit time from the front of a liquid metal target into areas, where delayed neutrons may be important, can be as short as a few seconds, well within one half-life of many delayed neutron precursors. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the total neutron flux (including delayed neutrons) as a function of time and determine if delayed neutrons contribute significantly to the dose rate. In this study the multi-particle transport code MCNPX combined with the material evolution program CINDER'90 will be used to evaluate the delayed neutron flux and spectra. The following scientific issues will be addressed in this paper: - Modeling of a typical geometry of the liquid metal spallation target; - Predictions of the prompt neutron fluxes, fission fragment and spallation product distributions; - Comparison of the above parameters with existing experimental data; - Time-dependent calculations of delayed neutron precursors; - Neutron flux estimates due to the prompt and delayed neutron emission; - Proposal of an experimental program to measure delayed neutron spectra from high energy spallation-fission reactions. The results of this study should be directly applicable in the design study of the European MegaPie (1 MW

  19. Delayed dermal burns caused by dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slovak, A J; Payne, A R

    1984-07-01

    A chemical operator handling dimethyl acetylenedicarboxylate (DMAD) developed delayed and pain-free burns on one of his feet 2 days after a supposed spillage of DMAD. The injuries were confirmed to be associated with DMAD by chemical analysis of the operator's safety boot and patch tests. DMAD easily penetrates some protective clothing and dilute solutions can still be hazardous: the toxic effect is compounded by being delayed and painless. The lachrymatory irritant properties of undiluted DMAD are not adequate warning of its presence or spillage in quantities sufficient to cause significant skin damage.

  20. Delay tolerant networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Longxiang; Luan, Tom H

    2015-01-01

    This brief presents emerging and promising communication methods for network reliability via delay tolerant networks (DTNs). Different from traditional networks, DTNs possess unique features, such as long latency and unstable network topology. As a result, DTNs can be widely applied to critical applications, such as space communications, disaster rescue, and battlefield communications. The brief provides a complete investigation of DTNs and their current applications, from an overview to the latest development in the area. The core issue of data forward in DTNs is tackled, including the importance of social characteristics, which is an essential feature if the mobile devices are used for human communication. Security and privacy issues in DTNs are discussed, and future work is also discussed.

  1. Positive mood effects on delay discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; Guindon, Alex; Morisano, Dominique; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-10-01

    Delay discounting is the process by which the value of an expected reward decreases as the delay to obtaining that reward increases. Individuals with higher discounting rates tend to prefer smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards. Previous research has indicated that personality can influence an individual's discounting rates, with higher levels of Extraversion predicting a preference for immediate gratification. The current study examined how this relationship would be influenced by situational mood inductions. While main effects were observed for both Extraversion and cognitive ability in the prediction of discounting rates, a significant interaction was also observed between Extraversion and positive affect. Extraverted individuals were more likely to prefer an immediate reward when first put in a positive mood. Extraverts thus appear particularly sensitive to impulsive, incentive-reward-driven behavior by temperament and by situational factors heightening positive affect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J.; Kass, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this chapter, we will review the molecular identities and biophysical properties of these channels. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the possibility and prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. PMID:27261823

  3. Cardiac Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels in Health and Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S

    2016-06-01

    Cardiac delayed rectifier potassium channels conduct outward potassium currents during the plateau phase of action potentials and play pivotal roles in cardiac repolarization. These include IKs, IKr and the atrial specific IKur channels. In this article, we will review their molecular identities and biophysical properties. Mutations in the genes encoding delayed rectifiers lead to loss- or gain-of-function phenotypes, disrupt normal cardiac repolarization and result in various cardiac rhythm disorders, including congenital Long QT Syndrome, Short QT Syndrome and familial atrial fibrillation. We will also discuss the prospect of using delayed rectifier channels as therapeutic targets to manage cardiac arrhythmia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Approximating chaotic saddles for delay differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S Richard; Campbell, Sue Ann

    2007-04-01

    Chaotic saddles are unstable invariant sets in the phase space of dynamical systems that exhibit transient chaos. They play a key role in mediating transport processes involving scattering and chaotic transients. Here we present evidence (long chaotic transients and fractal basins of attraction) of transient chaos in a "logistic" delay differential equation. We adapt an existing method (stagger-and-step) to numerically construct the chaotic saddle for this system. This is the first such analysis of transient chaos in an infinite-dimensional dynamical system, and in delay differential equations in particular. Using Poincaré section techniques we illustrate approaches to visualizing the saddle set, and confirm that the saddle has the Cantor-like fractal structure consistent with a chaotic saddle generated by horseshoe-type dynamics.

  5. Approximating chaotic saddles for delay differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, S. Richard; Campbell, Sue Ann

    2007-04-01

    Chaotic saddles are unstable invariant sets in the phase space of dynamical systems that exhibit transient chaos. They play a key role in mediating transport processes involving scattering and chaotic transients. Here we present evidence (long chaotic transients and fractal basins of attraction) of transient chaos in a “logistic” delay differential equation. We adapt an existing method (stagger-and-step) to numerically construct the chaotic saddle for this system. This is the first such analysis of transient chaos in an infinite-dimensional dynamical system, and in delay differential equations in particular. Using Poincaré section techniques we illustrate approaches to visualizing the saddle set, and confirm that the saddle has the Cantor-like fractal structure consistent with a chaotic saddle generated by horseshoe-type dynamics.

  6. Location Estimation using Delayed Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Martin; Larsen, Thomas Dall; Nørgård, Peter Magnus

    1998-01-01

    When combining data from various sensors it is vital to acknowledge possible measurement delays. Furthermore, the sensor fusion algorithm, often a Kalman filter, should be modified in order to handle the delay. The paper examines different possibilities for handling delays and applies a new techn...... technique to a sensor fusion system for estimating the location of an autonomous guided vehicle. The system fuses encoder and vision measurements in an extended Kalman filter. Results from experiments in a real environment are reported...

  7. Modeling delay in genetic networks: from delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Bennett, Matthew R; Josić, Krešimir; Ott, William

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  8. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Bennett, Matthew R. [Department of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77204, USA and Institute of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States); Josić, Krešimir [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay.

  9. Modeling delay in genetic networks: From delay birth-death processes to delay stochastic differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Chinmaya; López, José Manuel; Azencott, Robert; Ott, William; Bennett, Matthew R.; Josić, Krešimir

    2014-01-01

    Delay is an important and ubiquitous aspect of many biochemical processes. For example, delay plays a central role in the dynamics of genetic regulatory networks as it stems from the sequential assembly of first mRNA and then protein. Genetic regulatory networks are therefore frequently modeled as stochastic birth-death processes with delay. Here, we examine the relationship between delay birth-death processes and their appropriate approximating delay chemical Langevin equations. We prove a quantitative bound on the error between the pathwise realizations of these two processes. Our results hold for both fixed delay and distributed delay. Simulations demonstrate that the delay chemical Langevin approximation is accurate even at moderate system sizes. It captures dynamical features such as the oscillatory behavior in negative feedback circuits, cross-correlations between nodes in a network, and spatial and temporal information in two commonly studied motifs of metastability in biochemical systems. Overall, these results provide a foundation for using delay stochastic differential equations to approximate the dynamics of birth-death processes with delay

  10. Virtual Design of a Controller for a Hydraulic Cam Phasing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Markus; Ulbrich, Heinz

    2010-09-01

    Hydraulic vane cam phasing systems are nowadays widely used for improving the performance of combustion engines. At stationary operation, these systems should achieve a constant phasing angle, which however is badly disturbed by the alternating torque generated by the valve actuation. As the hydraulic system shows a non-linear characteristic over the full operation range and the inductivity of the hydraulic pipes generates a significant time delay, a full model based control emerges very complex. Therefore a simple feed-forward controller is designed, bridging the time delay of the hydraulic system and improving the system behaviour significantly.

  11. Systematic of delayed neutron parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaev, S.G.; Piksaikin, V.M.

    2000-01-01

    The experimental studies of the energy dependence of the delayed neutron (DN) parameters for various fission systems has shown that the behaviour of a some combination of delayed neutron parameters has a similar features. On the basis of this findings the systematics of delayed neutron experimental data for thorium, uranium, plutonium and americium isotopes have been investigated with the purpose to find a correlation of DN parameters with characteristics of fissioning system as well as a correlation between the delayed neutron parameters themselves. It was presented the preliminary results which were obtained during study the physics interpretation of the results [ru

  12. Understanding the reasons for delay to definitive surgical care of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Acute appendicitis in rural South Africa is associated with significant morbidity due to prolonged delays before definitive surgical care. Objective. This audit aimed to quantify the delay in our healthcare system. Methods. From September 2010 to September 2012, all patients with confirmed acute appendicitis ...

  13. Control of District Heating System with Flow-dependent Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Ledesma, Jorge Val; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose

    2017-01-01

    All flow systems are subject to transport delays, which are governed by the flow rates in the system. When the flow rates themselves are control inputs, the system becomes subject to input-dependent state delays, which poses significant theoretical problems. In an earlier paper, we proposed...

  14. Understanding the reasons for delay to definitive surgical care of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Understanding the reasons for delay to definitive surgical care of patients with acute appendicitis in rural South Africa. V Y Kong,1 MB ChB; C Aldous,2 PhD; D L Clarke,1 FCS ... Acute appendicitis in rural South Africa is associated with significant morbidity due to prolonged delays before definitive .... telemedicine support.

  15. 12-Chloracetyl-PPD, a novel dammarane derivative, shows anti-cancer activity via delay the progression of cell cycle G2/M phase and reactive oxygen species-mediate cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu De; Sun, Yuan Yuan; Zhao, Chen; Qu, Fan Zhi; Zhao, Yu Qing

    2017-03-05

    (20R)-Dammarane-3β, 12β, 20, 25-tetrol (25-OH-PPD) is a ginsenoside isolated from Panax ginseng (C. A. Meyer). This compound exhibits anti-cancer activities on many human cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated anti-cancer mechanisms of 12β-O-( L -Chloracetyl)-dammar-20(22)-ene-3β,25-diol(12-Chloracetyl-PPD), a modified 25-OH-PPD. We found that compound 12-Chloracetyl-PPD resulted in a concentration-dependent inhibition of viability in prostate, breast, and gastric cancer cells, without affecting the viability of normal cell (human gastric epithelial cell line-GES-1, hair follicle dermal papilla cell line-HHDPC and rat myocardial cell line-H9C2). In MDA-MB-435 and C4-2B cancer cells, 12-Chloracetyl-PPD induced G2/M cell cycle arrest, down-regulated mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) expression, up-regulated p53 expression, triggered apoptosis, and stimulated reactive oxygen species production. Apoptosis can be attenuated by the reactive oxygen species scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Our results suggested that compound 12-Chloracetyl-PPD showed obvious anti-cancer activity based on delaying cell cycle arrest and inducing cell apoptosis by reactive oxygen species production, which supported development of 12-Chloracetyl-PPD as a potential agent for cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of cooperation and parasites in non-linear replicator delayed extinctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanyes, Josep; Sole, Ricard V.

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we study the role of cooperation and parasites on extinction delayed transitions for self-replicating species with catalytic activity. We first use a one-dimensional continuous equation to study the dynamics of both single autocatalytic replicator and symmetric two-member hypercycles, where two well-defined phases involving survival and extinction of replicators are shown to exist. Extinction dynamics is analyzed numerically and analytically and under both deterministic and stochastic scenarios. A ghost is also found for the single autocatalytic replicator and for the asymmetric hypercycle, with an extinction time delay following the square-root scaling law near bifurcation threshold. We find that the extinction delay is longer for the two-member hypercycle than for the single autocatalytic species, indicating that cooperation among replicators might involve to spend a longer time in the bottle-neck region of the ghost. The asymmetry of the network is shown to prolong the extinction time. We also show that an attached parasite decreases the time spent in the bottle-neck region of the ghost, thus accelerating extinction in these systems of replicators. Nevertheless the effect of the parasite is not so important when replicators catalytically cooperate, being the two-member hypercycle less sensitive to the parasite than the autocatalytic species. Here the hypercycle asymmetry can also significantly increase the delaying capacity. These features make the hypercycle to undergo a longer extinction delay, thus increasing the memory effect of the ghost. We finally explore the role of the ghost in fluctuating media, where the extinction delayed transition is shown to increase the survival probability of cooperating catalytic species

  17. Toxicity profile and treatment delays in NOPHO ALL2008-comparing adults and children with Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Nina; Birgens, Henrik; Abrahamsson, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cure rates improve when adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are treated according to pediatric protocols. Assumed risks of toxicities and associated delays in treatment have played a role in setting upper age limits. The aim of this study was to examine...... the toxicity profile and treatment delays in NOPHO ALL2008 comparing children and adults. METHODS: We collected information on 19 treatment-related toxicities, systematically captured at 3-month intervals throughout therapy, and time intervals between 12 consecutive treatment phases for 1076 patients aged 1......-45 yrs treated according to the Nordic/Baltic ALL2008 protocol. RESULTS: No adults died during induction. The duration of induction therapy and postinduction treatment phases did not differ between children and adults, except for patients 18-45 yrs being significantly delayed during two of nine high...

  18. Influences of Mo and W on the precipitation of secondary phases and the associated localized corrosion and embrittlement in 29%Cr ferritic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Jin; Ahn, Myung Kyu; Kwon, Hyuk Sang

    2005-01-01

    Influences of molybdenum (Mo) substitution by tungsten (W) on the formation kinetics of secondary phases and the associated localized corrosion and embrittlement of Fe-29Cr-4Mo. Fe-29Cr-4W, and Fe-29Cr-8W ferritic stainless steels were investigated. Fine χ phase formed first in grain boundaries in an early stage of aging and it was gradually substituted by σ phase with further aging. The precipitation rate of σ phase appears to be determined by both the diffusion rates of W and Mo for the formation of the σ phase as well as by the affinity of χ phase, as a competitor, for the elements. Due to the high affinity of χ phase for W with a slow diffusion rate, the nucleation of σ phase was significantly delayed in Fe-29Cr-4W and Fe-29Cr-8W alloys compared with that in Fe-29Cr-4Mo alloy. In addition, the deterioration of ductility and localized corrosion resistance by the precipitation of secondary phases was significantly retarded in Fe-29Cr-4W alloy compared with that in Fe-29Cr-4Mo alloy, due to the delayed precipitation of secondary phases in Fe-29Cr-4W alloy. In particular, retardation of degradation in localized corrosion resistance by the formation of σ phase, which induced significant depletion of Cr and W (or Mo) around the phase, was prominent in the W-containing alloys. The W-containing alloys exhibited effective delay of σ phase formation

  19. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The IAEA assists the management of organizations responsible for Nuclear Power Plant Projects with significant delays with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. Several Member States have Nuclear Power Plant Projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules shows large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Solving the special difficulties related with a delayed NPP project is problematic and dependent on the particular country situation. However it is not regarded as an isolated national problem but as a significant issue with a number of difficulties shared by several Member States. The IAEA collects information and supports the management of delayed NPP projects by identifying main common issues, gathering available experience and addressing specific needs. On this background the IAEA is in the position to provide unique impartial assistance based upon best international practices. This enables Member States to maintain readiness for resuming the project construction when the conditions permit and to strengthen management's abilities for the completion of the project. The IAEA's service is tailored to the needs and requirements of the requesting organization, implemented on-site by international experts and addresses areas such as project control measures, human resources, updating to technological and regulatory requirements, project data, nuclear safety review, physical protection and nuclear security and preparation to resume project construction and operation

  20. Observations on early and delayed colostomy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tade, A O; Salami, B A; Ayoade, B A

    2011-06-01

    Traditional treatment of a variety of colorectal pathologies had included a diverting colostomy that was closed eight or more weeks later during a readmission. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the outcomes of early colostomy closure and delayed colostomy closure in patients with temporary colostomies following traumatic and non-traumatic colorectal pathologies. In this study early colostomy closure was the closure of a colostomy within three weeks of its construction, while delayed colostomy closure referred to closure after 3 weeks. Complete records of the 37 adult patients who had temporary colostomy constructed and closed between Jan. 1997 December 2003 for various colorectal pathologies were studied. Fourteen patients had early colostomy closure while 23 had delayed closure. In the early colostomy closure group there were 10 men and 4 women. The mean age of the patients was 28yr with a range of 18-65yr. Colostomies were closed 9-18 days after initial colostomy construction. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate 28.6% (4 out of 14). There were two faecal fistulas (14.3%). Twenty-three patients had delayed colostomy closure 8 weeks to 18 months after initial colostomy construction. These were patients unfit for early surgery after initial colostomy construction because of carcinoma, significant weight loss, or sepsis. There was no mortality. Morbidity rate was 26.1%. There were 3 faecal fistulas (13.2%). Outcomes following early colostomy closure and delayed closure were comparable. Patients fit for surgery should have early closure whilst patients who may have compromised health should have delayed closure.

  1. Phase Holograms In PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Paul D.; Muller, Richard E.

    1994-01-01

    Complex, computer-generated phase holograms written in thin films of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) by process of electron-beam exposure followed by chemical development. Spatial variations of phase delay in holograms quasi-continuous, as distinquished from stepwise as in binary phase holograms made by integrated-circuit fabrication. Holograms more precise than binary holograms. Greater continuity and precision results in decreased scattering loss and increased imaging efficiency.

  2. Delayed Auditory Feedback and Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfordresher, Peter Q.; Dalla Bella, Simone

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that timing of rhythm production is disrupted by delayed auditory feedback (DAF), and that disruption varies with delay length. We tested the hypothesis that disruption depends on the state of the movement trajectory at the onset of DAF. Participants tapped isochronous rhythms at a rate specified by a metronome while hearing DAF…

  3. #FakeNobelDelayReasons

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Tuesday’s hour-long delay of the Nobel Prize in Physics announcement was (and still is) quite the cause for speculation. But on the Twittersphere, it was simply the catalyst for some fantastic puns, so-bad-they're-good physics jokes and other shenanigans. Here are some of our favourite #FakeNobelDelayReasons.    

  4. Picosecond resolution programmable delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suchenek, Mariusz

    2009-01-01

    The note presents implementation of a programmable delay line for digital signals. The tested circuit has a subnanosecond delay range programmable with a resolution of picoseconds. Implementation of the circuit was based on low-cost components, easily available on the market. (technical design note)

  5. Project delay analysis of HRSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvianita; Novega, A. S.; Rosyid, D. M.; Suntoyo

    2017-08-01

    Completion of HRSG (Heat Recovery Steam Generator) fabrication project sometimes is not sufficient with the targeted time written on the contract. The delay on fabrication process can cause some disadvantages for fabricator, including forfeit payment, delay on HRSG construction process up until HRSG trials delay. In this paper, the author is using semi quantitative on HRSG pressure part fabrication delay with configuration plant 1 GT (Gas Turbine) + 1 HRSG + 1 STG (Steam Turbine Generator) using bow-tie analysis method. Bow-tie analysis method is a combination from FTA (Fault tree analysis) and ETA (Event tree analysis) to develop the risk matrix of HRSG. The result from FTA analysis is use as a threat for preventive measure. The result from ETA analysis is use as impact from fabrication delay.

  6. Ranking of Delay Factors for Makkah’s Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Emad Nashwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents identification of significant delay factors encountered by Makkah’s construction industry using quantitative approach. A structured questionnaire developed based on literature review was verified through pilot study involved selected construction experts. Questionnaire survey was conducted amongst Makkah construction practitioners include contractors, consultants and project management consultancy. The survey managed to collect 100 valid responses which were used to rank the factors using average index approach. Results of the analysis for 10 most significant factors causing construction delay in Makkah construction industry are Difficulties in financing project by contractor, Poor coordination between parties, Shortage of manpower, Delays in producing design documents, Improper planning and scheduling of the project, Delay in progress payments, Low productivity level of labour, Poor communication between parties, Unqualified workforce and Poor contract management. This finding is helpful to Makkah construction’s community particularly projects’ stakeholders in avoiding potential delay for their future projects.

  7. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagashima, T.; Miyamoto, K.; Beppu, H.; Hirose, K.; Yamada, K. (Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital (Japan))

    1981-07-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author).

  8. Delayed radiation neuropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Toshiko; Miyamoto, Kazuto; Beppu, Hirokuni; Hirose, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Katsuhiro

    1981-01-01

    A case of cervical plexus neuropathy was reported in association with chronic radio-dermatitis, myxedema with thyroid adenoma and epiglottic tumor. A 38-year-old man has noticed muscle weakness and wasting of the right shoulder girdle since age 33. A detailed history taking revealed a previous irradiation to the neck because of the cervical lymphadenopathy at age 10 (X-ray 3,000 rads), keroid skin change at age 19, obesity and edema since 26, and hoarseness at 34. Laryngoscopic examination revealed a tumor on the right vocal cord, diagnosed as benign papilloma by histological study. In addition, there were chronic radio-dermatitis around the neck, primary hypothyroidism with a benign functioning adenoma on the right lobe of the thyroid, the right phrenic nerve palsy and the right recurrent nerve palsy. All these lesions were considered to be the late sequellae of radiation to the neck in childhood. Other neurological signs were weakness and amyotrophy of the right shoulder girdle with patchy sensory loss, and areflexia of the right arm. Gross power was fairly well preserved in the right hand. EMG showed neurogenic changes in the tested muscles, suggesting a peripheral nerve lesion. Nerve conduction velocities were normal. No abnormal findings were revealed by myelography and spinal CT. The neurological findings of the patient were compatible with the diagnosis of middle cervical plexus palsy apparently due to late radiation effect. In the literature eight cases of post-radiation neuropathy with a long latency have been reported. The present case with the longest latency after the radiation should be included in the series of the reported cases of ''delayed radiation neuropathy.'' (author)

  9. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, [3H]glutamate and [3H]glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus

  10. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. (Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  11. JNDS of interaural time delay (ITD) of selected frequency bands in speech and music signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliphas, Avner; Colburn, H. Steven; Ghitza, Oded

    2002-05-01

    JNDS of interaural time delay (ITD) of selected frequency bands in the presence of other frequency bands have been reported for noiseband stimuli [Zurek (1985); Trahiotis and Bernstein (1990)]. Similar measurements will be reported for speech and music signals. When stimuli are synthesized with bandpass/band-stop operations, performance with complex stimuli are similar to noisebands (JNDS in tens or hundreds of microseconds); however, the resulting waveforms, when viewed through a model of the auditory periphery, show distortions (irregularities in phase and level) at the boundaries of the target band of frequencies. An alternate synthesis method based upon group-delay filtering operations does not show these distortions and is being used for the current measurements. Preliminary measurements indicate that when music stimuli are created using the new techniques, JNDS of ITDs are increased significantly compared to previous studies, with values on the order of milliseconds.

