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Sample records for signal transduction cell-cell

  1. Signal transduction events in aluminum-induced cell death in tomato suspension cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iakimova, E.T.; Kapchina-Toteva, V.M.; Woltering, E.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, some of the signal transduction events involved in AlCl3-induced cell death in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) suspension cells were elucidated. Cells treated with 100 ¿M AlCl3 showed typical features of programmed cell death (PCD) such as nuclear and cytoplasmic condensation.

  2. Signal transduction pathways involved in mechanotransduction in bone cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liedert, Astrid; Kaspar, Daniela; Blakytny, Robert; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2006-01-01

    Several in vivo and in vitro studies with different loading regimens showed that mechanical stimuli have an influence on proliferation and differentiation of bone cells. Prerequisite for this influence is the transduction of mechanical signals into the cell, a phenomenon that is termed mechanotransduction, which is essential for the maintenance of skeletal homeostasis in adults. Mechanoreceptors, such as the integrins, cadherins, and stretch-activated Ca 2+ channels, together with various signal transduction pathways, are involved in the mechanotransduction process that ultimately regulates gene expression in the nucleus. Mechanotransduction itself is considered to be regulated by hormones, the extracellular matrix of the osteoblastic cells and the mode of the mechanical stimulus

  3. Cell biology symposium: Membrane trafficking and signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    In general, membrane trafficking is a broad group of processes where proteins and other large molecules are distributed throughout the cell as well as adjacent extracellular spaces. Whereas signal transduction is a process where signals are transmitted through a series of chemical or molecular event...

  4. IGF-1 signaling mediated cell-specific skeletal mechano-transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Faming; Wang, Yongmei; Bikle, Daniel D

    2018-02-01

    Mechanical loading preserves bone mass and stimulates bone formation, whereas skeletal unloading leads to bone loss. In addition to osteocytes, which are considered the primary sensor of mechanical load, osteoblasts, and bone specific mesenchymal stem cells also are involved. The skeletal response to mechanical signals is a complex process regulated by multiple signaling pathways including that of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Conditional osteocyte deletion of IGF-1 ablates the osteogenic response to mechanical loading. Similarly, osteocyte IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) expression is necessary for reloading-induced periosteal bone formation. Transgenic overexpression of IGF-1 in osteoblasts results in enhanced responsiveness to in vivo mechanical loading in mice, a response which is eliminated by osteoblastic conditional disruption of IGF-1 in vivo. Bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSC) from unloaded bone fail to respond to IGF-1 in vitro. IGF-1R is required for the transduction of a mechanical stimulus to downstream effectors, transduction which is lost when the IGF-1R is deleted. Although the molecular mechanisms are not yet fully elucidated, the IGF signaling pathway and its interactions with potentially interlinked signaling cascades involving integrins, the estrogen receptor, and wnt/β-catenin play an important role in regulating adaptive response of cancer bone cells to mechanical stimuli. In this review, we discuss recent advances investigating how IGF-1 and other interlinked molecules and signaling pathways regulate skeletal mechano-transduction involving different bone cells, providing an overview of the IGF-1 signaling mediated cell-specific response to mechanical stimuli. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:576-583, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Information Thermodynamics of the Cell Signal Transduction as a Szilard Engine

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    Tatsuaki Tsuruyama

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A cell signaling system is in a non-equilibrium state, and it includes multistep biochemical signaling cascades (BSCs, which involve phosphorylation of signaling molecules, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways. In this study, the author considered signal transduction description using information thermodynamic theory. The ideal BSCs can be considered one type of the Szilard engine, and the presumed feedback controller, Maxwell’s demon, can extract the work during signal transduction. In this model, the mutual entropy and chemical potential of the signal molecules can be redefined by the extracted chemical work in a mechanicochemical model, Szilard engine, of BSC. In conclusion, signal transduction is computable using the information thermodynamic method.

  6. Lipid rafts generate digital-like signal transduction in cell plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N

    2012-06-01

    Lipid rafts are meso-scale (5-200 nm) cell membrane domains where signaling molecules assemble and function. However, due to their dynamic nature, it has been difficult to unravel the mechanism of signal transduction in lipid rafts. Recent advanced imaging techniques have revealed that signaling molecules are frequently, but transiently, recruited to rafts with the aid of protein-protein, protein-lipid, and/or lipid-lipid interactions. Individual signaling molecules within the raft are activated only for a short period of time. Immobilization of signaling molecules by cytoskeletal actin filaments and scaffold proteins may facilitate more efficient signal transmission from rafts. In this review, current opinions of how the transient nature of molecular interactions in rafts generates digital-like signal transduction in cell membranes, and the benefits this phenomenon provides, are discussed. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Signal transduction and chemotaxis in mast cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Petr; Hálová, Ivana; Polakovičová, Iva; Kawakami, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 778, jaro (2016), s. 11-23 ISSN 0014-2999 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : Mast cell * IgE receptor * KIT receptor * Signal transduction * Chemotaxis * Plasma membrane Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.896, year: 2016

  8. [Cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yongchang; Du, Shunda; Xu, Haifeng; Xu, Yiyao; Zhao, Haitao; Chi, Tianyi; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Mao, Yilei

    2014-11-18

    To systemically explore the cellular adhesion signal transduction network of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma cells with bioinformatics tools. Published microarray dataset of TNF-α-induced HepG2, human transcription factor database HTRI and human protein-protein interaction database HPRD were used to construct and analyze the signal transduction network. In the signal transduction network, MYC and SP1 were the key nodes of signaling transduction. Several genes from the network were closely related with cellular adhesion.Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a possible key gene of effectively regulating cellular adhesion during the induction of TNF-α. EGFR is a possible key gene for TNF-α-induced metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Endothelial cell oxidative stress and signal transduction

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    ROCIO FONCEA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction (ED is an early event in atherosclerotic disease, preceding clinical manifestations and complications. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated as important mechanisms that contribute to ED, and ROS’s may function as intracellular messengers that modulate signaling pathways. Several intracellular signal events stimulated by ROS have been defined, including the identification of two members of the mitogen activated protein kinase family (ERK1/2 and big MAP kinase, BMK1, tyrosine kinases (Src and Syk and different isoenzymes of PKC as redox-sensitive kinases. ROS regulation of signal transduction components include the modification in the activity of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and others that result in changes in gene expression and modifications in cellular responses. In order to understand the intracellular mechanisms induced by ROS in endothelial cells (EC, we are studying the response of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells to increased ROS generation by different pro-atherogenic stimuli. Our results show that Homocysteine (Hcy and oxidized LDL (oxLDL enhance the activity and expression of oxidative stress markers, such as NFkB and heme oxygenase 1. These results suggest that these pro-atherogenic stimuli increase oxidative stress in EC, and thus explain the loss of endothelial function associated with the atherogenic process

  10. Molecular machinery of signal transduction and cell cycle regulation in Plasmodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Fernanda C; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Garcia, Célia R S

    2009-05-01

    The regulation of the Plasmodium cell cycle is not understood. Although the Plasmodium falciparum genome is completely sequenced, about 60% of the predicted proteins share little or no sequence similarity with other eukaryotes. This feature impairs the identification of important proteins participating in the regulation of the cell cycle. There are several open questions that concern cell cycle progression in malaria parasites, including the mechanism by which multiple nuclear divisions is controlled and how the cell cycle is managed in all phases of their complex life cycle. Cell cycle synchrony of the parasite population within the host, as well as the circadian rhythm of proliferation, are striking features of some Plasmodium species, the molecular basis of which remains to be elucidated. In this review we discuss the role of indole-related molecules as signals that modulate the cell cycle in Plasmodium and other eukaryotes, and we also consider the possible role of kinases in the signal transduction and in the responses it triggers.

  11. Effect of saw palmetto extract on PI3K cell signaling transduction in human glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Hui, Lv; Yuqin, Che; Jie, Li; Shuai, Hou; Tiezhu, Zhou; Wei, Wang

    2014-08-01

    Saw palmetto extract can induce the apoptosis of prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of saw palmetto extract on the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling transduction pathway in human glioma U87 and U251 cell lines. Suspensions of U87 and U251 cells in a logarithmic growth phase were seeded into six-well plates at a density of 10 4 cells/well. In the experimental group, 1 μl/ml saw palmetto extract was added, while the control group was cultured without a drug for 24 h. The expression levels of PI3K, B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) and p53 were evaluated through western blot analysis. In the experimental group, the U87 and U251 cells exhibited a lower expression level of PI3K protein as compared with the control group (t=6.849; Psaw palmetto extract induces glioma cell growth arrest and apoptosis via decreasing PI3K/Akt signal transduction.

  12. Calcium specificity signaling mechanisms in abscisic acid signal transduction in Arabidopsis guard cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Benjamin; Munemasa, Shintaro; Wang, Cun; Nguyen, Desiree; Yong, Taiming; Yang, Paul G; Poretsky, Elly; Belknap, Thomas F; Waadt, Rainer; Alemán, Fernando; Schroeder, Julian I

    2015-01-01

    A central question is how specificity in cellular responses to the eukaryotic second messenger Ca2+ is achieved. Plant guard cells, that form stomatal pores for gas exchange, provide a powerful system for in depth investigation of Ca2+-signaling specificity in plants. In intact guard cells, abscisic acid (ABA) enhances (primes) the Ca2+-sensitivity of downstream signaling events that result in activation of S-type anion channels during stomatal closure, providing a specificity mechanism in Ca2+-signaling. However, the underlying genetic and biochemical mechanisms remain unknown. Here we show impairment of ABA signal transduction in stomata of calcium-dependent protein kinase quadruple mutant plants. Interestingly, protein phosphatase 2Cs prevent non-specific Ca2+-signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate an unexpected interdependence of the Ca2+-dependent and Ca2+-independent ABA-signaling branches and the in planta requirement of simultaneous phosphorylation at two key phosphorylation sites in SLAC1. We identify novel mechanisms ensuring specificity and robustness within stomatal Ca2+-signaling on a cellular, genetic, and biochemical level. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03599.001 PMID:26192964

  13. Comprehensive analysis of signal transduction in three-dimensional ECM-based tumor cell cultures

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    Iris Eke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of signal transduction and protein phosphorylation is fundamental to understand physiological and pathological cell behavior as well as identification of novel therapeutic targets. Despite the fact that more physiological three-dimensional cell culture assays are increasingly used, particularly proteomics and phosphoproteomics remain challenging due to easy, robust and reproducible sample preparation. Here, we present an easy-to-perform, reliable and time-efficient method for the production of 3D cell lysates without compromising cell adhesion before cell lysis. The samples can be used for Western blotting as well as phosphoproteome array technology. This technique would be of interest for researchers working in all fields of biology and drug development.

  14. Mechano-Signal Transduction in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Induces Prosaposin Secretion to Drive the Proliferation of Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Seiichiro; Inman, David R; Li, Wan-Ju; Ponik, Suzanne M; Keely, Patricia J

    2017-11-15

    In response to chemical stimuli from cancer cells, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) can differentiate into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) and promote tumor progression. How mechanical stimuli such as stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) contribute to MSC phenotype in cancer remains poorly understood. Here, we show that ECM stiffness leads to mechano-signal transduction in MSC, which promotes mammary tumor growth in part through secretion of the signaling protein prosaposin. On a stiff matrix, MSC cultured with conditioned media from mammary cancer cells expressed increased levels of α-smooth muscle actin, a marker of CAF, compared with MSC cultured on a soft matrix. By contrast, MSC cultured on a stiff matrix secreted prosaposin that promoted proliferation and survival of mammary carcinoma cells but inhibited metastasis. Our findings suggest that in addition to chemical stimuli, increased stiffness of the ECM in the tumor microenvironment induces differentiation of MSC to CAF, triggering enhanced proliferation and survival of mammary cancer cells. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6179-89. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Multiple signal transduction pathways in okadaic acid induced apoptosis in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, R.; Gupta, Nimesh; Rao, P.V. Lakshmana

    2009-01-01

    Okadaic acid (OA) is the major component of diarrhetic shell fish poisoning toxins and a potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase 1 and 2A. We investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in OA induced cell death in HeLa cells. OA induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at IC50 of 100 nM. OA treatment resulted in time dependent increase in reactive oxygen species and depleted intracellular glutathione levels. Loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability led to translocation of bax, cytochrome-c and AIF from mitochondria to cytosol. The cells under fluorescence microscope showed typical apoptotic morphology with condensed chromatin, and nuclear fragmentation. We investigated the mitochondrial-mediated caspase cascade. The time dependent activation and cleavage of of bax, caspases-8, 10, 9, 3 and 7 was observed in Western blot analysis. In addition to caspase-dependent pathway AIF mediated caspase-independent pathway was involved in OA mediated cell death. OA also caused time dependent inhibition of protein phosphatase 2A activity and phosphorylation of p38 and p42/44 MAP kinases. Inhibitor studies with Ac-DEVO-CHO and Z-VAD-FMK could not prevent the phosphorylation of p38 and p42/44 MAP kinases. Our experiments with caspase inhibitors Ac-DEVD-CHO, Z-IETD-FMK and Z-VAD-FMK inhibited capsase-3, 8 cleavages but did not prevent OA-induced apoptosis and DNA fragmentation. Similarly, pretreatment with cyclosporin-A and N-acetylcysteine could not prevent the DNA fragmentation. In summary, the results of our study show that OA induces multiple signal transduction pathways acting either independently or simultaneously leading to apoptosis

  16. The p75NTR mediates a bifurcated signal transduction cascade through the NFκB and JNK pathways to inhibit cell survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Jeffrey; Khwaja, Fatima; Byers, Stephen; Djakiew, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    p75 NTR is most abundantly expressed in the nervous system, but is also widely expressed in many other organs and tissues where it primarily functions as a negative regulator of cell survival. In the prostate, p75 NTR functions as an inhibitory protein capable of slowing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. It has been shown that p75 NTR is expressed in the normal prostate, progressively lost from malignant tumor cells in vivo, and largely absent from prostate cancer cell lines derived from metastases. Although the role of p75 NTR in prostate cancer has been well established, the signal transduction pathway that mediates its inhibitory activity has only been partially elucidated. This study demonstrates that exogenous expression of p75 NTR down-regulates, in a dose-dependent manner, a bifurcated signaling cascade that results in reduced expression of potent transcription effectors. This two-arm signal transduction cascade was directly linked to the upstream receptor by using dominant-negative deletion constructs of p75 NTR that rescued tumor cells from p75 NTR -induced loss of survival and promotion of apoptosis. Furthermore, the dominant negatives rescued alterations in the levels of signal transduction intermediates. Conversely, the use of kinase-inactive intermediates that are downstream of the receptor further reduced expression of involved transcription effectors and reduced survival of the cells. These results provide a definitive link between the proximate p75 NTR and signal transduction intermediates leading to the transcription effectors NFκB and JNK, with associated growth suppression and induction of apoptosis

  17. Analysis of signal transduction in cell-free extracts and rafts of Xenopus eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakov, Alexander A; Iwasaki, Tetsushi; Sato, Ken-Ichi; Fukami, Yasuo

    2010-05-01

    Intracellular signaling during egg activation/fertilization has been extensively studied using intact eggs, which can be manipulated by microinjection of different mRNAs, proteins, or chemical drugs. Furthermore, egg extracts, which retain high CSF activity (CSF-arrested extracts), were developed for studying fertilization/activation signal transduction, which have significant advantages as a model system. The addition of calcium to CSF-arrested extracts initiates a plethora of signaling events that take place during egg activation. Hence, the signaling downstream of calcium mobilization has been successfully studied in the egg extracts. Moreover, despite disruption of membrane-associated signaling compartments and ordered compartmentalization during extract preparation, CSF-arrested extracts can be successfully used to study early signaling events, which occur upstream of calcium release during egg activation/fertilization. In combination with the CSF-arrested extracts, activated egg rafts can reproduce some events of egg activation, including PLCgamma activation, IP3 production, transient calcium release, MAPK inactivation, and meiotic exit. This becomes possible due to complementation of the sperm-induced egg activation signaling machinery present in the rafts with the components of signal transduction system localized in the extracts. Herein, we describe protocols for studying molecular mechanisms of egg fertilization/activation using cell-free extracts and membrane rafts prepared from metaphase-arrested Xenopus eggs.

  18. Distinct UV-B and UV-A/blue light signal transduction pathways induce chalcone synthase gene expression in Arabidopsis cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, J.M.; Jenkins, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    UV and blue light control the expression of flavonoid biosynthesis genes in a range of higher plants. To investigate the signal transduction processes involved in the induction of chalcone synthase (CHS) gene expression by UV-B and UV-A/blue light, we examined the, effects of specific agonists and inhibitors of known signaling components in mammalian systems in a photomixotrophic Arabidopsis cell suspension culture. CHS expression is induced specifically by these wavelengths in the cell culture, in a manner similar to that in mature Arabidopsis leaf tissue. Both the UV-B and UV-A/blue phototransduction processes involve calcium, although the elevation of cytosolic calcium is insufficient on its own to stimulate CHS expression. The UV-A/blue light induction of CHS expression does not appear to involve calmodulin, whereas the UV-B response does; this difference indicates that the signal transduction pathways are, at least in part, distinct. We provide evidence that both pathways involve reversible protein phosphorylation and require protein synthesis. The UV-B and UV-A/blue light signaling pathways are therefore different from the phytochrome signal transduction pathway regulating CHS expression in other species

  19. Signal transduction in cells of the immune system in microgravity

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    Huber Kathrin

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Life on Earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Gravity has been present during the entire evolution, from the first organic molecule to mammals and humans. Modern research revealed clearly that gravity is important, probably indispensable for the function of living systems, from unicellular organisms to men. Thus, gravity research is no more or less a fundamental question about the conditions of life on Earth. Since the first space missions and supported thereafter by a multitude of space and ground-based experiments, it is well known that immune cell function is severely suppressed in microgravity, which renders the cells of the immune system an ideal model organism to investigate the influence of gravity on the cellular and molecular level. Here we review the current knowledge about the question, if and how cellular signal transduction depends on the existence of gravity, with special focus on cells of the immune system. Since immune cell function is fundamental to keep the organism under imnological surveillance during the defence against pathogens, to investigate the effects and possible molecular mechanisms of altered gravity is indispensable for long-term space flights to Earth Moon or Mars. Thus, understanding the impact of gravity on cellular functions on Earth will provide not only important informations about the development of life on Earth, but also for therapeutic and preventive strategies to cope successfully with medical problems during space exploration.

  20. Human hematopoietic cell culture, transduction, and analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Jesper; Wirthlin, Louisa; Kohn, Donald B

    2008-01-01

    This unit provides methods for introducing genes into human hematopoietic progenitor cells. The Basic Protocol describes isolation of CD34(+) cells, transduction of these cells with a retroviral vector on fibronectin-coated plates, assaying the efficiency of transduction, and establishing long-te...

  1. Inquiry into Chemotherapy-Induced P53 Activation in Cancer Cells as a Model for Teaching Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srougi, Melissa C.; Carson, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Intracellular and extracellular communication is conducted through an intricate and interwoven network of signal transduction pathways. The mechanisms for how cells speak with one another are of significant biological importance to both basic and industrial scientists from a number of different disciplines. We have therefore developed and…

  2. Cellular Prion Protein and Caveolin-1 Interaction in a Neuronal Cell Line Precedes Fyn/Erk 1/2 Signal Transduction

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    Mattia Toni

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc is enriched in caveolae or caveolae-like domains with caveolin-1 (Cav-1 participating to signal transduction events by Fyn kinase recruitment. By using the Glutathione-S-transferase (GST-fusion proteins assay, we observed that PrPc strongly interacts in vitro with Cav-1. Thus, we ascertained the PrPc caveolar localization in a hypothalamic neuronal cell line (GN11, by confocal microscopy analysis, flotation on density gradient, and coimmunoprecipitation experiments. Following the anti-PrPc antibody-mediated stimulation of live GN11 cells, we observed that PrPc clustered on plasma membrane domains rich in Cav-1 in which Fyn kinase converged to be activated. After these events, a signaling cascade through p42/44 MAP kinase (Erk 1/2 was triggered, suggesting that following translocations from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains PrPc could interact with Cav-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  3. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Chinnici

    Full Text Available Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1 Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2 Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3 Transcriptional factor genes, 4 Autophagy genes, and 5 Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development.

  4. Neurospora crassa female development requires the PACC and other signal transduction pathways, transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, cell-to-cell fusion, and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnici, Jennifer L; Fu, Ci; Caccamise, Lauren M; Arnold, Jason W; Free, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Using a screening protocol we have identified 68 genes that are required for female development in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. We find that we can divide these genes into five general groups: 1) Genes encoding components of the PACC signal transduction pathway, 2) Other signal transduction pathway genes, including genes from the three N. crassa MAP kinase pathways, 3) Transcriptional factor genes, 4) Autophagy genes, and 5) Other miscellaneous genes. Complementation and RIP studies verified that these genes are needed for the formation of the female mating structure, the protoperithecium, and for the maturation of a fertilized protoperithecium into a perithecium. Perithecia grafting experiments demonstrate that the autophagy genes and the cell-to-cell fusion genes (the MAK-1 and MAK-2 pathway genes) are needed for the mobilization and movement of nutrients from an established vegetative hyphal network into the developing protoperithecium. Deletion mutants for the PACC pathway genes palA, palB, palC, palF, palH, and pacC were found to be defective in two aspects of female development. First, they were unable to initiate female development on synthetic crossing medium. However, they could form protoperithecia when grown on cellophane, on corn meal agar, or in response to the presence of nearby perithecia. Second, fertilized perithecia from PACC pathway mutants were unable to produce asci and complete female development. Protein localization experiments with a GFP-tagged PALA construct showed that PALA was localized in a peripheral punctate pattern, consistent with a signaling center associated with the ESCRT complex. The N. crassa PACC signal transduction pathway appears to be similar to the PacC/Rim101 pathway previously characterized in Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In N. crassa the pathway plays a key role in regulating female development.

  5. MAPK cascades in guard cell signal transduction

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    Yuree eLee

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Guard cells form stomata on the epidermis and continuously respond to endogenous and environmental stimuli to fine-tune the gas exchange and transpirational water loss, processes which involve mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascades. MAPKs form three-tiered kinase cascades with MAPK kinases and MAPK kinase kinases, by which signals are transduced to the target proteins. MAPK cascade genes are highly conserved in all eukaryotes, and they play crucial roles in myriad developmental and physiological processes. MAPK cascades function during biotic and abiotic stress responses by linking extracellular signals received by receptors to cytosolic events and gene expression. In this review, we highlight recent findings and insights into MAPK-mediated guard cell signaling, including the specificity of MAPK cascades and the remaining questions.

  6. Examination of the signal transduction pathways leading to upregulation of tissue type plasminogen activator by Porphyromonas endodontalis in human pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F-M; Chen, Y-J; Chou, M-Y; Chang, Y-C

    2005-12-01

    To investigate the tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity in human pulp cells stimulated with Porphyromonas endodontalis (P. endodontalis) in the absence or presence of p38 inhibitor SB203580, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126 and phosphatidylinositaol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. The supernatants of P. endodontalis were used to evaluate t-PA activity in human pulp cells using casein zymography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Furthermore, to search for possible signal transduction pathways, SB203580, U0126 and LY294002 were added to test how they modulated the t-PA activity. The main casein secreted by human pulp cells migrated at 70 kDa and represented t-PA. Secretion of t-PA was found to be stimulated with P. endodontalis during 2-day cultured period (P endodontalis stimulated t-PA production respectively (P endodontalis stimulated t-PA production (P > 0.05). Porphyromonas endodontalis enhances t-PA production in human pulp cells, and the signal transduction pathways p38 and MEK are involved in the inhibition of t-PA.

  7. Participation of intracellular signal transduction in the radio-adaptive response induced by low-dose X-irradiation in human embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Masami.

    1996-01-01

    To elucidate the induction mechanism of radio-adaptive response in normal cells, we searched the literatures of the intracellular signal transduction. Furthermore, we examined the induction of radio-adaptive response with or without inhibitors of several kinds of protein kinase. The major results obtained were as follows; (1) According to the literature survey it is revealed that there are 4 intracellular signal transduction pathways which are possibly involved in the induction of radio-adaptive response: pathways depending on cAMP, calcium, cGMP, or protein-tyrosine kinase. (2) Addition of either inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinase or protein kinase C to the cell culture medium during the low-dose X-irradiation inhibited the induction of radio-adaptive response. However, the addition of inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase, or Ca 2+ -calmodulin kinase II failed to inhibit the induction of radio-adaptive response. (3) These results suggest that the signal induced in cells by low-dose X-irradiation was transduced from protein-tyrosine kinase to protein kinase C via either pathway of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or splitting of profilin binding phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. (author)

  8. Signal transduction, receptors, mediators and genes: younger than ever - the 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society focused on aging and immunology

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    Klotz Lars-Oliver

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 13th meeting of the Signal Transduction Society was held in Weimar, from October 28 to 30, 2009. Special focus of the 2009 conference was "Aging and Senescence", which was co-organized by the SFB 728 "Environmentally-Induced Aging Processes" of the University of Düsseldorf and the study group 'Signal Transduction' of the German Society for Cell Biology (DGZ. In addition, several other areas of signal transduction research were covered and supported by different consortia associated with the Signal Transduction Society including the long-term associated study groups of the German Society for Immunology and the Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, and for instance the SFB/Transregio 52 "Transcriptional Programming of Individual T Cell Subsets" located in Würzburg, Mainz and Berlin. The different research areas that were introduced by outstanding keynote speakers attracted more than 250 scientists, showing the timeliness and relevance of the interdisciplinary concept and exchange of knowledge during the three days of the scientific program. This report gives an overview of the presentations of the conference.

  9. The Role of Cgrp-Receptor Component Protein (Rcp in Cgrp-Mediated Signal Transduction

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    M. A. Prado

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP-receptor component protein (RCP is a 17-kDa intracellular peripheral membrane protein required for signal transduction at CGRP receptors. To determine the role of RCP in CGRP-mediated signal transduction, RCP was depleted from NIH3T3 cells using antisense strategy. Loss of RCP protein correlated with loss of cAMP production by CGRP in the antisense cells. In contrast, loss of RCP had no effect on CGRP-mediated binding; therefore RCP is not acting as a chaperone for the CGRP receptor. Instead, RCP is a novel signal transduction molecule that couples the CGRP receptor to the cellular signal transduction machinery. RCP thus represents a prototype for a new class of signal transduction proteins that are required for regulation of G protein-coupled receptors.

  10. Protein tyrosine kinases p53/56lyn and p72syk in MHC class I-mediated signal transduction in B lymphoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Elm; Bregenholt, S; Skov, S

    1998-01-01

    syk are among the tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins. The kinetics of phosphorylation of these kinases after MHC-I crosslinking differ from the kinetics observed after crosslinking of the B cell antigen receptor (BCR). Additional experiments were performed with chicken lyn- and syk-negative DT40 B cells...... mobilization of intracellular free calcium compared with MHC-I crosslinking of wild-type DT40 cells. Thus, expression of BCR at the cell surface is likely to be important for the signal cascade initiated by MHC-I crosslinking. Our data suggest that signal transduction initiated through ligation of the MHC...

  11. Analysis of Cell Signal Transduction Based on Kullback–Leibler Divergence: Channel Capacity and Conservation of Its Production Rate during Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuaki Tsuruyama

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Kullback–Leibler divergence (KLD is a type of extended mutual entropy, which is used as a measure of information gain when transferring from a prior distribution to a posterior distribution. In this study, KLD is applied to the thermodynamic analysis of cell signal transduction cascade and serves an alternative to mutual entropy. When KLD is minimized, the divergence is given by the ratio of the prior selection probability of the signaling molecule to the posterior selection probability. Moreover, the information gain during the entire channel is shown to be adequately described by average KLD production rate. Thus, this approach provides a framework for the quantitative analysis of signal transduction. Moreover, the proposed approach can identify an effective cascade for a signaling network.

  12. Enrichment of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells facilitates transduction for stem cell gene therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kismet; Urbinati, Fabrizia; Romero, Zulema; Campo-Fernandez, Beatriz; Kaufman, Michael L; Cooper, Aaron R; Masiuk, Katelyn; Hollis, Roger P; Kohn, Donald B

    2015-05-01

    Autologous hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gene therapy for sickle cell disease has the potential to treat this illness without the major immunological complications associated with allogeneic transplantation. However, transduction efficiency by β-globin lentiviral vectors using CD34-enriched cell populations is suboptimal and large vector production batches may be needed for clinical trials. Transducing a cell population more enriched for HSC could greatly reduce vector needs and, potentially, increase transduction efficiency. CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells, comprising ∼1%-3% of all CD34(+) cells, were isolated from healthy cord blood CD34(+) cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and transduced with a lentiviral vector expressing an antisickling form of beta-globin (CCL-β(AS3) -FB). Isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells were able to generate progeny over an extended period of long-term culture (LTC) compared to the CD34(+) cells and required up to 40-fold less vector for transduction compared to bulk CD34(+) preparations containing an equivalent number of CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells. Transduction of isolated CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells was comparable to CD34(+) cells measured by quantitative PCR at day 14 with reduced vector needs, and average vector copy/cell remained higher over time for LTC initiated from CD34(+) /38(-) cells. Following in vitro erythroid differentiation, HBBAS3 mRNA expression was similar in cultures derived from CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells or unfractionated CD34(+) cells. In vivo studies showed equivalent engraftment of transduced CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells when transplanted in competition with 100-fold more CD34(+) /CD38(+) cells. This work provides initial evidence for the beneficial effects from isolating human CD34(+) /CD38(-) cells to use significantly less vector and potentially improve transduction for HSC gene therapy. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major problem in the successful treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). New treatment strategies are needed, such as gene therapy specifically targeting the MDR cells in the tumor. Retroviral LacZ gene-containing vectors that were either pseudotyped...... for the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV-1) receptor or had specificity for the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-A) receptor were used for transduction of five SCLC cell lines differing by a range of MDR mechanisms. Transduction efficiencies in these cell lines were compared by calculating the percentage...... of blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC...

