WorldWideScience

Sample records for significant national measures

  1. Housing – nationally significant infrastructure?

    OpenAIRE

    Hickman, H.; While, A.

    2015-01-01

    Research report commissioned by law firm Bond Dickinson and Quod Planning to explore the potential role of the consenting regime for National Infrastructure Planning to deliver large scale housing schemes.

  2. Response to a spill of national significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, D.S.; Pond, R.; Johnson, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Responding to a spill of national significance (SONS), such as the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill, requires an augmenting organization to support the local response organization. The US Coast Guard has developed SONS protocol to be better prepared to respond to these infrequent catastrophic spills. A flag-level Coast Guard officer assumes the role of national incident commander (NIC) and federal on-scene coordinator (OSC), and is supported by a national incident task force (NITF). The major role of the NITF is to develop a national response strategy, acquire response resources and allocate them efficiently, and effectively deal with many peripheral national issues. Unified command concepts have been incorporated into the NITF and its primary organizational elements. In addition, frequent training and exercising is essential to keep the SONS protocol's preparedness at an acceptable level

  3. Significance of abolishing British National Oil Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabro, R

    1985-04-01

    The decision to abolish British National Oil Corporation has greater significance than any commentator, so far, has cared to admit. Mr. Mabro says the Government has done much more than get rid of an institution it had previously weakened and emasculated; in effect, it had abdicated its responsibilities for the pricing of North Sea oil. He further observes that these moves may be consistent with the tenets of a simplistic free-market ideology: they betray, however, a lack of understanding of the economics of oil, and of the UK economic interest in oil.

  4. Variation in performance measure criteria significantly affects cardiology practice rankings: Insights from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Zubin J; Tang, Fengming; Jones, Phil G; Maddox, Thomas M; Oetgen, William J; Spertus, John A; Rumsfeld, John S; Heidenreich, Paul A; Peterson, Eric D; Drozda, Joseph P

    2015-06-01

    Million Hearts is a national initiative to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes over 5 years by improving cardiovascular prevention. An important tool in the success of programs like Million Hearts is public ranking on the quality of practices, yet different measures may provide different rankings, so the true quality of practices is difficult to discern. We evaluated the quality of ambulatory cardiology care using performance measure metrics. We compared rankings of practices participating in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry's Practice Innovation and Clinical Excellence Registry using measures from (1) the physician quality reporting system and (2) the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement. We compared achievement rates for measures between the 2 frameworks and determined correlations in rankings using Spearman correlation coefficients. From January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012, there were 1,711,326 patients enrolled from 111 US practices. Among eligible patients, the physician quality reporting system and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement measures were achieved in 76.1% versus 77.4% for antiplatelet prescription (P performance and failing to achieve public health goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The significance of vector magnetic field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagyard, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Observations of four flaring solar active regions, obtained during 1980-1986 with the NASA Marshall vector magnetograph (Hagyard et al., 1982 and 1985), are presented graphically and characterized in detail, with reference to nearly simultaneous Big Bear Solar Observatory and USAF ASW H-alpha images. It is shown that the flares occurred where local photospheric magnetic fields differed most from the potential field, with initial brightening on either side of a magnetic-neutral line near the point of maximum angular shear (rather than that of maximum magnetic-field strength, typically 1 kG or greater). Particular emphasis is placed on the fact that these significant nonpotential features were detected only by measuring all three components of the vector magnetic field.

  6. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  7. Adults with an epilepsy history fare significantly worse on positive mental and physical health than adults with other common chronic conditions-Estimates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey and Patient Reported Outcome Measurement System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobau, Rosemarie; Cui, Wanjun; Zack, Matthew M

    2017-07-01

    Healthy People 2020, a national health promotion initiative, calls for increasing the proportion of U.S. adults who self-report good or better health. The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Global Health Scale (GHS) was identified as a reliable and valid set of items of self-reported physical and mental health to monitor these two domains across the decade. The purpose of this study was to examine the percentage of adults with an epilepsy history who met the Healthy People 2020 target for self-reported good or better health and to compare these percentages to adults with history of other common chronic conditions. Using the 2010 National Health Interview Survey, we compared and estimated the age-standardized prevalence of reporting good or better physical and mental health among adults with five selected chronic conditions including epilepsy, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and hypertension. We examined response patterns for physical and mental health scale among adults with these five conditions. The percentages of adults with epilepsy who reported good or better physical health (52%) or mental health (54%) were significantly below the Healthy People 2020 target estimate of 80% for both outcomes. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better physical health than adults with heart disease, cancer, or hypertension. Significantly smaller percentages of adults with an epilepsy history reported good or better mental health than adults with all other four conditions. Health and social service providers can implement and enhance existing evidence-based clinical interventions and public health programs and strategies shown to improve outcomes in epilepsy. These estimates can be used to assess improvements in the Healthy People 2020 Health-Related Quality of Life and Well-Being Objective throughout the decade. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Racin and the Significance of a National Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelina Banovic-Markovska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the text RACIN and the Significance of a National Culture I’ll speak further on Racin’s publications, namely, his political reflections, which apart from their notable social dimension also possess an explicitly national and moral dimension. Along those lines, I’ll see to a contextualization of the same, in the span of seventy years, as the world order had undergone momentous changes, not only in terms of political and ideological shifts, but rather through a change in the class-based and race-bound paradigms.This, in turn, allows me to draw a parallel between our Kosta Racin, a progressive people’s thinker, a revolutionary and a socialist, a poet and a journalist stemming from the realm of the old Yugoslavia, on the one hand, and the Franco-based existential humanist, the psychiatrist Frantz Fanon, the progenitor of the anticolonial movement in the countries of the Third World, on the other. Even though the parallel between Racin and Fanon may seem a bit far-fetched, the fact remains that both were involved with socially-centered,nationally-bound and revolutionary-focused questions, thus emphasizing, first and foremost, the significance of a national culture amidst the conditions of political, economic and spiritual enslavement.As proponents of socialist ideas and Marxist ideology, as revolutionaries and fighters for national and human rights who had experienced the turmoil of war, both men exhibited a higher consciousness when it came to matters related to the state of the national culture with the enslaved colonized peoples, with one difference in mind, namely, that in the case of Racin, the emphasis was placed on the class-related national aspect, whereas with Fanon, the emphasis was placed on the race-related national aspect.

  9. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruut Veenhoven

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Happiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and this can be measured using self-reports. Question on happiness are currently used in large scale surveys of the general population in nations. As a result we have now comparable data on happiness in 144 contemporary nations and time-series of 25 years and longer on 11 developed nations. These data can be aggregated in different ways: If the aim is simply greater happiness for a greater number of citizens, Average happiness (AH is an appropriate measure. If the focus is on enduring happiness, it is better to combine average happiness with longevity in an index of Happy Life Years (HLY. If the aim is to reduce disparity among citizens a relevant indicator is the Inequality of Happiness (IH in the nations as measured with the standard deviation. Average and dispersion can also be combined in an index of Inequality-Adjusted Happiness (IAH. Comparison across nations shows sizable differences on all these measures of gross national happiness and these differences correspond with societal characteristics that can be influenced by policy makers, such as freedom and justice. Comparison over time shows major improvement during the last decade.

  10. Measures of Gross National Happiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractHappiness is rising on the political agenda and this calls for measures of how well nations perform in creating great happiness for a great number, analogous to measures of success in creating wealth, such as GDP. Happiness is defined as subjective enjoyment of one’s life as-a-whole and

  11. National Emergency Preparedness and Response: Improving for Incidents of National Significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clayton, Christopher M

    2006-01-01

    The national emergency management system has need of significant improvement in its contingency planning and early consolidation of effort and coordination between federal, state, and local agencies...

  12. Ecological significance of some kenophytes in Lower Silesian national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Fabiszewski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of several years investigations (2003-2007 on two invaders: the Himalayans Impatiens glandulifera and Asiatic Reynoutria japonica. The Sudety Mountains and their national parks are under strong pressure of both species, threatening the local vegetation. The four-year investigations have been carried out in field, glasshouse and in laboratory. Invasive species have their peculiar life histories which help them to occupy new areas. Those are above all the specific generative reproduction strategies (Impatiens or vegetative reproduction strategies (Reynoutria. Both strategies secure the reproductive success and to capture more and more highly situated areas of the mountains. Very significant characteristics connected with the expansion of invaders is the excessively over and above the average production of seeds (Impatiens and a huge annual increment aboveground biomass (Reynoutria. The investigated invasive species are probably not equipped with influence of allelopatic type as of greater importance is their competitive strength. The invaders can eliminate a part of the early spring flora belonging to the geophyte group and impoverish the regional biological diversity. Both the invasive plants enter also into some moist mountain forest communities.

  13. Global conservation significance of Ecuador's Yasuní National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margot S Bass

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The threats facing Ecuador's Yasuní National Park are emblematic of those confronting the greater western Amazon, one of the world's last high-biodiversity wilderness areas. Notably, the country's second largest untapped oil reserves--called "ITT"--lie beneath an intact, remote section of the park. The conservation significance of Yasuní may weigh heavily in upcoming state-level and international decisions, including whether to develop the oil or invest in alternatives. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted the first comprehensive synthesis of biodiversity data for Yasuní. Mapping amphibian, bird, mammal, and plant distributions, we found eastern Ecuador and northern Peru to be the only regions in South America where species richness centers for all four taxonomic groups overlap. This quadruple richness center has only one viable strict protected area (IUCN levels I-IV: Yasuní. The park covers just 14% of the quadruple richness center's area, whereas active or proposed oil concessions cover 79%. Using field inventory data, we compared Yasuní's local (alpha and landscape (gamma diversity to other sites, in the western Amazon and globally. These analyses further suggest that Yasuní is among the most biodiverse places on Earth, with apparent world richness records for amphibians, reptiles, bats, and trees. Yasuní also protects a considerable number of threatened species and regional endemics. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Yasuní has outstanding global conservation significance due to its extraordinary biodiversity and potential to sustain this biodiversity in the long term because of its 1 large size and wilderness character, 2 intact large-vertebrate assemblage, 3 IUCN level-II protection status in a region lacking other strict protected areas, and 4 likelihood of maintaining wet, rainforest conditions while anticipated climate change-induced drought intensifies in the eastern Amazon. However, further oil development in

  14. The Hefer Commission: its significance for the South African national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Hefer Commission sat in late 2003 to look into allegations that the then South African Director of Public Prosecutions had been a spy for the apartheid government. These claims were widely seen as the product of internal power struggles within the ruling African National Congress (ANC) and this article looks at the role ...

  15. 40 CFR 300.323 - Spills of national significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... affected parties and the public, and coordinating federal, state, local, and international resources at the..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION... to assist the OSC in communicating with affected parties and the public and coordinating federal...

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of hepatic volume by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Yoshiro; Takada, Akira

    1984-01-01

    Hepatic volumes were measured by computed tomography (CT) in 91 patients with chronic liver diseases. Mean hepatic volume in alcoholic liver disease was significantly larger than that in non-alcoholic liver disease. Hepatic volumes in the majority of decompensated liver cirrhosis were significantly smaller than those of compensated liver cirrhosis. In liver cirrhosis, significant correlations between hepatic volume and various hepatic tests which reflect the total functioning hepatic cell masses were found. Combinations of hepatic volume with ICG maximum removal rate and with serum cholinesterase activity were most useful for the assessment of prognosis in liver cirrhosis. These results indicated that estimation of hepatic volume by CT is useful for analysis of pathophysiology and prognosis of chronic liver diseases, and for diagnosis of alcoholic liver diseases. (author)

  17. Measuring the wealth of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kirk; Dixon, John A

    2003-01-01

    The sustainability of development is closely linked to changes in total per capita wealth. This paper presents estimates of the wealth of nations for nearly 100 countries, broken down into produced assets, natural resources and human resources. While the latter is the dominant form of wealth in virtually all countries, in low income natural resource exporters the share of natural resources in total wealth is equal to the share of produced assets. For low income countries in general, cropland forms the vast majority of natural wealth. The analysis suggests the process of development can be viewed as one of portfolio management: sustainable development entails saving the rents from exhaustible resources, managing renewable resources sustainably, and investing savings in both produced assets and human resources.

  18. Hygienic significance of radiostability as measures of adaptive feasibilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudritskij, Yu.K.

    1987-01-01

    An attempt is made to substantiate hygienic significance of radiostability analysis as measures of adaptive feasibilities variation under the low dose ionizing radiation effect (IR). Examples of this substantiation are presented. Not only biological radiation effects but social adaptivity problems may be analysed. With more information adaptive feasibilities of human body to radiation factor are extended, its radiostability increases. Analysis of the state of adaptive feasibilities and their development estimation are vital problems of radiation hygiene, the basis for regulation and normalization of radiation factor

  19. 77 FR 42617 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Significant Transnational Criminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ...--Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Transnational Criminal Organizations #0; #0..., 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Significant Transnational Criminal... threat to the national security, foreign policy, and economy of the United States constituted by the...

  20. Alternative Measure of Wellbeing: Bhutan's Gross National ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    There is growing demand for innovative yet rigorous measures of national wellbeing beyond gross domestic product. In 2008, the Centre for Bhutan Studies - Bhutan's main policy research centre - posted data from a preliminary survey of the country's Gross National Happiness (GNH). The Centre for Bhutan Studies ...

  1. Automaticity of walking: functional significance, mechanisms, measurement and rehabilitation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Clark

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Automaticity is a hallmark feature of walking in adults who are healthy and well-functioning. In the context of walking, ‘automaticity’ refers to the ability of the nervous system to successfully control typical steady state walking with minimal use of attention-demanding executive control resources. Converging lines of evidence indicate that walking deficits and disorders are characterized in part by a shift in the locomotor control strategy from healthy automaticity to compensatory executive control. This is potentially detrimental to walking performance, as an executive control strategy is not optimized for locomotor control. Furthermore, it places excessive demands on a limited pool of executive reserves. The result is compromised ability to perform basic and complex walking tasks and heightened risk for adverse mobility outcomes including falls. Strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity are not well defined, which is due to both a lack of systematic research into the causes of impaired automaticity and to a lack of robust neurophysiological assessments by which to gauge automaticity. These gaps in knowledge are concerning given the serious functional implications of compromised automaticity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to advance the science of automaticity of walking by consolidating evidence and identifying gaps in knowledge regarding: a functional significance of automaticity; b neurophysiology of automaticity; c measurement of automaticity; d mechanistic factors that compromise automaticity; and e strategies for rehabilitation of automaticity.

  2. A healthy lifestyle composite measure: Significance and potential uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Mary L; Katz, David L; Shenson, Douglas

    2016-03-01

    Our objective was to create and explore potential uses of a composite "Healthy Lifestyle" measure based on Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) Objectives for behaviors shown to be associated with morbidity and mortality. Data were from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (N=412,942) on five modifiable behaviors with HP2020 Objectives (leisure time exercise, eating fruits and vegetables 5 or more times/day, getting ≥7h of sleep/24h, not smoking and not drinking excessively). These indicators were combined to form an all-or-none composite Healthy Lifestyle (HLS) measure. Associations between the HLS measure and demographic and other measures, plus details of component measures, were reported. Results indicated that only 7.7% of adults reported a HLS with wide variation among states and demographic groups. Both unadjusted and logistic regression results found associations between a HLS and better health, lower rates of chronic disease and better access to health care. Over one fourth of all respondents (28.0%) needed to only improve fruit and vegetable consumption to be practicing a HLS. In conclusion, few adults were practicing five behaviors that are generally recognized as healthy. All-or-none metrics like this HLS measure offer a fresh perspective on modifiable behaviors and the need for improvement. Examination of measure components can help explain demographic differences and identify strategies for improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Measurement and determinants of environmentally significant consumer behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatersleben, B.C.M.; Steg, L.; Vlek, C.A.J.

    Measures of proenvironmental behavior in psychological studies do not always reflect the actual environmental impact of a person or household. Therefore, the results of these studies provide little insight into variables that could be helpful in reducing household environmental impact. In this

  5. Measurement of reflectance of coal macerals: its automation and significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, A.

    1978-06-01

    A prime objective of the Pennsylvania State University's DOE program is the characterization of 1,300 samples of U.S. coals. Reflectance determination plays a major role in meeting this objective, because it is used as an accurate rank index both to select coals for testing and to investigate property-behavior interrelationships using the Penn State/DOE Coal Data Base. Reflectances of coal macerals are related to their refractive and absorptive indices by the Beer equation; the refractive index of the medium and the wavelength of light need to be specified. Determinations usually are made in immersion oil at 546 nm. Properties of vitrinite make it the most suitable maceral for these measurements, but the variety of vitrinite selected may depend upon the intended application. Vitrinite reflectance is considered to be dependent upon the degree of aromatization of its structural units. Although some of the earlier investigators believed that the reflectance of coals increased in a discontinuous, stepped manner as their rank increased, the bulk of assembled data suggests that the change is continuous. Some recent results indicate that there may be more than one coalification track for coals with different geological histories, resulting in displacement from the general trend. Several techniques have been employed to determine the optical properties of coal constituents. Usual comparative method involves the use of a microscope photometer to compare the intensity of light reflected by particles within a polished pellet of coal to that of a glass or synthetic mineral standard. Because coal is anisotropic it is common to measure either maximum reflectance in polarized light or random reflectance in non-polarized light. Various eqipment modifications and accessories have been used to improve the ease of measuring maximum reflectance.

  6. Significance of prevertebral soft tissue measurement in cervical spine injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Liyang E-mail: lydai@etang.com

    2004-07-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling in cervical spine injuries. Materials and methods: A group of 107 consecutive patients with suspected injuries of the cervical vertebrae were reviewed retrospectively to identify the presence of prevertebral soft tissue swelling and to investigate the association of prevertebral soft tissue swelling with the types and degrees of cervical spine injuries. Results: Prevertebral soft tissue swelling occurred in 47 (43.9%) patients. Of the 47 patients, 38 were found with bony injury and nine were without. The statistic difference was significant (P<0.05). No correlation was demonstrated between soft tissue swelling and either the injured level of the cervical vertebrae or the degree of the spinal cord injury (P>0.05). Anterior element injuries in the cervical vertebrae had widening of the prevertebral soft tissue more than posterior element injuries (P<0.05). Conclusion: The diagnostic value of prevertebral soft tissue swelling for cervical spine injuries is significant, but the absence of this sign does not mean that further image evaluation can be spared.

  7. National network of radioactivity measurement in environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document constitutes the report of management for the year 2006 of the national network of measurement of radioactivity in environment, instituted by the article R.1333-11 of the Public Health code. According to the 5. of the decree of 27. june 2005, the Institute of radiation protection and nuclear safety (I.R.S.N.) has for mission to write every year a report of management of the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment. This report has for principal objectives: to do an evaluation on organisation and functioning of the piloting committee; to realize a synthesis on the different tasks lead by the working groups; as well as on the human and financial resources devoted to this project; to debrief on the development project of the national network information system. This report must allow to the network actors, as to the professional people and the public, to understand the functioning of the national network and the process implemented for the development of centralization, management and public diffusion tools, of the radioactivity data in environment. The year 2006 was marked by the opening of an Internet gate of the national network. (N.C.)

  8. 77 FR 64221 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-19

    ... extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm such actions cause in the United States and abroad..., corruption, and harm in the United States and abroad, the national emergency declared on October 21, 1995, and the measures adopted pursuant thereto to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect beyond...

  9. 76 FR 65353 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect To Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ... extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm such actions cause in the United States and abroad..., corruption, and harm in the United States and abroad, the national emergency declared on October 21, 1995, and the measures adopted pursuant thereto to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect beyond...

  10. What Constitutes 'Failure to Notify' National Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2013-01-01

    “The inclusion of article 260(3) TFEU adopted as part of the Lisbon Treaty changed the landscape of infringement proceedings. The provision grants the Commission the power to propose monetary sanctions already during the initial Court litigation against a Member State that ‘failed to notify......’ national measures transposing a directive. This article analyses the concept of ‘failure to notify’ and points out that the current interpretation adopted by the Commission is only one of several possible interpretations. The author concludes that article 260(3) TFEU as it stands now is vaguely drafted...

  11. Examining National Trends in Educational Placements for Students with Significant Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morningstar, Mary E.; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Johnson, Paul E.

    2017-01-01

    Using the least restrictive environments (LRE) data from annual "Reports to Congress," this study examined national trends in placement between 2000 and 2014 for school-aged students considered to have significant disabilities from among the categories of autism (ASD), intellectual disability (ID), multiple disabilities (MD), and…

  12. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  13. Australasian disasters of national significance: an epidemiological analysis, 1900-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradt, David A; Bartley, Bruce; Hibble, Belinda A; Varshney, Kavita

    2015-04-01

    A regional epidemiological analysis of Australasian disasters in the 20th century to present was undertaken to examine trends in disaster epidemiology; to characterise the impacts on civil society through disaster policy, practice and legislation; and to consider future potential limitations in national disaster resilience. A surveillance definition of disaster was developed conforming to the Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) criteria (≥10 deaths, ≥100 affected, or declaration of state emergency or appeal for international assistance). The authors then applied economic and legislative inclusion criteria to identify additional disasters of national significance. The surveillance definition yielded 165 disasters in the period, from which 65 emerged as disasters of national significance. There were 38 natural disasters, 22 technological disasters, three offshore terrorist attacks and two domestic mass shootings. Geographic analysis revealed that states with major population centres experienced the vast majority of disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis revealed an increasing incidence of disasters since the 1980s, which peaked in the period 2005-2009. Recent seasonal bushfires and floods have incurred the highest death toll and economic losses in Australasian history. Reactive hazard-specific legislation emerged after all terrorist acts and after most disasters of national significance. Timeline analysis reveals an increasing incidence in natural disasters over the past 15 years, with the most lethal and costly disasters occurring in the past 3 years. Vulnerability to disaster in Australasia appears to be increasing. Reactive legislation is a recurrent feature of Australasian disaster response that suggests legislative shortsightedness and a need for comprehensive all-hazards model legislation in the future. © 2015 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  14. Significance of the institute of appeals under the conditions of increasing threats to national security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kapulovskyi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the regulatory and scientific foundation for the development of the institute of citizens’ treatments in terms of obvious internal and external threats to national security. An attempt to construct an applicable model of management of public processes in terms of threats to national security, in which public opinion plays a key value. The fact that a successful resolution of problem of public participation in the preparation and acceptance of political decisions requires not only the presence of the constitutionally enshrined rights and duties and political institutions formed democratically, but also a variety of forms and ways of influencing in the activities of public authorities. At the same time, in a not declared, the so-called »hybrid» war, in which warfare are conducted locally - in some parts of the state and all other public and private institutions function in usual mode, tracking of possible threats to national security and factors that give rise to such threats should be carried out by means of both cleanly military, and civil means and methods. Thus, one of the most effective civil means of tracking such threats are the reception of citizens’ treatments, their processing and the adoption of appropriate response measures, in my opinion. Keywords: national security, public safety, human rights, public authorities, public interest.

  15. Measuring National Power in the Postindustrial Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tellis, Ashley

    2000-01-01

    The Office of Deputy Chief of Staff for Intelligence (ODCSINT), U.S. Army, tasked RAND's Arroyo Center to examine how national power ought to be understood in the context of the technical and social changes taking place today...

  16. Exterior sound level measurements of snowcoaches at Yellowstone National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Sounds associated with oversnow vehicles, such as snowmobiles and snowcoaches, are an important management concern at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. The John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Centers Environmental Measurement a...

  17. 76 FR 28121 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “National Geographic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Determinations: ``National Geographic Treasures of the Earth'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... objects to be included in the exhibition ``National Geographic Treasures of the Earth'' imported from... exceed six years from June 11, 2011), is in the national interest. The Museum understands that...

  18. THE MARKET VALUE OF THE REAL ESTATE IN A SIGNIFICANT DEVALUATION OF THE NATIONAL CURRENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VORONIN V. A.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. The current state of the real estate market is characterized by high inflation and a significant devaluation of national currency. In markets with mixed prices impact of devaluation and inflation against the foreign currency have most complex nature and usually leads to slower growth in prices in local currency and partial de-dollarization of the market. Provided that the value of the real estate market is denominated in local and foreign currency, it is necessary to solve the problem of correspondence between these prices. With this condition must be satisfied that the market prices in local currency correspond to the state of the real estate market on the valuation date. Purpose. Development of the method, which should take into account the particular valuation procedures in determining the market value of the local currency in terms of the existence of high inflation and a significant devaluation. The study of this problem, especially for the markets of emerging economics, is an urgent and important task of applied economic analysis and, in particular, the theory and practice of evaluation as part of this analysis. Conclusion. To achieve this goal have been developed and used techniques and methods of applied economic analysis and, in particular, the theory and practice of evaluation as part of this analysis. Satisfactory agreement obtained values and the market rent rate, which are responsible of the real estate market in a significant devaluation of local currency, confirm the position that the correction in market conditions ("discount on the offer price" and "market conditions" must be done in determining the market value so and the market rent rate.

  19. Measuring and exposures from National Media Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Stendahl

    2000-01-01

    Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media ...... surveys themselves that might invalidate or give unreliable measures, both when measuring a single exposure and accumulated exposures. Four media types will be discussed: TV, radio, print and the internet.......Natinal media surveys inform about the number and kind of people being exposed to the media in question. This paper discusses to what extent these numbers may be used as measures for the exposure to ads in the media in question. In this context attention is also focussed on elements in the media...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Colombia, and the extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm such actions cause in the United States... level of violence, corruption, and harm in the United States and abroad, the national emergency declared... continue in effect beyond October 21, 2009. Therefore, in accordance with section 202(d) of the National...

  1. Developing a national programme of flood risk management measures: Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramsbottom David

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A Technical Assistance project funded by the European Investment Bank has been undertaken to develop a programme of flood risk management measures for Moldova that will address the main shortcomings in the present flood management system, and provide the basis for long-term improvement. Areas of significant flood risk were identified using national hydraulic and flood risk modelling, and flood hazard and flood risk maps were then prepared for these high risk areas. The flood risk was calculated using 12 indicators representing social, economic and environmental impacts of flooding. Indicator values were combined to provide overall estimates of flood risk. Strategic approaches to flood risk management were identified for each river basin using a multi-criteria analysis. Measures were then identified to achieve the strategic approaches. A programme of measures covering a 20-year period was developed together with a more detailed Short-Term Investment Plan covering the first seven years of the programme. Arrangements are now being made to implement the programme. The technical achievements of the project included national hydrological and hydraulic modelling covering 12,000 km of river, the development of 2-dimensional channel and floodplain hydraulic models from a range of topographic and bathymetric data, and an integrated flood risk assessment that takes account of both economic and non-monetary impacts.

  2. Measuring intellectual capital of national economies

    OpenAIRE

    Rađenović, Tamara; Krstić, Bojan

    2017-01-01

    The importance of intellectual capital for creating and sustaining competitive advantage of firms has been well established and confirmed in theory and practice. Intellectual resources proved to be the most valuable resources in the process of value creation for various stakeholders. Starting from 1980s onwards, both researchers and practitioners have focused on finding the best solution for measuring intellectual capital in order to enable efficient management and reporting on intellectual c...

  3. 77 FR 25226 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Wealth of a Nation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7860] Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Wealth of a Nation: British Silver From the Museum's Collection'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... object to be included in the exhibition ``The Wealth of a Nation: British Silver from the Museum's...

  4. Significance of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED). Chikyu summit no igi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T [Ministry of Construction, Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-10-01

    On the significance of UNCED, the background, the results of the conference and the reflection to the construction administration were described. The causes of global environmental problems such as the global warming, the ozone layer destruction and the decrease of forests can mainly be classified into 3. These are the problem of socio-economic activities of advanced countries such as mass production, mass consumption and mass dumping, the problem originating from the poverty in developing countries and the problem originating from the interests between advanced countries and developing countries. The main results in the UNCED were as follows: the signature to the two conventions as to the climate change and the biological diversity, the statement as to the principle for forests, the Rio Declaration which should be said to be the world constitution concerning the environment and development, and the adoption of the Agenda 21 of the draft which summarized the policies and measures. The Agenda 21 includes the fund, the technology transfer and the organization problems. In order to reflect these problems to the construction administration, it is necessary to promote the energy policy, the establishment of efficient traffic system, the effective land utilization, the appropriate management of river spaces, the urban policy and the recycling of resources.

  5. Measuring individual significant change on the Beck Depression Inventory-II through IRT-based statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.; Meijer, R.R.; Zevalkink, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Several researchers have emphasized that item response theory (IRT)-based methods should be preferred over classical approaches in measuring change for individual patients. In the present study we discuss and evaluate the use of IRT-based statistics to measure statistical significant individual

  6. Significant others and the importance of ancestry for Czech national identity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plecitá, Klára

    (2018) ISSN 1460-8944 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12023 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : national identity * ancestry * immigration Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography OBOR OECD: Sociology http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/14608944.2017.1362378

  7. Codon Deviation Coefficient: A novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang

    2012-03-22

    Background: Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB). Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis.Results: Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC)--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance.Conclusions: As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions. 2012 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  8. Codon Deviation Coefficient: a novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic mutation, selective pressure for translational efficiency and accuracy, level of gene expression, and protein function through natural selection are all believed to lead to codon usage bias (CUB. Therefore, informative measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have not statistically evaluated the significance of CUB in sequence analysis. Results Here we propose a novel measure--Codon Deviation Coefficient (CDC--that provides an informative measurement of CUB and its statistical significance without requiring any prior knowledge. Unlike previous measures, CDC estimates CUB by accounting for background nucleotide compositions tailored to codon positions and adopts the bootstrapping to assess the statistical significance of CUB for any given sequence. We evaluate CDC by examining its effectiveness on simulated sequences and empirical data and show that CDC outperforms extant measures by achieving a more informative estimation of CUB and its statistical significance. Conclusions As validated by both simulated and empirical data, CDC provides a highly informative quantification of CUB and its statistical significance, useful for determining comparative magnitudes and patterns of biased codon usage for genes or genomes with diverse sequence compositions.

  9. The National Landscape Conservation System: A model for long term conservation of significant landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Harmon; Jeff Jarvis

    2011-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management administers over 256 million surface acres, more than any other U.S. public agency, the vast majority of which is in the western half of the United States. A land protection system was initiated in 1970 with the creation of the King Range National Conservation Area. In 1976, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (http://www.blm.gov/...

  10. National comparison on volume sample activity measurement methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, M.; Grigorescu, E.L.; Popescu, C.; Razdolescu, C.

    1992-01-01

    A national comparison on volume sample activity measurements methods may be regarded as a step toward accomplishing the traceability of the environmental and food chain activity measurements to national standards. For this purpose, the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory has distributed 137 Cs and 134 Cs water-equivalent solid standard sources to 24 laboratories having responsibilities in this matter. Every laboratory has to measure the activity of the received source(s) by using its own standards, equipment and methods and report the obtained results to the organizer. The 'measured activities' will be compared with the 'true activities'. A final report will be issued, which plans to evaluate the national level of precision of such measurements and give some suggestions for improvement. (Author)

  11. How to measure renal artery stenosis - a retrospective comparison of morphological measurement approaches in relation to hemodynamic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Malin; Jägervall, Karl; Eriksson, Per; Persson, Anders; Granerus, Göran; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Örjan

    2015-01-01

    Although it is well known that renal artery stenosis may cause renovascular hypertension, it is unclear how the degree of stenosis should best be measured in morphological images. The aim of this study was to determine which morphological measures from Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) and Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) are best in predicting whether a renal artery stenosis is hemodynamically significant or not. Forty-seven patients with hypertension and a clinical suspicion of renovascular hypertension were examined with CTA, MRA, captopril-enhanced renography (CER) and captopril test (Ctest). CTA and MRA images of the renal arteries were analyzed by two readers using interactive vessel segmentation software. The measures included minimum diameter, minimum area, diameter reduction and area reduction. In addition, two radiologists visually judged the diameter reduction without automated segmentation. The results were then compared using limits of agreement and intra-class correlation, and correlated with the results from CER combined with Ctest (which were used as standard of reference) using receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. A total of 68 kidneys had all three investigations (CTA, MRA and CER + Ctest), where 11 kidneys (16.2 %) got a positive result on the CER + Ctest. The greatest area under ROC curve (AUROC) was found for the area reduction on MRA, with a value of 0.91 (95 % confidence interval 0.82–0.99), excluding accessory renal arteries. As comparison, the AUROC for the radiologists’ visual assessments on CTA and MRA were 0.90 (0.82–0.98) and 0.91 (0.83–0.99) respectively. None of the differences were statistically significant. No significant differences were found between the morphological measures in their ability to predict hemodynamically significant stenosis, but a tendency of MRA having higher AUROC than CTA. There was no significant difference between measurements made by the radiologists and measurements made with

  12. National network of environment radioactivity measurements. Press kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document first presents the objectives, challenges, context, operation and actors of the French national network of environment radioactivity measurements. It discusses the reasons for these measurements, the way they are performed, who perform them and how they are transmitted to the national network. It describes the quality policy for these measurements, and how this network is at the service of authorities, experts and population. It outlines the originality of the French approach within the European Union, and how this network takes the population expectations and their evolution into account

  13. Reproducibility of Dynamic Computed Tomography Brain Perfusion Measurements in Patients with Significant Carotid Artery Stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafin, Z.; Kotarski, M.; Karolkiewicz, M.; Mindykowski, R.; Lasek, W.; Molski, S.; Gajdzinska, M.; Nowak-Nowacka, A. (Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, and Dept. of General and Vascular Surgery, Nicolaus Copernicus Univ., Collegium Medicum, Bydgoszcz (Poland))

    2009-02-15

    Background: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) determination is a minimally invasive and widely available technique for brain blood flow assessment, but its application may be restricted by large variation of results. Purpose: To determine the intraobserver, interobserver, and inter examination variability of brain PCT absolute measurements in patients with significant carotid artery stenosis (CAS), and to evaluate the effect of the use of relative perfusion values on PCT reproducibility. Material and Methods: PCT imaging was completed in 61 patients before endarterectomy, and in 38 of these within 4 weeks after treatment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), and peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were calculated with the maximum slope method. Inter examination variability was evaluated based on perfusion of hemisphere contralateral to the treated CAS, from repeated examinations. Interobserver and intraobserver variability were established for the untreated side, based on pretreatment examination. Results: Interobserver and intraobserver variability were highest for CBF measurement (28.8% and 32.5%, respectively), and inter examination variability was the highest for CBV (24.1%). Intraobserver and interobserver variability were higher for absolute perfusion values compared with their respective ratios for CBF and TTP. The only statistically significant difference between perfusion values measured by two observers was for CBF (mean 78.3 vs. 67.5 ml/100 g/min). The inter examination variability of TTP (12.1%) was significantly lower than the variability of other absolute perfusion measures, and the inter examination variability of ratios was significantly lower than absolute values for all the parameters. Conclusion: In longitudinal studies of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia, PCT ratios and either TTP or CBV are more suitable measures than absolute CBF values, because of their considerably lower inter- and intraobserver

  14. Reproducibility of Dynamic Computed Tomography Brain Perfusion Measurements in Patients with Significant Carotid Artery Stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serafin, Z.; Kotarski, M.; Karolkiewicz, M.; Mindykowski, R.; Lasek, W.; Molski, S.; Gajdzinska, M.; Nowak-Nowacka, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) determination is a minimally invasive and widely available technique for brain blood flow assessment, but its application may be restricted by large variation of results. Purpose: To determine the intraobserver, interobserver, and inter examination variability of brain PCT absolute measurements in patients with significant carotid artery stenosis (CAS), and to evaluate the effect of the use of relative perfusion values on PCT reproducibility. Material and Methods: PCT imaging was completed in 61 patients before endarterectomy, and in 38 of these within 4 weeks after treatment. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), time to peak (TTP), and peak enhancement intensity (PEI) were calculated with the maximum slope method. Inter examination variability was evaluated based on perfusion of hemisphere contralateral to the treated CAS, from repeated examinations. Interobserver and intraobserver variability were established for the untreated side, based on pretreatment examination. Results: Interobserver and intraobserver variability were highest for CBF measurement (28.8% and 32.5%, respectively), and inter examination variability was the highest for CBV (24.1%). Intraobserver and interobserver variability were higher for absolute perfusion values compared with their respective ratios for CBF and TTP. The only statistically significant difference between perfusion values measured by two observers was for CBF (mean 78.3 vs. 67.5 ml/100 g/min). The inter examination variability of TTP (12.1%) was significantly lower than the variability of other absolute perfusion measures, and the inter examination variability of ratios was significantly lower than absolute values for all the parameters. Conclusion: In longitudinal studies of patients with chronic cerebral ischemia, PCT ratios and either TTP or CBV are more suitable measures than absolute CBF values, because of their considerably lower inter- and intraobserver

  15. Liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system for significant inflammation related to chronic hepatitis B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Zhu Hong

    Full Text Available Liver biopsy is indispensable because liver stiffness measurement alone cannot provide information on intrahepatic inflammation. However, the presence of fibrosis highly correlates with inflammation. We constructed a noninvasive model to determine significant inflammation in chronic hepatitis B patients by using liver stiffness measurement and serum markers.The training set included chronic hepatitis B patients (n = 327, and the validation set included 106 patients; liver biopsies were performed, liver histology was scored, and serum markers were investigated. All patients underwent liver stiffness measurement.An inflammation activity scoring system for significant inflammation was constructed. In the training set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.964, 91.9%, and 90.8% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.978, 85.0%, and 94.0% in the HBeAg(- patients, respectively. In the validation set, the area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity of the fibrosis-based activity score were 0.971, 90.5%, and 92.5% in the HBeAg(+ patients and 0.977, 95.2%, and 95.8% in the HBeAg(- patients. The liver stiffness measurement-based activity score was comparable to that of the fibrosis-based activity score in both HBeAg(+ and HBeAg(- patients for recognizing significant inflammation (G ≥3.Significant inflammation can be accurately predicted by this novel method. The liver stiffness measurement-based scoring system can be used without the aid of computers and provides a noninvasive alternative for the prediction of chronic hepatitis B-related significant inflammation.

  16. 75 FR 64107 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Significant Narcotics Traffickers Centered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ..., corruption, and harm such actions cause in the United States and abroad. Because the actions of significant... economy of the United States and cause an extreme level of violence, corruption, and harm in the United... thereto to deal with that emergency, must continue in effect beyond October 21, 2010. Therefore, in...

  17. Radiotherapy services in countries in transition: gross national income per capita as a significant factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Victor; Tatsuzaki, Hideo

    2002-01-01

    Background and purpose: The acquisition of radiotherapy by countries in transition (CITs) is an evolutionary process from having no resources whatsoever, to meeting the standards adopted by well-developed countries. The influence of the economic ability of a country to acquire and sustain this technology has intuitively been accepted as a major factor but has not before been subjected to analysis for a large group of countries. This information has been analysed to provide guidance to countries commencing and expanding radiotherapy services. Material and methods: The number of linear accelerators and 60 Co megavoltage teletherapy machines in 72 CITs, those with gross national income per capita (GNI/cap) $12000 pa were expressed as machines per million population (MEV/mil) and used as an index of the ability of the country to provide a service. This figure was related to GNI/cap. The average populations of 24 further countries without radiotherapy were compared with 21 countries with radiotherapy facilities having the same range of GNI/cap. Results: The relationship log 10 MEV/mil=-2.90+0.85 log 10 GNI/cap was identified between the machines and income. Also verified was that small low income countries were less likely to have the technology than those with large populations. Conclusions: The increase in the number of teletherapy machines is closely linked to the GNI/cap of a country. Our sample of well developed countries failed to demonstrate a levelling off of equipment acquisition with income. In the lower income group, smaller countries were less likely to have radiotherapy services than those with large populations

  18. Measured dose to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields and determination of genetically significant dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niroomand-Rad, A.; Cumberlin, R.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the genetically significant dose from therapeutic radiation exposure with Hodgkin's fields by estimating the doses to ovaries and testes. Phantom measurements were performed to verify estimated doses to ovaries and testes from Hodgkin's fields. Thermoluminescent LiF dosimeters (TLD-100) of 1 x 3 x 3 mm 3 dimensions were embedded in phantoms and exposed to standard mantle and paraaortic fields using Co-60, 4 MV, 6 MV, and 10 MV photon beams. The results show that measured doses to ovaries and testes are about two to five times higher than the corresponding graphically estimated doses for Co-60 and 4 MVX photon beams as depicted in ICRP publication 44. In addition, the measured doses to ovaries and testes are about 30% to 65% lower for 10 MV photon beams than for their corresponding Co-60 photon beams. The genetically significant dose from Hodgkin's treatment (less than 0.01 mSv) adds about 4% to the genetically significant dose contribution to medical procedures and adds less than 1% to the genetically significant dose from all sources. Therefore, the consequence to society is considered to be very small. The consequences for the individual patient are, likewise, small. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Development of the National Transplant Program Has Significantly Decreased but Not Ended Transplant Tourism in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratkovic, M; Basic Jukic, N; Kastelan, Z; Radunovic, D; Kavaric, P; Brezak, J; Topalovic Grkovic, M; Hudolin, T; Prelevic, V

    2018-06-01

    Organ transplantation has prolonged and improved the lives of many patients around the world. However, a widespread shortage of donors remains the main factor that has led to organ trafficking and transplant tourism. To stop transplant tourism and to provide optimal treatment for its citizens with end-stage renal disease, Montenegro started performing renal transplantations in September 2012. Thirty-five transplantations have been performed since that time, 34 from living donors and only 1 from a deceased donor. This practice has significantly decreased but not ended transplant tourism in Montenegro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing dependency using self-report and indirect measures: examining the significance of discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogswell, Alex; Alloy, Lauren B; Karpinski, Andrew; Grant, David A

    2010-07-01

    The present study addressed convergence between self-report and indirect approaches to assessing dependency. We were moderately successful in validating an implicit measure, which was found to be reliable, orthogonal to 2 self-report instruments, and predictive of external criteria. This study also examined discrepancies between scores on self-report and implicit measures, and has implications for their significance. The possibility that discrepancies themselves are pathological was not supported, although discrepancies were associated with particular personality profiles. Finally, this study offered additional evidence for the relation between dependency and depressive symptomatology and identified implicit dependency as contributing unique variance in predicting past major depression.

  1. Significancy in atomic mass measurements and the topography of the mass-surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audi, G.

    1991-01-01

    It is discussed how to explore new regions of the chart of the nuclides through masses, and what has to be understood under significant mass measurements. In the exploratory phase of a new region of the chart, a result with almost any accuracy is appropriate. The higher the accuracy is, the better the possibility is to see finer structures. (G.P.) 24 refs.; 10 figs

  2. The French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaunet, P.

    2010-01-01

    After Chernobyl accident in 1986, the government began to implement mechanisms to ensure the quality of measurements of environmental radioactivity and to assure the transparency of information on environmental radioactivity monitoring results. Within this context, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity (RNM), is created in 2002 under the Public Health Code. This network is developed under the auspices of ASN in collaboration with IRSN and in partnership with government departments, major nuclear licensees, health agencies and environmental protection associations. In order to centralize information on environmental radioactivity and to provide access to measurement results, a single database that includes an the results of measurements of radioactivity in the environment on the national territory is build and a new web-site www.mesure-radioactivite.fr is launched. It provides quick and easy access to this database. The quality of measurements is performed by a laboratory system through an ASN decision. Novel initiative in Europe, the French National Network for the Measurement of Environmental Radioactivity web-site gives the user keys to understand the measurement results on the radiological state of the environment. The site will be improved over the time taking into account the feedback of the users. (author)

  3. Suitability of foramen magnum measurements in sex determination and their clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellioglu, A Metin; Durum, Y; Gok, M; Karakas, S; Polat, A G; Karaman, C Z

    2018-01-01

    The foramen magnum provides a transition between fossa cranii posterior and canalis vertebralis. Medulla oblongata, arteria vertebralis and nervus accessorius spinal part pass through the foramen magnum. In this study, we aimed to make the morphometric measurements of the foramen magnum on computed tomography (CT) and to determine the feasibility of sex determination based on these measurements. Besides sex determination, from a clinical aspect, it is important to know the measurements of the foramen magnum in the normal population in terms of diseases characterised by displacement of the posterior fossa structures through foramen magnum to upper cervical spinal canal such as Chiari malformations and syringomyelia. All the data for our study was obtained retrospectively from 100 patients (50 males, 50 females) who had a CT scan of the head and neck region in Adnan Menderes University Hospital, Department of Radiology. To examine the foramen magnum in each and every occipital bone, we measured the foramen magnum's anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter, the area of the foramen magnum and its circumference. We found that men have a higher average value than women in our study. According to Student's t-test results; in all measured parameters, there is significant difference between the genders (p discriminant function test is performed for all four measurements, the discrimination rate is 64% for all women, 70% for all men and 67% for both genders. As a result of our study, the metric data we obtained will be useful in cases where the skeletons' sex could not be determined by any other methods. We believe that, our study may be useful for other studies in determining of sex from foramen magnum. Our measurements could give some information of the normal ranges of the foramen magnum in normal population, so that this can contribute to the diagnosis process of some diseases by imaging. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 99-104).

  4. In-process hold-up as a measure of safeguards significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlin, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines the use of the in-process hold-up itself, as a measure of safeguards significance. It is argued that for any process plant it is possible to define design limits for in-process hold-up, outside which the plant will not operate, or will operate in a detectably abnormal manner. It follows, therefore, that if the in-process hold-up can be derived at frequent intervals by input/output analysis from the start of the campaign, the only diversion that can be made from it during that campaign is limited to the quantity necessary to move the apparent in-process hold-up from its normal operating condition to the upper limiting condition. It also follows that detection of this diversion is as positive for protracted diversion as for abrupt diversion. If that part of the in-process inventory that is only measurable by input/output analysis has an upper operating limit that differs from its normal operating limit by less than a significant safeguards quantity of the material in question, the IAEA's criteria for both quantity and timeliness can be met by a combination of input/output analysis to determine in-process hold-up during the campaign, together with a material balance over the campaign. The paper examines the possibility of applying this measure to process plants in general, discusses means of minimizing the in-process inventory that must be determined by input/output analysis, and the performance required of the input and output analysis. It concludes that with current precision of measurement and with one input and one output batch per day, each measured, the method would be satisfactory for a campaign lasting nearly a year and involving 6 tonnes of plutonium. The paper examines the considerable advantages in verification that would arise from limiting safeguards analyses to the two points of input and output. (author)

  5. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald E. Bell and Russell Feder

    2010-06-04

    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  6. Measurement of Poloidal Velocity on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Ronald E.; Feder, Russell

    2010-01-01

    A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure impurity poloidal flow using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. Toroidal and poloidal viewing systems measure all quantities required to determine the radial electric field. Two sets of up/down symmetric poloidal views are used to measure both active emission in the plane of the neutral heating beams and background emission in a radial plane away from the neutral beams. Differential velocity measurements isolate the line-integrated poloidal velocity from apparent flows due to the energy-dependent chargeexchange cross section. Six f/1.8 spectrometers measure 276 spectra to obtain 75 active and 63 background channels every 10 ms. Local measurements from a similar midplane toroidal viewing system are mapped into two dimensions to allow the inversion of poloidal line-integrated measurements to obtain local poloidal velocity profiles. Radial resolution after inversion is 0.6-1.8 cm from the plasma edge to the center.

  7. Measurement of acetabular morphology under three-dimensional reconstruction of CT and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingying; Yang Qiwei; Lai Ying; Hao Shuang; Ma Hecheng; Xiao Chengshuang; Li Youqiong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To measure the acetabular morphology of Chinese on CT three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction image, and provide the evidence on the prevention and treatment of hip disease. Methods: 96 cases (192 sides) of adult hip CT scans were reconstructed, the acetabular index (AA), center-edge (CE), ACE angle, anteversion angle (AVA), abduction angle (ABA), and vertical diameter (SID) were measured. Results: The total acetabular index was (8.78±5.34)°, of which male was (7.84±5.55)° and female was (9.60±5.06)°. The total CE was (33.59±5.91)°, of which male was (34.55±6.03)° and female was (32.78±5.70)°. The total ACE angle was (29.01±5.65)°, of which male was (28.02±5.94)° and female was (29.80±5.30)°. The total AVA was (20.92±5.55)°, of which male was (20.48±5.08)° and female was (21.25±5.89)°. The total ABA was (51.27±4.16)°, of which male was (51.71±4.37)° and female was (50.89±3.96)°. The total SID was (53.79±3.92) mm, of which male was (56.55±2.64) mm and female was (51.46±3.25) mm. Of the above data, there were statistical differences in the acetabular index, CE angle, ACE angle and acetabular diameter between men and women (P<0.05), Chinese and foreigners (P<0.05). While there was no statistical difference between the left and right sides (P>0.05). Conclusion: There are differences in acetabular morphology between men and women, Chinese and foreigners. Compared with simply using overseas data, it is better to study morphological parameters of native acetabula to instruct the preoperative preparation and operation of national total hip arthroplasty surgery. And it is meaningful to design national parameters. (authors)

  8. Measuring the significance of pearlescence in real-time bottle forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, J.; Menary, G.; Yan, S.

    2018-05-01

    This work examines the optical properties of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles during the stretch-blow-moulding (SBM) process. PET has a relatively large process window with regards to process parameters, however if the boundaries are pushed, the resultant bottle can become insufficient for consumer requirements. One aspect of this process is the onset of pearlescence in the bottle material, where the bottle becomes opaque due to elevated stress whitening. Experimental trials were carried out using a modified free-stretch-blow machine where the deforming bottle was examined in free air. The strain values of the deformation were measured using digital image correlation (DIC) and the optical properties were measured relative to the initial amorphous PET preform. The results reveal that process parameters can significantly affect pearlescence. The detrimental level of pearlescence may be predicted therefore reducing the probability of poorly formed bottles.

  9. Clinical significance of combined measurement of serum sex hormones in secondary amenorrhea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Boxun; Chen Yue; Gan Xilun

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of levels of serum sex hormones in the diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. Methods: Serum sex hormones levels were measured with chemiluminescence in 100 patients with secondary amenorrhea and 42 controls. The serum hormones determined were: estradiol (E 2 )-, progesterone (PROG), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)-, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TSTO). Results: Patients with secondary amenorrhea had significantly higher levels of serum FSH, LH and PRL ( P 2 (P<0.05) than those in the controls. Serum levels of PROG and TSTO were about the same in the patients and controls. Conclusion: Determination of serum hormones levels with chemiluminescence is clinically useful for diagnosis of the types of secondary amenorrhea. (authors)

  10. Significance of left ventricular volume measurement after heart transplantation using radionuclide techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novitzky, D.; Cooper, D.; Boniaszczuk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated equilibrium blood pool scanning using Technetium 99m labeled red blood cells was used to measure left ventricular volumes in three heterotopic and one orthotopic heart transplant recipient(s). Simultaneously, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the degree of acute rejection was assessed by a histological scoring system. The scores were correlated to changes in ejection fraction and heart rate. Technetium 99m scanning data were pooled according to the endomyocardial biopsy score: no rejection; mild rejection; moderate rejection, and severe rejection. In each group, the median of the left ventricular volume parameters was calculated and correlated with the endomyocardial biopsy score, using a non-parametric one-way analysis of variance. A decrease in stroke volume correlated best with the endomyocardial biopsy score during acute rejection. A decrease in end-diastolic left ventricular volumes did not correlate as well. Changes in the end-systolic left ventricular volumes were not statistically significant, but using a simple correlation between end-systolic left ventricular volumes and endomyocardial biopsy the correlation reached significance. Changes in left ventricular volumes measured by Technetium 99m scanning may be useful to confirm the presence or absence of acute rejection in patients with heart grafts

  11. The significance of CBF measurements for precise management of carotid stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawara, Jyoji; Kamiyama, Kenji; Usui, Reiko; Takeda, Rihei; Nakamura, Hirohiko [Nakamura Memorial Hospital, Sapporo (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    Severe hemodynamic cerebral ischemia associated with carotid stenosis could be one of the difining characteristics of the high-risk group for carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vascular reactivity in patients treated with CEA were analyzed to clarify the significance of preoperative evaluation of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia using CBF-SPECT. Both the resting and acetazolamide-activated rCBF, and the severity of the hemodynamic cerebral ischemia (Stage 0-II) were quantified using the {sup 123}I-IMP autoradiography (ARG) method and preoperative cerebral hemodynamics were compared in both symptomatic patients (n=30) and asymptomatic patients (n=24). Postoperative improvement of resting rCBF was estimated in both groups. Stage II ischemia was quantitatively defined as both a resting rCBF of less than 80% of normal mean CBF and a vascular reserve (VR: (acetazolamide-activated rCBF/Resting rCBF-1) x 100%) of less than 10%. In the other 31 patients treated with CEA, postoperative hyperperfusion was investigated using CBF-SPECT within 24 hours after CEA. Preoperatively, Stage II ischemia (hemodynamically compromised state) was observed in 20% of symptomatic patients and 8% of asymptomatic patients. A significant difference in resting rCBF was indicated between symptomatic patients (31.8{+-}6.1 ml/100 g/min) and asymptomatic patients (37.6{+-}6.6 ml/100 g/min)(p<0.002, t-test). Severity of hemodynamic cerebral ischemia was generally moderate in symptomatic patients. Postoperatively, a significant increase of resting CBF was observed in symptomatic patients but not in asymptomatic patients. In the other 31 patients treated by CEA, symptomatic hyperperfusion was observed in 3 of 4 patients with Stage II ischemia and asymptomatic hyperperfusion was indicated in 3 of 4 patients with Stage I ischemia with a VR of less than 10%. Preoperative CBF measurements in patients treated with CEA were significant to define severe hemodynamic

  12. Optimized Clustering Estimators for BAO Measurements Accounting for Significant Redshift Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Ashley J. [Portsmouth U., ICG; Banik, Nilanjan [Fermilab; Avila, Santiago [Madrid, IFT; Percival, Will J. [Portsmouth U., ICG; Dodelson, Scott [Fermilab; Garcia-Bellido, Juan [Madrid, IFT; Crocce, Martin [ICE, Bellaterra; Elvin-Poole, Jack [Jodrell Bank; Giannantonio, Tommaso [Cambridge U., KICC; Manera, Marc [Cambridge U., DAMTP; Sevilla-Noarbe, Ignacio [Madrid, CIEMAT

    2017-05-15

    We determine an optimized clustering statistic to be used for galaxy samples with significant redshift uncertainty, such as those that rely on photometric redshifts. To do so, we study the BAO information content as a function of the orientation of galaxy clustering modes with respect to their angle to the line-of-sight (LOS). The clustering along the LOS, as observed in a redshift-space with significant redshift uncertainty, has contributions from clustering modes with a range of orientations with respect to the true LOS. For redshift uncertainty $\\sigma_z \\geq 0.02(1+z)$ we find that while the BAO information is confined to transverse clustering modes in the true space, it is spread nearly evenly in the observed space. Thus, measuring clustering in terms of the projected separation (regardless of the LOS) is an efficient and nearly lossless compression of the signal for $\\sigma_z \\geq 0.02(1+z)$. For reduced redshift uncertainty, a more careful consideration is required. We then use more than 1700 realizations of galaxy simulations mimicking the Dark Energy Survey Year 1 sample to validate our analytic results and optimized analysis procedure. We find that using the correlation function binned in projected separation, we can achieve uncertainties that are within 10 per cent of of those predicted by Fisher matrix forecasts. We predict that DES Y1 should achieve a 5 per cent distance measurement using our optimized methods. We expect the results presented here to be important for any future BAO measurements made using photometric redshift data.