  12. Padé approximation of delays in cooperative ACC based on string stability requirements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xing, H.; Ploeg, J.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) improves road throughput by employing intervehicle wireless communications. The inherent communication time delay and vehicle actuator delay significantly limit the minimum intervehicle distance in view of string stability requirements. Hence, controller

  13. Effect of Time Delay on Recognition Memory for Pictures: The Modulatory Role of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the modulatory role of emotion in the effect of time delay on recognition memory for pictures. Participants viewed neutral, positive and negative pictures, and took a recognition memory test 5 minutes, 24 hours, or 1 week after learning. The findings are: 1) For neutral, positive and negative pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h delay. For neutral and positive pictures, overall recognition accuracy in the 1-week delay was lower than in the 24-h delay; for negative pictures, overall recognition in the 24-h and 1-week delay did not significantly differ. Therefore negative emotion modulates the effect of time delay on recognition memory, maintaining retention of overall recognition accuracy only within a certain frame of time. 2) For the three types of pictures, recollection and familiarity in the 5-min delay did not significantly differ from that in the 24-h and the 1-week delay. Thus emotion does not appear to modulate the effect of time delay on recollection and familiarity. However, recollection in the 24-h delay was higher than in the 1-week delay, whereas familiarity in the 24-h delay was lower than in the 1-week delay. PMID:24971457

  14. Pitavastatin 4 mg Provides Significantly Greater Reduction in Remnant Lipoprotein Cholesterol Compared With Pravastatin 40 mg: Results from the Short-term Phase IV PREVAIL US Trial in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, P Elliott; Martin, Seth S; Joshi, Parag H; Jones, Steven R; Massaro, Joseph M; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Sponseller, Craig A; Toth, Peter P

    2016-03-01

    Remnants are partially hydrolyzed, triglyceride-rich lipoproteins that are implicated in atherosclerosis. We assessed the adequacy of pitavastatin 4 mg and pravastatin 40 mg in reducing atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, in particular remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C). From the Phase IV, multicenter, randomized, double-blind PREVAIL US (A Study of Pitavastatin 4 mg Vs. Pravastatin 40 mg in Patients With Primary Hyperlipidemia or Mixed Dyslipidemia) trial, we examined lipoprotein cholesterol subfractions using Vertical Auto Profile testing and apolipoproteins B and A-I at baseline and 12 weeks. Participants with primary hyperlipidemia or mixed dyslipidemia had LDL-C levels of 130 to 220 mg/dL and triglyceride levels ≤ 400 mg/dL. In this post hoc analysis, changes in lipid parameters were compared by using ANCOVA. Lipoprotein subfraction data were available in 312 patients (pitavastatin, n = 157; pravastatin, n = 155). Pitavastatin promoted a greater reduction in RLP-C than pravastatin (-13.6 [8.7] vs -9.3 [9.5] mg/dL). Furthermore, the pitavastatin group reported greater reductions in both components of RLP-C (both, P < 0.001): intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-9.5 [6.3] vs -6.4 [6.6] mg/dL) and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 (-4.1 [3.5] vs -2.9 [3.8] mg/dL). There were also greater reductions in the major ratios of risk (apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A-I and total cholesterol/HDL-C) (both, P < 0.001). There were no significant changes in HDL-C, its subfractions, or natural log lipoprotein(a)-cholesterol. The mean age was 58.8 ± 8.9 years in the pitavastatin group and 57.0 ± 10.2 years in the pravastatin group. Compared with pravastatin 40 mg daily, pitavastatin 4 mg provided superior reductions in atherogenic lipid parameters beyond LDL-C, including RLP-C. Future studies are needed investigate the clinical implications of lowering directly measured RLP-C as the principal target. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier

  15. Maximum likelihood window for time delay estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Sup; Yoon, Dong Jin; Kim, Chi Yup

    2004-01-01

    Time delay estimation for the detection of leak location in underground pipelines is critically important. Because the exact leak location depends upon the precision of the time delay between sensor signals due to leak noise and the speed of elastic waves, the research on the estimation of time delay has been one of the key issues in leak lovating with the time arrival difference method. In this study, an optimal Maximum Likelihood window is considered to obtain a better estimation of the time delay. This method has been proved in experiments, which can provide much clearer and more precise peaks in cross-correlation functions of leak signals. The leak location error has been less than 1 % of the distance between sensors, for example the error was not greater than 3 m for 300 m long underground pipelines. Apart from the experiment, an intensive theoretical analysis in terms of signal processing has been described. The improved leak locating with the suggested method is due to the windowing effect in frequency domain, which offers a weighting in significant frequencies.

  16. Attosecond Delays in Molecular Photoionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppert, Martin; Jordan, Inga; Baykusheva, Denitsa; von Conta, Aaron; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2016-08-26

    We report measurements of energy-dependent photoionization delays between the two outermost valence shells of N_{2}O and H_{2}O. The combination of single-shot signal referencing with the use of different metal foils to filter the attosecond pulse train enables us to extract delays from congested spectra. Remarkably large delays up to 160 as are observed in N_{2}O, whereas the delays in H_{2}O are all smaller than 50 as in the photon-energy range of 20-40 eV. These results are interpreted by developing a theory of molecular photoionization delays. The long delays measured in N_{2}O are shown to reflect the population of molecular shape resonances that trap the photoelectron for a duration of up to ∼110 as. The unstructured continua of H_{2}O result in much smaller delays at the same photon energies. Our experimental and theoretical methods make the study of molecular attosecond photoionization dynamics accessible.

  17. Delay of behavioral estrus in hamsters and phenobarbital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, J J

    1989-01-01

    The onset of behavioral estrus was used as a phase marker of the hamster timing system in SLD 16:8 (dark 20:00-04:00). TZ was injected between 11:00 of cycle day 3 and noon of cycle day 4 when onset of estrus was determined. At no time did injection of TZ cause a phase advance in SLD 16:8. Small delays of estrus resulted from 11:00-16:00 injections but marked delays began with the 17:00 injection. Phenobarbital was injected between noon and 19:30 on cycle day 3. Injections between noon and 16:00 had no effect but all later injections beginning at 17:00 delayed estrus, the 17:30 injection causing the greatest delay. Diazepam also markedly delayed estrus when tested at 17:30. These results with three drugs support results with light pulses that 18:00 in SLD 16:8 marks the same phase of the 24-h hamster timing system as the onset of wheel running does in DD, LL, and WLD. These findings with three GABA potentiators extend to SLD previous evidence based on the onset of wheel running in DD, LL and WLD that GABA may be involved in hamster timekeeping and its responses to light and drugs.

  18. Attosecond delay in the molecular photoionization of asymmetric molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Alexis; Ruiz, Camilo

    2018-02-19

    We report theoretical calculations of the delay in photoemission from CO with particular emphasis on the role of the ultrafast electronic bound dynamics. We study the delays in photoionization in the HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals of the CO molecule by looking into the stereo Wigner time delay technique. That compares the delay in photoemission from electrons emitted to the left and right to extract structural and dynamical information of the ionization process. For this we apply two techniques: The attosecond streak camera and the time of flight technique. Although they should provide the same results we have found large discrepancies of up to 36 in the case of HOMO, while for the HOMO-1 we obtain the same results with the two techniques. We have found that the large time delays observed in the HOMO orbital with the streaking technique are a consequence of the resonant transition triggered by the streaking field. This resonant transition produces a bound electron wavepacket that modifies the measurements of delay in photoionization. As a result of this observation, our technique allows us to reconstruct the bound wavepacket dynamics induced by the streaking field. By measuring the expected value of the electron momentum along the polarization direction after the streaking field has finished, we can recover the relative phase between the complex amplitudes of the HOMO and LUMO orbitals. These theoretical calculations pave the way for the measurement of ultrafast bound-bound electron transitionsand its crucial role for the delay in photoemission observation.

  19. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing A Cumulative Delay Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Suwa, Haruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Online scheduling is recognized as the crucial decision-making process of production control at a phase of “being in production" according to the released shop floor schedule. Online scheduling can be also considered as one of key enablers to realize prompt capable-to-promise as well as available-to-promise to customers along with reducing production lead times under recent globalized competitive markets. Online Scheduling in Manufacturing introduces new approaches to online scheduling based on a concept of cumulative delay. The cumulative delay is regarded as consolidated information of uncertainties under a dynamic environment in manufacturing and can be collected constantly without much effort at any points in time during a schedule execution. In this approach, the cumulative delay of the schedule has the important role of a criterion for making a decision whether or not a schedule revision is carried out. The cumulative delay approach to trigger schedule revisions has the following capabilities for the ...

  20. Statistical delay estimation in digital circuits using VHDL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Miljana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The most important feature of modern integrated circuit is the speed. It depends on circuit's delay. For the design of high-speed digital circuits, it is necessary to evaluate delays in the earliest stages of design, thus making it easy to modify and redesign a circuit if it's too slow. This paper gives an approach for efficient delay estimation in the describing phase of the circuit design. The method can statistically estimate the minimum and maximum delay of all possible paths and signal transitions in the circuit, considering the practical implementation of circuits, and information about the parameters' tolerances. The method uses a VHDL description and is verified on ISCAS85 benchmark circuits. Matlab was used for data processing.

  1. On minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay for instantly decodable network coding

    KAUST Repository

    Douik, Ahmed S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of minimizing the maximum broadcast decoding delay experienced by all the receivers of generalized instantly decodable network coding (IDNC). Unlike the sum decoding delay, the maximum decoding delay as a definition of delay for IDNC allows a more equitable distribution of the delays between the different receivers and thus a better Quality of Service (QoS). In order to solve this problem, we first derive the expressions for the probability distributions of maximum decoding delay increments. Given these expressions, we formulate the problem as a maximum weight clique problem in the IDNC graph. Although this problem is known to be NP-hard, we design a greedy algorithm to perform effective packet selection. Through extensive simulations, we compare the sum decoding delay and the max decoding delay experienced when applying the policies to minimize the sum decoding delay and our policy to reduce the max decoding delay. Simulations results show that our policy gives a good agreement among all the delay aspects in all situations and outperforms the sum decoding delay policy to effectively minimize the sum decoding delay when the channel conditions become harsher. They also show that our definition of delay significantly improve the number of served receivers when they are subject to strict delay constraints.

  2. Time-delay interferometry for LISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Estabrook, F.B.; Armstrong, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) is a mission to detect and study low-frequency cosmic gravitational radiation through its influence on the phases or frequencies of laser beams exchanged between three remote spacecraft. We previously showed how, with lasers of identical frequencies on stationary spacecraft, the measurement of twelve time series of Doppler shifts could be combined to cancel exactly the phase noise of the lasers and the Doppler fluctuations due to noninertial motions of the six optical benches, while preserving gravitational wave signals. Here we generalize those results on gravitational wave detection with time-delay interferometry to the expected LISA instrument. The six lasers have different center frequencies (in the nominal LISA configuration these center frequencies may well differ by several hundred megahertz) and the distances between spacecraft pairs will change with time (these slowly varying orbital Doppler shifts are expected to be up to tens of megahertz). We develop time-delay data combinations which, as previously, preserve gravitational waves and exactly cancel the leading noise source (phase fluctuations of the six lasers); these data combinations then imply transfer functions for the remaining system noises. Using these, we plot frequency and phase power spectra for modeled system noises in the unequal Michelson combination X and the symmetric Sagnac combination ζ. Although optical bench noise can no longer be cancelled exactly, with the current LISA specifications it is suppressed to negligible levels. It is known that the presently anticipated laser center frequency differences and the orbital Doppler drifts introduce another source of phase noise, arising from the onboard oscillators required to track the photodetector fringes. For the presently planned mission, our analysis indeed demonstrates that noise from current-generation ultrastable oscillators would, if uncorrected, dominate the LISA noise budget. To meet the

  3. Hippocampal lesions impair performance on a conditional delayed matching and non-matching to position task in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Hazel L; Döbrössy, Màtè; Dunnett, Stephen B

    2006-08-10

    The hippocampus is thought to be involved in a range of cognitive processes, from the ability to acquire new memories, to the ability to learn about spatial relationships. Humans and monkeys with damage to the hippocampus are typically impaired on delayed matching to sample tasks, of which the operant delayed matching to position task (DMTP) is a rat analogue. The reported effects of hippocampal damage on DMTP vary, ranging from delay-dependent deficits to no deficit whatsoever. The present study investigates a novel memory task; the conditional delayed matching/non-matching to position task (CDM/NMTP) in the Skinner box. CDM/NMTP uses the presence of specific stimulus cues to signify whether a particular trial is matching or non-matching in nature. Thus, it incorporates both the task contingencies within one session, and supplements the requirement for remembering the side of the lever in the sample phase with attending to the stimulus and remembering the conditional discrimination for the rule. Rats were trained preoperatively and the effects of bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the hippocampus were examined on postoperative retention of the task. Rats with lesions of the hippocampus incurred a significant impairment on the task that was manifest at all delays intervals. Despite a bias towards matching during training, trials of either type were performed with equivalent accuracy and neither rule was affected differentially by the lesion. This task may prove useful in determining the cognitive roles of a range of brain areas.

  4. Modelling biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays: a hybrid semi-parametric approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Rui

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents a method for modelling dynamical biochemical networks with intrinsic time delays. Since the fundamental mechanisms leading to such delays are many times unknown, non conventional modelling approaches become necessary. Herein, a hybrid semi-parametric identification methodology is proposed in which discrete time series are incorporated into fundamental material balance models. This integration results in hybrid delay differential equations which can be applied to identify unknown cellular dynamics. Results The proposed hybrid modelling methodology was evaluated using two case studies. The first of these deals with dynamic modelling of transcriptional factor A in mammalian cells. The protein transport from the cytosol to the nucleus introduced a delay that was accounted for by discrete time series formulation. The second case study focused on a simple network with distributed time delays that demonstrated that the discrete time delay formalism has broad applicability to both discrete and distributed delay problems. Conclusions Significantly better prediction qualities of the novel hybrid model were obtained when compared to dynamical structures without time delays, being the more distinctive the more significant the underlying system delay is. The identification of the system delays by studies of different discrete modelling delays was enabled by the proposed structure. Further, it was shown that the hybrid discrete delay methodology is not limited to discrete delay systems. The proposed method is a powerful tool to identify time delays in ill-defined biochemical networks.

  5. Bilingualism delays clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Woumans, Evy; Santens, Patrick; Sieben, Anne; Versijpt, Jan; Stevens, Michaël; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated the effects of bilingualism on the clinical manifestation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a European sample of patients. We assessed all incoming AD patients in two university hospitals within a specified timeframe. Sixty-nine monolinguals and 65 bilinguals diagnosed with probable AD were compared for time of clinical AD manifestation and diagnosis. The influence of other potentially interacting variables was also examined. Results indicated a significant delay f...

  6. Delayed habituation in Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulturk, Sefa; Akyol, Melih; Kececi, Hulusi; Ozcelik, Sedat; Cinar, Ziynet; Demirkazik, Ayse

    2008-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system in Behcet's patients may be affected due to various reasons. This entity may be detected with the measurement of the electrodermal activities, heart rate variability and pupillometric methods. Habituation is one of the implicit forms of learning and memory and the loss of habituation can reveal pathological changes in the synaptic regions. To determine whether there is a functional decrease in the synaptic effectiveness (habituation) of the pathways to sympathetic neurons that had been repeatedly activated in Behcet's. Twelve patients with Behcet's disease and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Sympathetic skin potential (SSP) records were taken at normal room temperature in a quiet place within a Faraday cage. Sixteen square wave single shock impulses (duration: 1200 ms, strength: 5 mA) were applied on each case. After the 1st stimulus, the SSP amplitudes were lower in the patients compared to the controls (P0.05). Whereas there was no significant differences among the SSP amplitudes after the 9th impulse in the controls (P>0.05). The habituation rate of the SSP after consecutive impulses was slowest in the patients compared to controls (P<0.001, t value=12.39). There is a delayed habituation in Behcet's disease and that may due to pathologic changes with vasculitis through their peripheral nerves.

  7. Global synchronization in arrays of delayed neural networks with constant and delayed coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jinde; Li Ping; Wang Weiwei

    2006-01-01

    This Letter investigates the global exponential synchronization in arrays of coupled identical delayed neural networks (DNNs) with constant and delayed coupling. By referring to Lyapunov functional method and Kronecker product technique, some sufficient conditions are derived for global synchronization of such systems. These new synchronization criteria offer some adjustable matrix parameters, which is of important significance in the design and applications of such coupled DNNs, and the results improve and extend the earlier works. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  8. Delays and networked control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hetel, Laurentiu; Daafouz, Jamal; Johansson, Karl

    2016-01-01

    This edited monograph includes state-of-the-art contributions on continuous time dynamical networks with delays. The book is divided into four parts. The first part presents tools and methods for the analysis of time-delay systems with a particular attention on control problems of large scale or infinite-dimensional systems with delays. The second part of the book is dedicated to the use of time-delay models for the analysis and design of Networked Control Systems. The third part of the book focuses on the analysis and design of systems with asynchronous sampling intervals which occur in Networked Control Systems. The last part of the book exposes several contributions dealing with the design of cooperative control and observation laws for networked control systems. The target audience primarily comprises researchers and experts in the field of control theory, but the book may also be beneficial for graduate students. .

  9. Linear rotary optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerboukha, Hichem; Qu, Hang; Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    2016-03-01

    We present a semi-analytical solution for the design of a high-speed rotary optical delay line that use a combination of two rotating curvilinear reflectors. We demonstrate that it is possible to design an infinite variety of the optical delay lines featuring linear dependence of the optical delay on the rotation angle. This is achieved via shape optimization of the rotating reflector surfaces. Moreover, a convenient spatial separation of the incoming and outgoing beams is possible. For the sake of example, we present blades that fit into a circle of 10cm diameter. Finally, a prototype of a rotary delay line is fabricated using CNC machining, and its optical properties are characterized.

  10. Finding determinants of audit delay by pooled OLS regression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Vuko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate determinants of audit delay. Audit delay is measured as the length of time (i.e. the number of calendar days from the fiscal year-end to the audit report date. It is important to understand factors that influence audit delay since it directly affects the timeliness of financial reporting. The research is conducted on a sample of Croatian listed companies, covering the period of four years (from 2008 to 2011. We use pooled OLS regression analysis, modelling audit delay as a function of the following explanatory variables: audit firm type, audit opinion, profitability, leverage, inventory and receivables to total assets, absolute value of total accruals, company size and audit committee existence. Our results indicate that audit committee existence, profitability and leverage are statistically significant determinants of audit delay in Croatia.

  11. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  12. Knock Prediction Using a Simple Model for Ignition Delay

    KAUST Repository

    Kalghatgi, Gautam; Morganti, Kai; Algunaibet, Ibrahim; Sarathy, Mani; Dibble, Robert W.

    2016-01-01

    An earlier paper has shown the ability to predict the phasing of knock onset in a gasoline PFI engine using a simple ignition delay equation for an appropriate surrogate fuel made up of toluene and PRF (TPRF). The applicability of this approach

  13. Pregnancy outcome of “delayed start” GnRH antagonist protocol versus GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders: A clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aflatoonian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Management of poor-responding patients is still major challenge in assisted reproductive techniques (ART. Delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol is recommended to these patients, but little is known in this regards. Objective: The goal of this study was assessment of delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol in poor responders, and in vitro fertilization (IVF outcomes. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial included sixty infertile women with Bologna criteria for ovarian poor responders who were candidate for IVF. In case group (n=30, delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol administered estrogen priming followed by early follicular-phase GnRH antagonist treatment for 7 days before ovarian stimulation with gonadotropin. Control group (n=30 treated with estrogen priming antagonist protocol. Finally, endometrial thickness, the rates of oocytes maturation, , embryo formation, and pregnancy were compared between two groups. Results: Rates of implantation, chemical, clinical, and ongoing pregnancy in delayed-start cycles were higher although was not statistically significant. Endometrial thickness was significantly higher in case group. There were no statistically significant differences in the rates of oocyte maturation, embryo formation, and IVF outcomes between two groups. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between delayed-start GnRH antagonist protocol versus GnRH antagonist protocol.

  14. Analytical applications for delayed neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    Analytical formulations that describe the time dependence of neutron populations in nuclear materials contain delayed-neutron dependent terms. These terms are important because the delayed neutrons, even though their yields in fission are small, permit control of the fission chain reaction process. Analytical applications that use delayed neutrons range from simple problems that can be solved with the point reactor kinetics equations to complex problems that can only be solved with large codes that couple fluid calculations with the neutron dynamics. Reactor safety codes, such as SIMMER, model transients of the entire reactor core using coupled space-time neutronics and comprehensive thermal-fluid dynamics. Nondestructive delayed-neutron assay instruments are designed and modeled using a three-dimensional continuous-energy Monte Carlo code. Calculations on high-burnup spent fuels and other materials that contain a mix of uranium and plutonium isotopes require accurate and complete information on the delayed-neutron periods, yields, and energy spectra. A continuing need exists for delayed-neutron parameters for all the fissioning isotopes

  15. Visuomotor Resolution in Telerobotic Grasping with Transmission Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omri Afgin

    2017-10-01

    this condition, maximal grip aperture was an inappropriate indicator of JND. Instead, we calculated the aperture at the end of the opening phase, the initial grip aperture (IGA, and the FGA at the beginning of the waiting period, as more appropriate indicators for the JNDs. The IGAs adhered to Weber’s law. The FGAs approached significance in the same direction. This suggests that perception–action association during telerobotic grasping with transmission delays significantly diverges from direct grasping.