  14. Nonimmune cells equipped with T-cell-receptor-like signaling for cancer cell ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Ryosuke; Scheller, Leo; Fussenegger, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The ability to engineer custom cell-contact-sensing output devices into human nonimmune cells would be useful for extending the applicability of cell-based cancer therapies and for avoiding risks associated with engineered immune cells. Here we have developed a new class of synthetic T-cell receptor-like signal-transduction device that functions efficiently in human nonimmune cells and triggers release of output molecules specifically upon sensing contact with a target cell. This device employs an interleukin signaling cascade, whose OFF/ON switching is controlled by biophysical segregation of a transmembrane signal-inhibitory protein from the sensor cell-target cell interface. We further show that designer nonimmune cells equipped with this device driving expression of a membrane-penetrator/prodrug-activating enzyme construct could specifically kill target cells in the presence of the prodrug, indicating its potential usefulness for target-cell-specific, cell-based enzyme-prodrug cancer therapy. Our study also contributes to the advancement of synthetic biology by extending available design principles to transmit extracellular information to cells.

  15. Identification of proteins likely to be involved in morphogenesis, cell division, and signal transduction in Planctomycetes by comparative genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jogler, Christian; Waldmann, Jost; Huang, Xiaoluo; Jogler, Mareike; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Mascher, Thorsten; Kolter, Roberto

    2012-12-01

    Members of the Planctomycetes clade share many unusual features for bacteria. Their cytoplasm contains membrane-bound compartments, they lack peptidoglycan and FtsZ, they divide by polar budding, and they are capable of endocytosis. Planctomycete genomes have remained enigmatic, generally being quite large (up to 9 Mb), and on average, 55% of their predicted proteins are of unknown function. Importantly, proteins related to the unusual traits of Planctomycetes remain largely unknown. Thus, we embarked on bioinformatic analyses of these genomes in an effort to predict proteins that are likely to be involved in compartmentalization, cell division, and signal transduction. We used three complementary strategies. First, we defined the Planctomycetes core genome and subtracted genes of well-studied model organisms. Second, we analyzed the gene content and synteny of morphogenesis and cell division genes and combined both methods using a "guilt-by-association" approach. Third, we identified signal transduction systems as well as sigma factors. These analyses provide a manageable list of candidate genes for future genetic studies and provide evidence for complex signaling in the Planctomycetes akin to that observed for bacteria with complex life-styles, such as Myxococcus xanthus.

  16. Cell surface receptors for signal transduction and ligand transport: a design principles study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Shankaran

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Receptors constitute the interface of cells to their external environment. These molecules bind specific ligands involved in multiple processes, such as signal transduction and nutrient transport. Although a variety of cell surface receptors undergo endocytosis, the systems-level design principles that govern the evolution of receptor trafficking dynamics are far from fully understood. We have constructed a generalized mathematical model of receptor-ligand binding and internalization to understand how receptor internalization dynamics encodes receptor function and regulation. A given signaling or transport receptor system represents a particular implementation of this module with a specific set of kinetic parameters. Parametric analysis of the response of receptor systems to ligand inputs reveals that receptor systems can be characterized as being: i avidity-controlled where the response control depends primarily on the extracellular ligand capture efficiency, ii consumption-controlled where the ability to internalize surface-bound ligand is the primary control parameter, and iii dual-sensitivity where both the avidity and consumption parameters are important. We show that the transferrin and low-density lipoprotein receptors are avidity-controlled, the vitellogenin receptor is consumption-controlled, and the epidermal growth factor receptor is a dual-sensitivity receptor. Significantly, we show that ligand-induced endocytosis is a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of signaling receptors rather than merely serving to attenuate signaling. Our analysis reveals that the location of a receptor system in the avidity-consumption parameter space can be used to understand both its function and its regulation.

  17. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-01-01

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  18. Signal transduction of Helicobacter pylori during interaction with host cell protein receptors of epithelial and immune cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachathundikandi, Suneesh Kumar; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Backert, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infections can induce pathologies ranging from chronic gastritis, peptic ulceration to gastric cancer. Bacterial isolates harbor numerous well-known adhesins, vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, protease HtrA, urease, peptidoglycan, and type IV secretion systems (T4SS). It appears that H. pylori targets more than 40 known host protein receptors on epithelial or immune cells. A series of T4SS components such as CagL, CagI, CagY, and CagA can bind to the integrin α5β1 receptor. Other targeted membrane-based receptors include the integrins αvβ3, αvβ5, and β2 (CD18), RPTP-α/β, GP130, E-cadherin, fibronectin, laminin, CD46, CD74, ICAM1/LFA1, T-cell receptor, Toll-like receptors, and receptor tyrosine kinases EGFR, ErbB2, ErbB3, and c-Met. In addition, H. pylori is able to activate the intracellular receptors NOD1, NOD2, and NLRP3 with important roles in innate immunity. Here we review the interplay of various bacterial factors with host protein receptors. The contribution of these interactions to signal transduction and pathogenesis is discussed. PMID:24280762

  19. Expression of SMAD signal transduction molecules in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Michael; Hougaard, D.; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2001-01-01

    Members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines have been implicated in pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis and in regulation and differentiation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells. Different TGF-beta members signal through phosphorylation of different signal transduction proteins, which eve...

  20. FASEB summer research conference on signal transduction in plants. Final report, June 16, 1996--June 21, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomax, T.L.; Quatrano, R.S.

    1996-12-31

    This is the program from the second FASEB conference on Signal Transduction in Plants. Topic areas included the following: environmental signaling; perception and transduction of light signals; signaling in plant microbe interactions; signaling in plant pathogen interactions; cell, cell communication; cytoskeleton, plasma membrane, and cellwall continuum; signaling molecules in plant growth and development I and II. A list of participants is included.

  1. Signal transduction profile of chemical sensitisers in dendritic cells: An endpoint to be included in a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neves, Bruno Miguel; Goncalo, Margarida; Figueiredo, Americo; Duarte, Carlos B.; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Cruz, Maria Teresa

    2011-01-01

    The development of non-animal testing methods for the assessment of skin sensitisation potential is an urgent challenge within the framework of existing and forthcoming legislation. Efforts have been made to replace current animal tests, but so far no alternative methods have been developed. It is widely recognised that alternatives to animal testing cannot be accomplished with a single approach, but rather will require the integration of results obtained from different in vitro and in silico assays. The argument subjacent to the development of in vitro dendritic cell (DC)-based assays is that sensitiser-induced changes in the DC phenotype can be differentiated from those induced by irritants. This assumption is derived from the unique capacity of DC to convert environmental signals encountered at the skin into a receptor expression pattern (MHC class II molecules, co-stimulatory molecules, chemokine receptors) and a soluble mediator release profile that will stimulate T lymphocytes. Since signal transduction cascades precede changes in surface marker expression and cytokine/chemokine secretion, these phenotypic modifications are a consequence of a signal transduction profile that is specifically triggered by sensitisers and not by irritants. A limited number of studies have addressed this subject and the present review attempts to summarise and highlight all of the signalling pathways modulated by skin sensitisers and irritants. Furthermore, we conclude this review by focusing on the most promising strategies suitable for inclusion into a cell-based in vitro alternative approach to hazard identification.

  2. Lipid rafts and B cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neetu; DeFranco, Anthony L

    2007-10-01

    B cells comprise an essential component of the humoral immune system. They are equipped with the unique ability to synthesize and secrete pathogen-neutralizing antibodies, and share with professional antigen presenting cells the ability to internalize foreign antigens, and process them for presentation to helper T cells. Recent evidence indicates that specialized cholesterol- and glycosphingolipid-rich microdomains in the plasma membrane commonly referred to as lipid rafts, serve to compartmentalize key signaling molecules during the different stages of B cell activation including B cell antigen receptor (BCR)-initiated signal transduction, endocytosis of BCR-antigen complexes, loading of antigenic peptides onto MHC class II molecules, MHC-II associated antigen presentation to helper T cells, and receipt of helper signals via the CD40 receptor. Here we review the recent literature arguing for a role of lipid rafts in the spatial organization of B cell function.

  3. Regulation of promyogenic signal transduction by cell-cell contact and adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    Skeletal myoblast differentiation involves acquisition of the muscle-specific transcriptional program and morphological changes, including fusion into multinucleated myofibers. Differentiation is regulated by extracellular signaling cues, including cell-cell contact and adhesion. Cadherin and Ig adhesion receptors have been implicated in distinct but overlapping stages of myogenesis. N-cadherin signals through the Ig receptor Cdo to activate p38 MAP kinase, while the Ig receptor neogenin signals to activate FAK; both processes promote muscle-specific gene expression and myoblast fusion. M-cadherin activates Rac1 to enhance fusion. Specific Ig receptors (Kirre and Sns) are essential for myoblast fusion in Drosophila, also signaling through Rac, and vertebrate orthologs of Kirre and Sns have partially conserved function. Mice lacking specific cytoplasmic signaling factors activated by multiple receptors (e.g., Rac1) have strong muscle phenotypes in vivo. In contrast, mice lacking individual adhesion receptors that lie upstream of these factors have modest phenotypes. Redundancy among receptors may account for this. Many of the mammalian Ig receptors and cadherins associate with each other, and multivalent interactions within these complexes may require removal of multiple components to reveal dramatic defects in vivo. Nevertheless, it is possible that the murine adhesion receptors rate-limiting in vivo have not yet been identified or fully assessed.

  4. Regulation of promyogenic signal transduction by cell-cell contact and adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Robert S., E-mail: Robert.Krauss@mssm.edu [Department of Developmental and Regenerative Biology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Skeletal myoblast differentiation involves acquisition of the muscle-specific transcriptional program and morphological changes, including fusion into multinucleated myofibers. Differentiation is regulated by extracellular signaling cues, including cell-cell contact and adhesion. Cadherin and Ig adhesion receptors have been implicated in distinct but overlapping stages of myogenesis. N-cadherin signals through the Ig receptor Cdo to activate p38 MAP kinase, while the Ig receptor neogenin signals to activate FAK; both processes promote muscle-specific gene expression and myoblast fusion. M-cadherin activates Rac1 to enhance fusion. Specific Ig receptors (Kirre and Sns) are essential for myoblast fusion in Drosophila, also signaling through Rac, and vertebrate orthologs of Kirre and Sns have partially conserved function. Mice lacking specific cytoplasmic signaling factors activated by multiple receptors (e.g., Rac1) have strong muscle phenotypes in vivo. In contrast, mice lacking individual adhesion receptors that lie upstream of these factors have modest phenotypes. Redundancy among receptors may account for this. Many of the mammalian Ig receptors and cadherins associate with each other, and multivalent interactions within these complexes may require removal of multiple components to reveal dramatic defects in vivo. Nevertheless, it is possible that the murine adhesion receptors rate-limiting in vivo have not yet been identified or fully assessed.

  5. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    of blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC...

  6. Decoding Signal Processing at the Single-Cell Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. Steven

    2017-12-01

    The ability of cells to detect and decode information about their extracellular environment is critical to generating an appropriate response. In multicellular organisms, cells must decode dozens of signals from their neighbors and extracellular matrix to maintain tissue homeostasis while still responding to environmental stressors. How cells detect and process information from their surroundings through a surprisingly limited number of signal transduction pathways is one of the most important question in biology. Despite many decades of research, many of the fundamental principles that underlie cell signal processing remain obscure. However, in this issue of Cell Systems, Gillies et al present compelling evidence that the early response gene circuit can act as a linear signal integrator, thus providing significant insight into how cells handle fluctuating signals and noise in their environment.

  7. Signal transduction by the major histocompatibility complex class I molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A E; Skov, Svend; Bregenholt, S

    1999-01-01

    Ligation of cell surface major histocompatibility class I (MHC-I) proteins by antibodies, or by their native counter receptor, the CD8 molecule, mediates transduction of signals into the cells. MHC-I-mediated signaling can lead to both increased and decreased activity of the MHC-I-expressing cell...... and functioning, MHC-I molecules might be of importance for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis not only within the immune system, but also in the interplay between the immune system and other organ systems....

  8. Towards the systematic discovery of signal transduction networks using phosphorylation dynamics data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachie Nozomu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation is a ubiquitous and fundamental regulatory mechanism that controls signal transduction in living cells. The number of identified phosphoproteins and their phosphosites is rapidly increasing as a result of recent mass spectrometry-based approaches. Results We analyzed time-course phosphoproteome data obtained previously by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry with the stable isotope labeling using amino acids in cell culture (SILAC method. This provides the relative phosphorylation activities of digested peptides at each of five time points after stimulating HeLa cells with epidermal growth factor (EGF. We initially calculated the correlations between the phosphorylation dynamics patterns of every pair of peptides and connected the strongly correlated pairs to construct a network. We found that peptides extracted from the same intracellular fraction (nucleus vs. cytoplasm tended to be close together within this phosphorylation dynamics-based network. The network was then analyzed using graph theory and compared with five known signal-transduction pathways. The dynamics-based network was correlated with known signaling pathways in the NetPath and Phospho.ELM databases, and especially with the EGF receptor (EGFR signaling pathway. Although the phosphorylation patterns of many proteins were drastically changed by the EGF stimulation, our results suggest that only EGFR signaling transduction was both strongly activated and precisely controlled. Conclusions The construction of a phosphorylation dynamics-based network provides a useful overview of condition-specific intracellular signal transduction using quantitative time-course phosphoproteome data under specific experimental conditions. Detailed prediction of signal transduction based on phosphoproteome dynamics remains challenging. However, since the phosphorylation profiles of kinase-substrate pairs on the specific pathway were localized in the dynamics

  9. Portulaca oleracea extract can inhibit nodule formation of colon cancer stem cells by regulating gene expression of the Notch signal transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Heiying; Chen, Li; Wang, Shuiming; Chao, Deng

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether Portulaca oleracea extract affects tumor formation in colon cancer stem cells and its chemotherapy sensitivity. In addition, to analyze associated genetic changes within the Notch signal transduction pathway. Serum-free cultures of colon cancer cells (HT-29) and HT-29 cancer stem cells were treated with the chemotherapeutic drug 5-fluorouracil to assess sensitivity. Injections of the stem cells were also given to BALB/c mice to confirm tumor growth and note its characteristics. In addition, the effect of different concentrations of P. oleracea extract was tested on the growth of HT-29 colon cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells, as determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method. The effects of P. oleracea extract on the expression of β-catenin, Notch1, and Notch2 in the HT-29 cells were studied using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. The tumor volume of the HT29 cells was two times larger than that of HT29 cancer stem cells. Treatment with P. oleracea extract inhibited the proliferation of both HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells at doses from 0.07 to 2.25 µg/mL. Apoptosis of HT-29 cancer cells and HT-29 cancer stem cells was assessed by flow cytometry; it was enhanced by the addition of P. oleracea extract. Finally, treatment with P. oleracea extract significantly downregulated the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes in both cell types. The results of this study show that P. oleracea extract inhibits the growth of colon cancer stem cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, it inhibits the expression of the Notch1 and β-catenin genes. Taken together, this suggests that it may elicit its effects through regulatory and target genes that mediate the Notch signal transduction pathway.

  10. Staurosporine Increases Lentiviral Vector Transduction Efficiency of Human Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gretchen Lewis

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviral vector (LVV-mediated transduction of human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs holds tremendous promise for the treatment of monogenic hematological diseases. This approach requires the generation of a sufficient proportion of gene-modified cells. We identified staurosporine, a serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, as a small molecule that could be added to the transduction process to increase the proportion of genetically modified HSPCs by overcoming a LVV entry barrier. Staurosporine increased vector copy number (VCN approximately 2-fold when added to mobilized peripheral blood (mPB CD34+ cells prior to transduction. Limited staurosporine treatment did not affect viability of cells post-transduction, and there was no difference in in vitro colony formation compared to vehicle-treated cells. Xenotransplantation studies identified a statistically significant increase in VCN in engrafted human cells in mouse bone marrow at 4 months post-transplantation compared to vehicle-treated cells. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 is known to increase transduction efficiency of HSPCs through a different mechanism. Combining staurosporine and PGE2 resulted in further enhancement of transduction efficiency, particularly in short-term HSPCs. The combinatorial use of small molecules, such as staurosporine and PGE2, to enhance LVV transduction of human CD34+ cells is a promising method to improve transduction efficiency and subsequent potential therapeutic benefit of gene therapy drug products. Keywords: lentiviral, HSPC, transduction

  11. Erythropoietin suppresses epithelial to mesenchymal transition and intercepts Smad signal transduction through a MEK-dependent mechanism in pig kidney (LLC-PK1) cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chien-Liang; Chou, Kang-Ju; Lee, Po-Tsang; Chen, Ying-Shou; Chang, Tsu-Yuan; Hsu, Chih-Yang; Huang, Wei-Chieh; Chung, Hsiao-Min; Fang, Hua-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Tumor growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) plays a pivotal role in processes like kidney epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and interstitial fibrosis, which correlate well with progression of renal disease. Little is known about underlying mechanisms that regulate EMT. Based on the anatomical relationship between erythropoietin (EPO)-producing interstitial fibroblasts and adjacent tubular cells, we investigated the role of EPO in TGF-β1-mediated EMT and fibrosis in kidney injury. Methods: We examined apoptosis and EMT in TGF-β1-treated LLC-PK1 cells in the presence or absence of EPO. We examined the effect of EPO on TGF-β1-mediated Smad signaling. Apoptosis and cell proliferation were assessed with flow cytometry and hemocytometry. We used Western blotting and indirect immunofluorescence to evaluate expression levels of TGF-β1 signal pathway proteins and EMT markers. Results: We demonstrated that ZVAD-FMK (a caspase inhibitor) inhibited TGF-β1-induced apoptosis but did not inhibit EMT. In contrast, EPO reversed TGF-β1-mediated apoptosis and also partially inhibited TGF-β1-mediated EMT. We showed that EPO treatment suppressed TGF-β1-mediated signaling by inhibiting the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad 3. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK 1) either directly with PD98059 or with MEK 1 siRNA resulted in inhibition of EPO-mediated suppression of EMT and Smad signal transduction in TGF-β1-treated cells. Conclusions: EPO inhibited apoptosis and EMT in TGF-β1-treated LLC-PK1 cells. This effect of EPO was partially mediated by a mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent inhibition of Smad signal transduction.

  12. Hypergravity signal transduction in HeLa cells with concomitant phosphorylation of proteins immunoprecipitated with anti-microtubule-associated protein antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumei, Yasuhiro; Whitson, Peggy A.; Sato, Atsushige; Cintron, Nitza M.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that hypergravity (35g) stimulates the production of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and decreases adenosine 3-prime,5-prime-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels in HeLa cells. It is proposed that IP3 and cAMP may act as second messengers in hypergravity signal transduction. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins in both the detergent-soluble and -insoluble fractions suggests that cytoskeletal structures may be influenced by gravity.

  13. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heizmann, Beate; Sellars, MacLean; Macias-Garcia, Alejandra; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  14. Ikaros limits follicular B cell activation by regulating B cell receptor signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heizmann, Beate [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Sellars, MacLean [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Macias-Garcia, Alejandra [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Institute for Medical Engineering and Science at MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Chan, Susan, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Kastner, Philippe, E-mail: scpk@igbmc.fr [Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Université de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch (France); Faculté de Médecine, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France)

    2016-02-12

    The Ikaros transcription factor is essential for early B cell development, but its effect on mature B cells is debated. We show that Ikaros is required to limit the response of naive splenic B cells to B cell receptor signals. Ikaros deficient follicular B cells grow larger and enter cell cycle faster after anti-IgM stimulation. Unstimulated mutant B cells show deregulation of positive and negative regulators of signal transduction at the mRNA level, and constitutive phosphorylation of ERK, p38, SYK, BTK, AKT and LYN. Stimulation results in enhanced and prolonged ERK and p38 phosphorylation, followed by hyper-proliferation. Pharmacological inhibition of ERK and p38 abrogates the increased proliferative response of Ikaros deficient cells. These results suggest that Ikaros functions as a negative regulator of follicular B cell activation.

  15. Ubiquitination of basal VEGFR2 regulates signal transduction and endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina A. Smith

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2 regulate signal transduction and angiogenesis, but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell response. VEGFR2 undergoes VEGF-A-independent constitutive degradation via a UBA1-dependent ubiquitin-linked pathway. Depletion of UBA1 increased VEGFR2 recycling from endosome-to-plasma membrane and decreased proteolysis. Increased membrane receptor availability after UBA1 depletion elevated VEGF-A-stimulated activation of key signaling enzymes such as PLCγ1 and ERK1/2. Although UBA1 depletion caused an overall decrease in endothelial cell proliferation, surviving cells showed greater VEGF-A-stimulated responses such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. Our study now suggests that a ubiquitin-linked pathway regulates the balance between receptor recycling and degradation which in turn impacts on the intensity and duration of VEGF-A-stimulated signal transduction and the endothelial response.

  16. Guard Cell Signal Transduction Network: Advances in Understanding Abscisic Acid, CO2, and Ca2+ Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Tae-Houn

    2010-05-04

    Stomatal pores are formed by pairs of specialized epidermal guard cells and serve as major gateways for both CO2 influx into plants from the atmosphere and transpirational water loss of plants. Because they regulate stomatal pore apertures via integration of both endogenous hormonal stimuli and environmental signals, guard cells have been highly developed as a model system to dissect the dynamics and mechanisms of plant-cell signaling. The stress hormone ABA and elevated levels of CO2 activate complex signaling pathways in guard cells that are mediated by kinases/phosphatases, secondary messengers, and ion channel regulation. Recent research in guard cells has led to a new hypothesis for how plants achieve specificity in intracellular calcium signaling: CO2 and ABA enhance (prime) the calcium sensitivity of downstream calcium-signaling mechanisms. Recent progress in identification of early stomatal signaling components are reviewed here, including ABA receptors and CO2-binding response proteins, as well as systems approaches that advance our understanding of guard cell-signaling mechanisms.

  17. Guard Cell Signal Transduction Network: Advances in Understanding Abscisic Acid, CO2, and Ca2+ Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Tae-Houn; Bö hmer, Maik; Hu, Honghong; Nishimura, Noriyuki; Schroeder, Julian I.

    2010-01-01

    Stomatal pores are formed by pairs of specialized epidermal guard cells and serve as major gateways for both CO2 influx into plants from the atmosphere and transpirational water loss of plants. Because they regulate stomatal pore apertures via integration of both endogenous hormonal stimuli and environmental signals, guard cells have been highly developed as a model system to dissect the dynamics and mechanisms of plant-cell signaling. The stress hormone ABA and elevated levels of CO2 activate complex signaling pathways in guard cells that are mediated by kinases/phosphatases, secondary messengers, and ion channel regulation. Recent research in guard cells has led to a new hypothesis for how plants achieve specificity in intracellular calcium signaling: CO2 and ABA enhance (prime) the calcium sensitivity of downstream calcium-signaling mechanisms. Recent progress in identification of early stomatal signaling components are reviewed here, including ABA receptors and CO2-binding response proteins, as well as systems approaches that advance our understanding of guard cell-signaling mechanisms.

  18. Cell signalling and phospholipid metabolism. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, W.F.

    1990-12-31

    These studies explored whether phosphoinositide (PI) has a role in plants analogous to its role in animal cells. Although no parallel activity of PI in signal transduction was found in plant cells, activity of inositol phospholipid kinase was found to be modulated by light and by cell wall degrading enzymes. These studies indicate a major role for inositol phospholipids in plant growth and development as membrane effectors but not as a source of second messengers.

  19. [6]-Gingerol Prevents Disassembly of Cell Junctions and Activities of MMPs in Invasive Human Pancreas Cancer Cells through ERK/NF-κB/Snail Signal Transduction Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Ok Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of [6]-gingerol, a ginger phytochemical, on tight junction (TJ molecules, we investigated TJ tightening and signal transduction pathways in human pancreatic duct cell-derived cancer cell line PANC-1. The following methods were utilized: MTT assay to determine cytotoxicity; zymography to examine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activities; transepithelial electrical resistance (TER and paracellular flux for TJ measurement; RT-PCR and immunoblotting for proteins related to TJ and invasion; and EMSA for NF-κB activity in PANC-1 cells. Results revealed that TER significantly increased and claudin 4 and MMP-9 decreased compared to those of the control. TJ protein levels, including zonula occludens (ZO- 1, occludin, and E-cadherin, increased in [6]-gingerol-treated cells, which correlated with a decrease in paracellular flux and MMP activity. Furthermore, NF-κB/Snail nuclear translocation was suppressed via downregulation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathway in response to [6]-gingerol treatment. Moreover, treatment with U0126, an ERK inhibitor, completely blocked NF-κB activity. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that [6]-gingerol regulates TJ-related proteins and suppresses invasion and metastasis through NF-κB/Snail inhibition via inhibition of the ERK pathway. Therefore, [6]-gingerol may suppress the invasive activity of PANC-1 cells.

  20. Radioresistance-related signaling pathways in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya; Zhu Xiaodong; Qu Song; Su Fang; Wang Qi; Zhang Wei

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the difference of gene expression profile between the radioresistant human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R and CNE-2, and to screen the signaling pathway associated with radioresistance of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods: The radioresistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line CNE-2R was constructed from the original cell line CNE-2. CNE-2R and CNE-2 cells were cultured and administered with 60 Co γ-ray irradiation at the dose of 400 cGy for 15 times. Human-6v 3.0 whole genome expression profile was used to screen the differentially expressed genes. Bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the pathways related to radioresistance. Results: The number of the differentially expressed genes that were found in these 2 experiments was 374. The Kegg pathway and Biocarta pathway analysis of the differentially expressed genes showed the biological importance of Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1 R-mediated signal transduction pathway to the radioresistance of the CNE-2R cells and the significant differences of 13 genes in these 2 pathways,including JUN, MYD88, CCL5, CXCL10, STAT1, LY96, FOS, CCL3, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1α, IL-1β, and IRAK2 (t=13.47-66.57, P<0.05). Conclusions: Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and IL-1R-mediated signal transduction pathway might be related to the occurrence of radioresistance. (authors)

  1. Ubiquitination of basal VEGFR2 regulates signal transduction and endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2017-10-15

    Cell surface receptors can undergo recycling or proteolysis but the cellular decision-making events that sort between these pathways remain poorly defined. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) regulate signal transduction and angiogenesis, but how signaling and proteolysis is regulated is not well understood. Here, we provide evidence that a pathway requiring the E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA1 controls basal VEGFR2 levels, hence metering plasma membrane receptor availability for the VEGF-A-regulated endothelial cell response. VEGFR2 undergoes VEGF-A-independent constitutive degradation via a UBA1-dependent ubiquitin-linked pathway. Depletion of UBA1 increased VEGFR2 recycling from endosome-to-plasma membrane and decreased proteolysis. Increased membrane receptor availability after UBA1 depletion elevated VEGF-A-stimulated activation of key signaling enzymes such as PLCγ1 and ERK1/2. Although UBA1 depletion caused an overall decrease in endothelial cell proliferation, surviving cells showed greater VEGF-A-stimulated responses such as cell migration and tubulogenesis. Our study now suggests that a ubiquitin-linked pathway regulates the balance between receptor recycling and degradation which in turn impacts on the intensity and duration of VEGF-A-stimulated signal transduction and the endothelial response. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Rapid lentiviral transduction preserves the engraftment potential of Fanca(-/-) hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Lars U W; Milsom, Michael D; Kim, Mi-Ok; Schambach, Axel; Schuesler, Todd; Williams, David A

    2008-06-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare recessive syndrome, characterized by congenital anomalies, bone marrow failure, and predisposition to cancer. Two earlier clinical trials utilizing gamma-retroviral vectors for the transduction of autologous FA hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) required extensive in vitro manipulation and failed to achieve detectable long-term engraftment of transduced HSCs. As a strategy for minimizing ex vivo manipulation, we investigated the use of a "rapid" lentiviral transduction protocol in a murine Fanca(-/-) model. Importantly, while this and most murine models of FA fail to completely mimic the human hematopoietic phenotype, we observed a high incidence of HSC transplant engraftment failure and low donor chimerism after conventional transduction (CT) of Fanca(-/-) donor cells. In contrast, rapid transduction (RT) of Fanca(-/-) HSCs preserved engraftment to the level achieved in wild-type cells, resulting in long-term multilineage engraftment of gene-modified cells. We also demonstrate the correction of the characteristic hypersensitivity of FA cells against the cross-linking agent mitomycin C (MMC), and provide evidence for the advantage of using pharmacoselection as a means of further increasing gene-modified cells after RT. Collectively, these data support the use of rapid lentiviral transduction for gene therapy in FA.

  3. Opposing effects of bile acids deoxycholic acid and ursodeoxycholic acid on signal transduction pathways in oesophageal cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Reynolds, John V

    2016-09-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was reported to reduce bile acid toxicity, but the mechanisms underlying its cytoprotective effects are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of UDCA on the modulation of deoxycholic acid (DCA)-induced signal transduction in oesophageal cancer cells. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity was assessed using a gel shift assay. NF-κB activation and translocation was performed using an ELISA-based assay and immunofluorescence analysis. COX-2 expression was analysed by western blotting and COX-2 promoter activity was assessed by luciferase assay. DCA induced NF-κB and AP-1 DNA-binding activities in SKGT-4 and OE33 cells. UDCA pretreatment inhibited DCA-induced NF-κB and AP-1 activation and NF-κB translocation. This inhibitory effect was coupled with a blockade of IκB-α degradation and inhibition of phosphorylation of IKK-α/β and ERK1/2. Moreover, UDCA pretreatment inhibited COX-2 upregulation. Using transient transfection of the COX-2 promoter, UDCA pretreatment abrogated DCA-induced COX-2 promoter activation. In addition, UDCA protected oesophageal cells from the apoptotic effects of deoxycholate. Our findings indicate that UDCA inhibits DCA-induced signalling pathways in oesophageal cancer cells. These data indicate a possible mechanistic role for the chemopreventive actions of UDCA in oesophageal carcinogenesis.