  13. Noise in NC-AFM measurements with significant tip–sample interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis Lübbe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The frequency shift noise in non-contact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM imaging and spectroscopy consists of thermal noise and detection system noise with an additional contribution from amplitude noise if there are significant tip–sample interactions. The total noise power spectral density DΔf(fm is, however, not just the sum of these noise contributions. Instead its magnitude and spectral characteristics are determined by the strongly non-linear tip–sample interaction, by the coupling between the amplitude and tip–sample distance control loops of the NC-AFM system as well as by the characteristics of the phase locked loop (PLL detector used for frequency demodulation. Here, we measure DΔf(fm for various NC-AFM parameter settings representing realistic measurement conditions and compare experimental data to simulations based on a model of the NC-AFM system that includes the tip–sample interaction. The good agreement between predicted and measured noise spectra confirms that the model covers the relevant noise contributions and interactions. Results yield a general understanding of noise generation and propagation in the NC-AFM and provide a quantitative prediction of noise for given experimental parameters. We derive strategies for noise-optimised imaging and spectroscopy and outline a full optimisation procedure for the instrumentation and control loops.

  14. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 2: precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as `field' or `global' significance. The block length for the local resampling tests is precisely determined to adequately account for the time series structure. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Daily precipitation climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. While the downscaled precipitation distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones in most regions in summer, the biases of some distribution characteristics are significant over large areas in winter. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate stationary fine-scale climate features in the daily precipitation field over regions of complex topography in both seasons and appropriate transient fine-scale features almost everywhere in summer. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the clear additional value of dynamical downscaling over global climate simulations. The evaluation methodology has a broad spectrum of applicability as it is

  15. Model measurements in the cryogenic National Transonic Facility - An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, H. K.

    1985-01-01

    In the operation of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) higher Reynolds numbers are obtained on the basis of a utilization of low operational temperatures and high pressures. Liquid nitrogen is used as cryogenic medium, and temperatures in the range from -320 F to 160 F can be employed. A maximum pressure of 130 psi is specified, while the NTF design parameter for the Reynolds number is 120,000,000. In view of the new requirements regarding the measurement systems, major developments had to be undertaken in virtually all wind tunnel measurement areas and, in addition, some new measurement systems were needed. Attention is given to force measurement, pressure measurement, model attitude, model deformation, and the data system.

  16. Recent Investments by NASA's National Force Measurement Technology Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commo, Sean A.; Ponder, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    The National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) is a nationwide partnership established in 2008 and sponsored by NASA's Aeronautics Evaluation and Test Capabilities (AETC) project to maintain and further develop force measurement capabilities. The NFMTC focuses on force measurement in wind tunnels and provides operational support in addition to conducting balance research. Based on force measurement capability challenges, strategic investments into research tasks are designed to meet the experimental requirements of current and future aerospace research programs and projects. This paper highlights recent and force measurement investments into several areas including recapitalizing the strain-gage balance inventory, developing balance best practices, improving calibration and facility capabilities, and researching potential technologies to advance balance capabilities.

  17. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and development of hepatic cirrhosis as well as the diagnostic value of plasma Hcy determination. Method: Plasma Hcy levels were measured with ELISA in: (1) 64 patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis (2) 42 patients with various types of hepatitis but no cirrhosis and (3) 60 controls. Results: The plasma levels of Hcy in patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.01). The plasma Hcy levels in cirrhotic patients were well correlated with the levels of other hepatic fibrosis markers such as hyaluronic acid and laminin (r=0.87 and r=0.88 respectively, P<0.01), but were not correlated with cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels. Conclusion: Plasma Hcy levels was markedly elevated in cirrhotic patients and might be taken as a diagnostic marker. (authors)

  18. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10 -3 to 25 . 10 -3 ) mol . kg -1 . The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs

  19. Measurement of thyroid volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content by CT and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakaji, Shunsuke; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Okamoto, Kyouko; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Imanishi et al have developed new CT software for quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine. Using a CT system with the software, we measured volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content of thyroids in 63 controls and 435 patients with various diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules. In controls, all of them showed no difference between the sexes. Although the iodine concentration of the thyroid showed no difference among children, adults and seniles, the volume and total iodine content of the thyroid appeared smaller in children and seniles than in adults. In addition, although the volume and iodine concentration of the thyroid had two peaks in distribution, the total iodine content had almost normal distribution. Normal range of volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content in adults were 5.2-15.5 cm 3 , 0.28831-0.85919 mg/cm 3 and 2.35-11.69 mg, respectively. In thyroid nodule, there is no significant difference in volume, iodine concentration and total iodine content between benign and malignant nodules. All nodules with iodine concentration of less than 0.00007 mg/cm 3 were benign. No thyroid was higher in iodine concentration than the normal range although the thyroid was lower in 78.7% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. In all thyroids with increasing iodine concentration and total iodine content in medication course, thyroidal symptoms and signs were uncontrollable by the medication. In 43.8% of patients with long-period systemic diseases, the thyroid showed abnormality in any of the three. We concluded that quantitative in vivo measurement of thyroid iodine by CT could assist the diagnosis of thyroid diseases and decision of therapeutic methods. (author)

  20. Measure of significance of holotropic breathwork in the development of self-awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Tanja; Nielsen, Laila

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design was a re......OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether Holotropic Breathwork™ (HB; Grof Transpersonal Training, Mill Valley, CA) has any significance in the development of self-awareness. DESIGN: A quasi-experiment design and multiple case studies. A single case design was replicated. The statistical design...... MEASURES: The novices (n = 9) underwent positive temperament changes and the experienced participants (n = 11) underwent positive changes in character. Overall, positive self-awareness changes were indicated; the participants' (n = 20) scores for persistence temperament, interpersonal problems, overly.......864; pre-during-test p = 0.0215, pre-post-test p = 0.021, pre-post-test d = 0.5). Pre-test hostility mean (50.50 ± 10.395) decreased at post-test (47.20 ± 9.001; p = 0.0185; d = 0.3). The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems total pre-test mean (59.05 ± 17.139) was decreased at post-test (54.8 ± 12.408; p...

  1. Behavioral Change and Building Performance: Strategies for Significant, Persistent, and Measurable Institutional Change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolfe, Amy K.; Malone, Elizabeth L.; Heerwagen, Judith H.; Dion, Jerome P.

    2014-04-01

    The people who use Federal buildings — Federal employees, operations and maintenance staff, and the general public — can significantly impact a building’s environmental performance and the consumption of energy, water, and materials. Many factors influence building occupants’ use of resources (use behaviors) including work process requirements, ability to fulfill agency missions, new and possibly unfamiliar high-efficiency/high-performance building technologies; a lack of understanding, education, and training; inaccessible information or ineffective feedback mechanisms; and cultural norms and institutional rules and requirements, among others. While many strategies have been used to introduce new occupant use behaviors that promote sustainability and reduced resource consumption, few have been verified in the scientific literature or have properly documented case study results. This paper documents validated strategies that have been shown to encourage new use behaviors that can result in significant, persistent, and measureable reductions in resource consumption. From the peer-reviewed literature, the paper identifies relevant strategies for Federal facilities and commercial buildings that focus on the individual, groups of individuals (e.g., work groups), and institutions — their policies, requirements, and culture. The paper documents methods with evidence of success in changing use behaviors and enabling occupants to effectively interact with new technologies/designs. It also provides a case study of the strategies used at a Federal facility — Fort Carson, Colorado. The paper documents gaps in the current literature and approaches, and provides topics for future research.

  2. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Callahan, D. A.; Doeppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2012-12-15

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% {+-} 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel {rho}R on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell

  3. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Callahan, D. A.; Döppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1–1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% ± 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%–70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel ρR on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell

  4. Implosion dynamics measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, D. G.; Meezan, N. B.; Dewald, E. L.; Mackinnon, A. J.; Olson, R. E.; Callahan, D. A.; Döppner, T.; Benedetti, L. R.; Bradley, D. K.; Celliers, P. M.; Clark, D. S.; Di Nicola, P.; Dixit, S. N.; Dzenitis, E. G.; Eggert, J. E.; Farley, D. R.; Frenje, J. A.; Glenn, S. M.; Glenzer, S. H.; Hamza, A. V.; Heeter, R. F.; Holder, J. P.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D. H.; Khan, S. F.; Kline, J. L.; Kroll, J. J.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ma, T.; MacPhee, A. G.; McNaney, J. M.; Moody, J. D.; Moran, M. J.; Nathan, B. R.; Nikroo, A.; Opachich, Y. P.; Petrasso, R. D.; Prasad, R. R.; Ralph, J. E.; Robey, H. F.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rygg, J. R.; Salmonson, J. D.; Schneider, M. B.; Simanovskaia, N.; Spears, B. K.; Tommasini, R.; Widmann, K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Collins, G. W.; Landen, O. L.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Hsing, W. W.; MacGowan, B. J.; Atherton, L. J.; Edwards, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Measurements have been made of the in-flight dynamics of imploding capsules indirectly driven by laser energies of 1-1.7 MJ at the National Ignition Facility [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, 228 (2004)]. These experiments were part of the National Ignition Campaign [Landen et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 051002 (2011)] to iteratively optimize the inputs required to achieve thermonuclear ignition in the laboratory. Using gated or streaked hard x-ray radiography, a suite of ablator performance parameters, including the time-resolved radius, velocity, mass, and thickness, have been determined throughout the acceleration history of surrogate gas-filled implosions. These measurements have been used to establish a dynamically consistent model of the ablative drive history and shell compressibility throughout the implosion trajectory. First results showed that the peak velocity of the original 1.3-MJ Ge-doped polymer (CH) point design using Au hohlraums reached only 75% of the required ignition velocity. Several capsule, hohlraum, and laser pulse changes were then implemented to improve this and other aspects of implosion performance and a dedicated effort was undertaken to test the sensitivity of the ablative drive to the rise time and length of the main laser pulse. Changing to Si rather than Ge-doped inner ablator layers and increasing the pulse length together raised peak velocity to 93% ± 5% of the ignition goal using a 1.5 MJ, 420 TW pulse. Further lengthening the pulse so that the laser remained on until the capsule reached 30% (rather than 60%-70%) of its initial radius, reduced the shell thickness and improved the final fuel ρR on companion shots with a cryogenic hydrogen fuel layer. Improved drive efficiency was observed using U rather than Au hohlraums, which was expected, and by slowing the rise time of laser pulse, which was not. The effect of changing the Si-dopant concentration and distribution, as well as the effect of using a larger initial shell thickness

  5. Field significance of performance measures in the context of regional climate model evaluation. Part 1: temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Martin; Warrach-Sagi, Kirsten; Wulfmeyer, Volker

    2018-04-01

    A new approach for rigorous spatial analysis of the downscaling performance of regional climate model (RCM) simulations is introduced. It is based on a multiple comparison of the local tests at the grid cells and is also known as "field" or "global" significance. New performance measures for estimating the added value of downscaled data relative to the large-scale forcing fields are developed. The methodology is exemplarily applied to a standard EURO-CORDEX hindcast simulation with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the land surface model NOAH at 0.11 ∘ grid resolution. Monthly temperature climatology for the 1990-2009 period is analysed for Germany for winter and summer in comparison with high-resolution gridded observations from the German Weather Service. The field significance test controls the proportion of falsely rejected local tests in a meaningful way and is robust to spatial dependence. Hence, the spatial patterns of the statistically significant local tests are also meaningful. We interpret them from a process-oriented perspective. In winter and in most regions in summer, the downscaled distributions are statistically indistinguishable from the observed ones. A systematic cold summer bias occurs in deep river valleys due to overestimated elevations, in coastal areas due probably to enhanced sea breeze circulation, and over large lakes due to the interpolation of water temperatures. Urban areas in concave topography forms have a warm summer bias due to the strong heat islands, not reflected in the observations. WRF-NOAH generates appropriate fine-scale features in the monthly temperature field over regions of complex topography, but over spatially homogeneous areas even small biases can lead to significant deteriorations relative to the driving reanalysis. As the added value of global climate model (GCM)-driven simulations cannot be smaller than this perfect-boundary estimate, this work demonstrates in a rigorous manner the

  6. National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.

  7. Radiobiological significance of radioactive contamination - summary assessment based on great number of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelov, V.; Bonchev, Ts.; Mavrodiev, V.; Kyrdzhilov, N.

    1995-01-01

    In order to facilitate quantitative and qualitative characterisation of radioactive contamination the authors introduce a relative estimate of radionuclide activity by setting as a reference the most abundant element -Co-60 in the case of the Kozloduy NPP. The ratio η i of the mean annual permissible concentration in air for each radionuclide (RPC-92) to that of Co-60 is calculated. It is found that η i has the same or close values for groups of radionuclides, e.g. η i = 2.10 -4 for 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, 244 Cm; η i = 5 for 89 Sr, 91 Y; 93 Nb, 134 Cs, 137 Cs; η i = 50 for 55 Fe, 63 Ni, 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 140 Ba, 140 La. Then it is compared to the experimentally measured values of the same quantity η iexp , derived from surface contamination data. The ratio η iexp /η i is plotted against log η i . The resulting nomograms give graphic representation of the radiobiological significance of various radionuclide groups. Data from different locations at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. It is found that the alpha emitter contamination has highest values in the Unit 1 (WWER-440) control rooms after repair. The Unit 5 (WWER-1000) has lower alpha contamination compared to WWER-440 units. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Thermodynamic study of three pharmacologically significant drugs: Density, viscosity, and refractive index measurements at different temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, Muhammad Javed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)], E-mail: mjiqauchem@yahoo.com; Chaudhry, Mansoora Ahmed [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan)

    2009-02-15

    Measurements of density, viscosity, and refractive index of three pharmacologically significant drugs, i.e. diclofenac sodium, cetrizine, and doxycycline have been carried in aqueous medium at T = (293.15 to 313.15) K. An automated vibrating-tube densimeter, viscometer, and refractometer are used in a concentration range from (7.5) . 10{sup -3} to 25 . 10{sup -3}) mol . kg{sup -1}. The precise density results are used to evaluate the apparent molar volume, partial molar volume, thermal expansion coefficient, partial molar expansivity, and the Hepler's constant. Viscosity results are used to calculate the Jones-Dole viscosity B-coefficient, free energy of activation of the solute and solvent, activation enthalpy, and activation entropy. The molar refractive indices of the drug solutions can be employed to calculate molar refraction. It is inferred from these results that the above mentioned drugs act as structure-making compounds due to hydrophobic hydration of the molecules in the drugs.

  9. Measurement and Clinical Significance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Marrocco

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is the result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS formation and enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. Biomarkers of oxidative stress are relevant in the evaluation of the disease status and of the health-enhancing effects of antioxidants. We aim to discuss the major methodological bias of methods used for the evaluation of oxidative stress in humans. There is a lack of consensus concerning the validation, standardization, and reproducibility of methods for the measurement of the following: (1 ROS in leukocytes and platelets by flow cytometry, (2 markers based on ROS-induced modifications of lipids, DNA, and proteins, (3 enzymatic players of redox status, and (4 total antioxidant capacity of human body fluids. It has been suggested that the bias of each method could be overcome by using indexes of oxidative stress that include more than one marker. However, the choice of the markers considered in the global index should be dictated by the aim of the study and its design, as well as by the clinical relevance in the selected subjects. In conclusion, the clinical significance of biomarkers of oxidative stress in humans must come from a critical analysis of the markers that should give an overall index of redox status in particular conditions.

  10. Measurement of serum leptin levels in polycystic ovary syndrome with hyperandrogenemia and its significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yande; Zhang Zhiping; Lu Gen; Luo Beilei

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the serum leptin concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) with hyperandrogenemia (HA) and its relationship with testosterone (T) level and body mass index (BMI). Methods: Serum leptin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 53 patients with PCOS, in which 36 cases were of the in non-obesity group and 17 cases in obese group. 30 non-obese cases and 20 obese cases without PCOS served as controls. Results: The levels of leptin in PCOS with HA in obese and non-obese group were significantly higher than those in control group (all p < 0.01). There was a positive correlation between serum leptin levels and testosterone levels in both groups (r = 0.51, p < 0.01 and r = 0.58, p < 0.01). No correlation existed between serum leptin levels and body mass index (BMI) in PCOS patients of non-obese group but there was positive correlation in obesity group (r = 0.56, p < 0.01). Conclusion: High serum leptin levels is one of the characteristic in PCOS patients. The HA in PCOS patients is related to serum leptin levels and heavyweight or obese patients have the phenomenon of leptin resistance

  11. Codon Deviation Coefficient: A novel measure for estimating codon usage bias and its statistical significance

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhang; Li, Jun; Cui, Peng; Ding, Feng; Li, Ang; Townsend, Jeffrey P; Yu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    measurement of CUB is of fundamental importance to making inferences regarding gene function and genome evolution. However, extant measures of CUB have not fully accounted for the quantitative effect of background nucleotide composition and have

  12. Quantifying the National Significance of Local Areas for Regional Conservation Planning: North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Travis Belote

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Conservation scientists recognize that additional protected areas are needed to maintain biological diversity and ecological processes. As regional conservation planners embark on recommending additional areas for protection in formal ecological reserves, it is important to evaluate candidate lands for their role in building a resilient protected areas system of the future. Here, we evaluate North Carolina’s Mountain Treasures with respect to their (1 ecological integrity, (2 role in connecting existing core protected areas, (3 potential to diversify the ecosystem representation of reserves, and (4 role in maintaining hotspots of biologically-rich areas that are not well protected. Mountain Treasures represent a citizen inventory of roadless areas and serve as candidates for elevated levels of conservation protection on U.S. federal lands. We compared Mountain Treasures to other candidate lands throughout the country to evaluate their potential national significance. While the Mountain Treasures tended to be more impacted by human modifications than other roadless areas, they are as important as other roadless areas with respect to their role in connecting existing protected areas and diversifying representation of ecosystems in conservation reserves. However, Mountain Treasures tended to have a much higher biodiversity priority index than other roadless areas leading to an overall higher composite score compared to other roadless areas. Our analysis serves as an example of how using broad-scale datasets can help conservation planners assess the national significance of local areas.

  13. Skipping one or more dialysis sessions significantly increases mortality: measuring the impact of non-adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gottlieb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis sessions frequency ranges from 2% to 50% of patients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of detecting and measuring the non-adherence to the prescribed dialysis frequency and to determine the importance of a multidisciplinary approach with the aim of improving adherence. Methods: longitudinal cohort study including 8,164 prevalent hemodialysis patients in April 2010, with more than 90 days of treatment, in Fresenius Medical Care Argentina units that were monitored for 3 years. The survey evaluated: interruption of at least one dialysis session in a month or reduction at least 10 minutes of a dialysis session in a month, during 6 months prior to the survey. Relative mortality risks were evaluated among groups. Results: 648 patients (7.9% interrupted dialysis sessions: 320 (3.9% interrupted one session per month and 328 (4.01% interrupted more than one session per month. After 3 years monitoring, 349 patients (53.8 % remained active in hemodialysis and 299 were inactive due to different reasons: 206 deceased (31.8 %, 47 transfers or monitoring losses (7.25 %, 36 transplanted (5.55 %, 8 changes to PD modality (1.2% and 2 recovered their kidney function (0.3 %.Interrupting one session per month significantly increased the mortality risk comparing both groups (interrupters and non-interrupters: RR 2.65 (IC 95% 2.24 – 3.14. Interrupting more than one dialysis session also increased significantly mortality risk comparing to the non-interrupters: RR 2.8 (IC 95% 2.39 – 3.28. After 3 years monitoring, 41.6 % of interrupters at the beginning had improved their adherence through a multidisciplinary program of quality improvement. Conclusion: Global mortality was greater among patients who interrupted dialysis sessions. A considerable proportion of interrupter patients at the beginning modified their behavior through the implementation of a multidisciplinary program of quality

  14. Radiobiological significance of radioactive contamination - summary assessment based on great number of measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelov, V [Civil Defence Administration, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bonchev, Ts; Mavrodiev, V; Kyrdzhilov, N [Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet

    1996-12-31

    In order to facilitate quantitative and qualitative characterisation of radioactive contamination the authors introduce a relative estimate of radionuclide activity by setting as a reference the most abundant element -Co-60 in the case of the Kozloduy NPP. The ratio {eta}{sub i} of the mean annual permissible concentration in air for each radionuclide (RPC-92) to that of Co-60 is calculated. It is found that {eta}{sub i} has the same or close values for groups of radionuclides, e.g. {eta}{sub i} = 2.10{sup -4} for {sup 238} Pu, {sup 239} Pu, {sup 240} Pu, {sup 241} Am, {sup 244} Cm; {eta}{sub i} = 5 for {sup 89} Sr, {sup 91} Y; {sup 93} Nb, {sup 134} Cs, {sup 137} Cs; {eta}{sub i} = 50 for {sup 55} Fe, {sup 63} Ni, {sup 95} Zr, {sup 95} Nb, {sup 140} Ba, {sup 140} La. Then it is compared to the experimentally measured values of the same quantity {eta}{sub iexp}, derived from surface contamination data. The ratio {eta}{sub iexp}/{eta}{sub i} is plotted against log {eta}{sub i}. The resulting nomograms give graphic representation of the radiobiological significance of various radionuclide groups. Data from different locations at the Kozloduy NPP are presented. It is found that the alpha emitter contamination has highest values in the Unit 1 (WWER-440) control rooms after repair. The Unit 5 (WWER-1000) has lower alpha contamination compared to WWER-440 units. 1 ref., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  16. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  17. The Significance of Serum beta2-Microglobulin Measurement in Various Renal Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koong, Sung Soo; Oh, Ha Yong; Han, Jin Suk; Lee, Jung Sang [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-03-15

    To evaluate change of serum beta{sub 2}-microglobulin concentration (sbeta{sub 2}-MG) and the usefulness of sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sbeta{sub 2}-MG/serum creatinine concentration (sCr) ratio in various renal diseases, sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr were measured in 25 normal controls and 90 patients of various renal diseases (16 cases of glomerulonephritis, 12 cases of acute renal failure, 8 cases of chronic renal failure, 24 cases of nephrotic syndrome, 15 cases of tubulointerstitial diseases and 15 cases of lupus nephritis) using Phadebas beta{sub 2}-Micro Test kits. The results were as follows; 1) In normal control, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 1.65+-0.41 mg/l and the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.14+-0.05. 2) In various renal diseases, the mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG was 6.74+-5.47 mg/l. The mean value of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio was 0.24+-0.11 and significantly elevated than that of normal contro1. (P<0.05). 3) The correlation between sbeta-2-MG and sCr in glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.90 log sCr-0.48 and its correlation coefficient was 0.78 (P<0.05). 4) In glomerular disease, the correlation between sbeta{sub 2}-MG and sCr was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.89 log sCr-0.46 (r-0.76) and in tubulointerstitial disease, it was log sbeta{sub 2}-MG=0.95 1og sCr-0.59 (r-0.87). There was no significant difference between the two groups (p<0.05). 5) Among 32 cases of glomerular and tubulointerstitial disease patients, whose sCr was within normal range, 17 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG. The mean values of sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio in these patients was 0.30+-0.14 and significantly elevated than that of normal control (p<0.05). 6) In 15 cases of lupus nephritis, 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG with normal sCr and 12 cases showed elevated sbeta{sub 2}-MG/sCr ratio. With above results, It was found that the sbeta{sub 2}-MG can be used as an index of glomerular filtration rate as in the case of sCr and thats

  18. National audit of radioactivity measurements in Nuclear Medicine Centres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravindra, Anuradha; Kulkarni, D.B.; Joseph, Leena; Babu, D.A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Routine activity measurements of radiopharmaceutical solutions in Nuclear Medicine Centres (NMC) are carried out with the help of radionuclide calibrators (RC). These solutions are either ingested or injected to the patient for diagnosis or therapy. However, for the realization of an optimized examination, the activity of these radiopharmaceuticals must be determined accurately before administering it to patients. The primary standards are maintained by Radiation Standards Section, Radiological Physics and Advisory Division. National audit programmes of Iodine -131 activity measurements with RCs are conducted biannually to establish traceability to national standards and to check the status of nuclear medicine practice followed at the NMC. The results of fifteenth audit of 131 I activity measurements with RC are presented in this paper. Questionnaires were sent to two hundred and thirty three NMCs in-the country. One hundred and nine NMC's agreed for participation and accordingly, glass vials containing radioactive 131 I solution of nominal activity of 100 MBq were procured from Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Mumbai. The radioactivity in each vial was determined with high pressure re-entrant gamma ionisation chamber (GIC), a secondary standard maintained by this laboratory. The sensitivity coefficient of GIC is traceable to the primary standard. The standardized radioactive solution of 131 I in glass vial was sent to each participant. Measurements results were reported in the reporting form sent. This audit was conducted in four schedules in Jan 2013. One hundred and sixty six results were received from one hundred and nine participants as many participants took measurements on more than one isotope calibrator

  19. 210Po measurement of borehole core and its significance for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao Xiaolin

    2007-01-01

    210 Po survey is a tradition method in uranium exploration and has been widely applied to ground reconnaissance survey and detailed survey of uranium. However, it is seldom applied to drilling work. 210 Po measurements of borehole core for granite-type uranium deposit in Miaoershan area indicate that there are high and large range anomaly which greatly exceeds uranium orebody in uranium mineralization area. The investigation suggests that 210 Po measurements of borehole core can judge whether or not exist buried uranium orebody under the borehole depth and its surrounding in the final exploration stage. The method may be used to the exploration of granite-type uranium deposit. (authors)

  20. Clinical significance of computed tomography in the measurement of thyroid volume after operation for Basedow's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasuga, Yoshio; Miyakawa, Makoto; Sugenoya, Akira

    1986-01-01

    The postoperative volume of the thyroid glands was measured using computed tomography (CT) in 16 patients with Basedow's disease. In the group which had normal postoperative thyroid function and did not need to receive T 4 , CT showed increase of thyroid volume. In three of the four patients who needed to receive it, CT showed decreased thyroid volume, as compared with that immediately after operation. CT has proved to serve as a tool for measuring postoperative thyroid volume for Basedow's disease in relation to postoperative prognosis. (Namekawa, K.)

  1. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  2. Prognostic significance of distal blood pressure measurements in patients with severe ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, William; Tønnesen, K H

    1980-01-01

    The clinical course was followed and the ankle and toe blood pressures were measured with the strain gauge technique on 5 occasions during 2 years in 43 patients with pain at rest and/or ischaemic ulceration due to severe ischaemia of the legs on the basis of occlusive arterial disease. Although...

  3. Definition, significance and measurement of quantities pertaining to the oxygen carrying properties of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, WG; Maas, AHJ; Moran, RF

    1996-01-01

    A consistent set of definitions is given of the principal quantities pertaining to the oxygen transport by the blood, and of their mutual relationships, in relation to the methods used in their measurement. At the core is the correct definition of oxygen saturation, the deviation of which has

  4. Significance of radioelement concentration measurements made by airborne gamma-ray spectrometry over the Canadian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.; Killeen, P.G.; Carson, J.M.; Cameron, G.W.; Richardson, K.A.

    1976-01-01

    Results of airborne gamma-ray spectrometer surveys conducted by the Geological Survey of Canada are presented as maps contoured in units of radioelement and concentration ratios. These contoured values represent the average surface concentrations of the radioelements over areas of the order of several square kilometres. The relationship between this ''average surface concentration'' and the radioelement concentration in bedrock underlying the area depends on: (1) the percentage of outcrop; (2) the relation between overburden and bedrock radioelement concentration; (3) percentage of marshland or surface water in the area; (4) soil moisture; and (5) density of vegetation. More than 2500 portable gamma-ray spectrometer analyses of outcrop and overburden have been made in the Bancroft, Elliot Lake and Fort Smith areas of the Canadian Precambrian Shield. In the areas examined, the radioelement concentrations in glacial drift reflect the concentrations in the underlying bedrock. Rocks with near-crustal average contents of thorium, uranium and potassium are overlain by glacial drift having approximately the same concentrations. As the concentration in bedrock increases, the concentration in the local overburden also increases, but not to the same extent. In addition, in-situ gamma-ray spectrometry measurements were made at almost 1000 stations within the area of airborne surveys near Mont Laurier and Elliot Lake. These ground measurements were compared with the airborne measurements by averaging the values for all those ground stations located in the areas between each contour level on airborne maps. Radioelement concentrations in bedrock are considerably higher than corresponding airborne measurements, and this difference between bedrock and airborne values increases at higher radioelement concentrations. Radioelement concentrations in glacial drift are only slightly higher than airborne contour values for the same area. Airborne contour maps of the radioelement ratios

  5. Clinical significance of measurements of serum IL-6 levels in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Cuihua; Luo Nanping; Zhang Daojie; Wei Hong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6 levels in patients with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Methods: Serum IL-6 levels were determined with RIA in 35 patients with coronary heart disease, 20 patients with essential hypertension, 28 patients with cerebral infarction and 30 controls. Results: Serum IL-6 levels in patients with coronary heart disease and cerebral infarction were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IL-6 levels changes could reflect the severity of the inflammatory process and would be helpful in clinical assessment. (authors)

  6. Argonne National Laboratory's thermal plume measurements: instruments and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Loon, L.S.; Frigo, A.A.; Paddock, R.A.

    1977-12-01

    Instrumentation and techniques were developed at Argonne National Laboratory for measuring the three-dimensional temperature structure of thermal plumes from power plants, along with the limnological, meteorological, and plant operating conditions affecting their behavior. The equipment and procedures were designed to provide field data for use in evaluating predictive models that describe thermal plume behavior, and over 100 sets of these data have been collected. The instrument systems and techniques employed in a typical thermal discharge survey are highly integrated. Continuous monitoring of ambient and plant conditions is coupled with plume mapping from a moving survey boat. The instantaneous location of the boat together with subsurface temperature measurements from a towed thermistor chain provide a quasisynoptic view of the plume structure. Real-time, onboard display of the boat path and vertical temperatures supply feedback to investigators for determining the extent and spatial resolution of measurements required. The unique design, reliability, accuracy, calibration, and historical development of the components of these integrated systems are described. Survey system interfaces with data handling and processing techniques are also explained. Special supportive studies to investigate plume dynamics, values of eddy diffusivities, time-temperature histories of water parcels in thermal plumes, and rapid changes in plume shape are also described along with instrumentation used

  7. Modelling lidar volume-averaging and its significance to wind turbine wake measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer Forsting, A. R.; Troldborg, N.; Borraccino, A.

    2017-05-01

    Lidar velocity measurements need to be interpreted differently than conventional in-situ readings. A commonly ignored factor is “volume-averaging”, which refers to lidars not sampling in a single, distinct point but along its entire beam length. However, especially in regions with large velocity gradients, like the rotor wake, can it be detrimental. Hence, an efficient algorithm mimicking lidar flow sampling is presented, which considers both pulsed and continous-wave lidar weighting functions. The flow-field around a 2.3 MW turbine is simulated using Detached Eddy Simulation in combination with an actuator line to test the algorithm and investigate the potential impact of volume-averaging. Even with very few points discretising the lidar beam is volume-averaging captured accurately. The difference in a lidar compared to a point measurement is greatest at the wake edges and increases from 30% one rotor diameter (D) downstream of the rotor to 60% at 3D.

  8. Monitoring hillslope moisture dynamics with surface ERT for enhancing spatial significance of hydrometric point measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, R.; Heller, K.; Günther, T.; Kleber, A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides floodplains, hillslopes are basic units that mainly control water movement and flow pathways within catchments of subdued mountain ranges. The structure of their shallow subsurface affects water balance, e.g. infiltration, retention, and runoff. Nevertheless, there is still a gap in the knowledge of the hydrological dynamics on hillslopes, notably due to the lack of generalization and transferability. This study presents a robust multi-method framework of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) in addition to hydrometric point measurements, transferring hydrometric data into higher spatial scales to obtain additional patterns of distribution and dynamics of soil moisture on a hillslope. A geoelectrical monitoring in a small catchment in the eastern Ore Mountains was carried out at weekly intervals from May to December 2008 to image seasonal moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale. To link water content and electrical resistivity, the parameters of Archie's law were determined using different core samples. To optimize inversion parameters and methods, the derived spatial and temporal water content distribution was compared to tensiometer data. The results from ERT measurements show a strong correlation with the hydrometric data. The response is congruent to the soil tension data. Water content calculated from the ERT profile shows similar variations as that of water content from soil moisture sensors. Consequently, soil moisture dynamics on the hillslope scale may be determined not only by expensive invasive punctual hydrometric measurements, but also by minimally invasive time-lapse ERT, provided that pedo-/petrophysical relationships are known. Since ERT integrates larger spatial scales, a combination with hydrometric point measurements improves the understanding of the ongoing hydrological processes and better suits identification of heterogeneities.

  9. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian Phosphate Mines and Their Significance As a Source of Hazardous Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, A.Z.; Hussein, M.I.; Abdel Hady, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Phosphate mines that may contain radioactive traces in the composition of their ores represent source of hazardous radioactive waste in the environment. Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon and its short- lived decay products (progeny) and thoron progeny, as well as radiation from mines walls, ceilings and floors. Conventional, well established techniques, methods and instrumentation were used to make these measurements. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines, which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns, which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP 60. Numbers of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines. This study could help in the estimation of the environmental impact of these mine operations on the environment

  10. REAL TIME MEASUREMENT OF ULTRAFINE AND NANO PARTICLES AND SIGNIFICANCE OF OPERATING GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. NAKHAWA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This research paper focuses on characterization of ultrafine and nanoparticle emissions from diesel vehicle to investigate their physical characterization in terms of number and size as they are more vulnerable and responsible for toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. An investigation has been carried out to identify the significance of different operating gears, clutch, declutch and gear change operations for their contributions to particle number(PN on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle. A bi-modal particle size distribution pattern was observed for both urban and extra urban parts where almost all the particles are below 200 nm and particle number peaks appear at 7 to 8 nm and at 70 nm. Nano particles contribute approximately, 70% of total particle number over urban part. Experimental investigation shows that the most significant gear for their contribution to particle number are 3rd and 5th gears on urban and extra urban part of the driving cycle respectively.

  11. Measurements of recent microchannel-plate photomultipliers with significantly increased lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhlig, Fred; Eyrich, Wolfgang; Lehmann, Albert; Britting, Alexander [Universitaet Erlangen, Physikal. Institut IV (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Microchannel-plate photomultipliers (MCP-PMTs) are the favored sensors for the DIRC detectors (Detection of Internally Reflected Cherenkov Light) of the PANDA experiment. They are usable in high magnetic fields of up to 2T and reach a time resolution of better than 50 ps (σ). The anticipated average luminosity of 2.10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} in the detector requires a rate capability high enough to withstand a detected photon rate of about 200 kHz cm{sup -2} at the MCP-PMT surfaces. The major drawback until recently was the limited lifetime of MCP-PMTs, which appears to be solved for the latest generation of MCP-PMT prototype devices. The aging parameter is the quantum efficiency as a function of the integrated anode charge, which will be in the region of 5 C/cm{sup 2} for the Barrel- and the Disc-DIRC. We simultaneously measured the aging of several MCP-PMTs, which were treated with different methods to enhance the lifetime. Results of these measurements are presented.

  12. The significance of the glucocorticoid receptor measurement in the treatment of acute leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haodan

    1992-01-01

    We studied the method of measuring the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) using whole peripheral leukocytes, and measured the GCR level of 20 healthy and 50 cases of acute leukemia. The Kd values were 5.51 ± 2.01 nmol/L and 5.38 ± 1.21 nmol/L. The normal R 0 value (x-bar ± s) was 6878 ±1563 sites/cell, and had no co-relationship with the serum level of total cortisol. The relationship between the GCR level and the effect of chemotherapy and short-term prognosis was also studied. The low affinitive binding sites of glucocorticoid hormone were for the first time observed in 9 normal persons and 5 cases of acute leukemia in the normal subjects, the Kd values were 0.8224±0.241 μmol/L and the R 0 values were 3614.43±1233.33 f mole/10 7 cells. In the leukemic patients, the Kd values were 1.067±0.456 μmol/L and the R 0 values were 3488.94 ± 2272.56 f mole/10 7 cells. The Scatchard curves were obviously of the concave

  13. Radioactivity measurements in Egyptian phosphate mines and their significance in the occupational exposure of mine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Hussein, Mohamed I.; Hussein, A.Z.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactivity measurements have been conducted in nine underground phosphate mines in the Egyptian Eastern Desert in order to estimate the occupational radiation exposure of mine workers in those mining sites. Measurements were carried out of airborne radon ( 222 Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progeny) and thoron ( 220 Rn) progeny, as well as γ-radiation from mine walls, ceilings and floors. Comparison of experimental data and theoretical predictions showed partial agreement between these two sets of data. This result is partly attributed to the complex layout of these mines which causes undesirable ventilation conditions, such as recirculation airflow patterns which could not be adequately identified or quantified. The radiation data obtained were used to estimate the Maximum Annual Dose (MAD), and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. These calculations indicate that in eight out of the nine mines surveyed, the MAD exceeded (by a factor of up to 7) the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60. A number of suggestions are made in order to reduce the MAD in the affected mines

  14. Assessing clinical significance in measuring oncology patient quality of life: Introduction to the symposium, content overview, and definition of terms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloan, Jeff A.; Cella, David; Frost, Marlene; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Sprangers, Mirjam; Symonds, Tara

    2002-01-01

    The Clinical Significance Consensus Meeting Group of the Symposium on the Clinical Significance of Quality-of-Life Measures in Cancer Patients produced 6 articles regarding the clinical significance of quality of life (QOL) assessments in oncology. The 6 articles deal with the methods used to date:

  15. Corrections for the effects of significant wave height and attitude on Geosat radar altimeter measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayne, G. S.; Hancock, D. W., III

    1990-01-01

    Range estimates from a radar altimeter have biases which are a function of the significant wave height (SWH) and the satellite attitude angle (AA). Based on results of prelaunch Geosat modeling and simulation, a correction for SWH and AA was already applied to the sea-surface height estimates from Geosat's production data processing. By fitting a detailed model radar return waveform to Geosat waveform sampler data, it is possible to provide independent estimates of the height bias, the SWH, and the AA. The waveform fitting has been carried out for 10-sec averages of Geosat waveform sampler data over a wide range of SWH and AA values. The results confirm that Geosat sea-surface-height correction is good to well within the original dm-level specification, but that an additional height correction can be made at the level of several cm.

  16. Study on the measurement of serum thymidine kinase and its clinical significance in hematological neoplastic disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torizumi, Kazutami; Aibata, Hirofumi; Yamada, Ryusaku; Shimizu, Eiji; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Tsujimoto, Masato; Tsuda, Tadaaki; Ota, Kiichiro

    1988-06-01

    A 'Prolifigen TK-REA' kit for measuring serum thymidine kinase (TK) was fundamentally and clinically evaluated. Laboratory findings for recovery, dilution, and reproducibility were satisfactory. There was no correlation between serum TK activity and serum lactic dehydrogenase, carcinoembryonic antigen, or ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein. The serum concentration of TK in normal volunteers ranged from 1.6 to 6.5 U/L. It was extremely high for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), as compared to the normal value. In the AML group, higher incidence of blasts in peripheral blood tended to be associated with higher serum concentration of TK. A similar tendency was seen in the case of acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and myelodysplasia syndrome (MDS). A positive correlation between serum TK activity and the absolute counts of myeloblasts in peripheral blood existed in CML and AML patients. Since patients with hematological neoplastic disorders, who have abnormality in DNA metabolism, tended to have higher serum TK activity than did normal volunteers, serum TK activity may have a potential marker for abnormal DNA metabolism. (Namekawa, K.).

  17. IGF-1 levels are significantly correlated with patient-reported measures of sexual function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastuszak, A W; Liu, J S; Vij, A; Mohamed, O; Sathyamoorthy, K; Lipshultz, L I; Khera, M

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) supplementation may help to preserve erectile function. We assessed whether serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels, a surrogate for GH levels, correlate with sexual function scores in 65 men who completed the Sexual Health Inventory for Men (SHIM) and Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite (EPIC) questionnaires, and had serum IGF-1 and testosterone levels determined. Median±s.d. IGF-1 level, SHIM and EPIC scores were 235.0±86.4, 19.5±8.7 and 56.4±28.3 mg ml(-1), respectively. IGF-1 levels and total SHIM score correlate significantly (r=0.31, P=0.02), as do IGF-1 levels and all individual SHIM question scores, and IGF-1 levels and the sexual domain of the EPIC questionnaire (r=0.30, P=0.02). No correlation was observed between IGF-1 levels and Gleason score, IGF-1 and testosterone level or SHIM score and testosterone level. These data support a potential role for the GH axis in erectile function.

  18. Radiologic measurement of lesser trochanter and its clinical significance in Chinese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qi; Chen, Wei; Li, Xicheng; Song, Zhaohui; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze; Liu, Huaijun

    2009-01-01

    Femoral fracture is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in elderly persons. Surgery, the main choice of treatment of femoral fracture, may result in some complications severely affecting patients' daily activities due to femoral malalignment. The lesser trochanter is an important anatomical structure of the femur which could be used as an anatomical landmark during and after operation to evaluate femoral alignment. To predict femoral rotational malalignment during surgery, the relationship between the height and width of the lesser trochanter and femoral rotation at different angles was investigated. Fifty healthy adult volunteers (25 men and 25 women) were enrolled in this study and a total of 900 radiographs of proximal femurs were taken in the following positions: neutral position, 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 internal rotation, and 5 , 10 , 15 , and 20 external rotation, respectively. The cranio-caudal and transverse diameters of the lesser trochanter were obtained on a PACS Workstation. The height and width of the lesser trochanter increased with external rotation and decreased with internal rotation and the values showed statistical significance between different positions or different genders. Between 20 of internal rotation to 20 of external rotation, the mean height increased from 0.58 cm to 1.23 cm in men and from 0.44 cm to 1.19 cm in women. The corresponding mean values for width were from 2.53 cm to 4.44 cm in men, and from 2.08 cm to 3.86 cm in women, respectively. The height and width of the lesser trochanter were both highly correlated to the position of femur and the linear relationship was established approximately. The morphological alteration of lesser trochanter also changed obviously when the femurs rotated. The height and width of the lesser trochanter is linearly related to femoral rotation and could be used as a reference for prevention of femoral malalignment during surgery. (orig.)

  19. Significance and management of computed tomography detected pulmonary nodules: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meisel, Jay A.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Breslow, Norman E.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Green, Daniel M.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To define the optimal treatment for children with Wilms tumor who have pulmonary nodules identified on chest computed tomography (CT) scan, but have a negative chest radiograph, we evaluated the outcome of all such patients randomized or followed on National Wilms Tumor Study (NWTS)-3 and -4. Patients and Methods: We estimated the event-free and overall survival percentages of 53 patients with favorable histology tumors and pulmonary densities identified only by CT scan (CT-only) who were treated as Stage IV with intensive doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy and whole-lung irradiation, and compared these to the event-free and overall survival percentages of 37 CT-only patients who were treated less aggressively based on the extent of locoregional disease with 2 or 3 drugs, and without whole-lung irradiation. Results: The 4-year event-free and overall survival percentages of the 53 patients with CT-only nodules and favorable histology Wilms tumor who were treated as Stage IV were 89% and 91%, respectively. The 4-year event-free and overall survival percentages for the 37 patients with CT-only nodules and favorable histology who were treated according to the extent of locoregional disease were 80% and 85%, respectively. The differences observed between the 2 groups were not statistically significant. Among the patients who received whole-lung irradiation, there were fewer pulmonary relapses, but more deaths attributable to lung toxicity. Conclusions: The current data raise the possibility that children with Wilms tumor and CT-only pulmonary nodules who receive whole lung irradiation have fewer pulmonary relapses, but a greater number of deaths due to treatment toxicity. The role of whole lung irradiation in the treatment of this group of patients cannot be definitively determined based on the present data. Prolonged follow-up of this group of patients is necessary to accurately estimate the frequency of late, treatment-related mortality

  20. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In 1999, the United States government announced the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) that included a proposal directed at doubling the nation's investment in nanotechnology to ensure the United States' competitive position in the rapidly developing field of nanotechnology. As part of the NNI, the National Science and Technology Council Interagency Working Group on Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (IWGN) concluded that research centers would permit activities that cannot be accomplished in the traditional mode of small groups or single investigators or with the current research infrastructure. The IWGN recognized the importance of establishing research centers with major Department of Energy (DOE) specialized and user facilities. Consequently, the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences (OBES) plans to support the NNI, in part, through the establishment of an integrated national program of Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRC) affiliated with major facilities at DOE's national laboratories. Specific objectives of the NSRCs are to accomplish the following: (1) Advance the fundamental understanding and control of materials at the nanoscale regime; (2) Provide an environment to support research of a scope, complexity, and disciplinary breadth not possible under traditional investigator or small group efforts; (3) Provide the foundation for the development of nanotechnologies important to the DOE; (4) Provide state-of-the-art equipment to in-house laboratory, university, and industry researchers and optimize the use of national user facilities for materials characterization employing electrons, photons, and neutrons; (5) Provide a formal mechanism for both short- and long-term collaborations and partnerships among DOE laboratory, academic, and industrial researchers; and (6) Provide training for graduate students and postdoctoral associates in interdisciplinary nanoscale science, engineering, and technology research

  1. Quality assurance of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Qingyu

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes the quality assurance work of external exposure measurement for national survey of environmental natural radioactive level. It mainly introduces instrumentation used in external exposure measurement and its properties, the measurement results of three times of national in-site intercomparison, and in-site sample check results of measurement results from 29 provinces, cities and autonomous regions and Wuhan, Baotou cities

  2. A National Initiative to Advance School Mental Health Performance Measurement in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, Elizabeth Halsted; Stephan, Sharon Hoover; Lever, Nancy; Ereshefsky, Sabrina; Mosby, Amanda; Bohnenkamp, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Standardized health performance measurement has increasingly become an imperative for assuring quality standards in national health care systems. As compared to somatic health performance measures, behavioral health performance measures are less developed. There currently is no national standardized performance measurement system for monitoring…

  3. Influence of Continuing Medical Education on Rheumatologists' Performance on National Quality Measures for Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Tamar; Rusie, Erica; Greene, Laurence; Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark L; Ruderman, Eric M; Carter, Jeffrey D; Patel, Barry; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-12-01

    In recent years researchers have reported deficits in the quality of care provided to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including low rates of performance on quality measures. We sought to determine the influence of a quality improvement (QI) continuing education program on rheumatologists' performance on national quality measures for RA, along with other measures aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities. Performance was assessed through baseline and post-education chart audits. Twenty community-based rheumatologists across the United States were recruited to participate in the QI education program and chart audits. Charts were retrospectively audited before (n = 160 charts) and after (n = 160 charts) the rheumatologists participated in a series of accredited QI-focused educational activities that included private audit feedback, small-group webinars, and online- and mobile-accessible print and video activities. The charts were audited for patient demographics and the rheumatologists' documented performance on the 6 quality measures for RA included in the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). In addition, charts were abstracted for documentation of patient counseling about medication benefits/risks and adherence, lifestyle modifications, and quality of life; assessment of RA medication side effects; and assessment of RA medication adherence. Mean rates of documented performance on 4 of the 6 PQRS measures for RA were significantly higher in the post-education versus baseline charts (absolute increases ranged from 9 to 24% of patient charts). In addition, after the intervention, significantly higher mean rates were observed for patient counseling about medications and quality of life, and for assessments of medication side effects and adherence (absolute increases ranged from 9 to 40% of patient charts). This pragmatic study provides preliminary evidence for the positive influence of QI-focused education in helping rheumatologists improve

  4. A general approach to welfare measurement through national income accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Asheim, Geir B.; Buchholz, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    We develop a framework for analyzing national income accounting using a revealed welfare approach that is sufficiently general to cover, e.g., both the standard discounted utilitarian and maximin criteria as special cases. We show that the basic welfare properties of comprehensive national income accounting, which were previously ascribed only to the discounted utilitarian case, in fact extend to this more general framework. In particular, it holds under a wide range of circumstances that rea...

  5. Statistical versus Musical Significance: Commentary on Leigh VanHandel's 'National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin London

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In “National Metrical Types in Nineteenth Century Art Song” Leigh Van Handel gives a sympathetic critique of William Rothstein’s claim that in western classical music of the late 18th and 19th centuries there are discernable differences in the phrasing and metrical practice of German versus French and Italian composers. This commentary (a examines just what Rothstein means in terms of his proposed metrical typology, (b questions Van Handel on how she has applied it to a purely melodic framework, (c amplifies Van Handel’s critique of Rothstein, and then (d concludes with a rumination on the reach of quantitative (i.e., statistically-driven versus qualitative claims regarding such things as “national metrical types.”

  6. Tree Inventory and Biometry Measurements, Tapajos National Forest, Para, Brazil, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This dataset provides tree inventory, tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and estimated crown measurements from 30 plots located in the Tapajos National...

  7. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Herché (Joel); M.J. Swenson (Michael); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling

  8. Functional significance of a novel 7-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms: results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrzak, Robert H; Tsai, Jack; Armour, Cherie; Mota, Natalie; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Southwick, Steven M

    2015-03-15

    While posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in the recently published Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) are clustered into four factors, emerging confirmatory factor analytic studies suggest that this disorder is best characterized by seven symptom clusters, including re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptoms. To date, however, data are lacking regarding the relation between this novel model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms and measures of clinical significance in this population (e.g., functioning). Using data from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), a contemporary, nationally representative sample of 1484 U.S. veterans, we evaluated clinical and functional correlates of a novel 7-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms. Differential patterns of associations were observed between DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters, and psychiatric comorbidities, suicidal ideation, hostility, and functioning and quality of life. Anhedonia symptoms, in particular, were strongly related to current depression, as well as reduced mental functioning and quality of life. Externalizing behaviors were most strongly related to hostility, supporting the convergent validity of this construct. Cross-sectional design and employment of self-report measures. These results suggest that a more refined 7-factor model of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may provide greater specificity in understanding associations with comorbid psychopathology, suicidal ideation, and functioning and quality of life in U.S. veterans. They further suggest that prevention and treatment efforts that target distinct aspects of the PTSD phenotype may be more effective in mitigating key clinical and functional outcomes in this population. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Clinical significance of dynamic measurements of serum and urinary TNF-α contents in patients receiving kidney transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Cuihua; Xu Jun; Zhang Daojie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of dynamic measurements of serum and urinary TNF-α contents in patients following kidney transplantation. Methods: Serum and urinary TNF-α contents were measured with RIA in 45 patients receiving kidney transplantation (both before and 2 day after operation) and 45 controls. In the group of 33 patients without rejection, serial dynamic measurements of serum and urinary TNF-α content were repeatedly performed on d7, d14, d21 and d28 postoperatively. Results: Serum TNF-α levels in all the patients groups were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Urinary TNF-α levels dropped even faster and approached control values by d7. Conclusion: Continuous monitoring of post-operative serum and urinary TNF-α contents serves as an important indicator of the function of the transplanted kidney

  10. Zion National Park Visitor Center: Significant Energy Savings Achieved through a Whole-Building Design Process: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.; Hayter, S.

    2002-07-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) applied a whole-building design process developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to create a building that performs more than 70% better than a comparable code-compliant building at no additional construction cost. This whole-building design process involves a committed design team, including the energy consultant, in the earliest conceptual design phase and continues through building commissioning. The design team for this project included the architect, engineer, energy consultant, landscape architect, owner, operator, and others who could influence the building design and operation. Extensive whole-building energy and lighting computer simulations were conducted throughout the process, which included the integration of energy efficient and renewable energy technologies into the building. The design team, inspired by natural cooling within the canyon, developed simple solutions to create an extremely energy efficient building. The se strategies included natural ventilation cooling, cooltowers for evaporative cooling without distribution fans, daylighting, massive building materials, Trombe walls and direct solar gains for heating, engineered window overhangs for solar load control, a building automation system to maintain comfort and control the energy-efficient lighting system, and a roof-mounted photovoltaic system to offset building electrical loads and ensure a power supply during the frequent utility grid outages.

  11. Clinical significance of measurement of serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels in male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianquan; Zhou Minglian; He Haoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels in male patients with infertility. Methods: Serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL (with RIA) were measured in 36 male patients with infertility and 35 male controls. Results: Serum T level was significantly lower in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum TNF-α, FSH and PRL levels were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.01). Serum TNF-α level was negatively correlated with T level in the patients (r=-0.5184, P<0.01) and positively correlated with FSH, PRL levels (r=0.6184, 0.5925, P<0.01). Conclusion: Serum TNF-α, T, FSH and PRL levels were significantly changed in male with infertility and determination of which might useful for prognosis and treatment clinically. (authors)

  12. A cross-national analysis of measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whisman, Mark A; Judd, Charles M

    2016-02-01

    Measurement invariance of the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was examined in probability samples of adults 50-79 years of age living in the United States, England, and Japan. Confirmatory factor analysis modeling was used to test for multigroup measurement invariance of a single-factor structure of the SWLS. Results support a single-factor structure of the SWLS across the 3 countries, with tests of measurement invariance of the SWLS supporting its configural invariance and metric invariance. These results suggest that the SWLS may be used as a single-factor measure of life satisfaction in the United States, England, and Japan, and that it is appropriate to compare correlates of the SWLS in middle-aged and older adults across these 3 countries. However, results provided evidence for only partial scalar invariance, with the intercept for SWLS Item 4 varying across countries. Cross-national comparisons of means revealed a lower mean at the latent variable level for the Japanese sample than for the other 2 samples. In addition, over and above the latent mean difference, the Japanese sample also manifested a significantly lower intercept on Item 4. Implications of the findings for research on cross-national comparisons of life satisfaction in European American and East Asian countries are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. National radon measurement-proficiency program: Individual proficiency report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    In February 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) established the Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program to assist the public in identifying organizations capable of providing reliable radon measurement services. In December 1991, EPA announced the new individual proficiency listing category in the RMP Program. Individuals applying for this new listing status must demonstrate knowledge of radon measurement fundamentals by passing a written proficiency examination, maintain affiliation with an RMP listed organization, and meet other program requirements. This report lists those individuals who have met the requirements of the RMP Program as of April 30, 1992. These requirements are designed to provide minimum proficiency criteria for individuals who provide radon measurement services on-site in a residential environment

  14. A National Trial on Differences in Cerebral Perfusion Pressure Values by Measurement Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNett, Molly M; Bader, Mary Kay; Livesay, Sarah; Yeager, Susan; Moran, Cristina; Barnes, Arianna; Harrison, Kimberly R; Olson, DaiWai M

    2018-04-01

    Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) is a key parameter in management of brain injury with suspected impaired cerebral autoregulation. CPP is calculated by subtracting intracranial pressure (ICP) from mean arterial pressure (MAP). Despite consensus on importance of CPP monitoring, substantial variations exist on anatomical reference points used to measure arterial MAP when calculating CPP. This study aimed to identify differences in CPP values based on measurement location when using phlebostatic axis (PA) or tragus (Tg) as anatomical reference points. The secondary study aim was to determine impact of differences on patient outcomes at discharge. This was a prospective, repeated measures, multi-site national trial. Adult ICU patients with neurological injury necessitating ICP and CPP monitoring were consecutively enrolled from seven sites. Daily MAP/ICP/CPP values were gathered with the arterial transducer at the PA, followed by the Tg as anatomical reference points. A total of 136 subjects were enrolled, resulting in 324 paired observations. There were significant differences for CPP when comparing values obtained at PA and Tg reference points (p Differences remained significant in repeated measures model when controlling for clinical factors (mean CPP-PA = 80.77, mean CPP-Tg = 70.61, p identified as adequate with PA values, yet inadequate with CPP values measured at the Tg. Findings identify numerical differences for CPP based on anatomical reference location and highlight importance of a standard reference point for both clinical practice and future trials to limit practice variations and heterogeneity of findings.