  16. Prospective analysis of delayed colorectal post-polypectomy bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Kyung; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Min-Gu; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Jung, Yoon Suk; Choi, Kyu Yong; Kim, Hungdai; Kim, Hyung Ook; Jung, Kyung Uk; Chun, Ho-Kyung; Park, Dong Il

    2018-01-17

    Although post-polypectomy bleeding is the most frequent complication after colonoscopic polypectomy, only few studies have investigated the incidence of bleeding prospectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of delayed post-polypectomy bleeding and its associated risk factors prospectively. Patients who underwent colonoscopic polypectomy at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were prospectively enrolled in this study. Trained nurses contacted patients via telephone 7 and 30 days after polypectomy and completed a standardized questionnaire regarding the development of bleeding. Delayed post-polypectomy bleeding was categorized as minor or major and early or late bleeding. Major delayed bleeding was defined as a > 2-g/dL drop in the hemoglobin level, requiring hospitalization for control of bleeding or blood transfusion; late delayed bleeding was defined as bleeding occurring later than 24 h after polypectomy. A total of 8175 colonoscopic polypectomies were performed in 3887 patients. Overall, 133 (3.4%) patients developed delayed post-polypectomy bleeding. Among them, 90 (2.3%) and 43 (1.1%) patients developed minor and major delayed bleeding, respectively, and 39 (1.0%) patients developed late delayed bleeding. In the polyp-based multivariate analysis, young age ( 10 mm (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.38-4.36) were significant risk factors for major delayed bleeding, while young age (< 50 years; OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.35-5.12) and immediate bleeding (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.49-7.30) were significant risk factors for late delayed bleeding. Young age, aspirin use, polyp size, and immediate bleeding were found to be independent risk factors for delayed post-polypectomy bleeding.

  17. Factors associated with long diagnostic delay in celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Valma; Kurppa, Kalle; Huhtala, Heini; Collin, Pekka; Mäki, Markku; Kaukinen, Katri

    2014-11-01

    Here, we investigated the factors associated with long diagnostic delay in celiac disease and the impact of the national Current Care Guidelines in reducing the delay. This population-based study involved 825 adult celiac disease patients. The diagnosis was considered delayed when the interval between first symptoms and diagnosis was >10 years. The patients were asked about the duration and type of symptoms before diagnosis, time and site (tertiary, secondary, or primary care) of the diagnosis, family history of the disease, and presence of significant comorbidities. Analysis was performed by binary logistic regression. Altogether, 261 (32%) out of 825 participants reported a diagnostic delay of >10 years. Female gender, neurological or musculoskeletal disorders and presence of diarrhea, abdominal pain, and malabsorption were associated with prolonged delay. Male gender, diagnosis after the introduction of the first Current Care Guidelines in 1997, and being detected by serological screening, and family history of celiac disease were associated with a lower risk of delayed diagnosis. Factors not associated with the delay were site of diagnosis, age, and presence of dermatitis herpetiformis, type 1 diabetes, or thyroidal disease. The number of long diagnostic delays in celiac disease has decreased over the past decades. The shift of diagnostics from secondary and tertiary care to primary care has not been detrimental. National guidelines together with increased awareness and active screening in at-risk groups of celiac disease are important in these circumstances.

  18. Brain Structure Linking Delay Discounting and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Kong, Feng; Zhou, Ming; Chen, Taolin; Yang, Xun; Chen, Guangxiang; Gong, Qiyong

    2017-08-01

    As a component of self-discipline, delay discounting refers to the ability to wait longer for preferred rewards and plays a pivotal role in shaping students' academic performance. However, the neural basis of the association between delay discounting and academic performance remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the neuroanatomical substrates underlying delay discounting and academic performance in 214 adolescents via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) by performing structural magnetic resonance imaging (S-MRI). Behaviorally, we confirmed the significant correlation between delay discounting and academic performance. Neurally, whole-brain regression analyses indicated that regional gray matter volume (rGMV) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was associated with both delay discounting and academic performance. Furthermore, delay discounting partly accounted for the association between academic performance and brain structure. Differences in the rGMV of the left DLPFC related to academic performance explained over one-third of the impact of delay discounting on academic performance. Overall, these results provide the first evidence for the common neural basis linking delay discounting and academic performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:3917-3926, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Delayed enhancement imaging in a contemporary patient cohort following correction of tetralogy of Fallot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preim, Uta; Sommer, Philipp; Hoffmann, Janine; Kehrmann, Jana; Lehmkuhl, Lukas; Daehnert, Ingo; Gutberlet, Matthias; Grothoff, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that myocardial scars after repair of tetralogy of Fallot are related to impaired cardiac function and adverse clinical outcome. A total of 53 patients were retrospectively analysed after repair of tetralogy of Fallot. The median patient age was 20 years (range 2-48). Cardiac MRI with a 1.5 T magnet included cine sequences to obtain volumes and function, phase-sensitive inversion recovery delayed enhancement imaging to detect myocardial scars, and flow measurements to determine pulmonary regurgitation fraction. In addition, clinical parameters were obtained. An overall 83% of patients were in NYHA class I. All patients with the exception of 2 (96%) had pulmonary insufficiency. Mean ejection fraction and end-diastolic volume index were 46% and 128 ml/m2 for the right ventricle and 54% and 82 ml/m² for the left ventricle, respectively. Excluding enhancement of the septal insertion and prosthetic patches, delayed enhancement was seen in 11/53 cases (21%). Delayed enhancement of the right ventricle was detected in 6/53 patients (11%) and of the left ventricle in 5/53 patients (9%). The patient group with delayed enhancement was significantly older (p=0.003), had later repair (p=0.007), and higher left ventricular myocardial mass index (p=0.009) compared with the group without delayed enhancement. This study reveals that scarring is common in patients after surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot and is associated with older age and late repair. However, there was no difference in right ventricular function, NYHA class, or occurrence of clinically relevant arrhythmias between patients with and those without myocardial scars.

  20. Modeling and Control of a Single-Phase Marine Cooling System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael; Stoustrup, Jakob; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents two model-based control design approaches for a single-phase marine cooling system. Models are derived from first principles and aim at describing significant system dynamics including nonlinearities and transport delays, while keeping the model complexity low. The two...

  1. Prevalence and determinants of delay in diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Darjeeling district of West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibasis Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB is a significant problem both in individual as well as community level. Different studies around globe revealed that these diagnostic delays are attributed to both patient delay and health system-related delay. Aims: This study aims to assess the magnitude of delay in diagnosis and the association with sociodemographic profile among new sputum-positive pulmonary TB patients in Darjeeling district. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 374 TB patients from October 2011 to March 2012 using a predesigned pretested schedule by face-to-face interview. Statistical Analysis: Logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR, adjusted ORs. Results: Patient delay, health system delay and total diagnostic delay were 27 days, 20.1 days, and 20.6 days; mean delays were 23.64, 5.71, and 29.46 days, and median delays were 25, 5, and 32 days, respectively. Risk factors associated with patient delay were female gender, rural residence, illiteracy, smoking, alcohol consumption, taking two, or more alternate treatments; for health system delay were female sex, rural residence, time to reach health facility, time spent per visit; and for total diagnostic delay were female sex, alcoholism, and seeking more than two alternate treatment. Conclusions: The risk factors for delay identified may be the subject of future interventions.

  2. Self-Recognition in Young Children Using Delayed versus Live Feedback: Evidence of a Developmental Asynchrony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Daniel J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the ability of young children to recognize themselves in delayed videotapes and recent photographs. Results suggested a significant developmental delay in young children's success on mark tests of self-recognition using delayed feedback as compared to live feedback, which may have important implications for characterizing the…

  3. Discounting of Monetary Rewards that are Both Delayed and Probabilistic: Delay and Probability Combine Multiplicatively, not Additively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderveldt, Ariana; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel

    2014-01-01

    The value of an outcome is affected both by the delay until its receipt (delay discounting) and by the likelihood of its receipt (probability discounting). Despite being well-described by the same hyperboloid function, delay and probability discounting involve fundamentally different processes, as revealed, for example, by the differential effects of reward amount. Previous research has focused on the discounting of delayed and probabilistic rewards separately, with little research examining more complex situations in which rewards are both delayed and probabilistic. In two experiments, participants made choices between smaller rewards that were both immediate and certain and larger rewards that were both delayed and probabilistic. Analyses revealed significant interactions between delay and probability factors inconsistent with an additive model. In contrast, a hyperboloid discounting model in which delay and probability were combined multiplicatively provided an excellent fit to the data. These results suggest that the hyperboloid is a good descriptor of decision making in complicated monetary choice situations like those people encounter in everyday life. PMID:24933696

  4. Choice ofoptimal phase for liver angiography and multi-phase scanning with multi-slice spiral CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Hong; Song Yunlong; Bi Yongmin; Wang Dong; Shi Huiping; Zhang Wanshi; Zhu Hongxian; Yang Hua; Ji Xudong; Fan Hongxia

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of test bolus technique with multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) for determining the optimal scan delay time in CT Hepatic artery (HA)-portal vein (PV) angiography and multi-phase scanning. Methods: MSCT liver angiography and multi-phase scanning were performed in 187 patients divided randomly into two groups. In group A (n=59), the scan delay time was set according to the subjective experiences of operators; in group B (n=128), the scan delay time was determined by test bolus technique. Abdominal aorta and superior mesenteric, vein were selected as target blood vessels, and 50 HU was set as enhancement threshold value. 20 ml contrast agent was injected intravenously and time-density curve of target blood vessels were obtained, then HA-PV scanning delay time were calculated respectively. The quality of CTA images obtained by using these 2 methods were compared and statistically analysed using Chi-square criterion. Results: For hepatic artery phase, the images of group A are: excellent in 34 (58%), good in 17 (29%), and poor in 8 (13%), while those of group B are excellent in 128(100%), good in 0(0%), and poor in 0(0%). For portal vein phase, the images of group A are: excellent in 23 (39%), good in 27 (46%), and poor in 9 (15%), while those of group B are excellent in 96 (75%), good in 28 (22%), and poor in 4 (3%) respectively. There was statistically significant difference between the ratios of image quality in group A and group B (χ 2 =14.97, 9.18, P< 0.05). Conclusion: Accurate scan delay time was best determined by using test bolus technique, which can improve the image quality of liver angiography and multi-phase scanning. (authors)

  5. Gastric emptying measurements: delayed and complex emptying patterns without appropriate correction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.G.; Christian, P.E.; Taylor, A.T.; Alazraki, N.

    1985-10-01

    Anteriorly acquired and geometric mean corrected gastric emptying curves of solids and liquid isotopic-labeled meals were compared in 37 subjects given 61 meals of three different sizes. Anterior data alone consistently and significantly underestimated solid-phase gastric emptying rates with all meal sizes when compared to geometric mean acquired data. However, with liquids there were only slight differences between anterior and anterior and posterior geometric mean corrected emptying-rates. The difference probably reflects greater attenuation of the 140 kev photon of /sup 99m/Tc compared to the 247 keV photon of In. With anterior data alone, an apparent early delay in emptying of solids was present with all meal sizes and the resultant emptying curves were nonlinear in shape. Geometric mean correction resulted in the linearization of the solid-phase emptying curves and essentially eliminated the apparent delay in emptying or lag phase noted with the anterior data alone. Based on our results, geometric mean correction techniques are necessary for accurate assessment of radioisotopic-labeled solid meals.

  6. Repair and fixation of potentially lethal damage (PLD) as demonstrated by delayed plating or incubation with araA in contact inhibited refed plateau-phase C3H mouse embryo 10T1/2 cells grown in the presence of BrdUrd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iliakis, G.; Wright, E.; Ngo, F.Q.H.

    1987-01-01

    CH3 mouse 10 T 1/2 cells showing strong inhibition of growth at confluency were grown under daily refeeding in the presence of BrdUrd (from 0 to 1 μM) and exposed to γ-rays either while exponentially growing or in the plateau phase. An increase in radiosensitivity was observed in both growth conditions mainly reflected by a reduction in Dq. Greater radiosensitization was observed in exponentially growing than in plateau-phase cells, and 3-4 times higher BrdUrd concentrations were required in plateau-phase cells for similar potentiation in killing. This effect could not be entirely attributed to a reduction in BrdUrd incorporation since measurements with 3 H-BrdUrd showed reductions in incorporation between only 17-47% in plateau-phase cells. The rate of repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) as demonstrated by delayed plating was not affected by the incorporation of BrdUrd, but the amount of repair (measured as the relative increase in cell survival) was higher for BrdUrd containing cells. Post-irradiation treatment of cells in the plateau-phase (no BrdUrd) with 9-β-D-arabinofuranosyladenine (araA) caused fixation of radiation-induced PLD. AraA treatment of cells grown in the presence of various amounts of BrdUrd also caused fixation of PLD, but resulted in survival levels similar to those observed with cells growing in BrdUrd-free medium. This result indicates that BrdUrd mediated radiosensitization cannot be observed when cells are prevented from repairing PLD by postirradiation incubation with araA. Based on these findings we propose that the mechanism of radiosensitization by BrdUrd incorporation might be, by increasing probability of fixation, mediated by the postirrdiation progression of cells through the cycle, of a sector of PLD also sensitive to post-irradiation treatment with araA. For this sector of PLD the term α-PLD has been proposed. (orig.)

  7. Organization of anti-phase synchronization pattern in neural networks: what are the key factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong eLi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neuralnetwork. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization ofanti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding morecomplicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamicalsystems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation patternhas usually been considered to relate to time-delay in coupling.This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks inthe brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials.However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, suchas modular organization (connection density and the coupling types(excitatory or inhibitory, could also play an important role. Inthis work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation patternorganized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model orneural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delaytimes, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our resultsshow that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in thisorganization. The connection densities may have an influence on thestability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors.Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slowoscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there isinteraction between slow and fast oscillations. These results aresignificant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporaldynamics of cortico-cortical communications.

  8. Impacts of delayed addition of N-rich and acidic substrates on nitrogen loss and compost quality during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Kang, Kang; Chen, Dan; Liu, Ningning

    2018-02-01

    Delayed addition of Nitrogen (N)-rich and acidic substrates was investigated to evaluate its effects on N loss and compost quality during the composting process. Three different delayed adding methods of N-rich (pig manure) and acidic substrates (phosphate fertilizer and rotten apples) were tested during the pig manure and wheat straw is composting. The results showed that delayed addition of pig manure and acidic materials led two temperature peaks, and the durations of two separate thermophilic phase were closely related to the amount of pig manure. Delayed addition reduced total N loss by up to 14% when using superphosphate as acidic substrates, and by up to 12% when using rotten apples as acidic substrates, which is mainly due to the decreased NH 3 emissions. At the end of composting, delayed the addition of pig manure caused a significant increase in the HS (humus substance) content, and the highest HS content was observed when 70% of the pig manure was applied at day 0 and the remaining 30% was applied on day 27. In the final compost, the GI in all treatments almost reached the maturity requirement by exceeding 80%. The results suggest that delayed addition of animal manure and acidic substrates could prevent the N loss during composting and improve the compost quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Spinodal Theory: A Common Rupturing Mechanism in Spinodal Dewetting and Surface Directed Phase Separation (Some Technological Aspects: Spatial Correlations and the Significance of Dipole-Quadrupole Interaction in Spinodal Dewetting)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.P.; Singh, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging structures in spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and spinodal decomposition of binary mixtures are found to be similar with certain differences attributed to the nonlinearities inherent in the wetting forces. This paper deals with the technological aspects of the spinodal processes by giving a brief account of the theory and to correlate the two phenomena termed as spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and surface-directed phase separation. The MC simulation micrographs at early stage of spinodal dewetting of a (linear) polymer film confined between two hard walls (using FENE potential between the beads on same chain and Morse potential between inter and intra chain beads) show similarities with surface-directed phase separation (using metropolis algorithm) in creation of holes. The spinodal dewetting is also criticized on the basis of global minimization of free energy emerging from dipole-quadrupole interactions. A novel molecular scale-driving mechanism coming from asymmetric interface formation in spinodal processes is also proposed. It can be believed that the modeling done with the films under confinement of two walls works as a classical mathematical Ansatz to the dipole-quadrupole interaction coming from quantum origins and giving rise to lateral interactions in the process reflecting a colossal behavior in thin nano films though weak in nature

  10. Spinodal Theory: A Common Rupturing Mechanism in Spinodal Dewetting and Surface Directed Phase Separation (Some Technological Aspects: Spatial Correlations and the Significance of Dipole-Quadrupole Interaction in Spinodal Dewetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Pal Singh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging structures in spinodal dewetting of thin nano films and spinodal decomposition of binary mixtures are found to be similar with certain differences attributed to the nonlinearities inherent in the wetting forces. This paper deals with the technological aspects of the spinodal processes by giving a brief account of the theory and to correlate the two phenomena termed as spinodal dewetting of thin nanofilms and surface-directed phase separation. The MC simulation micrographs at early stage of spinodal dewetting of a (linear polymer film confined between two hard walls (using FENE potential between the beads on same chain and Morse potential between inter and intra chain beads show similarities with surface-directed phase separation (using metropolis algorithm in creation of holes. The spinodal dewetting is also criticized on the basis of global minimization of free energy emerging from dipole-quadrupole interactions. A novel molecular scale-driving mechanism coming from asymmetric interface formation in spinodal processes is also proposed. It can be believed that the modeling done with the films under confinement of two walls works as a classical mathematical ansatz to the dipole-quadrupole interaction coming from quantum origins and giving rise to lateral interactions in the process reflecting a colossal behavior in thin nano films though weak in nature.

  11. Significance of the lipid phase in the dynamics and functions of the xanthophyll cycle as revealed by PsbS overexpression in tobacco and in-vitro de-epoxidation in monogalactosyldiacylglycerol micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieber, A David; Kawabata, Osamu; Yamamoto, Harry Y

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of the xanthophyll cycle relative to non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were examined in tobacco plants overexpressing violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), PsbS and PsbS+VDE for effects on NPQ and violaxanthin (V) de-epoxidation over a range of light intensities. Induction of de-epoxidation and NPQ increased in overexpressed VDE and PsbS plants, respectively. Surprisingly, under low light, overexpressing PsbS enhanced de-epoxidation in addition to NPQ. The effect was hypothesized as due to PsbS binding zeaxanthin (Z) or inducing the binding of Z within the quenching complex, thus shifting the equilibrium toward higher de-epoxidation states. Studies in model systems show that Z can stereospecifically inhibit VDE activity against violaxanthin. This effect, observed under conditions of limiting lipid concentration, was interpreted as product feedback inhibition. These results support the hypothesis that the capacity of the thylakoid lipid phase for xanthophylls is limited and modulates xanthophyll-cycle activity, in conjunction with the release of V and binding of Z by pigment-binding proteins. These modulating factors are incorporated into a lipid-matrix model that has elements of a signal transduction system wherein the light-generated protons are the signal, VDE the signal receptor, Z the secondary messenger, the lipid phase the transduction network, and Z-binding proteins the targets.

  12. Exponential convergence rate estimation for uncertain delayed neural networks of neutral type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, C.-H.; Yu, K.-W.; Lin, Y.-F.; Chung, Y.-J.; Chung, L.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    The global exponential stability for a class of uncertain delayed neural networks (DNNs) of neutral type is investigated in this paper. Delay-dependent and delay-independent criteria are proposed to guarantee the robust stability of DNNs via LMI and Razumikhin-like approaches. For a given delay, the maximal allowable exponential convergence rate will be estimated. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of our results. The simulation results reveal significant improvement over the recent results.

  13. Evaluation of delayed contrast-enhanced CT scan in diagnosing hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianding; Liang Chenyang; Zhang Hua; Zhang Yuezhen; Li Rui

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the diagnostic value of delayed CT contrast enhancement patterns in hilar cholangiocarcinoma based on two-phased dynamic incremental CT scanning. Methods: Fifty-two patients with suspected hilar tumor and bile duct obstruction underwent spiral CT scan. The scan time for one revolution of the X-ray tube was 1 second. To elucidate the delay time for optimal imaging, all proved cholangiocarcinoma with delayed (6, 8, 10, 15, 20, 30 minutes) post-equilibrium-phase contrast-enhanced CT scans were acquired with unenhanced, dynamic contrast-enhanced, and delayed images. Degree of delayed enhancement was compared with that of surrounding liver parenchyma. Results: (1) 8-15 minutes after IV injection of contrast material was the delay time for optimal imaging. (2) Of 29 cholangiocarcinomas, the early CT showed hypo-attenuating (lower than that of liver parenchyma) in 23 tumors, iso-attenuating (equal to that of the liver) in 4 tumors, and hyper-attenuating (higher than that of liver) in 2 tumors. The delayed CT scan showed iso-attenuating in 8 tumors, hyper-attenuating in 21 tumors, and no hypo-attenuating. Most of delay imaging of hilar cholangiocarcinoma may appear hyper-attenuating (U = -4.3073, P 2 = 9.09, P < 0.01). Conclusion: When assessing hilar tumor, delayed CT contrast enhancement patterns based on two-phase dynamic incremental CT scans is useful in the detection and characterization of hilar cholangiocarcinoma

  14. Isolating behavioral mechanisms of intertemporal choice: nicotine effects on delay discounting and amount sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locey, Matthew L; Dallery, Jesse

    2009-03-01

    Many drugs of abuse produce changes in impulsive choice, that is, choice for a smaller-sooner reinforcer over a larger-later reinforcer. Because the alternatives differ in both delay and amount, it is not clear whether these drug effects are due to the differences in reinforcer delay or amount. To isolate the effects of delay, we used a titrating delay procedure. In phase 1, 9 rats made discrete choices between variable delays (1 or 19 s, equal probability of each) and a delay to a single food pellet. The computer titrated the delay to a single food pellet until the rats were indifferent between the two options. This indifference delay was used as the starting value for the titrating delay for all future sessions. We next evaluated the acute effects of nicotine (subcutaneous 1.0, 0.3, 0.1, and 0.03 mg/kg) on choice. If nicotine increases delay discounting, it should have increased preference for the variable delay. Instead, nicotine had very little effect on choice. In a second phase, the titrated delay alternative produced three food pellets instead of one, which was again produced by the variable delay (1 s or 19 s) alternative. Under this procedure, nicotine increased preference for the one pellet alternative. Nicotine-induced changes in impulsive choice are therefore likely due to differences in reinforcer amount rather than differences in reinforcer delay. In addition, it may be necessary to include an amount sensitivity parameter in any mathematical model of choice when the alternatives differ in reinforcer amount.