  4. Efficient biotechnological approach for lentiviral transduction of induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Mehrak; Soleimani, Masoud; Mohammadian, Mozhdeh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Havasi, Parvaneh; Zarghami, Nosratollah

    2016-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from differentiated adult somatic cells by reprogramming them. Unlimited self-renewal, and the potential to differentiate into any cell type, make iPS cells very promising candidates for basic and clinical research. Furthermore, iPS cells can be genetically manipulated for use as therapeutic tools. DNA can be introduced into iPS cells, using lentiviral vectors, which represent a helpful choice for efficient transduction and stable integration of transgenes. In this study, we compare two methods of lentiviral transduction of iPS cells, namely, the suspension method and the hanging drop method. In contrast to the conventional suspension method, in the hanging drop method, embryoid body (EB) formation and transduction occur concurrently. The iPS cells were cultured to form EBs, and then transduced with lentiviruses, using the conventional suspension method and the hanging drop method, to express miR-128 and green fluorescent protein (GFP). The number of transduced cells were assessed by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry. MTT assay and real-time PCR were performed to determine the cell viability and transgene expression, respectively. Morphologically, GFP+ cells were more detectable in the hanging drop method, and this finding was quantified by flow cytometric analysis. According to the results of the MTT assay, cell viability was considerably higher in the hanging drop method, and real-time PCR represented a higher relative expression of miR-128 in the iPS cells introduced with lentiviruses in drops. Altogether, it seems that lentiviral transduction of challenging iPS cells using the hanging drop method offers a suitable and sufficient strategy in their gene transfer, with less toxicity than the conventional suspension method.

  5. Protein phosphorylation and its role in archaeal signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Dominik; Hoffmann, Lena; Pham, Trong Khoa; Bräsen, Christopher; Qiu, Wen; Wright, Phillip C.; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Siebers, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is the main mechanism of signal transduction that enables cells to rapidly respond to environmental changes by controlling the functional properties of proteins in response to external stimuli. However, whereas signal transduction is well studied in Eukaryotes and Bacteria, the knowledge in Archaea is still rather scarce. Archaea are special with regard to protein phosphorylation, due to the fact that the two best studied phyla, the Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeaota, seem to exhibit fundamental differences in regulatory systems. Euryarchaeota (e.g. halophiles, methanogens, thermophiles), like Bacteria and Eukaryotes, rely on bacterial-type two-component signal transduction systems (phosphorylation on His and Asp), as well as on the protein phosphorylation on Ser, Thr and Tyr by Hanks-type protein kinases. Instead, Crenarchaeota (e.g. acidophiles and (hyper)thermophiles) only depend on Hanks-type protein phosphorylation. In this review, the current knowledge of reversible protein phosphorylation in Archaea is presented. It combines results from identified phosphoproteins, biochemical characterization of protein kinases and protein phosphatases as well as target enzymes and first insights into archaeal signal transduction by biochemical, genetic and polyomic studies. PMID:27476079

  6. Downstream reporter gene imaging for signal transduction pathway of dopamine type 2 receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Uyenchi N.; Min, Jung Joon; Moon, Sung Min; Bom, Hee Seung

    2004-01-01

    The Dopamine 2 receptor (D2R) signal pathway regulates gene expression by phosphorylation of proteins including cAMP reponse element-binding protein (CREB), a transcription factor. In this study, we developed a reporter strategy using the GAL4 fusion CREB to assess the phosphorylation of CREB, one of the targets of the D2R signal transduction pathway. We used three plasmids: GAL4 fusion transactivator (pCMV-CREB), firefly luciferase reporter with GAL4 binding sites (pG5-FLUC), and D2R plasmid (pCMV-D2R). Group 1 293T cells were transiently transfected with pCMV-CREB and pG5-FLUC, and group 2 cells were transfected with all three plasmids. Transfected cells were stimulated with different concentrations of dopamine (0-200 M). For animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells (1x10 6 ) were subcutaneously injected on the left and right thigh of six nude mice, respectively. Dopamine stimiulation was performed with intraperitoneal injection of L-DOPA incombination with carbidopa, a peripheral DOPA decarboxylase inhibitor. Bioluminescence optical imaging studies were performed before and after L-DOPA injection. In cell culture studies, group 1 cells showed strong luciferase activity which implies direct activation of the signaling pathway due to growth factors contained in culture medium. Group 2 cells showed strong luciferase activity and a further increase after administration of dopamine. In animal studies, group 1 and 2 cells showed bioluminescence signal before L-DOPA injection, but signal from group 2 cells significantly increased 12 h after L-DOPA injection. The signal from group 1 cells disappeared thereafter, but group 2 cells continued to show signal until 36 h of L-DOPA injection. This study demonstrates imaging of the D2R signal transduction pathway and should be useful for noninvasive imaging of downstream effects of G-coupled protein pathways

  7. Participation of intercellular communication and intracellular signal transduction in the radio-adaptive response of human fibroblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Hoshi, Yuko; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Watanabe, Masami

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells with low-dose X-rays and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. When the cells were irradiated by 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the viable cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a conditioning irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the growth ratio increased significantly to 45-53%, and a peak was reached at a conditioning dose of 13 cGy. Cells blocked off intercellular communication either in Ca 2+ ion-free medium or in TPA added medium during the conditioning irradiation of 13 cGy did not show the improvement of growth ratio. Addition of H-7, as an inhibitor of PKC, to the medium during the conditioning irradiation inhibited the induction of the radio-adaptive response. However, addition of either inhibitor of A kinase, H-89, or inhibitor of G kinase, H-8, failed to inhibit the induction of the radio-adaptive response. These results suggest that: (1) normal cells show an adaptive response to low-dose radiation, (2) intercellular communication may play a role in radio-adaptive responses, (3) the transduction of the signal induced in cells by low-dose X-irradiation via protein kinase C was involved in radio-adaptive responses, not via A kinase nor G kinase. (author)

  8. Cytoskeleton in mast cell signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, May (2012), s. 130 ISSN 1664-3224 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP302/10/1701; GA ČR GPP302/11/P709; GA ČR GAP302/12/1673 Grant - others:ECST(XE) Action BM1007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : cytoskeleton * mast cell activation * signal transduction Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  9. Rab11-FIP3 Regulation of Lck Endosomal Traffic Controls TCR Signal Transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchet, Jérôme; Del Río-Iñiguez, Iratxe; Vázquez-Chávez, Elena; Lasserre, Rémi; Agüera-González, Sonia; Cuche, Céline; McCaffrey, Mary W; Di Bartolo, Vincenzo; Alcover, Andrés

    2017-04-01

    The role of endosomes in receptor signal transduction is a long-standing question, which remains largely unanswered. The T cell Ag receptor and various components of its proximal signaling machinery are associated with distinct endosomal compartments, but how endosomal traffic affects T cell signaling remains ill-defined. In this article, we demonstrate in human T cells that the subcellular localization and function of the protein tyrosine kinase Lck depends on the Rab11 effector FIP3 (Rab11 family interacting protein-3). FIP3 overexpression or silencing and its ability to interact with Rab11 modify Lck subcellular localization and its delivery to the immunological synapse. Importantly, FIP3-dependent Lck localization controls early TCR signaling events, such as tyrosine phosphorylation of TCRζ, ZAP70, and LAT and intracellular calcium concentration, as well as IL-2 gene expression. Interestingly, FIP3 controls both steady-state and poststimulation phosphotyrosine and calcium levels. Finally, our findings indicate that FIP3 modulates TCR-CD3 cell surface expression via the regulation of steady-state Lck-mediated TCRζ phosphorylation, which in turn controls TCRζ protein levels. This may influence long-term T cell activation in response to TCR-CD3 stimulation. Therefore, our data underscore the importance of finely regulated endosomal traffic in TCR signal transduction and T cell activation leading to IL-2 production. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  10. N-Acetylglucosamine Functions in Cell Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Konopka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The amino sugar N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc is well known for the important structural roles that it plays at the cell surface. It is a key component of bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan, fungal cell wall chitin, and the extracellular matrix of animal cells. Interestingly, recent studies have also identified new roles for GlcNAc in cell signaling. For example, GlcNAc stimulates the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to undergo changes in morphogenesis and expression of virulence genes. Pathogenic E. coli responds to GlcNAc by altering the expression of fimbriae and CURLI fibers that promote biofilm formation and GlcNAc stimulates soil bacteria to undergo changes in morphogenesis and production of antibiotics. Studies with animal cells have revealed that GlcNAc influences cell signaling through the posttranslational modification of proteins by glycosylation. O-linked attachment of GlcNAc to Ser and Thr residues regulates a variety of intracellular proteins, including transcription factors such as NFκB, c-myc, and p53. In addition, the specificity of Notch family receptors for different ligands is altered by GlcNAc attachment to fucose residues in the extracellular domain. GlcNAc also impacts signal transduction by altering the degree of branching of N-linked glycans, which influences cell surface signaling proteins. These emerging roles of GlcNAc as an activator and mediator of cellular signaling in fungi, animals, and bacteria will be the focus of this paper.

  11. Genetic analysis of gravity signal transduction in roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Patrick; Strohm, Allison; Baldwin, Katherine

    To grow downward into the soil, roots use gravity as a guide. Specialized cells, named stato-cytes, enable this directional growth response by perceiving gravity. Located in the columella region of the cap, these cells sense a reorientation of the root within the gravity field through the sedimentation of, and/or tension/pressure exerted by, dense amyloplasts. This process trig-gers a gravity signal transduction pathway that leads to a fast alkalinization of the cytoplasm and a change in the distribution of the plasma membrane-associated auxin-efflux carrier PIN3. The latter protein is uniformly distributed within the plasma membrane on all sides of the cell in vertically oriented roots. However, it quickly accumulates at the bottom side upon gravis-timulation. This process correlates with a preferential transport of auxin to the bottom side of the root cap, resulting in a lateral gradient across the tip. This gradient is then transported to the elongation zone where it promotes differential cellular elongation, resulting in downward curvature. We isolated mutations that affect gravity signal transduction at a step that pre-cedes cytoplasmic alkalinization and/or PIN3 relocalization and lateral auxin transport across the cap. arg1 and arl2 mutations identify a common genetic pathway that is needed for all three gravity-induced processes in the cap statocytes, indicating these genes function early in the pathway. On the other hand, adk1 affects gravity-induced PIN3 relocalization and lateral auxin transport, but it does not interfere with cytoplasmic alkalinization. ARG1 and ARL2 encode J-domain proteins that are associated with membranes of the vesicular trafficking path-way whereas ADK1 encodes adenosine kinase, an enzyme that converts adenosine derived from nucleic acid metabolism and the AdoMet cycle into AMP, thereby alleviating feedback inhibi-tion of this important methyl-donor cycle. Because mutations in ARG1 (and ARL2) do not completely eliminate

  12. Genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, enhanced radiosensitivity in human esophageal cancer cell lines in vitro: Possible involvement of inhibition of survival signal transduction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Takeo; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The effect of genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on radiosensitivity was examined, especially focusing on 'survival signal transduction pathways'. Methods and Materials: Two human esophageal squamous cell cancer cell lines, TE-1 (p53, mutant) and TE-2 (p53, wild), were used. Radiosensitivity was determined by clonogenic assay, and activation of survival signals was examined by Western blot. Results: Genistein (30 μM) greatly enhanced radiosensitivity in these cell lines by suppressing radiation-induced activation of survival signals, p42/p44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT/PKB. Significant increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells and increased poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase cleavage were observed in TE-2, but not in TE-1 even after combination of genistein with irradiation. In terms of changes in expression of p53-related proteins, increase in expression of Bax and decrease in that of Bcl-2 were observed in TE-2 but not in TE-1, suggesting that the main mode of cell death induced by genistein in a cell line with wild type p53 differed from that with mutant p53. Conclusions: This study suggested that survival signals, including p42/p44 ERK and AKT/PKB, may be involved in determining radiosensitivity, and genistein would be a potent therapeutic agent that has an enhancing effect on radiation

  13. Polybrene inhibits human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation during lentiviral transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Lin

    Full Text Available Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs can be engineered to express specific genes, either for their use in cell-based therapies or to track them in vivo over long periods of time. To obtain long-term expression of these genes, a lentivirus- or retrovirus-mediated cell transduction is often used. However, given that the efficiency with these viruses is typically low in primary cells, additives such as polybrene are always used for efficient viral transduction. Unfortunately, as presented here, exposure to polybrene alone at commonly used concentratons (1-8 µg/mL negatively impacts hMSC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner as measured by CyQUANT, EdU incorporation, and cell cycle analysis. This inhibition of proliferation was observable in culture even 3 weeks after exposure. Culturing the cells in the presence of FGF-2, a potent mitogen, did not abrogate this negative effect of polybrene. In fact, the normally sharp increase in hMSC proliferation that occurs during the first days of exposure to FGF-2 was absent at 4 µg/mL or higher concentrations of polybrene. Similarly, the effect of stimulating cell proliferation under simulated hypoxic conditions was also decreased when cells were exposed to polybrene, though overall proliferation rates were higher. The negative influence of polybrene was, however, reduced when the cells were exposed to polybrene for a shorter period of time (6 hr vs 24 hr. Thus, careful evaluation should be done when using polybrene to aid in lentiviral transduction of human MSCs or other primary cells, especially when cell number is critical.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of root gravity sensing and signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Allison K; Baldwin, Katherine L; Masson, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    Plants use gravity as a guide to direct their roots down into the soil to anchor themselves and to find resources needed for growth and development. In higher plants, the columella cells of the root tip form the primary site of gravity sensing, and in these cells the sedimentation of dense, starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts) triggers gravity signal transduction. This generates an auxin gradient across the root cap that is transmitted to the elongation zone where it promotes differential cell elongation, allowing the root to direct itself downward. It is still not well understood how amyloplast sedimentation leads to auxin redistribution. Models have been proposed to explain how mechanosensitive ion channels or ligand-receptor interactions could connect these events. Although their roles are still unclear, possible second messengers in this process include protons, Ca(2+), and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate. Upon gravistimulation, the auxin efflux facilitators PIN3 and PIN7 relocalize to the lower side of the columella cells and mediate auxin redistribution. However, evidence for an auxin-independent secondary mechanism of gravity sensing and signal transduction suggests that this physiological process is quite complex. Furthermore, plants must integrate a variety of environmental cues, resulting in multifaceted relationships between gravitropism and other directional growth responses such as hydro-, photo-, and thigmotropism. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Falsification of the ionic channel theory of hair cell transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, Michelangelo

    2013-11-01

    The hair cell provides the transduction of mechanical vibrations in the balance and acoustic sense of all vertebrates that swim, walk, or fly. The current theory places hair cell transduction in a mechanically controlled ion channel. Although the theory of a mechanical input modulating the flow of ions through an ion pore has been a useful tool, it is falsified by experimental data in the literature and can be definitively falsified by a proposed experiment.

  16. Cellular semiotics and signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2007-01-01

    Semiosis, the processes of production, communication and interpretation of signs - coding and de-coding - takes place within and between organisms. The term "endosemiosis" refers to the processes of interpretation and sign transmission inside an organism (as opposed to "exosemiosis", which refers...... to the processes of sign interpretation and transmission between organisms of the same or different species). In Biosemiotics it is customary to recognise the cell as the most elementary integration unit for semiosis. Therefore intra and intercellular communication constitute the departure point for the study...... considering semiotic logic in order to construct our understanding of living phenomena. Given the central integrating role of signal transduction in physiological and ecological studies, this chapter outlines its semiotic implications. The multi-modality and modularity of signal molecules and relative...

  17. Colorectal cancer cells suppress CD4+ T cells immunity through canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuan; Liu, Suoning; Wang, Daguang; Zhang, Yang; Li, Wei; Guo, Yuchen; Zhang, Hua; Suo, Jian

    2017-02-28

    Understanding how colorectal cancer escapes from immunosurveillance and immune attack is important for developing novel immunotherapies for colorectal cancer. In this study we evaluated the role of canonical Wnt signaling in the regulation of T cell function in a mouse colorectal cancer model. We found that colorectal cancer cells expressed abundant Wnt ligands, and intratumoral T cells expressed various Frizzled proteins. Meanwhile, both active β-catenin and total β-catenin were elevated in intratumoral T cells. In vitro study indicated that colorectal cancer cells suppressed IFN-γ expression and increased IL-17a expression in activated CD4+ T cells. However, the cytotoxic activity of CD8+ T cells was not altered by colorectal cancer cells. To further evaluate the importance of Wnt signaling for CD4+ T cell-mediated cancer immunity, β-catenin expression was enforced in CD4+ T cells using lentiviral transduction. In an adoptive transfer model, enforced expression of β-catenin in intratumoral CD4+ T cells increased IL-17a expression, enhanced proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of colorectal cancer cells. Taken together, our study disclosed a new mechanism by which colorectal cancer impairs T cell immunity.

  18. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Gulbransen, Brian D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Clapp, Tod R; Herman, Jake P; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Churchill, Mair E A; Silver, Wayne L; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2010-02-16

    The upper respiratory tract is continually assaulted with harmful dusts and xenobiotics carried on the incoming airstream. Detection of such irritants by the trigeminal nerve evokes protective reflexes, including sneezing, apnea, and local neurogenic inflammation of the mucosa. Although free intra-epithelial nerve endings can detect certain lipophilic irritants (e.g., mints, ammonia), the epithelium also houses a population of trigeminally innervated solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) that express T2R bitter taste receptors along with their downstream signaling components. These SCCs have been postulated to enhance the chemoresponsive capabilities of the trigeminal irritant-detection system. Here we show that transduction by the intranasal solitary chemosensory cells is necessary to evoke trigeminally mediated reflex reactions to some irritants including acyl-homoserine lactone bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, which activate the downstream signaling effectors associated with bitter taste transduction. Isolated nasal chemosensory cells respond to the classic bitter ligand denatonium as well as to the bacterial signals by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, these same substances evoke changes in respiration indicative of trigeminal activation. Genetic ablation of either G alpha-gustducin or TrpM5, essential elements of the T2R transduction cascade, eliminates the trigeminal response. Because acyl-homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing molecules for gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, detection of these substances by airway chemoreceptors offers a means by which the airway epithelium may trigger an epithelial inflammatory response before the bacteria reach population densities capable of forming destructive biofilms.

  19. Efficient Generation of Functional Hepatocytes From Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by HNF4α Transduction

    OpenAIRE

    Takayama, Kazuo; Inamura, Mitsuru; Kawabata, Kenji; Katayama, Kazufumi; Higuchi, Maiko; Tashiro, Katsuhisa; Nonaka, Aki; Sakurai, Fuminori; Hayakawa, Takao; Kusuda Furue, Miho; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are expected to be a useful source of cells drug discovery. Although we recently reported that hepatic commitment is promoted by transduction of SOX17 and HEX into human ESC- and iPSC-derived cells, these hepatocyte-like cells were not sufficiently mature for drug screening. To promote hepatic maturation, we utilized transduction of the hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) gene, which is kn...

  20. Immunophilin ligands demonstrate common features of signal transduction leading to exocytosis or transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, T; Albers, M W; Schreiber, S L; Hohman, R J

    1991-01-01

    Investigations of the actions and interactions of the immunophilin ligands FK506, cyclosporin A (CsA), rapamycin, and 506BD suggest that complexes of FK506 with an FK506-binding protein or of CsA with a cyclophilin (CsA-binding protein) inhibit the T-cell receptor-mediated signal transduction that results in the transcription of interleukin 2. Now we report an identical spectrum of activities of FK506, CsA, rapamycin, and 506BD on IgE receptor-mediated signal transduction that results in exocytosis of secretory granules from the rat basophilic leukemia cell line RBL-2H3, a mast cell model. Both FK506 and CsA inhibit receptor-mediated exocytosis (CsA IC50 = 200 nM; FK506 IC50 = 2 nM) without affecting early receptor-associated events (hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol, synthesis and release of eicosanoids, uptake of Ca2+). In contrast, rapamycin and 506BD, which share common structural elements with FK506, by themselves have no effect on IgE receptor-mediated exocytosis. Both compounds, however, prevent inhibition by FK506 but not by CsA. Affinity chromatography with FK506, CsA, and rapamycin matrices indicates that the same set of immunophilins present in RBL-2H3 cells have been found in Jurkat T cells and calf thymus; however, the relative amounts of these proteins differ in the two cell types. These results suggest the existence of a common step in cytoplasmic signaling in T cells and mast cells that may be part of a general signaling mechanism. Images PMID:1712484

  1. Relationship between nitric oxide- and calcium-dependent signal transduction pathways in growth hormone release from dispersed goldfish pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, John P; Sawisky, Grant R; Davis, Philip J; Pemberton, Joshua G; Rieger, Aja M; Barreda, Daniel R

    2014-09-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) and Ca(2+) are two of the many intracellular signal transduction pathways mediating the control of growth hormone (GH) secretion from somatotropes by neuroendocrine factors. We have previously shown that the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) elicits Ca(2+) signals in identified goldfish somatotropes. In this study, we examined the relationships between NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction mechanisms in GH secretion from primary cultures of dispersed goldfish pituitary cells. Morphologically identified goldfish somatotropes stained positively for an NO-sensitive dye indicating they may be a source of NO production. In 2h static incubation experiments, GH release responses to the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-d,l-penicillamine (SNAP) were attenuated by CoCl2, nifedipine, verapamil, TMB-8, BHQ, and KN62. In column perifusion experiments, the ability of SNP to induce GH release was impaired in the presence of TMB-8, BHQ, caffeine, and thapsigargin, but not ryanodine. Caffeine-elicited GH secretion was not affected by the NO scavenger PTIO. These results suggest that NO-stimulated GH release is dependent on extracellular Ca(2+) availability and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) channels, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) store(s) that possess BHQ- and/or thapsigargin-inhibited sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPases, as well as TMB-8- and/or caffeine-sensitive, but not ryanodine-sensitive, Ca(2+)-release channels. Calmodulin kinase-II also likely participates in NO-elicited GH secretion but caffeine-induced GH release is not upstream of NO production. These findings provide insights into how NO actions many integrate with Ca(2+)-dependent signalling mechanisms in goldfish somatotropes and how such interactions may participate in the GH-releasing actions of regulators that utilize both NO- and Ca(2+)-dependent transduction pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. NADE, a p75NTR-associated cell death executor, is involved in signal transduction mediated by the common neurotrophin receptor p75NTR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, J; Hachiya, T; Shoji-Hoshino, S; Kimura, M T; Nadano, D; Suvanto, P; Hanaoka, T; Li, Y; Irie, S; Greene, L A; Sato, T A

    2000-06-09

    The low affinity neurotrophin receptor p75NTR can mediate cell survival as well as cell death of neural cells by NGF and other neurotrophins. To elucidate p75NTR-mediated signal transduction, we screened p75NTR-associated proteins by a yeast two-hybrid system. We identified one positive clone and named NADE (p75NTR-associated cell death executor). Mouse NADE has marked homology to the human HGR74 protein. NADE specifically binds to the cell-death domain of p75NTR. Co-expression of NADE and p75NTR induced caspase-2 and caspase-3 activities and the fragmentation of nuclear DNA in 293T cells. However, in the absence of p75NTR, NADE failed to induce apoptosis, suggesting that NADE expression is necessary but insufficient for p75NTR-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, p75NTR/NADE-induced cell death was dependent on NGF but not BDNF, NT-3, or NT-4/5, and the recruitment of NADE to p75NTR (intracellular domain) was dose-dependent. We obtained similar results from PC12 cells, nnr5 cells, and oligodendrocytes. Taken together, NADE is the first signaling adaptor molecule identified in the involvement of p75NTR-mediated apoptosis induced by NGF, and it may play an important role in the pathogenesis of neurogenetic diseases.

  3. Spatial modeling of the membrane-cytosolic interface in protein kinase signal transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Giese

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The spatial architecture of signaling pathways and the interaction with cell size and morphology are complex, but little understood. With the advances of single cell imaging and single cell biology, it becomes crucial to understand intracellular processes in time and space. Activation of cell surface receptors often triggers a signaling cascade including the activation of membrane-attached and cytosolic signaling components, which eventually transmit the signal to the cell nucleus. Signaling proteins can form steep gradients in the cytosol, which cause strong cell size dependence. We show that the kinetics at the membrane-cytosolic interface and the ratio of cell membrane area to the enclosed cytosolic volume change the behavior of signaling cascades significantly. We suggest an estimate of average concentration for arbitrary cell shapes depending on the cell volume and cell surface area. The normalized variance, known from image analysis, is suggested as an alternative measure to quantify the deviation from the average concentration. A mathematical analysis of signal transduction in time and space is presented, providing analytical solutions for different spatial arrangements of linear signaling cascades. Quantification of signaling time scales reveals that signal propagation is faster at the membrane than at the nucleus, while this time difference decreases with the number of signaling components in the cytosol. Our investigations are complemented by numerical simulations of non-linear cascades with feedback and asymmetric cell shapes. We conclude that intracellular signal propagation is highly dependent on cell geometry and, thereby, conveys information on cell size and shape to the nucleus.

  4. On enhancing drugs effect on radiosensitivity of HeLa cells by inhibiting P13K/Akt signal transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Shu; Yu Shiying

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the mechanism of PI3K/Akt in radiosensitization of docetaxel and cisplatin by inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway in HeLa cells. Methods: To detect the 50% inhibition concentration (IC 50 ) of cisplatin and docetaxel in Hela cells by mono-nuclear cell direct cytotoxicity assay (MTT) in vitro. Using the IC 20 of cisplatin and docetaxel in Hela cell or in association with LY294002 for 24 h, then, the cells were irradiated by X-ray with 2,3,4,6,8 Gy. The cell survival fraction was computed by clone formation. Cell survival curve was fitted by multitarget one-hit model, and D q , D 0 , SF 2 , sensitizing enhancing ratio(SER) was calculated. The expression of pAkt and total Akt by western blot were detected. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry. Results: 1. Docetaxel and cisplatin improved the phosphorylation of Akt by irradiation obviously. 2. The SER of docetaxel + LY294002 + irradiation group (1.92) was higher than that of docetaxel + irradiation group(1.41). The SER of cisplatin + LY294002 + irradiation group(1.71) was higher than the cisplatin + irradiation group (1.37). 3. Apoptosis rate of docetaxel + LY294002 + irradiation and cisplatin + LY294002 + irradiation groups(12.5%, 10.2%) were higher than those of docetaxel + irradiation and cisplatin + irradiation groups(6.1%, 5.1%). Conclusions: PI3K/Akt signal transduction activation may be as an important reason of radiosensitization reduction of docetaxel and cisplatin in the HeLa cells. Our results show that inhibiting PI3K/Akt can improve the radiosensitization of docetaxel and cisplatin in the HeLa cells. (authors)

  5. Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Patrick; Strohm, Allison; Barker, Richard; Su, Shih-Heng

    Like most other plant organs, roots use gravity as a directional guide for growth. Specialized cells within the columella region of the root cap (the statocytes) sense the direction of gravity through the sedimentation of starch-filled plastids (amyloplasts). Amyloplast movement and/or pressure on sensitive membranes triggers a gravity signal transduction pathway within these cells, which leads to a fast transcytotic relocalization of plasma-membrane associated auxin-efflux carrier proteins of the PIN family (PIN3 and PIN7) toward the bottom membrane. This leads to a polar transport of auxin toward the bottom flank of the cap. The resulting lateral auxin gradient is then transmitted toward the elongation zones where it triggers a curvature that ultimately leads to a restoration of vertical downward growth. Our laboratory is using strategies derived from genetics and systems biology to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that modulate gravity sensing and signal transduction in the columella cells of the root cap. Our previous research uncovered two J-domain-containing proteins, ARG1 and ARL2, as contributing to this process. Mutations in the corresponding paralogous genes led to alterations of root and hypocotyl gravitropism accompanied by an inability for the statocytes to develop a cytoplasmic alkalinization, relocalize PIN3, and transport auxin laterally, in response to gravistimulation. Both proteins are associated peripherally to membranes belonging to various compartments of the vesicular trafficking pathway, potentially modulating the trafficking of defined proteins between plasma membrane and endosomes. MAR1 and MAR2, on the other end, are distinct proteins of the plastidic outer envelope protein import TOC complex (the transmembrane channel TOC75 and the receptor TOC132, respectively). Mutations in the corresponding genes enhance the gravitropic defects of arg1. Using transformation-rescue experiments with truncated versions of TOC132 (MAR2), we have shown

  6. Lipid rafts are required for signal transduction by angiotensin II receptor type 1 in neonatal glomerular mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adebiyi, Adebowale, E-mail: aadebiyi@uthsc.edu; Soni, Hitesh; John, Theresa A.; Yang, Fen

    2014-05-15

    Angiotensin II (ANG-II) receptors (AGTRs) contribute to renal physiology and pathophysiology, but the underlying mechanisms that regulate AGTR function in glomerular mesangium are poorly understood. Here, we show that AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal pig glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs). Cyclodextrin (CDX)-mediated cholesterol depletion attenuated cell surface AGTR1 protein expression and ANG-II-induced intracellular Ca{sup 2+} ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}) elevation in the cells. The COOH-terminus of porcine AGTR1 contains a caveolin (CAV)-binding motif. However, neonatal GMCs express CAV-1, but not CAV-2 and CAV-3. Colocalization and in situ proximity ligation assay detected an association between endogenous AGTR1 and CAV-1 in the cells. A synthetic peptide corresponding to the CAV-1 scaffolding domain (CSD) sequence also reduced ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in the cells. Real-time imaging of cell growth revealed that ANG-II stimulates neonatal GMC proliferation. ANG-II-induced GMC growth was attenuated by EMD 66684, an AGTR1 antagonist; BAPTA, a [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} chelator; KN-93, a Ca{sup 2+}/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II inhibitor; CDX; and a CSD peptide, but not PD 123319, a selective AGTR2 antagonist. Collectively, our data demonstrate [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}-dependent proliferative effect of ANG-II and highlight a critical role for lipid raft microdomains in AGTR1-mediated signal transduction in neonatal GMCs. - Highlights: • AGTR1 is the functional AGTR subtype expressed in neonatal mesangial cells. • Endogenous AGTR1 associates with CAV-1 in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption attenuates cell surface AGTR1 protein expression. • Lipid raft disruption reduces ANG-II-induced [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i} elevation in neonatal mesangial cells. • Lipid raft disruption inhibits ANG-II-induced neonatal mesangial cell growth.

  7. Adeno-associated viral vector transduction of human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Murphy, Mary; O'Brien, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have received considerable attention in the emerging field of regenerative medicine. One aspect of MSC research focuses on genetically modifying the cells with the aim of enhancing their regenerative potential. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) holds promise as a vector...... in human MSCs and to assess whether AAV transduction affects MSC multipotentiality. The results indicated that human MSCs could indeed be transiently transduced in vitro by the AAV2 vector with efficiencies of up to 65%. The percentage of GFP-positive cells peaked at 4 days post-transduction and declined...... rapidly towards 0% after day 8. The level of transgene expression in the GFP-positive population increased 4-fold over a 10,000 fold viral dose increase. This dose-response contrasted with the 200-fold increase observed in similarly transduced 293-cells, indicating a relatively restricted transgene...