  15. Computation of complexity measures of morphologically significant zones decomposed from binary fractal sets via multiscale convexity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sin Liang; Koo, Voon Chet; Daya Sagar, B.S.

    2009-01-01

    Multiscale convexity analysis of certain fractal binary objects-like 8-segment Koch quadric, Koch triadic, and random Koch quadric and triadic islands-is performed via (i) morphologic openings with respect to recursively changing the size of a template, and (ii) construction of convex hulls through half-plane closings. Based on scale vs convexity measure relationship, transition levels between the morphologic regimes are determined as crossover scales. These crossover scales are taken as the basis to segment binary fractal objects into various morphologically prominent zones. Each segmented zone is characterized through normalized morphologic complexity measures. Despite the fact that there is no notably significant relationship between the zone-wise complexity measures and fractal dimensions computed by conventional box counting method, fractal objects-whether they are generated deterministically or by introducing randomness-possess morphologically significant sub-zones with varied degrees of spatial complexities. Classification of realistic fractal sets and/or fields according to sub-zones possessing varied degrees of spatial complexities provides insight to explore links with the physical processes involved in the formation of fractal-like phenomena.

  16. Partnership for the Revitalization of National Wind Tunnel Force Measurement Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.; Skelley, Marcus L.; Woike, Mark R.; Bader, Jon B.; Marshall, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    Lack of funding and lack of focus on research over the past several years, coupled with force measurement capabilities being decentralized and distributed across the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) research centers, has resulted in a significant erosion of (1) capability and infrastructure to produce and calibrate force measurement systems; (2) NASA s working knowledge of those systems; and (3) the quantity of high-quality, full-capability force measurement systems available for use in aeronautics testing. Simultaneously, and at proportional rates, the capability of industry to design, manufacture, and calibrate these test instruments has been eroding primarily because of a lack of investment by the aeronautics community. Technical expertise in this technology area is a core competency in aeronautics testing; it is highly specialized and experience-based, and it represents a niche market for only a few small precision instrument shops in the United States. With this backdrop, NASA s Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) chartered a team to examine the issues and risks associated with the problem, focusing specifically on strain- gage balances. The team partnered with the U.S. Air Force s Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) to exploit their combined capabilities and take a national level government view of the problem. This paper describes the team s approach, its findings, and its recommendations, and the current status for revitalizing the government s balance capability with respect to designing, fabricating, calibrating, and using the instruments.

  17. The paradox of measuring succes of nations in elite sport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bosscher, Veerle; Heyndels, B.; de Knop, Paul; van Bottenburg, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/114979189; Shibli, Simon

    2008-01-01

    The achievement of international and especially Olympic sporting success is increasingly important to a growing number of countries. It is however not clear how success is defined and can be measured. The number of medals won in Olympics Games and other international sport competitions offers the

  18. Measurement of Ethnic Background in Cross-national School Surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helene Nordahl; Krølner, Rikke; Páll, Gabrilla

    2011-01-01

    Indicators such as country of birth and language spoken at home have been used as proxy measures for ethnic background, but the validity of these indicators in surveys among school children remains unclear. This study aimed at comparing item response and student-parent agreement on four questions...

  19. Measuring the Knowledge Economy: A National and Organizational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona – Diana LEON

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze how the knowledge economy is measured and how different are the tools developed for this purpose. Since the research focuses on the “how” issues, a qualitative approach is employed. The analysis concentrates on three of the most frequently used tools for measuring a country’s progress towards consolidating itself as a knowledge economy, namely: Knowledge Assessment Methodology, developed by World Bank, Lisbon Scorecard, elaborated by World Economic Forum, and Innovation Union Scoreboard, created by the European Union. Nevertheless, Kensho New Economies Composite Index – the newest instrument developed by Kensho Technologies – is brought forward. The results prove that the three most frequently used tools for measuring countries’ progress towards consolidating themselves as knowledge economies have the same information capability while the newest tool emphasizes what is usually labelled as “intellectual capital”, although it uses the phrase “Knowledge Economy”. On the one hand, these results shed light on policy-makers’ psychological need of measuring the intangible assets, and transforming the intangible into tangible. On the other hand, they highlight the need for redefining the concept of “knowledge economy” and establishing its pillars.

  20. The Gut-Brain Axis in Healthy Females: Lack of Significant Association between Microbial Composition and Diversity with Psychiatric Measures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C Kleiman

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between the composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota and measures of depression, anxiety, eating disorder psychopathology, stress, and personality in a group of healthy adult females.Female participants (n = 91 ages 19-50 years with BMI 18.5-25 kg/m2 were recruited from central North Carolina between July 2014 and March 2015. Participants provided a single fecal sample and completed an online psychiatric questionnaire that included five measures: (i Beck Anxiety Inventory; (ii Beck Depression Inventory-II; (iii Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire; (iv Perceived Stress Scale; and (v Mini International Personality Item Pool. Bacterial composition and diversity were characterized by Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and associations were examined using Kendall's tau-b correlation coefficient, in conjunction with Benjamini and Hochberg's False Discovery Rate procedure.We found no significant associations between microbial markers of gut composition and diversity and scores on psychiatric measures of anxiety, depression, eating-related thoughts and behaviors, stress, or personality in a large cohort of healthy adult females.This study was the first specifically to examine associations between the intestinal microbiota and psychiatric measures in healthy females, and based on 16S rRNA taxonomic abundances and diversity measures, our results do not suggest a strong role for the enteric microbe-gut-brain axis in normal variation on responses to psychiatric measures in this population. However, the role of the intestinal microbiota in the pathophysiology of psychiatric illness may be limited to more severe psychopathology.

  1. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure in China and their significances on the natural gas industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenchen Fang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coal measure gas sources of coal-derived gas fields in the Late Paleozoic China are the Lower Carboniferous Dishuiquan Formation, the Upper Carboniferous Batamayineishan Formation and Benxi Formation, the Lower Permian Taiyuan Formation and Shanxi Formation, and the Upper Permian Longtan Formation. The coal-derived gas accumulates in Ordovician, Carboniferous, Permian, and Paleocene reservoirs and are distributed in Ordos Basin, Bohai Bay Basin, Junggar Basin, and Sichuan Basin. There are 16 gas fields and 12 of them are large gas fields such as the Sulige large gas field which is China's largest reserve with the highest annual output. According to component and alkane carbon isotope data of 99 gas samples, they are distinguished to be coal-derived gas from coal-derived gas with δ13C2 > −28.5‰ and δ13C1 -δ13C2 -δ13C3 identification chart. The Late Paleozoic relative gas fields of coal measure are significant for the Chinese natural gas industry: proven natural gas geological reserves and annual output of them account for 1/3 in China, and the gas source of three significant large gas fields is coal-derived, which of five significant large gas fields supporting China to be a great gas producing country. The average reserves of the gas fields and the large gas fields formed from the late Paleozoic coal measure are 5.3 and 1.7 times that of the gas fields and the large gas fields in China.

  2. The challenge of measuring emergency preparedness: integrating component metrics to build system-level measures for strategic national stockpile operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Brian A; Faith, Kay Sullivan

    2013-02-01

    Although significant progress has been made in measuring public health emergency preparedness, system-level performance measures are lacking. This report examines a potential approach to such measures for Strategic National Stockpile (SNS) operations. We adapted an engineering analytic technique used to assess the reliability of technological systems-failure mode and effects analysis-to assess preparedness. That technique, which includes systematic mapping of the response system and identification of possible breakdowns that affect performance, provides a path to use data from existing SNS assessment tools to estimate likely future performance of the system overall. Systems models of SNS operations were constructed and failure mode analyses were performed for each component. Linking data from existing assessments, including the technical assistance review and functional drills, to reliability assessment was demonstrated using publicly available information. The use of failure mode and effects estimates to assess overall response system reliability was demonstrated with a simple simulation example. Reliability analysis appears an attractive way to integrate information from the substantial investment in detailed assessments for stockpile delivery and dispensing to provide a view of likely future response performance.

  3. Measurement of serum FT3 and FT4 in patients with chronic renal failure and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Qingling; Zhang Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid hormones in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and it's clinical significance. Methods: FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH levels were measured with radioimmunoassay for 42 CRF patients (42 CRF patients were subdivided into uremia and azotemia) and 18 cases of renal disease patients with a normal renal function. Results: Levels of FT 3 , FT 4 and TSH in uremia group and azotemia group were significantly lower than that of normal renal function group (P 3 , FT 4 and TSH in uremia group were remarkably lower than azotemia group (P 3 , FT 4 in patients with CRF can reflect the severity of renal function damage, and can also be an important prognosis index

  4. [The clinical significance of the measurement of plasma transferrin as a growth factor. II. The changes in various endocrine status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, M; Odagaki, E; Morioka, T; Nakagawa, K

    1987-05-20

    The clinical significance of the measurement of plasma transferrin (Tf) in patients with hypophysial disorders was reported in our previous papers. In the present study, we determined plasma Tf levels in 55 patients with various endocrine states and considered their clinical significance compared with plasma somatomedin-C (SM-C) levels. Plasma Tf levels decreased significantly in patients with anorexia nervosa (p less than 0.02), hyperthyroidism (p less than 0.05), primary hypothyroidism (p less than 0.05) and Cushing's syndrome (p less than 0.05), while they were elevated significantly in pregnancy (p less than 0.01) or females using estrogens (p less than 0.05). The former two declines were considered a reflection of the malnutritional state of the patients since a significant negative correlation was observed between plasma Tf levels and the percentile deficit from the ideal body weight in patients with anorexia nervosa (p less than 0.01), or between plasma Tf levels and elevated T3 levels which induce hypermetabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism (p less than 0.01). A significant correlation was observed between the SM-C and Tf levels in these subjects (including normal controls and patients with hypophysial disorders) as a whole (r = 0.79, p less than 0.001). These data indicate that plasma Tf is changeable according to the endocrinological and nutritional conditions with good correlation to the SM-C, and it is suggested that Tf also operates as a growth factor in vivo.

  5. Clinical significance of measurement of serum insulin-like growth factor II and adrenomedulion levels in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Bifu; Ji Naijun; Mei Yibin; Wang Chengyao; Chen Donghai; Li Fuyuan; Guan Lihua; Gao Meiying

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum levels of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF II) and adrenomedullin (ADM) in patients with essential hypertension. Methods: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were measured in 62 cases of hypertension and 40 controls with RIA. Results: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were significantly bigger in hypertensive patients than those in the controls (t = 4.454, p < 0.01; t = 3.992, p < 0.01). The serum IGF II level was significantly positively correlated to the serum ADM levels (r = 0.379, p < 0.05) and both were significantly positively correlated to the mean arterial pressure (r = 0.346, r = 0.353, p < 0.05) but not with BMI. Serum ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressed from stage I to stage III (p < 0.05) with levels in stage III markedly higher than those in stage I (p < 0.01). In EH patients with heart and/or brain and/or renal complications the serum ADM levels were significantly higher than those in EH patients without complications (t = 2.050, p < 0.05). Such differences did not exist in the case of IGF II. Conclusion: Serum IGF II and ADM levels were increased markedly in hypertensive patients. These two factors were mutually positively correlated and both were positively correlated to mean arterial pressure. ADM levels increased gradually as the disease progressing but IGF II levels remained stable

  6. Using network centrality measures to improve national journal classification lists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuccala, A.; Robinson-Garcia, N.; Repiso, R.; Torres-Salinas, D

    2016-07-01

    Research productivity for the scholar is often evaluated on the basis of his/her journal articles; however, specific journals are said to possess a higher measure of impact than others(Archambault & Larivière, 2009; Garfield, 2006; Glänzel & Moed, 2002). When a scholar decides where to publish, (s)he might consider a journal’s impact factor. Although Garfield (1973) claimed that citation counts to individual articles will determine the impact factor of a journal, newer evidence points to the contrary: a journal with a high impact factor can also influence an article’s readership and subsequent citation rates (Larivière & Gingras, 2010). This “chicken-and-egg” dispute (i.e., citations first or impact first?) can be tested, but can still have negative consequences for how journals are selected, rated, listed, and used by policymakers for developing measures of scholarly performance. For instance, in countries like Denmark and Spain classified journal lists are now being produced and used in the calculation of nationwide performance indicators. As a result, Danish and Spanish scholars are advised to contribute to journals of high “authority” (as in the former) or those within a high class (as in the latter). This can create a few problems. (Author)

  7. Influence of Continuing Medical Education on Rheumatologists? Performance on National Quality Measures for Rheumatoid Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Sapir, Tamar; Rusie, Erica; Greene, Laurence; Yazdany, Jinoos; Robbins, Mark L.; Ruderman, Eric M.; Carter, Jeffrey D.; Patel, Barry; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In recent years researchers have reported deficits in the quality of care provided to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), including low rates of performance on quality measures. We sought to determine the influence of a quality improvement (QI) continuing education program on rheumatologists’ performance on national quality measures for RA, along with other measures aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities. Performance was assessed through baseline and post-educati...

  8. Tumescent liposuction report performance measurement initiative: national survey results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, William; Cox, Sue Ellen; Kuznets, Naomi; Coleman, William P

    2004-07-01

    This study was created by the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement to measure clinical performance and improvement opportunities for physicians and ambulatory health-care organizations. Data were collected prospectively between February 2001 and August 2002. Thirty-nine study centers participated, and 688 patients who had tumescent liposuction were surveyed and followed for 6 months. The objective was to determine patient satisfaction with tumescent liposuction and examine current liposuction practice and the safety of tumescent liposuction in a representative cohort of patients. The Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement collected prospective data from February 2001 to August 2002 from 68 organizations registered for this study. Ultimately 39 organizations submitted 688 useable cases performed totally with local anesthesia, "tumescent technique." The overall clinical complication rate found in the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care Institute for Quality Improvement study was 0.7% (5 of 702). There was a minor complication rate of 0.57%. The major complication rate was 0.14% with one patient requiring hospitalization. Seventy-five percent of the patients reported no discomfort during their procedures. Of the 59% of patients who responded to a 6-month postoperative survey, 91% were positive about their decision to have liposuction (rating of 4 or 5 on a scale of 1-5) and 84% had high levels (4 or 5 on a scale of 1-5) of overall satisfaction with the procedure. Our findings are consistent with others in that tumescent liposuction is a safe procedure with a low complication rate and high patient satisfaction.

  9. The need for national diagnostic reference levels: entrance surface dose measurement in intraoral radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S. M. J.; Shareghi, A.; Kavousi, A.; Ghiassi-Nejad, M.; Jafari-Zadeh, M.; Nazeri, F.; Mozdarani, H.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Intraoral radiographies are the most frequent X-ray examinations in humans. According to International Commission on Radiation Protection recommendations, the selection of a diagnostic reference level should be specific to a country or region. Critical organs such as thyroid gland are exposed to X-rays in intraoral radiography and these exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. To assist the development of DRLs for intraoral radiography, a National Radiation Protection Department-sponsored pilot study was carried out. Materials and methods: thermoluminescent dosimetry is widely acknowledged to be the recommended method for measuring entrance surface doses. In this study, entrance surface doses was measured using LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters on the skin (either mandibular or maxillary arcs) of 40 patients. Three thermoluminescent dosimetry chips were placed on the skin of each patient. The doses were averaged for each radiography and mean entrance surface doses of all patients calculated. Results: the mean ±SD entrance surface dose at the center of the beam on the patient's skin in intraoral radiography was 1.173 ±0.606 mGy (ranged from 0.01 o 0.40 m Gy). The mean entrance surface doses for male and female patients were 1.380± 0.823, and 1.004± 0.258 respectively. No statistically significant difference was found between these means. Despite its necessity , in national level , there is no published data on the diagnostic reference levels for intraoral radiography. However, the results obtained in this study are lower than those reported by investigators in other countries. Conclusion: in IR Iran , due to lack of large scale studies, no diagnostic reference levels have been set for X-ray diagnostic procedures. Due to lack of national diagnostic reference levels, it is not possible to clarify whether in intraoral radiographies any dose reduction techniques are needed. We intend to perform similar nationwide studies to set the

  10. Diurnally resolved particulate and VOC measurements at a rural site: indication of significant biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjostedt, S. J.; Slowik, J. G.; Brook, J. R.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Mihele, C.; Stroud, C. A.; Vlasenko, A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2011-06-01

    We report simultaneous measurements of volatile organic compound (VOC) mixing ratios including C6 to C8 aromatics, isoprene, monoterpenes, acetone and organic aerosol mass loadings at a rural location in southwestern Ontario, Canada by Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. During the three-week-long Border Air Quality and Meteorology Study in June-July 2007, air was sampled from a range of sources, including aged air from the polluted US Midwest, direct outflow from Detroit 50 km away, and clean air with higher biogenic input. After normalization to the diurnal profile of CO, a long-lived tracer, diurnal analyses show clear photochemical loss of reactive aromatics and production of oxygenated VOCs and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) during the daytime. Biogenic VOC mixing ratios increase during the daytime in accord with their light- and temperature-dependent sources. Long-lived species, such as hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol and benzene show little to no photochemical reactivity on this timescale. From the normalized diurnal profiles of VOCs, an estimate of OH concentrations during the daytime, measured O3 concentrations, and laboratory SOA yields, we calculate integrated local organic aerosol production amounts associated with each measured SOA precursor. Under the assumption that biogenic precursors are uniformly distributed across the southwestern Ontario location, we conclude that such precursors contribute significantly to the total amount of SOA formation, even during the period of Detroit outflow. The importance of aromatic precursors is more difficult to assess given that their sources are likely to be localized and thus of variable impact at the sampling location.

  11. Measurement and evaluation of national family planning programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1967-03-01

    ) segura de traducir las estadísticas de servicio en práticas y tal vez aún datos sobre suministro comercial en datos sabre tasas de natalidad. Esto incluye, par ejemplo, los esfuerzos para consolidar observaciones coma "cinco años-mujer de usa de IUD, a 400 condones equivalen a la prevención de un nacimiento," y esfuerzos como los de Pakistán de calcular tasas coma "años de protección de una pareja contra el embarazo."In the belief that a decrease in the rate of population growth will increase economic development, more than ten countries have inaugurated family planning programs in the past fifteen years. To provide a model for measuring the immediate, intermediate, and long-term effects of any such program, the authors use the Taiwan evaluation.The model suggests that a good system of evaluation should include monthly statistics on (1) participants, who are grouped by characteristics; (2) the distribution of supplies, reported at first by the characteristics of recipients, but after by gross volume only; (3) family planning activities of private physicians to measure the catalytic effect on the private sector; (4) new contacts and amount of advertising in mass media; (5) costs broken down by areas and by cost categories; and (6) distribution of commercial supplies. In addition, the program should conduct 300-400 interviews every 6-12 months to learn the rates of continuation and the rates and reasons for discontinuation. Finally, a KAP survey should be conducted every two years.The administration of the evaluation should be close to the director for policy decisions and for the ultimate work of evaluation-the finding of new ways to measure the main goal of change in fertility by the translation of statistics on Services provided and commercial supplies into birth rate data.

  12. A high-significance measurement of correlation between unresolved IRAS sources and optically-selected galaxy clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hincks, Adam D.; Hajian, Amir [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada); Addison, Graeme E., E-mail: hincks@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: ahajian@cita.utoronto.ca, E-mail: gaddison@phas.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada)

    2013-05-01

    We cross-correlate the 100 μm Improved Reprocessing of the IRAS Survey (IRIS) map and galaxy clusters at 0.1 < z < 0.3 in the maxBCG catalogue taken from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, measuring an angular cross-power spectrum over multipole moments 150 < l < 3000 at a total significance of over 40σ. The cross-spectrum, which arises from the spatial correlation between unresolved dusty galaxies that make up the cosmic infrared background (CIB) in the IRIS map and the galaxy clusters, is well-fit by a single power law with an index of −1.28±0.12, similar to the clustering of unresolved galaxies from cross-correlating far-infrared and submillimetre maps at longer wavelengths. Using a recent, phenomenological model for the spectral and clustering properties of the IRIS galaxies, we constrain the large-scale bias of the maxBCG clusters to be 2.6±1.4, consistent with existing analyses of the real-space cluster correlation function. The success of our method suggests that future CIB-optical cross-correlations using Planck and Herschel data will significantly improve our understanding of the clustering and redshift distribution of the faint CIB sources.

  13. Diagnostic Significance of Measuring Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor for the Differentiation between Malignant and Tuberculous Pleural Effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Ryul; Kim, Byoung-Ryun; Park, Rae-Kil; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Jeong, Eun-Taik; Hwang, Ki-Eun

    2017-06-01

    Malignancy and tuberculosis are common causes of lymphocytic exudative pleural effusion. However, it is occasionally difficult to differentiate malignant pleural effusion from tuberculous pleural effusion. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical cytokine in the pathogenesis of malignant pleural effusion. Endocan is a dermatan sulfate proteoglycan that is secreted by endothelial cells. Importantly, endocan mediates the vascular growth-promoting action of VEGF. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of VEGF and endocan in pleural effusion. We thus measured the levels of VEGF and endocan in the pleural effusion and serum samples of patients with lung cancer (n = 59) and those with tuberculosis (n = 32) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lung cancer included 40 cases of adenocarcinoma, 13 of squamous cell carcinoma, and 6 of small cell carcinoma. Pleural effusion VEGF levels were significantly higher in the malignant group than in the tuberculosis group (2,091.47 ± 1,624.80 pg/mL vs. 1,291.05 ± 1,100.53 pg/mL, P pleural effusion endocan levels were similar between the two groups (1.22 ± 0.74 ng/mL vs. 0.87 ± 0.53 ng/mL). The areas under the curve of VEGF and endocan were 0.73 and 0.52, respectively. Notably, the VEGF levels were similar in malignant pleural effusion, irrespective of the histological type of lung cancer. Moreover, no significant difference was found in the serum VEGF and endocan levels between patients with lung cancer and those with tuberculosis. In conclusion, high VEGF levels in pleural effusion are suggestive of malignant pleural effusion.

  14. Benchmarking in the National Intellectual Capital Measurement: Is It the Best Available Approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januškaite, Virginija; Užiene, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable economic development is an aspiration of every nation in today's knowledge economy. Scientists for a few decades claim that intellectual capital management is the answer how to reach this goal. Currently, benchmarking methodology is the most common approach in the national intellectual capital measurement intended to provide…

  15. Conceptualizing and measuring demand for recreation on national forests: a review and synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian E. Garber-Yonts

    2005-01-01

    This analysis examines the problem of measuring demand for recreation on national forests and other public lands. Current measures of recreation demand in Forest Service resource assessments and planning emphasize population-level participation rates and activity-based economic values for visitor days. Alternative measures and definitions of recreation demand are...

  16. Effects of Measurement Errors on Individual Tree Stem Volume Estimates for the Austrian National Forest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambros Berger; Thomas Gschwantner; Ronald E. McRoberts; Klemens. Schadauer

    2014-01-01

    National forest inventories typically estimate individual tree volumes using models that rely on measurements of predictor variables such as tree height and diameter, both of which are subject to measurement error. The aim of this study was to quantify the impacts of these measurement errors on the uncertainty of the model-based tree stem volume estimates. The impacts...

  17. Personal selling constructs and measures: Emic versus etic approaches to cross-national research

    OpenAIRE

    Herché, Joel; Swenson, Michael; Verbeke, Willem

    1996-01-01

    textabstractEvaluates transportability of personal selling measures across cultural boundaries. Concept of measurement development; Emic and etic approaches to developing measures for cross-cultural applications; Cross-national dimensionality, reliability and construct validity of adaptive selling (ADAPTS) and customer-oriented selling (SOCO).

  18. National Academy of Medicine Social and Behavioral Measures: Associations With Self-Reported Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Aric A; Gottlieb, Laura M; Giuse, Nunzia B; Koonce, Taneya Y; Kusnoor, Sheila V; Stead, William W; Adler, Nancy E

    2017-10-01

    Social and behavioral factors play important roles in physical and mental health; however, they are not routinely assessed in the healthcare system. A brief panel of measures of social and behavioral determinants of health (SBDs) were recommended in a National Academy of Medicine report for use in electronic health records. Initial testing of the panel established feasibility of use and robustness of the measures. This study evaluates their convergent and divergent validity in relation to self-reported physical and mental health and social desirability bias. Adults, aged ≥18 years, were recruited through Qualtrics online panel survey platform in 2015 (data analyzed in 2015-2016). Participants completed the (1) panel of SBD measures; (2) 12-Item Short Form Health Survey to assess associations with global physical and mental health; and (3) Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale short form to assess whether social desirability influenced associations between SBD measures and self-reported health. The sample included 513 participants (mean age, 47.9 [SD=14.2] years; 65.5% female). Several SBD domain measures were associated with physical and mental health. Adjusting for age, poorer physical and mental health were observed among participants reporting higher levels of financial resource strain, stress, depression, physical inactivity, current tobacco use, and a positive score for intimate partner violence. These associations remained significant after adjustment for social desirability bias. SBD domains were associated with global measures of physical and mental health and were not impacted by social desirability bias. The panel of SBD measures should now be tested in clinical settings. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Business Ethics of The Hui Nationality & Its Contemporary Significance%回族的商业伦理思想及其当代意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓华; 吕广文

    2012-01-01

      回族起源于唐宋时期阿拉伯地区的来华商人,是一个以商为本的民族。回族商人在长期的经济活动中形成了一套集法律、宗教、道德于一体的商业伦理思想,在这一独具特色思想的指导下,回民族的经济健康、有序地发展,民族不断繁荣强大。在今天的社会主义市场经济体制下,弘扬回族商业伦理思想,仍然具有十分重要的现实指导意义。%  The Hui Nationality originated from the Arabian merchants came to china in the Tang and Song Dynasties, it is a business-oriented nation. By the long-term economic activities, Hui merchants formed a set of business ethics incorporating the law, religion and morality. Under the guidance of this unique idea, Hui's economy achieves sound and orderly development, and their nation becomes more and more prosperous and powerful. In the context of today’s socialist market economic system, carrying forward the business ethics of the Hui Nationality sill has important practical and guiding significance.

  20. A significant carbon sink in temperate forests in Beijing: based on 20-year field measurements in three stands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, JianXiao; Hu, XueYang; Yao, Hui; Liu, GuoHua; Ji, ChenJun; Fang, JingYun

    2015-11-01

    Numerous efforts have been made to characterize forest carbon (C) cycles and stocks in various ecosystems. However, long-term observation on each component of the forest C cycle is still lacking. We measured C stocks and fluxes in three permanent temperate forest plots (birch, oak and pine forest) during 2011–2014, and calculated the changes of the components of the C cycle related to the measurements during 1992–1994 at Mt. Dongling, Beijing, China. Forest net primary production in birch, oak, and pine plots was 5.32, 4.53, and 6.73 Mg C ha-1 a-1, respectively. Corresponding net ecosystem production was 0.12, 0.43, and 3.53 Mg C ha-1 a-1. The C stocks and fluxes in 2011–2014 were significantly larger than those in 1992–1994 in which the biomass C densities in birch, oak, and pine plots increased from 50.0, 37.7, and 54.0 Mg C ha-1 in 1994 to 101.5, 77.3, and 110.9 Mg C ha-1 in 2014; soil organic C densities increased from 207.0, 239.1, and 231.7 Mg C ha-1 to 214.8, 241.7, and 238.4 Mg C ha-1; and soil heterotrophic respiration increased from 2.78, 3.49, and 1.81 Mg C ha-1 a-1 to 5.20, 4.10, and 3.20 Mg C ha-1 a-1. These results suggest that the mountainous temperate forest ecosystems in Beijing have served as a carbon sink in the last two decades. These observations of C stocks and fluxes provided field-based data for a long-term study of C cycling in temperate forest ecosystems.

  1. The Czech national long distances measuring standard Koštice - State of play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Červinka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article gives information about new Czech national long distances measuring standard, which has been preparedat the distance base near the Koštice village. Submitter of the project is the Czech Office for Standards, Metrology and Testing.Research and document preparation for creation of the measuring standard were ensured by the Research Institute of Geodesy,Topography and Cartography. Interlaboratory comparisons were made by staff of the Bundeswehr University in Munich. The paperreports about works, which will be carried out on national standard in the second half of this year. Purpose of this works is to improvecharacteristics of accuracy of national etalon.

  2. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  3. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzese, R.; Gaudioso, D.

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a 'sink' for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico

  4. Absolute measurement of the DT primary neutron yield on the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeper R.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the absolute neutron yield produced in inertial confinement fusion target experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF is essential in benchmarking progress towards the goal of achieving ignition on this facility. This paper describes three independent diagnostic techniques that have been developed to make accurate and precise DT neutron yield measurements on the NIF.

  5. Studying the Quality of Democracy: Two Cross-National Measures of Democratic Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledet, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article provides new cross-national measures of two dimensions of democratic citizenship with great import for the study of democratic quality, expressive participation, and intolerance of diversity. Using data from the 2000-2001 wave of the World Values Survey, the paper present new ways to measure participation and intolerance, as well as a…

  6. Update: Partnership for the Revitalization of National Wind Tunnel Force Measurement Technology Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Aeronautics Test Program (ATP) chartered a team to examine the issues and risks associated with the lack of funding and focus on force measurement over the past several years, focusing specifically on strain-gage balances. NASA partnered with the U.S. Air Force's Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) to exploit their combined capabilities and take a national level government view of the problem and established the National Force Measurement Technology Capability (NFMTC) project. This paper provides an update on the team's status for revitalizing the government's balance capability with respect to designing, fabricating, calibrating, and using the these critical measurement devices.

  7. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  8. Want Amid Plenty: Developing and Testing a Cross-National Measure of Anomie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K. Cochran

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges facing researchers trying to empirically test structural or institutional anomie theories is the operationalization of the key concept of anomie. This challenge is heightened by the data constraints involved in cross-national research. As a result, researchers have been forced to rely on surrogate or proxy measures of anomie and indirect tests of the theories. The purpose of this study is to examine an innovative and more theoretically sound measure of anomie and to test its ability to make cross-national predictions of serious crime. Our results are supportive of the efficacy of this construct to explain cross-national variations in crime rates. Nations with the highest rates of structural anomie also have the highest predicted rates of homicide.

  9. Impact of Tourette Syndrome on School Measures in a Nationally Representative Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Angelika H.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Holbrook, Joseph R.; Bloomfield, Jeanette; Giordano, Kathy

    2018-01-01

    Objective Children with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk for a variety of co-occurring conditions and learning and school problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of TS and co-occurring conditions on school measures. Methods Parent-reported data from the 2007–2008 and 2011–2012 National Survey of Children’s Health were combined (n = 129,353 children aged 6–17 yrs). Parent report of health care provider diagnosis of TS; co-occurring mental, emotional, and behavioral conditions; learning and language conditions; and school measures were assessed. School measures included type of school, individual education plan (IEP), number of school days missed, school problems, doing well in school, doing homework, and repeating a grade. Children with TS were compared with those who never had TS on school measures accounting for co-occurring conditions. Results After adjusting for demographics, compared with children without TS, children currently with TS were more likely to have an IEP, have a parent contacted about school problems, and not complete homework. After further adjusting for co-occurring conditions, only IEP status remained statistically significant. Compared with children with mild TS, children with moderate or severe TS were more likely to have an IEP, repeat a grade, encounter school problems, and not care about doing well in school. Conclusion Tourette syndrome severity and co-occurring conditions are associated with school challenges and educational service needs. Awareness among health care providers, teachers and parents of the potential challenges related to both TS and co-occurring conditions would help to best support the child’s education. PMID:29432328

  10. Impact of Tourette Syndrome on School Measures in a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claussen, Angelika H; Bitsko, Rebecca H; Holbrook, Joseph R; Bloomfield, Jeanette; Giordano, Kathy

    2018-05-01

    Children with Tourette syndrome (TS) are at risk for a variety of co-occurring conditions and learning and school problems. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of TS and co-occurring conditions on school measures. Parent-reported data from the 2007-2008 and 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health were combined (n = 129,353 children aged 6-17 yrs). Parent report of health care provider diagnosis of TS; co-occurring mental, emotional, and behavioral conditions; learning and language conditions; and school measures were assessed. School measures included type of school, individual education plan (IEP), number of school days missed, school problems, doing well in school, doing homework, and repeating a grade. Children with TS were compared with those who never had TS on school measures accounting for co-occurring conditions. After adjusting for demographics, compared with children without TS, children currently with TS were more likely to have an IEP, have a parent contacted about school problems, and not complete homework. After further adjusting for co-occurring conditions, only IEP status remained statistically significant. Compared with children with mild TS, children with moderate or severe TS were more likely to have an IEP, repeat a grade, encounter school problems, and not care about doing well in school. Tourette syndrome severity and co-occurring conditions are associated with school challenges and educational service needs. Awareness among health care providers, teachers and parents of the potential challenges related to both TS and co-occurring conditions would help to best support the child's education.

  11. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs): the significance of using humanistic measures in clinical trial and clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refolo, P; Minacori, R; Mele, V; Sacchini, D; Spagnolo, A G

    2012-10-01

    Patient-reported outcome (PRO) is an "umbrella term" that covers a whole range of potential types of measurement but it is used specifically to refer to all measures quantifying the state of health through the evaluation of outcomes reported by the patient himself/herself. PROs are increasingly seen as complementary to biomedical measures and they are being incorporated more frequently into clinical trials and clinical practice. After considering the cultural background of PROs - that is the well known patient-centered model of medicine -, their historical profile (since 1914, the year of the first outcome measure) and typologies, the paper aims at debating their methodological complexity and implementation into practice. Some clinical trials and therapeutic managements utilizing patient-centered measures will be also analyzed.

  12. Proceedings of the 66th National Conference on Weights and Measures, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollin, H. F.; Barbrow, L. E.; Heffernan, A. P.

    1981-12-01

    Major issues discussed included measurement science education, enforcement uniformly, national type approval, inch pound and metric labeling provisions, new design and performance requirements for weighing and measuring technology, metric conversion of retail gasoline dispensers, weights and measures program evaluation studies of model State laws and regulations and their adoption by citation or other means by State and local jurisdictions, and report of States conducting grain moisture meter testing programs.

  13. Volume measurement of thalami in normal Chinese Han nationality adults by the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shuai; Chen Nan; Guo Yulin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of thalamus in 1000 healthy Chinese Han nationality adults, and to analyze the relationship between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume, to provide reliable data for the construction of database of Chinese adults' digital standard brain. Methods: Totally 1000 healthy Chinese adults of Han nationality aged from 18 to 80 years were recruited.They were divided into 5 groups by age: 18-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60 and 61-80 years. Each group included 100 males and 100 females. Brain images were obtained on a 1.5 T MR, and the outline of thalami was drawn with Aquariusws software. Then the thalamic volume was calculated automatically. The volumes of left and right thalamus were compared by paired sample t-test. Thalamic volumes of the same side were compared between males and females by independent sample t-test. And thalamic volumes of different age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. The relationships between thalamic volume and age, sex, weight and cerebral volume were analyzed respectively. Results: The males' standardized volumes of left and right thalamus of healthy Chinese Han nationality adults were (5776 ± 780), (5655 ± 759) mm 3 , and they were (5464 ±573), (5360 ± 542) mm 3 for female. The males' thalamic volume was more than the females' on the same side (t=2.245, 2.200, P<0.01). The left thalamic volumes of various age groups were (6180 ± 534), (6047 ± 562), (5426 ± 471), (5552 ± 526), (4866 ± 552) mm 3 , respectively, while the right thalamic volumes of the 5 groups were (6069 ± 532), (5895 ± 539), (5357 ± 480), (5396 ± 445),(4791 ± 558)mm 3 , respectively. There were statistically significant difference among the 5 groups (F=165.686, 165.235, P<0.01). The left and right thalamic volume were all negatively correlated with age (r=-0.633, -0.645, P<0.05). Conclusions: With high resolution 1.5 T MR scanner,grey matter and white matter can be depicted clearly and the outline

  14. National comparison of activity measurements of 131I, 60Co, and 133Ba in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurdiyanto, Gatot; Marsoem, Pujadi; Widodo, Susilo; Iskandar, Dadong; Muhayatun; Hartoyo, Unggul; Sugino; Gede Sutresna, I.; Hutabarat, Tommy; Suparman, Ibon; Purwanto, Setyo

    2014-01-01

    National comparisons of radioactivity measurements of 131 I and 60 Co (in 2010) and of 133 Ba (in 2011) were carried out within the framework of the National Radiation Metrology Laboratory Program of Indonesia, coordinated by PTKMR-BATAN. Eleven laboratories took part in the comparison, and all measurements were made using gamma spectrometry, on point sources with an activity between 2000 Bq and 6000 Bq. Several laboratories reported values which were more than 10% different from the reference value for 131 I and 133 Ba. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. This program will be continued with other radionuclides to maintain and control quality assurance for the local laboratories. - Highlights: • PTKMR-BATAN coordinated national comparison of 131 I, 60 Co and 133 Ba. • Eleven laboratories took part in the comparison. • All measurements were done using gamma spectrometry methods. • For 131 I and 133 Ba, 3 laboratories have more than 10% difference from reference laboratory value

  15. How does a quality audits work in national harmonization of activity measurement over nuclear medicine measurement in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, C.

    2006-01-01

    The National Control Center for Medical Devices (CCEEM) is a regulatory agency, belongs to the Cuban Ministry of Public Heath. It works to guarantee the safety and effectiveness of medical devices used into the National Health System (NHS) and the patient, and user protection. Quality Control assures that particular aspect will be satisfied, so since several years ago a national programme for the quality control of nuclear medicine instruments has been organized and established. A service was created in order to control periodically the state of the instrumentation in all the nuclear medicine departments, it is making annual quality control audits and participating in comparisons exercises organises by CCEEM. 3 comparisons exercises with CENTIS and services of NHS were made and eleven nuclear medicine departments were audited in order to perform a practical evaluation of this service, giving the two new regulations and general instructions to dose administration. The objects of the present work is shows, by those results, how does a quality audits work in National Harmonization of Activity Measurement over Nuclear Medicine Measurement in Cuba

  16. Significance of measurement of serum fibrosis markers (HA, LN, P III P, IV C) in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Mingxian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of determination of serum fibrosis markers in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Serum hyaluronic acid (HA), laminin (LN), procollagen III peptide (P III P) and Type IV collagen (IV C) contents were determined with RIA in 128 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis both before and after treatment as well as in 40 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum contents of the four markers in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Decreases of the levels in treatment failures were not significant and the levels remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum fibrosis markers levels in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis is valuable for early diagnosis as well as for evaluation of the effect of chemotherapy. (authors)

  17. Resolving the double tension: Toward a new approach to measurement modeling in cross-national research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Tait Runnfeldt

    The increasing global reach of survey research provides sociologists with new opportunities to pursue theory building and refinement through comparative analysis. However, comparison across a broad array of diverse contexts introduces methodological complexities related to the development of constructs (i.e., measurement modeling) that if not adequately recognized and properly addressed undermine the quality of research findings and cast doubt on the validity of substantive conclusions. The motivation for this dissertation arises from a concern that the availability of cross-national survey data has outpaced sociologists' ability to appropriately analyze and draw meaningful conclusions from such data. I examine the implicit assumptions and detail the limitations of three commonly used measurement models in cross-national analysis---summative scale, pooled factor model, and multiple-group factor model with measurement invariance. Using the orienting lens of the double tension I argue that a new approach to measurement modeling that incorporates important cross-national differences into the measurement process is needed. Two such measurement models---multiple-group factor model with partial measurement invariance (Byrne, Shavelson and Muthen 1989) and the alignment method (Asparouhov and Muthen 2014; Muthen and Asparouhov 2014)---are discussed in detail and illustrated using a sociologically relevant substantive example. I demonstrate that the former approach is vulnerable to an identification problem that arbitrarily impacts substantive conclusions. I conclude that the alignment method is built on model assumptions that are consistent with theoretical understandings of cross-national comparability and provides an approach to measurement modeling and construct development that is uniquely suited for cross-national research. The dissertation makes three major contributions: First, it provides theoretical justification for a new cross-national measurement model and

  18. Proposed measurement of the imaginary component of atomic form factor for medium Z-elements in regions exhibiting significant discrepancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jonge, M.; Dhal, B.B.; Tran, C.Q.; Barnea, Z.; Chantler, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Discrepancies in measurements of the complex atomic form factor in regions of medium Z are alarmingly high for such a fundamental problem. The consequence of this is that any experiment reliant on the Beer-Lambert absorption law that uses the tabulated absorption coefficients assumes an immediate experimental uncertainty of 2-10%, depending on the element and the energy under consideration. We have begun to address this state of affairs in the medium Z-region through a series of precise determinations of attenuation coefficients. We will elaborate on a proposed method of measuring the atomic form factor to 0.2% absolute accuracy

  19. Significance of preoperative cerebral blood flow measurements in endovascular occlusion of the internal carotid and middle cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, A.; Weitzner, I.; Luft, A.; Merland, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements during 12 endovascular balloon occlusions (ten internal carotid and two middle cerebral arteries) with good clinical and angiographic tolerance were done with repeated boluses of Xe-133 injected directly into the ipsi- and contralateral carotid systems, during the occlusion and repeated measurements with detectors on both sides (before occlusion and 5-30 minutes after occlusion). In two cases of unchanged and four of increased CBF, one reversible deficit was probably due to an embolus. In six cases of decreased CBF, two deficits occurred, characterized by a greater than 25% decrease. It seems to represent a good predictive value for intolerance to occlusion

  20. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Wanqin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) and NO (with bio-chemistry) levels were determined in 37 patients with schizophrenia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL-8 levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). While the serum NO levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). After six weeks' treatment, the levels of IL-6, IL-8 in the patients, though dropped markedly still remained significantly higher (P<0.05) than those in controls. The serum NO levels, though markedly increased after treatment, were still remained significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NO, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were closely related to the diseases process of schizophrenia and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  1. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1999-12-08

    release of tritium from the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

  2. Measures of difference and significance in the era of computer simulations, meta-analysis, and big data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijungs, R.; Henriksson, P.J.G.; Guinée, J.B.

    2016-01-01

    In traditional research, repeated measurements lead to a sample of results, and inferential statistics can be used to not only estimate parameters, but also to test statistical hypotheses concerning these parameters. In many cases, the standard error of the estimates decreases (asymptotically) with

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nan Deqi; Du Liang; Yang Sixue; Qin Yong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels in patients with schizophrenia. Methods: Serum TNF-α (with R/A) and NO/NOS (with bio-chemistry) levels were determined in 41 patients with schizophrenia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results:Before treatment the serum NOS, TNF-α levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P <0.01 ). After six weeks treatment, the levels in patients, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NO/NOS and TNF-α levels were closely related to the diseases process of schizophrenia and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  4. Diagnostic significance of measurements of specific IgG antibodies to Pseudomonas aeruginosa by three different serological methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pressler, T.; Karpati, F.; Granstrom, M.

    2008-01-01

    to characterize patients with different infection status. Elevated levels of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies showed to be the risk factor for developing chronic Pa infection. Due to the specificity of the tests, antibiotic treatment based on serology might be considered in selected cases. There is a window...... of opportunity for suppression and eradication of initial P. aeruginosa infection making measurement of specific anti-Pseudomonas antibodies helpful Udgivelsesdato: 2009/1...

  5. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight, ...... effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy....

  6. Measurements of gas filled halfraum energetics at the national ignition facility using a single quad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, J.L.; Fernandez, J.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Gautier, D.C.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Workman, J.B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Braun, D.; Landen, O.; Niemann, C.; Campbell, K.; Celeste, J.; Dewald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Hinkel, D.; Holder, J.; Kalantar, D.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Kirkwood, R.; Lee, F.D.; MacGowan, B.; MacKinnon, A.; McDonald, J.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Suter, L.; Young, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Gas filled halfraum experiments were conducted at the National Ignition Facility which provided an excellent test of the tools needed to understand halfraum energetics in an ignition relevant regime. The experiments used a highly shaped laser pulse and measured large levels of backscattered laser energy. These two components challenge the ability of radiation hydrodynamic simulations to model the experiments. The results show good agreement between experimental measurements and simulations. (authors)

  7. Measurements of gas filled halfraum energetics at the national ignition facility using a single quad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, J.L.; Fernandez, J.C.; Goldman, S.R.; Gautier, D.C.; Hegelich, B.M.; Montgomery, D.S.; Lanier, N.E.; Rose, H.A.; Workman, J.B.; Braun, D.; Landen, O.; Niemann, C.; Campbell, K.; Celeste, J.; Dewald, E.; Glenzer, S.; Hinkel, D.; Holder, J.; Kalantar, D.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kimbrough, J.; Kirkwood, R.; Lee, F.D.; MacGowan, B.; MacKinnon, A.; McDonald, J.; Schein, J.; Schneider, M.; Suter, L.; Young, B.

    2006-01-01

    Gas filled halfraum experiments were conducted at the National Ignition Facility which provided an excellent test of the tools needed to understand halfraum energetics in an ignition relevant regime. The experiments used a highly shaped laser pulse and measured large levels of backscattered laser energy. These two components challenge the ability of radiation hydrodynamic simulations to model the experiments. The results show good agreement between experimental measurements and simulations. (authors)

  8. Measurements and analysis of vibrations at Virilla Bridge, national route N° 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Navarro-Henríquez

    2015-06-01

    The measurements allowed quantifying the vibration magnitudes and deformation in various sections of the bridge, on condition of vehicular traffic service (environmental performance. The experimental results are compared with computational analytical modeling of the structure and also with national and international standards.

  9. Measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) : A cross-national validity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sala, M.N.; Molina, P.; Abler, B.; Kessler, H.; Vanbrabant, L.G.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/355587327; Van de Schoot, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this research was to examine the measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003) across two European nations. Participants were Italian and German undergraduate students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for the two-factor

  10. Energy savings Measures in Agriculture - Overview on the Basis of National Reports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.; Buisonjé, de F.E.; Ellen, H.H.; Stanghellini, C.; Voort, van der M.P.J.

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of energy inputs in agricultural production is a process of practical implementation of a set of energy saving (ES) measures associated with a given type of production, farm infrastructure and managerial or organizational activities. In six national reports from Finland, Germany,

  11. Psychometrically and qualitatively validating a cross-national cumulative measure of fear-based xenophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veer, C.G.; Ommundsen, R.; Yakushko, O.; Higler, L.E.A.; Woelders, S.; Hagen, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The article reports the results of a Mokken Scale Procedure (MSP) developing a hierarchical cross-national scale to measure xenophobia, and a qualitative validation of this scale. A pool of 30 xenophobic scale items were collected from several sources and edited according to established

  12. The National Outcomes Measurement System for Pediatric Speech-Language Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Robert; Schooling, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) National Outcomes Measurement System (NOMS) was developed in the late 1990s. The primary purpose was to serve as a source of data for speech-language pathologists (SLPs) who found themselves called on to provide empirical evidence of the functional outcomes associated with their…

  13. Establishment of national emission measurement activity in neighbouring areas of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunela, L.; Larjava, K.; Jormanainen, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Muurinen, M. [Enemi Ltd, Lahti (Finland); Hietamaeki, M. [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic countries) and the Republic State of Carelia, Russia belong to the so-called nearby areas of Finland. All being part of the former Soviet Union, they are now undergoing the establishment of their own environment- managing systems. Finland has shown a great amount of interest in supporting the efforts of these areas to solve their environmental problems. In 1993 VTT started, at the request of the East European Project of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, a four year project aiming at the establishment of national atmospheric emission measurement systems in the Baltic countries and the Republic state of Carelia (later: the counterpart countries). Proper national emission measurement systems were regarded important in order to provide reliable data on the emission situation for national and international use. The main target of the work is to raise the level of the emission measurements in the counterpart countries to the international level. Two aspects were considered to be required to achieve this goal; (1) delivery of proper emission measurement equipment, (2) training of the emission measurement personnel. It was estimated that within three to four years these counterpart countries could join the Finnish quality assurance system in emission measurements if desired. (author)

  14. Establishment of national emission measurement activity in neighbouring areas of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunela, L; Larjava, K; Jormanainen, P [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Muurinen, M [Enemi Ltd, Lahti (Finland); Hietamaeki, M [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic countries) and the Republic State of Carelia, Russia belong to the so-called nearby areas of Finland. All being part of the former Soviet Union, they are now undergoing the establishment of their own environment- managing systems. Finland has shown a great amount of interest in supporting the efforts of these areas to solve their environmental problems. In 1993 VTT started, at the request of the East European Project of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, a four year project aiming at the establishment of national atmospheric emission measurement systems in the Baltic countries and the Republic state of Carelia (later: the counterpart countries). Proper national emission measurement systems were regarded important in order to provide reliable data on the emission situation for national and international use. The main target of the work is to raise the level of the emission measurements in the counterpart countries to the international level. Two aspects were considered to be required to achieve this goal; (1) delivery of proper emission measurement equipment, (2) training of the emission measurement personnel. It was estimated that within three to four years these counterpart countries could join the Finnish quality assurance system in emission measurements if desired. (author)

  15. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results

  16. National and Regional Surveys of Radon Concentration in Dwellings. Review of Methodology and Measurement Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-12-15

    Reliable, comparable and 'fit for purpose' results are essential requirements for any decision based on analytical measurements. For the analyst, the availability of tested and validated sampling and analytical procedures is an extremely important tool for carrying out such measurements. For maximum utility, such procedures should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer for reference. In the specific case of radon surveys, it is very important to design a survey in such a way as to obtain results that can reasonably be considered representative of a population. Since 2004, the Environment Programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at the development of a set of procedures for the measurement of radionuclides in terrestrial environmental samples. The development of radon measurement procedures for national and regional surveys started with the collection and review of more than 160 relevant scientific papers. On the basis of this review, this publication summarizes the methodology and the measurement techniques suitable for a population representative national or regional survey on radon concentration in the indoor air of dwellings. The main elements of the survey design are described and discussed, such as the sampling scheme, the protocols, the questionnaire and the data analysis, with particular attention to the potential biases that can affect the representativeness of the results. Moreover, the main measurement techniques suitable for national surveys on indoor radon are reviewed, with particular attention to the elements that can affect the precision and accuracy of the results.

  17. Evaluation of Techniques to Detect Significant Network Performance Problems using End-to-End Active Network Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; Logg, Connie; Chhaparia, Mahesh; /SLAC; Grigoriev, Maxim; /Fermilab; Haro, Felipe; /Chile U., Catolica; Nazir, Fawad; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Sandford, Mark

    2006-01-25

    End-to-End fault and performance problems detection in wide area production networks is becoming increasingly hard as the complexity of the paths, the diversity of the performance, and dependency on the network increase. Several monitoring infrastructures are built to monitor different network metrics and collect monitoring information from thousands of hosts around the globe. Typically there are hundreds to thousands of time-series plots of network metrics which need to be looked at to identify network performance problems or anomalous variations in the traffic. Furthermore, most commercial products rely on a comparison with user configured static thresholds and often require access to SNMP-MIB information, to which a typical end-user does not usually have access. In our paper we propose new techniques to detect network performance problems proactively in close to realtime and we do not rely on static thresholds and SNMP-MIB information. We describe and compare the use of several different algorithms that we have implemented to detect persistent network problems using anomalous variations analysis in real end-to-end Internet performance measurements. We also provide methods and/or guidance for how to set the user settable parameters. The measurements are based on active probes running on 40 production network paths with bottlenecks varying from 0.5Mbits/s to 1000Mbit/s. For well behaved data (no missed measurements and no very large outliers) with small seasonal changes most algorithms identify similar events. We compare the algorithms' robustness with respect to false positives and missed events especially when there are large seasonal effects in the data. Our proposed techniques cover a wide variety of network paths and traffic patterns. We also discuss the applicability of the algorithms in terms of their intuitiveness, their speed of execution as implemented, and areas of applicability. Our encouraging results compare and evaluate the accuracy of our

  18. National measures required by the implementation of the climate convention and the Kyoto Protocol in Finland. Report by the Committee on National Climate Policy Measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-12-01

    The task of the Committee was to develop the administrative framework for the national measures that the UN Climate Convention and the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol require in Finland. The Committee proposes that a ministerial working group should continue to act in the Government to draft and implement the climate policy, assisted by a contact network representing the central ministries. The Committee recommends that Finland should have a national climate strategy that would be updated at two or three year's intervals. The drafting, implementation and monitoring of the Climate Strategy should be under the steering of the ministerial working group. In drafting and implementation of the strategy, the responsible ministry would be the one whose minister is the Chairman of the ministerial working group. The evaluation reports on the impacts of policy measures reducing greenhouse gases would be drawn up as part of the strategy's implementation. The Ministry of Trade and Industry would coordinate the scenarios that examine greenhouse gas emissions and that are required by the climate policy in practice. The drafting of the scenarios would be steered by the ministerial working group assisted by a contact network Expert institutions would participate both in the drafting and implementation of the strategy and in the follow-up of the implementation by producing the necessary surveys. In the Committee's opinion, international climate negotiations should still be under the drafting responsibility of the Ministry of the Environment. The Committee suggests that Statistics Finland should be appointed as the inventory entity of greenhouse gases and that a temporary steering group chaired by the Ministry of the Environment, representing all the central ministries and expert institutes, should be set up to assist and steer the national system calculating greenhouse gas emissions. The initial distribution according to the proposal for an EC Directive on emissions trading

  19. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  20. Primary study on the clinical significance of measurement of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and NPY concentrations in human semen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiyun; Ning Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the difference between the semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in fertile and non-fertile males with the relevant sperm count and motility. Methods: Semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY were determined with RIA in 110 non-fertile males. Simultaneous semen analysis revealed (1) Group A, n=45, with normal sperm count, (2) Group B, n=34 low sperm count (0-20) x 10 6 /ml and (3) Group C n=31, with aspermia. White blood cell/HPF was examined in all the semen specimens and sperm motile rate and motility were examined in Group A specimens. Results: The semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY in non-fertile males were significantly higher than those in fertile males (P 1 x 10 6 /ml) were significantly lower than those in specimens with more white blood cells (P<0.05). Conclusion: Higher semen plasma contents of EGF and NPY might exert toxic effect on the sperms, contributing to the development of infertility. (authors)

  1. Measurements of clinically significant doses of ionizing radiation using non-invasive in vivo EPR spectroscopy of teeth in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swartz, Harold M.; Iwasaki, Akinori; Walczak, Tadeusz; Demidenko, Eugene; Salikov, Ildar; Lesniewski, Piotr; Starewicz, Piotr; Schauer, David; Romanyukha, Alex

    2005-01-01

    There are plausible circumstances in which populations potentially have been exposed to doses of ionizing radiation that could cause direct clinical effects within days or weeks, but there is no clear knowledge as to the magnitude of the exposure to individuals. In vivo EPR is a method, perhaps the only such method that can differentiate among doses sufficiently to classify individuals into categories for treatment with sufficient accuracy to facilitate decisions on medical treatment. Individuals with significant risk then can have appropriate procedures initiated immediately, while those without a significant probability of acute effects could be reassured and removed from the need for further medical treatment. In its current state, the in vivo EPR dosimeter can provide estimates of absorbed dose of ±25 cGy in the range of 100->1000 cGy. This is expected to improve, with improvements in the resonator, the algorithm for calculating dose, and the uniformity of the magnetic field. In its current state of development, it probably is sufficient for most applications related to terrorism or nuclear warfare, for decision-making for action for individuals in regard to acute effects from exposure to ionizing radiation

  2. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Daping; Cheng Guanghua

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in patients with traumatic brain injury of different severity. Methods: 107 patients with traumatic brain injury were divided into three group on the basis of GCS: mild group (n=25, GCS>12), moderate group (n=33, GCS9-12) and severe group (n=49, GCS3-8). The plasma ET-1 and CGRP levels in these patients and 30 controls were determined with RIA. Results: 1) The plasma ET-1 levels in patients with traumatic brain injury were signilieantly higher than those in controls, the more severe the illness, the higher the ET-1 levels. 2)The plasma CGRP levels in patients of mild and moderate brain injury were found significantly higher than those in controls, while no significant differences were found between those in severe and control group. 3)The more severe the illness was, the lower CGRP/ET-1 ratio were found. Conclusion: The changes of plasma levels of ET-1 and CGRP and the CGRP/ET-1 ratio in the patients with traumatic brain injury were correlated with the severity of the illness, and might be of prognostic value. (authors)

  3. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide measurements in hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alenazi, Shehab Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the role of NT-proBNP levels in Preterm neonates suffering from PDA and used as a screening tool for predicting HsPDA and guiding physicians to consider early echocardiographic evaluation. This is a monocentric prospective blind study which was conducted at Arar Central Hospital, Ar'ar, Saudi Arabia, during the period between Jan 2014 to June 2014. Thirty-three (33) preterm infants born at less than 31 weeks of gestation or weighing less than 1200 g at birth infants were initially enrolled during a 6-month period. Blood samples were collected along with routine blood tests on days 1, 2, 3, and 7 of life for NT-proBNP analysis. Two echocardiographies were systematically performed on day two of life to ascertain about the status of Ductus Arteriosus. The Plasma NT-proBNP levels were high on day one of life and decline from day three to day seven of life except in those infants with significant hsPDA. Plasma NT-proNBP levels on day 2 of infants in the HsPDA group were significantly higher (ventricular posterior wall thickness (pclosure or otherwise.