  15. Abnormalities on magnetic resonance imaging seen acutely following mild traumatic brain injury: correlation with neuropsychological tests and delayed recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, David G.; Jackson, Alan; Mason, Damon L.; Berry, Elizabeth; Hollis, Sally; Yates, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) is a common reason for hospital attendance and is associated with significant delayed morbidity. We studied a series of 80 persons with MTBI. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological testing were used in the acute phase and a questionnaire for post-concussion syndrome (PCS) and return to work status at 6 months. In 26 subjects abnormalities were seen on MRI, of which 5 were definitely traumatic. There was weak correlation with abnormal neuropsychological tests for attention in the acute period. There was no significant correlation with a questionnaire for PCS and return to work status. Although non-specific abnormalities are frequently seen, standard MRI techniques are not helpful in identifying patients with MTBI who are likely to have delayed recovery. (orig.)

  16. Visual search guidance is best after a short delay

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Joseph; Zelinsky, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Search displays are typically presented immediately after a target cue, but in the real-world, delays often exist between target designation and search. Experiments 1 and 2 asked how search guidance changes with delay. Targets were cued using a picture or text label, each for 3000ms, followed by a delay up to 9000ms before the search display. Search stimuli were realistic objects, and guidance was quantified using multiple eye movement measures. Text-based cues showed a non-significant trend ...

  17. Interleukin-6 and Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness Do Not Vary during the Menstrual Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffin, Morgan E.; Berg, Kris E.; Meendering, Jessica R.; Llewellyn, Tamra L.; French, Jeffrey A.; Davis, Jeremy E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a difference in interleukin-6 (IL-6) and delayed onset muscles soreness (DOMS) exists in two different phases of the menstrual cycle. Nine runners performed one 75-min high-intensity interval running session during the early follicular (EF) phase and once during the midluteal (ML) phase of the…

  18. UWB delay and multiply receiver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.

    2013-09-10

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.

  19. Relativity time-delay experiments utilizing 'Mariner' spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Anderson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Relativity predicts that the transit time of a signal propagated from the earth to a spacecraft and retransmitted back to earth ought to exhibit an additional, variable time delay. The present work describes some of the analytical techniques employed in experiments using Mariner spacecraft designed to test the accuracy of this prediction. Two types of data are analyzed in these relativity experiments; these include phase-coherent, two-way Doppler shift and round-trip, transit-time measurements. Results of Mariner 6 and 7 relativistic time-delay experiments are in agreement with Einstein's theory of general relativity with an uncertainty of 3%.

  20. Attosecond time delays in the photoionization of noble gas atoms studied in TDLDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magrakvelidze, Maia; Chakraborty, Himadri; Madjet, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    We perform time-dependent local density functional calculations of the quantum phase and time delays of valence photoionization of noble gas atoms. Results may be accessed by XUV-IR interferometric metrology. (paper)

  1. Chaos in the delay logistic equation with discontinuous delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, Ayan; Mukherjee, Debasis

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes a delay logistic equation which models a feedback control problem. Interval map associated to the system is derived. By calculating Lyapunov exponent, we indicate stable orbit and chaotic phenomenon respectively. The results are verified through computer simulation. We identify the parameter which controls the dynamics.

  2. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  3. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goharian, M; Khan, R F H

    2010-04-01

    For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 +/- 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery

  4. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goharian M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient′s breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management™ (RPM system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL ′X-Ray ON′ status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL ′X-Ray ON′ indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for

  5. Measurement of time delay for a prospectively gated CT simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goharian, M.; Khan, R.F.H.

    2010-01-01

    For the management of mobile tumors, respiratory gating is the ideal option, both during imaging and during therapy. The major advantage of respiratory gating during imaging is that it is possible to create a single artifact-free CT data-set during a selected phase of the patient's breathing cycle. The purpose of the present work is to present a simple technique to measure the time delay during acquisition of a prospectively gated CT. The time delay of a Philips Brilliance BigBore (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) scanner attached to a Varian Real-Time Position Management (RPM) system (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA) was measured. Two methods were used to measure the CT time delay: using a motion phantom and using a recorded data file from the RPM system. In the first technique, a rotating wheel phantom was altered by placing two plastic balls on its axis and rim, respectively. For a desired gate, the relative positions of the balls were measured from the acquired CT data and converted into corresponding phases. Phase difference was calculated between the measured phases and the desired phases. Using period of motion, the phase difference was converted into time delay. The Varian RPM system provides an external breathing signal; it also records transistor-transistor logic (TTL) 'X-Ray ON' status signal from the CT scanner in a text file. The TTL 'X-Ray ON' indicates the start of CT image acquisition. Thus, knowledge of the start time of CT acquisition, combined with the real-time phase and amplitude data from the external respiratory signal, provides time-stamping of all images in an axial CT scan. The TTL signal with time-stamp was used to calculate when (during the breathing cycle) a slice was recorded. Using the two approaches, the time delay between the prospective gating signal and CT simulator has been determined to be 367 ± 40 ms. The delay requires corrections both at image acquisition and while setting gates for the treatment delivery

  6. Postraumatic delayed loss of vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partington, C.R.; Graves, V.B.; Ruetenacht, D.A.; Weinstein, J.M.; Strother, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    The imaging studies and clinical findings in 10 patients who suffered delayed vision loss beginning 1 day to 13 years after head trauma have been reviewed. Two different primary lesions could be identified: pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery and carotid cavernous fistula. The pathologic changes associated with pseudoaneurysm included compression of the optic nerves and/or chiasm by arterial aneurysm and intracranial hematoma. Carotid cavernous fistula caused delayed vision loss by compression of the optic nerves and chiasm by saccular dilatation of the cavernous sinus and by abnormal orbital venous drainage with retinal venous stasis, retinal edema, and glaucoma

  7. Time delayed Ensemble Nudging Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Zhe; Abarbanel, Henry

    Optimal nudging method based on time delayed embedding theory has shows potentials on analyzing and data assimilation in previous literatures. To extend the application and promote the practical implementation, new nudging assimilation method based on the time delayed embedding space is presented and the connection with other standard assimilation methods are studied. Results shows the incorporating information from the time series of data can reduce the sufficient observation needed to preserve the quality of numerical prediction, making it a potential alternative in the field of data assimilation of large geophysical models.

  8. Exponential stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks with diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Tingwen

    2007-01-01

    The exponential stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNN) with diffusion is investigated. Exponential stability, significant for applications of neural networks, is obtained under conditions that are easily verified by a new approach. Earlier results on the exponential stability of FCNN with time-dependent delay, a special case of the model studied in this paper, are improved without using the time-varying term condition: dτ(t)/dt < μ

  9. ABOUT HYBRID BIDIRECTIONAL ASSOCIATIVE MEMORY NEURAL NETWORKS WITH DISCRETE DELAYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete delays is considered. By ingeniously importing real parameters di > 0(i = 1,2,···,n) which can be adjusted, we establish some new sufficient conditions for the dynamical characteristics of hybrid bidirectional associative memory neural networks with discrete delays by the method of variation of parameters and some analysis techniques. Our results generalize and improve the related results in [10,11]. Our work is significant...

  10. Delayed somatic effects following extended radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slanina, J

    1977-10-27

    A group of 135 patients was investigated, who suffered from Hodgkin's disease with long-term remission following radiotherapy. By restricting the investigations to the patient group with long-term remission and correlative examinations, differentiation was made between exclusive or principal delayed radiation effects and delayed effects due to other factors. The study reports the most significant results obtained in the fields of catamnesis, laboratory diagnostics, hematology, pulmology, cardiology, thyroid function tests, neurology, andrology and dermatology. Due to the numerous detectable delayed effects the group of patients with long-term remission receives a special status. Although those effects are in no proportion to the deletary risks of an untreated Hodgkin's disease and though they are consequently tolerable in the present state of the therapeutic development, they must initiate the completion of the therapeutic concept including performance of radiotherapy and aftercare, because only then the risk for the patient provoked by these effects, which ranges beyond the malignity of this disease can be reduced or prevented.

  11. 49 CFR 236.563 - Delay time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delay time. 236.563 Section 236.563 Transportation... Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.563 Delay time. Delay time of automatic... requirements of § 236.24 shall take into consideration the delay time. ...

  12. Development of a statistically based access delay timeline methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W. Gary; Robinson, David Gerald; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Hendrickson, Stacey M. Langfitt

    2013-02-01

    The charter for adversarial delay is to hinder access to critical resources through the use of physical systems increasing an adversarys task time. The traditional method for characterizing access delay has been a simple model focused on accumulating times required to complete each task with little regard to uncertainty, complexity, or decreased efficiency associated with multiple sequential tasks or stress. The delay associated with any given barrier or path is further discounted to worst-case, and often unrealistic, times based on a high-level adversary, resulting in a highly conservative calculation of total delay. This leads to delay systems that require significant funding and personnel resources in order to defend against the assumed threat, which for many sites and applications becomes cost prohibitive. A new methodology has been developed that considers the uncertainties inherent in the problem to develop a realistic timeline distribution for a given adversary path. This new methodology incorporates advanced Bayesian statistical theory and methodologies, taking into account small sample size, expert judgment, human factors and threat uncertainty. The result is an algorithm that can calculate a probability distribution function of delay times directly related to system risk. Through further analysis, the access delay analyst or end user can use the results in making informed decisions while weighing benefits against risks, ultimately resulting in greater system effectiveness with lower cost.

  13. Treatment delay and radiological errors in patients with bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinohe, K.; Takahashi, M.; Tooyama, N.

    2003-01-01

    During routine investigations, we are surprised to find that therapy for bone metastases is sometimes delayed for a considerable period of time. To determine the extent of this delay and its causes, we reviewed the medical records of symptomatic patients seen at our hospital who had been recently diagnosed as having bone metastases for the last four years. The treatment delay was defined as the interval between presentation with symptoms and definitive treatment for bone metastases. The diagnostic delay was defined as the interval between presentation with symptoms and diagnosis of bone metastases. The results of diagnostic radiological examinations were also reviewed for errors. The study population included 76 males and 34 females with a median age of 66 years. Most bone metastases were diagnosed radiologically. Over 75% of patients were treated with radiotherapy. The treatment delay ranged from 2 to 307 days, with a mean of 53.3 days. In 490 radiological studies reviewed, we identified 166 (33.9%) errors concerning 62 (56.4%) patients. The diagnostic delay was significantly longer for patients with radiological errors than for patients without radiological errors (P < 0.001), and much of it was due to radiological errors. In conclusion, the treatment delay in patients with symptomatic bone metastases was much longer than expected, and much of it was caused by radiological errors. Considerable efforts should therefore be made to more carefully examine the radiological studies in order to ensure prompt treatment of bone metastases. (author)

  14. Factors affecting the diagnostic delay in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellura, Eleonora; Spataro, Rossella; Taiello, Alfonsa Claudia; La Bella, Vincenzo

    2012-07-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a relentlessly progressive disorder, early diagnosis allows a prompt start with the specific drug riluzole and an accurate palliative care planning. ALS at onset may however mimic several disorders, some of them treatable (e.g., multifocal motor neuropathy) or epidemiologically more frequent (e.g., cervical myelopathy). To study the delay from onset to diagnosis in a cohort of ALS patients and to the variables that may affect it. We performed a retrospective analysis of the diagnostic delays in a cohort of 260 patients affected by ALS (M/F = 1.32) followed at our tertiary referral ALS Center between 2000 and 2007. The median time from onset to diagnosis was 11 months (range: 6-21) for the whole ALS cohort, 10 months (range: 6-15) in bulbar-onset (n = 65) and 12 months (range: 7-23) in spinal-onset (n = 195) patients (p = 0.3). 31.1% of patients received other diagnoses before ALS and this led to a significant delay of the correct diagnosis in this group (other diagnoses before ALS, n = 81: median delay, 15 months [9.75-24.25] vs ALS, n = 179, median delay, 9 months [6-15.25], p heuristics might represent an important contributing factor. Furthermore, the length of the differential diagnosis from other disorders and delays in referral to the neurologist seems to be positively associated with the delay in diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Delayed feedback control of fractional-order chaotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjurchinovski, A; Urumov, V; Sandev, T

    2010-01-01

    We study the possibility to stabilize unstable steady states and unstable periodic orbits in chaotic fractional-order dynamical systems by the time-delayed feedback method. By performing a linear stability analysis, we establish the parameter ranges for successful stabilization of unstable equilibria in the plane parameterized by the feedback gain and the time delay. An insight into the control mechanism is gained by analyzing the characteristic equation of the controlled system, showing that the control scheme fails to control unstable equilibria having an odd number of positive real eigenvalues. We demonstrate that the method can also stabilize unstable periodic orbits for a suitable choice of the feedback gain, providing that the time delay is chosen to coincide with the period of the target orbit. In addition, it is shown numerically that delayed feedback control with a sinusoidally modulated time delay significantly enlarges the stability region of steady states in comparison to the classical time-delayed feedback scheme with a constant delay.

  16. Visual prediction: psychophysics and neurophysiology of compensation for time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijhawan, Romi

    2008-04-01

    A necessary consequence of the nature of neural transmission systems is that as change in the physical state of a time-varying event takes place, delays produce error between the instantaneous registered state and the external state. Another source of delay is the transmission of internal motor commands to muscles and the inertia of the musculoskeletal system. How does the central nervous system compensate for these pervasive delays? Although it has been argued that delay compensation occurs late in the motor planning stages, even the earliest visual processes, such as phototransduction, contribute significantly to delays. I argue that compensation is not an exclusive property of the motor system, but rather, is a pervasive feature of the central nervous system (CNS) organization. Although the motor planning system may contain a highly flexible compensation mechanism, accounting not just for delays but also variability in delays (e.g., those resulting from variations in luminance contrast, internal body temperature, muscle fatigue, etc.), visual mechanisms also contribute to compensation. Previous suggestions of this notion of "visual prediction" led to a lively debate producing re-examination of previous arguments, new analyses, and review of the experiments presented here. Understanding visual prediction will inform our theories of sensory processes and visual perception, and will impact our notion of visual awareness.

  17. Awake craniotomy in a developmentally delayed blind man with cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbridge, Mark; Raazi, Mateen

    2013-04-01

    To describe the complex perioperative considerations and anesthetic management of a cognitively delayed blind adult male who underwent awake craniotomy to remove a left anterior temporal lobe epileptic focus. A 28-yr-old left-handed blind cognitively delayed man was scheduled for awake craniotomy to resect a left anterior temporal lobe epileptic focus due to intractable epilepsy despite multiple medications. His medical history was also significant for retinopathy of prematurity that rendered him legally blind in both eyes and an intracerebral hemorrhage shortly after birth that resulted in a chronic brain injury and developmental delay. His cognitive capacity was comparable with that of an eight year old. Since patient cooperation was the primary concern during the awake electrocorticography phase of surgery, careful assessment of the patient's ability to tolerate the procedure was undertaken. There was extensive planning between surgeons and anesthesiologists, and a patient-specific pharmacological strategy was devised to facilitate surgery. The operation proceeded without complication, the patient has remained seizure-free since the procedure, and his quality of life has improved dramatically. This case shows that careful patient assessment, effective interdisciplinary communication, and a carefully tailored anesthetic strategy can facilitate an awake craniotomy in a potentially uncooperative adult patient with diminished mental capacity and sensory deficits.

  18. Restorative effect of peritoneal macrophages on delayed hypersensitivity following ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkman, A.; Collins, F.M.

    1971-01-01

    Sublethal whole-body irradiation in the guinea pig had little demonstrable effect on the development of delayed hypersensitivity but caused a profound, though transient depression of dermal reactivity in previously sensitized animals. Macrophage-rich peritoneal cell suspensions from non-sensitive donors when injected intradermally with eliciting antigen, resulted in the restoration of a significant degree of reactivity following irradiation. Inocula of lymphocytes, on the other hand, failed to yield similar results. These findings, when taken with the persistence of low levels of reactivity following irradiation and the ability to transfer reactivity with peritoneal exudate cells from animals so treated, warrant the conclusion that the presence of macrophages is necessary for the expression of cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity. The spontaneously renewed activity which follows the depressed phase is thus more of a reflection of the recovery of macrophage precursors from radiation injury, rather than the emergence of a new population of sensitized cells. The results, in addition, substantiate the belief that the expression of delayed hypersensitivity requires at least two cell populations, only one of which carries the property of specificity at the outset

  19. Extracting attosecond delays from spectrally overlapping interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Inga; Wörner, Hans Jakob

    2018-02-01

    Attosecond interferometry is becoming an increasingly popular technique for measuring the dynamics of photoionization in real time. Whereas early measurements focused on atomic systems with very simple photoelectron spectra, the technique is now being applied to more complex systems including isolated molecules and solids. The increase in complexity translates into an augmented spectral congestion, unavoidably resulting in spectral overlap in attosecond interferograms. Here, we discuss currently used methods for phase retrieval and introduce two new approaches for determining attosecond photoemission delays from spectrally overlapping photoelectron spectra. We show that the previously used technique, consisting in the spectral integration of the areas of interest, does in general not provide reliable results. Our methods resolve this problem, thereby opening the technique of attosecond interferometry to complex systems and fully exploiting its specific advantages in terms of spectral resolution compared to attosecond streaking.

  20. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process

  1. Negative group delay for Dirac particles traveling through a potential well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xi; Li Chunfang

    2003-01-01

    The properties of group delay for Dirac particles traveling through a potential well are investigated. A necessary condition is put forward for the group delay to be negative. It is shown that this negative group delay is closely related to its anomalous dependence on the width of the potential well. In order to demonstrate the validity of stationary-phase approach, numerical simulations are made for a Gaussian-shaped temporal wave packet. A restriction to the potential-well's width is obtained that is necessary for the wave packet to remain distortionless in the traveling. Numerical comparison shows that the relativistic group delay is larger than its corresponding nonrelativistic one

  2. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati; Bahar, Arifah; Salleh, Madihah Md

    2015-02-01

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  3. Time delay and noise explaining the behaviour of the cell growth in fermentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayuobi, Tawfiqullah; Rosli, Norhayati [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300 Gambang, Pahang (Malaysia); Bahar, Arifah [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia); Salleh, Madihah Md [Department of Biotechnology Industry, Faculty of Biosciences and Bioengineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    This paper proposes to investigate the interplay between time delay and external noise in explaining the behaviour of the microbial growth in batch fermentation process. Time delay and noise are modelled jointly via stochastic delay differential equations (SDDEs). The typical behaviour of cell concentration in batch fermentation process under this model is investigated. Milstein scheme is applied for solving this model numerically. Simulation results illustrate the effects of time delay and external noise in explaining the lag and stationary phases, respectively for the cell growth of fermentation process.

  4. Early-delayed radiation rhombencephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nightingale, S.; Dawes, P.J.D.K.; Cartlidge, N.E.F.; Newcastle upon Tyne Univ.

    1982-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman developed an early-delayed rhombencephalopathy 7 weeks after completing a course of radiotherapy to a glomus jugulare tumour. The clinical features, comprising nystagmus, skew strabismus, unilateral facial weakness, dysarthria and ataxia, are compared with four previously reported patients with this syndrome. (author)

  5. Another definition for time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.

    1980-01-01

    Time delay is defined by geometrical considerations which work in classical as well as in quantum mechanics, and its connection with the S-matrix and the virial is proven for potentials with V(x vector) and x vector V(x vector) vanishing as rsup(-1-epsilon) for r -> infinity. (Author)

  6. Diagnostic Delay in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølbaek, Karen; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim; Primdahl, Jette

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To prevent joint damage among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is a need to minimize delays from the onset of symptoms until the initiation of appropriate therapy. The present study explored the factors that have an impact on the time it takes for Danish patients with RA...

  7. Design flaw could delay collider

    CERN Multimedia

    Cho, Adrian

    2007-01-01

    "A magnet for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) failed during a key test at the European particle physics laboratory CERN last week. Physicists and engineers will have to repair the damaged magnet and retrofit others to correct the underlynig design flaw, which could delay the start-up of the mammouth subterranean machine." (1,5 page)

  8. Concurrent Delay in Construction Disputes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri, Sylvie Cécile

    the delay is contractually defined as a contractor's risk, the contractor is liable to pay liquidated damages to the employer; if it is not, the contractor can under certain circumstances claim an extension of time and in some cases also economic compensation from the employer. The situation where a given...

  9. Deconstructing delayed posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, G

    2011-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, delayed posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) must be diagnosed in individuals fulfilling criteria for PTSD if the onset of symptoms is at least six months after the trauma. The purpose of this thesis was to establish the

  10. Providing delay guarantees in Bluetooth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait Yaiz, R.; Heijenk, Geert; Titsworth, F.

    2003-01-01

    Bluetooth polling, also referred to as Bluetooth MAC scheduling or intra-piconet scheduling, is the mechanism that schedules the traffic between the participants in a Bluetooth network. Hence, this mechanism is highly determining with respect to the delay packets experience in a Bluetooth network.

  11. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  12. 75 FR 27643 - Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and Nonattainment New Source Review (NSR): Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... once the delay is no longer necessary. ADDRESSES: Docket: The final rule, the petition for...): Aggregation AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Delay of effective date. SUMMARY: EPA is delaying the effective date of the final rule titled ``Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) and...