  8. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W. Fearnley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A–VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor–ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145 promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes.

  9. VEGF-A isoforms program differential VEGFR2 signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Smith, Gina A; Abdul-Zani, Izma; Yuldasheva, Nadira; Mughal, Nadeem A; Homer-Vanniasinkam, Shervanthi; Kearney, Mark T; Zachary, Ian C; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2016-05-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) binding to the receptor tyrosine kinase VEGFR2 triggers multiple signal transduction pathways, which regulate endothelial cell responses that control vascular development. Multiple isoforms of VEGF-A can elicit differential signal transduction and endothelial responses. However, it is unclear how such cellular responses are controlled by isoform-specific VEGF-A-VEGFR2 complexes. Increasingly, there is the realization that the membrane trafficking of receptor-ligand complexes influences signal transduction and protein turnover. By building on these concepts, our study shows for the first time that three different VEGF-A isoforms (VEGF-A165, VEGF-A121 and VEGF-A145) promote distinct patterns of VEGFR2 endocytosis for delivery into early endosomes. This differential VEGFR2 endocytosis and trafficking is linked to VEGF-A isoform-specific signal transduction events. Disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked VEGF-A isoform-specific VEGFR2 activation, signal transduction and caused substantial depletion in membrane-bound VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 levels. Furthermore, such VEGF-A isoforms promoted differential patterns of VEGFR2 ubiquitylation, proteolysis and terminal degradation. Our study now provides novel insights into how different VEGF-A isoforms can bind the same receptor tyrosine kinase and elicit diverse cellular outcomes. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Lysosomal cysteine peptidases - Molecules signaling tumor cell death and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pišlar, Anja; Perišić Nanut, Milica; Kos, Janko

    2015-12-01

    Lysosomal cysteine peptidases - cysteine cathepsins - are general intracellular protein-degrading enzymes that control also a variety of specific physiological processes. They can trigger irreversible events leading to signal transduction and activation of signaling pathways, resulting in cell survival and proliferation or cell death. In cancer cells, lysosomal cysteine peptidases are involved in multiple processes during malignant progression. Their translocation from the endosomal/lysosomal pathway to nucleus, cytoplasm, plasma membrane and extracellular space enables the activation and remodeling of a variety of tumor promoting proteins. Thus, lysosomal cysteine peptidases interfere with cytokine/chemokine signaling, regulate cell adhesion and migration and endocytosis, are involved in the antitumor immune response and apoptosis, and promote cell invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Further, lysosomal cysteine peptidases modify growth factors and receptors involved in tyrosine kinase dependent pathways such as MAPK, Akt and JNK, thus representing key signaling tools for the activation of tumor cell growth and proliferation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Molecular purging of multiple myeloma cells by ex-vivo culture and retroviral transduction of mobilized-blood CD34+ cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneo Gianmarco

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor cell contamination of the apheresis in multiple myeloma is likely to affect disease-free and overall survival after autografting. Objective To purge myeloma aphereses from tumor contaminants with a novel culture-based purging method. Methods We cultured myeloma-positive CD34+ PB samples in conditions that retained multipotency of hematopoietic stem cells, but were unfavourable to survival of plasma cells. Moreover, we exploited the resistance of myeloma plasma cells to retroviral transduction by targeting the hematopoietic CD34+ cell population with a retroviral vector carrying a selectable marker (the truncated form of the human receptor for nerve growth factor, ΔNGFR. We performed therefore a further myeloma purging step by selecting the transduced cells at the end of the culture. Results Overall recovery of CD34+ cells after culture was 128.5%; ΔNGFR transduction rate was 28.8% for CD34+ cells and 0% for CD138-selected primary myeloma cells, respectively. Recovery of CD34+ cells after ΔNGFR selection was 22.3%. By patient-specific Ig-gene rearrangements, we assessed a decrease of 0.7–1.4 logs in tumor load after the CD34+ cell selection, and up to 2.3 logs after culture and ΔNGFR selection. Conclusion We conclude that ex-vivo culture and retroviral-mediated transduction of myeloma leukaphereses provide an efficient tumor cell purging.

  12. Signal transduction of p53-independent apoptotic pathway induced by hexavalent chromium in U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoko; Kondo, Takashi; Zhao Qingli; Ogawa Ryohei; Cui Zhengguo; Feril, Loreto B.; Teranishi, Hidetoyo; Kasuya, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that the hexavalent chromium compound (Cr(VI)) can induce both p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. While a considerable amount of information is available on the p53-dependent pathway, only little is known about the p53-independent pathway. To elucidate the p53-independent mechanism, the roles of the Ca 2+ -calpain- and mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathways in apoptosis induced by Cr(VI) were investigated. When human lymphoma U937 cells, p53 mutated cells, were treated with 20 μM Cr(VI) for 24 h, nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed. Production of hydroxyl radicals revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping, and increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration monitored by digital imaging were also observed in Cr(VI)-treated cells. An intracellular Ca 2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, and calpain inhibitors suppressed the Cr(VI)-induced DNA fragmentation. The number of cells showing low mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), high level of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 - ), and high activity of caspase-3, which are indicators of mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathway, increased significantly in Cr(VI)-treated cells. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), decreased DNA fragmentation and inhibited the changes in MMP, O 2 - formation, and activation of caspase-3 induced by Cr(VI). No increase of the expressions of Fas and phosphorylated JNK was observed after Cr(VI) treatment. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the fraction of G2/M phase tended to increase after 24 h of treatment, suggesting that Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis is related to the G2 block. These results indicate that Ca 2+ -calpain- and mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathways play significant roles in the Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis via the G2 block, which are independent of JNK and Fas activation. The inhibition of apoptosis and all its signal transductions by NAC suggests that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are

  13. MAPK Signal Transduction Pathway Regulation: A Novel Mechanism of Rat HSC-T6 Cell Apoptosis Induced by FUZHENGHUAYU Tablet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available FUZHENGHUAYU Tablets have been widely used in the treatment of liver fibrosis in China. Here, we investigate the apoptotic effect of FUZHENGHUAYU Tablet in rat liver stellate cell line HSC-T6. HSC-T6 cells were incubated with control serum or drug serum from rats fed with 0.9% NaCl or FUZHENGHUAYU Tablet, respectively. Cells exposed to drug serum showed higher proportions of early and late apoptotic cells than controls. The mRNA levels of collagens I and III, TGF-β1 and α-SMA were reduced by drug serum compared to control serum. Differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs were analyzed by microarray and sequencing, respectively. We identified 334 differentially expressed mRNAs and also 60 GOs and two pathways related to the mRNAs. Seventy-five differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated by drug serum and 1963 target genes were predicted. 134 GOs up-regulated in drug serum group were linked to miRNA targets, and drug serum also regulated 43 miRNA signal transduction pathways. Protein levels were evaluated by Western blot. Drug serum down-regulated (phospho-SAPK/JNK/(SAPK/JNK and up-regulated phospho-p38/p38 ratios. The study showed that FUZHENGHUAYU Tablet induced apoptosis in rat HSC-T6 cells possibly in part by activating p38 and inhibiting SAPK/JNK.

  14. Effects of active and inactive phospholipase D2 on signal transduction, adhesion, migration, invasion, and metastasis in EL4 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoepp, Stewart M; Chahal, Manpreet S; Xie, Yuhuan; Zhang, Zhihong; Brauner, Daniel J; Hallman, Mark A; Robinson, Stephanie A; Han, Shujie; Imai, Masaki; Tomlinson, Stephen; Meier, Kathryn E

    2008-09-01

    The phosphatidylcholine-using phospholipase D (PLD) isoform PLD2 is widely expressed in mammalian cells and is activated in response to a variety of promitogenic agonists. In this study, active and inactive hemagglutinin-tagged human PLD2 (HA-PLD2) constructs were stably expressed in an EL4 cell line lacking detectable endogenous PLD1 or PLD2. The overall goal of the study was to examine the roles of PLD2 in cellular signal transduction and cell phenotype. HA-PLD2 confers PLD activity that is activated by phorbol ester, ionomycin, and okadaic acid. Proliferation and Erk activation are unchanged in cells transfected with active PLD2; proliferation rate is decreased in cells expressing inactive PLD2. Basal tyrosine phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is increased in cells expressing active PLD2, as is phosphorylation of Akt; inactive PLD2 has no effect. Expression of active PLD2 is associated with increased spreading and elongation of cells on tissue culture plastic, whereas inactive PLD2 inhibits cell spreading. Inactive PLD2 also inhibits cell adhesion, migration, and serum-induced invasion. Cells expressing active PLD2 form metastases in syngeneic mice, as do the parental cells; cells expressing inactive PLD2 form fewer metastases than parental cells. In summary, active PLD2 enhances FAK phosphorylation, Akt activation, and cell invasion in EL4 lymphoma cells, whereas inactive PLD2 exerts inhibitory effects on adhesion, migration, invasion, and tumor formation. Overall, expression of active PLD2 enhances processes favorable to lymphoma cell metastasis, whereas expression of inactive PLD2 inhibits metastasis.

  15. Characterization of adenoviral transduction profile in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Jianzhong; Tai, Phillip W L; Lu, Yi; Li, Jia; Ma, Hong; Su, Qin; Wei, Qiang; Li, Hong; Gao, Guangping

    2017-09-01

    Prostate diseases are common in males worldwide with high morbidity. Gene therapy is an attractive therapeutic strategy for prostate diseases, however, it is currently underdeveloped. As well known, adeno virus (Ad) is the most widely used gene therapy vector. The aims of this study are to explore transduction efficiency of Ad in prostate cancer cells and normal prostate tissue, thus further providing guidance for future prostate pathophysiological studies and therapeutic development of prostate diseases. We produced Ad expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), and characterized the transduction efficiency of Ad in both human and mouse prostate cancer cell lines in vitro, as well as prostate tumor xenograft, and wild-type mouse prostate tissue in vivo. Ad transduction efficiency was determined by EGFP fluorescence using microscopy and flow cytometry. Cell type-specific transduction was examined by immunofluorescence staining of cell markers. Our data showed that Ad efficiently transduced human and mouse prostate cancer cells in vitro in a dose dependent manner. Following intratumoral and intraprostate injection, Ad could efficiently transduce prostate tumor xenograft and the major prostatic cell types in vivo, respectively. Our findings suggest that Ad can efficiently transduce prostate tumor cells in vitro as well as xenograft and normal prostate tissue in vivo, and further indicate that Ad could be a potentially powerful toolbox for future gene therapy of prostate diseases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Ganglioside GD2 in reception and transduction of cell death signal in tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doronin, Igor I; Vishnyakova, Polina A; Kholodenko, Irina V; Ponomarev, Eugene D; Ryazantsev, Dmitry Y; Molotkovskaya, Irina M; Kholodenko, Roman V

    2014-01-01

    susceptibility of tumor cell lines to cytotoxic effect of anti-GD2 antibodies. Results of this study demonstrate that anti-GD2 antibodies not only passively bind to the surface of tumor cells but also directly induce rapid cell death after the incubation with GD2-positive tumor cells. These results suggest a new role of GD2 as a receptor that actively transduces death signal in malignant cells

  17. Sensory cilia and integration of signal transduction in human health and disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren T; Pedersen, Lotte B; Schneider, Linda

    2007-01-01

    The primary cilium is a hallmark of mammalian tissue cells. Recent research has shown that these organelles display unique sets of selected signal transduction modules including receptors, ion channels, effector proteins and transcription factors that relay chemical and physical stimuli from the ...

  18. Wires in the soup: quantitative models of cell signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Living cells are capable of extracting information from their environments and mounting appropriate responses to a variety of associated challenges. The underlying signal transduction networks enabling this can be quite complex, necessitating for their unraveling by sophisticated computational modeling coupled with precise experimentation. Although we are still at the beginning of this process, some recent examples of integrative analysis of cell signaling are very encouraging. This review highlights the case of the NF-κB pathway in order to illustrate how a quantitative model of a signaling pathway can be gradually constructed through continuous experimental validation, and what lessons one might learn from such exercises. PMID:18291655

  19. Primary Cilia Modulate IHH Signal Transduction in Response to Hydrostatic Loading of Growth Plate Chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Y, Yvonne Y.; Wang, Lai; Welter, J, Jean F.; Ballock, R. Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Indian Hedgehog (Ihh) is a key component of the regulatory apparatus governing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the growth plate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium is the site of Ihh signaling within the cell, and that primary cilia are essential for bone and cartilage formation. Primary cilia are also postulated to act as mechanosensory organelles that transduce mechanical forces acting on the cell into biological signals. In this study, we used a hydrostatic compression system to examine Ihh signal transduction under the influence of mechanical load. Our results demonstrate that hydrostatic compression increased both Ihh gene expression and Ihh-responsive Gli-luciferase activity. These increases were aborted by disrupting the primary cilia structure with chloral hydrate. These results suggest that growth plate chondrocytes respond to hydrostatic loading by increasing Ihh signaling, and that the primary cilium is required for this mechano-biological signal transduction to occur. PMID:21930256

  20. Transduction of PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 into insulin-producing INS-1 cells protects them against cytokine-induced cell death

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Hyung Kyung [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Dong Keun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Eum, Won Sik; Park, Jinseu [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Soo Young, E-mail: sychoi@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science and Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hyeok Yil, E-mail: hykwon@hallym.ac.kr [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Chunchon 200-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-05

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, thereby triggering the development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. We recently developed a cell-permeable fusion protein, PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 (PEP-1-HO-1) and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage cells. In this study, we transduced PEP-1-HO-1 into INS-1 insulinoma cells and examined its protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. PEP-1-HO-1 was successfully delivered into INS-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner and was maintained within the cells for at least 48 h. Pre-treatment with PEP-1-HO-1 increased the survival of INS-1 cells exposed to cytokine mixture (IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. PEP-1-HO-1 markedly decreased cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These protective effects of PEP-1-HO-1 against cytokines were correlated with the changes in the levels of signaling mediators of inflammation (iNOS and COX-2) and cell apoptosis/survival (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, PARP, JNK, and Akt). These results showed that the transduced PEP-1-HO-1 efficiently prevented cytokine-induced cell death of INS-1 cells by alleviating oxidative/nitrosative stresses and inflammation. Further, these results suggested that PEP-1-mediated HO-1 transduction may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent β-cell destruction in patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • We showed that PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently delivered into INS-1 cells. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 exerted a protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 inhibited cytokine-induced ROS and NO accumulation. • PEP-1-HO-1 suppressed cytokine-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, and Bax. • PEP-1-HO-1 transduction may be an efficient tool to prevent β-cell destruction.

  1. Transduction of PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 into insulin-producing INS-1 cells protects them against cytokine-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Su Jin; Kang, Hyung Kyung; Song, Dong Keun; Eum, Won Sik; Park, Jinseu; Choi, Soo Young; Kwon, Hyeok Yil

    2015-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play a crucial role in the destruction of pancreatic β-cells, thereby triggering the development of autoimmune diabetes mellitus. We recently developed a cell-permeable fusion protein, PEP-1-heme oxygenase-1 (PEP-1-HO-1) and investigated the anti-inflammatory effects in macrophage cells. In this study, we transduced PEP-1-HO-1 into INS-1 insulinoma cells and examined its protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. PEP-1-HO-1 was successfully delivered into INS-1 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner and was maintained within the cells for at least 48 h. Pre-treatment with PEP-1-HO-1 increased the survival of INS-1 cells exposed to cytokine mixture (IL-1β, IFN-γ, and TNF-α) in a dose-dependent manner. PEP-1-HO-1 markedly decreased cytokine-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA). These protective effects of PEP-1-HO-1 against cytokines were correlated with the changes in the levels of signaling mediators of inflammation (iNOS and COX-2) and cell apoptosis/survival (Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, PARP, JNK, and Akt). These results showed that the transduced PEP-1-HO-1 efficiently prevented cytokine-induced cell death of INS-1 cells by alleviating oxidative/nitrosative stresses and inflammation. Further, these results suggested that PEP-1-mediated HO-1 transduction may be a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent β-cell destruction in patients with autoimmune diabetes mellitus. - Highlights: • We showed that PEP-1-HO-1 was efficiently delivered into INS-1 cells. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 exerted a protective effect against cytokine-induced cell death. • Transduced PEP-1-HO-1 inhibited cytokine-induced ROS and NO accumulation. • PEP-1-HO-1 suppressed cytokine-induced expression of iNOS, COX-2, and Bax. • PEP-1-HO-1 transduction may be an efficient tool to prevent β-cell destruction

  2. The third helix of the murine Hoxc8 homeodomain facilitates protein transduction in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Kyoung-Ah; Gadi, Jogeswar; Park, Hyoung Woo; Bok, Jinwoong; Kim, Myoung Hee

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we have demonstrated that purified Hoxc8 homeoprotein has the ability to penetrate the cellular membrane and can be transduced efficiently into COS-7 cells. Moreover, the Hoxc8 protein is able to form a complex with DNA molecules in vitro and helps the DNA be delivered intracellularly, serving as a gene delivery vehicle. Here, we further analyzed the membrane transduction activity of Hoxc8 protein and provide the evidence that the 16 amino acid (a.a.191-206, 2.23 kDa) third helix of murine Hoxc8 protein is an efficient protein transduction domain (PTD). When the 16 amino acid peptide was fused at the carboxyl terminal of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP), the fusion proteins were transduced efficiently into the primary pig fetal fibroblast cells. The transduction efficiency increased in a concentration-dependent manner up to 1 μM, and appeared to plateau above a concentration of 1 μM. When tandem multimers of PTD, EGFP-PTD(2), EGFP-PTD(3), EGFP-PTD(4), and EGFP-PTD(5), were analyzed at 500 nM of concentration, the penetrating efficiency increased in a dose-dependent manner. As the number of PTDs increased, the EGFP signal also increased, although the signal maintained plateau after EGFP-PTD(3). These results indicate that the 16 amino acid third helix is the key element responsible for the membrane transduction activity of Hoxc8 proteins, and further suggest that the small peptide could serve as a therapeutic delivery vehicle for large cargo proteins

  3. Information flow during gene activation by signaling molecules: ethylene transduction in Arabidopsis cells as a study system

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    Díaz José

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We study root cells from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the communication channel conformed by the ethylene signal transduction pathway. A basic equation taken from our previous work relates the probability of expression of the gene ERF1 to the concentration of ethylene. Results The above equation is used to compute the Shannon entropy (H or degree of uncertainty that the genetic machinery has during the decoding of the message encoded by the ethylene specific receptors embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and transmitted into the nucleus by the ethylene signaling pathway. We show that the amount of information associated with the expression of the master gene ERF1 (Ethylene Response Factor 1 can be computed. Then we examine the system response to sinusoidal input signals with varying frequencies to determine if the cell can distinguish between different regimes of information flow from the environment. Our results demonstrate that the amount of information managed by the root cell can be correlated with the frequency of the input signal. Conclusion The ethylene signaling pathway cuts off very low and very high frequencies, allowing a window of frequency response in which the nucleus reads the incoming message as a sinusoidal input. Out of this window the nucleus reads the input message as an approximately non-varying one. From this frequency response analysis we estimate: a the gain of the system during the synthesis of the protein ERF1 (~-5.6 dB; b the rate of information transfer (0.003 bits during the transport of each new ERF1 molecule into the nucleus and c the time of synthesis of each new ERF1 molecule (~21.3 s. Finally, we demonstrate that in the case of the system of a single master gene (ERF1 and a single slave gene (HLS1, the total Shannon entropy is completely determined by the uncertainty associated with the expression of the master gene. A second proposition shows that the Shannon entropy

  4. Exploring Transduction Mechanisms of Protein Transduction Domains (PTDs in Living Cells Utilizing Single-Quantum Dot Tracking (SQT Technology

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    Yasuhiro Suzuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific protein domains known as protein transduction domains (PTDs can permeate cell membranes and deliver proteins or bioactive materials into living cells. Various approaches have been applied for improving their transduction efficacy. It is, therefore, crucial to clarify the entry mechanisms and to identify the rate-limiting steps. Because of technical limitations for imaging PTD behavior on cells with conventional fluorescent-dyes, how PTDs enter the cells has been a topic of much debate. Utilizing quantum dots (QDs, we recently tracked the behavior of PTD that was derived from HIV-1 Tat (TatP in living cells at the single-molecule level with 7-nm special precision. In this review article, we initially summarize the controversy on TatP entry mechanisms; thereafter, we will focus on our recent findings on single-TatP-QD tracking (SQT, to identify the major sequential steps of intracellular delivery in living cells and to discuss how SQT can easily provide direct information on TatP entry mechanisms. As a primer for SQT study, we also discuss the latest findings on single particle tracking of various molecules on the plasma membrane. Finally, we discuss the problems of QDs and the challenges for the future in utilizing currently available QD probes for SQT. In conclusion, direct identification of the rate-limiting steps of PTD entry with SQT should dramatically improve the methods for enhancing transduction efficiency.

  5. Radiation-induced adaptive response and intracellular signal transduction pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachibana, Akira

    2009-01-01

    As an essential biological function, cells can sense the radiation even at low dose and respond to it, and which is one of bases of the radiation-induced adaptive response (AR) where effects caused by high dose radiation are reduced by prior exposure to low dose radiation (LDR). Here described are studies of AR in well established m5S cells on the intracellular signal transduction that involves sensing of LDR and transmitting of its signal within the cell network. The first signal for AR yielded by LDR on the cell membrane is exactly unknown though hydrogen peroxide and phorbol ester (PMA) can reportedly cause AR. As PMA activates protein kinase C (PKC) and its inhibitors suppress AR, participation of PKC in AR has been suggested and supported by studies showing PKCα activation by LDR. In addition, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is shown to participate in AR by those facts that the enzyme is activated by LDR, a p38 MAPK inhibitor suppresses AR, and PKC inhibitors suppress the enzyme activation, which also suggesting that the signaling from PKC to p38 MAPK can become operative by LDR. However, the possible reverse signaling is also suggested, and thus the activation of positive feedback mechanism is postulated in PKC/p38 MAPK/phospholipase δ1/ PKC pathway. Cells introduced with siRNA against Prkca gene (coding PKCs) produce reduced amount of the enzyme, particularly, of PKCα. In those cells, AR by 5 Gy X-ray is not observed and thereby PKCα is involved in AR. The signaling in AR is only partly elucidated at present as above, and more detailed studies including identification of more PKC subtypes and signaling to DNA repair system are considered necessary. (K.T.)

  6. Primary cilia modulate Ihh signal transduction in response to hydrostatic loading of growth plate chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yvonne Y; Wang, Lai; Welter, Jean F; Ballock, R Tracy

    2012-01-01

    Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is a key component of the regulatory apparatus governing chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation in the growth plate. Recent studies have demonstrated that the primary cilium is the site of Ihh signaling within the cell, and that primary cilia are essential for bone and cartilage formation. Primary cilia are also postulated to act as mechanosensory organelles that transduce mechanical forces acting on the cell into biological signals. In this study, we used a hydrostatic compression system to examine Ihh signal transduction under the influence of mechanical load. Our results demonstrate that hydrostatic compression increased both Ihh gene expression and Ihh-responsive Gli-luciferase activity. These increases were aborted by disrupting the primary cilia structure with chloral hydrate. These results suggest that growth plate chondrocytes respond to hydrostatic loading by increasing Ihh signaling, and that the primary cilium is required for this mechano-biological signal transduction to occur. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of the human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) mediated Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling transduction in proliferating mammalian dopaminergic neurons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Lei [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Physiology, Nankai University School of Medicine, Tianjin 300071 (China); Carr, Aprell L. [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Li, Ping; Lee, Jessica; McGregor, Mary [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Li, Lei, E-mail: Li.78@nd.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Center for Zebrafish Research, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Stil is a human oncogene that is conserved in vertebrate species. • Stil functions in the Shh pathway in mammalian cells. • The expression of Stil is required for mammalian dopaminergic cell proliferation. - Abstract: The human oncogene SCL/TAL1 interrupting locus (Stil) is highly conserved in all vertebrate species. In humans, the expression of Stil is involved in cancer cell survival, apoptosis and proliferation. In this research, we investigated the roles of Stil expression in cell proliferation of mammalian dopaminergic (DA) PC12 cells. Stil functions through the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signal transduction pathway. Co-immunoprecipitation tests revealed that STIL interacts with Shh downstream components, which include SUFU and GLI1. By examining the expression of Stil, Gli1, CyclinD2 (cell-cycle marker) and PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), we found that up-regulation of Stil expression (transfection with overexpression plasmids) increased Shh signaling transduction and PC12 cell proliferation, whereas down-regulation of Stil expression (by shRNA) inhibited Shh signaling transduction, and thereby decreased PC12 cell proliferation. Transient transfection of PC12 cells with Stil knockdown or overexpression plasmids did not affect PC12 cell neural differentiation, further indicating the specific roles of Stil in cell proliferation. The results from this research suggest that Stil may serve as a bio-marker for neurological diseases involved in DA neurons, such as Parkinson’s disease.

  8. On the nanotoxicity of PAMAM dendrimers: Superfect® stimulates the EGFR-ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway via an oxidative stress-dependent mechanism in HEK 293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Saghir; Chandrasekhar, Bindu; Attur, Sreeja; Yousif, Mariam H M; Benter, Ibrahim F

    2013-05-01

    Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers are cationic branch-like macromolecules that may serve as drug delivery systems for gene-based therapies such as RNA interference. For their safe use in the clinic, they should ideally only enhance drug delivery to target tissues and exhibit no adverse effects. However, little is known about their toxicological profiles in terms of their interactions with cellular signal transduction pathways such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The EGFR is an important signaling cascade that regulates cell growth, differentiation, migration, survival and apoptosis. Here, we investigated the impact of naked, unmodified Superfect (SF), a commercially available generation 6 PAMAM dendrimer, on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase-extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathway in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells. At concentrations routinely used for transfection, SF exhibited time and dose-dependent stimulation of EGFR and ERK1/2 phosphorylation whereas AG1478, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase antagonist, inhibited EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling. SF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR for 1h was partly reversible upon removal of the dendrimer and examination of cells 24 later. Co-treatment of SF with epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand resulted in greater EGFR stimulation than either agent alone implying that the stimulatory effects of SF and the ligand are synergistic. Dendrimer-induced stimulation of EGFR-ERK1/2 signaling could be attenuated by the antioxidants apocynin, catalase and tempol implying that an oxidative stress dependent mechanism was involved. These results show for the first time that PAMAM dendrimers, aside from their ability to improve drug delivery, can modulate the important EGFR-ERK1/2 cellular signal transduction pathway - a novel finding that may have a bearing on their safe application as drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, F.; Paul, S. S.; Wang, X. Q.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels.

  10. Immunocytochemical evidence for co-expression of Type III IP3 receptor with signaling components of bitter taste transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinnamon Sue C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste receptor cells are responsible for transducing chemical stimuli into electrical signals that lead to the sense of taste. An important second messenger in taste transduction is IP3, which is involved in both bitter and sweet transduction pathways. Several components of the bitter transduction pathway have been identified, including the T2R/TRB taste receptors, phospholipase C β2, and the G protein subunits α-gustducin, β3, and γ13. However, the identity of the IP3 receptor subtype in this pathway is not known. In the present study we used immunocytochemistry on rodent taste tissue to identify the IP3 receptors expressed in taste cells and to examine taste bud expression patterns for IP3R3. Results Antibodies against Type I, II, and III IP3 receptors were tested on sections of rat and mouse circumvallate papillae. Robust cytoplasmic labeling for the Type III IP3 receptor (IP3R3 was found in a large subset of taste cells in both species. In contrast, little or no immunoreactivity was seen with antibodies against the Type I or Type II IP3 receptors. To investigate the potential role of IP3R3 in bitter taste transduction, we used double-label immunocytochemistry to determine whether IP3R3 is expressed in the same subset of cells expressing other bitter signaling components. IP3R3 immunoreactive taste cells were also immunoreactive for PLCβ2 and γ13. Alpha-gustducin immunoreactivity was present in a subset of IP3R3, PLCβ2, and γ13 positive cells. Conclusions IP3R3 is the dominant form of the IP3 receptor expressed in taste cells and our data suggest it plays an important role in bitter taste transduction.

  11. Cannabinoid inhibition of adenylate cyclase-mediated signal transduction and interleukin 2 (IL-2) expression in the murine T-cell line, EL4.IL-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condie, R; Herring, A; Koh, W S; Lee, M; Kaminski, N E

    1996-05-31

    Cannabinoid receptors negatively regulate adenylate cyclase through a pertussis toxin-sensitive GTP-binding protein. In the present studies, signaling via the adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway was investigated in the murine thymoma-derived T-cell line, EL4.IL-2. Northern analysis of EL4.IL-2 cells identified the presence of 4-kilobase CB2 but not CB1 receptor-subtype mRNA transcripts. Southern analysis of genomic DNA digests for the CB2 receptor demonstrated identical banding patterns for EL4.IL-2 cells and mouse-derived DNA, both of which were dissimilar to DNA isolated from rat. Treatment of EL4.IL-2 cells with either cannabinol or Delta9-THC disrupted the adenylate cyclase signaling cascade by inhibiting forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation which consequently led to a decrease in protein kinase A activity and the binding of transcription factors to a CRE consensus sequence. Likewise, an inhibition of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-induced interleukin 2 (IL-2) protein secretion, which correlated to decreased IL-2 gene transcription, was induced by both cannabinol and Delta9-THC. Further, cannabinoid treatment also decreased PMA/ionomycin-induced nuclear factor binding to the AP-1 proximal site of the IL-2 promoter. Conversely, forskolin enhanced PMA/ionomycin-induced AP-1 binding. These findings suggest that inhibition of signal transduction via the adenylate cyclase/cAMP pathway induces T-cell dysfunction which leads to a diminution in IL-2 gene transcription.