  4. Measuring the adequacy of antenatal health care: a national cross-sectional study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Pi, Ileana; Servan-Mori, Edson; Darney, Blair G; Reyes-Morales, Hortensia; Lozano, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    To propose an antenatal care classification for measuring the continuum of health care based on the concept of adequacy: timeliness of entry into antenatal care, number of antenatal care visits and key processes of care. In a cross-sectional, retrospective study we used data from the Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT) in 2012. This contained self-reported information about antenatal care use by 6494 women during their last pregnancy ending in live birth. Antenatal care was considered to be adequate if a woman attended her first visit during the first trimester of pregnancy, made a minimum of four antenatal care visits and underwent at least seven of the eight recommended procedures during visits. We used multivariate ordinal logistic regression to identify correlates of adequate antenatal care and predicted coverage. Based on a population-weighted sample of 9 052 044, 98.4% of women received antenatal care during their last pregnancy, but only 71.5% (95% confidence interval, CI: 69.7 to 73.2) received maternal health care classified as adequate. Significant geographic differences in coverage of care were identified among states. The probability of receiving adequate antenatal care was higher among women of higher socioeconomic status, with more years of schooling and with health insurance. While basic antenatal care coverage is high in Mexico, adequate care remains low. Efforts by health systems, governments and researchers to measure and improve antenatal care should adopt a more rigorous definition of care to include important elements of quality such as continuity and processes of care.

  5. Measuring the health of the Indian elderly: evidence from National Sample Survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahal Ajay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparable health measures across different sets of populations are essential for describing the distribution of health outcomes and assessing the impact of interventions on these outcomes. Self-reported health (SRH is a commonly used indicator of health in household surveys and has been shown to be predictive of future mortality. However, the susceptibility of SRH to influence by individuals' expectations complicates its interpretation and undermines its usefulness. Methods This paper applies the empirical methodology of Lindeboom and van Doorslaer (2004 to investigate elderly health in India using data from the 52nd round of the National Sample Survey conducted in 1995-96 that includes both an SRH variable as well as a range of objective indicators of disability and ill health. The empirical testing was conducted on stratified homogeneous groups, based on four factors: gender, education, rural-urban residence, and region. Results We find that region generally has a significant impact on how women perceive their health. Reporting heterogeneity can arise not only from cut-point shifts, but also from differences in health effects by objective health measures. In contrast, we find little evidence of reporting heterogeneity due to differences in gender or educational status within regions. Rural-urban residence does matter in some cases. The findings are robust with different specifications of objective health indicators. Conclusions Our exercise supports the thesis that the region of residence is associated with different cut-points and reporting behavior on health surveys. We believe this is the first paper that applies the Lindeboom-van Doorslaer methodology to data on the elderly in a developing country, showing the feasibility of applying this methodology to data from many existing cross-sectional health surveys.

  6. A Monte Carlo Simulation of the in vivo measurement of lung activity in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory torso phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Robert; Brey, Richard; Capello, Kevin

    2013-02-01

    A torso phantom was developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) that serves as a standard for intercomparison and intercalibration of detector systems used to measure low-energy photons from radionuclides, such as americium deposited in the lungs. DICOM images of the second-generation Human Monitoring Laboratory-Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (HML-LLNL) torso phantom were segmented and converted into three-dimensional (3D) voxel phantoms to simulate the response of high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems, as found in the HML new lung counter using a Monte Carlo technique. The photon energies of interest in this study were 17.5, 26.4, 45.4, 59.5, 122, 244, and 344 keV. The detection efficiencies at these photon energies were predicted for different chest wall thicknesses (1.49 to 6.35 cm) and compared to measured values obtained with lungs containing (241)Am (34.8 kBq) and (152)Eu (10.4 kBq). It was observed that no statistically significant differences exist at the 95% confidence level between the mean values of simulated and measured detection efficiencies. Comparisons between the simulated and measured detection efficiencies reveal a variation of 20% at 17.5 keV and 1% at 59.5 keV. It was found that small changes in the formulation of the tissue substitute material caused no significant change in the outcome of Monte Carlo simulations.

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Age Variations in Health-Related Quality of Life: Results From the National Health Measurement Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherepanov, Dasha; Palta, Mari; Dunham, Nancy Cross; Feeny, David; Fryback, Dennis G.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We examine whether multiple health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measures are stratified by socioeconomic status (SES) and age in the United States. Methods Data are from the 2005/2006 National Health Measurement Study, a telephone survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. We plot mean HRQoL scores by SES within age groups. Regression analyses test whether education, income, and assets each have independent associations with three “preference-based” HRQoL measures and self-rated health (SRH). We test whether these associations vary by age. Results There are SES disparities in HRQoL and SRH among adults in the United States at all age groups. Income differentials in HRQoL are strong across current adult age cohorts, except the 75–89 age cohort. Education and assets have statistically significant but weaker associations with HRQoL. All three SES measures are associated with SRH (net of each other) at every age group. Those in the lowest income and education groups in the 35–44 age cohort have worse HRQoL and SRH than those in higher SES groups in the 65+ age cohort. Discussion Significant improvements in HRQoL at the population level will only be possible if we improve the HRQoL of people at the lowest end of the socioeconomic distribution. PMID:19307286

  8. Nation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    Nation er et gammelt begreb, som kommer af det latinske ord for fødsel, natio. Nationalisme bygger på forestillingen om, at mennesker har én og kun én national identitet og har ret til deres egen nationalstat. Ordet og forestillingen er kun godt 200 år gammel, og i 1900-tallet har ideologien bredt...

  9. MEASURING THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE USE OF NATIONAL ECONOMY’S INNOVATION CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Nazarova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with the problems of measuring the development and the use of national economy’s innovation capacity. It is clear that innovation capacity of the country is the basis for technical and innovative economic development, it is a strategic resource which enables to achieve competitiveness and sustainable economic growth. Effective national policies in the field of innovation-driven development, in turn, are impossible to pursue without an adequate assessment system which will be proposed in this article.

  10. Further observations of the lambda 10830 He line in stars and their significance as a measure of stellar activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirin, H.

    1975-11-01

    Measurements of the lambda 10830 He line in 198 stars are given along with data on other features in that spectral range. Nearly 80% of all G and K stars show some lambda 10830; of these, half are variable and 1/4 show emission. It was confirmed that lambda 10830 is not found in M stars, is weak in F stars, and is particularly strong in close binaries. The line is found in emission in extremely late M and S stars, along with P gamma, but P gamma is not in emission in G and K stars with lambda 10830 emissions. Variable He emission and Ti I emission are found in the RV Tauri variables R Scuti and U Mon. In R Aqr the Fe XIII coronal line lambda 10747 and a line at lambda 11012, which may be singlet He or La II, are found, as well as lambda 10830 and P gamma. The nature of coronas or hot chromospheres in the various stars is discussed. It was concluded that the lambda 10830 intensity must be more or less proportional to the energy deposited in the chromosphere corona by non-thermal processes

  11. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Deborah Taira; Demaris, Kendra M; Goo, Roy; Mnatzaganian, Christina Louise; Wong Smith, Helen

    2014-01-01

    The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47) in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.

  12. Measuring significant inhomogeneity and anisotropy in indoor convective air turbulence in the presence of 2D temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razi, E Mohammady; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2014-01-01

    Using a novel set up, experimental study of the statistical properties of a light beam propagating horizontally through indoor convective air turbulence in the presence of a 2D temperature gradient (TG) is presented. A laser beam enters a telescope from its back focal point by virtue of an optical fiber and is expanded and recollimated by it and then passes through the turbulent area. Then the beam enters another telescope’s aperture. A mask consisting of four similar widely separated small subapertures was installed in front of the second telescope’s aperture. The subapertures were equidistant from the optical axis of the telescope and located at the corners of a square. A flat plane heater is used to produce a vertical TG in the medium. Due to the limited width of the heater, a horizontal component for the TG appeared. Near the focal plane of the second telescope, four distinct images of the source are formed and recorded by a CCD camera. Due to the turbulence all the images (spots) in the successive frames fluctuate. Using the four spot displacements we have calculated the fluctuations of the angle of arrival (AA) over the subapertures. The statistical properties of the optical turbulence are investigated using variance analysis of the AA component fluctuations at horizontal and vertical directions over the subapertures for different temperatures of the heater at different heights of the beam path from the heater. Experimental results show that when the heater is turned off, the variances of horizontal and vertical components of the AA fluctuations are approximately equal to zero over all the subapertures. When it is turned on, the variance of the horizontal component of the AA fluctuations over all of the subapertures are larger than those from the vertical one. In addition, in this case, we find a significant dependence of the variance of the AA components on the height from the heater. (paper)

  13. Significance of HbA1c and its measurement in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus: US experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez DT

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Deborah Taira Juarez, Kendra M Demaris, Roy Goo, Christina Louise Mnatzaganian, Helen Wong SmithDaniel K Inouye College of Pharmacy, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Honolulu, HI, USAAbstract: The 2014 American Diabetes Association guidelines denote four means of diagnosing diabetes. The first of these is a glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c >6.5%. This literature review summarizes studies (n=47 in the USA examining the significance, strengths, and limitations of using HbA1c as a diagnostic tool for diabetes, relative to other available means. Due to the relatively recent adoption of HbA1c as a diabetes mellitus diagnostic tool, a hybrid systematic, truncated review of the literature was implemented. Based on these studies, we conclude that HbA1c screening for diabetes has been found to be convenient and effective in diagnosing diabetes. HbA1c screening is particularly helpful in community-based and acute care settings where tests requiring fasting are not practical. Using HbA1c to diagnose diabetes also has some limitations. For instance, HbA1c testing may underestimate the prevalence of diabetes, particularly among whites. Because this bias differs by racial group, prevalence and resulting estimates of health disparities based on HbA1c screening differ from those based on other methods of diagnosis. In addition, existing evidence suggests that HbA1c screening may not be valid in certain subgroups, such as children, women with gestational diabetes, patients with human immunodeficiency virus, and those with prediabetes. Further guidelines are needed to clarify the appropriate use of HbA1c screening in these populations.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, diagnosis, glycosylated hemoglobin, USA

  14. Significance and Implications of Patient-reported Xerostomia in Sjögren's Syndrome: Findings From the National Institutes of Health Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Monisha; Dye, Bruce A; Iafolla, Timothy; Baer, Alan N; Grisius, Margaret; Alevizos, Ilias

    2016-10-01

    .39, 95% CI: 2.02-1206.30, p-value=0.017). Age, gender, fatigue, pain, anxiety, and autoantibodies were not significantly associated with xerostomia. Findings from this study indicate that patient-reported xerostomia is highly prevalent among SS patients and is associated with several clinical phenotypes of this complex syndrome, thereby making it an important indicator of SS. The evidence also suggests that xerostomia is not limited to low salivary flow but might be reflective of compositional changes of saliva. Consequently, these findings suggest the need to consider xerostomia in the development of SS classification criteria and in patient-centered outcomes research in SS intervention trials. This research was supported by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Grant # DE000704-15. Dr. Baer is supported by RO1-DE-12354-15A1. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Focal versus diffuse anaplasia in Wilms tumor--new definitions with prognostic significance: a report from the National Wilms Tumor Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, P; Beckwith, J B; Mishra, K; Zuppan, C; Weeks, D A; Breslow, N; Green, D M

    1996-08-01

    Anaplasia, defined by the presence of extreme nuclear and mitotic atypia, is a potent marker of adverse prognosis in Wilms tumor (WT). Anaplastic WT cells apparently have increased resistance to therapy rather than increased aggressiveness. The distribution of anaplasia should therefore have critical prognostic relevance. The original definitions for focal anaplasia (FA) and diffuse anaplasia (DA) were based on quantitative rather than topographical criteria and lacked prognostic significance. A new definition was developed based on the distribution of anaplastic changes within the tumor: FA applies only to tumors with anaplasia confined to one or a few discrete loci within the primary tumor, with no anaplasia or marked nuclear atypia elsewhere. This revised definition was evaluated in 165 cases with anaplastic WT entered on the third and fourth National Wilms Tumor Study. Only three relapses and one death occurred among 39 cases with FA, regardless of tumor stage, a result comparable to that for nonanaplastic WT. Eight children with metastases at diagnosis and FA in the primary tumor were alive and free of relapse; 22 of 23 children with stage IV DA WT died of tumor. This new definition reinforces the importance of carefully documenting the exact site from which each tumor section is obtained.

  16. The Full Aperture Backscatter Station Measurement System on the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bower, D; McCarville, T; Alvarez, S; Ault, L; Brown, M; Chrisp, M; Damian, C; DeHope, W; Froula, D; Glenzer, S; Grace, S; Gu, K; Holdener, F; Huffer, C; Kamperschroer, J; Kelleher, T; Kimbrough, J

    2004-01-01

    A Full Aperture Backscatter Station (FABS) target diagnostic has been activated on the first four beams of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Backscattered light from the target propagates back down the beam path into the FABS diagnostic system. FABS measures both stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) with a suite of measurement instruments. Digital cameras and spectrometers record spectrally resolved energy for both P and S polarized light. Streaked spectrometers measure the spectral and temporal behavior of the backscattered light. Calorimeters and fast photodetectors measure the integrated energy and temporal behavior of the light, respectively. This paper provides an overview of the FABS measurements system and detailed descriptions of the diagnostic instruments and the optical path

  17. National Committee for the follow-up of measures for radiotherapy 2008-2011 - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzyn, A.; Grall, J.Y; Selleret, F.X.; Lacoste, A.C.; Maraninchi, D.; Harousseau, J-L.; Chauvet, B.; LE DU, D.; Saout, C.; Renody, N.; Depenweiller, C.; Goinere, R.

    2012-06-01

    As always more patients suffering from cancer are treated by radiotherapy, and as several over-irradiation events occurred in 2007, measures have been implemented to guarantee radiotherapy practice quality and safety. This document reports the work and actions performed by the national follow-up committee and its work groups to define, implement and follow-up these measures. They encompassed information actions towards patients, public, physicians and establishment managers, and new authorization measures. The committee also addressed radiotherapy professions involved in manipulation, dosimetry, as well as radio-physicists and radiotherapists. It introduced measures regarding vigilance in radiation, the improvement of quality and safety in radiation therapy centres, research and development, and the financing of these measures

  18. Progress in organizing national and international comparisons for nuclear medicine measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahagia, Maria; Waetjen, Anamaria C.; Ivan, Constantin

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents the progress registered by the Radionuclide Metrology Laboratory (RML) from IFIN-HH, in improvement of the quality of radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement, and assurance of the whole traceability chain from international level to the national users. The progress in organization of comparisons for radiopharmaceuticals activity measurement is analyzed. A detailed description of two recent national comparisons, and an international one, regarding 131 I solutions, within the frame of the IAEA's CRP E2.10.05 'Harmonization of quality practices for nuclear medicine radioactivity measurements' is done, with the analysis of the strong and week points in measurements. The most important outcome of the paper is the analysis of the evolution in quality of comparisons since a previously reported one. At the RML level, the improvements are: demonstration of the international equivalence of primary Romanian activity standard, improvement of the secondary standard, relevance of the comparison within the IAEA frame, implementation of a quality system in standardization and in comparisons, and implication of the RML in calibrations and metrological checks. The participants' reported improvements refer to growing of the awareness in quality of measurement and improvement of the measurement equipment. Reasons for future comparisons organization are presented. (author)

  19. Creating a Screening Measure of Health Literacy for the Health Information National Trends Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champlin, Sara; Mackert, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Create a screening measure of health literacy for use with the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). Participants completed a paper-based survey. Items from the survey were used to construct a health literacy screening measure. A population-based survey conducted in geographic areas of high and low minority frequency and in Central Appalachia. Two thousand nine hundred four English-speaking participants were included in this study: 66% white, 93% completed high school, mean age = 52.53 years (SD = 16.24). A health literacy screening measure was created using four items included in the HINTS survey. Scores could range from 0 (no questions affirmative/correct) to 4 (all questions answered affirmatively/correctly). Multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether demographic variables known to predict health literacy were indeed associated with the constructed health literacy screening measure. The weighted average health literacy score was 2.63 (SD = 1.00). Those who were nonwhite (p = .0005), were older (p literacy screening measure scores. This study highlights the need to assess health literacy in national surveys, but also serves as evidence that screening measures can be created within existing datasets to give researchers the ability to consider the impact of health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Radon mitigation in private dwellings. Summary of measures under the National Action Plan against Cancer in Norway 1999-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aanestad, K.; Strand, T.; Hoegmo, T.; Skjennem, M.; Jensen, C. L.; Hoelsbrekken, S.

    2006-01-01

    The report summarizes the remedial measurements carried out under the National Action Plan against Cancer in Norway in the period 1999-2003.The cost effectiveness of the state subsidized remedial measures against radon is evaluated. Other measurements under the National Action Plan against Cancer have also been evaluated, such as measurements of radon in 38.000 dwellings in 158 municipalities, information measures, and actions to increase radon mitigation competence in the building construction industry and in the municipalities. (Author)

  1. An Approach for Measuring Reductions in Operations, Maintenance, and Energy Costs: Baseline Measures of Construction Industry Practices for the National Construction Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert E.; Rennison, Roderick

    The Construction and Building Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) has established seven National Construction Goals for the construction industry and is developing baseline measures for current practices and progress with respect to each goal. This document provides a detailed set of baseline measures for the NSTC…

  2. Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; W.W. Heidbrink; A. Alekseyev; F.E. Cecil; J. Egedal; V.Ya. Goloborod' ko; N.N. Gorelenkov; M. Isobe; S. Kaye; M. Miah; F. Paoletti; M.H. Redi; S.N. Reznik; A. Rosenberg; R. White; D. Wyatt; V.A. Yavorskij

    2002-10-15

    A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.

  3. Measuring success: results from a national survey of recruitment and retention initiatives in the nursing workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks Carthon, J Margo; Nguyen, Thai-Huy; Chittams, Jesse; Park, Elizabeth; Guevara, James

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify common components of diversity pipeline programs across a national sample of nursing institutions and determine what effect these programs have on increasing underrepresented minority enrollment and graduation. Linked data from an electronic survey conducted November 2012 to March 2013 and American Association of Colleges of Nursing baccalaureate graduation and enrollment data (2008 and 2012). Academic and administrative staff of 164 nursing schools in 26 states, including Puerto Rico in the United States. Chi-square statistics were used to (1) describe organizational features of nursing diversity pipeline programs and (2) determine significant trends in underrepresented minorities' graduation and enrollment between nursing schools with and without diversity pipeline programs Twenty percent (n = 33) of surveyed nursing schools reported a structured diversity pipeline program. The most frequent program measures associated with pipeline programs included mentorship, academic, and psychosocial support. Asian, Hispanic, and Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander nursing student enrollment increased between 2008 and 2012. Hispanic/Latino graduation rates increased (7.9%-10.4%, p = .001), but they decreased among Black (6.8%-5.0%, p = .004) and Native American/Pacific Islander students (2.1 %-0.3%, p ≥ .001). Nursing diversity pipeline programs are associated with increases in nursing school enrollment and graduation for some, although not all, minority students. Future initiatives should build on current trends while creating targeted strategies to reverse downward graduation trends among Black, Native American, and Pacific Island nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Measurement strategies for the Dutch Nuclear Emergency Response System of the National Poisons Control Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Oostrum, I.E.A.; Joore, J.C.A.; Meulenbelt, J.; Savelkoul, T.J.F.

    1997-04-01

    The measurement strategy applicable to Public Health in case of a Nuclear Emergency affecting the Netherlands is presented. Within the framework of the Dutch Nuclear Emergency Response System (NPK, abbreviated in Dutch) the National Poisons Control Centre of the RIVM/AZU has an advisory obligation towards the Ministry of Public Health, Welfare and Sports (WVS). This role comprises advice to relevant ministries, coordination of the measurement strategies and advice on persons to be reviewed, i.e. physical, biological and clinical dosimetry. The choice of dosimetric methods and measurements to be achieved in case of a larger scale nuclear emergency in the Netherlands is discussed. An actual plan of handling is presented for this measurement plan. Intervention levels defined in NPK 1991 serve as guidelines for successive actions to be performed by regional health services. 8 figs., 6 tabs., 81 refs

  5. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  6. Cross-National Applicability of a Parsimonious Measure of Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nitin

    2016-04-01

    Durvasula and Lysonski's paper presented a shorter version of the Acculturation to Global Consumer Culture Scale (hereafter AGCC), which was developed by Cleveland and Laroche to address scarcity of measurements that determined how individuals acquired and became a part of the emerging global consumer culture. The following critique discusses a few concerns and three major shortcomings of the paper, including skewed sample frame and incorrect choice of countries for assessing cross-national applicability of the scale, not discussing the differences in the means of the seven distinct dimensions of AGCC across the four nations studied by the authors, and absence of any critical review of existing consumer acculturation scales vis-à-vis AGCC. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. The national network of measurements of radioactivity in the environment. Management report - 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leprieur, Fabrice; Chaptal-Gradoz, Nathalie; Wyckaert, Laure; Guldner, Bruno; Jaunet, Pierrick; Levelut, Marie-Noelle

    2010-01-01

    This report presents the objectives and challenges of the French national network for the measurement of radioactivity in the environment, its legal and regulatory context, its operation, its actors (ASN, IRSN and other actors). It proposes the moral report on the steering committee and work-groups. It describes the development of the information system: main stages, synthetic description, process from data transmission to edition on Internet sites, exploitation of the public Internet site, of the requester internet site, of hosting platforms, harmonization of transmitted data, planning for 2011. It presents the exploitation assessment for 2011: technical support activities, interactions between the IRSN and the national network information system host, and so on. The last part deals with communication and publication activities

  8. Computer Network Availability at Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque NM: Measurement and Perception; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, SPENCER D.; TOLENDINO, LAWRENCE F.

    1999-01-01

    The desire to provide a measure of computer network availability at Sandia National Laboratories has existed for along time. Several attempts were made to build this measure by accurately recording network failures, identifying the type of network element involved, the root cause of the problem, and the time to repair the fault. Recognizing the limitations of available methods, it became obvious that another approach of determining network availability had to be defined. The chosen concept involved the periodic sampling of network services and applications from various network locations. A measure of ''network'' availability was then calculated based on the ratio of polling success to failure. The effort required to gather the information and produce a useful metric is not prohibitive and the information gained has verified long held feelings regarding network performance with real data

  9. Response Burden in Official Business Surveys: Measurement and Reduction Practices of National Statistical Institutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bavdaž Mojca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Response burden in business surveys has long been a concern for National Statistical Institutes (NSIs for three types of reasons: political reasons, because response burden is part of the total administrative burden governments impose on businesses; methodological reasons, because an excessive response burden may reduce data quality and increase data-collection costs; and strategic reasons, because it affects relations between the NSIs and the business community. This article investigates NSI practices concerning business response burden measurement and reduction actions based on a survey of 41 NSIs from 39 countries. Most NSIs monitor at least some burden aspects and have implemented some actions to reduce burden, but large differences exist between NSIs’ methodologies for burden measurement and actions taken to reduce burden. Future research should find ways to deal with methodological differences in burden conceptualization, operationalization, and measurement, and provide insights into the effectiveness and efficiency of burden-reduction actions.

  10. Multicolumn spinal cord stimulation for significant low back pain in failed back surgery syndrome: design of a national, multicentre, randomized, controlled health economics trial (ESTIMET Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roulaud, M; Durand-Zaleski, I; Ingrand, P; Serrie, A; Diallo, B; Peruzzi, P; Hieu, P D; Voirin, J; Raoul, S; Page, P; Fontaine, D; Lantéri-Minet, M; Blond, S; Buisset, N; Cuny, E; Cadenne, M; Caire, F; Ranoux, D; Mertens, P; Naous, H; Simon, E; Emery, E; Gadan, B; Regis, J; Sol, J-C; Béraud, G; Debiais, F; Durand, G; Guetarni Ging, F; Prévost, A; Brandet, C; Monlezun, O; Delmotte, A; d'Houtaud, S; Bataille, B; Rigoard, P

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) for chronic neuropathic radicular pain over recent decades, but despite global favourable outcomes in failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) with leg pain, the back pain component remains poorly controlled by neurostimulation. Technological and scientific progress has led to the development of new SCS leads, comprising a multicolumn design and a greater number of contacts. The efficacy of multicolumn SCS lead configurations for the treatment of the back pain component of FBSS has recently been suggested by pilot studies. However, a randomized controlled trial must be conducted to confirm the efficacy of new generation multicolumn SCS. Évaluation médico-économique de la STImulation MEdullaire mulTi-colonnes (ESTIMET) is a multicentre, randomized study designed to compare the clinical efficacy and health economics aspects of mono- vs. multicolumn SCS lead programming in FBSS patients with radicular pain and significant back pain. FBSS patients with a radicular pain VAS score≥50mm, associated with a significant back pain component were recruited in 14 centres in France and implanted with multicolumn SCS. Before the lead implantation procedure, they were 1:1 randomized to monocolumn SCS (group 1) or multicolumn SCS (group 2). Programming was performed using only one column for group 1 and full use of the 3 columns for group 2. Outcome assessment was performed at baseline (pre-implantation), and 1, 3, 6 and 12months post-implantation. The primary outcome measure was a reduction of the severity of low back pain (bVAS reduction≥50%) at the 6-month visit. Additional outcome measures were changes in global pain, leg pain, paraesthesia coverage mapping, functional capacities, quality of life, neuropsychological aspects, patient satisfaction and healthcare resource consumption. Trial recruitment started in May 2012. As of September 2013, all 14 study centres have been initiated and 112

  11. First Measurement of Reaction-in-Flight Neutrons at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonchev, A.; Becker, J.; Bleuel, D.; Bionta, R.; Fortner, D.; Henry, E.; Khater, H.; Shaughnessy, D.; Schnider, D.; Stoeffl, W.; Yeamans, C.; Boswell, M.; Bredeweg, T.; Grim, G.; Jungman, G.; Fowler, M.; Hayes, A.; Obst, A.; Rundberg, R.; Schulz, A.; Wilhelmy, J.; Tornow, W.; Bhike, M.; Howell, C.; Gooden, M.; LLNL/LANL/TUNL Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The first measurement of reaction-in-flight (RIF) neutrons, also known as tertiary neutrons, has been performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using an activation technique. Thulium foils positioned at 50 cm from the burning deuterium-tritium (DT) capsule have been exposed to the characteristic DT neutron spectrum. The high-energy part of these neutrons with energies above 15.0 MeV can produce 167Tm via the 169Tm(n,3n) reaction. The 208-keV γ-ray, emitted from the decay of 167Tm with a half-life of 9.2 days, has been measured using two clover detectors. The first preliminary result implies that the ratio of RIF neutrons (En > 15.0 MeV) versus the total neutrons is 1 × 10 -4 +/- 3 × 10 -5. The important implication of these measurements on our knowledge of the charged-particle stopping power in strongly coupled quantum-degenerate plasma will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, (LLNS) under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. National comparison of {sup 131}I measurement among nuclear medicine clinics of eight countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsovcova, Veronika, E-mail: volsovcova@cmi.c [Czech Metrology Institute, Radiova 1, Praha 10, 102 00 (Czech Republic); Iwahara, Akira [Laboratorio Nacional de Metrologia das Radiacoes Ionizantes, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no. Recreio, Rio de Janeiro, CEP 22780-160 Brazil (Brazil); Oropesa, Pilar [Centro de Isotopos, Ave. Monumental y Carretera La Rada, Km 31/2, Guanabacoa, Ciudad Habana (Cuba); Joseph, Leena; Ravindra, Anuradha [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Radiation Safety Systems Division, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Ghafoori, Mostafa [SSDL, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School (AMIRS). Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Son, Hye-Kyung [Radiation Safety Division, National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation, Korea Food and Drug Administration, 194 Tongilro, Eunpyung-Gu, Seoul, 122-704 (Korea, Republic of); Sahagia, Maria [Horia Hulubei National Institute of R and D for Physics and Engineering, POB MG-6, 077125 Bucharest (Romania); Tastan, Selma [Ankara University Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cebeci 06100, Ankara (Turkey); Zimmerman, Brian [Dosimetry and Medical Radiation Physics Section, International Atomic Energy Agency, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8462 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    A generally applicable protocol for organizing comparisons among nuclear medicine clinics created within the IAEA project CRP E2.10.05 was tested in Brazil, Cuba, Czech Republic, India, Iran, Republic of Korea, Romania and Turkey in 2007. Comparisons of measurement of {sup 131}I were organized by local pilot laboratories with different backgrounds and levels of experience in this field. The results and experiences gained were compared and analyzed. A majority of results in each national comparison were within 10% of the reference value.

  13. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements semiannual technical progress report, March 1989--August 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ney, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    This semiannual technical progress report is for the period 1 March 1989 through 31 August 1989. This National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) program is designed to provide recommendations for radiation protection based on scientific principles. During this period several reports were published covering the topics of occupational radiation exposure, medical exposure, radon control, dosimetry, and radiation protection standards. Accomplishments of various committees are also reported; including the committees on dental x-ray protection, radiation safety in uranium mining and milling, ALARA, instrumentation, records maintenance, occupational exposures of medical personnel, emergency planning, and others. (SM)

  14. Proceedings of the national workshop on the use of 137Cs to measure erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The workshop was concerned with the use and development of Cs-137 techniques of measuring erosion. The overall outcome of the workshop was a view that it is inappropriate at this time to conduct a comprehensive national assessment of soil erosion using the Caesium-137 technique, but it is appropriate to conduct a reconnaissance survey which would establish/confirm reference levels of Cs 137 deposition across Australia, establish, at a statistically viable level, the capability to confirm at least large differences in Cs 137 concentration, and build up a more comprehensive picture of Cs 137 and its association with soil movement in the Australian landscape

  15. Clinical significance of measurement of changes in serum NO/NOS ratio and plasma ET content after treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Zhaoshu; Liu Xugui

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET and serum NO/NOS ratio in patients with AMI after treatment. Methods: Serum NO/NOS ratio (with EIA) and plasma ET (with RIA) contents were measured in 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Serum levels of NO were significantly lower (P 0.05), but plasma ET levels remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum NO/NOS ratio and plasma ET contents after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (authors)

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Xudong; Ren Hong; Xie Chuntao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with psoriasis. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and IFN-γ (with ELISA) were measured both before and after treatment in 37 patients with psoriasis and 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-2 levels in patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum TNF-α and IFN-γ levels were significantly higher (P<0.01). After treatment for 3 months, the levels though markedly corrected, were still significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The levels of serum IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ increased significantly in patients with psoriasis especially in those advanced cases. (authors)

  17. Measuring the Efficiency of Education and Technology via DEA approach: Implications on National Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Xu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a new approach for assessing the input–output efficiency of education and technology for national science and education department. We used the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA method to analyze the efficiency sharing activities in education and technology sector, and classify input variables and output variables accordingly. Using the panel data in the education and technology sector of 53 countries, we found that the countries with significant progress in educational efficiency and technological efficiency mainly concentrated in East Asia, especially in Japan, Korea, Taiwan and some other developing countries. We further evaluate the effect of educational and technological efficiencies on national competitiveness, balanced development of the country, national energy efficiency, export, and employment. We found that the efficiency of science and technology has an effect on the balanced development of the country, but that of education has played a counter-productive role; Educational efficiency has a large role and related the country’s educational development. In addition, using the panel data analysis, we showed that educational and technological efficiency has different degrees of contributions to the development from 2000 to 2014. It mainly depends on the economic development progress and the push for the education and technological policy. The proposed approach in this paper provides the decision-making support for the education and technological policy formulation, specially the selection of the appropriate education and technological strategies for resource allocation and process evaluation.

  18. National network of measurement of radioactivity in the environment - 2014 management report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couvez, Celine; Wyckaert, Laure; Picolo, Jean-Louis; Bicheron, Genevieve

    2015-10-01

    This report aims at presenting evolutions of the regulation of the French National network of measurement of radioactivity in the environment (the RNM), of its organisation, of the operation of its steering committee and various work groups. It also presents evolutions implemented in its information system and Internet web-site which gives public access to radioactivity measurements. After presentation of the RNM objectives and challenges, of the legal context, and a description of the RNM operation, the report presents the involved actors (ASN, IRSN, members of the RNM). The operation of the steering committee and work-groups is assessed. A chapter addresses the information system: description, data harmonisation and new information exchange protocol, technical support by the IRSN to data producers, interaction between the IRSN and system host, application management and third-party applications acceptance. Next parts propose an overview of laboratories certification, and activities related to communication and publications

  19. Report on activity and measurements of surveillance carried out by the national observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariete, M.G.; Belvisi, M.; Calicchia, R.; Fiorenza, R.; Onori, L.; Tamarchio, L.

    1989-01-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident a general radiometric survey of Italian territory was established. To this scope a very extensive program of environmental sampling, measurements, data collection, processing and management of this was carried out. All laboratories of nuclear centers, universities and local public health units, involved in this survey, had a unique aim: the radiological analysis to determine environmental contamination levels or to estimate preliminary population doses, finalized on short term, urgent protective mesures, and on long term, in addition to protective measures and for environmental studies. ENEA DISP, which is equipped by hardware and software instrumentation of its Emergency Center, was responsable for technical preparedness of the program. A National Observatory has been created for determing Cs134, Cs137 and Sr90 level on environmental and food samples on defined locality. The first part of this report presents the type, the frequency and localities where sample was collected. The second part presents the trend of the radioactive contamination on all foodstaffs, as data collected by each laboratory and in term of National mean concentration level

  20. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  1. Advances in outcomes measurement in rehabilitation medicine: current initiatives from the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulsky, David S; Carlozzi, Noelle E; Cella, David

    2011-10-01

    The articles in this supplement present recent advances in the measurement of patient-reported health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) outcomes. Specifically, these articles highlight the combined efforts of the National Institutes of Health, National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Center on Medical Rehabilitation Research, National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, and Department of Veterans Affairs Rehabilitation Research and Development Service to improve HRQOL measurement. In addition, this supplement is intended to provide rehabilitation professionals with information about these efforts and the implications that these advances in outcomes measurement have for rehabilitation medicine and clinical practice. These new measurement scales use state-of-the-art method techniques, including item response theory and computerized adaptive testing. In addition, scale development involves both qualitative and quantitative methods, as well as the administration of items to hundreds or even thousands of research participants. The scales deliberately have been built with overlap of items between scales so that linkages and equivalency scores can be computed. Ultimately, these scales should facilitate direct comparison of outcomes instruments across studies and will serve as standard data elements across research trials without compromising the specificity of disease- or condition-targeted measures. This supplement includes the initial publications for many of these new measurement initiatives, each of which provides researchers and clinicians with better tools for evaluation of the efficacy of their interventions. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measuring neutron yield and ρR anisotropies with activation foils at the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bleuel D.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neutron yields at the National Ignition Facility (NIF are measured with a suite of diagnostics, including activation of ∼20–200 g samples of materials undergoing a variety of energy-dependent neutron reactions. Indium samples were mounted on the end of a Diagnostic Instrument Manipulator (DIM, 25–50 cm from the implosion, to measure 2.45 MeV D-D fusion neutron yield. The 336.2 keV gamma rays from the 4.5 hour isomer of 115mIn produced by (n,n′ reactions are counted in high-purity germanium detectors. For capsules producing D-T fusion reactions, zirconium and copper are activated via (n,2n reactions at various locations around the target chamber and bay, measuring the 14 MeV neutron yield to accuracies on order of 7%. By mounting zirconium samples on ports at nine locations around the NIF chamber, anisotropies in the primary neutron emission due to fuel areal density asymmetries can be measured to a relative precision of 3%.

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma leptin and serum NPY levels after hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum NPY levels after hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure. Methods: Plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were measured with RIA both before and after hemodialysis in 31 patients with chronic renal failure as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before hemodialysis,plasma leptin and serum NPY levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After hemodialysis for 1 week the levels, though dropped markedly, still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: The levels of leptin and NPY were significantly increased in patients with chronic renal failare. Hemodialysis could increase, the clearance rate of leptin and NPY and partially correct the levels with important clinical value. (authors)

  4. Using and interpreting mental health measures in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Carolyn; Hedberg, E C; Kozloski, Michael; Dale, William; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-11-01

    National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) included five unique mental health measures in Waves 1 and 2 that researchers can use to measure the overall emotional health of participants: depressive symptoms, happiness-unhappiness, anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and felt loneliness. For each, we detail the rationale for its development and explain how to score, analyze, and interpret results. NSHAP developed its measures by modifying traditional short-form scales to improve response efficiency and reduce respondent burden. Scoring protocols and interpretations were developed for each measure. U.S. population estimates for older adults born between 1920 and 1947 were generated using age-eligible samples from Waves 1 and 2. NSHAP's protocols yielded U.S. prevalence rates similar to other nationally representative studies of older adults and comparable between waves. Higher estimates of anxiety symptoms and perceived stress in Wave 2 compared with Wave 1 were explained by age, administration mode, and time period. Analytic strategies for longitudinal analyses are provided. In Wave 2, mental health generally was worse at older ages, with women having more symptoms at younger ages than men. Women had fewer anxiety symptoms at the oldest ages. NSHAP's mental health measures were successfully integrated into the project's survey and showed acceptable external reliability as well as moderately stable individual characteristics across the 5 years between Waves 1 and 2. Depressive symptoms and unhappiness may form a mental health cluster in the elderly, distinct from anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and felt loneliness. Gender differences in age-specific patterns of mental health were evident using the exact age of participants rather than the traditional decade groupings. Administration mode and time period (between 2005-2006 and 2010-2011) were determined to be potential confounds that need to be accommodated in longitudinal analyses of aging, whereas

  5. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, NO levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Huajiang

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia. Methods: Serum IGF-II (with RIA) and NO (with Biochemical method) levels were measured in 38 pediatric patients with bronchial pneumonia both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum IGF-II, and NO levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and NO levels changes could reflect the disease status of the patients as well as the progress of diseases. (authors)

  6. Assessment of Sexual Desire for Clinical Trials of Women With Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: Measures, Desire-Related Behavior, and Assessment of Clinical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Robert E; Clayton, Anita H

    2018-01-19

    The Female Sexual Function Index-desire subscale is the standard measure for clinical trials of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD), but lacks items assessing sexually related behaviors and attitudes toward partner. Counting satisfying sexual events is criticized, but sexual behavior remains important. Mean treatment differences cannot define clinical significance; responder and remitter analyses help. We reviewed measures on sexual desire and sexual behavior relevant to HSDD, and how to assess clinical significance. We conducted a literature review of measures of sexual desire comparing expert-proposed criteria for dysfunctional desire, expert-developed scales, and scales from patient input. Commonly recognized symptoms of HSDD were identified. Results of HSDD trials and scale validation studies were evaluated to extract responder and remitter values. The utility of distribution-based measures of responders and remitters was assessed. Symptom relevance was evaluated as the proportion of symptom sets that included the item; responder and remitter cut points were determined by distribution-based methods. 12 Validated rating scales, 5 scales primarily derived from expert recommendations and 7 scales initially from patient input, and 5 sets of diagnostic criteria for conditions like HSDD were compared. Content varied highly between scales despite compliance with U.S. Food and Drug Administration recommendations for patient-reported outcomes. This disunity favors an expert-recommended scale such as the Elements of Desire Questionnaire with each of the common items, plus a measure of frequency of sexual activity, eg, item in the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System. Registrational drug trials, but not psychological treatment trials, usually give responder/remitter analyses, using dichotomized global impressions or anchor-based definitions. Distribution-based methods are more uniformly applicable to define responder and remitter status. The

  7. Quality improvement education to improve performance on ulcerative colitis quality measures and care processes aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have reported suboptimal approaches to patient care. In the United States, the findings have motivated leading gastroenterology organizations to call for initiatives that support clinicians in aligning their practices with quality measures for IBD and priorities of the National Quality Strategy (NQS). We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) education program on ulcerative colitis in which patient charts were audited for 30 gastroenterologists before (n = 300 charts) and after (n = 290 charts) they participated in QI-focused educational activities. Charts were audited for nine measures, selected for their alignment with four NQS priorities: making care safer, ensuring patient engagement, promoting communication, and promoting effective treatment practices. Four of the measures, including guideline-directed vaccinations and assessments of disease type and activity, were part of the CMS Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). The other five measures involved counseling patients on various topics in ulcerative colitis management, documentation of side effects, assessment of adherence status, and simplification of dosing. The gastroenterologists also completed baseline and post-education surveys designed to assess qualitative outcomes. One of the educational interventions was a private audit feedback session conducted for each gastroenterologist. The sessions were designed to support participants in identifying measures reflecting suboptimal care quality and developing action plans for improvement. In continuous improvement cycles, follow-up interventions included QI tools and educational monographs. Across the nine chart variables, post-education improvements ranged from 0% to 48%, with a mean improvement of 15.9%. Survey findings revealed improvements in self-reported understanding of quality measures and intentions to apply them to practice, and lower rates of perceived significant barriers to high

  8. Scoping the impact of the national child measurement programme feedback on the child obesity pathway: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falconer Catherine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Child Measurement Programme was established to measure the height and weight of children at primary school in England and provides parents with feedback about their child’s weight status. In this study we will evaluate the impact of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback on parental risk perceptions of overweight, lifestyle behaviour and health service use. Methods The study will be a prospective cohort study of parents of children enrolled in the National Child Measurement Programme and key service providers from 5 primary care trusts (administrative bodies responsible for providing primary and secondary care services. We will conduct baseline questionnaires, followed by provision of weight feedback and 3 follow up questionnaires over the course of a year. Questionnaires will measure change in parental risk perception of overweight, health behaviours and health service use. Qualitative interviews will be used to identify barriers and facilitators to change. This study will produce preliminary data on National Health Service costs associated with weight feedback and determine which feedback approach (letter and letter plus telephone is more effective. Discussion This study will provide the first large scale evaluation of the National Child Measurement Programme feedback. Findings from this evaluation will inform future planning of the National Child Measurement Programme.

  9. Whole-organ and segmental stiffness measured with liver magnetic resonance elastography in healthy adults: significance of the region of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusak, Grażyna; Zawada, Elżbieta; Lemanowicz, Adam; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-04-01

    MR elastography (MRE) is a recent non-invasive technique that provides in vivo data on the viscoelasticity of the liver. Since the method is not well established, several different protocols were proposed that differ in results. The aim of the study was to analyze the variability of stiffness measurements in different regions of the liver. Twenty healthy adults aged 24-45 years were recruited. The examination was performed using a mechanical excitation of 64 Hz. MRE images were fused with axial T2WI breath-hold images (thickness 10 mm, spacing 10 mm). Stiffness was measured as a mean value of each cross section of the whole liver, on a single largest cross section, in the right lobe, and in ROIs (50 pix.) placed in the center of the left lobe, segments 5/6, 7, 8, and the parahilar region. Whole-liver stiffness ranged from 1.56 to 2.75 kPa. Mean segmental stiffness differed significantly between the tested regions (range from 1.55 ± 0.28 to 2.37 ± 0.32 kPa; P < 0.0001, ANOVA). Within-method variability of measurements ranged from 14 % for whole liver and segment 8-26 % for segment 7. Within-subject variability ranged from 13 to 31 %. Results of measurement within segment 8 were closest to the whole-liver method (ICC, 0.84). Stiffness of the liver presented significant variability depending on the region of measurement. The most reproducible method is averaging of cross sections of the whole liver. There was significant variability between stiffness in subjects considered healthy, which requires further investigation.

  10. National Quality Forum Colon Cancer Quality Metric Performance: How Are Hospitals Measuring Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Meredith C; Chang, George J; Petersen, Laura A; Sada, Yvonne H; Tran Cao, Hop S; Chai, Christy; Berger, David H; Massarweh, Nader N

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of care at high-performing hospitals on the National Quality Forum (NQF) colon cancer metrics. The NQF endorses evaluating ≥12 lymph nodes (LNs), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) for stage III patients, and AC within 4 months of diagnosis as colon cancer quality indicators. Data on hospital-level metric performance and the association with survival are unclear. Retrospective cohort study of 218,186 patients with resected stage I to III colon cancer in the National Cancer Data Base (2004-2012). High-performing hospitals (>75% achievement) were identified by the proportion of patients achieving each measure. The association between hospital performance and survival was evaluated using Cox shared frailty modeling. Only hospital LN performance improved (15.8% in 2004 vs 80.7% in 2012; trend test, P fashion [0 metrics, reference; 1, hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (0.89-1.03); 2, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); 3, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90); 2 vs 1, HR 0.96 (0.91-1.01); 3 vs 1, HR 0.89 (0.84-0.93); 3 vs 2, HR 0.95 (0.89-0.95)]. Performance on metrics in combination was associated with lower risk of death [LN + AC, HR 0.86 (0.78-0.95); AC + timely AC, HR 0.92 (0.87-0.98); LN + AC + timely AC, HR 0.85 (0.80-0.90)], whereas individual measures were not [LN, HR 0.95 (0.88-1.04); AC, HR 0.95 (0.87-1.05)]. Less than half of hospitals perform well on these NQF colon cancer metrics concurrently, and high performance on individual measures is not associated with improved survival. Quality improvement efforts should shift focus from individual measures to defining composite measures encompassing the overall multimodal care pathway and capturing successful transitions from one care modality to another.

  11. Measuring the shock impedance mismatch between high-density carbon and deuterium at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millot, M.; Celliers, P. M.; Sterne, P. A.; Benedict, L. X.; Correa, A. A.; Hamel, S.; Ali, S. J.; Baker, K. L.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Biener, J.; Collins, G. W.; Coppari, F.; Divol, L.; Fernandez-Panella, A.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Haan, S. W.; Le Pape, S.; Meezan, N. B.; Moore, A. S.; Moody, J. D.; Ralph, J. E.; Ross, J. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Thomas, C.; Turnbull, D. P.; Wild, C.; Eggert, J. H.

    2018-04-01

    Fine-grained diamond, or high-density carbon (HDC), is being used as an ablator for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate equation of state (EOS) knowledge over a wide range of phase space is critical in the design and analysis of integrated ICF experiments. Here, we report shock and release measurements of the shock impedance mismatch between HDC and liquid deuterium conducted during shock-timing experiments having a first shock in the ablator ranging between 8 and 14 Mbar. Using ultrafast Doppler imaging velocimetry to track the leading shock front, we characterize the shock velocity discontinuity upon the arrival of the shock at the HDC/liquid deuterium interface. Comparing the experimental data with tabular EOS models used to simulate integrated ICF experiments indicates the need for an improved multiphase EOS model for HDC in order to achieve a significant increase in neutron yield in indirect-driven ICF implosions with HDC ablators.

  12. Clinical significance of three-dimensional measurement of tumour thickness on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Minsu [Gyeongsang National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Hyun; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Yoon-Se; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Hyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Yoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Asan Medical Centre, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    To identify the clinical significance of primary tumour thickness (TT) and its direction in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), we measured TT in all axial/coronal/sagittal views on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their meaning. A total of 53 OTSCC patients were analysed who had undergone preoperative three-dimensional MRI and had been surgically treated. TT measured on axial (mediolateral direction), coronal (superoinferior direction), and sagittal (anteroposterior direction) views was compared to that in pathologic specimens. The association between TT on MRI and other pathologic parameters was also evaluated. TT on MRI in each plane showed relatively high concordance rates with the histological measurements. TT in all three planes was significantly correlated with lymph node (LN) metastasis. Occult LN metastasis was found in 15 of 39 (38.5 %) patients, and the cutoff value of TT in axial/coronal/sagittal MRI predicting occult LN metastasis was 6.7 mm, 7.2 mm, and 12.3 mm, respectively. TT on MRI did not show any significant association with recurrence and survival. TT on MRI in all three planes showed relatively high coincidence with TT on histopathology and presented a potential cut-off value as a predictive indicator for occult LN metastasis. (orig.)

  13. Normal LVEF measurements are significantly higher in females asassessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ho; Shin, Eak Kyun

    1999-01-01

    Volume-LVEF relationship is one of the most important factors of automatic EF quantification algorithm from gated myocardial perfusion SPECT(gMPS) (Germano et al. JNM, 1995). Gender difference whereby normal LVEF measurements are higher in females assessed by gMPS (Yao et al. JNM 1997). To validate true physiologic value of LVEF vs sampling or measured error, various parameters were evaluated statistically in both gender and age matched 200 subjects (mean age= 58.41±15.01) with normal LVEF more than 50%, and a low likelihood of coronary artery disease. Correlation between LVEDVi(ml/m2) and LVEF was highly significant (r=-0.62, p<0.0001) with similar correlations noted in both male (r=-0.45, p<0.0001) and female (r=-0.67, p<0.0001) subgroups. By multivariate analysis, LV volume and stroke volume was the most significant factor influencing LVEF in male and female, respectively. In conclusion, there is a significant negative correlation between LV volume and LVEF as measured by Tc-99m gated SPECT. Higher normal LVEF value should be applied to females as assessed by post-stress resting Tc-99m Sestamibi gated myocardial perfusion SPECT

  14. Clinical significance of three-dimensional measurement of tumour thickness on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Minsu; Moon, Hyun; Nam, Soon Yuhl; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Yoon-Se; Roh, Jong-Lyel; Choi, Seung-Ho; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Sang-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    To identify the clinical significance of primary tumour thickness (TT) and its direction in patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC), we measured TT in all axial/coronal/sagittal views on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and evaluated their meaning. A total of 53 OTSCC patients were analysed who had undergone preoperative three-dimensional MRI and had been surgically treated. TT measured on axial (mediolateral direction), coronal (superoinferior direction), and sagittal (anteroposterior direction) views was compared to that in pathologic specimens. The association between TT on MRI and other pathologic parameters was also evaluated. TT on MRI in each plane showed relatively high concordance rates with the histological measurements. TT in all three planes was significantly correlated with lymph node (LN) metastasis. Occult LN metastasis was found in 15 of 39 (38.5 %) patients, and the cutoff value of TT in axial/coronal/sagittal MRI predicting occult LN metastasis was 6.7 mm, 7.2 mm, and 12.3 mm, respectively. TT on MRI did not show any significant association with recurrence and survival. TT on MRI in all three planes showed relatively high coincidence with TT on histopathology and presented a potential cut-off value as a predictive indicator for occult LN metastasis. (orig.)

  15. Comparison of FLOWTRAN predictions of onset of significant voiding (OSV) to Savannah River Heat Transfer Laboratory subcooled boiling flow instability measurements, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinat, J.E.