  13. Consistent and significant improvement of nighttime voiding frequency (nocturia) with silodosin in men with LUTS suggestive of BPH: pooled analysis of three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Andreas; Schneider, Tim; Cruz, Francisco; Oelke, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    Nocturia is prevalent and bothersome in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of BPH (LUTS/BPH). α-Adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity have inconsistently shown significant effects on nocturia in these patients. We explored the effects of the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin on nocturia by analyzing three placebo-controlled registration studies. Responses to question 7 of the IPSS questionnaire were analyzed for the entire study population and patients with ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Improvement/worsening rates for nocturia were calculated for once-daily silodosin 8 mg and placebo. Silodosin effects on the mean number of nocturnal voids were compared with placebo, and the number of patients in whom nocturia was reduced to silodosin or placebo; 1,266 men (85 %) had ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Compared to placebo, more men treated with silodosin reported about nocturia improvement (53.4 vs. 42.8 %, p Silodosin significantly reduced nocturia within each study and pooled cohort compared to placebo (p silodosin and placebo had reductions of ≥ 1 voids/night, respectively (p = 0.0003), and significantly more patients with silodosin had nocturia episodes at study end compared to placebo (29.3 vs. 19.0 %; p = 0.0002). Although a weak impact on nocturia is already known from α-adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity, the individual placebo-controlled studies and the pooled data analysis showed that the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin consistently and significantly improves nocturia in men with LUTS/BPH.

  14. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  15. Lymphocyte mediators of delayed hypersensitivity; the early phase cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefford, M J; McGregor, D D [Trudeau Inst., Saranac Lake, N.Y. (USA)

    1978-04-01

    Inbred rats were immunized with living Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) and lymphocytes which mediate tuberculin DTH and anti-tuberculosis immunity were found 10 days later in the draining lymph nodes, thoracic duct, blood, spleen, and acute peritoneal exudates. The lymphocytes that mediated DTH incorporated /sup 3/HT in vitro, were large in size, sensitive to vinblastine but relatively resistant to irradiation, and had a short effective lifespan in syngeneic recipients. These properties characterize the cells as short-lived, nonrecirculating immunoblasts. In some experimental situations it was possible to dissociate the expression of DTH and immunity following the transfer of sensitized lymphocytes.

  16. LHCb: Radiation hard programmable delay line for LHCb Calorimeter Upgrade

    CERN Multimedia

    Mauricio Ferre, J; Vilasís Cardona, X; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Machefert, F; Lefrançois, J; Duarte, O

    2013-01-01

    This poster describes the implementation of a SPI-programmable clock delay chip based on a Delay Locked Loop (DLL) in order to shift the phase of the LHC clock (25 ns) in steps of 1ns, with a 4ps jitter and 18ps of DNL. The delay lines will be integrated into ICECAL, the LHCb calorimeter front-end ASIC in the near future. The stringent noise requirements on the ASIC imply minimizing the noise contribution of digital components. This is accomplished by implementing the DLL in differential mode. To achieve the required radiation tolerance several techniques are applied: double guard rings between PMOS and NMOS transistors as well as glitch suppressors and TMR Registers. This 5.7 mm2 chip has been implemented in CMOS 0.35um technology.

  17. An approach to constitutional delay of growth and puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf T Soliman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional delay of growth and puberty is a transient state of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism associated with prolongation of childhood phase of growth, delayed skeletal maturation, delayed and attenuated pubertal growth spurt, and relatively low insulin-like growth factor-1 secretion. In a considerable number of cases, the final adult height (Ht does not reach the mid-parental or the predicted adult Ht for the individual, with some degree of disproportionately short trunk. In the pre-pubertal male, testosterone (T replacement therapy can be used to induce pubertal development, accelerate growth and relieve the psychosocial complaints of the adolescents. However, some issues in the management are still unresolved. These include type, optimal timing, dose and duration of sex steroid treatment and the possible use of adjunctive or alternate therapy including: oxandrolone, aromatase inhibitors and human growth hormone.

  18. Shock Tube Ignition Delay Data Affected by Localized Ignition Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Tamour

    2016-12-29

    Shock tubes have conventionally been used for measuring high-temperature ignition delay times ~ O(1 ms). In the last decade or so, the operating regime of shock tubes has been extended to lower temperatures by accessing longer observation times. Such measurements may potentially be affected by some non-ideal phenomena. The purpose of this work is to measure long ignition delay times for fuels exhibiting negative temperature coefficient (NTC) and to assess the impact of shock tube non-idealities on ignition delay data. Ignition delay times of n-heptane and n-hexane were measured over the temperature range of 650 – 1250 K and pressures near 1.5 atm. Driver gas tailoring and long length of shock tube driver section were utilized to measure ignition delay times as long as 32 ms. Measured ignition delay times agree with chemical kinetic models at high (> 1100 K) and low (< 700 K) temperatures. In the intermediate temperature range (700 – 1100 K), however, significant discrepancies are observed between the measurements and homogeneous ignition delay simulations. It is postulated, based on experimental observations, that localized ignition kernels could affect the ignition delay times at the intermediate temperatures, which lead to compression (and heating) of the bulk gas and result in expediting the overall ignition event. The postulate is validated through simple representative computational fluid dynamic simulations of post-shock gas mixtures which exhibit ignition advancement via a hot spot. The results of the current work show that ignition delay times measured by shock tubes may be affected by non-ideal phenomena for certain conditions of temperature, pressure and fuel reactivity. Care must, therefore, be exercised in using such data for chemical kinetic model development and validation.

  19. Delayed versus immediate pushing in second stage of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Mary; Johnson, Eileen; Lee, Vickie; Massey, Liz; Purser, Debbie; Ring, Karen; Sanderson, Stephanye; Styles, Juanita; Wood, Deb

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of two different methods for management of second stage of labor: immediate pushing at complete cervical dilation of 10 cm and delayed pushing 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation. This study was a randomized clinical trial in a labor and delivery unit of a not-for-profit community hospital. A sample of 44 nulliparous mothers with continuous epidural anesthesia were studied after random assignment to treatment groups. Subjects were managed with either immediate or delayed pushing during the second stage of labor at the time cervical dilation was complete. The primary outcome measure was the length of pushing during second stage of labor. Secondary outcomes included length of second stage of labor, maternal fatigue and perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations. Two-tailed, unpaired Student's t-tests and Chi-square analysis were used for data analysis. Level of significance was set at p pushing; N = 16 delayed pushing). The delayed pushing group had significantly shorter amount of time spent in pushing compared with the immediate pushing group (38.9 +/- 6.9 vs. 78.7 +/- 7.9 minutes, respectively, p = .002). Maternal fatigue scores, perineal injuries, and fetal heart rate decelerations were similar for both groups. Delaying pushing for up to 90 minutes after complete cervical dilation resulted in a significant decrease in the time mothers spent pushing without a significant increase in total time in second stage of labor.In clinical practice, healthcare providers sometimes resist delaying the onset of pushing after second stage of labor has begun because of a belief it will increase labor time. This study's finding of a 51% reduction in pushing time when mothers delay pushing for up to 90 minutes, with no significant increase in overall time for second stage of labor, disputes that concern.

  20. Prognostic Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Dose-Escalated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine: Analysis of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Dose Escalation Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M.; Schipper, Matthew; Zalupski, Mark M.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Abrams, Ross; Francis, Isaac R.; Khan, Gazala; Leslie, William; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although established in the postresection setting, the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is less clear. We examined the prognostic utility of CA19-9 in patients with unresectable LAPC treated on a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with unresectable LAPC were treated at the University of Michigan on a phase 1/2 trial of IMRT dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. CA19-9 was obtained at baseline and during routine follow-up. Cox models were used to assess the effect of baseline factors on freedom from local progression (FFLP), distant progression (FFDP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Stepwise forward regression was used to build multivariate predictive models for each endpoint. Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for the present analysis. On univariate analysis, baseline CA19-9 and age predicted OS, CA19-9 at baseline and 3 months predicted PFS, gross tumor volume (GTV) and black race predicted FFLP, and CA19-9 at 3 months predicted FFDP. On stepwise multivariate regression modeling, baseline CA19-9, age, and female sex predicted OS; baseline CA19-9 and female sex predicted both PFS and FFDP; and GTV predicted FFLP. Patients with baseline CA19-9 ≤90 U/mL had improved OS (median 23.0 vs 11.1 months, HR 2.88, P<.01) and PFS (14.4 vs 7.0 months, HR 3.61, P=.001). CA19-9 progression over 90 U/mL was prognostic for both OS (HR 3.65, P=.001) and PFS (HR 3.04, P=.001), and it was a stronger predictor of death than either local progression (HR 1.46, P=.42) or distant progression (HR 3.31, P=.004). Conclusions: In patients with unresectable LAPC undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy, baseline CA19-9 was independently prognostic even after established prognostic factors were controlled for, whereas CA19-9 progression

  1. Prognostic Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Dose-Escalated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine: Analysis of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Dose Escalation Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jvainsh@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abrams, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Khan, Gazala [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Leslie, William [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: Although established in the postresection setting, the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is less clear. We examined the prognostic utility of CA19-9 in patients with unresectable LAPC treated on a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with unresectable LAPC were treated at the University of Michigan on a phase 1/2 trial of IMRT dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. CA19-9 was obtained at baseline and during routine follow-up. Cox models were used to assess the effect of baseline factors on freedom from local progression (FFLP), distant progression (FFDP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Stepwise forward regression was used to build multivariate predictive models for each endpoint. Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for the present analysis. On univariate analysis, baseline CA19-9 and age predicted OS, CA19-9 at baseline and 3 months predicted PFS, gross tumor volume (GTV) and black race predicted FFLP, and CA19-9 at 3 months predicted FFDP. On stepwise multivariate regression modeling, baseline CA19-9, age, and female sex predicted OS; baseline CA19-9 and female sex predicted both PFS and FFDP; and GTV predicted FFLP. Patients with baseline CA19-9 ≤90 U/mL had improved OS (median 23.0 vs 11.1 months, HR 2.88, P<.01) and PFS (14.4 vs 7.0 months, HR 3.61, P=.001). CA19-9 progression over 90 U/mL was prognostic for both OS (HR 3.65, P=.001) and PFS (HR 3.04, P=.001), and it was a stronger predictor of death than either local progression (HR 1.46, P=.42) or distant progression (HR 3.31, P=.004). Conclusions: In patients with unresectable LAPC undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy, baseline CA19-9 was independently prognostic even after established prognostic factors were controlled for, whereas CA19-9 progression

  2. Transmission Delay Modeling of Packet Communication over Digital Subscriber Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Vodrazka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Certain multimedia and voice services, such as VoIP, IPTV, etc., are significantly delay sensitive and their performance is influenced by the overall transmission delay and its variance. One of the most common solutions used in access networks are xDSL lines, especially ADSL2+ or VDSL2. Although these subscriber lines also use packet communication, there are several differences and mechanisms, which influence their resulting delay. Their delay characteristics are also dependent on the individual settings of each xDSL provider, therefore we decided to investigate this area for typical commercially available lines in Czech Republic. Based on the measured values and experiments with real ADSL2+ lines we also developed a potential modeling method, which is presented in this article as well. The parameters for packet jitter based on the generalized Pareto distribution were modeled.

  3. Fractional Delayer Utilizing Hermite Interpolation with Caratheodory Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang DU

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fractional delay is indispensable for many sorts of circuits and signal processing applications. Fractional delay filter (FDF utilizing Hermite interpolation with an analog differentiator is a straightforward way to delay discrete signals. This method has a low time-domain error, but a complicated sampling module than the Shannon sampling scheme. A simplified scheme, which is based on Shannon sampling and utilizing Hermite interpolation with a digital differentiator, will lead a much higher time-domain error when the signal frequency approaches the Nyquist rate. In this letter, we propose a novel fractional delayer utilizing Hermite interpolation with Caratheodory representation. The samples of differential signal are obtained by Caratheodory representation from the samples of the original signal only. So, only one sampler is needed and the sampling module is simple. Simulation results for four types of signals demonstrate that the proposed method has significantly higher interpolation accuracy than Hermite interpolation with digital differentiator.

  4. Delay and probability discounting among payday and title loan recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Colin T; Lawyer, Steven R

    2016-04-01

    Payday and title loans are short-term loans associated with significant economic impact. Behavioral theories of impulsive choice may provide insight into behavioral processes that underlie the propensity to take out payday and title loans. Adults between the ages of 18 and 30 recruited from the community completed delay and probability discounting tasks for hypothetical money as well as measures of substance use. Patterns of discounting were characterized using a hyperbolic decay model and area under the curve. Participants who took out a payday and/or title loan in the past (n=41) exhibited more impulsive choice patterns on the delay discounting task than did those who did not (n=255). Substance use mediated this relationship between payday and title loan retention and delay discounting. These findings suggest potentially important relationships between payday/title loan borrowing, substance use, and delay discounting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tunable Optical True-Time Delay Devices Would Exploit EIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikov, Igor; DiDomenico, Leo; Lee, Hwang

    2004-01-01

    Tunable optical true-time delay devices that would exploit electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) have been proposed. Relative to prior true-time delay devices (for example, devices based on ferroelectric and ferromagnetic materials) and electronically controlled phase shifters, the proposed devices would offer much greater bandwidths. In a typical envisioned application, an optical pulse would be modulated with an ultra-wideband radio-frequency (RF) signal that would convey the information that one seeks to communicate, and it would be required to couple differently delayed replicas of the RF signal to the radiating elements of a phased-array antenna. One or more of the proposed devices would be used to impose the delays and/or generate the delayed replicas of the RF-modulated optical pulse. The beam radiated or received by the antenna would be steered by use of a microprocessor-based control system that would adjust operational parameters of the devices to tune the delays to the required values. EIT is a nonlinear quantum optical interference effect that enables the propagation of light through an initially opaque medium. A suitable medium must have, among other properties, three quantum states (see Figure 1): an excited state (state 3), an upper ground state (state 2), and a lower ground state (state 1). These three states must form a closed system that exhibits no decays to other states in the presence of either or both of two laser beams: (1) a probe beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 1; and (2) a coupling beam having the wavelength corresponding to the photon energy equal to the energy difference between states 3 and 2. The probe beam is the one that is pulsed and modulated with an RF signal.

  6. Analysis of a first-order delay differential-delay equation containing two delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, C.; Vallée, R.; Delisle, C.

    1989-09-01

    An experimental and numerical analysis of the behavior of a two-delay differential equation is presented. It is shown that much of the system's behavior can be related to the stability behavior of the underlying linearized modes. A new phenomenon, mode crossing, is explored.

  7. Delay time in a single barrier for a movable quantum shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    The transient solution and delay time for a δ potential scatterer with a movable quantum shutter is calculated by solving analytically the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The delay time is analyzed as a function of the distance between the shutter and the potential barrier and also as a function of the distance between the potential barrier and the detector. In both cases, it is found that the delay time exhibits a dynamical behavior and that it tends to a saturation value Δt sat in the limit of very short distances, which represents the maximum delay produced by the potential barrier near the interaction region. The phase time τ θ , on the other hand, is not an appropriate time scale for measuring the time delay near the interaction region, except if the shutter is moved far away from the potential. The role played by the antibound state of the system on the behavior of the delay time is also discussed.

  8. General relation between the group delay and dwell time in multicomponent electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Lu, Junqiang

    2016-10-01

    For multicomponent electron scattering states, we derive a general relation between the Wigner group delay and the Bohmian dwell time. It is found that the definition of group delay should account for the phase of the spinor wave functions of propagating modes. The difference between the group delay and dwell time comes from both the interference delay and the decaying modes. For barrier tunneling of helical electrons on a surface of topological insulators, our calculations including the trigonal-warping term show that the decaying modes can contribute greatly to the group delay. The derived relation between the group delay and the dwell time is helpful to unify the two definitions of tunneling time in a quite general situation.

  9. Hippocampus, delay discounting, and vicarious trial-and-error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bett, David; Murdoch, Lauren H; Wood, Emma R; Dudchenko, Paul A

    2015-05-01

    In decision-making, an immediate reward is usually preferred to a delayed reward, even if the latter is larger. We tested whether the hippocampus is necessary for this form of temporal discounting, and for vicarious trial-and-error at the decision point. Rats were trained on a recently developed, adjustable delay-discounting task (Papale et al. (2012) Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci 12:513-526), which featured a choice between a small, nearly immediate reward, and a larger, delayed reward. Rats then received either hippocampus or sham lesions. Animals with hippocampus lesions adjusted the delay for the larger reward to a level similar to that of sham-lesioned animals, suggesting a similar valuation capacity. However, the hippocampus lesion group spent significantly longer investigating the small and large rewards in the first part of the sessions, and were less sensitive to changes in the amount of reward in the large reward maze arm. Both sham- and hippocampus-lesioned rats showed a greater amount of vicarious trial-and-error on trials in which the delay was adjusted. In a nonadjusting version of the delay discounting task, animals with hippocampus lesions showed more variability in their preference for a larger reward that was delayed by 10 s compared with sham-lesioned animals. To verify the lesion behaviorally, rat were subsequently trained on a water maze task, and rats with hippocampus lesions were significantly impaired compared with sham-lesioned animals. The findings on the delay discounting tasks suggest that damage to the hippocampus may impair the detection of reward magnitude. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. APF530 (granisetron injection extended-release) in a three-drug regimen for delayed CINV in highly emetogenic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnadig, Ian D; Agajanian, Richy; Dakhil, Christopher; Gabrail, Nashat Y; Smith, Robert E; Taylor, Charles; Wilks, Sharon T; Schwartzberg, Lee S; Cooper, William; Mosier, Michael C; Payne, J Yvette; Klepper, Michael J; Vacirca, Jeffrey L

    2016-06-01

    APF530, extended-release granisetron, provides sustained release for ≥5 days for acute- and delayed-phase chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). We compared efficacy and safety of APF530 versus ondansetron for delayed CINV after highly emetogenic chemotherapy (HEC), following a guideline-recommended three-drug regimen. HEC patients received APF530 500 mg subcutaneously or ondansetron 0.15 mg/kg intravenously, with dexamethasone and fosaprepitant. Primary end point was delayed-phase complete response (no emesis or rescue medication). A higher percentage of APF530 versus ondansetron patients had delayed-phase complete response (p = 0.014). APF530 was generally well tolerated; treatment-emergent adverse event incidence was similar across arms, mostly mild-to-moderate injection-site reactions. APF530 versus the standard three-drug regimen provided superior control of delayed-phase CINV following HEC. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT02106494.

  11. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-11-09

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  12. Depressive illness delayed Hamlet's revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, A B; Pickering, Neil

    2002-12-01

    If Hamlet had not delayed his revenge there would have been no play. Many explanations of the delay have been offered in the last four centuries. None is convincing. The interpretation which best fits the evidence best is that Hamlet was suffering from an acute depressive illness, with some obsessional features. He could not make a firm resolve to act. In Shakespeare's time there was no concept of acute depressive illness, although melancholy was well known. Melancholy, however, would have been seen as a character defect. In the tragic model the hero brings himself and others to ruin because of a character defect. Thus, at the time, the play conformed to the tragic model. With today's knowledge, it does not. This analysis adds to, but does not replace, other insights into the play.

  13. Air congestion delay: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Alberto Pamplona

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is a literature review of the air congestion delay and its costs. Air congestion is a worldwide problem. Its existence brings costs for airlines and discomfort for passengers. With the increasing demand for air transport, the study of air congestion has attracted the attention of many researchers around the world. The cause for the delays is erroneously attributed only to the lack of infrastructure investments. The literature review shows that other factors such as population growth, increasing standards of living, lack of operational planning and environmental issues exercise decisive influence. Several studies have been conducted in order to analyze and propose solutions to this problem that affects society as a whole.

  14. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  15. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh

    2017-01-01

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  16. Contribution of delayed rectifier potassium currents to the electrical activity of murine colonic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, S D; Ward, S M; Dick, G M; Epperson, A; Bonner, H P; Sanders, K M; Horowitz, B; Kenyon, J L

    1999-01-01

    We used intracellular microelectrodes to record the membrane potential (Vm) of intact murine colonic smooth muscle. Electrical activity consisted of spike complexes separated by quiescent periods (Vm≈−60 mV). The spike complexes consisted of about a dozen action potentials of approximately 30 mV amplitude. Tetraethylammonium (TEA, 1–10 mM) had little effect on the quiescent periods but increased the amplitude of the action potential spikes. 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, ⋧ 5 mM) caused continuous spiking.Voltage clamp of isolated myocytes identified delayed rectifier K+ currents that activated rapidly (time to half-maximum current, 11.5 ms at 0 mV) and inactivated in two phases (τf = 96 ms, τs = 1.5 s at 0 mV). The half-activation voltage of the permeability was −27 mV, with significant activation at −50 mV.TEA (10 mM) reduced the outward current at potentials positive to 0 mV. 4-AP (5 mM) reduced the early current but increased outward current at later times (100–500 ms) consistent with block of resting channels relieved by depolarization. 4-AP inhibited outward current at potentials negative to −20 mV, potentials where TEA had no effect.Qualitative PCR amplification of mRNA identified transcripts encoding delayed rectifier K+ channel subunits Kv1.6, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, Kv4.3 and the Kvβ1.1 subunit in murine colon myocytes. mRNA encoding Kv 1.4 was not detected.We find that TEA-sensitive delayed rectifier currents are important determinants of action potential amplitude but not rhythmicity. Delayed rectifier currents sensitive to 4-AP are important determinants of rhythmicity but not action potential amplitude. PMID:10050014

  17. Teriparatide Induced Delayed Persistent Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirosshan Thiruchelvam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Teriparatide, a recombinant PTH, is an anabolic treatment for osteoporosis that increases bone density. Transient hypercalcemia is a reported side effect of teriparatide that is seen few hours following administration of teriparatide and resolves usually within 16 hours of drug administration. Persistent hypercalcemia, although not observed in clinical trials, is rarely reported. The current case describes a rare complication of teriparatide induced delayed persistent hypercalcemia.

  18. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  19. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-05-14

    This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  20. Development of delayed radiation necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, ShigFeki; Takagi, Terumasa; Shibata, Taichiro; Nagai, Hajime.