  12. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

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    Hong-hua Peng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1 signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9% and 58 (68.2% tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively. Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883 and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681, MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279, and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881 as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  13. MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis and its prognostic impact in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Hong-hua; Zhang, Xi; Cao, Pei-guo [Department of Oncology, the Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province (China)

    2011-11-18

    The matrix metalloprotease-1 (MMP-1)/protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR-1) signal transduction axis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. To explore the expression and prognostic value of MMP-1 and PAR-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), we evaluated the expression of two proteins in resected specimens from 85 patients with ESCC by immunohistochemistry. Sixty-two (72.9%) and 58 (68.2%) tumors were MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive, respectively, while no significant staining was observed in normal esophageal squamous epithelium. MMP-1 and PAR-1 overexpression was significantly associated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and regional lymph node involvement. Patients with MMP-1- and PAR-1-positive tumors, respectively, had poorer disease-free survival (DFS) than those with negative ESCC (P = 0.002 and 0.003, respectively). Univariate analysis showed a significant relationship between TNM stage [hazard ratio (HR) = 2.836, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.866-4.308], regional lymph node involvement (HR = 2.955, 95%CI = 1.713-5.068), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.669, 95%CI = 1.229-6.127), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.762, 95%CI = 1.156-2.883) and DFS. Multivariate analysis including the above four parameters identified TNM stage (HR = 2.035, 95%CI = 1.167-3.681), MMP-1 expression (HR = 2.109, 95%CI = 1.293-3.279), and PAR-1 expression (HR = 1.967, 95%CI = 1.256-2.881) as independent and significant prognostic factors for DFS. Our data suggest for the first time that MMP-1 and PAR-1 were both overexpressed in ESCC and are novel predictors of poor patient prognosis after curative resection. The MMP-1/PAR-1 signal transduction axis might be a new therapeutic target for future therapies tailored against ESCC.

  14. Proteomics reveal energy metabolism and mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction perturbation in human Borna disease virus Hu-H1-infected oligodendroglial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Yang, Y; Zhao, M; Bode, L; Zhang, L; Pan, J; Lv, L; Zhan, Y; Liu, S; Zhang, L; Wang, X; Huang, R; Zhou, J; Xie, P

    2014-05-30

    Borna disease virus (BDV) is a neurotropic, non-cytolytic RNA virus which replicates in the cell nucleus targeting mainly hippocampal neurons, but also astroglial and oligodendroglial cells in the brain. BDV is associated with a large spectrum of neuropsychiatric pathologies in animals. Its relationship to human neuropsychiatric illness still remains controversial. We could recently demonstrate that human BDV strain Hu-H1 promoted apoptosis and inhibited cell proliferation in a human oligodendroglial cell line (OL cells) whereas laboratory BDV strain V acted contrariwise. Here, differential protein expression between BDV Hu-H1-infected OL cells and non-infected OL cells was assessed through a proteomics approach, using two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 63 differential host proteins were identified in BDV Hu-H1-infected OL cells compared to non-infected OL cells. We found that most changes referred to alterations related to the pentose phosphate pathway, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and glycolysis /gluconeogenesis. By manual querying, two differential proteins were found to be associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction. Five key signaling proteins of this pathway (i.e., p-Raf, p-MEK, p-ERK1/2, p-RSK, and p-MSK) were selected for Western blotting validation. p-ERK1/2 and p-RSK were found to be significantly up-regulated, and p-MSK was found to be significantly down-regulated in BDV Hu-H1-infected OL cells compared to non-infected OL cell. Although BDV Hu-H1 constitutively activated the ERK-RSK pathway, host cell proliferation and nuclear translocation of activated pERK in BDV Hu-H1-infected OL cells were impaired. These findings indicate that BDV Hu-H1 infection of human oligodendroglial cells significantly perturbs host energy metabolism, activates the downstream ERK-RSK complex of

  15. Cell type-specific roles of Jak3 in IL-2-induced proliferative signal transduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Hodaka

    2007-01-01

    Binding of interleukin-2 (IL-2) to its specific receptor induces activation of two members of Jak family protein tyrosine kinases, Jak1 and Jak3. An IL-2 receptor (IL-2R)-reconstituted NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell line proliferates in response to IL-2 only when hematopoietic lineage-specific Jak3 is ectopically expressed. However, the mechanism of Jak3-dependent proliferation in the fibroblast cell line is not known. Here, I showed that Jak3 expression is dispensable for IL-2-induced activation of Jak1 and Stat proteins and expression of nuclear proto-oncogenes in the IL-2R-reconstituted fibroblast cell line. Jak3 expression markedly enhanced these IL-2-induced signaling events. In contrast, Jak3 expression was essential for induction of cyclin genes involved in the G1-S transition. These data suggest a critical role of Jak3 in IL-2 signaling in the fibroblast cell line and may provide further insight into the cell type-specific mechanism of cytokine signaling

  16. Cell type-specific roles of Jak3 in IL-2-induced proliferative signal transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hodaka

    2007-01-01

    Binding of IL-2 to its specific receptor induces activation of two members of Jak family protein tyrosine kinases, Jak1 and Jak3. An IL-2R-reconstituted NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell line proliferates in response to IL-2 only when hematopoietic lineage-specific Jak3 is ectopically expressed. However, the mechanism of Jak3-dependent proliferation in the fibroblast cell line is not known. Here, I showed that Jak3 expression is dispensable for IL-2-induced activation of Jak1 and Stat proteins and expression of nuclear proto-oncogenes in the IL-2R-reconstituted fibroblast cell line. However, Jak3 expression markedly enhanced these IL-2-induced signaling events. In contrast, Jak3 expression was essential for induction of cyclin genes involved in the G1-S transition. These data suggest a critical role of Jak3 in IL-2 signaling in the fibroblast cell line and may provide further insight into the cell type-specific mechanism of cytokine signaling. PMID:17266928

  17. Towards a clinically relevant lentiviral transduction protocol for primary human CD34 hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Millington

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC, in particular mobilized peripheral blood stem cells, represent an attractive target for cell and gene therapy. Efficient gene delivery into these target cells without compromising self-renewal and multi-potency is crucial for the success of gene therapy. We investigated factors involved in the ex vivo transduction of CD34(+ HSCs in order to develop a clinically relevant transduction protocol for gene delivery. Specifically sought was a protocol that allows for efficient transduction with minimal ex vivo manipulation without serum or other reagents of animal origin.Using commercially available G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood (PB CD34(+ cells as the most clinically relevant target, we systematically examined factors including the use of serum, cytokine combinations, pre-stimulation time, multiplicity of infection (MOI, transduction duration and the use of spinoculation and/or retronectin. A self-inactivating lentiviral vector (SIN-LV carrying enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP was used as the gene delivery vehicle. HSCs were monitored for transduction efficiency, surface marker expression and cellular function. We were able to demonstrate that efficient gene transduction can be achieved with minimal ex vivo manipulation while maintaining the cellular function of transduced HSCs without serum or other reagents of animal origin.This study helps to better define factors relevant towards developing a standard clinical protocol for the delivery of SIN-LV into CD34(+ cells.

  18. Modeling evolution of crosstalk in noisy signal transduction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tareen, Ammar; Wingreen, Ned S.; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan

    2018-02-01

    Signal transduction networks can form highly interconnected systems within cells due to crosstalk between constituent pathways. To better understand the evolutionary design principles underlying such networks, we study the evolution of crosstalk for two parallel signaling pathways that arise via gene duplication. We use a sequence-based evolutionary algorithm and evolve the network based on two physically motivated fitness functions related to information transmission. We find that one fitness function leads to a high degree of crosstalk while the other leads to pathway specificity. Our results offer insights on the relationship between network architecture and information transmission for noisy biomolecular networks.

  19. Curcumin blocks interleukin-1 signaling in chondrosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kalinski

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-1 signaling plays an important role in inflammatory processes, but also in malignant processes. The essential downstream event in IL-1 signaling is the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB, which leads to the expression of several genes that are involved in cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis, among them VEGF-A. As microenvironment-derived IL-1β is required for invasion and angiogenesis in malignant tumors, also in chondrosarcomas, we investigated IL-1β-induced signal transduction and VEGF-A expression in C3842 and SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. We additionally performed in vitro angiogenesis assays and NF-κB-related gene expression analyses. Curcumin is a substance which inhibits IL-1 signaling very early by preventing the recruitment of IL-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK to the IL-1 receptor. We demonstrate that IL-1 signaling and VEGF-A expression are blocked by Curcumin in chondrosarcoma cells. We further show that Curcumin blocks IL-1β-induced angiogenesis and NF-κB-related gene expression. We suppose that IL-1 blockade is an additional treatment option in chondrosarcoma, either by Curcumin, its derivatives or other IL-1 blocking agents.

  20. Crammed signaling motifs in the T-cell receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroto, Aldo; Abia, David; Alarcón, Balbino

    2014-09-01

    Although the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) is long known to contain multiple signaling subunits (CD3γ, CD3δ, CD3ɛ and CD3ζ), their role in signal transduction is still not well understood. The presence of at least one immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in each CD3 subunit has led to the idea that the multiplication of such elements essentially serves to amplify signals. However, the evolutionary conservation of non-ITAM sequences suggests that each CD3 subunit is likely to have specific non-redundant roles at some stage of development or in mature T cell function. The CD3ɛ subunit is paradigmatic because in a relatively short cytoplasmic sequence (∼55 amino acids) it contains several docking sites for proteins involved in intracellular trafficking and signaling, proteins whose relevance in T cell activation is slowly starting to be revealed. In this review we will summarize our current knowledge on the signaling effectors that bind directly to the TCR and we will propose a hierarchy in their response to TCR triggering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Integration of adeno-associated virus vectors in CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitor cells after transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher-Adams, G; Wong, K K; Podsakoff, G; Forman, S J; Chatterjee, S

    1996-07-15

    Gene transfer vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) appear promising because of their high transduction frequencies regardless of cell cycle status and ability to integrate into chromosomal DNA. We tested AAV-mediated gene transfer into a panel of human bone marrow or umbilical cord-derived CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells, using vectors encoding several transgenes under the control of viral and cellular promoters. Gene transfer was evaluated by (1) chromosomal integration of vector sequences and (2) analysis of transgene expression. Southern hybridization and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of transduced CD34 genomic DNA showed the presence of integrated vector sequences in chromosomal DNA in a portion of transduced cells and showed that integrated vector sequences were replicated along with cellular DNA during mitosis. Transgene expression in transduced CD34 cells in suspension cultures and in myeloid colonies differentiating in vitro from transduced CD34 cells approximated that predicted by the multiplicity of transduction. This was true in CD34 cells from different donors, regardless of the transgene or selective pressure. Comparisons of CD34 cell transduction either before or after cytokine stimulation showed similar gene transfer frequencies. Our findings suggest that AAV transduction of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells is efficient, can lead to stable integration in a population of transduced cells, and may therefore provide the basis for safe and efficient ex vivo gene therapy of the hematopoietic system.

  2. Proteomic Dissection of Nanotopography-Sensitive Mechanotransductive Signaling Hubs that Foster Neuronal Differentiation in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Maffioli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal cells are competent in precisely sensing nanotopographical features of their microenvironment. The perceived microenvironmental information will be “interpreted” by mechanotransductive processes and impacts on neuronal functioning and differentiation. Attempts to influence neuronal differentiation by engineering substrates that mimic appropriate extracellular matrix (ECM topographies are hampered by the fact that profound details of mechanosensing/-transduction complexity remain elusive. Introducing omics methods into these biomaterial approaches has the potential to provide a deeper insight into the molecular processes and signaling cascades underlying mechanosensing/-transduction but their exigence in cellular material is often opposed by technical limitations of major substrate top-down fabrication methods. Supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD allows instead the bottom-up fabrication of nanostructured substrates over large areas characterized by a quantitatively controllable ECM-like nanoroughness that has been recently shown to foster neuron differentiation and maturation. Exploiting this capacity of SCBD, we challenged mechanosensing/-transduction and differentiative behavior of neuron-like PC12 cells with diverse nanotopographies and/or changes of their biomechanical status, and analyzed their phosphoproteomic profiles in these settings. Versatile proteins that can be associated to significant processes along the mechanotransductive signal sequence, i.e., cell/cell interaction, glycocalyx and ECM, membrane/f-actin linkage and integrin activation, cell/substrate interaction, integrin adhesion complex, actomyosin organization/cellular mechanics, nuclear organization, and transcriptional regulation, were affected. The phosphoproteomic data suggested furthermore an involvement of ILK, mTOR, Wnt, and calcium signaling in these nanotopography- and/or cell mechanics-related processes. Altogether, potential nanotopography

  3. Functional inhibition of NF-kappa B signal transduction in alpha v alpha beta 3 integrin expressing endothelial cells by using RGD-PEG-modified adenovirus with a mutant I kappa B gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogawara, K; Kuldo, JM; Oosterhuis, K; Kroesen, BJ; Rots, MG; Trautwein, C; Kimura, T; Haisma, HJ; Molema, G

    2006-01-01

    In order to selectively block nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B)-dependent signal transduction in angiogenic endothelial cells, we constructed an alpha v beta 3 integrin specific adenovirus encoding dominant negative I kappa B (dnI kappa B) as a therapeutic gene. By virtue of RGD modification of

  4. Ca2+ signaling in pancreatic acinar cells: physiology and pathophysiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.H. Petersen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The pancreatic acinar cell is a classical model for studies of secretion and signal transduction mechanisms. Because of the extensive endoplasmic reticulum and the large granular compartment, it has been possible - by direct measurements - to obtain considerable insights into intracellular Ca2+ handling under both normal and pathological conditions. Recent studies have also revealed important characteristics of stimulus-secretion coupling mechanisms in isolated human pancreatic acinar cells. The acinar cells are potentially dangerous because of the high intra-granular concentration of proteases, which become inappropriately activated in the human disease acute pancreatitis. This disease is due to toxic Ca2+ signals generated by excessive liberation of Ca2+ from both the endoplasmic reticulum and the secretory granules.

  5. The cellular response to vascular endothelial growth factors requires co-ordinated signal transduction, trafficking and proteolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gina A; Fearnley, Gareth W; Tomlinson, Darren C; Harrison, Michael A; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-08-18

    VEGFs (vascular endothelial growth factors) are a family of conserved disulfide-linked soluble secretory glycoproteins found in higher eukaryotes. VEGFs mediate a wide range of responses in different tissues including metabolic homoeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis. Such responses are initiated by VEGF binding to soluble and membrane-bound VEGFRs (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinases) and co-receptors. VEGF and receptor splice isoform diversity further enhances complexity of membrane protein assembly and function in signal transduction pathways that control multiple cellular responses. Different signal transduction pathways are simultaneously activated by VEGFR-VEGF complexes with membrane trafficking along the endosome-lysosome network further modulating signal output from multiple enzymatic events associated with such pathways. Balancing VEGFR-VEGF signal transduction with trafficking and proteolysis is essential in controlling the intensity and duration of different intracellular signalling events. Dysfunction in VEGF-regulated signal transduction is important in chronic disease states including cancer, atherosclerosis and blindness. This family of growth factors and receptors is an important model system for understanding human disease pathology and developing new therapeutics for treating such ailments. © 2015 Authors.

  6. Ionizing radiation-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szumiel, I.

    1994-01-01

    Selected aspects of radiation-induced cell death, connected with signal transduction pathways are reviewed. Cell death is defined as insufficiency of the cellular signal transducing system to maintain the cell's physiological functions. The insufficiency may be due to impaired signal reception and/or transduction, lack or erroneous transcription activation, and eventual cellular ''misexpression'' of the signal. The molecular basis of this insufficiency would be damage to genomic (but also other cellular) structures and closing of specific signalling pathways or opening of others (like those leading to apoptosis). I describe experimental data that suggest an important role of RAS/NFI and p53/p105 Rb proteins in cell cycle control-coupled responses to DNA damage. (Author)

  7. Specific cellular signal-transduction responses to in vivo combination therapy with ATRA, valproic acid and theophylline in acute myeloid leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skavland, J; Jørgensen, K M [Hematology Section, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Hadziavdic, K [Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Hovland, R [Center for Medical Genetics and Molecular Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Jonassen, I [Department of Informatics, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Computational Biology Unit, Bergen Centre for Computational Science, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Bruserud, Ø; Gjertsen, B T, E-mail: bjorn.gjertsen@med.uib.no [Hematology Section, Institute of Medicine, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Hematology Section, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway)

    2011-02-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) frequently comprises mutations in genes that cause perturbation in intracellular signaling pathways, thereby altering normal responses to growth factors and cytokines. Such oncogenic cellular signal transduction may be therapeutic if targeted directly or through epigenetic regulation. We treated 24 selected elderly AML patients with all-trans retinoic acid for 2 days before adding theophylline and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00175812; EudraCT no. 2004-001663-22), and sampled 11 patients for peripheral blood at day 0, 2 and 7 for single-cell analysis of basal level and signal-transduction responses to relevant myeloid growth factors (granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte/macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, interleukin-3, Flt3L, stem cell factor, erythropoietin, CXCL-12) on 10 signaling molecules (CREB, STAT1/3/5, p38, Erk1/2, Akt, c-Cbl, ZAP70/Syk and rpS6). Pretreatment analysis by unsupervised clustering and principal component analysis divided the patients into three distinguishable signaling clusters (non-potentiated, potentiated basal and potentiated signaling). Signal-transduction pathways were modulated during therapy and patients moved between the clusters. Patients with multiple leukemic clones demonstrated distinct stimulation responses and therapy-induced modulation. Individual signaling profiles together with clinical and hematological information may be used to early identify AML patients in whom epigenetic and signal-transduction targeted therapy is beneficial.

  8. Signaling by Kit protein-tyrosine kinase--the stem cell factor receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskoski, Robert

    2005-11-11

    Signaling by stem cell factor and Kit, its receptor, plays important roles in gametogenesis, hematopoiesis, mast cell development and function, and melanogenesis. Moreover, human and mouse embryonic stem cells express Kit transcripts. Stem cell factor exists as both a soluble and a membrane-bound glycoprotein while Kit is a receptor protein-tyrosine kinase. The complete absence of stem cell factor or Kit is lethal. Deficiencies of either produce defects in red and white blood cell production, hypopigmentation, and sterility. Gain-of-function mutations of Kit are associated with several human neoplasms including acute myelogenous leukemia, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and mastocytomas. Kit consists of an extracellular domain, a transmembrane segment, a juxtamembrane segment, and a protein kinase domain that contains an insert of about 80 amino acid residues. Binding of stem cell factor to Kit results in receptor dimerization and activation of protein kinase activity. The activated receptor becomes autophosphorylated at tyrosine residues that serve as docking sites for signal transduction molecules containing SH2 domains. The adaptor protein APS, Src family kinases, and Shp2 tyrosyl phosphatase bind to phosphotyrosine 568. Shp1 tyrosyl phosphatase and the adaptor protein Shc bind to phosphotyrosine 570. C-terminal Src kinase homologous kinase and the adaptor Shc bind to both phosphotyrosines 568 and 570. These residues occur in the juxtamembrane segment of Kit. Three residues in the kinase insert domain are phosphorylated and attract the adaptor protein Grb2 (Tyr703), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (Tyr721), and phospholipase Cgamma (Tyr730). Phosphotyrosine 900 in the distal kinase domain binds phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which in turn binds the adaptor protein Crk. Phosphotyrosine 936, also in the distal kinase domain, binds the adaptor proteins APS, Grb2, and Grb7. Kit has the potential to participate in multiple signal transduction pathways as a result of

  9. Dual functional extracellular recording using a light-addressable potentiometric sensor for bitter signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Wang, Jian; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Luhang; Wu, Chunsheng; Wang, Ping

    2018-08-31

    This paper presents a dual functional extracellular recording biosensor based on a light-addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS). The design and fabrication of this biosensor make it possible to record both extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release from a single taste bud cell for the first time. For detecting ATP release, LAPS chip was functionalized with ATP-sensitive DNA aptamer by covalent immobilization. Taste bud cells isolated from rat were cultured on LAPS surface. When the desired single taste bud cell was illuminated by modulated light, ATP release from single taste bud cells can be measured by recording the shifts of bias voltage-photocurrent curves (I-V curves) when the LAPS chip is working in discrete mode. On the other hand, extracellular membrane potential changes can be monitored by recording the fluctuation of LAPS photocurrent when the LAPS chip is working in continuous mode. The results show this biosensor can effectively record the enhancive effect of the bitter substance and inhibitory effect of the carbenoxolone (CBX) on the extracellular membrane potential changes and ATP release of single taste bud cells. In addition, the inhibitory effect of CBX also confirms LAPS extracellular recordings are originated from bitter signal transduction. It is proved this biosensor is suitable for extracellular recording of ATP release and membrane potential changes of single taste bud cells. It is suggested this biosensor could be applied to investigating taste signal transduction at the single-cell level as well as applied to other types of cells which have similar functions to taste bud cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Defect in radiation signal transduction in ataxia-telangiectasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavin, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Exposure of mammalian cells to ionizing radiation causes a delay in progression through the cycle at several checkpoints. Cells from patients with ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) ignore these checkpoint controls postirradiation. The tumour suppressor gene product p53 plays a key role at the G 1 /S checkpoint preventing the progression of cells into S phase. The induction of p53 by radiation is reduced and/or delayed in A-T cells, which appears to account for the failure of delay at the G 1 /S checkpoint. We have investigated further this defect in radiation signal transduction in A-T. While the p53 response was defective after radiation, agents that interfered with cell cycle progression such as mimosine, aphidicolin and deprivation of serum led to a normal p53 response in A-T cells. None of these agents caused breaks in DNA, as determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis, in order to elicit the response. Since this pathway is mediated by protein kinases, we investigated the activity of several of these enzymes in control and A-T cells. Ca +2 -dependent and -independent protein kinase C activities were increased by radiation to the same extent in the two cell types, a variety of serine/threonine protein kinase activities were approximately the same and anti-tyrosine antibodies failed to reveal any differences in protein phosphorylation between A-T and control cells. (author)

  11. Phosphoproteomics-based systems analysis of signal transduction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eKozuka-Hata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems coordinate complex cellular information to regulate biological events such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Although the accumulating evidence on widespread association of signaling molecules has revealed essential contribution of phosphorylation-dependent interaction networks to cellular regulation, their dynamic behavior is mostly yet to be analyzed. Recent technological advances regarding mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics have enabled us to describe the comprehensive status of phosphorylated molecules in a time-resolved manner. Computational analyses based on the phosphoproteome dynamics accelerate generation of novel methodologies for mathematical analysis of cellular signaling. Phosphoproteomics-based numerical modeling can be used to evaluate regulatory network elements from a statistical point of view. Integration with transcriptome dynamics also uncovers regulatory hubs at the transcriptional level. These omics-based computational methodologies, which have firstly been applied to representative signaling systems such as the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway, have now opened up a gate for systems analysis of signaling networks involved in immune response and cancer.

  12. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition.

  13. Wnt Signaling in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC accounts for 90% of all kidney cancers. Due to poor diagnosis, high resistance to the systemic therapies and the fact that most RCC cases occur sporadically, current research switched its focus on studying the molecular mechanisms underlying RCC. The aim is the discovery of new effective and less toxic anti-cancer drugs and novel diagnostic markers. Besides the PI3K/Akt/mTOR, HGF/Met and VHL/hypoxia cellular signaling pathways, the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in RCC is commonly studied. Wnt signaling and its targeted genes are known to actively participate in different biological processes during embryonic development and renal cancer. Recently, studies have shown that targeting this pathway by alternating/inhibiting its intracellular signal transduction can reduce cancer cells viability and inhibit their growth. The targets and drugs identified show promising potential to serve as novel RCC therapeutics and prognostic markers. This review aims to summarize the current status quo regarding recent research on RCC focusing on the involvement of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and how its understanding could facilitate the identification of potential therapeutic targets, new drugs and diagnostic biomarkers.

  14. PKC signaling is involved in the regulation of progranulin (acrogranin/PC-cell-derived growth factor/granulin-epithelin precursor) protein expression in human ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Cueto, Laura; Arechavaleta-Velasco, Fabian; Diaz-Arizaga, Adriana; Dominguez-Lopez, Pablo; Robles-Flores, Martha

    2012-07-01

    Overexpression of progranulin (also named acrogranin, PC-cell-derived growth factor, or granulin-epithelin precursor) is associated with ovarian cancer, specifically with cell proliferation, malignancy, chemoresistance, and shortened overall survival. The objective of the current study is to identify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of progranulin expression in ovarian cancer cell lines. We studied the relation of protein kinase C (PKC), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase A, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt pathways on the modulation of progranulin expression levels in NIH-OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cell lines. The different pathways were examined using pharmacological inhibitors (calphostin C, LY294002, H89, SB203580, PD98059, and Akt Inhibitor), and mRNA and protein progranulin expression were analyzed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blot techniques, respectively. Inhibition of PKC signal transduction pathway by calphostin C decreased in a dose-dependent manner protein but not mRNA levels of progranulin in both ovarian cancer cell lines. LY294002 but not wortmannin, which are phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitors, also diminished the expression of progranulin in both cell lines. In addition, LY294002 treatment produced a significant reduction in cell viability. Inhibition of protein kinase A, P38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and Akt did not affect progranulin protein expression. These results suggest that the PKC signaling is involved in the regulation of progranulin protein expression in 2 different ovarian cancer cell lines. Inhibiting these intracellular signal transduction pathways may provide a future therapeutic target for hindering the cellular proliferation and invasion in ovarian cancer produced by progranulin.

  15. Signal transduction meets vesicle traffic: the software and hardware of GLUT4 translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klip, Amira; Sun, Yi; Chiu, Tim Ting; Foley, Kevin P

    2014-05-15

    Skeletal muscle is the major tissue disposing of dietary glucose, a function regulated by insulin-elicited signals that impart mobilization of GLUT4 glucose transporters to the plasma membrane. This phenomenon, also central to adipocyte biology, has been the subject of intense and productive research for decades. We focus on muscle cell studies scrutinizing insulin signals and vesicle traffic in a spatiotemporal manner. Using the analogy of an integrated circuit to approach the intersection between signal transduction and vesicle mobilization, we identify signaling relays ("software") that engage structural/mechanical elements ("hardware") to enact the rapid mobilization and incorporation of GLUT4 into the cell surface. We emphasize how insulin signal transduction switches from tyrosine through lipid and serine phosphorylation down to activation of small G proteins of the Rab and Rho families, describe key negative regulation step of Rab GTPases through the GTPase-activating protein activity of the Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), and focus on the mechanical effectors engaged by Rabs 8A and 10 (the molecular motor myosin Va), and the Rho GTPase Rac1 (actin filament branching and severing through Arp2/3 and cofilin). Finally, we illustrate how actin filaments interact with myosin 1c and α-Actinin4 to promote vesicle tethering as preamble to fusion with the membrane. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Effect of Lipoglycans from Mycobacterium Chelonae on the expression of inflammatory factors IL-8 and IL-6 in human corneal epithelial cells and its possible signal transduction pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Zhou Tang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the influence of Lipoglycans from Mycobacterium Chelonae(Cheon the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 in human corneal epithelia cells and its possible signal transduction pathway.METHODS: Lipoglycans was extracted by the Triton X-114 phase partitioning. Lipoglycans from Che were purified, by successive detergent and phenol extractions. Lipoglycans were separated by gel filtration on a Sephacryl 200 column and Sephacryl 100 column in series, followed by extensive dialisis. Purified Lipoglycans(50μg/mLwere added into culture medium to stimulate primary human corneal epithelial(HCEcells. Cells and supernatant were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24h after the stimulation. The IL-6 and IL-8 expression at mRNA level was assayed by using real time RT-PCR and the secreted IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatants was measured by ELISA. Immunochemistry was used to detect the expression and location of NF-κB in HCE cells.RESULTS: After the treatment of Lipoglycans, the expression of IL-8 and IL-6 at mRNA level obviouly increased within 12h, and reached peak level at 6h(IL-8 was 36.8 times that of the blank control, and IL-6 was 32.7 times. Compared with the blank control group, the expression of IL-8 at protein level in the supernatant increased 2.8 folds at 6h(P>0.05, 13.4 folds at 12h(PPPPPCONCLUSION: Lipoglycans from Che can induce HCE cells to produce inflammatory factors(IL-6 and IL-8, and its signal transduction pathway probably is mediated by NF-κB.