    1988-10-01

    The onset of flow instability (OFI) was measured in the first of a scheduled series of subcooled boiling tests at the Savannah River Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). This report summarizes the benchmarking of predictions of the onset of significant voiding (OSV) using Version 16 of the FLOWTRANΩ reactor limits code against the HTL measurements. This study confirms that, for this series of HTL subcooled boiling tests, the Saha-Zuber OSV correlation was a conservative indicator of OFI for Peclet numbers between 30,000 and 80,000. The Saha-Zuber correlation was not a conservative indicator of OFI for Peclet numbers below 30,000. A conservative bound to the Saha-Zuber correlation (the Saha-Zuber constant Stanton number criterion -- 30%) was agreed to at a meeting of SRL, DOE, and the DOE EH and DP review panels. This bound was a conservative indicator of OFI for all measurements in this study

  16. Proceedings of the 26th annual meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richmond, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    This book reports on the 26th Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements which addressed the topic Health and Ecological Implications of Radioactively Contaminated Environments, a topic of great current interest and importance. The meeting was divided into five subtopics. The first dealt with the contaminated sites themselves, the second with human health implications, the third on remediation, the fourth (a panel) on lessons learned and issues of the future and finally a summation. The meeting also included progress reports on the work of three NCRP committees, Scientific Committee 1-2 on the Assessment of Risk for Radiation Protection Purposes, Scientific Committee 66 on Biological Effects and Exposure Criteria for Ultrasound and Scientific Committee 83 on Identification of Research Needs for Radiation Protection. Summaries of these reports prepared by their respective chairmen are included in this volume

  17. A City and National Metric measuring Isolation from the Global Market for Food Security Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Silver, Kirk Coleman; Rajagopalan, Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    The World Bank has invested in infrastructure in developing countries for decades. This investment aims to reduce the isolation of markets, reducing both seasonality and variability in food availability and food prices. Here we combine city market price data, global distance to port, and country infrastructure data to create a new Isolation Index for countries and cities around the world. Our index quantifies the isolation of a city from the global market. We demonstrate that an index built at the country level can be applied at a sub-national level to quantify city isolation. In doing so, we offer policy makers with an alternative metric to assess food insecurity. We compare our isolation index with other indices and economic data found in the literature.We show that our Index measures economic isolation regardless of economic stability using correlation and analysis

  18. Assessing Measurement Error in Medicare Coverage From the National Health Interview Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindi, Renee; Cohen, Robin A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Using linked administrative data, to validate Medicare coverage estimates among adults aged 65 or older from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), and to assess the impact of a recently added Medicare probe question on the validity of these estimates. Data sources Linked 2005 NHIS and Master Beneficiary Record and Payment History Update System files from the Social Security Administration (SSA). Study design We compared Medicare coverage reported on NHIS with “benchmark” benefit records from SSA. Principal findings With the addition of the probe question, more reports of coverage were captured, and the agreement between the NHIS-reported coverage and SSA records increased from 88% to 95%. Few additional overreports were observed. Conclusions Increased accuracy of the Medicare coverage status of NHIS participants was achieved with the Medicare probe question. Though some misclassification remains, data users interested in Medicare coverage as an outcome or correlate can use this survey measure with confidence. PMID:24800138

  19. Neutron peak velocity measurements at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) using novel quartz detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, Gary; Eckart, Mark; Hartouni, Edward; Hatarik, Robert; Moore, Alastair; Root, Jaben; Sayre, Daniel; Schlossberg, David; Waltz, Cory

    2017-10-01

    In mid-2017 the NIF implemented quartz based neutron time-of-flight (nToF) detectors which have a faster and narrower impulse response function (IRF) relative to traditional scintillator detectors. In this presentation we report on comparisons between fusion neutron first moments as measured by quartz and scintillator based detectors using DT layered implosions at the NIF. We report on the change in precision presaged by the quartz converter and quantify the change in both in shot, line-of-site velocity variability. as well as, shot-to-shot variation. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-734511-DRAFT.

  20. Summary of oceanographic and water-quality measurements near the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Brennand, Patrick; Derby, R. Kyle; Brooks, Thomas W.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Martini, Marinna A.; Borden, Jonathan; Baldwin, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element governing the geomorphology of tidal marshes. Marshes rely on both organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea level. In wetlands near the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, portions of the salt marsh have been subsiding relative to sea level since the early 20th century. Other portions of the marsh have been successful at maintaining elevation. The U.S. Geological Survey performed observational deployments to measure suspended-sediment concentration in the tidal channels in order to understand the magnitude of suspended-sediment concentrations, the sediment-transport mechanisms, and differences between two marsh areas, one that subsided and one that maintained elevation. We deployed optical turbidity sensors and acoustic velocity meters at multiple sites over two periods in 2011. This report presents the time-series of oceanographic data collected during those field studies, including velocity, depth, turbidity, salinity, water temperature, and pH.

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with children nephrotic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with children nephrotic syndrome. Methods: Plasma leptin (with RIA) serum IL-6, IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with children nephrotic syndrome both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment,the plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels were significantly higher than those in controls(P <0.01). After treatment for 3 months, the levels in patients though dropped markedly remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Plasma leptin levels were positively correlated with IL-6, IL-18 levels (r=0.6138, 0.5784, P<0.01). Conclusion: Changes of plasma leptin and serum IL-6, IL-18 levels after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with children nephrotic syndrome. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Tao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II and NO levels after treatment in elderly patients with chronic bronchitis. Methods: Serum IGF-II (with RIA) and NO (with Biochemical method) levels were measured in 42 elderly patients with chronic bronchitis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment in the patients the serum IGF-II levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), while the NO levels were significantly lower (P<0.01). After two weeks of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly, lemained higher than those in controls (P<0. 05). Conclusion: Serum IGF-II and NO levels changes could reflect the disease status as well as the progress of diseases. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels after treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels in patients with AMI after treatment. Methods: Plasma Hcy and ET levels were measured with RIA in 33 patients with acute myocardial infarction both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Plasma Hcy and ET levels were significantly higher in the AMI patients than those in the controls before treatment and the levels were mutually positively correlated (P 0.05), but plasma ET levels, though dropped markedly remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of plasma Hcy and ET levels after treatment might be of prognostic importance in patients with acute myocardial infarction. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum NSE and plasma NPY levels after treatment in pediatric patients with viral encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Bo; Zheng Guo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance ef changes of serum NSE and plasma NPY levels after treatment in pediatric patients with viral encephalitis. Methods: Serum NSE and plasma NPY levels were measured with RIA in 32 pediatric patients with viral encephalitis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients, the serum NSE and plasma NPY levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). After 1 month's treatment the levels dropped markedly but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NSE and plasma NPY levels changes were closely related to the progress of viral encephalitis. (authors)

  5. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Liming

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α and EGF levels after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum TNF-α, EGF levels (with RIA) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum TNF- α and EGF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, serum TNF-α and EGF levels, though dropped markedly, remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Development of malignant hydatidiform mole in patients was closely related to the serum TNF-α and EGF levels. (authors)

  6. A response to Steubing et al., "Effects of systematic phonics instruction are practically significant": The origins of the National Reading Panel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Camilli

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A recent article by Stuebing, Barth, Cirino, Francis and Fletcher critiqued the findings of Camilli, Vargas, and Yurecko (2003 and Camilli, Wolfe, and Smith (2006. With a methodological argument, they attempted to resolve the conflict between these studies and the original report Teaching Children to Read (National Reading Panel, 2000. In response, it is argued that three issues must be considered in a fair assessment of the NRP report—program labels or bins, alternative bins, and the role of literacy activities in reading instruction. In this light, three hypotheses ventured by Stuebing et al. are analyzed. It is concluded that the argument by Stuebing et al. does not reveal flaws in the original NRP report by Camilli et al. (2003, though some points of agreement are acknowledged.

  7. The utility and dynamics of salivary sex hormone measurements in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project, Wave 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozloski, Michael J; Schumm, L Philip; McClintock, Martha K

    2014-11-01

    Sex hormones affect physical, mental, and social health, yet their role in mediating social effects on aging is understudied. To facilitate such analyses with the National Social Life, Health & Aging Project Wave 2, we summarize the conceptual background, collection protocols, laboratory assays, and data analysis strategies for biologically active (free) levels of testosterone, estradiol, progesterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Saliva from passive drool was collected from returning Wave 1 respondents and non-respondents as well as their partners during an in-home interview. Specimens were frozen and sent to Dresden LabService GmbH for duplicate assays of biologically active steroids using identical assay kits from National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) Wave 1 (SaliCap, Catalog No. RE69995). Overall, 2,772 testosterone, 2,504 estradiol, 2,714 progesterone, and 2,800 DHEA measurements are publically available for Wave 2 analyses. Through a series of weighted linear regressions, all 4 steroids are compared by gender and age and to Wave 1 measurements. Men had higher levels of both free testosterone and progesterone than women; women and men had the same levels of estradiol and DHEA. Both free testosterone and DHEA decreased with age. We also found significant wave effects for all 4 sex hormones. NSHAP Waves 1 and 2 are the first U.S. probability sample studies to measure these 4 salivary sex hormones simultaneously, providing individual profiles 5 years apart. Wave 2 data demonstrate differences by gender and trends by age that are similar to those found in other saliva-based and serum-based studies of free steroid levels. The differences between waves arising from the change in assay laboratory need to be adjusted in future longitudinal analyses using NSHAP Wave 1 and Wave 2 steroid data. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  8. Exploration of the Raven APM-National Adult Reading Test discrepancy as a measure of intellectual decline in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Esther; Nys, Gudrun M S; Brands, Augustina M A; Ruis, Carla; van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Kessels, Roy P C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the discrepancy between performance on "fluid" and "crystallized" intelligence measures may serve as an indicator for intellectual decline. The validity of this procedure in older persons is unknown. The present study developed a multiple regression equation, to predict the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) score from the National Adult Reading Test (NART) score and demographic variables in a large sample of healthy older persons (n = 270). The discrepancy between the predicted and observed Raven APM scores was transformed into a percentile distribution as an indicator of intellectual decline, which can be used in clinical practice. The validity of the procedure was further examined by comparing the proportion of persons with a significant decline (at the -1 and -1.65 SD level) between two older patient samples (87 patients with cerebral stroke and 387 patients with diabetes mellitus) by means of χ(2) tests. There was a significantly higher rate of intellectual decline at the -1 SD ("below average") and -1.65 SD ("impaired") cutoff levels for patients with stroke compared with patients with diabetes (stroke, 34% and 14%; diabetes, 16% and 5%, p Raven APM-NART discrepancy may be a useful measure of intellectual decline in older persons.

  9. The association between social capital measures and self-reported health among Muslim majority nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Harris Hyun-soo

    2014-10-01

    Much evidence suggests that social capital (e.g. networks, trust, organizational memberships) has a significant effect on self-reported health. Previous research, however, has focused primarily on Western countries. The current research seeks to remedy this problem by investigating the association between multiple social capital indicators and subjective health in a novel empirical setting. The data come from the Comparative Values Survey of Islamic Countries (1999-2006) which consists of probabilistic samples from Muslim majority nations. Three-way multilevel analysis is used to examine the social determinants of health. Statistical results from hierarchical linear modeling shows that frequent contact with strong and intermediate ties (i.e. family members and friends, respectively) is significant, while interaction with weak ties (coworkers) has no association. General trust and trust in the central government are also significantly related to subjective health, as is trust in religious authority, albeit in an inverse way. This study calls for a more contingent view of the relationship between social capital and self-reported health. Future research needs to take this into consideration in hypothesizing and testing the potential health benefits of social capital.

  10. Low-Level Plutonium Bioassay Measurements at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Brown, T; Hickman, D; Marchetti, A; Williams, R; Kehl, S

    2007-06-18

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) are important alpha emitting radionuclides contained in radioactive debris from nuclear weapons testing. {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu are long-lived radionuclides with half-lives of 24,400 years and 6580 years, respectively. Concerns over human exposure to plutonium stem from knowledge about the persistence of plutonium isotopes in the environment and the high relative effectiveness of alpha-radiation to cause potential harm to cells once incorporated into the human body. In vitro bioassay tests have been developed to assess uptakes of plutonium based on measured urinary excretion patterns and modeled metabolic behaviors of the absorbed radionuclides. Systemic plutonium absorbed by the deep lung or from the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion is either excreted or distributed to other organs, primarily to the liver and skeleton, where it is retained for biological half-times of around 20 and 50 years, respectively. Dose assessment and atoll rehabilitation programs in the Marshall Islands have historically given special consideration to residual concentrations of plutonium in the environment even though the predicted dose from inhalation and/or ingestion of plutonium accounts for less than 5% of the annual effective dose from exposure to fallout contamination. Scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have developed a state-of-the-art bioassay test to assess urinary excretion rates of plutonium from Marshallese populations. This new heavy-isotope measurement system is based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The AMS system at LLNL far exceeds the standard measurement requirements established under the latest United States Department of Energy (DOE) regulation, 10CFR 835, for occupational monitoring of plutonium, and offers several advantages over classical as well as competing new technologies for low-level detection and measurement of plutonium isotopes. The United States

  11. A national prediction model for PM2.5 component exposures and measurement error-corrected health effect inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Silas; Sheppard, Lianne; Sampson, Paul D; Kim, Sun-Young; Richards, Mark; Vedal, Sverre; Kaufman, Joel D; Szpiro, Adam A

    2013-09-01

    Studies estimating health effects of long-term air pollution exposure often use a two-stage approach: building exposure models to assign individual-level exposures, which are then used in regression analyses. This requires accurate exposure modeling and careful treatment of exposure measurement error. To illustrate the importance of accounting for exposure model characteristics in two-stage air pollution studies, we considered a case study based on data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We built national spatial exposure models that used partial least squares and universal kriging to estimate annual average concentrations of four PM2.5 components: elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), silicon (Si), and sulfur (S). We predicted PM2.5 component exposures for the MESA cohort and estimated cross-sectional associations with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), adjusting for subject-specific covariates. We corrected for measurement error using recently developed methods that account for the spatial structure of predicted exposures. Our models performed well, with cross-validated R2 values ranging from 0.62 to 0.95. Naïve analyses that did not account for measurement error indicated statistically significant associations between CIMT and exposure to OC, Si, and S. EC and OC exhibited little spatial correlation, and the corrected inference was unchanged from the naïve analysis. The Si and S exposure surfaces displayed notable spatial correlation, resulting in corrected confidence intervals (CIs) that were 50% wider than the naïve CIs, but that were still statistically significant. The impact of correcting for measurement error on health effect inference is concordant with the degree of spatial correlation in the exposure surfaces. Exposure model characteristics must be considered when performing two-stage air pollution epidemiologic analyses because naïve health effect inference may be inappropriate.

  12. Significance of measurement of serum somatostatin (SS), growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and some related cytokines levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Bao; Ma Yunbao; Zhang Xiaoyi

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the possible roles of the related hormones and cytokines in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease. Methods: Serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-6 were measured with RIA in 1) 36 patients with Graves' disease before any treatment 2) another 30 patients with Graves' disease after successful anti-thyroid drug therapy and 3) 35 controls. Results: In the untreated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly higher but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower than those in the controls (P<0.01). In the successfully treated group, the serum levels of SS, GH, IGF-1, IL-4 and IL-6 were significantly lower (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the untreated group. Conclusion: These parameters played significant roles in the pathogenesis of Graves' disease; however, the precise mechanism remained to be speculative and further studies required. (authors)

  13. Measurement of ambient aerosol hydration state at Great Smoky Mountains National Park in the southeastern United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Taylor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We present results from two field deployments of a unique tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA configuration with two primary capabilities: identifying alternative stable or meta-stable ambient aerosol hydration states associated with hysteresis in aerosol hydration behavior and determining the actual Ambient hydration State (AS-TDMA. This data set is the first to fully classify the ambient hydration state of aerosols despite recognition that hydration state significantly impacts the roles of aerosols in climate, visibility and heterogeneous chemistry. The AS-TDMA was installed at a site in eastern Tennessee on the border of Great Smoky Mountains National Park for projects during the summer of 2006 and winter of 2007–2008. During the summer, 12% of the aerosols sampled in continuous AS-TDMA measurements were found to posses two possible hydration states under ambient conditions. In every case, the more hydrated of the possible states was occupied. The remaining 88% did not posses multiple possible states. In continuous measurements during the winter, 49% of the aerosols sampled possessed two possible ambient hydration states; the remainder possessed only one. Of those aerosols with multiple possible ambient hydration states, 65% occupied the more hydrated state; 35% occupied the less hydrated state. This seasonal contrast is supported by differences in the fine particulate (PM2.5 composition and ambient RH as measured during the two study periods. In addition to seasonal summaries, this work includes case studies depicting the variation of hydration state with changing atmospheric conditions.

  14. Natural language processing: state of the art and prospects for significant progress, a workshop sponsored by the National Library of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Carol; Rindflesch, Thomas C; Corn, Milton

    2013-10-01

    Natural language processing (NLP) is crucial for advancing healthcare because it is needed to transform relevant information locked in text into structured data that can be used by computer processes aimed at improving patient care and advancing medicine. In light of the importance of NLP to health, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) recently sponsored a workshop to review the state of the art in NLP focusing on text in English, both in biomedicine and in the general language domain. Specific goals of the NLM-sponsored workshop were to identify the current state of the art, grand challenges and specific roadblocks, and to identify effective use and best practices. This paper reports on the main outcomes of the workshop, including an overview of the state of the art, strategies for advancing the field, and obstacles that need to be addressed, resulting in recommendations for a research agenda intended to advance the field. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of sexual health in the U.S.: an inventory of nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivankovich, Megan B; Leichliter, Jami S; Douglas, John M

    2013-01-01

    To identify opportunities within nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems to measure indicators of sexual health, we reviewed and inventoried existing data systems that include variables relevant to sexual health. We searched for U.S. nationally representative surveys and surveillance systems that provided individual-level sexual health data. We assessed the methods of each data system and catalogued them by their measurement of the following domains of sexual health: knowledge, communication, attitudes, service access and utilization, sexual behaviors, relationships, and adverse health outcomes. We identified 18 U.S.-focused, nationally representative data systems: six assessing the general population, seven focused on special populations, and five addressing health outcomes. While these data systems provide a rich repository of information from which to assess national measures of sexual health, they present several limitations. Most importantly, apart from data on service utilization, routinely gathered, national data are currently focused primarily on negative aspects of sexual health (e.g., risk behaviors and adverse health outcomes) rather than more positive attributes (e.g., healthy communication and attitudes, and relationship quality). Nationally representative data systems provide opportunities to measure a broad array of domains of sexual health. However, current measurement gaps indicate the need to modify existing surveys, where feasible and appropriate, and develop new tools to include additional indicators that address positive domains of sexual health of the U.S. population across the life span. Such data can inform the development of effective policy actions, services, prevention programs, and resource allocation to advance sexual health.

  16. An integrated performance measure for environmental restoration at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boston, H.L.; Kuhaida, A.J. Jr.; Garland, S.B.

    1992-01-01

    A number of contaminated sites at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) require remediation. A strategy has been developed to support the remediation of individual sites, while providing an integrated measure of contaminant release from all sites and serving as a performance measure for remedial efforts. Most ORNL facilities are in one watershed and groundwater pathways are known to be localized within the watershed. Thus the stream system is the receptor for contaminants released from individual sites and a conduit for contaminant transport off site. Monitoring at key locations in the watershed is linked with information from environmental investigations to: (1) identify and quantify contaminant fluxes; (2) identify the pathways of greatest concern for human health and ecological risk; (3) improve conceptual models of contaminant movement; (4) evaluate remedial alternatives; (5) prioritize sites for remediation; and, (6) document reduced contaminant fluxes following remediation. The contaminants of greatest concern are associated with soil and aquatic sediment. The subjects of investigations range from soil processes and bioindicators of contaminant exposure, to phenomena at the watershed-level such as models predicting contaminant movement during large storms and predicting groundwater transport of contaminants. These efforts provide the foundation needed to coordinate the remediation of individual sites and to assess the overall performance of remedial actions

  17. Force Measurement Improvements to the National Transonic Facility Sidewall Model Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodliff, Scott L.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Butler, David; Cagle, C. Mark; Chan, David; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II

    2016-01-01

    The National Transonic Facility is a transonic pressurized cryogenic facility. The development of the high Reynolds number semi-span capability has advanced over the years to include transonic active flow control and powered testing using the sidewall model support system. While this system can be used in total temperatures down to -250Â F for conventional unpowered configurations, it is limited to temperatures above -60Â F when used with powered models that require the use of the high-pressure air delivery system. Thermal instabilities and non-repeatable mechanical arrangements revealed several data quality shortfalls by the force and moment measurement system. Recent modifications to the balance cavity recirculation system have improved the temperature stability of the balance and metric model-to-balance hardware. Changes to the mechanical assembly of the high-pressure air delivery system, particularly hardware that interfaces directly with the model and balance, have improved the repeatability of the force and moment measurement system. Drag comparisons with the high-pressure air system removed will also be presented in this paper.

  18. Evaluation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) Using Ground-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Y.; Sengupta, M.; Habte, A.; Lopez, A.

    2017-12-01

    Solar resource is essential for a wide spectrum of applications including renewable energy, climate studies, and solar forecasting. Solar resource information can be obtained from ground-based measurement stations and/or from modeled data sets. While measurements provide data for the development and validation of solar resource models and other applications modeled data expands the ability to address the needs for increased accuracy and spatial and temporal resolution. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed and regular updates modeled solar resource through the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB). The recent NSRDB dataset was developed using the physics-based Physical Solar Model (PSM) and provides gridded solar irradiance (global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), and diffuse horizontal irradiance) at a 4-km by 4-km spatial and half-hourly temporal resolution covering 18 years from 1998-2015. A comprehensive validation of the performance of the NSRDB (1998-2015) was conducted to quantify the accuracy of the spatial and temporal variability of the solar radiation data. Further, the study assessed the ability of NSRDB (1998-2015) to accurately capture inter-annual variability, which is essential information for solar energy conversion projects and grid integration studies. Comparisons of the NSRDB (1998-2015) with nine selected ground-measured data were conducted under both clear- and cloudy-sky conditions. These locations provide a high quality data covering a variety of geographical locations and climates. The comparison of the NSRDB to the ground-based data demonstrated that biases were within +/- 5% for GHI and +/-10% for DNI. A comprehensive uncertainty estimation methodology was established to analyze the performance of the gridded NSRDB and includes all sources of uncertainty at various time-averaged periods, a method that is not often used in model evaluation. Further, the study analyzed the inter

  19. National and Gender Measurement Invariance of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS): A 10-Nation Study With University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cieciuch, Jan; Gao, Cheng-Hai; Klimstra, Theo; Lin, Ching-Ling; Matos, Paula Mena; Morsünbül, Ümit; Negru, Oana; Sugimura, Kazumi; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Meeus, Wim

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), a self-report measure aimed at assessing identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. We tested its factor structure in university students from a large array of cultural contexts, including 10 nations located in Europe (i.e., Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, and Switzerland), Middle East (i.e., Turkey), and Asia (i.e., China, Japan, and Taiwan). Furthermore, we tested national and gender measurement invariance. Participants were 6,118 (63.2% females) university students aged from 18 to 25 years (Mage = 20.91 years). Results indicated that the three-factor structure of the U-MICS fitted well in the total sample, in each national group, and in gender groups. Furthermore, national and gender measurement invariance were established. Thus, the U-MICS can be fruitfully applied to study identity in university students from various Western and non-Western contexts. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Subsite Awareness in Neuropathology Evaluation of National Toxicology Program (NTP) Studies: A Review of Select Neuroanatomical Structures with their Functional Significance in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Deepa B.; Little, Peter B.; Sills, Robert

    2013-01-01

    This review manuscript is designed to serve as an introductory guide in neuroanatomy for toxicologic pathologists evaluating general toxicity studies. The manuscript provides an overview of approximately 50 neuroanatomical subsites and their functional significance across seven coronal sections of the brain. Also reviewed are three sections of the spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerves (trigeminal and sciatic respectively), and intestinal autonomic ganglia. The review is limited to the evaluation of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained tissue sections, as light microscopic evaluation of these sections is an integral part of the first-tier toxicity screening of environmental chemicals, drugs, and other agents. Prominent neuroanatomical sites associated with major neurological disorders are noted. This guide, when used in conjunction with detailed neuroanatomic atlases may aid in an understanding of the significance of functional neuroanatomy, thereby improving the characterization of neurotoxicity in general toxicity and safety evaluation studies. PMID:24135464

  1. Exterior sound level measurements of over-snow vehicles at Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Sounds associated with oversnow vehicles, such as snowmobiles and snowcoaches, are an : important management concern at Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. The John A. : Volpe National Transportation Systems Centers Environmental Measureme...

  2. Subjective measures of household resilience to climate variability and change: insights from a nationally representative survey of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promoting household resilience to climate extremes has emerged as a key development priority. Yet tracking and evaluating resilience at this level remains a critical challenge. Most quantitative approaches rely on objective indicators and assessment frameworks, but these are not fully satisfactory. Much of the difficulty arises from a combination of conceptual ambiguities, challenges in selecting appropriate indicators, and in measuring the many intangible aspects that contribute to household resilience. More recently, subjective measures of resilience have been advocated in helping to overcome some of the limitations of traditional objective characterizations. However, few large-scale studies of quantitative subjective approaches to resilience measurement have been conducted. In this study, we address this gap by exploring perceived levels of household resilience to climate extremes in Tanzania and the utility of standardized subjective methods for its assessment. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey involving 1294 individuals was carried out by mobile phone in June 2015 among randomly selected adult respondents aged 18 and above. Factors that are most associated with resilience-related capacities are having had advance knowledge of a previous flood, and to a lesser extent, believing flooding to be a serious community problem. Somewhat surprisingly, though a small number of weak relationships are apparent, most socio-demographic variables do not exhibit statistically significant differences with regards to perceived resilience-related capacities. These findings may challenge traditional assumptions about what factors characterize household resilience, offering a motivation for studying both subjective and objective perspectives, and understanding better their relationship to one another. If further validated, subjective measures may offer potential as both a complement and alternative to traditional objective methods of resilience

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels after treatment in patients with thrombocytopenic purpura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yue

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2 and SIL-2R levels after treatment in 31 patients with thrombocytopenic purpura. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with thrombocytopenic purpura both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls ( P 0.05). Conclusion: Cytokines IL-2 and SIL-2R levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patients as well as the progress of diseases and could be of prognostic values. (authors)

  4. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 centent after treatment in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guiying

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension. Methods: Serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured with RIA in 36 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension both before and after 2 weeks of treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were significantly higher in patients with PIH than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: The inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 may play important roles in the pathogenesis of pregnancy induced hypertension. (authors)

  5. Clinical significance of measurement of serum IL-8, TNF-α and gastrin contents in helicobacter pylori associated digestive tract diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jianfan; Ma Yunbao; Gao Leihua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of IL-8, TNF-α, Gastrin and disease process in HP infection associated chronic gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Methods: Diagnosis was established in 35 HP positive chronic gastritis and 30 HP positive duodenal ulcer patients through gastroscopy, histopathology and 14 C-UBT test. RIA was adopted to measure the plasma contents of the three parameters in those 65 patients and 32 controls. Results: The serum IL-8, TNF-α and Gastrin (Gas) levels in patients with chronic gastritis were significantly higher than those in controls (p<0.01). Significant difference also existed between the contents in the two disease group (p<0.01). Conclusion: It proved that HP infection played an important role in the development of the two digestive tract diseases

  6. Clinical significance of measurement of changes in serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels after treatment in children with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Heng

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the changes of levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) after treatment in children with bronchial asthma. Methods: Serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels were measured with RIA in 32 patients with bronchial asthma both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels in patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05 ). Conclusion: Changes of serum TNF-α and GM-CSF levels contents after treatment might be of prognostic importance in children with bronchial asthma. (authors)

  7. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Men; Duo Huanzhi; Luo Guorong

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2 and SIL-2R levels after chemotherapy in 36 patients with lung carcinoma. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 36 patients with lung carcinoma both before and after chemotherapy as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, those patients without recurrence (n=20) had their IL-2 and SIL-2R levels returned to normal but in those with recurrences (n=12) the levels were about the same as before. Conclusion: Cytokines IL-2 and SIL-2R levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patient as well as the progress of disease and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  8. Clinical significance of measurement of changes serum SE-CAD, CEA and CA19-9 contents after operation in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Wentao; Jin Zeqiu; Jiang Hui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum SE-CAD, CEA and CA19-9 levels in patients with gastric cancer after operation. Methods: Serum levels of soluble E-Cadherin were measured with ELISA and serum CEA, CA19 -9 levels measared with RIA in 32 patients with gastric cancer both before and 6 months after operation as well as in 30 controls. Results: Serum SE-CAD, CEA and CA19-9 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls before operation (P 0.05). Conclusion: Changes of serum SE-CAD, CEA and CA19-9 levels after operation might be prognostic importance in patients with gastric cancer. (authors)

  9. Seventy Years of Radio Science, Technology, Standards, and Measurement at the National Bureau of Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmor, C. Stewart

    This large volume describes all the forms of radio research done at the National Bureau of Standards (now, National Institute of Standards and Technology) from its founding in 1901 until about 1980. The volume truly reflects its subtitle; it describes in great detail research in radio propagation and all its connections with geophysics and geospace, but also radio as instrument for discovery and application in meteorology, navigation, and in standards of measurement and testing in electronics.The book is a bit unwieldy and some of its chapters will be of most interest to former NBS employees. For example, there is a lengthy chapter on the transfer of radio research work from Washington, D.C, to Boulder, Colo., in the early 1950s, complete with photostat of the quit claim deed to NBS from the Boulder Chamber of Commerce. On the other hand, radio research developed and flourished in this country in the early days at industrial (Bell Telephone, General Electric, Westinghouse) and government (NBS, Naval Research Laboratory) labs more than in academia, and it is very interesting to learn how the labs interacted and to read details of the organizational structure. I can attest personally to the great difficulties in locating materials concerning radio history. While we have numerous volumes devoted to certain popular radio heroes, little is available concerning government radio pioneers such as L. W. Austin, who directed the U.S. Navy's radio research for many years while situated physically at the Bureau of Standards, or J. H. Dellinger, long-time chief of the Radio Section and head spokesman on radio for the U.S. government until the 1930s.

  10. Measuring Diversity of the National Institutes of Health-Funded Workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggeness, Misty L; Evans, Lisa; Pohlhaus, Jennifer Reineke; Mills, Sherry L

    2016-08-01

    To measure diversity within the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded workforce. The authors use a relevant labor market perspective to more directly understand what the NIH can influence in terms of enhancing diversity through NIH policies. Using the relevant labor market (defined as persons with advanced degrees working as biomedical scientists in the United States) as the conceptual framework, and informed by accepted economic principles, the authors used the American Community Survey and NIH administrative data to calculate representation ratios of the NIH-funded biomedical workforce from 2008 to 2012 by race, ethnicity, sex, and citizenship status, and compared this against the pool of characteristic individuals in the potential labor market. In general, the U.S. population during this time period was an inaccurate comparison group for measuring diversity of the NIH-funded scientific workforce. Measuring accurately, we found the representation of women and traditionally underrepresented groups in NIH-supported postdoc fellowships and traineeships and mentored career development programs was greater than their representation in the relevant labor market. The same analysis found these demographic groups are less represented in the NIH-funded independent investigator pool. Although these findings provided a picture of the current NIH-funded workforce and a foundation for understanding the federal role in developing, maintaining, and renewing diverse scientific human resources, further study is needed to identify whether junior- and early-stage investigators who are part of more diverse cohorts will naturally transition into independent NIH-funded investigators, or whether they will leave the workforce before achieving independent researcher status.

  11. Measuring reporting verifying. A primer on MRV for nationally appropriate mitigation actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinostroza, M. (ed.); Luetken, S.; Holm Olsen, K. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. UNEP Risoe Centre, Roskilde (Denmark)); Aalders, E.; Pretlove, B.; Peters, N. (Det Norske Veritas, Hellerup (Denmark))

    2012-03-15

    The requirements for measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of nationally appropriate mitigation actions (NAMAs) are one of the crucial topics on the agenda of international negotiations to address climate change mitigation. According to agreements so far, the general guidelines for domestic MRV are to be developed by Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)1. Further, the Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI) will be conducting international consultations and analysis (ICA) of biennial update reports (BUR) to improve transparency of mitigation actions, which should be measured, reported and verified. 2. What is clear from undergoing discussions both at SBSTA and at SBI is that MRV for NAMAs should not be a burden for controlling greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions connected to economic activities. Instead, the MRV process should facilitate mitigation actions; encourage the redirection of investments and address concerns regarding carbon content of emission intensive operations of private and public companies and enterprises worldwide. While MRV requirements are being shaped within the Convention, there are a number of initiatives supporting developing countries moving forward with NAMA development and demonstration activities. How these actions shall be measured, reported and verified, however, remain unanswered. MRV is not new. It is present in most existing policies and frameworks related to climate change mitigation. With an aim to contribute to international debate and capacity building on this crucial issue, the UNEP Risoe Centre in cooperation with UNDP, are pleased to present this publication that through the direct collaboration with Det Norske Veritas (DNV) builds on existing MRV practices in current carbon markets; provides insights on how MRV for NAMAs can be performed and identifies elements and drivers to be considered when designing adequate MRV systems for NAMAs in developing countries. This primer is the second

  12. Index of Cultural Significance as a Potential Tool for Conservation of Plants Diversity by Communities in The Kerinci Seblat National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asvic Helida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Kerinci community is an Indonesian indigenous people who live in Kerinci Regency, Jambi Province. They have local knowledge of the surrounding vegetation that has become a cultural unifying factor within the community. The study reported here aimed to analyze the importance of plants of particular cultural significance and to review efforts to conserve these plants based on Kerinci cultural values. The study was conducted for eight months from October 2013 to May 2014 at three locations chosen purposively, they were Lempur Baru Village, Lama Tamiai Village and Ulu Jernih Village. The data was obtained using a participatory observation approach, based on key informant interviews, while the assessment of plant distribution was based on a whole-of-community viewpoint. The research data consisted of data on the botany of the plants, on the utilization of the plants and on assessment of plant distribution. Analysis of data for 234 plant species used a formula for index of cultural significance (ICS adopted from Turner (1988. The study showed that rice (Oryza sativa L. and cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanni (Nees & T.Nees Blume are important plant species with values for the Cultural Index of 59 and 57 respectively, while the species known as 'inggu' (Ruta angustifolia (L. Pers had the lowest ICS, of 3. The 'Tri-Stimulus Amar' conservation analysis developed by Zuhud (2007 is seen as a useful model for considering the cultural values that motivate the Kerinci community's plant conservation actions.

  13. Spatiotemporal distribution and national measurement of the global carbonate carbon sink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiwen; Wang, Shijie; Bai, Xiaoyong; Luo, Weijun; Tang, Hong; Cao, Yue; Wu, Luhua; Chen, Fei; Li, Qin; Zeng, Cheng; Wang, Mingming

    2018-06-21

    The magnitudes, spatial distributions and contributions to global carbon budget of the global carbonate carbon sink (CCS) still remain uncertain, allowing the problem of national measurement of CCS remain unresolved which will directly influence the fairness of global carbon markets and emission trading. Here, based on high spatiotemporal resolution ecological, meteorological raster data and chemical field monitoring data, combining highly reliable machine learning algorithm with the thermodynamic dissolution equilibrium model, we estimated the new CCS of 0.89 ± 0.23 petagrams of carbon per year (Pg C yr -1 ), amounting to 74.50% of global net forest sink and accounting for 28.75% of terrestrial sinks or 46.81% of the missing sink. Our measurement for 142 nations of CCS showed that Russia, Canada, China and the USA contribute over half of the global CCS. We also presented the first global fluxes maps of the CCS with spatial resolution of 0.05°, exhibiting two peaks in equatorial regions (10°S to 10°N) and low latitudes (10°N to 35°N) in Northern Hemisphere. By contrast, there are no peaks in Southern Hemisphere. The greatest average carbon sink flux (CCSF), i.e., 2.12 tC ha -1  yr -1 , for 2000 to 2014 was contributed by tropical rainforest climate near the equator, and the smallest average CCSF was presented in tropical arid zones, showing a magnitude of 0.26 tC ha -1  yr -1 . This research estimated the magnitudes, spatial distributions, variations and contributions to the global carbon budget of the CCS in a higher spatiotemporal representativeness and expandability way, which, via multiple mechanisms, introduced an important sink in the terrestrial carbon sink system and the global missing sink and that can help us further reveal and support our understanding of global rock weathering carbon sequestration, terrestrial carbon sink system and global carbon cycle dynamics which make our understanding of global change more comprehensive

  14. Significance of apparent diffusion coefficient measurement for the differential diagnosis of multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, and Parkinson's disease: evaluation by 3.0-T MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Kazumichi; Kanasaki, Yoshiko; Kakite, Suguru; Fujii, Shinya; Kaminou, Toshio; Ogawa, Toshihide; Matsusue, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    The clinical differentiation of Parkinson's disease (PD) from multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) may be challenging, especially in their early stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement to distinguish among these degenerative disorders. Twenty-five MSA, 20 PSP, and 17 PD patients and 18 healthy controls were retrospectively studied. Axial diffusion-weighted and T2-weighted images were obtained using a 3-T MR system. Regions of interest (ROIs) were precisely placed in the midbrain, pons, putamen, globus pallidus, caudate nucleus, thalamus, superior cerebellar peduncle, middle cerebellar peduncle, cerebellar white matter, and cerebellar dentate nucleus, and the regional ADC (rADC) value was calculated in each ROI. In MSA, rADC values in the pons, middle cerebellar peduncle, cerebellar white matter, and cerebellar dentate nucleus were significantly higher than in PSP, PD, and controls. Furthermore, rADC values in the posterior putamen were significantly higher in MSA than in PSP and controls. In PSP, rADC values were significantly higher in the globus pallidus and midbrain than in MSA, PD, and controls. Furthermore, rADC values in the caudate nucleus and superior cerebellar peduncle were significantly higher in PSP than in MSA and controls. In PD, there were no significant differences in the rADC values compared to in MSA, PSP, and controls in all regions. Evaluation of rADC values in characteristic lesions in MSA, PSP, and PD by placing ROIs using 3-T systems can provide useful additional information for differentiating these disorders. (orig.)

  15. Clinical and diagnostic significance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 measurement in children with microbial inflammatory kidney and urinary tract diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Eremeeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the clinical and diagnostic significance of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2 (NGAL measurement in children with urinary tract infection (я=15 and pyelonephritis (я=15. The patients' age was 1 to 16 years (mean age, 7.32+4.52 years. The diagnosis was verified on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings and medical history and instrumental examination data. Urinary NGAL levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay (a Bio\\fendor Laboratory Medicine kit and calculated with reference to mg of creatinine. Urinary NGAL levels were established to depend on the degree of renal parenchymal damage. The investigation showed a relationship between the excretion of NGAL during the acute phase of pyelonephritis and the detection of renal scarring, as evidenced by statistical DMCA nephroscintigraphy. The acute pyelonephritis group exhibited a moderate direct correlation between the renal excretion of NGAL and the degree of leukocytosis and the blood levels of C-reactive protein. The findings allow recommendations for measuring urinary NGAL levels as an additional noninvasive marker for the early detection of renal parenchymal damage.

  16. Evaluating National Environmental Sustainability: Performance Measures and Influential Factors for OECD-Member Countries featuring Canadian Performance and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbick, Kenneth S.

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another policy measure.); analyses factors that seem to influence performance: climate, population growth, population density, economic output, technological development, industrial structure, energy prices, environmental governance, pollution abatement and control expenditures, and environmental pricing; and explores Canadian policy implications of the results. The techniques to build composite indices include performance indicator selection, missing data treatment, normalisation technique, scale-effect adjustments, weights, and aggregation method. Scale-effect adjustments and normalisation method are significant sources of uncertainty inducing 68% of the observed variation in a country's final rank at the 95% level of confidence. Choice of indicators also introduces substantial variation as well. To compensate for this variation, the current study recommends that a composite index should always be analysed with other policy subindices and individual indicators. Moreover, the connection between population and consumption indicates that per capita scale-effect adjustments should be used for certain indicators. Rather than ranking normalisation, studies should use a method that retains information from the raw indicator values. Multiple regression and cluster analyses indicate economic output, environmental governance, and energy prices are major influential factors, with energy prices the most important. It is statistically significant for five out of seven performance measures at the 95

  17. Development, enhancement, and evaluation of aircraft measurement techniques for national ambient air quality standard criteria pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brent, Lacey Cluff

    The atmospheric contaminants most harmful to human health are designated Criteria Pollutants. To help Maryland attain the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for Criteria Pollutants, and to improve our fundamental understanding of atmospheric chemistry, I conducted aircraft measurements in the Regional Atmospheric Measurement Modeling Prediction Program (RAMMPP). These data are used to evaluate model simulations and satellite observations. I developed techniques for improving airborne observation of two NAAQS pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). While structure and composition of organic aerosol are important for understanding PM formation, the molecular speciation of organic ambient aerosol remains largely unknown. The spatial distribution of reactive nitrogen is likewise poorly constrained. To examine water-soluble organic aerosol (WSOA) during an air pollution episode, I designed and implemented a shrouded aerosol inlet system to collect PM onto quartz fiber filters from a Cessna 402 research aircraft. Inlet evaluation conducted during a side-by-side flight with the NASA P3 demonstrated agreement to within 30%. An ion chromatographic mass spectrometric method developed using the NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1649b Urban Dust, as a surrogate material resulted in acidic class separation and resolution of at least 34 organic acids; detection limits approach pg/g concentrations. Analysis of aircraft filter samples resulted in detection of 8 inorganic species and 16 organic acids of which 12 were quantified. Aged, re-circulated metropolitan air showed a greater number of dicarboxylic acids compared to air recently transported from the west. While the NAAQS for NO2 is rarely exceeded, it is a precursor molecule for ozone, America's most recalcitrant pollutant. Using cavity ringdown spectroscopy employing a light emitting diode (LED), I measured vertical profiles of NO2 (surface to 2.5 km) west (upwind) of the Baltimore

  18. Significance of the measurement of serum transforming growth factor-α ad laminin in patients with three kinds of gastrointestinal malignant tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qing; Ma Yunbao

    2001-01-01

    The authors study the relationship between the levels of serum TGF-α and LN in gastrointestinal malignant tumor and the tumor formation and metastasis. Adopting radioimmunoassay measured serum TGF-α and LN levels in 40 cases of carcinoma of stomach, 24 cases of carcinoma of esophagus and 32 cases of liver cancer. The level of serum TGF-α in the patients with the three kinds of tumors was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01); except for the group of carcinoma of esophagus, the level of LN was significantly higher than that of the normal control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Meanwhile, the two markers of the metastasis group were significantly higher than that of the group without metastasis (P < 0.05). Elevation of the level of serum TGF-α and LN is closely related to the invasion and metastasis of the three kinds of malignant tumors, and is valuable for tumor diagnosis and prognosis evaluation

  19. MEASURING PLACE ATTACHMENT TO CĂLIMANI NATIONAL PARK (ROMANIA AMONG LOCAL RESIDENTS AND TOURISTS. PRELIMINARY FINDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IZABELA AMALIA MIHALCA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measuring Place Attachment to Călimani National Park (Romania among Local Residents and Tourists. Preliminary Findings. Understanding the attachments that people develop for certain places is an interesting area of study, but with little attention in Romanian empirical research. This study introduces the concepts of place identity and place dependence in relation to a specific area within the local culture of the Land of Dorna. Starting from previous studies carried on western samples, a research instrument measuring the degree and content of place attachment was translated and adapted. 86 respondents (52 residents and 34 tourists filled in the questionnaire. Comparing the degree of attachment, there was no significant difference among the two samples. However, local residents tended to display higher levels of place identity, while tourists displayed more emotional functionality to the study area. Place attachment is deeply embodied in the local culture. Due to the research design the generalization of the results is limited. However, this study may act as a starting point in researching other geographical mental spaces. The lands of Romania are unique social and cultural spaces with specific attachment patterns. Future studies should consider larger and representative samples in order to find additional patterns of attachment among residents and other individuals (e.g. tourists, visitors, new residents, other communities etc..

  20. Sexual orientation measurement and chronic disease disparities: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Joanne G; Jabson, Jennifer M

    2018-02-01

    To examine chronic disease disparities by sexual orientation measurement among sexual minorities. We pooled data from the 2009-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine differences in chronic disease prevalence between heterosexual and sexual minority people as defined by sexual identity, lifetime sexual behavior, 12-month sexual behavior, and concordance of lifetime sexual behavior and sexual identity. Self-identified lesbian women reported greater odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.19; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.37-7.47) and chronic bronchitis (aOR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.21-5.72) than self-identified heterosexual women. Self-identified sexual minority women with a history of same-sex sexual behavior reported greater odds of arthritis (aOR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.02-2.74). Compared with heterosexual men, gay men reported greater odds of chronic bronchitis when sexual orientation was defined by sexual identity (aOR, 4.68; 95% CI, 1.90-11.56) or 12-month sexual behavior (aOR, 3.22; 95% CI, 1.27-8.20), as did bisexual men defined by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.14-4.89). Bisexual men reported greater odds of asthma when measured by lifetime sexual behavior (aOR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.12-3.19), as did self-identified heterosexual men with a history of same-sex sexual behavior (aOR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.10-4.46). How we define sexual orientation influences our understanding of chronic disease prevalence. Capturing subgroups of sexual minority people in health surveillance is essential for identifying groups most at risk and developing targeted interventions to reduce chronic disease disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic variation in height: analysis of National Child Measurement Programme data for England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Caroline; Bettiol, Silvana; Smith, Lesley

    2016-05-01

    Short stature is associated with increased risk of ill health and mortality and can negatively impact on an individual's economic opportunity and psychological well-being. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between height and area-level deprivation by ethnic group in children in England. Cross-sectional analysis of data gathered from the National Child Measurement Programme 2008/2009 to 2012/2013. Children (n=1 213 230) aged 4-5 and 10-11 years attending state-maintained primary schools in England. Mean height SD score (SDS) (based on the British 1990 growth reference) was calculated for children by Income Deprivation Affecting Children Index as a measure of area-level deprivation. Analyses were performed by sex and age group for white British, Asian and black ethnicities. For white British children mean height decreased 0.2 SDS between the least and the most deprived quintile. For Asian children the relationship was weaker and varied between 0.08 and 0.18 SDS. For white British boys the magnitude of association was similar across age groups; for Asian boys the magnitude was higher in the age group of 10-11 years and in white British girls aged 10-11 years the association decreased. Height SDS was similar across all levels of deprivation for black children. Social inequalities were shown in the height of children from white British and Asian ethnic groups. Further evaluation of height in black children is warranted. Action is needed to reduce inequalities in height by addressing the modifiable negative environmental factors that prevent healthy growth and development of children. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Refining estimates of public health spending as measured in national health expenditure accounts: the Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballinger, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    The recent focus on public health stemming from, among other things, severe acute respiratory syndrome and avian flu has created an imperative to refine health-spending estimates in the Canadian Health Accounts. This article presents the Canadian experience in attempting to address the challenges associated with developing the needed taxonomies for systematically capturing, measuring, and analyzing the national investment in the Canadian public health system. The first phase of this process was completed in 2005, which was a 2-year project to estimate public health spending based on a more classic definition by removing the administration component of the previously combined public health and administration category. Comparing the refined public health estimate with recent data from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development still positions Canada with the highest share of total health expenditure devoted to public health than any other country reporting. The article also provides an analysis of the comparability of public health estimates across jurisdictions within Canada as well as a discussion of the recommendations for ongoing improvement of public health spending estimates. The Canadian Institute for Health Information is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides Canadians with essential statistics and analysis on the performance of the Canadian health system, the delivery of healthcare, and the health status of Canadians. The Canadian Institute for Health Information administers more than 20 databases and registries, including Canada's Health Accounts, which tracks historically 40 categories of health spending by 5 sources of finance for 13 provincial and territorial jurisdictions. Until 2005, expenditure on public health services in the Canadian Health Accounts included measures to prevent the spread of communicable disease, food and drug safety, health inspections, health promotion, community mental health programs, public

  3. NSLS [National Synchrotron Light Source] X-19A beamline performance for x-ray absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Penner-Hahn, J.E.; Stefan, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Characterization of the X-19A beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) is described. The beamline is designed for high resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy over a wide energy range. All of the beamline optical components are compatible with ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) operation. This permits measurements to be made in a window-less mode, thereby facilitating lower energy (<4 KeV) studies. To upgrade the beamline performance, several possible improvements in instrumentation and practice are discussed to increase photon statistics with an optimum energy resolution, while decreasing the harmonic contamination and noise level. A special effort has been made to improve the stability and UHV compatibility of the monochromator system. Initial x-ray absorption results demonstrate the capabilities of this beamline for x-ray absorption studies of low Z elements (e.g. S) in highly dilute systems. The future use of this beamline for carrying out various x-ray absorption experiments is presented. 10 refs., 4 figs

  4. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  5. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T.

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  6. Estimating Green Net National Product for Puerto Rico: An Economic Measure of Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shanshan; Heberling, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents the data sources and methodology used to estimate Green Net National Product (GNNP), an economic metric of sustainability, for Puerto Rico. Using the change in GNNP as a one-sided test of weak sustainability (i.e., positive growth in GNNP is not enough to show the economy is sustainable), we measure the movement away from sustainability by examining the change in GNNP from 1993 to 2009. In order to calculate GNNP, we require both economic and natural capital data, but limited data for Puerto Rico require a number of simplifying assumptions. Based on the environmental challenges faced by Puerto Rico, we include damages from air emissions and solid waste, the storm protection value of mangroves and the value of extracting crushed stone as components in the depreciation of natural capital. Our estimate of GNNP also includes the value of time, which captures the effects of technological progress. The results show that GNNP had an increasing trend over the 17 years studied with two periods of negative growth (2004-2006 and 2007-2008). Our additional analysis suggests that the negative growth in 2004-2006 was possibly due to a temporary economic downturn. However, the negative growth in 2007-2008 was likely from the decline in the value of time, suggesting the island of Puerto Rico was moving away from sustainability during this time.

  7. Definition of bulky disease in early stage Hodgkin lymphoma in computed tomography era: prognostic significance of measurements in the coronal and transverse planes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anita; Burger, Irene A; Zhang, Zhigang; Drill, Esther N; Migliacci, Jocelyn C; Ng, Andrea; LaCasce, Ann; Wall, Darci; Witzig, Thomas E; Ristow, Kay; Yahalom, Joachim; Moskowitz, Craig H; Zelenetz, Andrew D

    2016-10-01

    Disease bulk is an important prognostic factor in early stage Hodgkin lymphoma, but its definition is unclear in the computed tomography era. This retrospective analysis investigated the prognostic significance of bulky disease measured in transverse and coronal planes on computed tomography imaging. Early stage Hodgkin lymphoma patients (n=185) treated with chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy from 2000-2010 were included. The longest diameter of the largest lymph node mass was measured in transverse and coronal axes on pre-treatment imaging. The optimal cut off for disease bulk was maximal diameter greater than 7 cm measured in either the transverse or coronal plane. Thirty patients with maximal transverse diameter of 7 cm or under were found to have bulk in coronal axis. The 4-year overall survival was 96.5% (CI: 93.3%, 100%) and 4-year relapse-free survival was 86.8% (CI: 81.9%, 92.1%) for all patients. Relapse-free survival at four years for bulky patients was 80.5% (CI: 73%, 88.9%) compared to 94.4% (CI: 89.1%, 100%) for non-bulky; Cox HR 4.21 (CI: 1.43, 12.38) (P=0.004). In bulky patients, relapse-free survival was not impacted in patients treated with chemoradiotherapy; however, it was significantly lower in patients treated with chemotherapy alone. In an independent validation cohort of 38 patients treated with chemotherapy alone, patients with bulky disease had an inferior relapse-free survival [at 4 years, 71.1% (CI: 52.1%, 97%) vs 94.1% (CI: 83.6%, 100%), Cox HR 5.27 (CI: 0.62, 45.16); P=0.09]. Presence of bulky disease on multidimensional computed tomography imaging is a significant prognostic factor in early stage Hodgkin lymphoma. Coronal reformations may be included for routine Hodgkin lymphoma staging evaluation. In future, our definition of disease bulk may be useful in identifying patients who are most appropriate for chemotherapy alone. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  8. The clinical significance of glomerular filtration rate measured by 99Tcm-diethylentriamine pentaacetic acid renal dynamic imaging in renal cercinoma patients before surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xiaonan; Wang Yuetao; Wang Xiaosong; Chen Hailong

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured by 99 Tc m -diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ( 99 Tc m -DTPA) renal dynamic imaging in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients before surgery. Methods: There were 99 cases of RCC patients, 89 patients undergoing radical nephrectomy (RN) and 10 patients undergoing nephron-sparing surgery(NSS). 99 Tc m -DTPA renal dynamic imaging was performed for determining GFR before surgery. Make a comparison of GFR between RCC group and control group (normal kidney donors), RN group and NSS group. Make a comparison between GFR and serum creatinine in determining preoperative renal dysfunction of RCC patients. All of the data were analyzed by t-test and χ 2 -text. Results: Compared with control group, total GFR of RCC patients was lower, but there was no significant difference [(76.4±20.4)ml/min vs. (80.6±17.4)ml/min, t=0.650, P>0.05)]. Nineteen cases (19.2%) of RCC patients had preoperative renal dysfunction (total GFR 133μmol/L). There was no significant difference in GFR of neoplastic kidneys between RN group and NSS group [(34.1±11.7)ml/min vs.(37.9±11.9)ml/min, t=0.975, P>0.05]. GFR of contralateral kidneys was lower in NSS group than RN group [(32.7±10.3)ml/min vs. (39.6±10.1)ml/min, t=0.044, P 2 =6.808, P<0.01). Conclusion: GFR can provide the accurate information of both kidneys and single kidney before surgery, and this result possessed an important significance in choice of treatments. (authors)

  9. The concerned significant others of people with gambling problems in a national representative sample in Sweden - a 1 year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Jessika; Romild, Ulla; Shepherdson, Emma

    2013-11-21

    Research into the impact of problem gambling on close social networks is scarce with the majority of studies only including help-seeking populations. To date only one study has examined concerned significant others (CSOs) from an epidemiological perspective and it did not consider gender. The aim of this study is to examine the health, social support, and financial situations of CSOs in a Swedish representative sample and to examine gender differences. A population study was conducted in Sweden in 2008/09 (n = 15,000, response rate 63%). Respondents were defined as CSOs if they reported that someone close to them currently or previously had problems with gambling. The group of CSOs was further examined in a 1-year follow up (weighted response rate 74% from the 8,165 respondents in the original sample). Comparisons were also made between those defined as CSOs only at baseline (47.7%, n = 554) and those defined as CSOs at both time points. In total, 18.2% of the population were considered CSOs, with no difference between women and men. Male and female CSOs experienced, to a large extent, similar problems including poor mental health, risky alcohol consumption, economic hardship, and arguments with those closest to them. Female CSOs reported less social support than other women and male CSOs had more legal problems and were more afraid of losing their jobs than other men. One year on, several problems remained even if some improvements were found. Both male and female CSOs reported more negative life events in the 1 year follow-up. Although some relationships are unknown, including between the CSOs and the individuals with gambling problems and the causal relationships between being a CSO and the range of associated problems, the results of this study indicate that gambling problems not only affect the gambling individual and their immediate close family but also the wider social network. A large proportion of the population can be defined as a CSO, half of whom are

  10. Flash flip book applications to measure the level of nationalism with quasi experiment on primary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asri, Yessy; Fitriani, Yessy

    2017-08-01

    Great nation is a nation that respects the the sacrifice of the heroes and the history of his people. This young generation is the root of a nation who need to know and respect the values of which has been laid the founding fathers. The history continues to be written by people, in all civilizations and in all times,History in writing or documentation becomes an important tool in studying the progress and setbacks of a nation that is contained in various events in the past. Indonesia is a pluralistic nation consisting of various tribes, culture and history are scattered throughout the country. Interactive flash flip book application built to pack the local stories and history of the nation which is widespread in the thirty-three provinces to to elementary school children through teachers, especially elementary school teachers Islam Bani Saleh 5 and SDN Setiadarma 04 Bekasi in the subjects of Citizenship Education (PKn). The main problem in this research is "Whether a flash flip book can give effect to increase the spirit of nationalism elementary school students ? ". The method used is the One group pretest posttest design. Population in this research is class student V SD Islam Bani Saleh and SDN Setiadarma 04 Bekasi. Results of this study was to measure the influence of media flash flip book to foster a sense of nationalism graders V SD in the subjects of Citizenship Education (PKn) in SD Islam Bani Saleh 5 and SDN Setiadarma 04 Bekasi Bekasi.