    1983-01-01

    The authors discussed the developing process of delayed radiation necrosis of the brain from the case of a 42-year-old female who developed intracranial hypertension and left hemiparesis 5 and a half years after radiotherapy for pituitary adenoma. The initial sign of radiation necrosis was from a CT scan taken 3 and a half years after radiotherapy showing an irregular low density lesion in the right temporal lobe. CT scan 2 years later demonstrated displacement of the midline structures to the left and a larger low density lesion with partially high density in the right MCA territory that was enhanced with intravenous contrast medium. Recovery after a right temporal lobectomy and administration of steroid hormone were uneventful. Eight months later there were no signs of raised intracranial pressure nor of neurological deficits. Tissues obtained from the right temporal lobe at lobectomy revealed the characteristic changes of delayed radiation necrosis; a mixture of fresh, recent, and old vascular lesions in the same specimen. From these findings, it was speculated that delayed radiation necrosis might initially occur within several years after radiotherapy and might gradually take a progressive and extended course, even in cases whose clinical symptoms develop much later. (author)

  1. Radiation induced late delayed alterations in mice brain after whole body and cranial radiation: a comparative DTI analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watve, Apurva; Gupta, Mamta; Trivedi, Richa; Khushu, Subash; Rana, Poonam

    2016-01-01

    Moderate dose of radiation exposure occurs during radiation accidents or radiation therapy induces pathophysiological alterations in CNS that may persist for longer duration. Studies suggest that late delayed injury is irreversible leading to metabolic and cognitive impairment. Our earlier studies have illustrated the varied response of brain at acute and early delayed phase on exposure to cranial and whole body radiation. Hence in continuation with our previous studies, present study focuses on comparative microstructural changes in brain at late delayed phase of radiation injury using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) technique. Region of interest (ROIs) were drawn on corpus callosum (CC), hippocampus (HIP), sensory-motor cortex (SMC), thalamus (TH), hypothalamus (HTH), cingulum (CG), caudeto-putamen (CUP) and cerebral peduncle (CP). The differences in FA (Fractional Anisotropy) and MD (Mean Diffusivity) values generated from these regions of all the groups were evaluated by ANOVA with multiple comparisons using Bonferroni, Post Hoc test. Maximum changes have been observed in MD values mainly in cranial group showing significantly increased MD in CC and SMC region while both the groups showed changes in TH and CUP region as compared to control. FA showed more prominent changes in whole body radiation group than cranial group by decreasing significantly in CP region while in HTH and CUP region in both the groups. Reduced FA indicates compromised structural integrity due to the loss of glial progenitor cells causing transient demyelination while increased MD has been equated with cellular membrane disruption, cell death and vasogenic edema. Thus, present study reveals late delayed CNS response after cranial and whole body radiation exposure. These findings can help us differentiate and monitor the pathophysiological changes at later stages either due to accidental or intentional exposure to ionizing radiation

  2. Autonomous learning by simple dynamical systems with delayed feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluza, Pablo; Mikhailov, Alexander S

    2014-09-01

    A general scheme for the construction of dynamical systems able to learn generation of the desired kinds of dynamics through adjustment of their internal structure is proposed. The scheme involves intrinsic time-delayed feedback to steer the dynamics towards the target performance. As an example, a system of coupled phase oscillators, which can, by changing the weights of connections between its elements, evolve to a dynamical state with the prescribed (low or high) synchronization level, is considered and investigated.

  3. Toeless pulse shaping with a single delay-line network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauhata, L.; Binns, D.C.

    1976-04-01

    New unipolar delay-line clippers producing negligible cancellation remnant have been developed. Near perfect clipping is achieved using a combination of several types of coaxial cable tranformers working as a phase inverter, a new pulse adder, or an impedance transformer. Only passive elements are used in the bridge network. The construction is simple and the performance is extremely stable and wide in dynamic range and frequency band width. Completely symmetrical bipolar pulses are also easily obtained using this technique

  4. Application of Legendre spectral-collocation method to delay differential and stochastic delay differential equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Ishtiaq

    2018-03-01

    Explicit solutions to delay differential equation (DDE) and stochastic delay differential equation (SDDE) can rarely be obtained, therefore numerical methods are adopted to solve these DDE and SDDE. While on the other hand due to unstable nature of both DDE and SDDE numerical solutions are also not straight forward and required more attention. In this study, we derive an efficient numerical scheme for DDE and SDDE based on Legendre spectral-collocation method, which proved to be numerical methods that can significantly speed up the computation. The method transforms the given differential equation into a matrix equation by means of Legendre collocation points which correspond to a system of algebraic equations with unknown Legendre coefficients. The efficiency of the proposed method is confirmed by some numerical examples. We found that our numerical technique has a very good agreement with other methods with less computational effort.

  5. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  6. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world

  7. Synchronization in networks with heterogeneous coupling delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Andreas; Radons, Günter; Bachrathy, Dániel; Orosz, Gábor

    2018-01-01

    Synchronization in networks of identical oscillators with heterogeneous coupling delays is studied. A decomposition of the network dynamics is obtained by block diagonalizing a newly introduced adjacency lag operator which contains the topology of the network as well as the corresponding coupling delays. This generalizes the master stability function approach, which was developed for homogenous delays. As a result the network dynamics can be analyzed by delay differential equations with distributed delay, where different delay distributions emerge for different network modes. Frequency domain methods are used for the stability analysis of synchronized equilibria and synchronized periodic orbits. As an example, the synchronization behavior in a system of delay-coupled Hodgkin-Huxley neurons is investigated. It is shown that the parameter regions where synchronized periodic spiking is unstable expand when increasing the delay heterogeneity.

  8. "DETERMINANTS OF PREHOSPITAL DELAY IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alidoosti

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Determination of pre-hospital delay time of patients with acute myocardial infarction and seeking ways of speeding up the time for reperfusion is an important factor to lower mortality in these patients. This is a cross-sectional study to determine pre-hospital delay time, its components, and related causes and conditions, obtained in 375 patients with prolonged chest pain referred to four hospitals of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Means of transport to hospital, reasons of ambulance disuse, decision time by the patient and finally the entire time of pre-hospital delay were specified. Suspected factors related to delays of more than 2 and 6 h were scrutinized with chi-square test. Rate of ambulance utility (18.9% directly correlated with age of patients (P<0.05. Principal motives to disuse ambulance insuccession were unrememberance (33.7%, access to private vehicle (32.8% and supposition of sufficient speed of personal reference (18.9%. Pre-hospital delay time was 8.1 ± 9.1 h (mean ± SD in whole patients and 7.6 ± 9.1 h in those with acute myocardial infarction. Delays of more than 2 and 6 hoccurred in 67.5% and 33.6% of patients, respectively. Decision time constitute three fourth of whole pre-hospital delay and was correlated with female gender, older age, history of diabetes, lower level of literacy and nocturnal onset of symptoms. In conclusion, a significant number of patients with acute myocardial infarction have pre-hospital delay of more than 2 and even 6 h, when golden time for thrombolytic therapy has already been elapsed.

  9. Neurodevelopmental delay in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Marlena S; Magtira, Aromalyn; Schoenberg, Frederic Paik; Macgibbon, Kimber; Mullin, Patrick M

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders in children exposed in utero to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) and to identify prognostic factors for these disorders. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of 312 children from 203 mothers with HG were compared to neurodevelopmental outcomes from 169 children from 89 unaffected mothers. Then the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a normal child outcome were compared to the clinical profiles of patients with HG and a child with neurodevelopmental delay to identify prognostic factors. Binary responses were analyzed using either a Chi-square or Fisher Exact test and continuous responses were analyzed using a t-test. Children exposed in utero to HG have a 3.28-fold increase in odds of a neurodevelopmental diagnosis including attention disorders, learning delay, sensory disorders, and speech and language delay (Pneurodevelopmental delay. We found no evidence for increased risk of 13 emotional, behavioral, and learning disorders, including autism, intellectual impairment, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, the study was not sufficiently powered to detect rare conditions. Medications, treatments, and preterm birth were not associated with an increased risk for neurodevelopmental delay. Women with HG are at a significantly increased risk of having a child with neurodevelopmental delay. Common antiemetic treatments were not linked to neurodevelopmental delay, but early symptoms may play a role. There is an urgent need to address whether aggressive treatment that includes vitamin and nutrient supplementation in women with early symptoms of severe nausea of pregnancy decreases the risk of neurodevelopmental delay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Phase-inversion tape-casting preparation and significant performance enhancement of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95- La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ dual-phase asymmetric membrane for oxygen separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Hua; Cheng, Shiyang; Gao, Jianfeng

    2014-01-01

    The dual-phase Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95–La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3−δ asymmetric membrane was prepared via a phase-inversion tape-casting method. The membrane consisted of a thicker porous support layer and a thinner dense layer. When the dense side of the membrane was coated with a La0.6Sr0.4CoO3−δ catalytic...

  11. Phase Difference Measurement Method Based on Progressive Phase Shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for phase difference measurement based on the principle of progressive phase shift (PPS. A phase difference measurement system based on PPS and implemented in the FPGA chip is proposed and tested. In the realized system, a fully programmable delay line (PDL is constructed, which provides accurate and stable delay, benefitting from the feed-back structure of the control module. The control module calibrates the delay according to process, voltage and temperature (PVT variations. Furthermore, a modified method based on double PPS is incorporated to improve the resolution. The obtained resolution is 25 ps. Moreover, to improve the resolution, the proposed method is implemented on the 20 nm Xilinx Kintex Ultrascale platform, and test results indicate that the obtained measurement error and clock synchronization error is within the range of ±5 ps.

  12. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  13. Delay and refusal of human papillomavirus vaccine for girls, national immunization survey-teen, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorell, Christina; Yankey, David; Jeyarajah, Jenny; Stokley, Shannon; Fisher, Allison; Markowitz, Lauri; Smith, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage among girls is low. We used data reported by parents of 4103 girls, 13 to 17 years old, to assess associations with, and reasons for, delaying or refusing HPV vaccination. Sixty-nine percent of parents neither delayed nor refused vaccination, 11% delayed only, 17% refused only, and 3% both delayed and refused. Eighty-three percent of girls who delayed only, 19% who refused only, and 46% who both delayed and refused went on to initiate the vaccine series or intended to initiate it within the next 12 months. A significantly higher proportion of parents of girls who were non-Hispanic white, lived in households with higher incomes, and had mothers with higher education levels, delayed and/or refused vaccination. The most common reasons for nonvaccination were concerns about lasting health problems from the vaccine, wondering about the vaccine's effectiveness, and believing the vaccine is not needed.

  14. Relation between delay and survival in 596 patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machiavelli, M; Leone, B; Romero, A; Perez, J; Vallejo, C; Bianco, A; Rodriguez, R; Estevez, R; Chacon, R; Dansky, C

    1989-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of delay between first symptom and first treatment upon survival the medical records of 596 patients with breast cancer were reviewed. The following intervals were considered: less than 3 months; 3-6 months and greater than 6 months. Patients in the less than 3 months delay group had a better distribution by clinical stages and a 10-year survival rate higher than those in the longer delay groups (p = 0.034). However, within each stage no statistically significant difference in survival according to delay was observed. A Cox multivariate analysis revealed that performance status and stage of disease were independent predictors of survival, but not delay. Assuming the best prognosis for patients with clinical stages I and II and less than 3 months delay, the group with longer delay times had 15 deaths over what would have been predicted. This adverse effect was observed almost exclusively among patients over age 50 (14/15).

  15. Synchronization analysis of coloured delayed networks under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper investigates synchronization of coloured delayed networks under decentralized pinning intermittent control. To begin with, the time delays are taken into account in the coloured networks. In addition, we propose a decentralized pinning intermittent control for coloured delayed networks, which is different from that ...

  16. A methodology to relate octane numbers of binary and ternary n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene mixtures with simulated ignition delay times

    KAUST Repository

    Badra, Jihad A.

    2015-08-11

    Predicting octane numbers (ON) of gasoline surrogate mixtures is of significant importance to the optimization and development of internal combustion (IC) engines. Most ON predictive tools utilize blending rules wherein measured octane numbers are fitted using linear or non-linear mixture fractions on a volumetric or molar basis. In this work, the octane numbers of various binary and ternary n-heptane/iso-octane/toluene blends, referred to as toluene primary reference fuel (TPRF) mixtures, are correlated with a fundamental chemical kinetic parameter, specifically, homogeneous gas-phase fuel/air ignition delay time. Ignition delay times for stoichiometric fuel/air mixtures are calculated at various constant volume conditions (835 K and 20 atm, 825 K and 25 atm, 850 K and 50 atm (research octane number RON-like) and 980 K and 45 atm (motor octane number MON-like)), and for variable volume profiles calculated from cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine pressure and temperature simulations. Compression ratio (or ON) dependent variable volume profile ignition delay times are investigated as well. The constant volume RON-like ignition delay times correlation with RON was the best amongst the other studied conditions. The variable volume ignition delay times condition correlates better with MON than the ignition delay times at the other tested conditions. The best correlation is achieved when using compression ratio dependent variable volume profiles to calculate the ignition delay times. Most of the predicted research octane numbers (RON) have uncertainties that are lower than the repeatability and reproducibility limits of the measurements. Motor octane number (MON) correlation generally has larger uncertainties than that of RON.

  17. Delay and Disruption Tolerant Networking MACHETE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segui, John S.; Jennings, Esther H.; Gao, Jay L.

    2011-01-01

    To verify satisfaction of communication requirements imposed by unique missions, as early as 2000, the Communications Networking Group at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) saw the need for an environment to support interplanetary communication protocol design, validation, and characterization. JPL's Multi-mission Advanced Communications Hybrid Environment for Test and Evaluation (MACHETE), described in Simulator of Space Communication Networks (NPO-41373) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 8 (August 2005), p. 44, combines various commercial, non-commercial, and in-house custom tools for simulation and performance analysis of space networks. The MACHETE environment supports orbital analysis, link budget analysis, communications network simulations, and hardware-in-the-loop testing. As NASA is expanding its Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) capabilities to support planned and future missions, building infrastructure to maintain services and developing enabling technologies, an important and broader role is seen for MACHETE in design-phase evaluation of future SCaN architectures. To support evaluation of the developing Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) field and its applicability for space networks, JPL developed MACHETE models for DTN Bundle Protocol (BP) and Licklider/Long-haul Transmission Protocol (LTP). DTN is an Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) architecture providing communication in and/or through highly stressed networking environments such as space exploration and battlefield networks. Stressed networking environments include those with intermittent (predictable and unknown) connectivity, large and/or variable delays, and high bit error rates. To provide its services over existing domain specific protocols, the DTN protocols reside at the application layer of the TCP/IP stack, forming a store-and-forward overlay network. The key capabilities of the Bundle Protocol include custody-based reliability, the ability to cope with intermittent connectivity

  18. Delay functions in trip assignment for transport planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Lee Vien

    2017-10-01

    In transportation planning process, volume-delay and turn-penalty functions are the functions needed in traffic assignment to determine travel time on road network links. Volume-delay function is the delay function describing speed-flow relationship while turn-penalty function is the delay function associated to making a turn at intersection. The volume-delay function used in this study is the revised Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) function with the constant parameters, α and β values of 0.8298 and 3.361 while the turn-penalty functions for signalized intersection were developed based on uniform, random and overflow delay models. Parameters such as green time, cycle time and saturation flow were used in the development of turn-penalty functions. In order to assess the accuracy of the delay functions, road network in areas of Nibong Tebal, Penang and Parit Buntar, Perak was developed and modelled using transportation demand forecasting software. In order to calibrate the models, phase times and traffic volumes at fourteen signalised intersections within the study area were collected during morning and evening peak hours. The prediction of assigned volumes using the revised BPR function and the developed turn-penalty functions show close agreement to actual recorded traffic volume with the lowest percentage of accuracy, 80.08% and the highest, 93.04% for the morning peak model. As for the evening peak model, they were 75.59% and 95.33% respectively for lowest and highest percentage of accuracy. As for the yield left-turn lanes, the lowest percentage of accuracy obtained for the morning and evening peak models were 60.94% and 69.74% respectively while the highest percentage of accuracy obtained for both models were 100%. Therefore, can be concluded that the development and utilisation of delay functions based on local road conditions are important as localised delay functions can produce better estimate of link travel times and hence better planning for future

  19. Delayed Hospital Discharges of Older Patients: A Systematic Review on Prevalence and Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeiro, Filipa; Roberts, Kenny; Gray, Alastair Mcintosh; Leal, José

    2017-05-23

    To determine the prevalence of delayed discharges of elderly inpatients and associated costs. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health, CAB Abstracts, Econlit, Web of Knowledge, EBSCO - CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Health Management Information Consortium, and SCIE - Social Care Online for evidence published between 1990 and 2015 on number of days or proportion of delayed discharges for elderly inpatients in acute hospitals. Descriptive and regression analyses were conducted. Data on proportions of delayed discharges were pooled using a random effects logistic model and the association of relevant factors was assessed. Mean costs of delayed discharge were calculated in USD adjusted for Purchasing Power Parity (PPP). Of 64 studies included, 52 (81.3%) reported delayed discharges as proportions of total hospital stay and 9 (14.1%) estimated the respective costs for these delays. Proportions of delayed discharges varied widely, from 1.6% to 91.3% with a weighted mean of 22.8%. This variation was also seen in studies from the same country, for example, in the United Kingdom, they ranged between 1.6% and 60.0%. No factor was found to be significantly associated with delays. The mean costs of delayed discharge also varied widely (between 142 and 31,935 USD PPP adjusted), reflecting the variability in mean days of delay per patient. Delayed discharges occur in most countries and the associated costs are significant. However, the variability in prevalence of delayed discharges and available data on costs limit our knowledge of the full impact of delayed discharges. A standardization of methods is necessary to allow comparisons to be made, and additional studies are required-preferably by disease area-to determine the postdischarge needs of specific patient groups and the estimated costs of delays. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Sanchez-Tapias, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B....

  1. Oral Challenge without Skin Testing Safely Excludes Clinically Significant Delayed-Onset Penicillin Hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Confino-Cohen, Ronit; Rosman, Yossi; Meir-Shafrir, Keren; Stauber, Tali; Lachover-Roth, Idit; Hershko, Alon; Goldberg, Arnon

    Penicillins are the drug family most commonly associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Current guidelines recommend negative skin tests (ST) before re-administering penicillins to patients with previous nonimmediate reactions (NIR). The objective of this study was to examine whether ST are necessary before re-administering penicillin to patients with NIR. Patients with NIR to penicillins starting longer than 1 hour after last dose administration or starting any time after the first treatment day or patients with vague recollection of their reaction underwent penicillin ST. Disregarding ST results, patients were challenged with the relevant penicillins. One-tenth of the therapeutic dose followed by the full dose was administered at 1-hour interval and patients continued taking the full dose for 5 days. A total of 710 patients with alleged BL allergy were evaluated. Patients with a history of immediate reaction (52, 7.3%) or cephalosporin allergy (16, 2.2%) were excluded. Of the remaining 642 patients, 62.3% had negative ST, 5.3% positive ST, and 32.4% equivocal ST. A total of 617 (96.1%) patients were challenged. Immediate reaction was observed in 9 patients (1.5%): 1-positive ST, 7-negative ST, and 1-equivocal ST (P = .7). Late reaction to the first-day challenge occurred in 24 patients (4%). An at-home challenge was continued by 491 patients. Complete 5-day and partial challenges were well tolerated by 417 (85%) and 44 patients (8.9%), respectively, disregarding ST results. Thirty patients (6.1%) developed mild reactions to the home challenge regardless of their ST results. A 5-day oral challenge without preceding ST is safe and sufficient to exclude penicillin allergy after NIR developing during penicillin treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Cardiac CT diagnosis in acute coronary syndrome. Significance of delayed enhancement effect in myocardium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takayoshi

    2007-01-01

    Authors have found that the effect in the title (DEE) exists in cardiac CT images due to the contrasting agent used for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) done shortly after the onset of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To confirm the finding, they compared images of the cardiac CT and blood flow single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) obtained several days after ACS. The cardiac CT images of 17 patients (M 15, F 2; average age 63.6 y) with ACS were obtained 20-30 min after the successfully attained emergent enhanced PCI, with the 4-row multi detector low CT (MDCT) machine Aquilion (Toshiba) in synchronization to R-R interval for processing to multiplanar reconstructed (MPR) images. Thereafter (5.5 days in average), myocardial SPECT was conducted with 99m Tc-tetrofosmin (740 MBq), of which images were also processed to MPR ones. The CT and SPECT images were compared in coronary arterial territories assigned to 17 segments in the left ventricle and to 20 areas in the Bull's-eye Map. Findings due to DEE in the former CT images were confirmed well correspondent with the lesion found in the latter SPECT, indicating that DEE is a useful tool for evaluation of ACS severity. (R.T.)

  3. Probing the limits of delay intolerance: preliminary young adult data from the Delay Frustration Task (DeFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsakou, Paraskevi; Antrop, Inge; Wiersema, Jan Roelf; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2006-02-15

    Delay intolerance/aversion is one amongst a number of candidate neuropsychological endophenotypes for ADHD. Pilot data suggest that, because of potential ceiling effects, simple choice measures of delay tolerance used for children are probably not appropriate for adolescents and adults. The Delay Frustration Task (DeFT) is a new measure of delay intolerance, designed to be used in a similar form with adolescents and adults as well as children. In it delay frustration is indexed as the number and duration of responses made on a response key during a series of unpredictable and unsignalled delay periods, which interrupt the completion of a simple computer-based tests. The aim of this study was to provide preliminary data on the applicability of the task in a sample of young adults. The DeFT was administered to 49 male and female undergraduate students selected from a normal population-base. Their mean age was 23.14 (S.D.=1.54). Three measures of delay frustration were recorded across time intervals during the response window; the number of responses, their duration and their combined product (total time button was pressed) was calculated for each second interval bin during the post-response delay period. The AARS and HADS were used as screening questionnaires for ADHD and anxiety behaviour, respectively. The results indicated that young adults with high-ADHD symptoms scores pressed the button more than those with low ADHD scores during the post-response delay condition. While both groups increased responding across time within intervals this was significantly more marked in the high-ADHD symptom group. These effects became more pronounced when anxiety was controlled. Young adults with high-ADHD symptoms appear to be more sensitive to the imposition of unscheduled and unsignalled delay during a simple maths test. DeFT may provide a useful index of delay tolerance in young adults with ADHD. Future research needs to examine DeFT performance in different age groups and

  4. Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or...