  17. Modulators of Stomatal Lineage Signal Transduction Alter Membrane Contact Sites and Reveal Specialization among ERECTA Kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chin-Min Kimmy; Paciorek, Tomasz; Abrash, Emily; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2016-08-22

    Signal transduction from a cell's surface to its interior requires dedicated signaling elements and a cellular environment conducive to signal propagation. Plant development, defense, and homeostasis rely on plasma membrane receptor-like kinases to perceive endogenous and environmental signals, but little is known about their immediate downstream targets and signaling modifiers. Using genetics, biochemistry, and live-cell imaging, we show that the VAP-RELATED SUPPRESSOR OF TMM (VST) family is required for ERECTA-mediated signaling in growth and cell-fate determination and reveal a role for ERECTA-LIKE2 in modulating signaling by its sister kinases. We show that VSTs are peripheral plasma membrane proteins that can form complexes with integral ER-membrane proteins, thereby potentially influencing the organization of the membrane milieu to promote efficient and differential signaling from the ERECTA-family members to their downstream intracellular targets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tyk2 expression and its signaling enhances the invasiveness of prostate cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, Hisamitsu; Nakagawa, Takashi; Terado, Yuichi; Kamiyama, Yutaka; Muto, Satoru; Horie, Shigeo

    2008-01-01

    Protein tyrosine kinase plays a central role in the proliferation and differentiation of various types of cells. One of these protein kinases, Tyk2, a member of the Jak family kinases, is known to play important roles in receptor signal transduction by interferons, interleukins, growth factors, and other hormones. In the present study, we investigated Tyk2 expression and its role in the growth and invasiveness of human prostate cancer cells. We used a small interfering RNA targeting Tyk2 and an inhibitor of Tyk2, tyrphostin A1, to suppress the expression and signaling of Tyk2 in prostate cancer cells. We detected mRNAs for Jak family kinases in prostate cancer cell lines by RT-PCR and Tyk2 protein in human prostate cancer specimens by immunohistochemistry. Inhibition of Tyk2 signaling resulted in attenuation of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator-enhanced invasiveness of prostate cancer cells in vitro without affecting the cellular growth rate. These results suggest that Tyk2 signaling in prostate cancer cells facilitate invasion of these cells, and interference with this signaling may be a potential therapeutic pathway

  19. Nitric oxide-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by heavy-ion microbeam irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Masanori; Matsumoto, Hideki; Funayama, Tomoo; Yokota, Yuichiro; Otsuka, Kensuke; Maeda, Munetoshi; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko

    2015-07-01

    In general, a radiation-induced bystander response is known to be a cellular response induced in non-irradiated cells after receiving bystander signaling factors released from directly irradiated cells within a cell population. Bystander responses induced by high-linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions at low fluence are an important health problem for astronauts in space. Bystander responses are mediated via physical cell-cell contact, such as gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) and/or diffusive factors released into the medium in cell culture conditions. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known major initiator/mediator of intercellular signaling within culture medium during bystander responses. In this study, we investigated the NO-mediated bystander signal transduction induced by high-LET argon (Ar)-ion microbeam irradiation of normal human fibroblasts. Foci formation by DNA double-strand break repair proteins was induced in non-irradiated cells, which were co-cultured with those irradiated by high-LET Ar-ion microbeams in the same culture plate. Foci formation was suppressed significantly by pretreatment with an NO scavenger. Furthermore, NO-mediated reproductive cell death was also induced in bystander cells. Phosphorylation of NF-κB and Akt were induced during NO-mediated bystander signaling in the irradiated and bystander cells. However, the activation of these proteins depended on the incubation time after irradiation. The accumulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a downstream target of NO and NF-κB, was observed in the bystander cells 6 h after irradiation but not in the directly irradiated cells. Our findings suggest that Akt- and NF-κB-dependent signaling pathways involving COX-2 play important roles in NO-mediated high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander responses. In addition, COX-2 may be used as a molecular marker of high-LET heavy-ion-induced bystander cells to distinguish them from directly irradiated cells, although this may depend on the time

  20. Signal transduction around thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP in atopic asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuepper Michael

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, a novel interleukin-7-like cytokine, triggers dendritic cell-mediated inflammatory responses ultimately executed by T helper cells of the Th2 subtype. TSLP emerged as a central player in the development of allergic symptoms, especially in the airways, and is a prime regulatory cytokine at the interface of virus- or antigen-exposed epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs. DCs activated by epithelium-derived TSLP can promote naïve CD4+ T cells to adopt a Th2 phenotype, which in turn recruite eosinophilic and basophilic granulocytes as well as mast cells into the airway mucosa. These different cells secrete inflammatory cytokines and chemokines operative in inducing an allergic inflammation and atopic asthma. TSLP is, thus, involved in the control of both an innate and an adaptive immune response. Since TSLP links contact of allergen with the airway epithelium to the onset and maintainance of the asthmatic syndrome, defining the signal transduction underlying TSLP expression and function is of profound interest for a better understandimg of the disease and for the development of new therapeutics.

  1. Signal transduction in mitogenesis: Further evidence for multiple pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozengurt, E.; Erusalimsky, J.; Mehmet, H.; Morris, C.; Nanberg, E.; Sinnett-Smith, J.

    1988-01-01

    Growth factors are implicated in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, including embryogenesis, hematopoiesis, would healing, immune responses, atherosclerosis, and neoplasia. An important link between growth factors and their receptors and oncogene products has also been established. Thus, the elucidation of the mechanism of action of growth factors has emerged as one of the fundamental problems in biology and may prove crucial for understanding the unrestrained proliferation of cancer cells. A new and intriguing development is the discovery that neuropeptides localized in neural and neuroendocrine cells of mammalian tissue can also act as growth factors for cells in culture. Furthermore, indirect evidence is accumulating that the mitogenic effects of neuropeptides may be relevant for a variety of long-term biological processes, including development and oncogenesis. In this context, the peptides of the bombesin family are of particular significance. These peptides are potent mitogens for Swiss 3T3 cells and may act as autocrine growth factors for small cell lung cancer. Here, the authors summarize their recent studies using bombesin-like peptides for elucidating the signal transduction pathways leading to mitogenesis and compare these pathways with those elicited by other growth factors

  2. Characterization of Cell Surface and EPS Remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense Chemotaxis-like 1 Signal Transduction Pathway mutants by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billings, Amanda N [ORNL; Siuti, Piro [ORNL; Bible, Amber [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Alexandre, Gladys [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must quickly sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the modulation of multiple cellular responses, including motility, EPS production, and cell-to-cell interactions. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from Azospirillum brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation. In A. brasilense, cell surface properties, including EPS production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we have detected distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains that are absent in the wild type strain. Whereas the wild type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition and lectin-binding assays suggest that the composition of EPS components in the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that mutations in the Che1 pathway that result in increased flocculation are correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix structure produced by the mutants, including likely changes in the EPS structure and/or composition.

  3. A protocol to assess cell cycle and apoptosis in human and mouse pluripotent cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edel Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem cells (ESC and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs present a great opportunity to treat and model human disease as a cell replacement therapy. There is a growing pressure to understand better the signal transduction pathways regulating pluripotency and self-renewal of these special cells in order to deliver a safe and reliable cell based therapy in the near future. Many signal transduction pathways converge on two major cell functions associated with self-renewal and pluripotency: control of the cell cycle and apoptosis, although a standard method is lacking across the field. Here we present a detailed protocol to assess the cell cycle and apoptosis of ESC and iPSCs as a single reference point offering an easy to use standard approach across the field.

  4. Inflammation activates the interferon signaling pathways in taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Zhou, Minliang; Brand, Joseph; Huang, Liquan

    2007-10-03

    Patients with viral and bacterial infections or other inflammatory illnesses often experience taste dysfunctions. The agents responsible for these taste disorders are thought to be related to infection-induced inflammation, but the mechanisms are not known. As a first step in characterizing the possible role of inflammation in taste disorders, we report here evidence for the presence of interferon (IFN)-mediated signaling pathways in taste bud cells. IFN receptors, particularly the IFN-gamma receptor IFNGR1, are coexpressed with the taste cell-type markers neuronal cell adhesion molecule and alpha-gustducin, suggesting that both the taste receptor cells and synapse-forming cells in the taste bud can be stimulated by IFN. Incubation of taste bud-containing lingual epithelia with recombinant IFN-alpha and IFN-gamma triggered the IFN-mediated signaling cascades, resulting in the phosphorylation of the downstream STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription protein 1) transcription factor. Intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid into mice, mimicking bacterial and viral infections, respectively, altered gene expression patterns in taste bud cells. Furthermore, the systemic administration of either IFN-alpha or IFN-gamma significantly increased the number of taste bud cells undergoing programmed cell death. These findings suggest that bacterial and viral infection-induced IFNs can act directly on taste bud cells, affecting their cellular function in taste transduction, and that IFN-induced apoptosis in taste buds may cause abnormal cell turnover and skew the representation of different taste bud cell types, leading to the development of taste disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study providing direct evidence that inflammation can affect taste buds through cytokine signaling pathways.

  5. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX activates Wnt/β-catenin signalling to stimulate neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qiuhao; Sun, Guoqiang; Li, Wenwu; Yang, Su; Ye, Peng; Zhao, Chunnian; Yu, Ruth T.; Gage, Fred H.; Evans, Ronald M.; Shi, Yanhong

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor TLX (also known as NR2E1) is essential for adult neural stem cell self-renewal; however, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we show that TLX activates the canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway in adult mouse neural stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signalling is important in the proliferation and self-renewal of adult neural stem cells in the presence of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor. Wnt7a and active β-catenin promote neural stem cell self-renewal, whereas the deletion of Wnt7a or the lentiviral transduction of axin, a β-catenin inhibitor, led to decreased cell proliferation in adult neurogenic areas. Lentiviral transduction of active β-catenin led to increased numbers of type B neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of adult brains, whereas deletion of Wnt7a or TLX resulted in decreased numbers of neural stem cells retaining bromodeoxyuridine label in the adult brain. Both Wnt7a and active β-catenin significantly rescued a TLX (also known as Nr2e1) short interfering RNA-induced deficiency in neural stem cell proliferation. Lentiviral transduction of an active β-catenin increased cell proliferation in neurogenic areas of TLX-null adult brains markedly. These results strongly support the hypothesis that TLX acts through the Wnt/β-catenin pathway to regulate neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal. Moreover, this study suggests that neural stem cells can promote their own self-renewal by secreting signalling molecules that act in an autocrine/paracrine mode. PMID:20010817

  6. Orphan nuclear receptor TLX activates Wnt/beta-catenin signalling to stimulate neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qiuhao; Sun, Guoqiang; Li, Wenwu; Yang, Su; Ye, Peng; Zhao, Chunnian; Yu, Ruth T; Gage, Fred H; Evans, Ronald M; Shi, Yanhong

    2010-01-01

    The nuclear receptor TLX (also known as NR2E1) is essential for adult neural stem cell self-renewal; however, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we show that TLX activates the canonical Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in adult mouse neural stem cells. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Wnt/beta-catenin signalling is important in the proliferation and self-renewal of adult neural stem cells in the presence of epidermal growth factor and fibroblast growth factor. Wnt7a and active beta-catenin promote neural stem cell self-renewal, whereas the deletion of Wnt7a or the lentiviral transduction of axin, a beta-catenin inhibitor, led to decreased cell proliferation in adult neurogenic areas. Lentiviral transduction of active beta-catenin led to increased numbers of type B neural stem cells in the subventricular zone of adult brains, whereas deletion of Wnt7a or TLX resulted in decreased numbers of neural stem cells retaining bromodeoxyuridine label in the adult brain. Both Wnt7a and active beta-catenin significantly rescued a TLX (also known as Nr2e1) short interfering RNA-induced deficiency in neural stem cell proliferation. Lentiviral transduction of an active beta-catenin increased cell proliferation in neurogenic areas of TLX-null adult brains markedly. These results strongly support the hypothesis that TLX acts through the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway to regulate neural stem cell proliferation and self-renewal. Moreover, this study suggests that neural stem cells can promote their own self-renewal by secreting signalling molecules that act in an autocrine/paracrine mode.

  7. Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsos, Alexander; Melas, Ioannis N; Morris, Melody K; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Alexopoulos, Leonidas G

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i) excessive CPU time requirements and ii) loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP) formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  8. Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation for quantitative modeling of protein signal transduction pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mitsos

    Full Text Available Modeling of signal transduction pathways plays a major role in understanding cells' function and predicting cellular response. Mathematical formalisms based on a logic formalism are relatively simple but can describe how signals propagate from one protein to the next and have led to the construction of models that simulate the cells response to environmental or other perturbations. Constrained fuzzy logic was recently introduced to train models to cell specific data to result in quantitative pathway models of the specific cellular behavior. There are two major issues in this pathway optimization: i excessive CPU time requirements and ii loosely constrained optimization problem due to lack of data with respect to large signaling pathways. Herein, we address both issues: the former by reformulating the pathway optimization as a regular nonlinear optimization problem; and the latter by enhanced algorithms to pre/post-process the signaling network to remove parts that cannot be identified given the experimental conditions. As a case study, we tackle the construction of cell type specific pathways in normal and transformed hepatocytes using medium and large-scale functional phosphoproteomic datasets. The proposed Non Linear Programming (NLP formulation allows for fast optimization of signaling topologies by combining the versatile nature of logic modeling with state of the art optimization algorithms.

  9. FLT3 ligand preserves the uncommitted CD34+CD38- progenitor cells during cytokine prestimulation for retroviral transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Husemoen, L L; Sørensen, T U

    2000-01-01

    for transduction of CD34+ cells. The effect of cytokine prestimulation on transduction efficiency and the population of uncommitted CD34+CD38- cells was determined. CD34+ cells harvested from umbilical cord blood were kept in suspension cultures and stimulated with combinations of the cytokines stem cell factor......Before stem cell gene therapy can be considered for clinical applications, problems regarding cytokine prestimulation remain to be solved. In this study, a retroviral vector carrying the genes for the enhanced version of green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neomycin resistance (neo(r)) was used...... in a higher percentage of cells than the EGFP gene, but there seemed to be a positive correlation between expression of the two genes. The effect of cytokine prestimulation was therefore monitored using EGFP as marker for transduction. When SCF was compared to SCF in combination with more potent cytokines...

  10. Fenspiride and membrane transduction signals in rat alveolar macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féray, J C; Mohammadi, K; Taouil, K; Brunet, J; Garay, R P; Hannaert, P

    1997-07-15

    Fenspiride inhibits the calcium signal evoked by the inflammatory peptide formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) in peritoneal macrophages, but at concentrations (approximately 1 mM) far above the therapeutic range (approximately 1 microM). Here, in rat alveolar macrophages, high fenspiride concentrations (1 mM) were required to inhibit the calcium signals evoked by the calcium agonist Bay K8644 or by ionomycin. Moreover, fenspiride (1 mM) was a poor inhibitor of the cell membrane depolarization induced by gramicidine D. By contrast, fenspiride blocked Na+-H+ antiport activation by (i) fMLP with an IC50 = 3.1 +/- 1.9 nM and (ii) PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) with an IC50 = 9.2 +/- 3.1 nM. Finally, protein kinase C (PKC) activity of macrophage homogenate was not significantly modified by 10 or 100 microM fenspiride (at 100 microM: 2.57 +/- 1.60 vs. 2.80 +/- 1.71 pmol/10(6) cells/min). In conclusion, fenspiride inhibits fMLP- and PMA-induced pH signals in rat alveolar macrophages, probably by acting distally on the PKC transduction signal. This pH antagonistic action may be relevant for the antiinflammatory mechanism of fenspiride and requires further investigation.

  11. Characterization of cell surface and extracellular matrix remodeling of Azospirillum brasilense chemotaxis-like 1 signal transduction pathway mutants by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Amanda Nicole; Siuti, Piro; Bible, Amber N; Alexandre, Gladys; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel J; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L

    2011-01-01

    To compete in complex microbial communities, bacteria must sense environmental changes and adjust cellular functions for optimal growth. Chemotaxis-like signal transduction pathways are implicated in the regulation of multiple behaviors in response to changes in the environment, including motility patterns, exopolysaccharide production, and cell-to-cell interactions. In Azospirillum brasilense, cell surface properties, including exopolysaccharide production, are thought to play a direct role in promoting flocculation. Recently, the Che1 chemotaxis-like pathway from A. brasilense was shown to modulate flocculation, suggesting an associated modulation of cell surface properties. Using atomic force microscopy, distinct changes in the surface morphology of flocculating A. brasilense Che1 mutant strains were detected. Whereas the wild-type strain produces a smooth mucosal extracellular matrix after 24 h, the flocculating Che1 mutant strains produce distinctive extracellular fibril structures. Further analyses using flocculation inhibition, lectin-binding assays, and comparison of lipopolysaccharides profiles suggest that the extracellular matrix differs between the cheA1 and the cheY1 mutants, despite an apparent similarity in the macroscopic floc structures. Collectively, these data indicate that disruption of the Che1 pathway is correlated with distinctive changes in the extracellular matrix, which likely result from changes in surface polysaccharides structure and/or composition. FEMS Microbiology Letters © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works.

  12. Signal perception, transduction, and response in gravity resistance. Another graviresponse in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, T.; Saito, Y.; Soga, K.; Wakabayashi, K.

    Resistance to the gravitational force is a serious problem that plants have had to solve to survive on land. Mechanical resistance to the pull of gravity is thus a principal graviresponse in plants, comparable to gravitropism. Nevertheless, only limited information has been obtained for this gravity response. We have examined the mechanism of gravity-induced mechanical resistance using hypergravity conditions produced by centrifugation. As a result, we have clarified the outline of the sequence of events leading to the development of mechanical resistance. The gravity signal may be perceived by mechanoreceptors (mechanosensitive ion channels) on the plasma membrane and it appears that amyloplast sedimentation in statocytes is not involved. Transformation and transduction of the perceived signal may be mediated by the structural or physiological continuum of microtubule-cell membrane-cell wall. As the final step in the development of mechanical resistance, plants construct a tough body by increasing cell wall rigidity. The increase in cell wall rigidity is brought about by modification of the metabolism of certain wall constituents and modification of the cell wall environment, especially pH. We need to clarify the details of each step by future space and ground-based experiments.

  13. Role of Glycolytic Intermediates in Global Regulation and Signal Transduction. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, J.C.

    2000-05-08

    The goal of this project is to determine the role of glycolytic intermediates in regulation of cell physiology. It is known that many glycolytic intermediates are involved in regulation of enzyme activities at the kinetic level. However, little is known regarding the role of these metabolites in global regulation and signal transduction. This project aims to investigate the role of glycolytic intermediates in the regulation of gene expression.

  14. Hierarchical feedback modules and reaction hubs in cell signaling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Lan, Yueheng

    2015-01-01

    Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks.

  15. Hierarchical feedback modules and reaction hubs in cell signaling networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Xu

    Full Text Available Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks.

  16. Hierarchical Feedback Modules and Reaction Hubs in Cell Signaling Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianfeng; Lan, Yueheng

    2015-01-01

    Despite much effort, identification of modular structures and study of their organizing and functional roles remain a formidable challenge in molecular systems biology, which, however, is essential in reaching a systematic understanding of large-scale cell regulation networks and hence gaining capacity of exerting effective interference to cell activity. Combining graph theoretic methods with available dynamics information, we successfully retrieved multiple feedback modules of three important signaling networks. These feedbacks are structurally arranged in a hierarchical way and dynamically produce layered temporal profiles of output signals. We found that global and local feedbacks act in very different ways and on distinct features of the information flow conveyed by signal transduction but work highly coordinately to implement specific biological functions. The redundancy embodied with multiple signal-relaying channels and feedback controls bestow great robustness and the reaction hubs seated at junctions of different paths announce their paramount importance through exquisite parameter management. The current investigation reveals intriguing general features of the organization of cell signaling networks and their relevance to biological function, which may find interesting applications in analysis, design and control of bio-networks. PMID:25951347

  17. Human embryonic stem cells in culture possess primary cilia with hedgehog signaling machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiprilov, Enko N; Awan, Aashir; Desprat, Romain

    2008-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are potential therapeutic tools and models of human development. With a growing interest in primary cilia in signal transduction pathways that are crucial for embryological development and tissue differentiation and interest in mechanisms regulating human hESC d...

  18. Effect of the opioid methionine enkephalinamide on signal transduction in human T-lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A N; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    1998-01-01

    T cell receptor (TCR/CD3) induced fluctuations in intracellular free ionizied calcium, [Ca2+]i, was analysed in the human T leukemia cell clone, Jurkat, cultured in the presence of the opioid methionine enkephalinamide (Met-Enk) in titrated concentrations (10[-7] to 10[-15] M) or saline (PBS....... Moreover, the levels of [Ca2+]i in this particular fraction were lower than control levels prior to ligation of the TCR/CD3 complex. The data support the idea that signal transduction in T cells can be influenced by endogenous opioid. The data therefore give credit to the evolving hypothesis...... of a functional relationship between the neuroendocrine system and the immune system....

  19. Identification of a mutant α1 Na/K-ATPase that pumps but is defective in signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fangfang; Madan, Namrata; Ye, Qiqi; Duan, Qiming; Li, Zhichuan; Wang, Shaomeng; Si, Shuyi; Xie, Zijian

    2013-05-10

    It has not been possible to study the pumping and signaling functions of Na/K-ATPase independently in live cells. Both cell-free and cell-based assays indicate that the A420P mutation abolishes the Src regulatory function of Na/K-ATPase. A420P mutant has normal pumping but not signaling function. Identification of Src regulation-null mutants is crucial for addressing physiological role of Na/K-ATPase. The α1 Na/K-ATPase possesses both pumping and signaling functions. However, it has not been possible to study these functions independently in live cells. We have identified a 20-amino acid peptide (Ser-415 to Gln-434) (NaKtide) from the nucleotide binding domain of α1 Na/K-ATPase that binds and inhibits Src in vitro. The N terminus of NaKtide adapts a helical structure. In vitro kinase assays showed that replacement of residues that contain a bulky side chain in the helical structure of NaKtide by alanine abolished the inhibitory effect of the peptide on Src. Similarly, disruption of helical structure by proline replacement, either single or in combination, reduced the inhibitory potency of NaKtide on Src. To identify mutant α1 that retains normal pumping function but is defective in Src regulation, we transfected Na/K-ATPase α1 knockdown PY-17 cells with expression vectors of wild type or mutant α1 carrying Ala to Pro mutations in the region of NaKtide helical structure and generated several stable cell lines. We found that expression of either A416P or A420P or A425P mutant fully restored the α1 content and consequently the pumping capacity of cells. However, in contrast to A416P, either A420P or A425P mutant was incapable of interacting and regulating cellular Src. Consequently, expression of these two mutants caused significant inhibition of ouabain-activated signal transduction and cell growth. Thus we have identified α1 mutant that has normal pumping function but is defective in signal transduction.

  20. Endogenous protection derived from activin A/Smads transduction loop stimulated via ischemic injury in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mang, Jing; Mei, Chun-Li; Wang, Jiao-Qi; Li, Zong-Shu; Chu, Ting-Ting; He, Jin-Ting; Xu, Zhong-Xin

    2013-10-17

    Activin A (ActA), a member of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b) super- family, affects many cellular processes, including ischemic stroke. Though the neuroprotective effects of exogenous ActA on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) injury have already been reported by us, the endogenous role of ActA remains poorly understood. To further define the role and mechanism of endogenous ActA and its signaling in response to acute ischemic damage, we used an OGD model in PC12 cells to simulate ischemic injury on neurons in vitro. Cells were pre-treated by monoclonal antibody against activin receptor type IIA (ActRII-Ab). We found that ActRII-Ab augments ischemic injury in PC12 cells. Further, the extracellular secretion of ActA as well as phosphorylation of smad3 in PC12 cells was also up-regulated by OGD, but suppressed by ActRII-Ab. Taken together, our results show that ActRII-Ab may augment ischemic injury via blocking of transmembrane signal transduction of ActA, which confirmed the existence of endogenous neuroprotective effects derived from the ActA/Smads pathway. ActRIIA plays an important role in transferring neuronal protective signals inside. It is highly possible that ActA transmembrance signaling is a part of the positive feed-back loop for extracellular ActA secretion.

  1. Endogenous Protection Derived from Activin A/Smads Transduction Loop Stimulated via Ischemic Injury in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Xin Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Activin A (ActA, a member of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-b super- family, affects many cellular processes, including ischemic stroke. Though the neuroprotective effects of exogenous ActA on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD injury have already been reported by us, the endogenous role of ActA remains poorly understood. To further define the role and mechanism of endogenous ActA and its signaling in response to acute ischemic damage, we used an OGD model in PC12 cells to simulate ischemic injury on neurons in vitro. Cells were pre-treated by monoclonal antibody against activin receptor type IIA (ActRII-Ab. We found that ActRII-Ab augments ischemic injury in PC12 cells. Further, the extracellular secretion of ActA as well as phosphorylation of smad3 in PC12 cells was also up-regulated by OGD, but suppressed by ActRII-Ab. Taken together, our results show that ActRII-Ab may augment ischemic injury via blocking of transmembrane signal transduction of ActA, which confirmed the existence of endogenous neuroprotective effects derived from the ActA/Smads pathway. ActRIIA plays an important role in transferring neuronal protective signals inside. It is highly possible that ActA transmembrance signaling is a part of the positive feed-back loop for extracellular ActA secretion.

  2. The effect of the immunophilin ligands rapamycin and FK506 on proliferation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Hultsch, T; Martin, R; Hohman, R J

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and cyclosporin A have an identical spectrum of activities with respect to IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI)-mediated exocytosis from mast cells and T cell receptor-mediated transcription of IL-2. These findings suggest a common step in receptor-mediated signal transduction leading to exocytosis and transcription and imply that immunosuppressive drugs target specific signal transduction pathways, rather than specific cell types. This hypothesis is supported by stu...

  3. Control of density-dependent, cell state-specific signal transduction by the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1, and its influence on cell cycle regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffrahn, Inka; Singer, Bernhard B.; Sigmundsson, Kristmundur; Lucka, Lothar; Oebrink, Bjoern

    2005-01-01

    Growth factor receptors, extracellular matrix receptors, and cell-cell adhesion molecules co-operate in regulating the activities of intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1 co-regulates growth-factor-induced DNA synthesis in NBT-II epithelial cells in a cell-density-dependent manner. CEACAM1 exerted its effects by regulating the activity of the Erk 1/2 MAP kinase pathway and the expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 . Interestingly, both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were observed. Confluent cells continuously exposed to fetal calf serum showed little Erk activity and DNA synthesis compared with sparse cells. Under these conditions, anti-CEACAM1 antibodies strongly stimulated Erk activation, decreased p27 expression, and induced DNA synthesis. In serum-starved confluent cells, re-addition of 10% fetal calf serum activated the Erk pathway, decreased p27 expression, and stimulated DNA synthesis to the same levels as in sparse cells. Under these conditions anti-CEACAM1 antibodies de-activated Erk, restored the level of p27, and inhibited DNA synthesis. These data indicate that CEACAM1 mediates contact inhibition of proliferation in cells that are constantly exposed to growth factors, but co-activates growth-factor-induced proliferation in cells that have been starved for growth factors; exposure to extracellular CEACAM1 ligands reverts these responses

  4. Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1/redox factor-1 (Ape1/Ref-1) is essential for IL-21-induced signal transduction through ERK1/2 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliana, Farha M.; Nara, Hidetoshi; Onoda, Tadashi; Rahman, Mizanur; Araki, Akemi; Jin, Lianjin; Fujii, Hodaka; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Hoshino, Tomoaki; Asao, Hironobu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► IL-21 induces nuclear accumulation of Ape1/Ref-1 protein. ► Ape1/Ref-1 is indispensable in IL-21-induced cell proliferation and survival signal. ► Ape1/Ref-1 is required for IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation. -- Abstract: IL-21 is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates T-cell and B-cell differentiation, NK-cell activation, and dendritic cell functions. IL-21 activates the JAK-STAT, ERK, and PI3K pathways. We report here that Ape1/Ref-1 has an essential role in IL-21-induced cell growth signal transduction. Overexpression of Ape1/Ref-1 enhances IL-21-induced cell proliferation, but it is suppressed by overexpressing an N-terminal deletion mutant of Ape1/Ref-1 that lacks the redox domain. Furthermore, knockdown of the Ape1/Ref-1 mRNA dramatically compromises IL-21-induced ERK1/2 activation and cell proliferation with increasing cell death. These impaired activities are recovered by the re-expression of Ape1/Ref-1 in the knockdown cells. Our findings are the first demonstration that Ape1/Ref-1 is an indispensable molecule for the IL-21-mediated signal transduction through ERK1/2 activation.

  5. Statolith sedimentation kinetics and force transduction to the cortical endoplasmic reticulum in gravity-sensing Arabidopsis columella cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Guenther; Kang, Byung-Ho; Schoenwaelder, Monica E A; Staehelin, L Andrew

    2009-03-01

    The starch statolith hypothesis of gravity sensing in plants postulates that the sedimentation of statoliths in specialized statocytes (columella cells) provides the means for converting the gravitational potential energy into a biochemical signal. We have analyzed the sedimentation kinetics of statoliths in the central S2 columella cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. The statoliths can form compact aggregates with gap sizes between statoliths approaching sedimentation phase, the statoliths tend to move at a distance to the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) boundary and interact only transiently with the ER. Statoliths moved by laser tweezers against the ER boundary experience an elastic lift force upon release from the optical trap. High-resolution electron tomography analysis of statolith-to-ER contact sites indicate that the weight of statoliths is sufficient to locally deform the ER membranes that can potentially activate mechanosensitive ion channels. We suggest that in root columella cells, the transduction of the kinetic energy of sedimenting statoliths into a biochemical signal involves a combination of statolith-driven motion of the cytosol, statolith-induced deformation of the ER membranes, and a rapid release of kinetic energy from the ER during reorientation to activate mechanosensitive sites within the central columella cells.

  6. Highly active microbial phosphoantigen induces rapid yet sustained MEK/Erk- and PI-3K/Akt-mediated signal transduction in anti-tumor human gammadelta T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel V Correia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The unique responsiveness of Vgamma9Vdelta2 T-cells, the major gammadelta subset of human peripheral blood, to non-peptidic prenyl pyrophosphate antigens constitutes the basis of current gammadelta T-cell-based cancer immunotherapy strategies. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for phosphoantigen-mediated activation of human gammadelta T-cells remain unclear. In particular, previous reports have described a very slow kinetics of activation of T-cell receptor (TCR-associated signal transduction pathways by isopentenyl pyrophosphate and bromohydrin pyrophosphate, seemingly incompatible with direct binding of these antigens to the Vgamma9Vdelta2 TCR. Here we have studied the most potent natural phosphoantigen yet identified, (E-4-hydroxy-3-methyl-but-2-enyl pyrophosphate (HMB-PP, produced by Eubacteria and Protozoa, and examined its gammadelta T-cell activation and anti-tumor properties. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have performed a comparative study between HMB-PP and the anti-CD3epsilon monoclonal antibody OKT3, used as a reference inducer of bona fide TCR signaling, and followed multiple cellular and molecular gammadelta T-cell activation events. We show that HMB-PP activates MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt pathways as rapidly as OKT3, and induces an almost identical transcriptional profile in Vgamma9(+ T-cells. Moreover, MEK/Erk and PI-3K/Akt activities are indispensable for the cellular effects of HMB-PP, including gammadelta T-cell activation, proliferation and anti-tumor cytotoxicity, which are also abolished upon antibody blockade of the Vgamma9(+ TCR Surprisingly, HMB-PP treatment does not induce down-modulation of surface TCR levels, and thereby sustains gammadelta T-cell activation upon re-stimulation. This ultimately translates in potent human gammadelta T-cell anti-tumor function both in vitro and in vivo upon transplantation of human leukemia cells into lymphopenic mice, CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The development of

  7. New insights into the organization of plasma membrane and its role in signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kenichi G N

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membranes have heterogeneous structures for efficient signal transduction, required to perform cell functions. Recent evidence indicates that the heterogeneous structures are produced by (1) compartmentalization by actin-based membrane skeleton, (2) raft domains, (3) receptor-receptor interactions, and (4) the binding of receptors to cytoskeletal proteins. This chapter provides an overview of recent studies on diffusion, clustering, raft association, actin binding, and signal transduction of membrane receptors, especially glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored receptors. Studies on diffusion of GPI-anchored receptors suggest that rafts may be small and/or short-lived in plasma membranes. In steady state conditions, GPI-anchored receptors form transient homodimers, which may represent the "standby state" for the stable homodimers and oligomers upon ligation. Furthermore, It is proposed that upon ligation, the binding of GPI-anchored receptor clusters to cytoskeletal actin filaments produces a platform for downstream signaling, and that the pulse-like signaling easily maintains the stability of the overall signaling activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensors and signal transduction pathways in vertebrate cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else K; Pedersen, Stine F

    2006-01-01

    The ability to control cell volume is fundamental for proper cell function. This review highlights recent advances in the understanding of the complex sequences of events by which acute cell volume perturbation alters the activity of osmolyte transport proteins in cells from vertebrate organisms...... will be discussed. In contrast to the simple pathway of osmosensing in yeast, cells from vertebrate organisms appear to exhibit multiple volume sensing systems, the specific mechanism(s) activated being cell type- and stimulus-dependent. Candidate sensors include integrins and growth factor receptors, while other...