  11. Hydrologic measurements and implications for tree island formation within Everglades National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazante, Jose; Jacobi, Gary; Solo-Gabriele, Helena M.; Reed, David; Mitchell-Bruker, Sherry; Childers, Daniel L.; Leonard, Lynn; Ross, Michael

    2006-10-01

    SummaryTree islands in the Shark River Slough of the Everglades National Park (ENP), in the southern state of Florida in the United States, are part of a wetland system of densely vegetated ridges interspersed within relatively open sloughs. Human alteration of this system has had dramatic negative effects on the landscape of the region and restoration efforts will require adjusting the hydrology of the region to assure the preservation of these important ecologic features. The primary objectives of this study were to document the hydrology in the vicinity of tree islands in ENP by measuring velocities in time and space and by characterizing suspended sediments. The results of such measurements were interpreted with respect to factors that may limit tree island growth. The measurements were conducted in the vicinity of three tree islands known as Black Hammock (BH), Gumbo Limbo (GL), and an unnamed island that was named for this study as Satin Leaf (SL). Acoustical Doppler Velocity (ADV) meters were used for measuring the low velocities of the Everglades water flow. Properties of suspended sediments were characterized through measurements of particle size distribution, turbidity, concentration and particle density. Mean velocities observed at each of the tree islands varied from 0.9 to 1.4 cm/s. Slightly higher mean velocities were observed during the wet season (1.2-1.6 cm/s) versus the dry season (0.8-1.3 cm/s). Maximum velocities of more than 4 cm/s were measured in areas of Cladium jamaicense die-off and at the hardwood hammock (head) of the islands. At the island's head, water is channelized around obstructions such as tree trunks in relatively rapid flow, which may limit the lateral extent of tree island growth. Channelization is facilitated by shade from the tree canopy, which limits the growth of underwater vegetation thereby minimizing the resistance to flow and limiting sediment deposition. Suspended sediment concentrations were low (0.5-1.5 mg/L) at all

  12. Expanding the disaster risk management framework: Measuring the constructed level of national identity as a factor of political risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barend Prinsloo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Political risk is identified as a dominant risk category of disaster risk management (DRM which could negatively affect the success of those measures implemented to reduce disaster risk. Key to political risk is the construct of national identity which, if poorly constructed, could greatly contribute to political risk. This article proposed a tool to measure the construct of national identity and to provide recommendations to strengthen the construct in order to mitigate the exacerbating influence it may have on political risk and ultimately on DRM. The design of the measurement tool consisted of a mixed methodological approach employing both quantitative and qualitative data. The data collection instruments included a literature review (which is shortly provided in the previous sections and an empirical study that utilised data obtained through structured questionnaires. Although the results of the proposed measuring instrument did not include a representative sample of all the cultures in SouthAfrica, the results alluded to different levels for the construction of national identity among black and white respondents, possibly because of different ideological expectations among these groups. The results of the study should be considered as a validation of the measuring tool and not necessarily of the construct of national identity in South Africa. The measuring tool is thus promising for future studies to reduce political risk and ultimately disaster risk.

  13. Significance of Selective Predation and Development of Prey Protection Measures for Juvenile Salmonids in the Columbia and Snake River Reservoirs: Annual Progress Report, February 1991-February 1992.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poe, Thomas P.

    1992-12-31

    This document is the 1991 annual report of progress for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) research Project conducted by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS). Our approach was to present the progress achieved during 1991 in a series of separate reports for each major project task. Each report is prepared in the format of a scientific paper and is able to stand alone, whatever the state of progress or completion. This project has two major goals. One is to understand the significance of selective predation and prey vulnerability by determining if substandard juvenile salmonids (dead, injured, stressed, diseased, or naive) are more vulnerable to predation by northern squawfish, than standard or normal juvenile salmonids. The second goal is to develop and test prey protection measures to control predation on juvenile salmonids by reducing predator-smolt encounters or predator capture efficiency.

  14. A puzzle form of a non-verbal intelligence test gives significantly higher performance measures in children with severe intellectual disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Katrina D; Goharpey, Nahal; Crewther, Sheila G; Crewther, David P

    2008-08-01

    Assessment of 'potential intellectual ability' of children with severe intellectual disability (ID) is limited, as current tests designed for normal children do not maintain their interest. Thus a manual puzzle version of the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) was devised to appeal to the attentional and sensory preferences and language limitations of children with ID. It was hypothesized that performance on the book and manual puzzle forms would not differ for typically developing children but that children with ID would perform better on the puzzle form. The first study assessed the validity of this puzzle form of the RCPM for 76 typically developing children in a test-retest crossover design, with a 3 week interval between tests. A second study tested performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in a sample of 164 children with ID. In the first study, no significant difference was found between performance on the puzzle and book forms in typically developing children, irrespective of the order of completion. The second study demonstrated a significantly higher performance and completion rate for the puzzle form compared to the book form in the ID population. Similar performance on book and puzzle forms of the RCPM by typically developing children suggests that both forms measure the same construct. These findings suggest that the puzzle form does not require greater cognitive ability but demands sensory-motor attention and limits distraction in children with severe ID. Thus, we suggest the puzzle form of the RCPM is a more reliable measure of the non-verbal mentation of children with severe ID than the book form.

  15. Significant geographic gradients in particulate sulfate over Japan determined from multiple-site measurements and a chemical transport model: Impacts of transboundary pollution from the Asian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Masahide; Ohara, Toshimasa; Hiraki, Takatoshi; Oishi, Okihiro; Tsuji, Akihiro; Yamagami, Makiko; Murano, Kentaro; Mukai, Hitoshi

    2010-01-01

    We found a significant geographic gradient (longitudinal and latitudinal) in the sulfate (SO 42-) concentrations measured at multiple sites over the East Asian Pacific Rim region. Furthermore, the observed gradient was well reproduced by a regional chemical transport model. The observed and modeled SO 42- concentrations were higher at the sites closer to the Asian continent. The concentrations of SO 42- from China as calculated by the model also showed the fundamental features of the longitudinal/latitudinal gradient. The proportional contribution of Chinese SO 42- to the total in Japan throughout the year was above 50-70% in the control case, using data for Chinese sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emission from the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (40-60% in the low Chinese emissions case, using Chinese SO 2 emissions data from the State Environmental Protection Administration of China), with a winter maximum of approximately 65-80%, although the actual concentrations of SO 42- from China were highest in summer. The multiple-site measurements and the model analysis strongly suggest that the SO 42- concentrations in Japan were influenced by the outflow from the Asian continent, and this influence was greatest in the areas closer to the Asian continent. In contrast, we found no longitudinal/latitudinal gradient in SO 2 concentrations; instead SO 2 concentrations were significantly correlated with local SO 2 emissions. Our results show that large amounts of particulate sulfate are transported over long distances from the East Asian Pacific Rim region, and consequently the SO 42- concentrations in Japan are controlled by the transboundary outflow from the Asian continent.

  16. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma relevant cytokines (GM-CSF, IL-2, TPO, EPO) levels in patients with aplastic anemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Tintin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the role of relevant cytokines in the development and pathogenesis of aplastic anemia. Methods: Plasma GM-CSF, IL-2, TPO (with RIA) and EPO (with CLIA) contents were measured in 100 patients (acute 43, chronic 57) with aplastic anemia and 50 controls. Complete blood count was also performed in all these subjects. Results: The peripheral RBC, WBC, platelet counts and GM-CSF contents were significantly lower in the patients with aplastic anemia than those in the controls (P<0.05), while the IL-2, EPO and TPO contents were significantly higher in the patients (P<0.05). GM-CSF contents were positively correlated with the WBC numbers. EPO contents were negatively correlated with the RBC counts and TPO contents were correlated (negatively) with the platelet counts. Conclusion: There was correlationship between each blood elements (WBC, RBC, platelet) and its corresponding cytokine (GS-CSF, EPO, TPO respectively). IL-2 contents were not correlated with WBC counts. (authors)

  17. Clinical significance of measurements of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Songsan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after treatment in 39 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 39 patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Both before and one year after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R and TNF-α levels, were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01), one year after treatment, the patients without recurrence (n=31) had their serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels returned to normal, but in patients with recurrences (n=8) the levels were about the same as those before treatment. Conclusion: Serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α lends were closely related to the diseases process and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  18. Clinical significance of measurements of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R, TNF-α levels after chemotherapy in patients with ovary cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels after chemotherapy in 34 patients with ovary cancer. Methods: Serum IL-2, TNF-α (with RIA) and SIL-2R (with ELISA) levels were measured in 34 patients with ovary cancers both before and 6 months after chemotherapy as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy in the patients the serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower and serum SIL-2R and TNF-α levels were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, those patients without recurrence (n=21) had their IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels returned to normal, but in those with recurrences (n=10) the levels were about the same as before. Conclusion: Serum IL-2, SIL-2R and TNF-α levels changes could reflect the immunostatus of the patients as well as the progress of diseases and could be of prognostic value. (authors)

  19. Significance of measuring oxidative stress in lifestyle-related diseases from the viewpoint of correlation between d-ROMs and BAP in Japanese subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Toshiki; Yamauchi, Kazuhiro; Maruyama, Mie; Yasuda, Tadashi; Abe, Youichi; Kohno, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, oxidative stress has been postulated to be an important factor in the pathogenesis and development of lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the association between the derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs), as an index of products of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), as an index of antioxidant potential. We also investigated the associations between d-ROMs or BAP and the risk factors for lifestyle-related diseases or metabolic syndrome-associated factors to evaluate their usefulness in preventive medicine. There were 442 subjects who underwent health checkup examination in our facilities. In addition to standard medical checkup items, we analyzed d-ROMs, BAP, brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level and visceral fat area (VFA) visualized on a computed tomography scan. The mean d-ROM value in females was significantly higher than that in males. There was a positive correlation between the d-ROM and VFA levels. On correlation analysis, there was a negative correlation between the d-ROM and creatinine levels. As factors that influence d-ROMs, the level of VFA was selected, suggesting the significance of oxidative stress measurement with d-ROMs. In addition, there was a positive correlation between d-ROMs and BAP values. Further research is required to resolve whether increased production of ROS or the antioxidant potential that can compensate for such an increase of ROS is more important in vivo. (author)

  20. Using a New Measurement to Evaluate Pain Relief Among Cancer Inpatients with Clinically Significant Pain Based on a Nursing Information System: A Three-Year Hospital-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Yun; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Chun-Sung; Ho, Shung-Tai; Wu, Yi-Syuan; Liang, Chun-Yu; Wang, Kwua-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Developing a new measurement index is the first step in evaluating pain relief outcomes. Although the percentage difference in pain intensity (%PID) is the most popular indicator, this indicator does not take into account the goal of pain relief. Therefore, the aims of this study were to develop a pain relief index (PRI) for outcome evaluation and to examine the index using demographic characteristics of cancer inpatients with clinically significant pain. Retrospective cohort study. A national hospital. All cancer inpatients. Pain intensity was assessed using a numerical rating scale, a faces pain scale or the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) Behavioral Tool. Using a nursing information system, a pain score database containing data from 2011 through 2013 was analyzed. Cancer patients representing 93,812 hospitalizations were considered in this study. We focused on cancer patients for whom the worst pain intensity (WPI) was ≥ 4 points. PRI values of -62.02% to -72.55% were observed in the WPI ≥ 7 and 4 ≤ WPI ≤ 6 groups. Significant (P 65 years old, those who were admitted to the medicine or gynecology and those who had a hospital stay > 30 days. This hospital-based study demonstrated that the PRI is an effective and valid measure for evaluating outcome data using an electronic nursing information system. We will further define the meaningful range of percentage difference in PRI from various perspectives. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Measuring the volume of caudate nucleus in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Mingfei; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Wu Jianlin; Li Kuncheng; Zhou Xin; Zhou Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the caudate nucleus' volume in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This was a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e, Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range =31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range =61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. The volume of caudate was measured manually using 3D volume analysis software. The difference of volumes of the caudate between male and female were analyzed by independent sample t-test, and among age groups by ANOVA. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to characterize the relationship between volumes and age. The differences of measurements between left and right caudate nucleus were analyzed by paired t test. Results: (1) The mean volume of bilateral caudate nucleus in healthy Chinese adults was (10.973± 1.647) cm 3 . The mean volume of the the male's left and right caudate nucleus were (5.656±0.860) and (5.671±0.855) cm 3 respectively,no significant differences were found between the volume of left and right caudate nucleus (t=1.230, P>0.05). The mean volume of the the female's left and right caudate nucleus were (5.287±0.774) and (5.331±0.766) cm 3 respectively, and the right's was larger than the left's with significant differences (t=3.999, P<0.01); (2) Pearson correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between the nucleus volume and age (male and female's, left and right) (r=-0.561, -0.568, -0.548, -0.552, P<0.05). Conclusion: With high-resolution MRI and 3D volumetric analytic software (Midob), the volume of the caudate nucleus can be

  2. Direct Measurement of the Volume of Liquid Water Emitted During Eruptions of Lone Star Geyser, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, F.; Hurwitz, S.; Johnston, M. J.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Pontbriand, C.; Sohn, R. A.; Karlstrom, L.; Rudolph, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    In September, 2010 a comprehensive series of instrumental observations was carried out at Lone Star Geyser in Yellowstone National Park to measure changes in the geyser and its surroundings during eruptions. That project included measurements of flow in the streams that drain the geyser area. Three small streams convey liquid water from the geyser and many of the surrounding hot springs to the Firehole River, about 75 m south of the geyser cone. We developed rating curves for two of these streams by measuring channel cross-sections and timing floating markers (using stopwatches and video recordings) while simultaneously recording stream depth at two-second intervals at two locations using pressure transducers and dataloggers. We estimated the flow in the third (ungaged) stream to be 0.15 of the flow in the easternmost stream, with which it shares a source area and part of its channel. The eruption cycle takes about 3 hours, and a total of nine eruption cycles were observed. During these 3-hour cycles the geyser and the nearby hot springs deliver a total of between 15 and 28 m3 of water to the Firehole River. During the 10-20 minutes of the main phase of an eruption, the geyser delivered between 8 and 11 m3 of water to the three streams. The volume of water emitted during eruptions appears to display a significant diurnal variation which strongly correlates with air temperature, with significantly more flow during early afternoon hours. There were also significant variations in the distribution of flow between the different channels. Our calculations suggest that losses due to evaporation along the flow channels are negligible, and losses due to infiltration appear to be small. The calculated volumes of water discharge do not account for the volume of erupted steam or evaporation of liquid water from the jet. Steam discharge will be assessed using image analysis of high speed video. The calculated volumes provide accurate and important constraint for models of

  3. INTANGIBLE HERITAGE SIGNIFICANCE FOR NATIONAL IDENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBU IURAŞCU VIORICA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture? A commonplace — a term assimilated by every individual, yet understood by few. Tradition is a series of manifestations viewed from far, where they have not entered yet the shadow cone of forgetfulness, something that does not attract us anymore, a product of an antiquated society. We could affirm that what belongs to us is within our reach, and what belongs to somebody else is tempting… Harassed by the context of a modern society, we forget to look soberly at the origins that define each one of us and on whose basis we defined our civic, ethical, moral and professional personality.

  4. Surface tensions of multi-component mixed inorganic/organic aqueous systems of atmospheric significance: measurements, model predictions and importance for cloud activation predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to predict the physical properties of aerosol particles, it is necessary to adequately capture the behaviour of the ubiquitous complex organic components. One of the key properties which may affect this behaviour is the contribution of the organic components to the surface tension of aqueous particles in the moist atmosphere. Whilst the qualitative effect of organic compounds on solution surface tensions has been widely reported, our quantitative understanding on mixed organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems is limited. Furthermore, it is unclear whether models that exist in the literature can reproduce the surface tension variability for binary and higher order multi-component organic and mixed inorganic/organic systems of atmospheric significance. The current study aims to resolve both issues to some extent. Surface tensions of single and multiple solute aqueous solutions were measured and compared with predictions from a number of model treatments. On comparison with binary organic systems, two predictive models found in the literature provided a range of values resulting from sensitivity to calculations of pure component surface tensions. Results indicate that a fitted model can capture the variability of the measured data very well, producing the lowest average percentage deviation for all compounds studied. The performance of the other models varies with compound and choice of model parameters. The behaviour of ternary mixed inorganic/organic systems was unreliably captured by using a predictive scheme and this was dependent on the composition of the solutes present. For more atmospherically representative higher order systems, entirely predictive schemes performed poorly. It was found that use of the binary data in a relatively simple mixing rule, or modification of an existing thermodynamic model with parameters derived from binary data, was able to accurately capture the surface tension variation with concentration. Thus

  5. Significance of measurements of changes of plasma TXB2, 6-K-PGF1α levels in patients with atrial fibrillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Anqiong; Zan Qin; Xiao Xiaojie; Du Tongxing; Wang Zizheng

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma levels of TXB 2 , 6-K-PGF 1α in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and to explore the mechanism of prethrombotic state (PTS) induced by AF. Methods: Plasma levels of TXB 2 , 6-K-PGF 1α were measured with RIA in 21 patients with isolated paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (IPAF) both during and one week after termination of the attack. Levels were also measured in 28 patients with isolated sustained AF (ISAF), 27 patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis associated with persistent AF (RHD), 32 patients with paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) and 35 controls. Results Plasma levels of TXB 2 and TXB 2 /6-K-PGF 1α in: (1) patients with IPAF during AF, (2) patients with ISAF and (3) patients with RHD were significantly higher than those in (1) patients with IPAF one week after termination of attack, (2) patients with PSVT and (3) the controls, but there were little difference in plasma 6-K-PGF 1α levels. Values in patients with PSVT were not much different from those in controls. Plasma TXB 2 and TXB 2 /6-K-PGF 1α levels were positively correlated to the duration of the attack, but bore no relation to such parameters as: age, sex, mitral valve area, ejection fraction and inner diameter of left atrium. Conclusion: These results indicate that the changes of TXB 2 and TXB 2 /6-K-PGF 1α levels in plasma in the patients with AF are caused by the irregular contractile activity of atrium. (authors)

  6. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants associated with oil and natural gas exploration and production activity in Pennsylvania's Allegheny National Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekney, Natalie J; Veloski, Garret; Reeder, Matthew; Tamilia, Joseph; Rupp, Erik; Wetzel, Alan

    2014-09-01

    Oil and natural gas exploration and production (E&P) activities generate emissions from diesel engines, compressor stations, condensate tanks, leaks and venting of natural gas, construction of well pads, and well access roads that can negatively impact air quality on both local and regional scales. A mobile, autonomous air quality monitoring laboratory was constructed to collect measurements of ambient concentrations of pollutants associated with oil and natural gas E&P activities. This air-monitoring laboratory was deployed to the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) in northwestern Pennsylvania for a campaign that resulted in the collection of approximately 7 months of data split between three monitoring locations between July 2010 and June 2011. The three monitoring locations were the Kane Experimental Forest (KEF) area in Elk County, which is downwind of the Sackett oilfield; the Bradford Ranger Station (BRS) in McKean County, which is downwind of a large area of historic oil and gas productivity; and the U.S. Forest Service Hearts Content campground (HC) in Warren County, which is in an area relatively unimpacted by oil and gas development and which therefore yielded background pollutant concentrations in the ANF. Concentrations of criteria pollutants ozone and NO2 did not vary significantly from site to site; averages were below National Ambient Air Quality Standards. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas (ethane, propane, butane, pentane) were highly correlated. Applying the conditional probability function (CPF) to the ethane data yielded most probable directions of the sources that were coincident with known location of existing wells and activity. Differences between the two impacted and one background site were difficult to discern, suggesting the that the monitoring laboratory was a great enough distance downwind of active areas to allow for sufficient dispersion with background air such that the localized

  7. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using sup(99m)Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-01-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (sup(99m)Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gasritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis. (J.P.N.)

  8. Clinical significance of the measurement of the gastric emptying time using /sup 99m/Tc-DTPA (technetium-99m diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imagawa, Masaru

    1985-02-01

    The gastric emptying time (GET) was measured by the radioisotopic method (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in healthy volunteers, normal controls and patients with various gastroduodenal diseases. The gastric juice after tetragastrin-stimulation was also analyzed in all patients, and in some patients to determine the serum gastrin levels (gastrin response) to test meal. The results are summarized as follows: 1) The present method provided excellent reproducibility and safety without absorption of the radiochemical, and demonstrated an exponentially linear pattern of GET. 2) GET was delayed in patients with atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer but was shortened significantly in patients with duodenal ulcer compared to normal controls. 3) GET was significantly correlated to aging and gastric acid secretion in non-ulcer subjects (normal controls and atrophic gastritis) but not in gastric ulcer patients. GET was delayed markedly in gastric ulcer patients with hypersecretion. 4) GET was shortened in duodenal ulcer patients, especially those with normosecretion, but was within a normal range in those with hypersecretion. Both the gastric emptying time and acid output in gastroduodenal ulcer patients were similar to those in duodenal ulcer patients with hypersecretion, suggesting the similarity of pathophysiology between them. 5) GET was delayed in gastric cancer patients, especially in advanced patients, suggesting impairment of the gastric motility due to cancer invasion into the muscular layer. 6) The gastrin response after test meal rapidly descended in duodenal ulcer patients but conversely continued to be high in gastric ulcer patients. This difference might have resulted from prolonged stimulation caused by gastric stasis. There may also be other factors, i.e., severity of atrophic gastritis.

  9. Measuring Changes in Service Costs to Meet the Requirements of the 2002 National Defense Authorization Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shirley, Chad; Ausink, John; Baldwin, Laura H

    2004-01-01

    The National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2002 sets forth a series of goals for the Department of Defense to reduce the cost of the services it buys over a ten-year period through changes...

  10. Evaluating national environmental sustainability: performance measures and influential factors for OECD-member countries featuring Canadian performance and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Calbick, Kenneth Stuart

    2011-01-01

    This research reviews five studies that evaluate national environmental sustainability with composite indices; performs uncertainty and sensitivity analyses of techniques for building a composite index; completes principal components factor analysis to help build subindices measuring waste and pollution, sustainable energy, sustainable food, nature conservation, and sustainable cities (Due to its current importance, the greenhouse gases (GHG) indicator is included individually as another poli...

  11. The Beck depression inventory as a measure of subjective well-being : A cross-national study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, D.A.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.; Poortinga, Y.H.

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the question whether the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), which is one of the most widely used instruments to assess depression, can be used to measure differences in subjective well-being at national level. In order to establish the meaning of depression scores at country

  12. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine.

  13. Students do not reduce patient satisfaction in a family medicine clinic as measured by a nationally used patient satisfaction instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Mark R; Sterrenberg, Timothy R

    2015-03-01

    Patient satisfaction surveys are widely used to give physicians feedback on their treatment of patients, included in physician performance evaluation and payment, and correlated with better health outcomes. Our research uses industry-standard satisfaction measures to gauge the impact on patient satisfaction of having students involved in a patient's medical care at the family medicine clinic of a large southwestern osteopathic medical school. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using the Press-Ganey Survey, a national survey commonly used by hospitals and clinics. The survey was modified to indicate the presence of a learner in the patient's treatment room. The survey provided data on patient satisfaction with the office, the visit, and the care received. Overall, 730 survey responses were used in the study, 434 from patients with whose visit included a student. There were no statistically significant differences in patient satisfaction scores, including overall satisfaction with the visit. Our findings indicate that student doctors do not decrease patient satisfaction and that satisfaction scores may be useful in student evaluations. This finding should encourage outpatient physicians who teach medical students that their patient satisfaction scores on the most widely used patient satisfaction survey will not be impacted by teaching students.

  14. Cardiovascular health metrics and accelerometer-measured physical activity levels: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreira, Tiago V; Harrington, Deirdre M; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether relationships exist between accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and other cardiovascular (CV) health metrics in a large sample. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2006, were used. Overall, 3454 nonpregnant adults 20 years or older who fasted for 6 hours or longer, with valid accelerometer data and with CV health metrics, were included in the study. Blood pressure (BP), body mass index (BMI), smoking status, diet, fasting plasma glucose level, and total cholesterol level were defined as ideal, intermediate, and poor on the basis of American Heart Association criteria. Results were weighted to account for sampling design, oversampling, and nonresponse. Significant increasing linear trends in mean daily MVPA were observed across CV health levels for BMI, BP, and fasting plasma glucose (Pphysical activity in the overall definition of ideal CV health. Copyright © 2014 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. First-trimester screening in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology: significance of gestational dating by oocyte retrieval or sonographic measurement of crown-rump length

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, A.C.; Loft, A.; Pinborg, A.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers or the perfo......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in pregnancies conceived by assisted reproductive technology, whether determination of gestational age (GA) by date of oocyte aspiration (DOA) or crown-rump length (CRL) at first-trimester screening influences the distribution of serum and sonographic markers...... or the performance of first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: GA was calculated using either DOA or CRL at blood sampling and nuchal translucency thickness (NT) measurement in 729 singleton pregnancies conceived by in-vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI......). Weight-corrected log multiples of the median (MoM) marker distributions specific for IVF pregnancy were established using multiple log regression and compared for DOA- and CRL-based GA calculation. RESULTS: GA determined by CRL was significantly larger, albeit slightly, than was GA determined by DOA...

  16. Approach to integrate current safeguards measures with additional protocol requirements at national level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, R.

    2001-01-01

    Peru adhered to the Additional Protocol in March 2000 which was also approved by the Congress in May 2001. After approval by law the obligations derived from this Additional Protocol will be in force after 180 days. After the signing of the Protocol an approach was designed to help better fulfill these requirements in an integrated way with the previous measures. As first stage, a review of the current state of safeguards was undertaken. Under the current agreement (an INFCIRC/153 type agreement) the reporting is less complicated and inexpensive to be carried out because these reports include only the declared nuclear material and the features of declared facilities where the nuclear material is used. No other related facility or material or activity needs to be declared. In Peru there are only two MBAs where low enriched uranium (LEU) is used and the record system includes general ledgers, inventory records and operational books. The results of national inspections and copies of reports and communications sent to the IAEA are also kept in this system. Under the agreement and subsidiary arrangements material balance reports (MBR), physical inventory listings (PIL) and inventory change reports (ICR) are prepared and submitted to the IAEA at scheduled periods. The MBR and PIL reports are sent after yearly regular inspections carried out by the IAEA. The ICR is sent just every time when an import or export of nuclear material is made. The time devoted to carry out all of these activities is not so extensive for both the State System for Accountability and Control (SSAC) and the users because of the limited nuclear activities in the country. Because of the characteristics and limited quantities of nuclear material the efforts for inspection and reporting activities are few. Another subject under review was the procedure for controlling the imports of nuclear material. Under the current agreement this subject was not a problem, as all of the radioactive and nuclear

  17. Measuring the volume of cingulate cortex in Chinese normal adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chao; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhou Xin; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of cingulate cortex volumes of Chinese adults of the Han nationality and its relationship with age, which provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range = 18 to 70) recruited from 15 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e., Group A (age range = 18 to 30), B (age range =31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range =61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. Cingulate cortex volume (including bulk volume and the left/right volume) was measured semi-manually using 3D volume analysis software. Cingulate cortex volumes among age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. Right and left cingulate cortex volumes between sexualities were analyzed by paired samples t test. The relationship between cingulate cortex volume and age was analyzed by Pearson correlations and regression analysis. Results: Cingulate cortex volumes of male and female were (20 347 ± 2504) and (19 432 ± 2184) mm 3 respectively, and the male's was significantly larger than that of female's (two sample t'-test for independent samples, t'=6.156, P 3 respectively, and those of female's were (10 064 ± 1407) and (9368 ± 1441) mm 3 respectively. The volumes of cingulate cortex were significantly different between right and left in male or female (t=-12.960, -8.511, P 3 ; right: (11212±1442), (11 096±1602), (11 040±1403), (10633±1638), (9604±1522) mm 3 ] had statistical differences (F=16.738, 18.707, P 3 ; right: (10 558± 1325), (10 266 ±1463), (10 100 ± 1497), (9779 ± 1304), (9617 ± 1254) mm 3 ] also had significant differences (F=16.859,7.528,P<0.01). Bilateral cingulate cortex volume in both male and female were negatively

  18. Index of tobacco control sustainability (ITCS): a tool to measure the sustainability of national tobacco control programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Morris, Angela; Latif, Ehsan

    2017-03-01

    To produce a tool to assess and guide sustainability of national tobacco control programmes. A two-stage process adapting the Delphi and Nominal group techniques. A series of indicators of tobacco control sustainability were identified in grantee/country advisor reports to The International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease under the Bloomberg Initiative to Reduce Tobacco Control (2007-2015). Focus groups and key informant interviews in seven low and middle-income countries (52 government and civil society participants) provided consensus ratings of the indicators' relative importance. Data were reviewed and the indicators were accorded relative weightings to produce the 'Index of Tobacco Control Sustainability' (ITCS). All 31 indicators were considered 'Critical' or 'Important' by the great majority of participants. There was consensus that a tool to measure progress towards tobacco control sustainability was important. The most critical indicators related to financial policies and allocations, a national law, a dedicated national tobacco control unit and civil society tobacco control network, a national policy against tobacco industry 'Corporate Social Responsibility' (CSR), national mortality and morbidity data, and national policy evaluation mechanisms. The 31 indicators were agreed to be 'critical' or 'important' factors for tobacco control sustainability. The Index comprises the weighted indicators as a tool to identify aspects of national tobacco control programmes requiring further development to augment their sustainability and to measure and compare progress over time. The next step is to apply the ITCS and produce tobacco control sustainability assessments. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. A diamond detector for inertial confinement fusion X-ray bang-time measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A G; Brown, C; Burns, S; Celeste, J; Glenzer, S H; Hey, D; Jones, O S; Landen, O; Mackinnon, A J; Meezan, N; Parker, J; Edgell, D; Glebov, V Y; Kilkenny, J; Kimbrough, J

    2010-11-09

    An instrument has been developed to measure X-ray bang-time for inertial confinement fusion capsules; the time interval between the start of the laser pulse and peak X-ray emission from the fuel core. The instrument comprises chemical vapor deposited polycrystalline diamond photoconductive X-ray detectors with highly ordered pyrolytic graphite X-ray monochromator crystals at the input. Capsule bang-time can be measured in the presence of relatively high thermal and hard X-ray background components due to the selective band pass of the crystals combined with direct and indirect X-ray shielding of the detector elements. A five channel system is being commissioned at the National Ignition Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for implosion optimization measurements as part of the National Ignition Campaign. Characteristics of the instrument have been measured demonstrating that X-ray bang-time can be measured with {+-} 30ps precision, characterizing the soft X-ray drive to +/- 1eV or 1.5%.

  20. Measuring, Reporting, Verifying. A Primer on MRV for Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Søren; Aalders, Edwin; Pretlove, Bente

    This publication is intended to enable national policy makers and other stakeholders, such as the private sector and technical experts, to acquaint themselves with the concept of NAMA. It aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) concept...... and enhance the understanding of NAMAs by explaining the underlying decisions of the Conference of the Parties in layman’s terms. The first chapter describes how the concept of NAMA emerged in the context of the negotiations on climate change. The chapter gives an overview of how the concepts of NAMA...

  1. Measurement properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) family of measures: protocol for a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Meredith G; Sparti, Claudia; Scheurer, Roman; Coombs, Tim; Pirkis, Jane; Ruud, Torleif; Kisely, Steve; Hanssen-Bauer, Ketil; Siqveland, Johan; Burgess, Philip M

    2018-01-01

    Introduction The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) for adults, and equivalent measures for children and adolescents and older people, are widely used in clinical practice and research contexts to measure mental health and functional outcomes. Additional HoNOS measures have been developed for special populations and applications. Stakeholders require synthesised information about the measurement properties of these measures to assess whether they are fit for use with intended service settings and populations and to establish performance benchmarks. This planned systematic review will critically appraise evidence on the measurement properties of the HoNOS family of measures. Methods and analysis Journal articles meeting inclusion criteria will be identified via a search of seven electronic databases: MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, PsycINFO via APA PsycNET, Embase via Elsevier, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, Web of Science via Thomson Reuters, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library. Variants of ‘Health of the Nation Outcome Scales’ or ‘HoNOS’ will be searched as text words. No restrictions will be placed on setting or language of publication. Reference lists of relevant studies and reviews will be scanned for additional eligible studies. Appraisal of reliability, validity, responsiveness and interpretability will be guided by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. Feasibility/utility will be appraised using definitions and criteria derived from previous reviews. For reliability studies, we will also apply the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies to assess quality of reporting. Results will be synthesised narratively, separately for each measure, and by subgroup (eg, treatment setting, rater profession/experience or training) where possible. Meta-analyses will be undertaken where data are adequate. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval is

  2. Non-destructive measurements of cottonseed nutritional trait diversity in the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have suggested that cottonseed (Gossypium spp.) has the potential to contribute to the effort against world hunger, particularly by providing a high-quality protein source. This report analyzed the diversity in protein content and other seed quality factors in the U.S. National Cotton...

  3. A New Measurement and Ranking System for the UK National Student Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canning, John

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous criticisms of the UK National Student Survey (NSS) institutional managers still strongly support its use in informing student choice, quality and assurance and quality enhancement activities. This article outlines a granular and nuanced benchmarking system for the NSS which provides both a "raw" score (weighted student…

  4. The Impact of National Qualifications Frameworks: By Which Yardstick Do We Measure Dreams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Nick; Fernie, Scott; Smith, Karen

    2017-01-01

    National Qualifications Frameworks (NQFs) are a global phenomenon. This is evidenced by their scale, coverage and intrinsic link with education policy across Europe and beyond. Research into their impact has encompassed a number of perspectives; theoretical, practical and evaluative. Yet, despite the existence of critical literature related to the…

  5. Legislative Measures to Prevent and Combat Sexual Violence Against Child: National and International Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Antonius PS

    2016-01-01

    Legislative measures is one of some measures commonly used as Internationally accepted on the logical framework to ensure that implementation of the International convention at the States parties to its International convention will become appropriate. In context of implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, legislative measures should be afforded by an administrative and other measures that include among others: decentralisation, federalisation and delegation; training and ...

  6. Direct speed of sound measurement within the atmosphere during a national holiday in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, M.

    2018-05-01

    Measuring the speed of sound belongs to almost any physics curriculum. Two methods dominate, measuring resonance phenomena of standing waves or time-of-flight measurements. The second type is conceptually simpler, however, performing such experiments with dimensions of meters usually requires precise electronic time measurement equipment if accurate results are to be obtained. Here a time-of-flight measurement from a video recording is reported with a dimension of several km and an accuracy for the speed of sound of the order of 1%.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic significance of blood fibrosis tests and liver stiffness measurement by FibroScan in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boursier, Jérôme; Vergniol, Julien; Guillet, Anne; Hiriart, Jean-Baptiste; Lannes, Adrien; Le Bail, Brigitte; Michalak, Sophie; Chermak, Faiza; Bertrais, Sandrine; Foucher, Juliette; Oberti, Frédéric; Charbonnier, Maude; Fouchard-Hubert, Isabelle; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Calès, Paul; de Lédinghen, Victor

    2016-09-01

    NAFLD is highly prevalent but only a small subset of patients develop advanced liver fibrosis with impaired liver-related prognosis. We aimed to compare blood fibrosis tests and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) by FibroScan for the diagnosis of liver fibrosis and the evaluation of prognosis in NAFLD. Diagnostic accuracy was evaluated in a cross-sectional study including 452 NAFLD patients with liver biopsy (NASH-CRN fibrosis stage), LSM, and eight blood fibrosis tests (BARD, NAFLD fibrosis score, FibroMeter(NAFLD), aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index (APRI), FIB4, FibroTest, Hepascore, FibroMeter(V2G)). Prognostic accuracy was evaluated in a longitudinal study including 360 NAFLD patients. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) were the two best-performing tests in the cross-sectional study: AUROCs for advanced fibrosis (F3/4) were, respectively, 0.831±0.019 and 0.817±0.020 (p⩽0.041 vs. other tests); rates of patients with ⩾90% negative/positive predictive values for F3/4 were 56.4% and 46.7% (ptests); Obuchowski indexes were 0.834±0.014 and 0.798±0.016 (p⩽0.036 vs. other tests). Two fibrosis classifications were developed to precisely estimate the histological fibrosis stage from LSM or FibroMeter(V2G) results without liver biopsy (diagnostic accuracy, respectively: 80.8% vs. 77.4%, p=0.190). Kaplan-Meier curves in the longitudinal study showed that both classifications categorised NAFLD patients into subgroups with significantly different prognoses (pfibrosis classification, the worse was the prognosis. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) were the most accurate of nine evaluated tests for the non-invasive diagnosis of liver fibrosis in NAFLD. LSM and FibroMeter(V2G) fibrosis classifications help physicians estimate both fibrosis stage and patient prognosis in clinical practice. The amount of liver fibrosis is the main determinant of the liver-related prognosis in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated eight blood tests and Fibro

  8. IRE (Institut National des Radioelements) site in Belgium. Report of in situ measurements and analyses performed for the RTBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-05-01

    This document reports various analyses performed within the frame of the preparation and filming of a TV documentary on the Belgium National Institute of Radio-elements. It reports gamma radiation measurements performed at the vicinity of the institute, discusses the possible origin of its increase at the vicinity of the institute, analyses of sludge samples coming from a wastewater treatment works, and analyses of milk, cabbage, mosses and sediments collected by residents

  9. Comparative Study of Nei�s D with other Genetic Distance Measures between Barak Valley Muslims and other Nations for ABO Locus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of the genetic distance between populations is essential in many genetic research programs. Several formulae were proposed for the estimation of genetic distance between populations using gene frequency data. But the selection of a suitable measure for estimating genetic distance between real-world human populations is a very difficult task despite the widely used measure Neis D. The present study was undertaken to estimate the genetic distance between Barak Valley Muslims (BVM and other twenty-four nations using seven different measures with ABO blood group gene frequency data for comparative analysis and to estimate the correlation coefficients between distance measures and to work out the linear regression equations. Seven genetic distance measures namely Neis D, Neis Nm, La, Neis Da, Dc, Re and Neis Ne were estimated between BVM and other 24 nations enroute the journey of mankind from Africa that commenced about 200,000 years ago (www.bradshawfoundation.com. Correlation coefficients between Neis D with other measures were estimated to find out which other genetic distance measures were closely related to Neis D. Neis D showed highly significant (p=0.01 positive correlation with Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards chord distance Dc (0.90, Reynolds Re (0.90, Neis Da (0.74 and Neis Ne (0.63 but negative correlation with Neis Nm and La. Linear regression equations of Neis D with other distance measures were estimated as Da = -0.80 + 1.34D, Dc = 1.91 + 4.44D, Re = -0.51 + 0.24D and Ne = -7.60 + 1.30D.

  10. Payment - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Payment measuresnational data. This data set includes national-level data for the payment measures associated with an episode of care for heart attack, heart...

  11. Association Between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Erectile Dysfunction among a Nationally Representative Sample of American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Edwards, Meghan

    2015-09-01

    Emerging work suggests an inverse association between physical activity and erectile dysfunction (ED). The majority of this cross-sectional research comes from convenience samples and all studies on this topic have employed self-report physical activity methodology. Therefore, the purpose of this brief-report, confirmatory research study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and ED in a national sample of Americans. Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Six hundred ninety-two adults between the ages of 50 and 85 years (representing 33.2 million adults) constituted the analytic sample. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer (ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL, USA) for up to 7 days with ED assessed via self-report. The main outcome measure used was ED assessed via self-report. After adjustments, for every 30 min/day increase in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, participants had a 43% reduced odds of having ED (odds ratioadjusted  = 0.57; 95% confidence interval: 0.40-0.81; P = 0.004). This confirmatory study employing an objective measure of physical activity in a national sample suggests an inverse association between physical activity and ED. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  12. Establishment of a computer-controlled retroreflection measurement system at the National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samedov, Farhad; Celikel, Oguz; Bazkir, Ozcan

    2005-01-01

    In order to characterize photometric properties of retroreflectors, a fully automated retroreflector measurement system is designed in National Metrology Institute of Turkey (UME). The system is composed of a lighting projector, a goniometer, filter radiometers, 100 dB transimpedance amplifiers, and 24-bit resolution analog-digital converter card with a special software. The established system provides a new calibration capability to determine the luminous intensity and retroreflection coefficients of the retroreflective materials with the expanded uncertainties of 1.07% and 1.13% (k=2), respectively. The traceability in retroreflection measurements was linked to the detector-based photometric scale of UME

  13. Shielding of Medical Radiation Facilities - National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Reports No. 147 and No. 151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KASE, K.R.

    2008-01-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements of the United States (NCRP) has issued two reports in the past 18 months that provide methods and data for designing shielding for diagnostic radiological imaging and radiation therapy facilities. These reports update previous publications on this subject with revised methods that take into account new technologies, results from measurements and new data that have been published in the last 30 years. This paper gives a brief summary of the contents of these reports, the methods recommended for determining the shielding required and the data provided to aid in the calculations

  14. Order of the 27 October 2006 relative to the national urgency measures aiming to guarantee the supplying security of the natural gas in crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The dispositions of this order and of the associated national urgency concern a crisis prevention and the management of the country natural gas supplying. The concerned articles are presented. The national urgency plan is detailed: the legal framework, the principles and organization of the national urgency device, the organization of the crisis cell and the typology of the urgency measures. (A.L.B.)

  15. Measurements of airborne short-lived radioactivity concentration in a PET facility at a national University hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    National universities in Japan became under regulation of Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2004FY. One of the legal obligations is working environment measurements such as airborne radioactivity concentration in the rooms where employees handle unsealed radiation sources. Both in 2004FY and in 2005FY, measurements of airborne radioactivity concentration were carried out by two different agencies. The most prominent difference among them is the measurement for short-lived PET nuclides. In 2004FY, one agency measured the radioactivity with a Ge spectrometer at its own laboratory, whereas, in 2005FY, the other agency brought a NaI scintillation counter for gross gamma counting to the Hospital. It can be shown that detection limits for short-lived PET nuclides are in principle almost the same in both methods. It is also found that, in the actual case, gamma spectrometry with a Ge spectrometer is superior in judgement of detection of the radioactivity. (author)

  16. Measuring the volume of insula in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Guangrui; Guo Yulin; Lai Yanbo; Gong Rui; Zhu Kai; Zhao Dan; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the insula volume of Chinese adults of the Hah nationality and its relationship with age, which provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range = 18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e., Group A (age range =18 to 30), B (age range =31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range = 51 to 60), and E (age range = 61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. After three dimension data reconstruction, the volumes of bilateral insula were manually measured. The volume of bilateral insula were compared by paired sample t test. The insula volumes were compared between male and female by independent sample t test, and the differences among 5 age groups were compared by one-way ANNOVA. The relationship between the volumes of insula and age, sex or cerebral volume were analyzed using bivariate correlation, respectively. Results: The left and right side volume of insula before standarized were (7764 ± 1165) and (7387 ± 1128) mm 3 respectively, after standarized were (8413 ± 1201) and (7871 ± 1140) mm 3 respectively. The left insula volume were significant larger than that of fight (t=-10.565, -16.014, P 3 for male, and (7393 ± 1022) mm 3 and (7050 ± 1038) mm for female. The left and right insula volumes for male were larger than the female's (t=10.934,9.945,P 3 , female were (8043± 1054) and (7515 ± 1091 ) mm 3 , the left and right insula volume of male were larger than the female's(t=4.858,4.632,P 3 respectively, the right were (8028 ± 1156), (7636 ± 1075), (7294 ± 986) (7249 ± 1068), (6717 ± 916) mm 3 respectively, there were significant differences among 5 groups between left and right insula

  17. Review of ultraviolet damage threshold measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of damage threshold measurements made at LLNL using ultraviolet wavelength laser pulses are reviewed. Measurements were made with pulses from a krypton fluoride laser with wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns and with Nd-glass laser pulses converted to the third harmonic wavelength of 355 nm with duration of 0.6 ns. Measurements are presented for transparent window materials, crystals and harmonic generation, single layer dielectric films of oxide and fluoride materials and multilayer high reflectivity and antireflective coatings.

  18. Vessel Eddy Current Measurement for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.; Marsala, R.

    2004-01-01

    A simple analog circuit that measures the NSTX axisymmetric eddy current distribution has been designed and constructed. It is based on simple circuit model of the NSTX vacuum vessel that was calibrated using a special axisymmetric eddy current code which was written so that accuracy was maintained in the vicinity of the current filaments. The measurement and the model have been benchmarked against data from numerous vacuum shots and they are in excellent agreement. This is an important measurement that helps give more accurate equilibrium reconstructions

  19. Review of ultraviolet damage threshold measurements at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.

    1984-01-01

    The results of damage threshold measurements made at LLNL using ultraviolet wavelength laser pulses are reviewed. Measurements were made with pulses from a krypton fluoride laser with wavelength of 248 nm and pulse duration of 20 ns and with Nd-glass laser pulses converted to the third harmonic wavelength of 355 nm with duration of 0.6 ns. Measurements are presented for transparent window materials, crystals and harmonic generation, single layer dielectric films of oxide and fluoride materials and multilayer high reflectivity and antireflective coatings

  20. Clinical significance of measurment of changes of serum IGF-I, hs-CRP levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Conggang

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-I,hs-CRP levels after treatment in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Methods: Serum IGF-I, hs-CRP(with RIA), and serum hs-CRP with immuno-turbidity methods levels were determined both before and after treatment in 36 cases of hyperthyroidism 30 cases of hypothyroidism as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IGF-I levels in patients with hyperthyroidism were significantly higher and the levels in patients with hypothyroidism were significantly lower than those in controls (both P<0.01). After treatment for 3 months,the levels were much corrected, but still remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Before treatment serum hs-CRP levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), but after treatment,the levels were not much different from those in controls. Conclusion: Serum levels of IGF-I and hs-CRP were closely related to the disease process in patients with hyperthyroidism as well as in patients with hypothyroidism, and were much corrected after trentment.(authors)

  1. Personality measures in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iveniuk, James; Laumann, Edward O; Waite, Linda J; McClintock, Martha K; Tiedt, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Provide recommendations for researchers on the use of the Big Five personality battery in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), and ensure that the battery does proxy the Big Five. Also, describe the levels of Big Five traits across gender and age. We used an Exploratory Structural Equation Model (ESEM) to analyze NHSAP's personality battery, comparing NSHAP with the National Longitudinal Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). ESEM revealed a 5-factor structure in the NSHAP battery, but with considerable cross-loadings. When these cross-loadings were not included in the model, model fit notably worsened. Reliabilities of Big Five scales were comparable to the HRS and MIDUS, even though NSHAP's battery is shorter. Women were considerably more Agreeable than men, although this gender gap closed among the oldest in the sample (80 years or older). Researchers will be able to make use of NSHAP's personality battery to examine a range of social, biological, and psychological factors at older ages, in light of individuals' general traits. We recommend models which allow for cross-loadings. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2014.

  2. National Measures on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit Sharing – The Case of the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphrodite Smagadi

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulated at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (Rio de Janeiro, 1992 was not merely to promote the conservation and sustainable use of biological resources, but to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from their utilisation. The Convention stresses the sovereignty that signatory states exert over the biological wealth within their jurisdiction and calls on them to enact national legislation that will contribute to fleshing out the provisions on access to genetic resources and benefit sharing. The Philippines was the first country to enact such legislation and has thus accrued a decade of experience in this field. The first and much-analysed access and benefit sharing instrument enacted by the Government of the Philippines, was Executive Order 247 of 1995. However, due to problems experienced during the implementation of the Order, draft guidelines based on the 2001 Implementing Rules to the Wildlife Act have been drafted and are expected to correct the failures of the previous law. This article takes the example of the Philippines to assess the extent to which laws regulating the access and benefit sharing of biological resources can be effective in any country.

  3. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Experience Using 30-Gallon Drum Neutron Multiplicity Counter for Measuring Plutonium-Bearing Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has been performing accountability measurements of plutonium (Pu) -bearing items with the 30-gallon drum neutron multiplicity counter (NMC) since August 1998. A previous paper focused on the LLNL experience with Pu-bearing oxide and metal items. This paper expands on the LLNL experience with Pu-bearing salts containing low masses of Pu. All Pu-bearing salts used in this study were measured using calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) as well as the 30-gallon drum NMC. The Cal/Iso values were treated as being the true measure of Pu content because of the inherent high accuracy of the Cal/Iso technique, even at low masses of Pu, when measured over a sufficient period of time. Unfortunately, the long time period required to achieve high accuracy from Cal/Iso can impact other required accountability measurements. The 30-gallon drum NMC is a much quicker system for making accountability measurements of a Pu-bearing salt and might be a desirable tradeoff. The accuracy of 30-gallon drum NMC measurements of Pu-bearing salts, relative to that of Cal/Iso, is presented in relation to the mass range and alpha associated with each item. Conclusions drawn from the use of the 30-gallon drum NMC for accountability measurements of salts are also included

  4. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Weiqun; Zhao Yushan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels in patients with acute cerebral infarction. Methods: Plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were determined with RIA in 32 patients with acute cerebral infarction both before and after treatment and 30 controls. Results: Before treatment plasma NPY levels were significantly higher (P<0.01) than those in the controls, while plasma CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were lower than those in controls (P<0.01). After treatment, plasma NPY levels decreased significantly (vs before treatment P<0.05), and plasma CGRP and serum IGF-I levels increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: Changes of plasma NPY, CGRP and serum IGF-I levels were closely related to the disease process in patients with acute cerebral infarction, determination of which was of important clinical values. (authors)

  5. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with vitiligo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Junmin; Zhou Xiujuan; Zhang Yuhong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ levels after treatment in patients with vitiligo. Methods: Serum IL-2 (with RIA) IL-4, IFN-γ (with ELISA) levels were examined in 37 patients with vitiligo both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IL-2 levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P < 0.01), while the serum IL-4, IFN-γ levels were significantly higher (P < 0.01). After treatment for 6 months, the values were greatly corrected, but remained significantly different from those in controls (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitiligo is a kind of auto-immune diseases with abnormal immuno-regulation. (authors)

  6. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianlin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels after chemotherapy in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum IGF-II, EGF (with RIA), and CYFRA21-1 (with ECLIA) levels were determined both before and after chemotherapy in 39 patients with lung cancer as well as once in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy, serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls(P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy, serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels dropped markedly, but remained significantly higher than those in controls(P<0.05). Conclusion: The development of lung cancer in patients was closely related to the serum IGF-II, EGF and CYFRA21-1 levels. (authors)

  7. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum TNF-α, IL-6 levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Gu Ling; Zhang Yanjun; Huang Rongchong; Lu Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of the detection of changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. Methods: The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were determined with RIA in 176 patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and 30 controls. Results: The serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 in patients with CHF were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The levels increased along with the increase of severity of cardiac failure. The levels in patients with cardiac function of any grade were significantly different from those in patients with another grade of cardiac function. Conclusion: Immunological activation and myocardial inflammation exist in CHF patients. The increasing levels of TNF-α and IL-6 can trigger the onset and development of CHF. (authors)

  8. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Zhang Shumin; Zhou Dongxia; Wang Enbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6 (with RIA) and IL-18, IL-1β (with ELISA) levels were determined in 38 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL- 18 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL- 1β levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  9. Measurement properties of the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) family of measures: protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Meredith G; Sparti, Claudia; Scheurer, Roman; Coombs, Tim; Pirkis, Jane; Ruud, Torleif; Kisely, Steve; Hanssen-Bauer, Ketil; Siqveland, Johan; Burgess, Philip M

    2018-04-20

    The Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (HoNOS) for adults, and equivalent measures for children and adolescents and older people, are widely used in clinical practice and research contexts to measure mental health and functional outcomes. Additional HoNOS measures have been developed for special populations and applications. Stakeholders require synthesised information about the measurement properties of these measures to assess whether they are fit for use with intended service settings and populations and to establish performance benchmarks. This planned systematic review will critically appraise evidence on the measurement properties of the HoNOS family of measures. Journal articles meeting inclusion criteria will be identified via a search of seven electronic databases: MEDLINE via EBSCOhost, PsycINFO via APA PsycNET, Embase via Elsevier, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature via EBSCOhost, Web of Science via Thomson Reuters, Google Scholar and the Cochrane Library. Variants of 'Health of the Nation Outcome Scales' or 'HoNOS' will be searched as text words. No restrictions will be placed on setting or language of publication. Reference lists of relevant studies and reviews will be scanned for additional eligible studies. Appraisal of reliability, validity, responsiveness and interpretability will be guided by the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. Feasibility/utility will be appraised using definitions and criteria derived from previous reviews. For reliability studies, we will also apply the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies to assess quality of reporting. Results will be synthesised narratively, separately for each measure, and by subgroup (eg, treatment setting, rater profession/experience or training) where possible. Meta-analyses will be undertaken where data are adequate. Ethics approval is not required as no primary data will be collected. Outcomes will be

  10. Postmortem aging can significantly enhance water-holding capacity of broiler pectoralis major muscle measured by the salt-induced swelling/centrifuge method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water-holding capacity (WHC) is one of the most important functional properties of fresh meat and can be significantly affected by postmortem muscle changes. Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of postmortem aging on WHC of broiler pectoralis (p.) major muscle indicated with % s...

  11. Reconstruction of national distribution of indoor radon concentration in Russia using results of regional indoor radon measurement programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmoshenko, I.; Malinovsky, G.; Vasilyev, A.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is a reconstruction of the national distribution and estimation of the arithmetic average indoor radon concentration in Russia using the data of official annual 4-DOZ reports. Annual 4-DOZ reports summarize results of radiation measurements in 83 regions of Russian Federation. Information on more than 400 000 indoor radon measurements includes the average indoor radon isotopes equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) and number of measurements by regions and by three main types of houses: wooden, one-storey non-wooden, and multi-storey non-wooden houses. To reconstruct the national distribution, all-Russian model sample was generated by integration of sub-samples created using the results of each annual regional program of indoor radon measurements in each type of buildings. According to indoor radon concentration distribution reconstruction, all-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m"3. Average indoor radon concentration by region ranges from 12 to 207 Bq/m"3. The 95-th percentile of the distribution is reached at indoor radon concentration 160 Bq/m"3. - Highlights: • Reconstruction of indoor radon concentration distribution in Russia was carried out. • Data of official annual 4-DOZ reports were used. • All-Russian average indoor radon concentration is 48 Bq/m"3. • The 95-th percentile is 160 Bq/m"3.