  5. Testing Significance Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim I. Krueger

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.

  6. Safety significance evaluation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system

  7. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  8. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities

  9. Phase transformations in nickel sulphide: Microstructures and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousfi, Oussama; Donnadieu, Patricia; Brechet, Yves; Robaut, Florence; Charlot, Frederic; Kasper, Andreas; Serruys, Francis

    2010-01-01

    Nickel sulphide inclusions are known to be responsible for delayed fracture in tempered glasses due to phase transformation within the inclusion. Microstructural identification of the phase transformation mechanisms in the Ni-S system close to the NiS composition were carried out on a series of partially transformed states. Observations allow to investigate the morphological evolution during transformation, the phase orientation relationships and the first stages of the transformation were investigated by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The transformation mechanisms change significantly with the change in sulphur content of the α-NiS phase. Massive transformation is observed for near-stoichiometric composition. For overstoichiometric composition, the transformation is controlled by a long-range diffusion mechanism. The influence of stoichiometry and impurities (Fe) on the microstructural evolution and transformation mechanisms has also been studied.

  10. HAMLET treatment delays bladder cancer development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Hou, Yuchuan; Svensson, Majlis; Holmqvist, Bo; Svanborg, Catharina

    2010-04-01

    HAMLET is a protein-lipid complex that kills different types of cancer cells. Recently we observed a rapid reduction in human bladder cancer size after intravesical HAMLET treatment. In this study we evaluated the therapeutic effect of HAMLET in the mouse MB49 bladder carcinoma model. Bladder tumors were established by intravesical injection of MB49 cells into poly L-lysine treated bladders of C57BL/6 mice. Treatment groups received repeat intravesical HAMLET instillations and controls received alpha-lactalbumin or phosphate buffer. Effects of HAMLET on tumor size and putative apoptotic effects were analyzed in bladder tissue sections. Whole body imaging was used to study HAMLET distribution in tumor bearing mice compared to healthy bladder tissue. HAMLET caused a dose dependent decrease in MB49 cell viability in vitro. Five intravesical HAMLET instillations significantly decreased tumor size and delayed development in vivo compared to controls. TUNEL staining revealed selective apoptotic effects in tumor areas but not in adjacent healthy bladder tissue. On in vivo imaging Alexa-HAMLET was retained for more than 24 hours in the bladder of tumor bearing mice but not in tumor-free bladders or in tumor bearing mice that received Alexa-alpha-lactalbumin. Results show that HAMLET is active as a tumoricidal agent and suggest that topical HAMLET administration may delay bladder cancer development. Copyright (c) 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Uranium loans: Delaying the day of reckoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Spot market volume so far this year, by NUKEM's estimates, comes to just under 11 million lbs. It appears that existing loans are either being extended, or paid back with material borrowed from other sources. Therefore, there has been no significant amount of purchases on the spot market to pay back borrowed uranium. How do we know the loans have not been paid back with spot purchases? For one thing, the amount of uranium loans outstanding has increased. According to our current survey, there may now be as much as 32 million lbs U3O8 equivalent in outstanding loans. At current prices, it's cheaper to borrow than to buy uranium. So borrowers are gambling that prices will remain low for some time, allowing them to delay repayment of the loans. Borrowers then, in essence, are delaying the day of reckoning on these loans. How long they can do so is anyone's guess. As long as uranium is in abundance and utilities remain willing to lend it out, loan activity will likely remain at or near current levels. But when supplies tighten and the market swings in a more positive direction, borrowers may get caught scrambling to repay their loans as quickly as possible

  12. Early versus delayed rehabilitation treatment in hemiplegic patients with ischemic stroke: proprioceptive or cognitive approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Manuela; Marchione, Pasquale; Pili, Antonio; Lauta, Antonella; Castiglia, Stefano F; Spallone, Aldo; Pierelli, Francesco; Giacomini, Patrizia

    2016-02-01

    Early/intensive mobilization may improve functional recovery after stroke but it is not clear which kind of "mobilization" is more effective. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and cognitive therapeutic exercise (CTE) are widespread applied in post-stroke rehabilitation but their efficacy and safety have not been systematically investigated. To compare PNF and CTE methods in a two different time setting (early versus standard approach) in order to evaluate different role of time and techniques in functional recovery after acute ischemic stroke. We designed a prospectical multicenter blinded interventional study of early versus standard approach with two different methods by means of both PNF and CTE. A discrete stroke-dedicated area for out-of-thrombolysis patients, connected with two different comprehensive stroke centres in two different catchment areas. Three hundred and forty consecutive stroke patient with first ever sub-cortical ischemic stroke in the mean cerebral artery (MCA) territory and contralateral hemiplegia admitted within 6 and 24 hours from symptoms onset. All patients were randomly assigned by means of a computer generated randomization sequence in blocks of 4 to one to the 4 interventional groups: early versus delayed rehabilitation programs with Kabat's schemes or Perfetti's technique. Patients in both delayed group underwent to a standard protocol in the acute phase. disability at 3-12 months. Disability measures: modified Rankin Score and Barthel Index. Safety outcome: immobility-related adverse events. Six-Minute Walking Test, Motricity Index, Mini-Mental State Examination, Beck Depression Inventory. Disability was not different between groups at 3 months but Barthel Index significantly changed between early versus delayed groups at 12 months (P=0.01). Six-Minute Walking Test (P=0.01) and Motricity Index in both upper (P=0.01) and lower limbs (P=0.001) increased in early versus delayed groups regardless rehabilitation schedule. A

  13. Reduction theories elucidate the origins of complex biological rhythms generated by interacting delay-induced oscillations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikuhiro Yamaguchi

    Full Text Available Time delay is known to induce sustained oscillations in many biological systems such as electroencephalogram (EEG activities and gene regulations. Furthermore, interactions among delay-induced oscillations can generate complex collective rhythms, which play important functional roles. However, due to their intrinsic infinite dimensionality, theoretical analysis of interacting delay-induced oscillations has been limited. Here, we show that the two primary methods for finite-dimensional limit cycles, namely, the center manifold reduction in the vicinity of the Hopf bifurcation and the phase reduction for weak interactions, can successfully be applied to interacting infinite-dimensional delay-induced oscillations. We systematically derive the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and the phase equation without delay for general interaction networks. Based on the reduced low-dimensional equations, we demonstrate that diffusive (linearly attractive coupling between a pair of delay-induced oscillations can exhibit nontrivial amplitude death and multimodal phase locking. Our analysis provides unique insights into experimentally observed EEG activities such as sudden transitions among different phase-locked states and occurrence of epileptic seizures.

  14. Broadband demonstrations of true-time delay using linear sideband chirped programming and optical coherent transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reibel, R.R.; Barber, Z.W.; Fischer, J.A.; Tian, M.; Babbitt, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Linear sideband chirped (LSC) programming is introduced as a means of configuring spatial-spectral holographic gratings for optical coherent transient processors. Similar to linear frequency chirped programming, LSC programming allows the use of broadband integrated electro-optic phase modulators to produce chirps instead of using elaborate broadband chirped lasers. This approach has several advantages including the ability to use a stabilized laser for the optical carrier as well as stable, reproducible chirped optical signals when the modulator is driven digitally. Using LSC programming, we experimentally demonstrate broadband true-time delay as a proof of principle for the optical control of phased array radars. Here both cw phase modulated and binary phase shift keyed probe signals are true-time delayed with bandwidths of 1 GHz and delay resolutions better than 60 ps

  15. A Polynomial Estimate of Railway Line Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerreto, Fabrizio; Harrod, Steven; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2017-01-01

    Railway service may be measured by the aggregate delay over a time horizon or due to an event. Timetables for railway service may dampen aggregate delay by addition of additional process time, either supplement time or buffer time. The evaluation of these variables has previously been performed...... by numerical analysis with simulation. This paper proposes an analytical estimate of aggregate delay with a polynomial form. The function returns the aggregate delay of a railway line resulting from an initial, primary, delay. Analysis of the function demonstrates that there should be a balance between the two...

  16. Delay Variation Model with Two Service Queues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filip Rezac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Delay in VoIP technology is very unpleasant issue and therefore a voice packets prioritization must be ensured. To maintain the high call quality a maximum information delivery time from the sender to the recipient is set to 150 ms. This paper focuses on the design of a mathematical model of end-to-end delay of a VoIP connection, in particular on a delay variation. It describes all partial delay components and mechanisms, their generation, facilities and mathematical formulations. A new approach to the delay variation model is presented and its validation has been done by experimention.

  17. Fuzzy delay model based fault simulator for crosstalk delay fault test ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, a fuzzy delay model based crosstalk delay fault simulator is proposed. As design trends move towards nanometer technologies, more number of new parameters affects the delay of the component. Fuzzy delay models are ideal for modelling the uncertainty found in the design and manufacturing steps.

  18. Tumor significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.

    1983-01-01

    In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/

  19. Delayed plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of lymph chylomicron 14C-cholesterol in marginally zinc-deficient rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, S.I.; Algilani, K.; Norvell, J.E.; Henderson, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Previously, chylomicrons from marginally zinc-deficient rats were shown to be abnormally large, with markedly reduced levels of apoproteins C and E. In the present study, effects of such changes on the plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of chylomicron cholesterol were investigated in rats fed 3 ppm of zinc (ZD), as compared with those fed 30 ppm of zinc (CT). The rate of plasma clearance was determined by plasma 14C-radioactivity at different intervals after intravenous injection of lymph chylomicrons labeled in vivo with 14C-cholesterol. The 14C-clearance curves were nonlinear, consisting of an initial rapid phase followed by a slow phase of clearance. The initial 14C-clearance was significantly (p less than 0.05) delayed whether the labeled chylomicrons from ZD donors were injected into ZD or CT recipients. The hepatic 14C-recovery in extracted lipids was also significantly lower in ZD rats. The present data provide first evidence that a marginal level of zinc deficiency produces a significant delay in the plasma clearance and hepatic uptake of chylomicron cholesterol. This may be attributable in part to the molecular alterations of chylomicrons induced by zinc deficiency

  20. Language Delay and Externalizing Problems in Preschool Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mari Vaage; Aarø, Leif Edvard; Ystrom, Eivind

    2018-01-10

    This study sought to examine the direction of causation between language delay and two externalizing problems; inattention and aggression. Autoregressive fixed effects models were fitted to data from 25,474 children (age 1.5 to 5 years; 50.8% boys) in the population-based longitudinal Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), to model the direction of causality for language delay and inattention and aggression, respectively. The most parsimonious model for the relationship between language delay and inattention was one where both common factors and reciprocal causation were estimated. Adjusted for common factors, language delay was estimated to have a non-significant effect on inattention by b = 0.12 (p = 0.06), and inattention to have a significant effect on language delay by b = 0.19 (p = 0.03). The most parsimonious model for the direction of causality for language delay and aggression was one where the entire association could be explained by language delay having effect on aggression b = 0.12 (p language delay can best be conceptualized as an epiphenomenon of inattention partly related to both common factors and causal processes, aggression can best be conceptualized as caused by language delay. This illumination of the hypothetical causal links between two common problem domains in preschool-aged children has clear implications on where to implement interventions to prevent co-occurrence of language delay and externalizing problems.

  1. Perceived Discrimination and Reported Delay of Pharmacy Prescriptions and Medical Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Voils, Corrine I; Oddone, Eugene Z; Weinfurt, Kevin P; Friedman, Joëlle Y; Schulman, Kevin A; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND Access to health care varies according to a person's race and ethnicity. Delaying treatment is one measure of access with important health consequences. OBJECTIVE Determine whether perceptions of unfair treatment because of race or ethnicity are associated with reported treatment delays, controlling for economic constraints, self-reported health, depression, and demographics. DESIGN Cross-sectional, observational study. PARTICIPANTS A randomly selected community sample of 181 blacks, 148 Latinos, and 193 whites in Durham County, NC. MEASUREMENTS A phone survey conducted in 2002 to assess discrimination, trust in medical care, quality of care, and access to care. Treatment delays were measured by whether or not a person reported delaying or forgoing filling a prescription and delaying or forgoing having a medical test/treatment in the past 12 months. Perceived discrimination was measured as unfair treatment in health care and as racism in local health care institutions. RESULTS The odds of delaying filling prescriptions were significantly higher (odds ratio (OR)=2.02) for persons who perceived unfair treatment, whereas the odds of delaying tests or treatments were significantly higher (OR=2.42) for persons who thought racism was a problem in health care locally. People with self-reported depression and people who reported not working had greater odds of delaying both types of care. CONCLUSIONS A prospective cohort study with both personal and macro measures of discrimination, as well as more refined measures of treatment delays, would help us better understand the relationship between perceived discrimination and treatment delays. PMID:16050850

  2. Uranium chemistry: significant advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzanti, M.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)

  3. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  4. Precise delay measurement through combinatorial logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Gary R. (Inventor); Chen, Yuan (Inventor); Sheldon, Douglas J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A high resolution circuit and method for facilitating precise measurement of on-chip delays for FPGAs for reliability studies. The circuit embeds a pulse generator on an FPGA chip having one or more groups of LUTS (the "LUT delay chain"), also on-chip. The circuit also embeds a pulse width measurement circuit on-chip, and measures the duration of the generated pulse through the delay chain. The pulse width of the output pulse represents the delay through the delay chain without any I/O delay. The pulse width measurement circuit uses an additional asynchronous clock autonomous from the main clock and the FPGA propagation delay can be displayed on a hex display continuously for testing purposes.

  5. Reasons for diagnostic delay in gynecological malignancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandborg, Mai Partridge; Christensen, René dePont Christensen; Kragstrup, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    (≤ or > 60 years), performance of gynecological examination by the GP and notification of cancer suspicion on first referral from GP’s on the diagnostic delay (short delay ≤90 days and long delay >90 days). Results Across cancer type a median total delay of 101 days was observed. The 10% of women......Aim The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe different delay types in women with gynecologic cancer, and to analyze the relationship between diagnostic delay and a number of characteristics for patients, cancers and the health care system. Setting A cohort study of women newly......) and The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD). 161 women were included; ovarian cancer: 63, endometrial cancer: 50, cervical cancer: 34 and vulvar cancer: 14. Outcome measures were different delay types counted in days and the influence of four clinical important variables: Presence of alarm symptoms, age...

  6. Temperature Dependent Wire Delay Estimation in Floorplanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Andreas Thor; Liu, Wei; Nannarelli, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability. In this w......Due to large variations in temperature in VLSI circuits and the linear relationship between metal resistance and temperature, the delay through wires of the same length can be different. Traditional thermal aware floorplanning algorithms use wirelength to estimate delay and routability....... In this work, we show that using wirelength as the evaluation metric does not always produce a floorplan with the shortest delay. We propose a temperature dependent wire delay estimation method for thermal aware floorplanning algorithms, which takes into account the thermal effect on wire delay. The experiment...

  7. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  8. Delayed recombination and cosmic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galli, Silvia; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Bean, Rachel; Silk, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Current cosmological constraints from cosmic microwave background anisotropies are typically derived assuming a standard recombination scheme, however additional resonance and ionizing radiation sources can delay recombination, altering the cosmic ionization history and the cosmological inferences drawn from the cosmic microwave background data. We show that for recent observations of the cosmic microwave background anisotropy, from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe satellite mission (WMAP) 5-year survey and from the arcminute cosmology bolometer array receiver experiment, additional resonance radiation is nearly degenerate with variations in the spectral index, n s , and has a marked effect on uncertainties in constraints on the Hubble constant, age of the universe, curvature and the upper bound on the neutrino mass. When a modified recombination scheme is considered, the redshift of recombination is constrained to z * =1078±11, with uncertainties in the measurement weaker by 1 order of magnitude than those obtained under the assumption of standard recombination while constraints on the shift parameter are shifted by 1σ to R=1.734±0.028. From the WMAP5 data we obtain the following constraints on the resonance and ionization sources parameters: ε α i <0.058 at 95% c.l.. Although delayed recombination limits the precision of parameter estimation from the WMAP satellite, we demonstrate that this should not be the case for future, smaller angular scales measurements, such as those by the Planck satellite mission.

  9. Asymptotic Delay Analysis for Cross-Layer Delay-Based Routing in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Jacquet

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the evaluation of the delay distribution via analytical means in IEEE 802.11 wireless ad hoc networks. We show that the asymptotic delay distribution can be expressed as a power law. Based on the latter result, we present a cross-layer delay estimation protocol and we derive new delay-distribution-based routing algorithms, which are well adapted to the QoS requirements of real-time multimedia applications. In fact, multimedia services are not sensitive to average delays, but rather to the asymptotic delay distributions. Indeed, video streaming applications drop frames when they are received beyond a delay threshold, determined by the buffer size. Although delay-distribution-based routing is an NP-hard problem, we show that it can be solved in polynomial time when the delay threshold is large, because of the asymptotic power law distribution of the link delays.

  10. 123I-BMIPP delayed scintigraphic imaging in patients with chronic heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Keisuke; Akashi, Yoshihiro J.; Yoneyama, Kihei; Shimokawa, Mitsuhiro; Musha, Haruki

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to clarify the ability of 123 I-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid ( 123 I-BMIPP) to evaluate the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio and myocardial global washout rate (WR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The severity of CHF was evaluated on the basis of the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. Twenty patients with CHF (13 with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 7 with ischemic cardiomyopathy) and 11 age-matched controls underwent myocardial radionuclide imaging. Scintigraphic images were obtained from each participant at the early (30 min following radio-isotope injection) and late (4 h) phases using 123 I-BMIPP. The H/M ratio and WR were calculated from planar images. Concentrations of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured prior to the scintigraphic study. The 123 I-BMIPP uptake of early H/M and global WR did not significantly differ among groups, but uptake of delayed H/M was significantly lower in patients with NYHA class III than in controls (control 2.47±0.39; class III 1.78±0.28 P 123 I-BMIPP uptake of delayed H/M enhances the image of CHF severity. The myocardial WR of 123 I-BMIPP also effectively depicted the severity of CHF. (author)

  11. Broadband true time delay for microwave signal processing, using slow light based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Sanghoon; Thévenaz, Luc; Sancho, Juan; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José; Berger, Perrine; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Dolfi, Daniel

    2010-10-11

    We experimentally demonstrate a novel technique to process broadband microwave signals, using all-optically tunable true time delay in optical fibers. The configuration to achieve true time delay basically consists of two main stages: photonic RF phase shifter and slow light, based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in fibers. Dispersion properties of fibers are controlled, separately at optical carrier frequency and in the vicinity of microwave signal bandwidth. This way time delay induced within the signal bandwidth can be manipulated to correctly act as true time delay with a proper phase compensation introduced to the optical carrier. We completely analyzed the generated true time delay as a promising solution to feed phased array antenna for radar systems and to develop dynamically reconfigurable microwave photonic filters.

  12. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  13. Delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Ma, Z.; Tang, Z.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, the use of ultrasonography (US), X-CT and MRI has reduced the employment of isotopic explorations in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). But sometime the results of US, X-CT or MRI were different and diagnosis was very difficult. This present investigation was aimed to assess the usefulness of delayed hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of HCC in these patients. Forty-eight patients consisting of 33 males and 15 females were entered into the research protocol. The mean age was 46 yr old (range 12-71 yr old). All of the patients were performed by surgery and verified histologically after nuclear examination. The subject was in a supine position under a gamma camera (Elscint, Apex Ap-6) and 555 MBq of Tc-99m-PMT were injected intravenously. The initial scinphotos obtained within 1 min after injection were used to image the blood pool phase. Subsequently, hepatic scans were obtained at 5 min, 1,2 and 5 hr. Anterior, right lateral and posterior hepatic images were recorded. According to the radioactive uptake by the lesion in delayed phase, the negative (no or minor uptake), positive (equal or greater uptake) or very strong positive (almost equal to the activity, of gallbladder) were judged. The positive were considered as diagnostic of HCC. And the very strong positive, were considered as diagnostic of benign hepatoma, such as adenoma or FNH. Thirty-seven of the forty-eight patients were HCC based on histology. Delayed imaging revealed increased or equilibrated uptake of radioactivity by the tumors in 22 of 37 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. The sensitivity was 59.5%. One patient final diagnosis based on histology was focal nodular regenerative hyperplasia, and only the diagnosis with delayed hepatobiliary imaging before surgery was correct. Compared with US, X-CT and MRI, delayed hepatobiliary imaging had the highest specificity for diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In recent group, the specificity of Tc-99m-PMT delayed

  14. 123I-BMIPP delayed scintigraphic imaging in patients with chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kida, Keisuke; Akashi, Yoshihiro J; Yoneyama, Kihei; Shimokawa, Mitsuhiro; Musha, Haruki

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to clarify the ability of 123I-beta-methyl-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (123I-BMIPP) to evaluate the heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratio and myocardial global washout rate (WR) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). The severity of CHF was evaluated on the basis of the New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification. Twenty patients with CHF (13 with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy and 7 with ischemic cardiomyopathy) and 11 age-matched controls underwent myocardial radionuclide imaging. Scintigraphic images were obtained from each participant at the early (30 min following radio-isotope injection) and late (4 h) phases using 123I-BMIPP. The H/M ratio and WR were calculated from planar images. Concentrations of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) were measured prior to the scintigraphic study. The 123I-BMIPP uptake of early H/M and global WR did not significantly differ among groups, but uptake of delayed H/M was significantly lower in patients with NYHA class III than in controls (control 2.47 +/- 0.39; class III 1.78 +/- 0.28, P < 0.05). The uptake of delayed H/M and global WR correlated with plasma log BNP in all participants (r = -0.38, P < 0.05; 0.43, P < 0.05, respectively). These data suggest that 123I-BMIPP uptake of delayed H/M enhances the image of CHF severity. The myocardial WR of 123I-BMIPP also effectively depicted the severity of CHF.