  9. Physalis peruviana extract induces apoptosis in human Hep G2 cells through CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Lin, Doung-Liang; Huang, Shan-Ney; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2004-11-25

    Physalis species is a popular folk medicine used for treating cancer, leukemia, hepatitis and other diseases. Studies have shown that the ethanol extract of Physalis peruviana (EEPP) inhibits growth and induces apoptotic death of human Hep G2 cells in culture, whereas proliferation of the mouse BALB/C normal liver cells was not affected. In this study, we performed detailed studies to define the molecular mechanism of EEPP-induced apoptosis in Hep G2 cells. The results further confirmed that EEPP inhibited cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At 50 microg/ml, EEPP significantly increased the accumulation of the sub-G1 peak (hypoploid) and the portion of apoptotic annexin V positive cells. EEPP was found to trigger apoptosis through the release of cytochrome c, Smac/DIABLO and Omi/HtrA2 from mitochondria to cytosol and consequently resulted in caspase-3 activation. Pre-treatment with a general caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk) prevented cytochrome c release. After 48 h of EEPP treatment, the apoptosis of Hep G2 cells was found to associate with an elevated p53, and CD95 and CD95L proteins expression. Furthermore, a marked down-regulation of the expression of the Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and XIAP, and up-regulation of the Bax and Bad proteins were noted. Taken together, the present results suggest that EEPP-induced Hep G2 cell apoptosis was possibly mediated through the CD95/CD95L system and the mitochondrial signaling transduction pathway.

  10. BAG3 promotes tumour cell proliferation by regulating EGFR signal transduction pathways in triple negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sarah; Conroy, Emer; O'Grady, Tony; McGoldrick, Alo; Connor, Kate; Ward, Mark P; Useckaite, Zivile; Dempsey, Eugene; Reilly, Rebecca; Fan, Yue; Chubb, Anthony; Matallanas, David Gomez; Kay, Elaine W; O'Connor, Darran; McCann, Amanda; Gallagher, William M; Coppinger, Judith A

    2018-03-20

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), is a heterogeneous disease characterised by absence of expression of the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and lack of amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). TNBC patients can exhibit poor prognosis and high recurrence stages despite early response to chemotherapy treatment. In this study, we identified a pro-survival signalling protein BCL2- associated athanogene 3 (BAG3) to be highly expressed in a subset of TNBC cell lines and tumour tissues. High mRNA expression of BAG3 in TNBC patient cohorts significantly associated with a lower recurrence free survival. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is amplified in TNBC and EGFR signalling dynamics impinge on cancer cell survival and disease recurrence. We found a correlation between BAG3 and EGFR expression in TNBC cell lines and determined that BAG3 can regulate tumour cell proliferation, migration and invasion in EGFR expressing TNBC cells lines. We identified an interaction between BAG3 and components of the EGFR signalling networks using mass spectrometry. Furthermore, BAG3 contributed to regulation of proliferation in TNBC cell lines by reducing the activation of components of the PI3K/AKT and FAK/Src signalling subnetworks. Finally, we found that combined targeting of BAG3 and EGFR was more effective than inhibition of EGFR with Cetuximab alone in TNBC cell lines. This study demonstrates a role for BAG3 in regulation of distinct EGFR modules and highlights the potential of BAG3 as a therapeutic target in TNBC.

  11. The application of multiple biophysical cues to engineer functional neocartilage for treatment of osteoarthritis. Part II: signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Mariea A; Waldman, Stephen D; Ethier, C Ross

    2015-02-01

    The unique mechanoelectrochemical environment of cartilage has motivated researchers to investigate the effect of multiple biophysical cues, including mechanical, magnetic, and electrical stimulation, on chondrocyte biology. It is well established that biophysical stimuli promote chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation, and maturation within "biological windows" of defined dose parameters, including mode, frequency, magnitude, and duration of stimuli (see companion review Part I: Cellular Response). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and signal transduction pathways activated in response to multiple biophysical stimuli remain to be elucidated. Understanding the mechanisms of biophysical signal transduction will deepen knowledge of tissue organogenesis, remodeling, and regeneration and aiding in the treatment of pathologies such as osteoarthritis. Further, this knowledge will provide the tissue engineer with a potent toolset to manipulate and control cell fate and subsequently develop functional replacement cartilage. The aim of this article is to review chondrocyte signal transduction pathways in response to mechanical, magnetic, and electrical cues. Signal transduction does not occur along a single pathway; rather a number of parallel pathways appear to be activated, with calcium signaling apparently common to all three types of stimuli, though there are different modes of activation. Current tissue engineering strategies, such as the development of "smart" functionalized biomaterials that enable the delivery of growth factors or integration of conjugated nanoparticles, may further benefit from targeting known signal transduction pathways in combination with external biophysical cues.

  12. Anagrelide represses GATA-1 and FOG-1 expression without interfering with thrombopoietin receptor signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, M; Donovan, H; Singh, N; Butcher, L; Erusalimsky, J D

    2010-10-01

     Anagrelide is a selective inhibitor of megakaryocytopoiesis used to treat thrombocytosis in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders. The effectiveness of anagrelide in lowering platelet counts is firmly established, but its primary mechanism of action remains elusive.  Here, we have evaluated whether anagrelide interferes with the major signal transduction cascades stimulated by thrombopoietin in the hematopoietic cell line UT-7/mpl and in cultured CD34(+) -derived human hematopoietic cells. In addition, we have used quantitative mRNA expression analysis to assess whether the drug affects the levels of known transcription factors that control megakaryocytopoiesis.  In UT-7/mpl cells, anagrelide (1μm) did not interfere with MPL-mediated signaling as monitored by its lack of effect on JAK2 phosphorylation. Similarly, the drug did not affect the phosphorylation of STAT3, ERK1/2 or AKT in either UT-7/mpl cells or primary hematopoietic cells. In contrast, during thrombopoietin-induced megakaryocytic differentiation of normal hematopoietic cultures, anagrelide (0.3μm) reduced the rise in the mRNA levels of the transcription factors GATA-1 and FOG-1 as well as those of the downstream genes encoding FLI-1, NF-E2, glycoprotein IIb and MPL. However, the drug showed no effect on GATA-2 or RUNX-1 mRNA expression. Furthermore, anagrelide did not diminish the rise in GATA-1 and FOG-1 expression during erythropoietin-stimulated erythroid differentiation. Cilostamide, an exclusive and equipotent phosphodiesterase III (PDEIII) inhibitor, did not alter the expression of these genes.  Anagrelide suppresses megakaryocytopoiesis by reducing the expression levels of GATA-1 and FOG-1 via a PDEIII-independent mechanism that is differentiation context-specific and does not involve inhibition of MPL-mediated early signal transduction events. © 2010 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  13. B-cell receptor signaling as a driver of lymphoma development and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Carsten U; Wiestner, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The B-cell receptor (BCR) is essential for normal B-cell development and maturation. In an increasing number of B-cell malignancies, BCR signaling is implicated as a pivotal pathway in tumorigenesis. Mechanisms of BCR activation are quite diverse and range from chronic antigenic drive by microbial or viral antigens to autostimulation of B-cells by self-antigens to activating mutations in intracellular components of the BCR pathway. Hepatitis C virus infection can lead to the development of splenic marginal zone lymphoma, while Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with the development of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. In some of these cases, successful treatment of the infection removes the inciting antigen and results in resolution of the lymphoma. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia has been recognized for decades as a malignancy of auto-reactive B-cells and its clinical course is in part determined by the differential response of the malignant cells to BCR activation. In a number of B-cell malignancies, activating mutations in signal transduction components of the BCR pathway have been identified; prominent examples are activated B-cell-like (ABC) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) that carry mutations in CD79B and CARD11 and display chronic active BCR signaling resulting in constitutive activation of the NF-κB pathway. Despite considerable heterogeneity in biology and clinical course, many mature B-cell malignancies are highly sensitive to kinase inhibitors that disrupt BCR signaling. Thus, targeted therapy through inhibition of BCR signaling is emerging as a new treatment paradigm for many B-cell malignancies. Here, we review the role of the BCR in the pathogenesis of B-cell malignancies and summarize clinical results of the emerging class of kinase inhibitors that target this pathway. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Alternative Cell Death Pathways and Cell Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fulda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While necroptosis has for long been viewed as an accidental mode of cell death triggered by physical or chemical damage, it has become clear over the last years that necroptosis can also represent a programmed form of cell death in mammalian cells. Key discoveries in the field of cell death research, including the identification of critical components of the necroptotic machinery, led to a revised concept of cell death signaling programs. Several regulatory check and balances are in place in order to ensure that necroptosis is tightly controlled according to environmental cues and cellular needs. This network of regulatory mechanisms includes metabolic pathways, especially those linked to mitochondrial signaling events. A better understanding of these signal transduction mechanisms will likely contribute to open new avenues to exploit our knowledge on the regulation of necroptosis signaling for therapeutic application in the treatment of human diseases.

  15. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-01-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an i...

  16. Monitoring intracellular calcium ion dynamics in hair cell populations with Fluo-4 AM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateri J Spinelli

    Full Text Available We optimized Fluo-4 AM loading of chicken cochlea to report hair-bundle Ca(2+ signals in populations of hair cells. The bundle Ca(2+ signal reported the physiological state of the bundle and cell; extruding cells had very high bundle Fluo-4 fluorescence, cells with intact bundles and tip links had intermediate fluorescence, and damaged cells with broken tip links had low fluorescence. Moreover, Fluo-4 fluorescence in the bundle correlated with Ca(2+ entry through transduction channels; mechanically activating transduction channels increased the Fluo-4 signal, while breaking tip links with Ca(2+ chelators or blocking Ca(2+ entry through transduction channels each caused bundle and cell-body Fluo-4 fluorescence to decrease. These results show that when tip links break, bundle and soma Ca(2+ decrease, which could serve to stimulate the hair cell's tip-link regeneration process. Measurement of bundle Ca(2+ with Fluo-4 AM is therefore a simple method for assessing mechanotransduction in hair cells and permits an increased understanding of the interplay of tip links, transduction channels, and Ca(2+ signaling in the hair cell.

  17. Evidence for some signal transduction elements involved in UV-light-dependent responses in parsley protoplasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frohnmeyer, H.; Bowler, C.; Schäfer, E.

    1997-01-01

    The signalling pathways used by UV-light are largely unknown. Using protoplasts from a heterotrophic parsley (Petroselinum crispum L.) cell culture that exclusively respond to UV-B light between 300 and 350 nm with a fast induction of genes encoding flavonoid biosynthetic enzymes, information was obtained about the UV-light signal transduction pathway for chalcone synthase (CHS) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene expression. Pharmacological effectors which influence intracellular calcium levels, calmodulin and the activity of serine/threonine kinases also changed the UV-light-dependent expression of these genes. This evaluation indicated the participation of these components on the UV-B-mediated signal transduction cascade to CHS. In contrast, neither membrane-permeable cyclic GMP nor the tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein affected CHS or PAL expression. Similar results were obtained in protoplasts, which have been transiently transformed with CHS-promoter/GUS (β-glucuronidase) reporter fusion constructs. The involvement of calcium and calmodulin was further indicated in a cell-free light-responsive in vitro transcription system from evacuolated parsley protoplasts. In conclusion, there is evidence now that components of the UV-light-dependent pathway leading to the CHS-promoter are different from the previously characterized cGMP-dependent pathway to CHS utilized by phytochrome in soybean (Glycine max) and tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum). (author)

  18. GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via colocalized T2R5 signal transduction in human enteroendocrine L cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Lee, In-Seung; Jeong, Hyeon-soo; Kim, Yumi; Jang, Hyeung-Jin, E-mail: hjjang@khu.ac.kr

    2015-12-04

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) hormone is known to regulate blood glucose by an insulinotropic effect and increases proliferation as and also prevents apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. We know that GLP-1 is secreted by nutrients such as fatty acids and sweet compounds but also bitter compounds via stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the gut. Among these, bitter compounds are multiply-contained in phytochemicals or artificial materials and perceived as ligands of various bitter taste receptors. We hypothesized that GLP-1 hormone is secreted through stimulation of a single bitter taste receptor by 1,10-phenanthroline which is known agonist of taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5). To prove this hypothesis, we used the representatively well-known 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand of single receptor and evaluated the existence of T2R5 by double-labeling immunofluorescence and then 1,10-phenanthroline is able to secrete GLP-1 hormone through stimulation of T2R5 in human enteroendocrine cells. Consequently, we verify that GLP-1 hormone is colocalized with T2R5 in the human duodenum and ileum tissue and is secreted by 1,10-phenanthroline via T2R5 signal transduction in differentiated human enteroendocrine L cells. - Highlights: • Taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5) is colocalized with GLP-1 hormone in human enteroendocrine cells. • GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via stimulation of T2R5. • Inhibition of the bitter taste pathway reduce GLP-1 secretion.

  19. GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via colocalized T2R5 signal transduction in human enteroendocrine L cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Lee, In-Seung; Jeong, Hyeon-soo; Kim, Yumi; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) hormone is known to regulate blood glucose by an insulinotropic effect and increases proliferation as and also prevents apoptosis of pancreatic β cells. We know that GLP-1 is secreted by nutrients such as fatty acids and sweet compounds but also bitter compounds via stimulation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the gut. Among these, bitter compounds are multiply-contained in phytochemicals or artificial materials and perceived as ligands of various bitter taste receptors. We hypothesized that GLP-1 hormone is secreted through stimulation of a single bitter taste receptor by 1,10-phenanthroline which is known agonist of taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5). To prove this hypothesis, we used the representatively well-known 1,10-phenanthroline as ligand of single receptor and evaluated the existence of T2R5 by double-labeling immunofluorescence and then 1,10-phenanthroline is able to secrete GLP-1 hormone through stimulation of T2R5 in human enteroendocrine cells. Consequently, we verify that GLP-1 hormone is colocalized with T2R5 in the human duodenum and ileum tissue and is secreted by 1,10-phenanthroline via T2R5 signal transduction in differentiated human enteroendocrine L cells. - Highlights: • Taste receptor type 2 member 5 (T2R5) is colocalized with GLP-1 hormone in human enteroendocrine cells. • GLP-1 secretion is stimulated by 1,10-phenanthroline via stimulation of T2R5. • Inhibition of the bitter taste pathway reduce GLP-1 secretion.

  20. Regulation of autophagy by amino acids and MTOR-dependent signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Alfred J; Lorin, Séverine; Blommaart, Edward F; Codogno, Patrice

    2015-10-01

    Amino acids not only participate in intermediary metabolism but also stimulate insulin-mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR)-mediated signal transduction which controls the major metabolic pathways. Among these is the pathway of autophagy which takes care of the degradation of long-lived proteins and of the elimination of damaged or functionally redundant organelles. Proper functioning of this process is essential for cell survival. Dysregulation of autophagy has been implicated in the etiology of several pathologies. The history of the studies on the interrelationship between amino acids, MTOR signaling and autophagy is the subject of this review. The mechanisms responsible for the stimulation of MTOR-mediated signaling, and the inhibition of autophagy, by amino acids have been studied intensively in the past but are still not completely clarified. Recent developments in this field are discussed.

  1. Sensory Flask Cells in Sponge Larvae Regulate Metamorphosis via Calcium Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Nagayasu; Stoupin, Daniel; Degnan, Sandie M; Degnan, Bernard M

    2015-12-01

    The Porifera (sponges) is one of the earliest phyletic lineages to branch off the metazoan tree. Although the body-plan of sponges is among the simplest in the animal kingdom and sponges lack nervous systems that communicate environmental signals to other cells, their larvae have sensory systems that generate coordinated responses to environmental cues. In eumetazoans (Cnidaria and Bilateria), the nervous systems of larvae often regulate metamorphosis through Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction. In sponges, neither the identity of the receptor system that detects an inductive environmental cue (hereafter "metamorphic cues") nor the signaling system that mediates settlement and metamorphosis are known. Using a combination of behavioral assays and surgical manipulations, we show here that specialized epithelial cells-referred to as flask cells-enriched in the anterior third of the Amphimedon queenslandica larva are most likely to be the sensory cells that detect the metamorphic cues. Surgical removal of the region enriched in flask cells in a larva inhibits the initiation of metamorphosis. The flask cell has an apical sensory apparatus with a cilium surrounded by an apical F-actin-rich protrusion, and numerous vesicles, hallmarks of eumetazoan sensory-neurosecretory cells. We demonstrate that these flask cells respond to metamorphic cues by elevating intracellular Ca(2+) levels, and that this elevation is necessary for the initiation of metamorphosis. Taken together, these analyses suggest that sponge larvae have sensory-secretory epithelial cells capable of converting exogenous cues into internal signals via Ca(2+)-mediated signaling, which is necessary for the initiation of metamorphosis. Similarities in the morphology, physiology, and function of the sensory flask cells in sponge larvae with the sensory/neurosecretory cells in eumetazoan larvae suggest this sensory system predates the divergence of Porifera and Eumetazoa. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  2. Plant cell surface receptor-mediated signaling - a common theme amid diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yunxia; Zhou, Jinggeng; Shan, Libo; Meng, Xiangzong

    2018-01-29

    Sessile plants employ a diverse array of plasma membrane-bound receptors to perceive endogenous and exogenous signals for regulation of plant growth, development and immunity. These cell surface receptors include receptor-like kinases (RLKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) that harbor different extracellular domains for perception of distinct ligands. Several RLK and RLP signaling pathways converge at the somatic embryogenesis receptor kinases (SERKs), which function as shared co-receptors. A repertoire of receptor-like cytoplasmic kinases (RLCKs) associate with the receptor complexes to relay intracellular signaling. Downstream of the receptor complexes, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are among the key signaling modules at which the signals converge, and these cascades regulate diverse cellular and physiological responses through phosphorylation of different downstream substrates. In this Review, we summarize the emerging common theme that underlies cell surface receptor-mediated signaling pathways in Arabidopsis thaliana : the dynamic association of RLKs and RLPs with specific co-receptors and RLCKs for signal transduction. We further discuss how signaling specificities are maintained through modules at which signals converge, with a focus on SERK-mediated receptor signaling. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Effects of osmotic stress on the activity of MAPKs and PDGFR-beta-mediated signal transduction in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M-B; Christensen, Søren Tvorup; Hoffmann, E K

    2008-01-01

    Signaling in cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis is highly affected by osmotic stress and changes in cell volume, although the mechanisms underlying the significance of cell volume as a signal in cell growth and death are poorly understood. In this study, we used NIH-3T3 fibroblasts...... in a serum- and nutrient-free inorganic medium (300 mosM) to analyze the effects of osmotic stress on MAPK activity and PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-beta-mediated signal transduction. We found that hypoosmolarity (cell swelling at 211 mosM) induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of ERK1/2, most...... likely via a pathway independent of PDGFR-beta and MEK1/2. Conversely, hyperosmolarity (cell shrinkage at 582 mosM) moved nuclear and phosphorylated ERK1/2 to the cytoplasm and induced the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p38 and phosphorylation of JNK1/2. In a series of parallel experiments...

  4. Genetic Analysis of Gravity Signal Transduction in Arabidopsis thaliana Seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonsirichai, K.; Harrison, B.; Stanga, J.; Young, L.-S.; Neal, C.; Sabat, G.; Murthy, N.; Harms, A.; Sedbrook, J.; Masson, P.

    The primary roots of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings respond to gravity stimulation by developing a tip curvature that results from differential cellular elongation on opposite flanks of the elongation zone. This curvature appears modulated by a lateral gradient of auxin that originates in the gravity-perceiving cells (statocytes) of the root cap through an apparent lateral repositioning of a component the auxin efflux carrier complex within these cells (Friml et al, 2002, Nature 415: 806-809). Unfortunately, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern early phases of gravity perception and signal transduction within the root-cap statocytes. We have used a molecular genetic approach to uncover some of these mechanisms. Mutations in the Arabidopsis ARG1 and ARL2 genes, which encode J-domain proteins, resulted in specific alterations in root and hypocotyl gravitropism, without pleiotropic phenotypes. Interestingly, ARG1 and ARL2 appear to function in the same genetic pathway. A combination of molecular genetic, biochemical and cell-biological approaches were used to demonstrate that ARG1 functions in early phases of gravity signal transduction within the root and hypocotyl statocytes, and is needed for efficient lateral auxin transport within the cap. The ARG1 protein is associated with components of the secretory and/or endosomal pathways, suggesting its role in the recycling of components of the auxin efflux carrier complex between plasma membrane and endosome (Boonsirichai et al, 2003, Plant Cell 15:2612-2625). Genetic modifiers of arg1-2 were isolated and shown to enhance the gravitropic defect of arg1-2, while resulting in little or no gravitropic defects in a wild type ARG1 background. A slight tendency for arg1-2;mar1-1 and arg1-2;mar2-1 double-mutant organs to display an opposite gravitropic response compared to wild type suggests that all three genes contribute to the interpretation of the gravity-vector information by seedling organs. The

  5. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly J Culhane

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs.

  6. CHARACTERISTICS OF SIGNALING PATHWAYS MEDIATING A CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF DENDRITIC CELLS UPON ACTIVATED Т LYMPHOCYTES AND NK CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Tyrinova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cytotoxic/pro-apoptogenic effects of IFNα-induced dendritic cells (IFN-DCs directed against Т-lymphocytes and NK cells were investigated in healthy donors. Using an allogenic MLC system, it was revealed that IFN-DCs induce apoptosis of both activated CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes, and NK cells. Apoptosis of CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes induced by their interaction with IFN-DCs was mediated by various signaling pathways. In particular, activated CD4+Т-lymphocytes were most sensitive to TRAIL- и Fas/ FasL-transduction pathways, whereas activated CD8+ T-lymphocytes were induced to apoptosis via TNFα-mediated pathway. PD-1/B7-H1-signaling pathway also played a distinct role in cytotoxic activity of IFNDCs towards both types of T lymphocytes and activated NK cells. The pro-apoptogenic/cytotoxic activity of IFN-DC against activated lymphocytes may be regarded as a mechanism of a feedback regulation aimed at restriction of immune response and maintenance of immune homeostasis. Moreover, upregulation of proapoptogenic molecules on DCs under pathological conditions may lead to suppression of antigen-specific response, thus contributing to the disease progression.

  7. Creating and analyzing pathway and protein interaction compendia for modelling signal transduction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirouac Daniel C

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the information-processing capabilities of signal transduction networks, how those networks are disrupted in disease, and rationally designing therapies to manipulate diseased states require systematic and accurate reconstruction of network topology. Data on networks central to human physiology, such as the inflammatory signalling networks analyzed here, are found in a multiplicity of on-line resources of pathway and interactome databases (Cancer CellMap, GeneGo, KEGG, NCI-Pathway Interactome Database (NCI-PID, PANTHER, Reactome, I2D, and STRING. We sought to determine whether these databases contain overlapping information and whether they can be used to construct high reliability prior knowledge networks for subsequent modeling of experimental data. Results We have assembled an ensemble network from multiple on-line sources representing a significant portion of all machine-readable and reconcilable human knowledge on proteins and protein interactions involved in inflammation. This ensemble network has many features expected of complex signalling networks assembled from high-throughput data: a power law distribution of both node degree and edge annotations, and topological features of a “bow tie” architecture in which diverse pathways converge on a highly conserved set of enzymatic cascades focused around PI3K/AKT, MAPK/ERK, JAK/STAT, NFκB, and apoptotic signaling. Individual pathways exhibit “fuzzy” modularity that is statistically significant but still involving a majority of “cross-talk” interactions. However, we find that the most widely used pathway databases are highly inconsistent with respect to the actual constituents and interactions in this network. Using a set of growth factor signalling networks as examples (epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor-beta, tumor necrosis factor, and wingless, we find a multiplicity of network topologies in which receptors couple to downstream

  8. The plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism--a case study of a cell wall plasma membrane signaling network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Some of the most important functions of plant cell walls are protection against biotic/abiotic stress and structural support during growth and development. A prerequisite for plant cell walls to perform these functions is the ability to perceive different types of stimuli in both qualitative and quantitative manners and initiate appropriate responses. The responses in turn involve adaptive changes in cellular and cell wall metabolism leading to modifications in the structures originally required for perception. While our knowledge about the underlying plant mechanisms is limited, results from Saccharomyces cerevisiae suggest the cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism represents an excellent example to illustrate how the molecular mechanisms responsible for stimulus perception, signal transduction and integration can function. Here I will review the available knowledge about the yeast cell wall integrity maintenance system for illustration purposes, summarize the limited knowledge available about the corresponding plant mechanism and discuss the relevance of the plant cell wall integrity maintenance mechanism in biotic stress responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Transduction peptides, the useful face of a new signaling mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joliot, Alain; Prochiantz, Alain

    2005-03-01

    Transduction peptides that cross the plasma membrane of live cells are commonly used for the in vitro and in vivo targeting of hydrophilic drugs into the cell interior. Although this family of peptides has recently increased and will probably continue to do so, the two mainly used peptides are derived from transcription factors. Indeed, TAT is a 12 amino acid long arginine-rich peptide present in the HIV transcription factor, and penetratin - or its variants - corresponds to 16 amino acids that define the highly conserved third helix of the DNA-binding domain (homeodomain) of homeoprotein transcription factors. In this review, we shall recall the different steps that have led to the discovery of transduction peptides and present the most likely hypotheses concerning the mechanisms involved in their internalization. At the risk of being incomplete or, even, biased, we shall concentrate on penetratins and TAT. The reason is that these peptides have been studied for over ten years leading to the edification of robust knowledge regarding their properties. This attitude will not preclude comparisons with other peptides, if necessary. Our goal is to describe the mode of action of these transduction peptides, their range of activity in term of cell types that accept them and cargoes that they can transport, and, also, some of the limitations that one can encounter in their use. Finally, based on the idea that peptide transduction is the technological face of a physiological property of some transcription factors, we shall discuss the putative physiological function of homeoprotein transduction, and, as a consequence, the possibility to use these factors as therapeutic proteins.

  10. Targeted Lymphoma Cell Death by Novel Signal Transduction Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    60 80 100 120 Jurkat R am os R aji M C 116 D O H H 2 W S U -W M W S U -C LL K arpas 519 C ell Lines A s C o n tr o l ( % ) Figure 6...Lym phom a cell Lines 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Jurkat R am os R aji M C 116 D O H H 2 W S U -W M W S U -C LL K arpas 519 C ell Lines A s C o n tr o l...plemented with 10% FCS and incubated with AET- activated sheep red blood cells (SRBC) for 1 h. B-cells were collected at the interface after centrifugation

  11. The T-cell-specific adapter protein family: TSAd, ALX, and SH2D4A/SH2D4B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapinski, Philip E; Oliver, Jennifer A; Bodie, Jennifer N; Marti, Francesc; King, Philip D

    2009-11-01

    Adapter proteins play key roles in intracellular signal transduction through complex formation with catalytically active signaling molecules. In T lymphocytes, the role of several different types of adapter proteins in T-cell antigen receptor signal transduction is well established. An exception to this is the family of T-cell-specific adapter (TSAd) proteins comprising of TSAd, adapter protein of unknown function (ALX), SH2D4A, and SH2D4B. Only recently has the function of these adapters in T-cell signal transduction been explored. Here, we discuss advances in our understanding of the role of this family of adapter proteins in T cells. Their function as regulators of signal transduction in other cell types is also discussed.

  12. Working together for the common good: cell-cell communication in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ann M; Schuster, Martin; Rumbaugh, Kendra P

    2012-05-01

    The 4th ASM Conference on Cell-Cell Communication in Bacteria was held in Miami, FL, from 6 to 9 November 2011. This review highlights three key themes that emerged from the many exciting talks and poster presentations in the area of quorum sensing: sociomicrobiology, signal transduction mechanisms, and interspecies communication.

  13. Statolith Sedimentation Kinetics and Force Transduction to the Cortical Endoplasmic Reticulum in Gravity-Sensing Arabidopsis Columella Cells[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitz, Guenther; Kang, Byung-Ho; Schoenwaelder, Monica E.A.; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    The starch statolith hypothesis of gravity sensing in plants postulates that the sedimentation of statoliths in specialized statocytes (columella cells) provides the means for converting the gravitational potential energy into a biochemical signal. We have analyzed the sedimentation kinetics of statoliths in the central S2 columella cells of Arabidopsis thaliana. The statoliths can form compact aggregates with gap sizes between statoliths approaching sedimentation phase, the statoliths tend to move at a distance to the cortical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) boundary and interact only transiently with the ER. Statoliths moved by laser tweezers against the ER boundary experience an elastic lift force upon release from the optical trap. High-resolution electron tomography analysis of statolith-to-ER contact sites indicate that the weight of statoliths is sufficient to locally deform the ER membranes that can potentially activate mechanosensitive ion channels. We suggest that in root columella cells, the transduction of the kinetic energy of sedimenting statoliths into a biochemical signal involves a combination of statolith-driven motion of the cytosol, statolith-induced deformation of the ER membranes, and a rapid release of kinetic energy from the ER during reorientation to activate mechanosensitive sites within the central columella cells. PMID:19276442

  14. Interleukin-2 induces beta2-integrin-dependent signal transduction involving the focal adhesion kinase-related protein B (fakB)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockdorff, J; Kanner, S B; Nielsen, M

    1998-01-01

    beta2 integrin molecules are involved in a multitude of cellular events, including adhesion, migration, and cellular activation. Here, we studied the influence of beta2 integrins on interleukin-2 (IL-2)-mediated signal transduction in human CD4(+) T cell lines obtained from healthy donors...