  12. Association of chronic widespread pain with objectively measured physical activity in adults: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dansie, Elizabeth J; Turk, Dennis C; Martin, Kathryn R; Van Domelen, Dane R; Patel, Kushang V

    2014-05-01

    Chronic widespread pain (CWP) is a common and potentially debilitating disorder. Patterns of physical activity (PA) in adults with CWP have primarily been investigated using subjective, self-report measures. The current study sought to characterize PA among community-dwelling individuals with CWP, chronic regional pain, or no chronic pain using objective measurements obtained via accelerometry in the 2003 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Data from 3,952 participants ages 20 and older were analyzed to assess relationships between pain status and objective measurements of PA. Prevalence of CWP was 3.3% and 5.4% in men and women, respectively. In men and women, the average activity counts per minute and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA were significantly lower for the CWP group than for the no chronic pain group. Interestingly, time spent in sedentary, light, and lifestyle activities was not associated with pain status. Statistical interaction tests indicated that the effects of chronic pain on counts per minute were stronger in men than in women. Despite recommendations for increased moderate-to-vigorous PA as a pain management strategy for CWP, results from this nationally representative study indicate that adults with CWP participate in less moderate-to-vigorous PA than individuals without chronic pain. Using objective measurement of PA in a nationally representative sample, this study demonstrates that adults with CWP participate in reduced daily and moderate-to-vigorous PA in comparison to people with no chronic pain. Findings indicate that clinicians should emphasize the importance of increasing PA in patients with CWP. Copyright © 2014 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intake of added sugars is not associated with weight measures in children 6 to 18 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2003-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies examining an association between consumption of added sugars (AS) and weight measures in children are inconclusive. This study examined the association between intake of AS and 5 measures of weight or adiposity using a nationally recent representative sample of children. National Health and ...

  14. Measuring Excellence: A Closer Look at Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award Winners in the Manufacturing Category

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Cazzell

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award is the nation’s highest quality award. The application and review process is outlined in this work. The objective of this study was to examine the five previous winners in the Manufacturing category and to establish a firm conclusion about the award’s impact. The impact of the award was examined in several categories including financial performance, market share, and employee productivity. This study explored the accomplishments of each company and compared the common factors they shared with one another. It was found that all five companies experienced tremendous financial growth on average of 100% in either sales or revenue as a result of their dedication to quality which ultimately led to winning the MBNQA.

  15. The value of volume and growth measurements in timber sales management of the National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietzke, K. R.

    1977-01-01

    This paper summarizes work performed in the estimation of gross social value of timber volume and growth rate information used in making regional harvest decisions in the National Forest System. A model was developed to permit parametric analysis. The problem is formulated as one of finding optimal inventory holding patterns. Public timber management differs from other inventory holding problems in that the inventory, itself, generates value over time in providing recreational, aesthetic and environmental goods. 'Nontimber' demand estimates are inferred from past Forest Service harvest and sales levels. The solution requires a description of the harvest rates which maintain the optimum inventory level. Gross benefits of the Landsat systems are estimated by comparison with Forest Service information gathering models. Gross annual benefits are estimated to be $5.9 million for the MSS system and $7.2 million for the TM system.

  16. Mach-Zehnder Fiber-Optic Links for Reaction History Measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E. Kirk; Herrmann, H.W.; Stoeffl, W.; Horsfield, C.J.

    2009-01-01

    We present the details of the analog fiber-optic data link that will be used in the chamber-mounted Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in Livermore, California. The system is based on Mach-Zehnder (MZ) modulators integrated into the diagnostic, with the source lasers and bias control electronics located remotely to protect the active electronics. A complete recording system for a single GRH channel comprises two MZ modulators, with the fiber signals split onto four channels on a single digitizer. By carefully selecting the attenuation, the photoreceiver, and the digitizer settings, the dynamic range achievable is greater than 1000:1 at the full system bandwidth of greater than 10 GHz. The system is designed to minimize electrical reflections and mitigate the effects of transient radiation darkening on the fibers.

  17. Early Measures for School Hygiene in Greece: Between Nationalism and Modernization (1890-1920).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Vassiliki; Karakatsani, Despina

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other European and Balkan countries, the first institutions for the medical inspection of student health were established relatively late in Greece. Following several European and Balkan examples, Greek doctors and educators began an information campaign during the late 19 th century to establish a School Medical Service. The Greek state's emerging interest in children's health was dependent upon a number of factors. Networks of experts played a considerable part in shaping a public discourse on childhood. National defeats generated a discourse that denounced the state's indifference to the degeneration of the younger generation. Finally, European paradigms may have influenced the establishment of the School Medical Service through the experiences gained abroad by doctors and high state officials.

  18. Measurements of seasonal and daily radon daughter concentration fluctuations in National Park Service caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarborough, K.A.

    1977-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) is studying levels of airborne alpha radiation from radon and thoron in all NPS administered caves in which tours for visitors are regularly conducted. The NPS research has the dual but complementary objectives of safeguarding health at the NPS administered caves, and to develop data on alpha radiation levels and on natural airflows in NPS caves. The results reported here for NPS caves describe concepts hypothesized for the objectives. In addition the data can be used by various agencies to clarify health standards for exposures to low airborne alpha radiation levels in cave environments. These results show daily and seasonal trends and the influence of natural ventilation by air circulation for each cave investigated

  19. American National Standard: for safety in conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements in-situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This standard provides safety guidance for conducting subcritical neutron-multiplication measurements where physical protection of personnel against the consequences of a criticality accident is not provided. The objectives of in-situ measurements are either to confirm an adequate safety margin or to improve an estimate of such a margin. The first objective may constitute a test of the criticality safety of a design that is based on calculations. The second may effect improved operating conditions by reducing the uncertainty of safety margins and providing guidance to new designs

  20. Clinical significance of measurement of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongwu

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α(with RIA) levels were determined in 36 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-8, IL-1β and TNF-α levels might reflect the progress of disease in patients with periodontitis and might be of important clinical value. (authors)

  1. Clinical significance of measurement of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yunming

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum TNF-α, M-CSF (with RIA), hs-CRP (with immuneturbitity method) levels were determined in 38 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum hs-CRP, TNF-α and M-CSF levels might reflect the progress of disease in patients with periodontitis. (authors)

  2. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β1, urinary microalbuminuria (MAU) levels in patients with type II diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liming; Xu Shan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β 1 , urinary microalbuminuria levels in patients with type II diabetes. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) serum TGF-β 1 (with ELISA)microalbuminuria (with immune method) levels were determination in 40 cases of DM2 without nephropathy, 32 cases of DM2 with nephropathy and 35 controls. Results: The plasma ET-1, serum TGF-β 1 , microalbuminuria levels in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls(P 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma ET-1 and serum TGF-β 1 , microalbuminuria levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe. They could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaochao; Zhou Dongxia; Zhang Limin; Liu Hongshu

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, M -CSF(with RIA), hs-CRP(with immuneturbidity method)levels were determined in 33 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and M-CSF levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  4. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  5. The Measurement of Work Engagement with a Short Questionnaire: A Cross-National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufeli, Wilmar B.; Bakker, Arnold B.; Salanova, Marisa

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the development of a short questionnaire to measure work engagement--a positive work-related state of fulfillment that is characterized by vigor, dedication, and absorption. Data were collected in 10 different countries (N = 14,521), and results indicated that the original 17-item Utrecht Work Engagement Scale (UWES) can be…

  6. National campaign of measurement of domestic exposure to radon IPSN-DGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gailliez, E.

    2000-10-01

    The radon atlas in accommodation, published by the Institute of Nuclear Protection and Safety (I.P.S.N.) and the General Direction of Health (D.G.S.), and available from http://www.ipsn.fr, presents maps and statistical elements from 12 641 measures made in 10013 communes, from 1982 up to and including 1999. The objective pursued is to estimate in an overall way the French population exposure to domestic radon. An update is planned regularly (every two years). In its present version, the modesty of the measures number and the local strong disparities make very difficult the identification of risk areas at the communal level: high voluminal activities can be noticed in any commune; whereas a housing situated in a commune classified in the highest group will not show inescapably a strong concentration in radon leading to take rapid measures. The average value of radon voluminal activity measured in France is 90 Bq. by m 3 . For the risk management, the authorities have kept the value of 400 Bq. by m 3 as caution objective and this one of 1000 Bq. by m 3 as alert threshold, in yearly average value. (N.C.)

  7. Measuring Meaningful Learning in the Undergraduate Chemistry Laboratory: A National, Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Kelli R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2015-01-01

    Research on laboratory learning points to the need to better understand what and how students learn in the undergraduate chemistry laboratory. The Meaningful Learning in the Laboratory Instrument (MLLI) was administered to general and organic chemistry students from 15 colleges and universities across the United States in order to measure the…

  8. Supplementary Analysis for "Measuring Up 2000": An Exploratory Report. National Center Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Mario

    This report was created to generate ideas about the kinds of data that might be used to produce follow-up analyses of "Measuring Up 2000," the state-by-state report card for higher education. The analysis attempts to present report card data and related information graphically and mathematically in ways that might be useful to policymakers and…

  9. Legacy tree data: A national database of detailed tree measurements for volume, weight, and physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    P.J. Radtke; D.M. Walker; A.R. Weiskittel; J. Frank; J.W. Coulston; J.A. Westfall

    2015-01-01

    Forest mensurationists in the United States have expended considerable effort over the past century making detailed observations of trees’ dimensions. In recent decades efforts have focused increasingly on weights and physical properties. Work is underway to compile original measurements from past volume, taper, and weight or biomass studies for North American tree...

  10. Measurements of fission and activation products for Oak Ridge National Laboratory transuranic waste characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, L.K.; Miller, L.F.; Downing, D.J.

    1997-06-01

    It is beyond the current nondestructive analysis (NDA) state-of-the-art to accurately measure important alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in the presence of typically-occurring background levels of neutron and photon radiation associated with remote handled (RH) transuranic (TRU) waste; in addition, it is not economically feasible to perform destructive analyses (DA) that employ radiochemical techniques on representative random samples from each waste container designated for disposal. Techniques that utilize gamma spectroscopy cannot measure purely alpha-emitting radionuclides, and they are difficult for measurements of photon-emitting radionuclides in large containers with energies below about one hundred keV. The methodology presented in this report combines gamma spectroscopy measurements of waste canisters with radiochemical analyses of smear samples and with statistical analyses to obtain estimates of alpha-emitting radionuclides in waste containers. This approach, with some additional research, is expected to provide an effective and practical technique for characterization of TRU radioactive waste to meet the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) waste acceptance criteria (WAC) and for segregating waste at the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (REDC). The objectives of this report are to determine if a waste container generated from ORNL/REDC can be classified as TRU and to provide an appropriate method of estimating the initial TRU concentration in this container

  11. 78 FR 78819 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 99th Interim Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... specifications would require that measuring devices used in retail applications to fill motor vehicles have a... to 17, 2014, at the Westin Book Cadillac Detroit, 1114 Washington Boulevard, Detroit, MI 48226. Some... specifications, tolerances, and other requirements for devices used in the retail sales of engine fuels and the...

  12. Dispositional resistance to change: Measurement equivalence and the link to personal values across 17 nations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oreg, S.; Bayazit, M.; Vakola, M.; Arciniega, L.; Armenakis, A.; Barkauskiene, R.; Bozionelos, N.; Ferič, I.; Fujimoto, Y.; Gonzáles, L.; Han, J.; Hetland, H.; Hřebíčková, Martina; Jimmieson, N.; Kordačová, J.; Kotrla Topič, M.; Mitsuhashi, H.; Mlacić, B.; Ohly, S.; Saksvik, I.; Saksvik, P.O.; van Dam, K.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 4 (2008), s. 935-944 ISSN 0021-9010 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700250702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : resistance to change * personal values * measurement equivalence Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 3.769, year: 2008

  13. Leadership Strategies of Performance Measures Impacts in Public Sector Management: A National Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubala, James Joseph

    A quantitative and qualitative study examined three leadership strategies found in performance-based management (human resource, scientific management and political strategies used in public sector management); a framework by which performance measurement (PM) supports leadership strategies; and how the strategies impact PM. It examined leadership…

  14. Cross-national and longitudinal investigation of a short measure of workaholism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rantanen, Johanna; Feldt, Taru; Hakanen, Jari J.; Kokko, Katja; Huhtala, Mari; Pulkkinen, Lea; Schaufeli, Wilmar

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure of the 10-item version of the Dutch Work Addiction Scale (DUWAS). The DUWAS-10 is intended to measure workaholism with two correlated factors: working excessively (WE) and working compulsively (WC). The factor structure of the DUWAS-10 was examined

  15. The significance of measuring serum IGF1, IGFBP3 and OST for the judgement of abnormal skeletal development and therapeutic monitoring in precocious children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Zhiying; Zhao Ruifang; Lv Xiaomei; Gu Fanlei; Cai Depei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of measuring serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF 1 ), insulin-like growth factor binding protein III (IGFBP 3 ) and osteocalcin (OST) for evaluating acceleration of skeletal growth and skeletal maturity, and its value for therapeutic monitoring in precocious children. Methods: Serum IGF 1 and IGFBP 3 were measured with immunoradiometric assay, serum OST was measured with radioimmunoassay in 117 girls with idiopathic precocious puberty. The girls were grouped according to age, and various parameters collected from them were compared with normal values of matched girls. Furthermore, the girls were grouped according to Tanner's staging (the extent of precocious puberty), the analysis of correlativity between various parameters to the extent of precocious puberty was performed, and the analysis of correlativity between the level of serum IGF 1 and advancing of bone age was performed. Various parameters were measured once more in 38 of the study girls after six months of the treatment, and the parameters were compared with that before treatment. Results: 1) The levels of serum IGF 1 and OST in the girls with precocious puberty were elevated obviously than that in matched normal girls, but the level of serum IGFBP 3 was reduced obviously than that in matched normal girls. It was demonstrated that typical elevation of serum IGF 1 and OST occurred in normal adolescence appeared ahead of time in the girls with precocious puberty. 2) The extent of precocious puberty correlated closely with the level of serum IGF 1 (r=0.489, P 1 (r=0.411, P 1 was. 3) After the treatment, the concentration of serum IGF 1 reduced from (455.52 ± 119.45) μg/L to (284.55 ± 99.52) μg/L (P 1 and OST reduced obviously. Conclusions: Serum IGF 1 and OST could act as quantitative parameters for evaluating acceleration of skeletal growth and advancing of skeletal maturity in girls with idiopathic true precocious puberty. It could act as a parameter for therapeutic

  16. Perioperative Temperature Measurement Considerations Relevant to Reporting Requirements for National Quality Programs Using Data From Anesthesia Information Management Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Hofer, Ira S; Rodriguez, Luis I; Schwenk, Eric S; Maga, Joni M; Hindman, Bradley J

    2018-02-01

    Perioperative hypothermia may increase the incidences of wound infection, blood loss, transfusion, and cardiac morbidity. US national quality programs for perioperative normothermia specify the presence of at least 1 "body temperature" ≥35.5°C during the interval from 30 minutes before to 15 minutes after the anesthesia end time. Using data from 4 academic hospitals, we evaluated timing and measurement considerations relevant to the current requirements to guide hospitals wishing to report perioperative temperature measures using electronic data sources. Anesthesia information management system databases from 4 hospitals were queried to obtain intraoperative temperatures and intervals to the anesthesia end time from discontinuation of temperature monitoring, end of surgery, and extubation. Inclusion criteria included age >16 years, use of a tracheal tube or supraglottic airway, and case duration ≥60 minutes. The end-of-case temperature was determined as the maximum intraoperative temperature recorded within 30 minutes before the anesthesia end time (ie, the temperature that would be used for reporting purposes). The fractions of cases with intervals >30 minutes between the last intraoperative temperature and the anesthesia end time were determined. Among the hospitals, averages (binned by quarters) of 34.5% to 59.5% of cases had intraoperative temperature monitoring discontinued >30 minutes before the anesthesia end time. Even if temperature measurement had been continued until extubation, averages of 5.9% to 20.8% of cases would have exceeded the allowed 30-minute window. Averages of 8.9% to 21.3% of cases had end-of-case intraoperative temperatures <35.5°C (ie, a quality measure failure). Because of timing considerations, a substantial fraction of cases would have been ineligible to use the end-of-case intraoperative temperature for national quality program reporting. Thus, retrieval of postanesthesia care unit temperatures would have been necessary. A

  17. Consumer preferences and brand equity measurement of Spanish national daily newspapers: a conjoint analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela Mallou, J; Rial Boubeta, A; Braña Tobío, T

    2001-05-01

    Brand is a product attribute that, for many types of goods or services, makes a major contribution to consumer preferences. Conjoint analysis is a useful technique for the assessment of brand values for a given consumer or group of consumers. In this paper, an application of conjoint analysis to the estimation of brand values in the Spanish daily newspaper market is reported. Four newspaper attributes were considered: brand (i.e., newspaper name), price (0.60, 1.05, or 1.50 euros), Sunday supplement (yes/no), and daily pullout (yes/no). A total of 510 regular readers of the national press, stratified by age and sex, were asked to rank 16 profiles representing an orthogonal fraction of the possible attribute-level combinations. Brand was by far the most important attribute, whereas price had negligible effect. More generally, the results confirm the utility of conjoint analysis for assessing brand equity in the newspaper market and for estimating the relative importance of the various attributes to different subgroups of consumers.

  18. [National socialist violent measures against psychiatric patients: ways of coping by family members].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delius, P

    1991-03-01

    In the cause of an historical study dealing with the closing of an ancient psychiatric hospital in Luebeck during the 2nd world war the infrafamilial structures of the deported patients were explored. Among 136 clinical reports 42 cases were found in which families succeeded to get into contact with deported patients, in three cases their efforts to have them discharged were successful. Stress was laid on the exploration of 12 relatives of deported or murdered psychiatric patients. The interviews were structured following the "oral history" concept and psychological interpretation was added. Focussing on infrafamiliar coping processes which were developed facing the NS-propaganda it was found that working-class people tended to see the victim in an idealized role. They showed a strong projective defence remembering Psychiatry as an integral part of nazi-system. Others saw their relatives as victims of war in general. Some of the relatives tried to repress the existence of surviving patients for a long time, a smaller group clinged to the idea of Euthanasia. Remarkable were the deep effects of eugenic nazi-propaganda on the following generation. The national socialistic violence concerning their fathers or mothers was often a total "tabu" and they nowadays still fear to get into contact with Psychiatry being aware of "suffering" from the same "bad blood" as their murdered relatives. Dealing with patients' resistance to therapeutic efforts in gerontopsychiatric wards their heritage of the nazi ear should be taken into account.

  19. Natural radioactivity measurements in rock samples of Cuihua Mountain National Geological Park (China))

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, X.; Zhang, X.

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of the natural radionuclides namely 40 K, 232 Th and 226 Ra in rock samples collected from Cuihua Mountain National Geological Park of China have been determined using a NaI(Tl) detector. The concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in the studied rock samples range from 10.7 to 34.8, 19.9 to 53.6 and 642.7 to 1609.9 Bq kg -1 with an average of 20.4, 30.1 and 1009.5 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The concentrations of these radionuclides are compared with the typical world values. To evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the air absorbed dose rate, the annual effective dose rate, the representative level index and the values of both external and internal hazard indices were evaluated and compared with the internationally approved values. The radium equivalent activity values of all rock samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg -1 . The values of H ex and H in are less than unity. The mean outdoor air absorbed dose rate is 69.7 nGy h -1 , and the corresponding outdoor effective dose rate is 0.086 mSv y -1 . (authors)

  20. Measuring progress from nationally determined contributions to mid-century strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Gokul; Ledna, Catherine; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; McJeon, Haewon; Kyle, Page; Williams, James H.

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement requires countries to articulate near-term emissions reduction strategies through to 2025 or 2030 by communicating nationally determined contributions (NDCs), as well as encouraging the formulation of long-term low-emission development strategies (Article 4.19)1. In response, many countries have either submitted or are preparing mid-century strategies2. Most NDCs set high-level near-term goals—such as limits on emissions or emissions intensity3—which do not provide information about the extent to which they lay the foundations of technology, infrastructure and institutions for deeper reductions in the future, which is a key question for decision makers. Here, using a state-level model of the US embedded within a global integrated assessment model4,5, we demonstrate that although the US NDC lies on a straight-line emissions pathway towards its mid-century strategy, the resulting energy system transitions involve nonlinear transformations. The rates of capacity additions and capital investments in electricity generation beyond 2025 are more than three times the rates during the next decade. Our results demonstrate the need for global stocktaking exercises to evaluate the NDCs using metrics broader than emissions to better illuminate their effectiveness in addressing the Paris Agreement's long-term goals6,7.

  1. Are Quantitative Measures of Academic Productivity Correlated with Academic Rank in Plastic Surgery? A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Lopez, Joseph; Swanson, Edward W; Miller, Devin; O'Brien-Coon, Devin; Zins, James E; Serletti, Joseph M; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Manson, Paul N; Gordon, Chad R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between quantitative measures of academic productivity and academic rank among full-time academic plastic surgeons. Bibliometric indices were computed for all full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The primary study variable was academic rank. Bibliometric predictors included the Hirsch index, I-10 index, number of publications, number of citations, and highest number of citations for a single publication. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlation analyses were computed. Multiple comparisons testing was used to calculate adjusted associations for subgroups. For all analyses, a value of p productivity. Although academic promotion is the result of success in multiple different areas, bibliometric measures may be useful adjuncts for assessment of research productivity.

  2. NGRI LAM-MC-ICPMS National Facility: reproducibility of Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhaskar Rao, Y.J.; Vijaya Gopal, B.; Babu, E.V.S.S.K.; Sukumaran, N.P.; Sreenivas, B.; Vijaya Kumar, T.; Krishna, K.V.S.S.; Tomson, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory facility was established at the NGRI, primarily to support research in Isotope Geochemistry and Geochronology. Central to this facility are a Multiple Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS: Nu Plasma HR, Nu Instruments, UK) and a 213 nm Nd-YAG UV Laser Ablation Microprobe (LAM: UP-213, New Wave Research, USA) and a clean chemistry laboratory for dissolution and chromatographic extraction of a range of elements. This article presents a summary of the accuracy and precision of MC-ICPMS Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic measurements (solution mode) on Standard Reference Materials: SRM-987, JNd i and JMC-475 respectively, measured between October 2007 and August 2009

  3. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 levels after operation in patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Lei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 levels after operation in patients with carcinoma uterine cervix. Methods: Serum levels of IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 were determined with RIA repeatedly in 31 patients with carcinoma of uterine cervix (before operation 1 month after operation and 6 month after operation) and once in 35 controls. Results: Before operation,serum levels of IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.01). One month after operation all the serum levels were approaching normal. Six month later,the levels in the patients without recurrence remained normal. However, the levels in the 6 patients with recurrence returned to those before operation again. Conclusion: Changes of serum IGF-II, SCC and CYFRA21-1 levels are closely related to the tumor burden and may be of prognostic importance. (authors)

  4. Coherent national IT infrastructure for telehomecare - a case of hypertension measurement, treatment and monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Hoffmann-Petersen, Nikolai; Pedersen, Erling B.

    2010-01-01

    defined general repositories eases citizen and professional access to data. By identifying potential datastorage options, and by using a common public infrastructure for making healthcare data secured and available, telehomecare can be realized and barriers between different entities of the healthcare......Hypertension is affecting almost 20% of the population in many countries. Monitoring and treatment is critical. Mobile, wireless hypertension measurement - as other vital signs - is breaking through but require substantial organisational engineering and management of technology at its best. Well...

  5. Measuring patent quality and national technological capacity in cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Boeing, Philipp; Müller, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    China recently surpassed the USA as the greatest global source of patent applications. However, without internationally comparable measures of patent quality it remains questionable whether China's patent expansion constitutes the rise of a new technological superpower. Our novel quality index is based on citations from international search reports and provides internationally comparable, quality-adjusted figures for applications made under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We show that Ch...

  6. Methods of Assessing Body Fatness among Children: Implications for the National Child Measurement Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Sharon; Twist, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is increasingly recognized as an inadequate measure for determining obesity in children. Therefore, the aim within this study was to investigate other indirect methods of body fat assessment that could potentially be used in place of BMI. Twenty-four children (boys: 13.8 [plus or minus] 0.8 yr; girls: 13.3 [plus or minus] 0.5…

  7. Coherent national IT infrastructure for telehomecare - a case of hypertension measurement, treatment and monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben; Hoffmann-Petersen, Nikolai; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension is affecting almost 20% of the population in many countries. Monitoring and treatment is critical. Mobile, wireless hypertension measurement - as other vital signs - is breaking through but require substantial organisational engineering and management of technology at its best. Well...... defined general repositories eases citizen and professional access to data. By identifying potential datastorage options, and by using a common public infrastructure for making healthcare data secured and available, telehomecare can be realized and barriers between different entities of the healthcare...

  8. The clinical significance of measuring the thyroid 131I uptake rate to identify the type of premature hypothyroidism for hyperthyroid after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Chen Huaming; Zhu Tianfeng

    2001-01-01

    The 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate and the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH are measured in 63 patients of premature hypothyroidism (consisting of 33 provisional hypothyroids and 30 perpetual hypothyroidism) before and after thyroxine substitutes treatment for six moths. The results show that there is obvious difference in 131 I uptake rate compared provisional hypothyroidism with perpetual hypothyroidism, and no difference in the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH before the treatment. Compared with normal conditions, there is no difference in 131 I uptake rate of provisional hypothyroidism, but the 131 I uptake rate of perpetual hypothyroidism has obvious decrease before and after the treatment. Therefore the type of patients who suffer from premature hypothyroidism can be distinguished according to the 131 I uptake rate: if the 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate is normal, it is provisional hypothyroidism; if not, it is perpetual hypothyroidism

  9. COOMET.RI(I)-K1 comparison of national measurement standards of air kerma for 60Co γ radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buermann, L.; Oborin, A.V.; Dobrovosky, J.; Milevsky, V.S.; Walwyn Salas, G.; Lapenas, A.

    2009-01-01

    Results are presented of the COOMET key comparison of the national measurement standards of air kerma for 60 Co γ radiation. Participants of the comparison were PTB (Germany, pilot institute), VNIIM (Russia), SMU (Slovakia), BelGIM (Belarus), CPHR (Cuba) and RMTC (Latvia). PTB, VNIIM and SMU had previously taken part in a key comparison with the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) and operated as link laboratories in order to evaluate the degree of equivalence of the participants' results with the key comparison reference value. These data form the basis of the results entered into the BIPM key comparison database for comparison COOMET.RI(I)-K1. (authors)

  10. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will collect data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, working with big data is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data take time and resources to learn. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, resources that support learning these concepts and approaches, are distributed widely across multiple online spaces and may take time to find. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. It will also cover content testing, community feedback and results from workshops using online content. Portal content is hosted in github to facilitate community input, accessibility version control. Content includes 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON and related big spatio-temporal and 2) data tutorials that include subsets of spatio-temporal data that can be used to learn key big data skills in a self-paced approach, or that can be used as a teaching tool in the classroom or in a workshop. All resources utilize free and open data processing, visualization and analysis tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with the scientific community and are being tested via in-person workshops. Visit the portal online: www.neondataskills.org.

  11. Translating the Science of Measuring Ecosystems at a National Scale: Developing NEON's Online Learning Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasser, L. A.; Gram, W.; Goehring, L.

    2014-12-01

    "Big Data" are becoming increasingly common in many fields. The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will be collecting data over the 30 years, using consistent, standardized methods across the United States. These freely available new data provide an opportunity for increased understanding of continental- and global scale processes such as changes in vegetation structure and condition, biodiversity and landuse. However, while "big data" are becoming more accessible and available, integrating big data into the university courses is challenging. New and potentially unfamiliar data types and associated processing methods, required to work with a growing diversity of available data, may warrant time and resources that present a barrier to classroom integration. Analysis of these big datasets may further present a challenge given large file sizes, and uncertainty regarding best methods to properly statistically summarize and analyze results. Finally, teaching resources, in the form of demonstrative illustrations, and other supporting media that might help teach key data concepts, take time to find and more time to develop. Available resources are often spread widely across multi-online spaces. This presentation will overview the development of NEON's collaborative University-focused online education portal. Portal content will include 1) videos and supporting graphics that explain key concepts related to NEON data products including collection methods, key metadata to consider and consideration of potential error and uncertainty surrounding data analysis; and 2) packaged "lab" activities that include supporting data to be used in an ecology, biology or earth science classroom. To facilitate broad use in classrooms, lab activities will take advantage of freely and commonly available processing tools, techniques and scripts. All NEON materials are being developed in collaboration with existing labs and organizations.

  12. FAO -voluntary guidelines on national forest monitoring and its possible effect on measuring, reporting and verification for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ramirez-Zea

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 23rd session of the FAO-Committee on Forestry (COFO 23 held in July 2016, the voluntary guidelines on national forest monitoring were approved. These guidelines were generated to support FAO member countries on the starting-up and the implementation of their national forest monitoring systems (NFMS. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, the decision 1/CP.16 encouraged to developing country Parties to undertake actions for REDD+, and requested, inter alia: i to develop a forest reference emission level and/of forest reference level (FREL/REL as a baseline for the emission reductions report, and ii a transparent and robust NFMS. This paper examines the technical assessments from UNFCCC of the FREL/REL submitted by six countries in relation to technical needs for the NFMS setting up. The analysis suggests the need to improve the procurement of ground-base data, to comply the quality of the estimations on forest emission changes, to complete the carbon stocks estimations, and to estimate the associated uncertainties. The strategic and technical planning of the NFMS is also needed, to be able to reach the acceptable preparation level for measuring, reporting and verification system of REDD+, and the FAO voluntary guidelines are a helpful tool for the step-wise approach development.

  13. The significance of the clause requiring precautionary measures to assure waste disposal in partial licenses granted under the Atomic Energy Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, R.

    1981-01-01

    This development raises the question as to what extent a waste disposal provision clause of the first few partial construction permits has to be adapted to the factual situation that has changed. Thus the clause is factually outdated according to which the granting of an operating licence for a nuclear power station cannot be expected until the first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre is in hand. It is not only conceivable that a first partial construction permit for the German fuel-cycle centre will not be in hand at the time when the authorities will decide on a (first) operating licence to be granted for a nuclear power station under construction, but add to this the crucial fact that the condition given in the above-mentioned provision clause on waste disposal is no longer in keeping with the factual situation and the thereto adapted provision principles governing waste management. Special attention has to be given to the significance and impact of this waste disposal provision clause since the situation has changed. (orig./HP) [de

  14. An Exploration of Changes in the Measurement of Mammography in the National Health Interview Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Felisa A; Willis, Gordon B; Breen, Nancy; Yan, Ting; Cronin, Kathy A; Taplin, Stephen H; Yu, Mandi

    2017-11-01

    Background: Using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), we examined the effect of question wording on estimates of past-year mammography among racially/ethnically diverse women ages 40-49 and 50-74 without a history of breast cancer. Methods: Data from one-part ("Have you had a mammogram during the past 12 months?") and two-part ("Have you ever had a mammogram"; "When did you have your most recent mammogram?") mammography history questions administered in the 2008, 2011, and 2013 NHIS were analyzed. χ 2 tests provided estimates of changes in mammography when question wording was either the same (two-part question) or differed (two-part question followed by one-part question) in the two survey years compared. Crosstabulations and regression models assessed the type, extent, and correlates of inconsistent responses to the two questions in 2013. Results: Reports of past-year mammography were slightly higher in years when the one-part question was asked than when the two-part question was asked. Nearly 10% of women provided inconsistent responses to the two questions asked in 2013. Black women ages 50 to 74 [adjusted OR (aOR), 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-1.93] and women ages 40-49 in poor health (aOR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.09-4.52) had higher odds of inconsistent responses; women without a usual source of care had lower odds (40-49: aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.21-0.85; 50-74: aOR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.24-0.74). Conclusions: Self-reports of mammography are sensitive to question wording. Researchers should use equivalent questions that have been designed to minimize response biases such as telescoping and social desirability. Impact: Trend analyses relying on differently worded questions may be misleading and conceal disparities. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(11); 1611-8. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. National Energy Efficiency Evaluation, Measurement and Verification (EM&V) Standard: Scoping Study of Issues and Implementation Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiller Consulting, Inc.; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; Galawish, Elsia

    2011-02-04

    This report is a scoping study that identifies issues associated with developing a national evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) standard for end-use, non-transportation, energy efficiency activities. The objectives of this study are to identify the scope of such a standard and define EM&V requirements and issues that will need to be addressed in a standard. To explore these issues, we provide and discuss: (1) a set of definitions applicable to an EM&V standard; (2) a literature review of existing guidelines, standards, and 'initiatives' relating to EM&V standards as well as a review of 'bottom-up' versus 'top-down' evaluation approaches; (3) a summary of EM&V related provisions of two recent federal legislative proposals (Congressman Waxman's and Markey's American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009 and Senator Bingaman's American Clean Energy Leadership Act of 2009) that include national efficiency resource requirements; (4) an annotated list of issues that that are likely to be central to, and need to be considered when, developing a national EM&V standard; and (5) a discussion of the implications of such issues. There are three primary reasons for developing a national efficiency EM&V standard. First, some policy makers, regulators and practitioners believe that a national standard would streamline EM&V implementation, reduce costs and complexity, and improve comparability of results across jurisdictions; although there are benefits associated with each jurisdiction setting its own EM&V requirements based on their specific portfolio and evaluation budgets and objectives. Secondly, if energy efficiency is determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency to be a Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for avoiding criteria pollutant and/or greenhouse gas emissions, then a standard can be required for documenting the emission reductions resulting from efficiency actions. The third reason for a national

  16. Electron temperature measurements inside the ablating plasma of gas-filled hohlraums at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, M. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Jones, O.; Brown, G. V.; Fournier, K. B.; Moore, A. S.; Ross, J. S.; Landen, O.; Kauffman, R. L.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Bradley, D.; Moody, J. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Regan, S. P. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Jaquez, J.; Huang, H. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Hansen, S. B. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    The first measurement of the electron temperature (T{sub e}) inside a National Ignition Facility hohlraum is obtained using temporally resolved K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of a mid-Z tracer dot. Both isoelectronic- and interstage-line ratios are used to calculate the local T{sub e} via the collisional–radiative atomic physics code SCRAM [Hansen et al., High Energy Density Phys 3, 109 (2007)]. The trajectory of the mid-Z dot as it is ablated from the capsule surface and moves toward the laser entrance hole (LEH) is measured using side-on x-ray imaging, characterizing the plasma flow of the ablating capsule. Data show that the measured dot location is farther away from the LEH in comparison to the radiation-hydrodynamics simulation prediction using HYDRA [Marinak et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2070 (1996)]. To account for this discrepancy, the predicted simulation T{sub e} is evaluated at the measured dot trajectory. The peak T{sub e}, measured to be 4.2 keV ± 0.2 keV, is ∼0.5 keV hotter than the simulation prediction.

  17. Stoichiometric balance of protein copy numbers is measurable and functionally significant in a protein-protein interaction network for yeast endocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, David O; Johnson, Margaret E

    2018-03-01

    Stoichiometric balance, or dosage balance, implies that proteins that are subunits of obligate complexes (e.g. the ribosome) should have copy numbers expressed to match their stoichiometry in that complex. Establishing balance (or imbalance) is an important tool for inferring subunit function and assembly bottlenecks. We show here that these correlations in protein copy numbers can extend beyond complex subunits to larger protein-protein interactions networks (PPIN) involving a range of reversible binding interactions. We develop a simple method for quantifying balance in any interface-resolved PPINs based on network structure and experimentally observed protein copy numbers. By analyzing such a network for the clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) system in yeast, we found that the real protein copy numbers were significantly more balanced in relation to their binding partners compared to randomly sampled sets of yeast copy numbers. The observed balance is not perfect, highlighting both under and overexpressed proteins. We evaluate the potential cost and benefits of imbalance using two criteria. First, a potential cost to imbalance is that 'leftover' proteins without remaining functional partners are free to misinteract. We systematically quantify how this misinteraction cost is most dangerous for strong-binding protein interactions and for network topologies observed in biological PPINs. Second, a more direct consequence of imbalance is that the formation of specific functional complexes depends on relative copy numbers. We therefore construct simple kinetic models of two sub-networks in the CME network to assess multi-protein assembly of the ARP2/3 complex and a minimal, nine-protein clathrin-coated vesicle forming module. We find that the observed, imperfectly balanced copy numbers are less effective than balanced copy numbers in producing fast and complete multi-protein assemblies. However, we speculate that strategic imbalance in the vesicle forming module

  18. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  19. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2013-04-01

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  20. Measurements of an ablator-gas atomic mix in indirectly driven implosions at the National Ignition Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyuk, V A; Tipton, R E; Pino, J E; Casey, D T; Grim, G P; Remington, B A; Rowley, D P; Weber, S V; Barrios, M; Benedetti, L R; Bleuel, D L; Bradley, D K; Caggiano, J A; Callahan, D A; Cerjan, C J; Clark, D S; Edgell, D H; Edwards, M J; Frenje, J A; Gatu-Johnson, M; Glebov, V Y; Glenn, S; Haan, S W; Hamza, A; Hatarik, R; Hsing, W W; Izumi, N; Khan, S; Kilkenny, J D; Kline, J; Knauer, J; Landen, O L; Ma, T; McNaney, J M; Mintz, M; Moore, A; Nikroo, A; Pak, A; Parham, T; Petrasso, R; Sayre, D B; Schneider, M B; Tommasini, R; Town, R P; Widmann, K; Wilson, D C; Yeamans, C B

    2014-01-17

    We present the first results from an experimental campaign to measure the atomic ablator-gas mix in the deceleration phase of gas-filled capsule implosions on the National Ignition Facility. Plastic capsules containing CD layers were filled with tritium gas; as the reactants are initially separated, DT fusion yield provides a direct measure of the atomic mix of ablator into the hot spot gas. Capsules were imploded with x rays generated in hohlraums with peak radiation temperatures of ∼294  eV. While the TT fusion reaction probes conditions in the central part (core) of the implosion hot spot, the DT reaction probes a mixed region on the outer part of the hot spot near the ablator-hot-spot interface. Experimental data were used to develop and validate the atomic-mix model used in two-dimensional simulations.

  1. Measurements of national radiation exposure rates on train lines in Tokai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Hideharu

    1996-01-01

    For data accumulation of natural radiation exposure rate derived from gamma-ray and cosmic-ray to evaluate population dose, the author measured the rate in the running vehicles of 12 JR Tokai lines, 17 Nagoya Railway lines, 4 Kinkinippon Railway lines and 1 line of Nagoya City Bus. A portable gamma spectrometer equipped with 3' in diameter x 3' NaI (Tl) scintillation detector was placed on the seat of the vehicle for measurement in the period of December, 1992-August, 1995. Gamma-ray and cosmic-ray exposure rates in air were assessed separately as reported before and expressed in Gy/h. The average exposure rate of gamma-ray in JR Tokai lines was 19.8 nGy/h and of cosmic-ray, 28.5 nGy/h, both of which were markedly varied from line to line. The average rates of gamma-and cosmic-ray were 21.6 nGy/h and 29.0 nGy/h, respectively, in Nagoya Railway lines and 20.9 nGy/h and 28.7 nGy/h, respectively, in Kinkinippon lines. In the city bus, the respective rates were 27.2 nGy/h and 27.0 nGy/h. Thus, the average rates of gamma-ray (about 20 nGy/h) and cosmic-ray (about 29 nGy/h) were not so different between JR and other private railway lines. In the bus, the former rate was slightly lower and the latter, slightly higher. However, the total rates of both rays were in the range of about 50-55 nGy/h in all vehicles examined. (H.O.)

  2. Laboratory polarization and permittivity measurements to interpret dust polarimetric observations and in-situ radar studies. Significance for Rosetta mission at 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Brouet, Yann; Hadamcik, Edith; Heggy, Essam; Hines, Dean; Lasue, Jérémie; Renard, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-08-01

    Polarimetric astronomical observations on dust clouds and regolithic surfaces require laboratory simulations on samples to provide information on properties (size distribution, porosity, refractive index) of the scattering media. Similarly, in-situ radar investigations in the solar system require laboratory studies on samples to infer physical properties (e.g. porosity, ice/dust ratio) of sub-surfaces and interiors. Recent developments are illustrated with present studies related to the Rosetta mission, which begun its rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimeko (C-G) and landed the Philae module on its nucleus in 2014.We will summarize laboratory simulations with the PROGRA2 suite of instruments that study (in the visible to near IR domain) the polarimetric properties of dust samples in microgravity conditions or on surfaces [1], with emphasis on the interpretation of polarimetric observations of C-G, during its previous perihelion passages from Earth observatories, and currently from HST [2,3]. The presence of large dust particles in the pre-perihelion coma previously inferred from remote observations agrees with Rosetta ground truth [4]. We will also present measurements on the permittivity (in the millimeter to meter domain) of various dust samples, with emphasis on porous samples [5,6]. Results provide constraints on the properties of the subsurface and interior of C-G, as explored by MIRO on Rosetta and CONSERT on Philae.Such studies are relevant for the interpretation of polarimetric observations of other dust clouds (e.g. debris disks, interplanetary dust cloud, clouds in planetary atmospheres) and surfaces (e.g. planets, moons), as well as for those of other radar characterization studies (e.g. Mars, moons, asteroids).[1] Levasseur-Regourd et al. In Polarization of stars and planetary systems, Cambridge UP, in press 2015.[2] Hadamcik et al. A&A 517 2010.[3] Hines and Levasseur-Regourd, PSS submitted 2015.[4] Schulz et al. Nature 518 2015.[5] Heggy et al

  3. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  4. PNNL Measurement Results for the 2016 Criticality Accident Dosimetry Exercise at the Nevada National Security Stite (IER-148)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbone, Bruce A.; Morley, Shannon M.; Stephens, John A.

    2017-05-01

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) participated in a criticality accident dosimetry intercomparison exercise held at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) May 24-27, 2016. The exercise was administered by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and consisted of three exposures performed using the Godiva-IV critical assembly housed in the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) located on the NNSS site. The exercise allowed participants to test the ability of their nuclear accident dosimeters to meet the performance criteria in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013, Dosimetry for Criticality Accidents and to obtain new measurement data for use in revising dose calculation methods and quick sort screening methods where appropriate. PNNL participated with new prototype Personal Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (PNAD) and Fixed Nuclear Accident Dosimeter (FNAD) designs as well as the existing historical PNAD design. The new prototype designs incorporate optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters in place of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), among other design changes, while retaining the same set of activation foils historically used. The default dose calculation methodology established decades ago for use with activation foils in PNNL PNADs and FNADs was used to calculate neutron dose results for both the existing and prototype dosimeters tested in the exercise. The results indicate that the effective cross sections and/or dose conversion factors used historically need to be updated to accurately measure the operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry in ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 and to ensure PNAD and FNAD performance meets the ANSI/HPS N13.3-2013 performance criteria. The operational quantities recommended for nuclear accident dosimetry are personal absorbed dose, Dp(10), and ambient absorbed dose, D*(10).

  5. Overwork-related disorders in Japan: recent trends and development of a national policy to promote preventive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Toru; Takamoto, Masahiro; Sasaki, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Shun; Kayashima, Kotaro; Takeshima, Tadashi; Takahashi, Masaya

    2017-06-08

    Overwork-related disorders, such as cerebrovascular/cardiovascular diseases (CCVD) and mental disorders due to overwork, are a major occupational and public health issue worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. This report discusses the recent trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan from the perspective of workers' compensated occupational diseases, as well as the development of a national policy for preventive measures against overwork-related disorders in Japan. Recently, the number of claimed and compensated cases of occupational mental disorders has increased substantially, particularly among young workers, as compared to those of occupational CCVD. In response to these situations and action from society, the Japanese Government passed the "Act on Promotion of Preventive Measures against Karoshi and Other Overwork-Related Health Disorders" in June 2014 to develop a national initiative towards the prevention of overwork-related disorders. Changes in the trend of overwork-related disorders in Japan under a legal foundation and an initiative by the central government should be closely monitored so that other countries can benefit from the experiences.

  6. Over Time, Do Anthropometric Measures Still Predict Diabetes Incidence in Chinese Han Nationality Population from Chengdu Community?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine whether anthropometric measures could predict diabetes incidence in a Chinese population during a 15-year follow-up. Design and Methods. The data were collected in 1992 and then again in 2007 from the same group of 687 individuals. Waist circumference, body mass index, waist to hip ratio, and waist to height ratio were collected based on a standard protocol. To assess the effects of baseline anthropometric measures on the new onset of diabetes, Cox's proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios of them, and the discriminatory power of anthropometric measures for diabetes was assessed by the area under the receiver operating curve (AROC. Results. Seventy-four individuals were diagnosed with diabetes during a 15-year follow-up period (incidence: 10.8%. These anthropometric measures also predicted future diabetes during a long follow-up (. At 7-8 years, the AROC of central obesity measures (WC, WHpR, WHtR were higher than that of general obesity measures (BMI (. But, there were no significant differences among the four anthropometric measurements at 15 years. Conclusions. These anthropometric measures could still predict diabetes with a long time follow-up. However, the validity of anthropometric measures to predict incident diabetes may change with time.

  7. Comparison of precipitation chemistry measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network and National Atmospheric Deposition Program for the period 1995-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Shaw, Michael J.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Lehmann, Christopher M.B.; Rothert, Jane E.

    2010-01-01

    Precipitation chemistry and depth measurements obtained by the Canadian Air and Precipitation Monitoring Network (CAPMoN) and the US National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) were compared for the 10-year period 1995–2004. Colocated sets of CAPMoN and NADP instrumentation, consisting of precipitation collectors and rain gages, were operated simultaneously per standard protocols for each network at Sutton, Ontario and Frelighsburg, Ontario, Canada and at State College, PA, USA. CAPMoN samples were collected daily, and NADP samples were collected weekly, and samples were analyzed exclusively by each network’s laboratory for pH, H + , Ca2+  , Mg2+  , Na + , K + , NH+4 , Cl − , NO−3 , and SO2−4 . Weekly and annual precipitation-weighted mean concentrations for each network were compared. This study is a follow-up to an earlier internetwork comparison for the period 1986–1993, published by Alain Sirois, Robert Vet, and Dennis Lamb in 2000. Median weekly internetwork differences for 1995–2004 data were the same to slightly lower than for data for the previous study period (1986–1993) for all analytes except NO−3 , SO2−4 , and sample depth. A 1994 NADP sampling protocol change and a 1998 change in the types of filters used to process NADP samples reversed the previously identified negative bias in NADP data for hydrogen-ion and sodium concentrations. Statistically significant biases (α = 0.10) for sodium and hydrogen-ion concentrations observed in the 1986–1993 data were not significant for 1995–2004. Weekly CAPMoN measurements generally are higher than weekly NADP measurements due to differences in sample filtration and field instrumentation, not sample evaporation, contamination, or analytical laboratory differences.

  8. The environment and vegetation of the flux measurement site near Skukuza, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Scholes

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The SAFARI-2000 intensive study site is located 13 km WSW of Skukuza. Detailed measurements of the exchanges of energy, water, carbon dioxide and other substances between the savanna and the atmosphere have been made there since April 2000. This paper provides basic information regarding the climate, soils and vegetation at the site. The site is located near the top of a gentle rise in an undulating granitic landscape. Most of the data were collected within a 300 m square centred on the flux tower situated at 25@01.184' S, 31@29.813' E and oriented true north. The tower stands exactly on the ecotone between a ridgetop broad-leafed Combretum savanna on sandy soil and a midslope fme-leafed Acacia savanna on clayey soil. The ecotone is marked by a 10 m wide band of sedges. The tree basal area within the sample square was 6.8 mVha (@ 1.0 standard error, the tree density 128 @ 16 plants/ha and the tree crown cover 24 @ 4 . Shrubs, defined as woody plants greater than 0.5 m but less than 2.5 m tall, contributed a further 7.6 crown cover. The basal area weighted mean height of the trees was 9 m, and the maximum height 13m. Nineteen woody plant species were recorded within the square, with 70 of the woody plant basal area dominated by Combretum apiculatum, Sclerocarya birrea and Acacia nigrescens. The rooted basal area of grasses was 7.1 @ 0.6 and in June 2000 the grass standing crop was 400 g DM m2.

  9. Reconciliation of Measured and TRANSP-calculated Neutron Emission Rates in the National Spherical Torus Experiment: Circa 2002-2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Darrow, D.S.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A change in the response of the neutron detectors on the National Spherical Torus Experiment occurred between the 2002-2003 and 2004 experimental run periods. An analysis of this behavior by investigating the neutron diagnostic operating conditions and comparing measured and TRANSP-calculated neutron rates is presented. Also a revised procedure for cross calibration of the neutron scintillator detectors with the fission chamber detectors was implemented that delivers good agreement amongst the measured neutron rates for all neutron detectors and all run periods. For L-mode discharges, the measured and TRANSP-calculated neutron rates now match closely for all run years. For H-mode discharges over the entire 2002-2004 period, the 2FG scintillator and fission chamber measurements match each other but imply a neutron deficit of 11.5% relative to the TRANSP-calculated neutron. The results of this report impose a modification on all of the previously used calibration factors for the entire neutron detector suite over the 2002-2004 period. A tabular summary of the new calibration factors is provided including certified calibration factors for the 2005 run

  10. National recording systems and the measurement of international migration in Canada: an assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, T J; White, P M; Perreault, J

    1987-01-01

    This article provides a critical assessment of the adequacy of Canada's statistical sources on immigration and emigration for both scientific study and policy needs. These data collection systems are discussed: 1) registration systems, 2) the census, and 3) administrative records and surveys. The authors conclude that Canadian migration data systems have both strengths and weaknesses. The following are some of these strengths. 1) The census is a unique source of consistent, up-to-date information on the immigrant stock. 2) Surveys provide insights on attitudes towards immigrants. 3) Citizenship data tell how many immigrants have acquired Canadian citizenship. 4) When data gaps were noticed, special efforts were made to fill them. The following are some of the data systems' weaknesses. 1) The most significant weakness is the absence of data on the characteristics of emigrants and their destination. 2) Information on returning residents is limited. 3) Undocumented immigrants defy documentation and very little is known on this group. 4) There are only skimpy data on refugee claimants. 5) There are few analyses of the differential fertility, mortality, and nuptiality patterns of the immigrants and the Canadian born. 6) The rate of return of immigrants is unknown. 7) The number of Canadian students abroad and their field of study is unknown. 8) Information on change of status and enforcement is limited. 9) The de facto population of Canada is unknown since Statistics Canada enumerates and estimates only the de jure population. 10) Lack of coordination among the multiple agencies that collect data is a major weakness; data are often unavailable in the form in which, or time when, it is required.

  11. The Association between Working Memory and Educational Attainment as Measured in Different Mathematical Subtopics in the Swedish National Assessment: Primary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyroos, Mikaela; Wiklund-Hornqvist, Carola

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between working memory capacity and mathematical performance measured by the national curriculum assessment in third-grade children (n = 40). The national tests concerned six subareas within mathematics. One-way ANOVA, two-tailed Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were…

  12. The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM): Psychometric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Specialist Rehabilitation following a Stroke from the National UK Clinical Dataset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayar, Meenakshi; Vanderstay, Roxana; Siegert, Richard J; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2016-01-01

    The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM) is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC) national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS). We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation). For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge) was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907). All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p0.5). Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 pLHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 pLHS and RHS. This tool extends stroke outcome measurement beyond physical disability to include cognitive, communication and psychosocial function.

  13. Measuring the Regional Economic Significance of Airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-01

    How much did your company spend duringthe year (1982) on capital Improvenents at c. Aviation Fuel ........... $ HIA (i.e, majur purchase of equipment...FEDERAL FACILITIES Air Ritio’nal Guard 780400 Air Traffic Control 650500 Airport Mail Facilities 650500 Airways Facilities 650500 Armed Forces 780400

  14. WIPP WAC Equivalence Support Measurements for Low-Level Sludge Waste at Los Alamos National Laboratory - 12242

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruetzmacher, Kathleen M.; Bustos, Roland M.; Ferran, Scott G.; Gallegos, Lucas E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Lucero, Randy P. [Pajarito Scientific Corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico 87507 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) uses the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) as an off-site disposal facility for low-level waste (LLW), including sludge waste. NNSS has issued a position paper that indicates that systems that are not certified by the Carlsbad Field Office (CBFO) for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) disposal of Transuranic (TRU) waste must demonstrate equivalent practices to the CBFO certified systems in order to assign activity concentration values to assayed items without adding in the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) when certifying waste for NNSS disposal. Efforts have been made to meet NNSS requirements to accept sludge waste for disposal at their facility. The LANL LLW Characterization Team uses portable high purity germanium (HPGe) detector systems for the nondestructive assay (NDA) of both debris and sludge LLW. A number of performance studies have been conducted historically by LANL to support the efficacy and quality of assay results generated by the LANL HPGe systems, and, while these detector systems are supported by these performance studies and used with LANL approved procedures and processes, they are not certified by CBFO for TRU waste disposal. Beginning in 2009, the LANL LLW Characterization Team undertook additional NDA measurements of both debris and sludge simulated waste containers to supplement existing studies and procedures to demonstrate full compliance with the NNSS position paper. Where possible, Performance Demonstration Project (PDP) drums were used for the waste matrix and PDP sources were used for the radioactive sources. Sludge drums are an example of a matrix with a uniform distribution of contaminants. When attempting to perform a gamma assay of a sludge drum, it is very important to adequately simulate this uniform distribution of radionuclides in order to accurately model the assay results. This was accomplished by using a spiral radial source tube placement in a sludge drum rather than the standard

  15. Will the implementation of the 2007 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines on childhood urinary tract infection (UTI) in the UK miss significant urinary tract pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deader, Rafia; Tiboni, Sonia G; Malone, Padraig S J; Fairhurst, Joanna

    2012-08-01

    • To investigate whether the implementation of the August 2007 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines would miss significant urinary tract pathology in children with urinary tract infection (UTI). • All ultrasound (US) performed in children aged >6 months, during the year 1 August 2006 to 31 July 2007 for UTI, were retrospectively studied. • Each US scan in the study population of 346 was categorised dependent on whether it was appropriate or inappropriate to have been performed under the new guidelines and whether the US scan was normal or abnormal. • The records of each patient with an inappropriate abnormal US scan were re-analysed to see if patient management was affected by the US scan. • In 2011 patients with an original inappropriate abnormal US scan were re-evaluated to identify if any had presented with further urinary pathology. • In accordance with the NICE guidelines patients were divided by age. • Children aged 0.5-3 years: 78/95 (82%) US scans were inappropriate of which 12 (15%) were abnormal and four of these had a further documented UTI. After careful assessment of the US abnormalities it was judged that only one would have benefited from the initial US scan. • Children aged >3 years: 146/251 (58%) US scans were inappropriate of which 21(14%) were abnormal and six of these (29%) had a further documented UTI. After careful assessment of the US abnormalities it was judged that only three of 21 (14%) would have benefited from the initial US scan. • The vast majority of anomalies detected on the inappropriate US scans were of little clinical significance. • It is difficult to identify any patient who would have been truly disadvantaged if the US scan had not been performed after the initial UTI. • The NICE guidelines are safe to follow. © 2011 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  16. Multi-Level Policy Dialogues, Processes, and Actions: Challenges and Opportunities for National REDD+ Safeguards Measurement, Reporting, and Verification (MRV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Jagger

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available REDD+ social safeguards have gained increasing attention in numerous forums. This paper reviews the evolution of multi-level policy dialogues, processes, and actions related to REDD+ social safeguards (e.g., Cancun Safeguards 1–5 among policy makers, civil society organizations, and within the media in Brazil, Indonesia and Tanzania, three countries with well advanced REDD+ programs. We find that progress on core aspects of social safeguards is uneven across the three countries. Brazil is by far the most advanced having drafted a REDD+ social safeguards policy. Both Brazil and Indonesia have benefited from progress made by strong sub-national entities in the operationalization of REDD+ safeguards including free prior and informed consent (FPIC, participation, and benefit sharing. Tanzania has weakly articulated how social safeguards will be operationalized and has a more top-down approach. We conclude that in all three countries, measuring, reporting and verifying progress on social safeguards is likely to be a complex issue. Stakeholders with vested interests in REDD+ social safeguards operate in polycentric rather than nested systems, suggesting that aggregation of information from local to national-scale will be a challenge. However, polycentric systems are also likely to support more transparent and comprehensive safeguards systems. Clear direction from the international community and financing for REDD+ safeguard MRV is essential if REDD+ social safeguards are to be meaningfully integrated into forest-based climate mitigation strategies.