  15. Construction delays: a case study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Mauricio Furtado Maués

    Full Text Available Abstract he construction industry is one of the industrial sectors with the lowest rates of fulfilment of contract deadlines, especially in developing countries. This fact has been the focus of considerable discussions seeking to identify the causes of the delays. The main purpose of this paper is to use factor analysis to identify the factors that are correlated with delay, contemplating exclusively residential real estate projects and using a city in the Brazilian Amazon as a case study. Based on the database from the government agency that authorises constructions in the city of Belém (City Planning Department - Secretaria Municipal de Urbanismo, SEURB and data from construction companies, the study investigated 274 construction projects from the past 11 years. Factor analysis and work with the variables that can be identified and measured in the initial phase of the project, i.e., during the feasibility study, demonstrate that the physical characteristics of the apartments and the construction project are the primary causes for variations in construction delays; these causes have not yet been reported in the literature. We hope that the results of this study will contribute to more consistent forecasting of construction time, minimising the risk of delays.

  16. On the very long term delayed behavior of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrenti, J.M.; Benboudjema, F.; Barre, F.; Gallitre, E.

    2015-01-01

    The prediction of very long-term deformation of prestressed concrete structures is a major challenge considering the service life of these structures. It is therefore necessary to correctly model the delayed behavior of these structures. Using a review of laboratory tests and observations of the delayed behavior of structures (bridges and nuclear power plants), the main conclusions of this work are the following ones. First, very long term creep in laboratory or of real structures seems to be non asymptotic. In the actual Eurocode-2, creep is calculated by means of an asymptotic hyperbolic function while in the recent Model Code 2010 creep is expressed as a combination of an asymptotic and a logarithmic functions. In the latter case the logarithmic function corresponds to basic creep while drying creep is asymptotic. Secondly, using a long test (3 years) in a laboratory is not enough to assess the long term behaviour of a massive structure. We need physical relations for creep in codes in order to predict the delayed behavior of massive structures. Thirdly, the biaxial creep of nuclear power plant could be modelled but using data of the structure itself. This would allow to predict the delayed behavior of these structures. Further work is needed to improve the prediction in the design phase

  17. Heteroclinic Bifurcation Behaviors of a Duffing Oscillator with Delayed Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Fang Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The heteroclinic bifurcation and chaos of a Duffing oscillator with forcing excitation under both delayed displacement feedback and delayed velocity feedback are studied by Melnikov method. The Melnikov function is analytically established to detect the necessary conditions for generating chaos. Through the analysis of the analytical necessary conditions, we find that the influences of the delayed displacement feedback and delayed velocity feedback are separable. Then the influences of the displacement and velocity feedback parameters on heteroclinic bifurcation and threshold value of chaotic motion are investigated individually. In order to verify the correctness of the analytical conditions, the Duffing oscillator is also investigated by numerical iterative method. The bifurcation curves and the largest Lyapunov exponents are provided and compared. From the analysis of the numerical simulation results, it could be found that two types of period-doubling bifurcations occur in the Duffing oscillator, so that there are two paths leading to the chaos in this oscillator. The typical dynamical responses, including time histories, phase portraits, and Poincare maps, are all carried out to verify the conclusions. The results reveal some new phenomena, which is useful to design or control this kind of system.

  18. Phrenic Arterial Injury Presenting as Delayed Hemothorax Complicating Simple Rib Fracture

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Hong Joon; Lee, Jun Wan; Kim, Kun Dong; You, In Sool

    2016-01-01

    Delayed hemothorax after blunt torso injury is rare, but might be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of delayed hemothorax bleeding from phrenic artery injury in a 24-year-old woman. The patient suffered from multiple rib fractures on the right side, a right hemopneumothorax, thoracic vertebral injury and a pelvic bone fracture after a fall from a fourth floor window. Delayed hemothorax associated with phrenic artery bleeding, caused by a stab injury from a...

  19. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Evaluation of Developmental Delay in Pediatric Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Althaf S.; Syed, Naziya P.; Murthy, G.S.N.; Nori, Madhavi; Abkari, Anand; Pooja, B.K.; Venkateswarlu, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Developmental delay is defined as significant delay in one or more developmental domains. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is the best modality to investigate such patients. Evaluation of a child with developmental delay is important not only because it allows early diagnosis and treatment but also helpful for parental counseling regarding the outcome of their child and to identify any possible risk of recurrence in the siblings. Thus this study was undertaken to evaluate the de...

  20. Long-time behavior for suspension bridge equations with time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Hye

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we consider suspension bridge equations with time delay of the form u_{tt}(x,t) + Δ ^2 u (x,t) + k u^+ (x,t) + a_0 u_t (x,t) + a_1 u_t (x, t- τ ) + f(u(x,t)) = g(x). Many researchers have studied well-posedness, decay rates of energy, and existence of attractors for suspension bridge equations without delay effects. But, as far as we know, there is no work about suspension equations with time delay. In addition, there are not many studies on attractors for other delayed systems. Thus we first provide well-posedness for suspension equations with time delay. And then show the existence of global attractors and the finite dimensionality of the attractors by establishing energy functionals which are related to the norm of the phase space to our problem.

  1. Phase Image Analysis in Conduction Disturbance Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwark, Byeng Su; Choi, Si Wan; Kang, Seung Sik; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Kang Wook; Jeon, Eun Seok; Park, Chong Hun

    1994-01-01

    It is known that the normal His-Purkinje system provides for nearly synchronous activation of right (RV) and left (LV) ventricles. When His-Purkinje conduction is abnormal, the resulting sequence of ventricular contraction must be correspondingly abnormal. These abnormal mechanical consequences were difficult to demonstrate because of the complexity and the rapidity of its events. To determine the relationship of the phase changes and the abnormalities of ventricular conduction, we performed phase image analysis of Tc-RBC gated blood pool scintigrams in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances (24 complete left bundle branch block (C-LBBB), 15 complete right bundle branch block (C-RBBB), 13 Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), 10 controls). The results were as follows; 1) The ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER), and peak filling rate (PFR) of LV in gated blood pool scintigraphy (GBPS) were significantly lower in patients with C-LBBB than in controls (44.4 ± 13.9% vs 69.9 ± 4.2%, 2.48 ± 0.98 vs 3.51 ± 0,62, 1.76 ± 0.71 vs 3.38 ± 0.92, respectively, p<0.05). 2) In the phase angle analysis of LV, Standard deviation (SD), width of half maximum of phase angle (FWHM), and range of phase angle were significantly increased in patients with C-LBBB than in controls (20.6 + 18.1 vs S.6 + I.8, 22. 5 + 9.2 vs 16.0 + 3.9, 95.7 + 31.7 vs 51.3 + 5.4, respectively, p<0.05). 3) There was no significant difference in EF, PER, PFR between patients with the WolffParkinson-White syndrome and controls. 4) Standard deviation and range of phase angle were significantly higher in patients with WPW syndrome than in controls (10.6 + 2.6 vs 8.6 + 1.8, p<0.05, 69.8 + 11.7 vs 51.3 + 5 4, p<0.001, respectively), however, there was no difference between the two groups in full width of half maximum. 5) Phase image analysis revealed relatively uniform phase across the both ventriles in patients with normal conduction, but markedly delayed phase in the left ventricle

  2. Phase Image Analysis in Conduction Disturbance Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwark, Byeng Su; Choi, Si Wan; Kang, Seung Sik; Park, Ki Nam; Lee, Kang Wook; Jeon, Eun Seok; Park, Chong Hun [Chung Nam University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    It is known that the normal His-Purkinje system provides for nearly synchronous activation of right (RV) and left (LV) ventricles. When His-Purkinje conduction is abnormal, the resulting sequence of ventricular contraction must be correspondingly abnormal. These abnormal mechanical consequences were difficult to demonstrate because of the complexity and the rapidity of its events. To determine the relationship of the phase changes and the abnormalities of ventricular conduction, we performed phase image analysis of Tc-RBC gated blood pool scintigrams in patients with intraventricular conduction disturbances (24 complete left bundle branch block (C-LBBB), 15 complete right bundle branch block (C-RBBB), 13 Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (WPW), 10 controls). The results were as follows; 1) The ejection fraction (EF), peak ejection rate (PER), and peak filling rate (PFR) of LV in gated blood pool scintigraphy (GBPS) were significantly lower in patients with C-LBBB than in controls (44.4 +- 13.9% vs 69.9 +- 4.2%, 2.48 +- 0.98 vs 3.51 +- 0,62, 1.76 +- 0.71 vs 3.38 +- 0.92, respectively, p<0.05). 2) In the phase angle analysis of LV, Standard deviation (SD), width of half maximum of phase angle (FWHM), and range of phase angle were significantly increased in patients with C-LBBB than in controls (20.6 + 18.1 vs S.6 + I.8, 22. 5 + 9.2 vs 16.0 + 3.9, 95.7 + 31.7 vs 51.3 + 5.4, respectively, p<0.05). 3) There was no significant difference in EF, PER, PFR between patients with the WolffParkinson-White syndrome and controls. 4) Standard deviation and range of phase angle were significantly higher in patients with WPW syndrome than in controls (10.6 + 2.6 vs 8.6 + 1.8, p<0.05, 69.8 + 11.7 vs 51.3 + 5 4, p<0.001, respectively), however, there was no difference between the two groups in full width of half maximum. 5) Phase image analysis revealed relatively uniform phase across the both ventriles in patients with normal conduction, but markedly delayed phase in the left ventricle

  3. Time delay induced different synchronization patterns in repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chenggui; Yi, Ming; Shuai, Jianwei

    2013-09-01

    Time delayed coupling plays a crucial role in determining the system's dynamics. We here report that the time delay induces transition from the asynchronous state to the complete synchronization (CS) state in the repulsively coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, by changing the coupling strength or time delay, various types of synchronous patterns, including CS, antiphase CS, antiphase synchronization (ANS), and phase synchronization, can be generated. In the transition regions between different synchronous patterns, bistable synchronous oscillators can be observed. Furthermore, we show that the time-delay-induced phase flip bifurcation is of key importance for the emergence of CS. All these findings may light on our understanding of neuronal synchronization and information processing in the brain.

  4. Stability Criteria for Differential Equations with Variable Time Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schley, D.; Shail, R.; Gourley, S. A.

    2002-01-01

    Time delays are an important aspect of mathematical modelling, but often result in highly complicated equations which are difficult to treat analytically. In this paper it is shown how careful application of certain undergraduate tools such as the Method of Steps and the Principle of the Argument can yield significant results. Certain delay…

  5. Dynamic Delayed Duplicate Detection for External Memory Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evangelista, Sami

    2008-01-01

    Duplicate detection is an expensive operation of disk-based model checkers. It consists of comparing some potentially new states, the candidate states, to previous visited states. We propose a new approach to this technique called dynamic delayed duplicate detection. This one exploits some typica...... significantly better than some previously published algorithms....

  6. Do Procrastination-Friendly Environments Make Students Delay Unnecessarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Kent; Klingsieck, Katrin; Svartdal, Frode

    2017-01-01

    Research on procrastination emphasizes trait explanations for unwanted delay, yet environmental factors are most probably significant contributors to the problem. In this paper, we review literature related to the influence of environmental factors on academic procrastination and investigate how such factors may be assessed in facilitating…

  7. Delay model and performance testing for FPGA carry chain TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang Xiaowen; Liu Yaqiang; Cui Junjian Yang Zhangcan; Jin Yongjie

    2011-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) information would improve the performance of PET (position emission tomography). TDC design is a key technique. It proposed Carry Chain TDC Delay model. Through changing the significant delay parameter of model, paper compared the difference of TDC performance, and finally realized Time-to-Digital Convertor (TDC) based on Carry Chain Method using FPGA EP2C20Q240C8N with 69 ps LSB, max error below 2 LSB. Such result could meet the TOF demand. It also proposed a Coaxial Cable Measuring method for TDC testing, without High-precision test equipment. (authors)

  8. Delays in Medical Malpractice Litigation in Civil Law Jurisdictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grembi, Veronica; Garoupaa, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    Medical malpractice law and tort reform are contentious issues. In this paper, we focus on Italy as an example of a civil law jurisdiction. Italian medical malpractice law is essentially judge-made law. However, its effectiveness is likely to be curtailed by excessive delays in litigation. Several...... reforms have been enacted since the late 1980s to correct this situation. By making use of the decisions of the Italian Court of Cassation (which have shaped medical malpractice law) from 1970 to 2009, we show that these reforms had no general statistically significant impact on delays. Recent reduction...

  9. Cooperative relay-based multicasting for energy and delay minimization

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-08-01

    Relay-based multicasting for the purpose of cooperative content distribution is studied. Optimized relay selection is performed with the objective of minimizing the energy consumption or the content distribution delay within a cluster of cooperating mobiles. Two schemes are investigated. The first consists of the BS sending the data only to the relay, and the second scheme considers the scenario of threshold-based multicasting by the BS, where a relay is selected to transmit the data to the mobiles that were not able to receive the multicast data. Both schemes show significant superiority compared to the non-cooperative scenarios, in terms of energy consumption and delay reduction. © 2012 IEEE.

  10. Control of Thermodynamical System with Input-Dependent State Delays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Krstic, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    We consider control of a cooling system with several consumers that require cooling from a common source. The flow feeding coolant to the consumers can be controlled, but due to significant physical distances between the common source and the consumers, the coolant flow takes a non......-negligible amount of time to travel to the consumers, giving rise to input-dependent state delays. We first present a simple bilinear model of the system, followed by a state feedback control design that is able to stabilize the system at a chosen equilibrium in spite of the delays. We also present a heuristic...

  11. Coherence resonance in an excitable system with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethia, Gautam C.; Kurths, Juergen; Sen, Abhijit

    2007-01-01

    We study the noise activated dynamics of a model excitable system that consists of a subcritical Hopf oscillator with a time delayed nonlinear feedback. The coherence of the noise driven pulses of the system exhibits a novel double peaked structure as a function of the noise amplitude. The two peaks correspond to separate optimal noise levels for excitation of single spikes and multiple spikes (bursts) respectively. The relative magnitudes of these peaks are found to be a sensitive function of time delay. The physical significance of our results and its practical implications in various real life systems are discussed

  12. Effect of delay in hospital presentation on clinical and imaging findings in acute pulmonary thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenab, Yaser; Alemzadeh-Ansari, Mohammad Javad; Fehri, Seyedeh Arezoo; Ghaffari-Marandi, Neda; Jalali, Arash

    2014-04-01

    There is limited information on the extent and clinical importance of the delay in hospital presentation of acute pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE). The aim of this study was to investigate the delay in hospital presentation of PTE and its association with clinical and imaging findings in PTE. This prospective study was conducted on patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute PTE between September 2007 and September 2011. Relationships between delay in hospital presentation and clinical findings, risk factors, imaging findings, and in-hospital mortality were analyzed. Of the 195 patients enrolled, 84 (43.1%) patients presented 3 days after the onset of symptoms. Patients with chest pain, history of immobility for more than 3 days, recent surgery, and estrogen use had significantly less delayed presentation. Right ventricular dysfunction was significantly more frequent in patients with delayed presentation (odds ratio [OR] = 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27-4.44; p = 0.006); however, no relationship was found between delay in presentation and pulmonary computed tomographic angiography or color Doppler sonography findings. Patients with delayed presentation were at higher risk of in-hospital mortality (OR = 4.32; 95% CI 1.12-16.49; p = 0.021). Our study showed that a significant portion of patients with acute PTE had delayed presentation. Also, patients with delayed presentation had worse echocardiographic findings and higher in-hospital mortality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The significance of postangiographic CT for differentiation of hepatic masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Kyo; Chang, Jae Chun; Chang, You Song

    1994-01-01

    To identify the long term hemodynamics of various hepatic masses and to determine any differential findings by using postangiograpic CT performed with increased amount of contrast media and time than conventional contrast CT. 50 confirmed masses consisted of 22 hepatocellular carcinoma, 10 cholangiocarcinoma, 9 metastasis, and 9 cavernous hemangioma were included. The changes of the density of internal viable tumor portion relative to surrounding normal liver parenchyma in postangiograhic CT from that in conventional CT were classified as 3 patients; no specific changes, increase, or decrease. In 22 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, six cases showed no relative density change, four cases increase, and twelve cases decrease. In ten cases of cholangiocacinoma, one case showed no change, nine cases increase. In nine cases of metastasis, four cases showed no change, five cases increase. In nine cases of hemangioma, all cases showed increase. In postangiographic CT which emphasize the significance of postequilibrium and delayed phase, other hemodynamic changes undetected in angiography could more easily be comprehended. Considering the differing amount of consumed contrast media and time duration, and with reference of other imaging modalities, differential diagnosis of hepatic masses based on long term hemodynamics could easily be made

  14. Persistence and extinction for a stochastic logistic model with infinite delay

    OpenAIRE

    Chun Lu; Xiaohua Ding

    2013-01-01

    This article, studies a stochastic logistic model with infinite delay. Using a phase space, we establish sufficient conditions for the extinction, nonpersistence in the mean, weak persistence, and stochastic permanence. A threshold between weak persistence and extinction is obtained. Our results state that different types of environmental noises have different effects on the persistence and extinction, and that the delay has no impact on the persistence and ext...

  15. One-dimensional unstable eigenfunction and manifold computations in delay differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Kirk; Krauskopf, Bernd; Engelborghs, Koen

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we present a new numerical technique for computing the unstable eigenfunctions of a saddle periodic orbit in a delay differential equation. This is used to obtain the necessary starting data for an established algorithm for computing one-dimensional (1D) unstable manifolds of an associated saddle fixed point of a suitable Poincare map. To illustrate our method, we investigate an intermittent transition to chaos in a delay system describing a semiconductor laser subject to phase-conjugate feedback

  16. The Long Time Behavior of a Stochastic Logistic Model with Infinite Delay and Impulsive Perturbation

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Chun; Wu, Kaining

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers a stochastic logistic model with infinite delay and impulsive perturbation. Firstly, with the space $C_{g}$ as phase space, the definition of solution to a stochastic functional differential equation with infinite delay and impulsive perturbation is established. According to this definition, we show that our model has an unique global positive solution. Then we establish the sufficient and necessary conditions for extinction and stochastic permanence of the...

  17. Delayed hydride cracking in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieza, Juan I.; Domizzi, Gladys; Vigna, Gustavo L.

    2007-01-01

    Zr-2.5 Nb alloy from CANDU pressure tubes are prone to failure by hydrogen intake. One of the degradation mechanisms is delayed hydride cracking, which is characterized by the velocity of cracking. In this work, we study the effect of beta zirconium phase transformation over delayed hydride cracking velocity in Zr-2.5 Nb alloy from pressure tubes. Acoustic emission technique was used for cracking detection. (author) [es

  18. The ecological rationality of delay tolerance: insights from capuchin monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addessi, Elsa; Paglieri, Fabio; Focaroli, Valentina

    2011-04-01

    Both human and non-human animals often face decisions between options available at different times, and the capacity of delaying gratification has usually been considered one of the features distinguishing humans from other animals. However, this characteristic can widely vary across individuals, species, and types of task and it is still unclear whether it is accounted for by phylogenetic relatedness, feeding ecology, social structure, or metabolic rate. To disentangle these hypotheses, we evaluated temporal preferences in capuchin monkeys, South-American primates that, despite splitting off from human lineage approximately 35 million years ago, show striking behavioural analogies with the great apes. Then, we compared capuchins' performance with that of the other primate species tested so far with the same procedure. Overall, capuchins showed a delay tolerance significantly higher than closely related species, such as marmosets and tamarins, and comparable to that shown by great apes. Capuchins' tool use abilities might explain their comparatively high preference for delayed options in inter-temporal choices. Moreover, as in humans, capuchin females showed a greater delay tolerance than males, possibly because of their less opportunistic foraging style. Thus, our results shed light on the evolutionary origins of self-control supporting explanations of delay tolerance in terms of feeding ecology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Visual search guidance is best after a short delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Joseph; Zelinsky, Gregory J

    2011-03-25

    Search displays are typically presented immediately after a target cue, but in the real-world, delays often exist between target designation and search. Experiments 1 and 2 asked how search guidance changes with delay. Targets were cued using a picture or text label, each for 3000ms, followed by a delay up to 9000ms before the search display. Search stimuli were realistic objects, and guidance was quantified using multiple eye movement measures. Text-based cues showed a non-significant trend towards greater guidance following any delay relative to a no-delay condition. However, guidance from a pictorial cue increased sharply 300-600ms after preview offset. Experiment 3 replicated this guidance enhancement using shorter preview durations while equating the time from cue onset to search onset, demonstrating that the guidance benefit is linked to preview offset rather than a more complete encoding of the target. Experiment 4 showed that enhanced guidance persists even with a mask flashed at preview offset, suggesting an explanation other than visual priming. We interpret our findings as evidence for the rapid consolidation of target information into a guiding representation, which attains its maximum effectiveness shortly after preview offset. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Delays in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in Coahuila, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, J; Calvillo, S; Caylà, J; Nedel, F B; Martín, M; Navarro, A

    2012-09-01

    To determine diagnostic delay in pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) cases and analyse associated factors. New PTB cases were studied in Coahuila, Northern Mexico, between 2008 and 2009. We obtained census data and data on residential address, symptoms and diagnosis from the national patient database; sociodemographic variables were obtained during home visits. Bivariate analyses used the Kaplan-Meier method; multivariate analysis consisted of modelling survival. We studied 458 subjects (median age 48 years), who were predominantly males (56.1%); the median years of schooling was 6.0 years, 83.4% were urban residents, 50.3% were unemployed, and 87.7% suffered from food poverty. The median delay between the onset of symptoms and the first medical consultation was 53.5 days. Lack of formal education (P = 0.050) and living ≥5 km from a health unit (P = 0.034) were associated with longer delays and consequently with severe symptoms (cough ≥2 weeks, P = 0.001; chest pain, P = 0.032; malnutrition, P = 0.003). Mean health system delay (between first consultation and smear test result) was 18.5 days, and was significantly longer when the first consultation was with a private physician (P < 0.001) and when patient age was ≥46 years (P = 0.001). In Coahuila, lack of formal education, living ≥5 km from a health unit, first consultation with a private physician, and being aged ≥46 years contributed to delays in PTB diagnosis.