  17. Sexuality: measures of partnerships, practices, attitudes, and problems in the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, Linda J; Laumann, Edward O; Das, Aniruddha; Schumm, L Philip

    2009-11-01

    The National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) was designed to examine the relationship between sexual behavior, sexual problems, and health among older women and men. We describe measures of sexual partnerships, sexual practices, sexual problems, attitudes toward sex, and nonsexual intimacy in the first wave of NSHAP. We compare measures of sexuality for those 57-85 years old, by age, separately for men and women. We construct scales of sexual mores, sexual interest, and relationship satisfaction and discuss properties of each scale. Sexuality among older adults tends to vary with age and gender. At all ages in this study, men are more likely than women to have a partner, more likely to be sexually active with that partner, and tend to have more positive and permissive attitudes toward sex. The proportions in a sexual partnership, behavior, problems, and attitudes all differ substantially by age. And these age patterns often differ for men and women. Data obtained in the NSHAP can be used to construct key measures of sexuality among older adults; to examine sexuality itself; and to explore the link between sexuality, health, well-being, and other dimensions of the lives of older adults.

  18. High-resolution spectroscopy for Doppler-broadening ion temperature measurements of implosions at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, J. A.; Stewart, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Shepherd, R.; Schneider, M. B.; Miles, A. R.; Scott, H. A.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Hsing, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, L-493, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Future implosion experiments at the national ignition facility (NIF) will endeavor to simultaneously measure electron and ion temperatures with temporal and spatial resolution in order to explore non-equilibrium temperature distributions and their relaxation toward equilibrium. In anticipation of these experiments, and with understanding of the constraints of the NIF facility environment, we have explored the use of Doppler broadening of mid-Z dopant emission lines, such as krypton He-{alpha} at 13 keV, as a diagnostic of time- and potentially space-resolved ion temperature. We have investigated a number of options analytically and with numerical raytracing, and we have identified several promising candidate spectrometer designs that meet the expected requirements of spectral and temporal resolution and data signal-to-noise ratio for gas-filled exploding pusher implosions, while providing maximum flexibility for use on a variety of experiments that potentially include burning plasma.

  19. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenje, J. A., E-mail: jfrenje@psfc.mit.edu; Wink, C. W.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Bell, P.; Bionta, R.; Cerjan, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (T{sub i}), yield (Y{sub n}), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with a time resolution of ∼20 ps and energy resolution of ∼100 keV for total neutron yields above ∼10{sup 16}. At lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ∼20 ps.

  20. The magnetic recoil spectrometer (MRSt) for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum at the National Ignition Facility (NIF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenje, J A; Hilsabeck, T J; Wink, C W; Bell, P; Bionta, R; Cerjan, C; Gatu Johnson, M; Kilkenny, J D; Li, C K; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D

    2016-11-01

    The next-generation magnetic recoil spectrometer for time-resolved measurements of the neutron spectrum has been conceptually designed for the National Ignition Facility. This spectrometer, called MRSt, represents a paradigm shift in our thinking about neutron spectrometry for inertial confinement fusion applications, as it will provide simultaneously information about the burn history and time evolution of areal density (ρR), apparent ion temperature (T i ), yield (Y n ), and macroscopic flows during burn. From this type of data, an assessment of the evolution of the fuel assembly, hotspot, and alpha heating can be made. According to simulations, the MRSt will provide accurate data with a time resolution of ∼20 ps and energy resolution of ∼100 keV for total neutron yields above ∼10 16 . At lower yields, the diagnostic will be operated at a higher-efficiency, lower-energy-resolution mode to provide a time resolution of ∼20 ps.

  1. Energy Development in Colorado's Pawnee National Grasslands: Mapping and Measuring the Disturbance Footprint of Renewables and Non-Renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynard, Chris W.; Mjachina, Ksenya; Richardson, Robert D.; Schupp, Robert W.; Lambert, J. David; Chibilyev, Alexander A.

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the pattern and extent of energy development in steppe landscapes of northeast Colorado, United States. We compare the landscape disturbance created by oil and gas production to that of wind energy inside the Pawnee National Grasslands eastern side. This high-steppe landscape consists of a mosaic of federal, state, and private lands where dominant economic activities include ranching, agriculture, tourism, oil and gas extraction, and wind energy generation. Utilizing field surveys, remote sensing data and geographic information systems techniques, we quantify and map the footprint of energy development at the landscape level. Findings suggest that while oil and gas and wind energy development have resulted in a relatively small amount of habitat loss within the study area, the footprint stretches across the entire zone, fragmenting this mostly grassland habitat. Futhermore, a third feature of this landscape, the non-energy transportation network, was also found to have a significant impact. Combined, these three features fragment the entire Pawnee National Grasslands eastern side, leaving very few large intact core, or roadless areas. The primary objective of this ongoing work is to create a series of quantifiable and replicable surface disturbance indicators linked to energy production in semi-arid grassland environments. Based on these, and future results, we aim to work with industry and regulators to shape energy policy as it relates to environmental performance, with the aim of reducing the footprint and thus increasing the sustainability of these extractive activities.

  2. Benchmarking by HbA1c in a national diabetes quality register--does measurement bias matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Siri; Thue, Geir; Cooper, John Graham; Røraas, Thomas; Gøransson, Lasse Gunnar; Løvaas, Karianne; Sandberg, Sverre

    2015-08-01

    Bias in HbA1c measurement could give a wrong impression of the standard of care when benchmarking diabetes care. The aim of this study was to evaluate how measurement bias in HbA1c results may influence the benchmarking process performed by a national diabetes register. Using data from 2012 from the Norwegian Diabetes Register for Adults, we included HbA1c results from 3584 patients with type 1 diabetes attending 13 hospital clinics, and 1366 patients with type 2 diabetes attending 18 GP offices. Correction factors for HbA1c were obtained by comparing the results of the hospital laboratories'/GP offices' external quality assurance scheme with the target value from a reference method. Compared with the uncorrected yearly median HbA1c values for hospital clinics and GP offices, EQA corrected HbA1c values were within ±0.2% (2 mmol/mol) for all but one hospital clinic whose value was reduced by 0.4% (4 mmol/mol). Three hospital clinics reduced the proportion of patients with poor glycemic control, one by 9% and two by 4%. For most participants in our study, correcting for measurement bias had little effect on the yearly median HbA1c value or the percentage of patients achieving glycemic goals. However, at three hospital clinics correcting for measurement bias had an important effect on HbA1c benchmarking results especially with regard to percentages of patients achieving glycemic targets. The analytical quality of HbA1c should be taken into account when comparing benchmarking results.

  3. Examining the resilience of national energy systems: Measurements of diversity in production-based and consumption-based electricity in the globalization of trade networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharrazi, Ali; Sato, Masahiro; Yarime, Masaru; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Yu, Yadong; Kraines, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Energy is a critical component of achieving sustainable development. In addition to the three aspects of promoting access, renewables, and efficiency, the dimension of resilience in energy systems should also considered. The implementation of resilient energy systems requires a quantitative understanding of the socio-economic practices underlying such systems. Specifically, in line with the increasing globalization of trade, there remains a critical knowledge gap on the link between embodied energy in the production and consumption of traded goods. To bridge this knowledge gap, we investigate the resilience of global energy systems through an examination of a diversity measure of global embodied electricity trade based on multi-regional input-output (MRIO) networks. The significance of this research lies in its ability to utilize high resolution MRIO data sets in assessing the resilience of national energy systems. This research indicates that secure and responsible consumption requires the diversification of not only energy generation but also energy imports. This research will lay the ground for further research in the governance of resilience in global energy networks. - Highlights: • We examine the resilience of global embodied energy based on (MRIO) trade networks. • We propose a secure and responsible mode of thinking for national energy consumption. • Secure & responsible consumption requires diversity in energy generation and imports.

  4. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberger, M., E-mail: mhoh@lle.rochester.edu; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Albert, F.; Palmer, N. E.; Döppner, T.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Bachmann, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; LaCaille, G.; Bradley, D. K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Lee, J. J. [National Security Technologies LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostic–a multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20–500 keV range–has been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ∼300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U K{sub β}). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (∼90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests.

  5. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources; Esperienze e proposte relative alla correzione in senso ambientale delle misure del reddito nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, R; Gaudioso, D [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a `sink` for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico.

  6. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Smith, D. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff.

  7. Magnetic susceptibility measurements in Yellowstone National Park, USA; Beikoku Yellowstone kokuritsu koen ni okeru genchi jikaritsu sokutei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuma, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-05-27

    For the purpose of interpreting data of the aeromagnetic anomalies in Yellowstone National Park in the U.S.A., in-situ magnetization intensity measurements have been carried out in 1994 and 1995 on geological outcrops of rocks in that area. Comparisons and discussions were given on the measurement results, and existing rock magnetic data and aeromagnetic anomaly data available for the area. Outside the Yellowstone caldera, part of granitic gneisses among the Precambrian granitic gneisses and crystalline schists distributed to the north has an abnormally high magnetization intensity of 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI. This could be a powerful anomaly source for the high magnetic anomaly in this area. Paleogene volcanic rocks distributed widely in the eastern part of the park also have magnetization intensity as high as 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher, which are also thought a powerful anomaly source in this area. Part of Pleistocene basalts which are exposed partially in the western part of the park has also very high magnetization intensity at 1 {times} 10 {sup -2} SI or higher. This suggests correlation with the magnetic anomaly in the east-west direction distributed in this area. Quaternary rhyolites are more magnetic than Quaternary welded tuffs, which should give greater effects to the magnetic anomaly. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; Smith, D.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff

  9. Assessment of the measurement control program for solution assay instruments at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.S.

    1985-05-01

    This report documents and reviews the measurement control program (MCP) over a 27-month period for four solution assay instruments (SAIs) Facility. SAI measurement data collected during the period January 1982 through March 1984 were analyzed. The sources of these data included computer listings of measurements emanating from operator entries on computer terminals, logbook entries of measurements transcribed by operators, and computer listings of measurements recorded internally in the instruments. Data were also obtained from control charts that are available as part of the MCP. As a result of our analyses we observed agreement between propagated and historical variances and concluded instruments were functioning properly from a precision aspect. We noticed small, persistent biases indicating slight instrument inaccuracies. We suggest that statistical tests for bias be incorporated in the MCP on a monthly basis and if the instrument bias is significantly greater than zero, the instrument should undergo maintenance. We propose the weekly precision test be replaced by a daily test to provide more timely detection of possible problems. We observed that one instrument showed a trend of increasing bias during the past six months and recommend a randomness test be incorporated to detect trends in a more timely fashion. We detected operator transcription errors during data transmissions and advise direct instrument transmission to the MCP to eliminate these errors. A transmission error rate based on those errors that affected decisions in the MCP was estimated as 1%. 11 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  10. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  11. Impact of National Institutes of Health Gastrointestinal PROMIS Measures in Clinical Practice: Results of a Multicenter Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almario, Christopher V; Chey, William D; Khanna, Dinesh; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Ahmed, Shahzad; Afghani, Elham; Whitman, Cynthia; Fuller, Garth; Reid, Mark; Bolus, Roger; Dennis, Buddy; Encarnacion, Rey; Martinez, Bibiana; Soares, Jennifer; Modi, Rushaba; Agarwal, Nikhil; Lee, Aaron; Kubomoto, Scott; Sharma, Gobind; Bolus, Sally; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2016-11-01

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) created the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) to allow efficient, online measurement of patient-reported outcomes (PROs), but it remains untested whether PROMIS improves outcomes. Here, we aimed to compare the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) PROMIS measures vs. usual care on patient outcomes. We performed a pragmatic clinical trial with an off-on study design alternating weekly between intervention (GI PROMIS) and control arms at one Veterans Affairs and three university-affiliated specialty clinics. Adults with GI symptoms were eligible. Intervention patients completed GI PROMIS symptom questionnaires on an e-portal 1 week before their visit; PROs were available for review by patients and their providers before and during the clinic visit. Usual care patients were managed according to customary practices. Our primary outcome was patient satisfaction as determined by the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included provider interpersonal skills (Doctors' Interpersonal Skills Questionnaire (DISQ)) and shared decision-making (9-item Shared Decision Making Questionnaire (SDM-Q-9)). There were 217 and 154 patients in the GI PROMIS and control arms, respectively. Patient satisfaction was similar between groups (P>0.05). Intervention patients had similar assessments of their providers' interpersonal skills (DISQ 89.4±11.7 vs. 89.8±16.0, P=0.79) and shared decision-making (SDM-Q-9 79.3±12.4 vs. 79.0±22.0, P=0.85) vs. This is the first controlled trial examining the impact of NIH PROMIS in clinical practice. One-time use of GI PROMIS did not improve patient satisfaction or assessment of provider interpersonal skills and shared decision-making. Future studies examining how to optimize PROs in clinical practice are encouraged before widespread adoption.

  12. Global Positioning System : significant challenges in sustaining and upgrading widely used capabilities : report to the Subcommittee on National Security and Foreign Affairs, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS), which provides positioning, navigation, and timing data to users worldwide, has become essential to U.S. national security and a key tool in an expanding array of public service and commercial applications at home...

  13. Cross-National Prevalence of Traditional Bullying, Traditional Victimization, Cyberbullying and Cyber-Victimization: Comparing Single-Item and Multiple-Item Approaches of Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagida, Takuya; Gradinger, Petra; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Solomontos-Kountouri, Olga; Trip, Simona; Bora, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Many large-scale cross-national studies rely on a single-item measurement when comparing prevalence rates of traditional bullying, traditional victimization, cyberbullying, and cyber-victimization between countries. However, the reliability and validity of single-item measurement approaches are highly problematic and might be biased. Data from…

  14. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  15. Notes on age determination, growth and measurements of Brown Hyaenas Hyaena Brunnea from the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L Mills

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown hyaenas were aged on the basis of tooth eruption and wear and five age-classes were recognised. Weights and seven different body measurements were recorded from 38 immobilised hyaenas. Full size is reached at the age of 30 months, but age-class 5 animals were significantly lighter than were animals from the other adult age-classes. This was probably due to the worn down premolars of old animals resulting in less efficient bone chewing. With a few puzzling exceptions the sizes of brown hyaenas from different parts of their distribution range are similar.

  16. Haemoglobin variants may cause significant differences in haemoglobin A1c as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic methods in diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabe, Shuichi; Nakayama, Hitomi; Ohki, Tsuyoshi; Soejima, Eri; Tajiri, Yuji; Yamada, Kentaro

    2017-07-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether the discrepancy between haemoglobin A1c values determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic haemoglobin A1c measurements in diabetic patients was clinically relevant. Methods We randomly recruited 1421 outpatients undergoing diabetic treatment and follow-up who underwent at least three haemoglobin A1c measurements between April 2014 and March 2015 at our clinic. In 6369 samples, haemoglobin A1c was simultaneously measured by HA-8160 and MetaboLead (enzymatic assay), and the values were compared. Results haemoglobin A1c measurements by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic assay were strongly correlated (correlation coefficient: 0.9828, linear approximation curve y = 0.9986x - 0.2507). Mean haemoglobin A1c (6.8 ± 1.0%) measured by high-performance liquid chromatography was significantly higher than that measured by enzymatic assay (6.5 ± 1.0%, P liquid chromatography than those from enzymatic assay. Of these, three had Hb Toranomon [β112 (G14) Cys→Trp]. The fourth had Hb Ube-2 [α68 (E17) Asn→Asp]. One other subject presented consistently higher haemoglobin A1c values (>1%) by high-performance liquid chromatography than those from enzymatic assay and was diagnosed with a -77 (T > C) mutation in the δ-globin gene. These unrelated asymptomatic subjects had normal erythrocyte profiles, without anaemia. Conclusions We showed that haemoglobin A1c values measured by high-performance liquid chromatography were significantly higher than those measured by enzymatic assay in diabetic subjects. However, when an oversized deviation (>0.7%) between glycaemic control status and haemoglobin A1c is apparent, clinicians should check the methods used to measure haemoglobin A1c and consider the possible presence of a haemoglobin variant.

  17. Significant accomplishments, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    BTS data is vital to improve transportation decision making, as well as evaluations of performance and what works in the nations transportation systems. As BTS continues its course of producing relevant, accurate, and timely transportation d...

  18. Use of modified threat reduction assessments to estimate success of conservation measures within and adjacent to Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Brandon P

    2008-12-01

    The importance of biodiversity as natural capital for economic development and sustaining human welfare is well documented. Nevertheless, resource degradation rates and persistent deterioration of human welfare in developing countries is increasingly worrisome. Developing effective monitoring and evaluation schemes and measuring biodiversity loss continue to pose unique challenges, particularly when there is a paucity of historical data. Threat reduction assessment (TRA) has been proposed as a method to measure conservation success and as a proxy measurement of conservation impact, monitoring threats to resources rather than changes to biological parameters themselves. This tool is considered a quick, practical alternative to more cost- and time-intensive approaches, but has inherent weaknesses. I conducted TRAs to evaluate the effectiveness of Kruger National Park (KNP) and Limpopo Province, South Africa, in mitigating threats to biodiversity from 1994 to 2004 in 4 geographical areas. I calculated TRA index values in these TRAs by using the original scoring developed by Margoluis and Salafsky (2001)and a modified scoring system that assigned negative mitigation values to incorporate new or worsening threats. Threats were standardized to allow comparisons across the sites. Modified TRA index values were significantly lower than values derived from the original scoring exercise. Five of the 11 standardized threats were present in all 4 assessment areas, 2 were restricted to KNP, 2 to Limpopo Province, and 2 only to Malamulele municipality. These results indicate, first, the need to integrate negative mitigation values into TRA scoring. By including negative values, investigators will be afforded a more accurate picture of biodiversity threats and of temporal and spatial trends across sites. Where the original TRA scoring was used to measure conservation success, reevaluation of these cases with the modified scoring is recommended. Second, practitioners must

  19. Relationship between sleep characteristics and measures of body size and composition in a nationally-representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qian; Gu, Fangyi; Caporaso, Neil; Matthews, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Short sleep has been linked to obesity. However, sleep is a multidimensional behavior that cannot be characterized solely by sleep duration. There is limited study that comprehensively examined different sleep characteristics in relation to obesity. We examined various aspects of sleep in relation to adiposity in 2005-2006 NHANES participants who were 18 or older and free of cardiovascular disease, cancer, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and depression ( N  = 3995). Sleep characteristics were self-reported, and included duration, overall quality, onset latency, fragmentation, daytime sleepiness, snoring, and sleep disorders. Body measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measured fat mass. Snoring was associated with higher BMI (adjusted difference in kg/m 2 comparing snoring for 5+ nights/week with no snoring (95 % confidence interval), 1.85 (0.88, 2.83)), larger waist circumference (cm, 4.52 (2.29, 6.75)), higher percentage of body fat (%, 1.61 (0.84, 2.38)), and higher android/gynoid ratio (0.03 (0.01, 0.06)). The associations were independent of sleep duration and sleep quality, and cannot be explained by the existence of sleep disorders such as sleep apnea. Poor sleep quality (two or more problematic sleep conditions) and short sleep duration (body size and fat composition, although the effects were attenuated after snoring was adjusted. In a nationally representative sample of healthy US adults, snoring, short sleep, and poor sleep quality were associated with higher adiposity.

  20. Tower-Based Greenhouse Gas Measurement Network Design---The National Institute of Standards and Technology North East Corridor Testbed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Coto, Israel; Ghosh, Subhomoy; Prasad, Kuldeep; Whetstone, James

    2017-09-01

    The North-East Corridor (NEC) Testbed project is the 3rd of three NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) greenhouse gas emissions testbeds designed to advance greenhouse gas measurements capabilities. A design approach for a dense observing network combined with atmospheric inversion methodologies is described. The Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting Model with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model were used to derive the sensitivity of hypothetical observations to surface greenhouse gas emissions (footprints). Unlike other network design algorithms, an iterative selection algorithm, based on a k -means clustering method, was applied to minimize the similarities between the temporal response of each site and maximize sensitivity to the urban emissions contribution. Once a network was selected, a synthetic inversion Bayesian Kalman filter was used to evaluate observing system performance. We present the performances of various measurement network configurations consisting of differing numbers of towers and tower locations. Results show that an overly spatially compact network has decreased spatial coverage, as the spatial information added per site is then suboptimal as to cover the largest possible area, whilst networks dispersed too broadly lose capabilities of constraining flux uncertainties. In addition, we explore the possibility of using a very high density network of lower cost and performance sensors characterized by larger uncertainties and temporal drift. Analysis convergence is faster with a large number of observing locations, reducing the response time of the filter. Larger uncertainties in the observations implies lower values of uncertainty reduction. On the other hand, the drift is a bias in nature, which is added to the observations and, therefore, biasing the retrieved fluxes.

  1. Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spears, B.K.; Glenzer, S.; Edwards, M.J.; Brandon, S.; Clark, D.; Town, R.; Cerjan, C.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Mapoles, E.; Munro, D.; Salmonson, J.; Sepke, S.; Weber, S.; Hatchett, S.; Haan, S.; Springer, P.; Moses, E.; Mapoles, E.; Munro, D.; Salmonson, J.; Sepke, S.

    2011-01-01

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.

  2. Poachers and Poverty: Assessing Objective and Subjective Measures of Poverty among Illegal Hunters Outside Ruaha National Park, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli J Knapp

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Illegal hunters in Africa may be making rational decisions about the hunting activities they partake in. These decisions could be linked to their socioeconomic status and the livelihood opportunities available to them. In particular, poverty is widely considered the leading driver that causes a household's inhabitants to take up poaching in protected areas. Programs aiming to protect vulnerable wildlife populations by mitigating poaching have historically relied upon income-based poverty metrics in efforts to reduce regional poverty and incentivise local inhabitants to discontinue poaching activities. Because such data sets that deal with poachers directly are rare, assumptions about the role of poverty, and the extent of poverty, that drives poaching have been hard to test. This study uses a unique sample of 173 self-admitted poachers living in villages adjacent to Ruaha National Park in Tanzania to explore the influence of poverty on poaching. Results indicated high demographic and household economy heterogeneity among poaching households. Capability deprivation examined more subjective measures of poverty and revealed that poachers are strongly motivated by the need to improve their incomes, but are not necessarily the poorest of the poor.

  3. Performance metrics for Inertial Confinement Fusion implosions: aspects of the technical framework for measuring progress in the National Ignition Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spears, B K; Glenzer, S; Edwards, M J; Brandon, S; Clark, D; Town, R; Cerjan, C; Dylla-Spears, R; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S; Weber, S; Hatchett, S; Haan, S; Springer, P; Moses, E; Mapoles, E; Munro, D; Salmonson, J; Sepke, S

    2011-12-16

    The National Ignition Campaign (NIC) uses non-igniting 'THD' capsules to study and optimize the hydrodynamic assembly of the fuel without burn. These capsules are designed to simultaneously reduce DT neutron yield and to maintain hydrodynamic similarity with the DT ignition capsule. We will discuss nominal THD performance and the associated experimental observables. We will show the results of large ensembles of numerical simulations of THD and DT implosions and their simulated diagnostic outputs. These simulations cover a broad range of both nominal and off nominal implosions. We will focus on the development of an experimental implosion performance metric called the experimental ignition threshold factor (ITFX). We will discuss the relationship between ITFX and other integrated performance metrics, including the ignition threshold factor (ITF), the generalized Lawson criterion (GLC), and the hot spot pressure (HSP). We will then consider the experimental results of the recent NIC THD campaign. We will show that we can observe the key quantities for producing a measured ITFX and for inferring the other performance metrics. We will discuss trends in the experimental data, improvement in ITFX, and briefly the upcoming tuning campaign aimed at taking the next steps in performance improvement on the path to ignition on NIF.

  4. Summary of oceanographic and water-quality measurements in Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge, Wells, Maine, in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Borden, Jonathan; Martini, Marinna A.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element controlling the geomorphology of tidal wetland complexes. Wetlands rely on organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea level. The U.S. Geological Survey performed observational deployments to measure suspended-sediment concentration and water flow rates in the tidal channels of the wetlands in the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Wells, Maine. The objective was to characterize the sediment-transport mechanisms that contribute to the net sediment budget of the wetland complex. We deployed a meteorological tower, optical turbidity sensors, and acoustic velocity meters at sites on Stephens Brook and the Ogunquit River between March 27 and December 9, 2013. This report presents the time-series oceanographic and atmospheric data collected during those field studies. The oceanographic parameters include water velocity, depth, turbidity, salinity, temperature, and pH. The atmospheric parameters include wind direction, speed, and gust; air temperature; air pressure; relative humidity; short wave radiation; and photosynthetically active radiation.

  5. Field measurement and analysis of climatic factors affecting dune mobility near Grand Falls on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Rian; Redsteer, Margaret Hiza; Vogel, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Aeolian sand covers extensive areas of the Navajo Nation in the southwestern United States. Much of this sand is currently stabilized by vegetation, although many drier parts of these Native lands also have active and partly active dunes. Current prolonged drought conditions that started in the mid-1990s are producing significant changes in dune mobility. Reactivation of regional aeolian deposits due to drought or increasing aridity from rising temperatures resulting from climate change could have serious consequences for human and animal populations, agriculture, grazing, and infrastructure. To understand and document the current and future potential for mobility, seasonally repeated surveys were used to track the location of multiple active barchan dunes. By utilizing Real-Time Kinematic GPS field surveys and simultaneously collecting in-situ meteorological data, it is possible to examine climatic parameters and seasonal variations that affect dune mobility and their relative influences. Through analysis of the recorded data, we examined the fit of various climate parameters, and demonstrate that under the current prolonged drought, wind power is the dominant factor controlling dune mobility.

  6. The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM: Psychometric Evaluation in Patients Undergoing Specialist Rehabilitation following a Stroke from the National UK Clinical Dataset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Nayar

    Full Text Available The UK Functional Assessment Measure (UKFIM+FAM is the principal outcome measure for the UK Rehabilitation Outcomes Collaborative (UKROC national database for specialist rehabilitation. Previously validated in a mixed neurorehabilitation cohort, this study is the first to explore its psychometric properties in a stroke population, and compare left and right hemispheric strokes (LHS vs RHS. We analysed in-patient episode data from 62 specialist rehabilitation units collated through the UKROC database 2010-2013. Complete data were analysed for 1,539 stroke patients (LHS: 588, RHS: 566 with clear localisation. For factor analysis, admission and discharge data were pooled and randomised into two equivalent samples; the first for exploratory factor analysis (EFA using principal components analysis, and the second for confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Responsiveness for each subject (change from admission to discharge was examined using paired t-tests and differences between LHS and RHS for the entire group were examined using non-paired t-tests. EFA showed a strong general factor accounting for >48% of the total variance. A three-factor solution comprising motor, communication and psychosocial subscales, accounting for >69% total variance, provided acceptable fit statistics on CFA (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation was 0.08 and Comparative Fit Index/ Tucker Lewis Index 0.922/0.907. All three subscales showed significant improvement between admission and discharge (p0.5. Total scores between LHS and RHS were not significantly different. However, LHS showed significantly higher motor scores (Mean 5.7, 95%CI 2.7, 8.6 p<0.001, while LHS had significantly lower cognitive scores, primarily in the communication domain (-6.8 95%CI -7.7, -5.8 p<0.001. To conclude, the UK FIM+FAM has a three-factor structure in stroke, similar to the general neurorehabilitation population. It is responsive to change during in-patient rehabilitation, and distinguishes

  7. Assessing recreation impacts to cliffs in Shenandoah National Park: Integrating visitor observation with trail and recreation site measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, K.T.; Lawson, S.R.; Marion, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    The rock outcrops and cliffs of Shenandoah National Park provide habitat for several rare and endangered plant and animal species, including the federally endangered Shenandoah Salamander (Plethodon shenandoah; Ludwig et al., 1993). The location of the well-known park tour road, Skyline Drive, along the ridgeline provides exceptional access to many outcrops and cliffs throughout the park for a large number of the park?s 1.2 million annual visitors. Consequently, visitor use of cliff areas has led to natural resource impacts, including marked decreases in size and vigor of known rare plant populations. Despite the clear ecological value and potential threats to the natural resources at cliff areas, managers possess little information on visitor use of cliff sites and presently have no formal planning document to guide management. Thus, a park wide study of cliff sites was initiated during the 2005 visitor use season. As part of this research effort, our study used an integrative approach to study recreational use and visitor-caused resource impacts at one of the more heavily visited cliff sites in the park: Little Stony Man Cliffs (LSMC). In particular, this study integrated data from resource impact measurements and visitor use observation to help assess the effects of recreational use on the natural resources of LSMC. Procedures derived from campsite and trail impact studies were used to measure and characterize the amount of visitor-caused resource impacts on LSMC (Marion & Leung, 2001; Marion, 1995). Visitor use observations were conducted on top of LSMC to document and characterize the type and amount of recreational use the cliffs receive and the behaviors of recreationists that may contribute to cliff-top resource impacts. Resource impact measurement data show trampling disturbance present at LSMC, characterized by vegetation loss, exposed soil, and root exposure. Documentation of informal trails, soil erosion, tree damage, and tree stumps provide further

  8. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R levels, B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangcai

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-2, SIL-2R level, peripheral blood B lymphocyte number and T-cell subsets after chemotherapy in patients with malignant hydatidiform mole. Methods: Serum IL-2 ( with RIA), SIL-2R level (with ELISA) and peripheral blood B lymphocytes number as well as T subsets (with monoclonal antibody technique) were measured both before and after chemotherapy in 32 patients with malignant hydatidiform mole as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before chemotherapy serum SIL-2R level and B lymphocyte were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01), while the serum IL-2 level, CD3, CD4, CD4/CD8 were significantly lower (P<0.01). Six months after chemotherapy the levels changed markedly toward normal, but remained significantly different from those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Abnormal immuno-regulation were present in patients with malignant mole. (authors)

  9. Setting the Record Straight: Strong Positive Impacts Found from the National Evaluation of Upward Bound. Re-Analysis Documents Significant Positive Impacts Masked by Errors in Flawed Contractor Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalan, Margaret; Goodwin, David

    2014-01-01

    In January 2009, in the last week of the Bush Administration, the U.S. Department of Education (ED), upon orders from the departing political appointee staff, published the final report in a long running National Evaluation of Upward Bound (UB). The study was conducted by the contractor, Mathematica Policy Research. After more than a year in…

  10. Measurement of optic tracts in normal Chinese adults of the Han nationality based on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Changying; Shi Linping; Zhang Yang; Wang Jian; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the morphological characteristics of optic tracts in healthy Chinese Han adults on the high-resolution MRI and fill the database of Chinese standard brain with morphological data of optic tracts. Methods: Cerebral MRI scans with T 1 WI 3D MPRAGE sequence of 1000 healthy Chinese volunteers from 15 hospitals were divided into five stages, ranging in age from 18 to 70. With the technique of multi-baseline, structure and morphology of optic tracts were displayed optimally on the images with multiplanar reconstruction. Data were measured as following: transverse distance of the cisternal optic tract (TD1) and peri-crural optic tract (TD2), length from the cisternal optic tract to the peri-crural optic tract (L), angle between optic tract(AOT) and height of optic tract from its first segment to plane of anterior commissure (H) including H1, H2, H3, H4 and H5. The measurements of optic tracts between sexualities and among age groups were compared by anasis of covariance; those among five age groups were compared pairwisedly by least significant difference analysis (LSD); and the differences of measurements between left and right optic tracts were analyzed using paired t test. Results: (1) Comparisons of optic tract structures between male and female: the mean optic tract length of male [(11.69±1.45),(11.56±1.44) mm] was significant longer than that of female [(10.58±1.29), (10.40±1.34) mm] (F=22.236, 29.703, P=0.000); the mean H1 of male [(2.56±0.28), (2.60±0.29) mm] and female [(2.57±0.31), (2.63±0.32) mm] were significantly different (F= 11.130,7.805, P=0.000, 0.005). No significant differences of the other measurements were found between male and female (P>0.05). (2) Comparisons among age groups: among 5 age groups, TD1 of both sides [left TD1 :(4.64 ± 0.51) ,(4.64 ± 0.57), (4.55 ± 0.58), (4.39 ± 0.53), (4.36 ± 0.58) mm; right TD1: (4.84 ± 0.53), (4.80 ± 0.60 ), (4.77 ± 0.65), (4.60 ± 0.59), (4.57 ± 0.59) mm ] and the right TD2

  11. 124Xe(n,γ125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhike Megha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  12. 124Xe(n,γ)125Xe and 124Xe(n,2n)123Xe measurements for National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhike, Megha; Ludin, Nurin; Tornow, Werner

    2015-05-01

    The cross section for the 124Xe(n,γ)125Xe reaction has been measured for the first time for neutron energies above 100 keV. In addition, the 124Xe(n,2n)123Xe reaction has been studied between threshold and 14.8 MeV. The results of these measurements provide sensitive diagnostic tools for investigating properties of the inertial confinement fusion plasma in Deuterium-Tritium (DT) capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  13. Finisher hog production in the Southeastern United States: Ancillary measurements derived from the National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robarge, W. P.; Lee, S.; Walker, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of emissions of gases and fine particulate matter from swine animal feeding operations (AFOs) in the southeastern US have typically been confined to relatively short periods (days to several weeks) and have generally focused on waste lagoons. Access to swine animal housing units and other ancillary information has been limited. The National Air Emissions Monitoring Study (NAEMS) provided a unique opportunity to characterize emissions from swine housing units for an extended period of time (~ 2 years), and allowed access to ancillary measurements regarding nutrient flows (feed amounts and composition), manure dynamics, animal inventories, water usage and farm management. Presented here is a summary of the observations made for a NAEMS finisher site (NC3B) selected as being representative of swine production in the southeastern US. Finisher hogs are raised in rotations (~ 140 days) with a target market weight of 123 kg/hog. Among the population during a rotation (700-800 hogs/barn) the actual growth rate varies with a series of “grade-outs” of market-weight hogs starting ~ 110 days from initial load-in. Derivation of the standing live-weight in the barns during a rotation therefore requires use of a growth model and summation over several different “populations” of hogs within a single barn. Up to 5 different feed formulations are fed during a rotation with %N content ranging from (3.4 to 2.2% N; total feed consumed 181,000 kg/barn). Across 4 complete rotations, N consumed was ~50 g N per hog/day. Of this amount, we estimate ~ 60% is excreted as fecal matter and urine. The TAN (NH3 + NH4+) content of the shallow pits is consistently higher (1880 ±390 mg TAN/L) than that found in the anaerobic lagoon (800 ±70 mg TAN/L), except immediately after recharge following pit-pull (pH of the two liquids was similar). The presence of a recalcitrant layer of sludge in the shallow pits (liquid height = 20 cm; sludge depth = 5-10 cm; TAN = 2500 mg N/L; total

  14. Sound Reflection from the Sea Floor and its Geological Significance (NODC Accession 7001147)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of this investigation was to measure bottom loss in normal incident reflection of pluses of twelve keps sound and to study its geological significance....

  15. The Interaction Between the Debt Relief Measures in the National Credit Act 34 of 2005 and Aspects of Insvolvency Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C van Heerden

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The National Credit Act 34 of 2005 (the 'NCA' aims at promoting responsibility in the credit market by encouraging responsible borrowing, avoidance of over-indebtedness and the fulfilment of financial obligations by consumers, and at discouraging reckless credit granting by credit providers and contractual default by consumers. Although a further aim is to address over-indebtedness by debt review, for instance, this mechanism is based on the principle of satisfaction of the consumer's responsible financial obligations in full. In a recent judgment, Ex parte Ford 2009 (3 SA 376 (WCC, the court has thus refused to grant a sequestration order following an application for voluntary surrender since the bulk of the debt was credit agreements regulated by the NCA. The fact that the debtor-applicant did not apply for debt review in terms of the NCA of 2005 before applying for voluntary surrender played a significant role in the court's decision not to grant the order. This article thus considers the impact of the debt relief remedies in the NCA on insolvency law. In particular it is an attempt to provide some answers to the question if the Insolvency Act 24 of 1936 (hereafter the 'Insolvency Act' is in conflict with the previously stated principle of the NCA, namely full satisfaction of all responsible financial obligations by an over-indebted consumer. It also considers the concepts of over-indebtedness and reckless credit and their related debt relief remedies when considering applications for voluntary surrender or compulsory sequestration in terms of the Insolvency Act.

  16. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  17. Measurement of the volume of internal capsule in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Yuan; Guo Yulin; Zhu Kai; Lai Yanbo; Ma Shuai; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhu Yan; Chen Lin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the volume of internal capsules in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and its relationship with age, body habitus, and craniocerebral volume. Methods: One thousand healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 80 years) were divided into 5 groups according to their age; Group A (18 to 30 years old), group B (31 to 40 years), group C (41 to 50 years), group D (51 to 60 years), and group E (61 to 80 years). Each group consisted of 100 males and 100 females. MR imaging was performed in all of the volunteers using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. After three dimension data reconstruction, the volumes of bilateral internal capsules were manually measured. The volumes of bilateral internal capsules were compared by paired sample t test. The internal capsule volumes were compared between male and female by independent sample t test, and the differences among 5 age groups were compared by one-way ANOVA. The relationship between the volumes of internal capsule and age, body habitus or cerebral volume were analyzed using bivariate correlation. Results: The left and right internal capsule volumes were (2809 ± 393) and (2677 ± 343 ) mm 3 respectively. The left internal capsule volumes were significantly larger than that of right (t=12.078, P<0.05). The left and right side of internal capsule volumes in male were (2863 ± 396) and (2744 ±358) mm 3 respectively, and (2754 ±385) and (2609 ±314) mm 3 in female. The left and right internal capsule volumes were larger in males than in female (t=1.982, 2.851; P<0.05). The left internal capsule volume of the 5 age groups were (3273 ± 361), (2943 ± 299), (2777 ± 255), (2607 ± 199), (2444 ±213) mm 3 , and the right were (2993 ± 361), (2814 ± 270), (2682 ± 239), (2543 ± 219), (2351 ±210) mm 3 . There were significant differences among 5 age groups between left and right internal capsule volume (F=55.244, 34.493; P<0

  18. National and gender measurement invariance of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) : A 10-nation study with university students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, E.; Cieciuch, J.; Gao, C.-H.; Klimstra, T.A.; Lin, C.-L.; Mena de Matos, P.; Morsünbül, U.; Negru, O.; Sugimura, K.; Zimmermann, G.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), a self-report measure aimed at assessing identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. We tested its factor structure in

  19. National and Gender Measurement Invariance of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) : A 10-Nation Study With University Students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cieciuch, Jan; Gao, Cheng Hai; Klimstra, Theo; Lin, Ching Ling; Matos, Paula Mena; Morsünbül, Ümit; Negru, Oana; Sugimura, Kazumi; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Meeus, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS), a self-report measure aimed at assessing identity processes of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. We tested its factor structure in

  20. Measuring the volume of the hippocampus in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yong; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To measure the volume of hippocampal formation (HPF) in healthy Chinese Han adults and provide database for researching on a variety of diseases associated with alteration of hippocampal structure. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. One thousand Chinese healthy volunteers (age range=18 to 70) recruited from 15 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i. e., Group A (age range=18 to 30), B (age range=31 to 40), C (age range =41 to 50), D (age range =51 to 60), and E (age range = 61 to 70). Each group contained 100 males and 100 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three-dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. The margin of HPF were outlined manually for each side. Using multiple linear regression, relationships between hippocampal volume and sex, age, weight and height were analyzed respectively. Independent two sample t test was used to study the differences between male and female and between left and right. The differences of hippocampal volume among age groups were analyzed by ANOVA. Results: Hippocampal volume for left and right side were (4752±659) and (5032±660) mm 3 respectively. The volume of HPF is significant correlated with gender and age, but without relevance to height and weight (left and right r=0.283,0.311, F=30.127,37.050,P 3 respectively for men, and (4647±624) and (4904±630) mm 3 for women. The right hippocampal volume was larger than the left (t=7.030,6.696, P 3 respectively, while the volumes of the fight hippocampus were (5340± 647), (5276±582), (5264±620), (5133±661), (4894±699) mm 3 respectively. Among age groups, the differences were statistically significant (left and right F=5.737,7.607, P 0.05). There was no significant difference of hippocampal among different groups in women (P>0.05). Conclusions: With high-resolution MRI, the volume of the HPF was accurately measured, so as to provide the basic data for research of the hippocampus

  1. Measuring, Reporting and Verifying Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions. Reflecting experiences under the Mitigation Momentum Project. Discussion paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vit, C.; Roeser, F.; Fekete, H.; Hoehne, N.; Wartmann, S.; Van Tilburg, X.; Larkin, J.; Escalante, D.; Haensel, G.; Veum, K.; Cameron, L.; Halcomb, J.

    2013-06-15

    The Mitigation Momentum project aims to support the development of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs). It contributes to the concrete design of NAMA proposals in five countries (Peru, Chile, Indonesia, Tunisia and Kenya). A further aim is to foster cooperation and knowledge exchange within the NAMA community while advancing the international climate policy debate on mitigation and related issues, including approaches for the Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV) of NAMAs. MRV enables the assessment of the effectiveness of both internationally supported NAMAs (supported NAMAs) and domestically supported NAMAs (unilateral NAMAs) by tracking NAMA impacts including greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions and non-GHG related impacts such as sustainable development benefits. MRV also supports improved policy design and decision making through systematic progress reporting and is a key tool to ensure accountability of NAMA stakeholders. Both host countries and funders share the common interest of having strong, implementable MRV systems in place. From both perspectives, this raises a number of questions, as well as potential challenges, on how to adapt the MRV approach to the specific circumstances of each NAMA. The objective of this paper is to identify open issues for the MRV of impacts of NAMAs, understood here as implementable actions, i.e. a project, a policy, a programme or a strategy. It pays particular attention to NAMAs with a supported component and reflects relevant initial experiences with developing NAMA proposals in the five Mitigation Momentum countries (i.e. using country examples where appropriate). As MRV systems for these NAMAs are still under development or at their preliminary stage, we hope to share further lessons learned in a subsequent discussion paper. Key challenges analysed in this paper include: How to design a MRV system that satisfies both the host country's and funder's expectations while complying with

  2. How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model. Appendix A & B

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents two appendices supporting the "How Art Works: The National Endowment for the Arts' Five-Year Research Agenda, with a System Map and Measurement Model" report. In Appendix A, brief descriptions of relevant studies and datasets for each node in the "How Art Works" system map are presented. This appendix is meant to supply…

  3. Modeling and Explaining Content: Definition, Research Support, and Measurement of the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) Assessment Series. Research Memorandum No. RM-16-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickler, Leslie; Sykes, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This report reviews the scholarly and research evidence supporting the construct labeled modeling and explaining content (MEC), which is measured via a performance assessment in the "ETS"® National Observational Teaching Examination (NOTE) assessment series. This construct involves practices at the heart of teaching that deal with how…

  4. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  5. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and γ irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal's exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats

  6. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity among Adults in Japan: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Nakaya, Tomoki; Yonejima, Mayuko; Honjo, Kaori

    2015-10-23

    Although associations between a person's neighborhood and their health have been studied internationally, most studies have been limited to a few cities or towns. Therefore, we used a nationally representative sample to explore whether perceived and objective neighborhood walkability was associated with the physical activity of residents. Data were analyzed from the Japanese General Social Surveys of 2010 (n = 2395; 1114 men and 1281 women). Perceived walkability was scored using factor analysis for the respondents' perceptions of neighborhood conditions, while objective walkability was measured using the geographic information system approach. Finally, multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether neighborhood walkability was associated with the frequency of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among respondents. We found that perceived walkability was positively associated with the frequency of LTPA (odds ratio of the highest quartile was 1.53 (1.14-2.05) compared with the lowest quartile); however, objective walkability showed no association. When stratified by gender, an association between perceived walkability and LTPA was observed among women, but only a marginally significant association was present between objective walkability and LTPA among men. We conclude that the association between neighborhood walkability and LTPA can be partially generalized across Japan.

  7. A summary of EPA radon chamber tests and results for rounds 3 and 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.M.; Sensintaffar, E.L.

    1993-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Radiation and Indoor Air (ORIA) established the National Radon Measurement Proficiency (RMP) Program in 1986. Through this voluntary program, participants can demonstrate their ability to measure radon and/or radon decay products by submitting their detection devices to a blind test in a designated radon chamber. In this report, two EPA radon and radon decay products test chambers (chambers A and C) located at the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory in Montgomery, Alabama are described. These chambers were used to expose detectors submitted for testing in Round 4 of the National Radon Measurement Proficiency Program and are used routinely for calibration purposes. Also described are the measurement and calibration procedures which were used to establish the official target values for radon and radon decay products concentrations during RMP Round 4 testing. The results for RMP Round 3 (conducted at the US DOE Environmental Measurements Laboratory radon chamber in New York) and RMP Round 4 (conducted in the two NAREL chambers) are discussed and compared. Following Round 4, the NAREL staff analyzed the collective performance for each measurement method tested in these rounds and found that all methods agreed with the target values within expected limits except for RPISU's and charcoal adsorbers. After analyzing the RMP4 results, NAREL staff spent several months evaluating the difference in charcoal adsorber response between Round 3 and 4 by performing radon chamber tests using EPA 4-inch, open-faced charcoal adsorbers

  8. Measuring the volume of frontal lobe in healthy Chinese adults of the Han nationality on the high-resolution MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Lu; Liu Peifang; Ye Zhaoxiang; Chen Nan; Wang Xing; Li Kuncheng; Zhuo Yan; Chen Lin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the normal range of the volume of frontal lobe in Chinese adults of the Han nationality and provide morphological data for the construction of database for Chinese Standard Brain. Methods: This is a clinical multi-center study. Two hundred Chinese healthy volunteers (age range =18 to 70) recruited from 16 hospitals were divided into 5 groups, i.e., age range from 18 to 30, age range from 31 to 40, age range from 41 to 50, age range from 51 to 60, and age range from 61 to 70. Each group contained 20 males and 20 females. All of the volunteers were scanned by MR using T 1 weighted three- dimensional magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo sequence. We used the manual method to trace the region of interest and measured the left and right frontal lobe volumes separately. All the data were analyzed with SPSS (version 13.0). The sex differences in the frontal lobe volumes were analyzed by independent-samples t test, and the side differences were analyzed by paired-samples t test. Correlation and regression analysis was used between the age and the frontal lobe volumes. Results: In 200 healthy Chinese Han volunteers, the total frontal lobe volumes was (563±73) cm 3 . For male, the volumes of the left and the right frontal lobe were (288±42) cm 3 and (292±41) cm 3 , respectively. The volumes of the left and right frontal lobe in 100 women were (273±30)cm 3 and (274±30) cm 3 respectively. The differences of sex (t=3.334, P 0.05). There were negative correlations between the frontal lobe volumes and age in men and women (r=-0.586, -0.498, P< 0.01). Conclusions: The total frontal lobe volume of men was larger than that of women. The volume of the right frontal lobe was larger than the left frontal lobe in men, and the asymmetries didn't exist in women. The total frontal lobe volumes were both shrinking with age in men and women, which was more rapid in men than in women. (authors)

  9. Data collected in conjunction with NOAA's National Status and Trends Program to examine measures of bioeffects associated with toxicants in Puget Sound sediments, May - June 1999 (NODC Accession 0000592)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sediment samples were collected from multiple locations in the Puget Sound in support of NOAA's National Status and Trends Programs to measure the bioeffects...

  10. The Canadian National Retirement Risk Index: employing statistics Canada's LifePaths to measure the financial security of future Canadian seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Bonnie-Jeanne; Moore, Kevin D; Chen, He; Brown, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    This article measures a Canadian National Retirement Risk Index (NRRI). Originally developed by the Center for Retirement Research at Boston College, the NRRI is a forward-looking measure that evaluates the proportion of working-aged individuals who are at risk of not maintaining their standard of living in retirement. The Canadian retirement income system has been very effective in reducing elderly poverty, but our results suggest that it has been much less successful in maintaining the living standards of Canadians after retirement. Since the earlier years of the new millennium, we find that approximately one-third of retiring Canadians have been unable to maintain their working-age consumption after retirement—a trend that is projected to worsen significantly for future Canadian retirees. The release of the Canadian NRRI is timely given the widespread concern that the current Canadian retirement income system is inadequate. Many proposals have recently emerged to extend and/or enhance Canadian public pensions, and the NRRI is a tool to test their merit. The methodology underlying the Canadian NRRI is uniquely sophisticated and comprehensive on account of our employment of Statistics Canada’s LifePaths, a state-of-the-art stochastic microsimulation model of the Canadian population. For instance, the Canadian NRRI is novel in that it models all of the relevant sources of consumption before and after retirement, while accounting for important features that are typically neglected in retirement adequacy studies such as family size, the variation of consumption over a person’s lifetime, and the heterogeneity among the life courses of individuals.

  11. Detecting Novelty and Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680

  12. IRE (Institut National des Radioelements) site in Belgium. Report of in situ measurements and analyses performed for the RTBF; Site IRE (Institut National des Radioelements) en Belgique. Compte rendu des mesures in situ et analyses effectuees pour la RTBF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-05-15

    This document reports various analyses performed within the frame of the preparation and filming of a TV documentary on the Belgium National Institute of Radio-elements. It reports gamma radiation measurements performed at the vicinity of the institute, discusses the possible origin of its increase at the vicinity of the institute, analyses of sludge samples coming from a wastewater treatment works, and analyses of milk, cabbage, mosses and sediments collected by residents

  13. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  14. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  15. National Intelligence and Personality: Their Relationships and Impact on National Economic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolarski, Maciej; Zajenkowski, Marcin; Meisenberg, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between national personality traits and intelligence from 51 countries were examined. It was found that extraversion, openness to experience and agreeableness measured at the national level were significantly and positively correlated with national IQs; however, in the regression model only the former two were marginally…

  16. Effect change of obesity on diabetes depending on measurement: self-reported body mas index from 2012 Community Health Survey vs. directly measured from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a well-recognized risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM among young and middle-aged adults in South Korea. To elaborate on the association between obesity and Diabetes mellitus (DM, subjective data from self-reporting survey or objective data from health examination is generally used. This study was conducted to validate the change of association from using these different measurements. METHODS: Community Health Survey data and Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data, as subjective and objective data respectively, were used. Population, resident in Seoul and over 45 aged, were selected for the study and the association between obesity and DM were defined by using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: In subjective data, DM prevalence was 12.4% (male, 14.7; female, 10.6 and obesity prevalence was 26.0% (male, 29.2; female, 23.4. Whereas, in objective data, DM prevalence was 15.0% (male, 17.8; female, 12.9, and obese population was 32.4% (male, 34.4; female, 30.8. Based on the effect of obesity on DM prevalence from each data, using objective data increased the impact of obesity. Difference of relative risk of obesity between from subjective data and from objective was bigger in female than male and statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The differences of association pattern between subjective and objective data were found, due to higher obesity prevalence in objective data, and discrepancies of socio-economic status. These discrepancies could be inevitable Therefore we have to face them proactively, and understand the different aspect of various variables from different measurement.

  17. The Political Is Personal: Measurement and Application of Nation-Level Indicators of Gender Equity in Psychological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else-Quest, Nicole M.; Grabe, Shelly

    2012-01-01

    Consistent with the dictum, "the personal is political," feminist scholars have maintained that gender equity in security, access to education, economic opportunity, and property ownership are central to women's well-being. Empirical research evaluating this thesis can include nation-level indicators of gender equity, such as the United Nation…

  18. Using Lidar and color infrared imagery to successfully measure stand characteristics on the William B. Bankhead National Forest, Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey Stephens; Luben Dimov; Callie Schweitzer; Wubishet Tadesse

    2008-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (Lidar) and color infrared imagery (CIR) were used to quantify forest structure and to distinguish deciduous from coniferous trees for selected stands on the William B. Bankhead National Forest in Alabama. Lidar bare ground and vegetation point clouds were used to determine tree heights and tree locations. Lidar accuracy was assessed by...

  19. Simple measures of climate, soil properties and plant traits predict national-scale grassland soil carbon stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, P.; de Vries, F.T.; Tallowin, J.R.B.; Smith, R.; Mortimer, S.R.; Pilgrim, E.S.; Harrison, K.A.; Wright, D.G.; Quirk, H.; Benson, J.; Shipley, B.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Kattge, J.; Bönisch, G.; Wirth, C.; Bardgett, R.D.

    2015-01-01

    Soil carbon (C) storage is a key ecosystem service. Soil C stocks play a vital role in soil fertility and climate regulation, but the factors that control these stocks at regional and national scales are unknown, particularly when their composition and stability are considered. As a result, their

  20. A National Quality Improvement Collaborative for the clinical use of outcome measurement in specialised mental healthcare: results from a parallel group design and a nested cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Margot J; Veerbeek, Marjolein A; Franx, Gerdien C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; de Beurs, Edwin; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2017-05-01

    Although the importance and advantages of measurement-based care in mental healthcare are well established, implementation in daily practice is complex and far from optimal. To accelerate the implementation of outcome measurement in routine clinical practice, a government-sponsored National Quality Improvement Collaborative was initiated in Dutch-specialised mental healthcare. To investigate the effects of this initiative, we combined a matched-pair parallel group design (21 teams) with a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) (6 teams). At the beginning and end, the primary outcome 'actual use and perceived clinical utility of outcome measurement' was assessed. In both designs, intervention teams demonstrated a significant higher level of implementation of outcome measurement than control teams. Overall effects were large (parallel group d =0.99; RCT d =1.25). The National Collaborative successfully improved the use of outcome measurement in routine clinical practice. None. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license.