  15. Signal transduction in the footsteps of goethe and schiller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Karlheinz; Lindquist, Jonathan A; Entschladen, Frank; Serfling, Edgar; Thiel, Gerald; Kieser, Arnd; Giehl, Klaudia; Ehrhardt, Christina; Feller, Stephan M; Ullrich, Oliver; Schaper, Fred; Janssen, Ottmar; Hass, Ralf

    2009-02-04

    The historical town of Weimar in Thuringia, the "green heart of Germany" was the sphere of Goethe and Schiller, the two most famous representatives of German literature's classic era. Not yet entirely as influential as those two cultural icons, the Signal Transduction Society (STS) has nevertheless in the last decade established within the walls of Weimar an annual interdisciplinary Meeting on "Signal Transduction - Receptors, Mediators and Genes", which is well recognized as a most attractive opportunity to exchange results and ideas in the field.The 12th STS Meeting was held from October 28 to 31 and provided a state-of-the-art overview of various areas of signal transduction research in which progress is fast and discussion lively. This report is intended to share with the readers of CCS some highlights of the Meeting Workshops devoted to specific aspects of signal transduction.

  16. Signaling mechanisms of apoptosis-like programmed cell death in unicellular eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemarova, Irina V

    2010-04-01

    In unicellular eukaryotes, apoptosis-like cell death occurs during development, aging and reproduction, and can be induced by environmental stresses and exposure to toxic agents. The essence of the apoptotic machinery in unicellular organisms is similar to that in mammals, but the apoptotic signal network is less complex and of more ancient origin. The review summarizes current data about key apoptotic proteins and mechanisms of the transduction of apoptotic signals by caspase-like proteases and mitochondrial apoptogenic proteins in unicellular eukaryotes. The roles of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent caspase cascades are reviewed. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia iPS cells exhibit defective MPL-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Shinji; Takayama, Naoya; Jono-Ohnishi, Ryoko; Endo, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Sou; Dohda, Takeaki; Nishi, Masanori; Hamazaki, Yuhei; Ishii, Ei-ichi; Kaneko, Shin; Otsu, Makoto; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kunishima, Shinji; Eto, Koji

    2013-09-01

    Congenital amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (CAMT) is caused by the loss of thrombopoietin receptor-mediated (MPL-mediated) signaling, which causes severe pancytopenia leading to bone marrow failure with onset of thrombocytopenia and anemia prior to leukopenia. Because Mpl(-/-) mice do not exhibit the human disease phenotype, we used an in vitro disease tracing system with induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from a CAMT patient (CAMT iPSCs) and normal iPSCs to investigate the role of MPL signaling in hematopoiesis. We found that MPL signaling is essential for maintenance of the CD34+ multipotent hematopoietic progenitor (MPP) population and development of the CD41+GPA+ megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitor (MEP) population, and its role in the fate decision leading differentiation toward megakaryopoiesis or erythropoiesis differs considerably between normal and CAMT cells. Surprisingly, complimentary transduction of MPL into normal or CAMT iPSCs using a retroviral vector showed that MPL overexpression promoted erythropoiesis in normal CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), but impaired erythropoiesis and increased aberrant megakaryocyte production in CAMT iPSC-derived CD34+ HPCs, reflecting a difference in the expression of the transcription factor FLI1. These results demonstrate that impaired transcriptional regulation of the MPL signaling that normally governs megakaryopoiesis and erythropoiesis underlies CAMT.

  18. Subretinal Fluid Levels of Signal-Transduction Proteins and Apoptosis Molecules in Macula-Off Retinal Detachment Undergoing Scleral Buckle Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpineto, Paolo; Aharrh-Gnama, Agbeanda; Ciciarelli, Vincenzo; Borrelli, Enrico; Petti, Francesco; Aloia, Raffaella; Lamolinara, Alessia; Di Nicola, Marta; Mastropasqua, Leonardo

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate signal transduction and early apoptosis protein levels in subretinal fluid collected during scleral buckling surgery for macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Our aim was to assess both their relation with RRD features and their influence on the posttreatment outcome. Thirty-three eyes of 33 RRD patients scheduled for scleral buckle surgery were enrolled in the study. Undiluted subretinal fluid samples were collected during surgery and analyzed via magnetic bead-based immunoassay. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic evaluation at baseline and at each follow-up visit (months 1, 3, and 6). Moreover, both at baseline and at the postsurgery month 6 visit, the patients were tested by means of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in order to evaluate the average ganglion cell-inner plexiform complex thickness, as well as the photoreceptor inner segment/outer segment junction status. Patients' clinical features (retinal detachment size, detachment duration, and occurrence of proliferative vitreoretinopathy) were associated with several early apoptotic factors (caspase-8, caspase-9, and B-cell lymphoma 2 [Bcl-2]-associated death promoter [BAD]). Furthermore, both early apoptosis factors (caspase-8, Bcl-2, and p53) and signal-transduction proteins (ERK 1/2) were found to influence the postsurgery month 3 OCT characteristics. Signal-transduction proteins and early apoptosis proteins are associated with different clinical features and postsurgery outcomes.

  19. Coating with spermine-pullulan polymer enhances adenoviral transduction of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan L

    2016-12-01

    coating could enhance adenoviral transduction of MSCs without detectable cytotoxicity or effects on differentiation. Our results argue in favor of the potentiality of the SP-coated Adv as a prototype vector for efficient and safe transduction of MSCs. Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, adenovirus vectors, spermine-pullulan, polymer, gene transduction

  20. Unraveling the response of plant cells to cytotoxic saponins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrazzi, Alma; Macovei, Anca; Tava, Aldo; Avato, Pinarosa; Raimondi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of pharmacological properties are ascribed to natural saponins, in addition to their biological activities against herbivores, plant soil-borne pathogens and pests. As for animal cells, the cytotoxicity and the chemopreventive role of saponins are mediated by a complex network of signal transduction pathways which include reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). The involvement of other relevant components of the saponin-related signaling routes, such as the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)α, the interleukin (IL)-6 and the Nuclear Transcription FactorκB (NFκB), has been highlighted in animal cells. By contrast, information concerning the response of plant cells to saponins and the related signal transduction pathways is almost missing. To date, there are only a few common features which link plant and animal cells in their response to saponins, such as the early burst in ROS and NO production and the induction of metallothioneins (MTs), small cysteine-rich, metal-binding proteins. This aspect is discussed in the present paper in view of the recent hypothesis that MTs and NO are part of a novel signal transduction pathway participating in the cell response to oxidative stress. PMID:21673512

  1. Functional conservation between Schizosaccharomyces pombe ste8 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE11 protein kinases in yeast signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Styrkársdóttir, U; Egel, R; Nielsen, O

    1992-01-01

    in signal transduction in budding yeast. Expression of the S. cerevisiae STE11 gene in S. pombe ste8 mutants restores the ability to transcribe mat1-Pm in response to pheromone. Also, such cells become capable of conjugation and sporulation. When mat1-Pm is artifically expressed from a heterologous promoter...

  2. MCF-10A-NeoST: A New Cell System for Studying Cell-ECM and Cell-Cell Interactions in Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zantek, Nicole Dodge; Walker-Daniels, Jennifer; Stewart, Jane; Hansen, Rhonda K.; Robinson, Daniel; Miao, Hui; Wang, Bingcheng; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Bissell, Mina J.; Kinch, Michael S.

    2001-08-22

    There is a continuing need for genetically matched cell systems to model cellular behaviors that are frequently observed in aggressive breast cancers. We report here the isolation and initial characterization of a spontaneously arising variant of MCF-10A cells, NeoST, which provides a new model to study cell adhesion and signal transduction in breast cancer. NeoST cells recapitulate important biological and biochemical features of metastatic breast cancer, including anchorage-independent growth, invasiveness in threedimensional reconstituted membranes, loss of E-cadherin expression, and increased tyrosine kinase activity. A comprehensive analysis of tyrosine kinase expression revealed overexpression or functional activation of the Axl, FAK, and EphA2 tyrosine kinases in transformed MCF-10A cells. MCF-10A and these new derivatives provide a genetically matched model to study defects in cell adhesion and signaling that are relevant to cellular behaviors that often typify aggressive breast cancer cells.

  3. Expression of cDNAs in human Natural Killer cell lines by retroviral transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, S M Shahjahan; Campbell, Kerry S

    2010-01-01

    Human NK-like cell lines are difficult to transfect using standard mammalian expression vectors and conventional transfection protocols, but they are susceptible to retroviral transduction as a means to introduce cDNAs. Our laboratory has exploited this technique to study a number of receptors in human NK cell lines. The method utilizes a bicistronic retroviral vector that co-expresses either drug resistance or enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in parallel with the gene of interest. After a single infection with recombinant retrovirus, transduced NK cells can be sorted for expression of EGFP or the transduced cell surface marker. Alternatively, cells expressing the transduced cDNAs can be selected for by treatment with neomycin, puromycin, or hygromycin. Using this method, the sorted/selected cells uniformly express the gene of interest and the expression is stable for many weeks of culture.

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 signalling promotes goblet cell hyperplasia in airway epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polosukhin, Vasiliy V; Cates, Justin M; Lawson, William E; Milstone, Aaron P; Matafonov, Anton G; Massion, Pierre P; Lee, Jae Woo; Randell, Scott H; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2018-01-01

    Goblet cell hyperplasia is a common feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) airways, but the mechanisms that underlie this epithelial remodelling in COPD are not understood. Based on our previous finding of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) nuclear localization in large airways from patients with COPD, we investigated whether hypoxia-inducible signalling could influence the development of goblet cell hyperplasia. We evaluated large airway samples obtained from 18 lifelong non-smokers and 13 former smokers without COPD, and 45 former smokers with COPD. In these specimens, HIF-1α nuclear staining occurred almost exclusively in COPD patients in areas of airway remodelling. In COPD patients, 93.2 ± 3.9% (range 65 – 100%) of goblet cells were HIF-1α positive in areas of goblet cell hyperplasia, whereas nuclear HIF-1α was not detected in individuals without COPD or in normal-appearing pseudostratified epithelium from COPD patients. To determine the direct effects of hypoxia-inducible signalling on epithelial cell differentiation in vitro, human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) were grown in air-liquid interface cultures under hypoxia (1% O2) or following treatment with a selective HIF-1α stabilizer, (2R)-[(4-biphenylylsulphonyl)amino]-N-hydroxy-3-phenyl-propionamide (BiPS). HBECs grown in hypoxia or with BiPS treatment were characterized by HIF-1α activation, carbonic anhydrase IX expression, mucus-producing cell hyperplasia and increased expression of MUC5AC. Analysis of signal transduction pathways in cells with HIF-1α activation showed increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation without activation of epidermal growth factor receptor, Ras, PI3K-Akt or STAT6. These data indicate an important effect of hypoxia-inducible signalling on airway epithelial cell differentiation and identify a new potential target to limit mucus production in COPD. PMID:21557221

  5. Efficient Transduction of Feline Neural Progenitor Cells for Delivery of Glial Cell Line-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Using a Feline Immunodeficiency Virus-Based Lentiviral Construct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Joann You

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Work has shown that stem cell transplantation can rescue or replace neurons in models of retinal degenerative disease. Neural progenitor cells (NPCs modified to overexpress neurotrophic factors are one means of providing sustained delivery of therapeutic gene products in vivo. To develop a nonrodent animal model of this therapeutic strategy, we previously derived NPCs from the fetal cat brain (cNPCs. Here we use bicistronic feline lentiviral vectors to transduce cNPCs with glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF together with a GFP reporter gene. Transduction efficacy is assessed, together with transgene expression level and stability during induction of cellular differentiation, together with the influence of GDNF transduction on growth and gene expression profile. We show that GDNF overexpressing cNPCs expand in vitro, coexpress GFP, and secrete high levels of GDNF protein—before and after differentiation—all qualities advantageous for use as a cell-based approach in feline models of neural degenerative disease.

  6. Antitumor Activity of Tenacissoside H on Esophageal Cancer through Arresting Cell Cycle and Regulating PI3K/Akt-NF-κB Transduction Cascade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-sen Jia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of the study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism of tenacissoside H (TDH inhibiting esophageal carcinoma infiltration and proliferation. Methods. In vitro, EC9706 cells were treated with TDH. Cells proliferation and cell cycle were assayed. PI3K and NF-κB mRNAs expression were determined by real time PCR. In vivo, model of nude mice with tumor was established. Mice were treated with TDH. Inhibition ratio of tumor volume was calculated. PCNA expression was examined. Protein expression in PI3K/Akt-NF-κB signaling pathway was determined. Results. In vitro, TDH significantly inhibited cells proliferation in a time-and-dose-dependent manner. TDH arrested the cell cycle in S phase and significantly inhibited PI3K and NF-κB mRNA expression, compared with blank controlled group (P<0.05. In vivo, TDH strongly inhibits tumor growth and volume. PCNA expression was significantly decreased after treatment of TDH. TDH downregulated proteins expression in PI3K/Akt-NF-κB transduction cascade (P<0.05. Conclusion. TDH inhibited esophageal carcinoma infiltration and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. The anticancer activity has relation to arresting the cell cycle at the S phase, inhibited the PCNA expression of transplanted tumors in nude mice, and regulated the protein expression in the PI3K/Akt-NF-κB transduction cascade.

  7. A bead-based western for high-throughput cellular signal transduction analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treindl, Fridolin; Ruprecht, Benjamin; Beiter, Yvonne; Schultz, Silke; Döttinger, Anette; Staebler, Annette; Joos, Thomas O.; Kling, Simon; Poetz, Oliver; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans; Kuster, Bernhard; Templin, Markus F.

    2016-01-01

    Dissecting cellular signalling requires the analysis of large number of proteins. The DigiWest approach we describe here transfers the western blot to a bead-based microarray platform. By combining gel-based protein separation with immobilization on microspheres, hundreds of replicas of the initial blot are created, thus enabling the comprehensive analysis of limited material, such as cells collected by laser capture microdissection, and extending traditional western blotting to reach proteomic scales. The combination of molecular weight resolution, sensitivity and signal linearity on an automated platform enables the rapid quantification of hundreds of specific proteins and protein modifications in complex samples. This high-throughput western blot approach allowed us to identify and characterize alterations in cellular signal transduction that occur during the development of resistance to the kinase inhibitor Lapatinib, revealing major changes in the activation state of Ephrin-mediated signalling and a central role for p53-controlled processes. PMID:27659302

  8. Notch signaling and ghost cell fate in the calcifying cystig odontogenic tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siar CH

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Notch signaling is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism that enables adjacent cells to adopt different fates. Ghost cells (GCs are anucleate cells with homogeneous pale eosinophilic cytoplasm and very pale to clear central areas (previous nucleus sites. Although GCs are present in a variety of odontogenic lesions notably the calcifying cystic odontogenic tumor (GCOT, their nature and process of formation remains elusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in the cell fate specification of GCs in CCOT. Immunohistochemical staining for four Notch receptors (Notch1, Notch2, Notch3 and Notch4 and three ligands (Jagged1, Jagged2 and Delta1 was performed on archival tissues of five CCOT cases. Level of positivity was quantified as negative (0, mild (+, moderate (2+ and strong (3+. Results revealed that GCs demonstrated overexpression for Notch1 and Jagged1 suggesting that Notch1Jagged1 signaling might serve as the main transduction mechanism in cell fate decision for GCs in CCOT. Protein localizations were largely membranous and/or cytoplasmic. Mineralized GCs also stained positive implicating that the calcification process might be associated with upregulation of these molecules. The other Notch receptors and ligands were weak to absent in GCs and tumoral epithelium. Stromal endothelium and fibroblasts were stained variably positive.

  9. Signal transduction by VEGF receptors in regulation of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibuya, Masabumi; Claesson-Welsh, Lena

    2006-01-01

    The VEGF/VPF (vascular endothelial growth factor/vascular permeability factor) ligands and receptors are crucial regulators of vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis and vascular permeability in vertebrates. VEGF-A, the prototype VEGF ligand, binds and activates two tyrosine kinase receptors: VEGFR1 (Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (KDR/Flk-1). VEGFR1, which occurs in transmembrane and soluble forms, negatively regulates vasculogenesis and angiogenesis during early embryogenesis, but it also acts as a positive regulator of angiogenesis and inflammatory responses, playing a role in several human diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. The soluble VEGFR1 is overexpressed in placenta in preeclampsia patients. VEGFR2 has critical functions in physiological and pathological angiogenesis through distinct signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. VEGFR3, a receptor for the lymphatic growth factors VEGF-C and VEGF-D, but not for VEGF-A, regulates vascular and lymphatic endothelial cell function during embryogenesis. Loss-of-function variants of VEGFR3 have been identified in lymphedema. Formation of tumor lymphatics may be stimulated by tumor-produced VEGF-C, allowing increased spread of tumor metastases through the lymphatics. Mapping the signaling system of these important receptors may provide the knowledge necessary to suppress specific signaling pathways in major human diseases

  10. Effect of emodin on mobility signal transduction system of gallbladder smooth muscle in Guinea pig with cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Bang-Jiang; Shen, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Shuang; Lyu, Chuan-Zhu; Xie, Yi-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of emodin on protein and gene expressions of the massagers in mobility signal transduction system of cholecyst smooth muscle cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups, such as control group, gall-stone (GS) group, emodin group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) group. Cholesterol calculus models were induced in guinea pigs of GS, emodin and UA groups by lithogenic diet, while emodin or UA were given to the corresponding group for 7 weeks. The histomorphological and ultrastructure change of gallbladder were detected by microscope and electron microscope, the content of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and [Ca 2+ ] i were analyzed successively by radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry. The protein and mRNA of Gsα, Giα and Cap in cholecyst cells were determined by western blotting and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Emodin or UA can relieve pathogenic changes in epithelial cells and muscle cells in gallbladder of guinea pig with cholesterol calculus by microscope and transmission electron microscope. In the cholecyst cells of GS group, CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i decreased, the protein and mRNA of GS were down-regulated, the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap were up-regulated. Emodin significantly decreased the formative rate of gallstone, improved the pathogenic change in epithelial cells and muscle cells, increased CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, enhanced the protein and mRNA of Gs in cholecyst cells, reduced the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap in cholecyst cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The dysfunction of gallbladder contraction gives rise to the disorders of mobility signal transduction system in cholecyst smooth muscle cells, including low content of plasma CCK and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, abnormal protein and mRNA of Gs, Gi and Cap. Emodin can enhance the contractibility of gallbladder and alleviate cholestasis by regulating plasma

  11. [The role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic protein inducing bone formation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-liang; Dai, Ke-rong; Tang, Ting-ting

    2003-09-01

    To clarify the mechanisms of the signal transduction of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inducing bone formation and to provide theoretical basis for basic and applying research of BMPs. We looked up the literature of the role of Smads and related transcription factors in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone formation. The signal transduction processes of BMPs included: 1. BMPs combined with type II and type I receptors; 2. the type I receptor phosphorylated Smads; and 3. Smads entered the cell nucleus, interacted with transcription factors and influenced the transcription of related proteins. Smads could be divided into receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads: Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, Smad5, Smad8 and Smad9), common-mediator Smad (co-Smad: Smad4), and inhibitory Smads (I-Smads: Smad6 and Smad7). Smad1, Smad5, Smad8, and probable Smad9 were involved in the signal transduction of BMPs. Multiple kinases, such as focal adhesion kinase (FAK), Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Akt serine/threonine kinase were related to Smads signal transduction. Smad1 and Smad5 related with transcription factors included core binding factor A1 (CBFA1), smad-interacting protein 1 (SIP1), ornithine decarboxylase antizyme (OAZ), activating protein-1 (AP-1), xenopus ventralizing homeobox protein-2 (Xvent-2), sandostatin (Ski), antiproliferative proteins (Tob), and homeodomain-containing transcriptian factor-8 (Hoxc-8), et al. CBFA1 could interact with Smad1, Smad2, Smad3, and Smad5, so it was involved in TGF-beta and BMP-2 signal transduction, and played an important role in the bone formation. Cleidocranial dysplasia (CCD) was thought to be caused by heterozygous mutations in CBFA1. The CBFA1 knockout mice showed no osteogenesis and had maturational disturbance of chondrocytes. Smads and related transcription factors, especially Smad1, Smad5, Smad8 and CBFA1, play an important role in the signal transduction of BMPs inducing bone

  12. Efficient transduction of equine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells by VSV-G pseudotyped lentiviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gayle F; Hilbert, Bryan; Trope, Gareth; Kalle, Wouter; Strappe, Padraig

    2014-12-01

    Equine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (EADMSC) provide a unique cell-based approach for treatment of a variety of equine musculoskeletal injuries, via regeneration of diseased or damaged tissue, or the secretion of immunomodulatory molecules. These capabilities can be further enhanced by genetic modification using lentiviral vectors, which provide a safe and efficient method of gene delivery. We investigated the suitability of lentiviral vector technology for gene delivery into EADMSC, using GFP expressing lentiviral vectors pseudotyped with the G glycoprotein from the vesicular stomatitis virus (V-GFP) or, for the first time, the baculovirus gp64 envelope protein (G-GFP). In this study, we produced similarly high titre V-GFP and G-GFP lentiviral vectors. Flow cytometric analysis showed efficient transduction using V-GFP; however G-GFP exhibited a poor ability to transduce EADMSC. Transduction resulted in sustained GFP expression over four passages, with minimal effects on cell viability and doubling time, and an unaltered chondrogenic differentiation potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nitric oxide agents impair insulin-mediated signal transduction in rat skeletal muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragoobirsingh Dalip

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence demonstrates that exogenously administered nitric oxide (NO can induce insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. We have investigated the modulatory effects of two NO donors, S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D, L-penicillamine (SNAP and S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO on the early events in insulin signaling in rat skeletal myocytes. Results Skeletal muscle cells from 6–8 week old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with SNAP or GSNO (25 ng/ml in the presence or absence of glucose (25 mM and insulin (100 nM. Cellular insulin receptor-β levels and tyrosine phosphorylation in IRS-1 were significantly reduced, while serine phosphorylation in IRS-1 was significantly increased in these cells, when compared to the insulin-stimulated control. Reversal to near normal levels was achieved using the NO scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl-4, 4, 5, 5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl 3-oxide (carboxy-PTIO. Conclusion These data suggest that NO is a potent modulator of insulin-mediated signal transduction and may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Cell-Cell Contact Area Affects Notch Signaling and Notch-Dependent Patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Oren; Binshtok, Udi; Hersch, Micha; Rivkin, Dmitri; Weinreb, Sheila; Amir-Zilberstein, Liat; Khamaisi, Bassma; Oppenheim, Olya; Desai, Ravi A; Goodyear, Richard J; Richardson, Guy P; Chen, Christopher S; Sprinzak, David

    2017-03-13

    During development, cells undergo dramatic changes in their morphology. By affecting contact geometry, these morphological changes could influence cellular communication. However, it has remained unclear whether and how signaling depends on contact geometry. This question is particularly relevant for Notch signaling, which coordinates neighboring cell fates through direct cell-cell signaling. Using micropatterning with a receptor trans-endocytosis assay, we show that signaling between pairs of cells correlates with their contact area. This relationship extends across contact diameters ranging from micrometers to tens of micrometers. Mathematical modeling predicts that dependence of signaling on contact area can bias cellular differentiation in Notch-mediated lateral inhibition processes, such that smaller cells are more likely to differentiate into signal-producing cells. Consistent with this prediction, analysis of developing chick inner ear revealed that ligand-producing hair cell precursors have smaller apical footprints than non-hair cells. Together, these results highlight the influence of cell morphology on fate determination processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Signal transduction and downregulation of C-MET in HGF stimulated low and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husmann, Knut, E-mail: khusmann@research.balgrist.ch [Laboratory for Orthopedic Research, Department of Orthopedics, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Ducommun, Pascal [Laboratory for Orthopedic Research, Department of Orthopedics, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Division of Plastic Surgery and Hand Surgery, Department of Surgery, University Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Sabile, Adam A.; Pedersen, Else-Marie; Born, Walter; Fuchs, Bruno [Laboratory for Orthopedic Research, Department of Orthopedics, Balgrist University Hospital, University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-04

    The poor outcome of osteosarcoma (OS), particularly in patients with metastatic disease and a five-year survival rate of only 20%, asks for more effective therapeutic strategies targeting malignancy-promoting mechanisms. Dysregulation of C-MET, its ligand hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and the fusion oncogene product TPR-MET, first identified in human MNNG-HOS OS cells, have been described as cancer-causing factors in human cancers. Here, the expression of these molecules at the mRNA and the protein level and of HGF-stimulated signaling and downregulation of C-MET was compared in the parental low metastatic HOS and MG63 cell lines and the respective highly metastatic MNNG-HOS and 143B and the MG63-M6 and MG63-M8 sublines. Interestingly, expression of TPR-MET was only observed in MNNG-HOS cells. HGF stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2 in all cell lines investigated, but phospho-Stat3 remained at basal levels. Downregulation of HGF-stimulated Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation was much faster in the HGF expressing MG63-M8 cells than in HOS cells. Degradation of HGF-activated C-MET occurred predominantly through the proteasomal and to a lesser extent the lysosomal pathway in the cell lines investigated. Thus, HGF-stimulated Akt and Erk1/2 signaling as well as proteasomal degradation of HGF activated C-MET are potential therapeutic targets in OS. - Highlights: • Expression of TPR-MET was only observed in MNNG-HOS cells. • HGF stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and Erk1/2 but not of Stat3 in osteosarcoma cell lines. • Degradation of HGF-activated C-MET occurred predominantly through the proteasomal pathway.

  16. Hepatic stellate cell and myofibroblast-like cell gene expression in the explanted cirrhotic livers of patients undergoing liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estep, J Michael; O'Reilly, Linda; Grant, Geraldine; Piper, James; Jonsson, Johann; Afendy, Arian; Chandhoke, Vikas; Younossi, Zobair M

    2010-02-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSC) are involved in hepatic fibrogenesis. Cell signaling associated with an insult to the liver affects an HSC transdifferentiation to fibrogenic myofibroblast-like cells. To investigate the transcriptional expression distinguishing HSC and myofibroblast-like cells between livers with and without cirrhosis. Tissue from ten cirrhotic livers (undergoing transplant) and four non-cirrhotic livers from the National Disease Research Interchange underwent cell separation to extract HSC and myofibroblast-like cell populations. Separated cell types as well as LI-90 cells were subjected to microarray analysis. Selected microarray results were verified by quantitative real-time PCR. Differential expression of some genes, such as IL-1beta, IL-1alpha, and IL-6, was associated with both transdifferentiation and disease. Other genes, such as fatty acid 2-hydroxylase only show differential expression in association with disease. Functional analysis supported these findings, indicating some signal transduction pathways (IL-6) are involved in disease and activation, whereas retinoid X receptor signaling in HSC from cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic livers varies in scope and quality. These findings indicate distinct phenotypes for HSC from cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic livers. Furthermore, coordinated differential expression between genes involved in the same signal transduction pathways provides some insight into the mechanisms that may control the balance between fibrogenesis and fibrolysis.

  17. Thiol Redox Transitions in Cell Signaling: a Lesson from N-Acetylcysteine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Parasassi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The functional status of cells is under the control of external stimuli affecting the function of critical proteins and eventually gene expression. Signal sensing and transduction by messengers to specific effectors operate by post-translational modification of proteins, among which thiol redox switches play a fundamental role that is just beginning to be understood. The maintenance of the redox status is, indeed, crucial for cellular homeostasis and its dysregulation towards a more oxidized intracellular environment is associated with aberrant proliferation, ultimately related to diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Redox transitions occur in sensitive cysteine residues of regulatory proteins relevant to signaling, their evolution to metastable disulfides accounting for the functional redox switch. N-acetylcysteine (NAC is a thiol-containing compound that is able to interfere with redox transitions of thiols and, thus, in principle, able to modulate redox signaling. We here review the redox chemistry of NAC, then screen possible mechanisms to explain the effects observed in NAC-treated normal and cancer cells; such effects involve a modification of global gene expression, thus of functions and morphology, with a leitmotif of a switch from proliferation to terminal differentiation. The regulation of thiol redox transitions in cell signaling is, therefore, proposed as a new tool, holding promise not only for a deeper explanation of mechanisms, but indeed for innovative pharmacological interventions.

  18. [Signal transudation pathways in parietal cells of the gastric mucosa in experimental stomach ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapchenko, L I; Drobins'ka, O V; Chaĭka, V O; Bohun, L I; Bohdanova, O V; Kot, L I; Haĭda, L M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the presented work was the research of signal transduction mechanism in the rat gastric parietal cells under stomach ulcer conditions. In these cells activation of adenylate cyclase (increase of cAMP level and proteinkinase A activity) and phosphoinositide (increases [Ca2+]i; cGMP and phoshatidylinocitole levels; proteinkinase C, proteinkinase G, and calmodulin-dependent-proteinkinase activity) of signals pathway was shown. An increase of plasma membrane phospholipids (PC, PS, PE, PI, LPC) level was shown. Under conditions of influence of the stress factor the membran enzymes activity (H+, K+ -ATPase, 5'-AMPase, Na+, K+ -ATPase, Ca2+, Mg2+ -ATPase and H+, K+ -ATPase) was considerably increased. The intensification of lipid peroxidation processes in rats was demonstrated.

  19. Differences In Early T-Cell Signaling In Cultures Grown In a Rotating Clinostat vs. Static Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexamder. M.; Nelman-Gonzales, M.; Penkala, J.; Sams, C.

    1999-01-01

    Altered gravity has previously been demonstrated to be a stress that can influence components of the immune system. Specifically, T-cell activation has been shown to be affected by changes in gravity, exhibiting a decrease in proliferative response to in vitro stimulation in microgravity. Subsequent ground based studies utilizing a rotating clinostat to model some of the effects of microgravity have been consistent with earlier flight based experiments. These ground and flight experiments have examined T-cell activation by measuring various responses including production of cytokines, DNA synthesis and the production of various cell surface activation markers. These indicators of T-cell activation were measured anywhere from 4 to 72 hours after stimulation. Prior to the work described here, the initial signaling events in T-cell activation had not been directly examined. The goal of this project was to determine how the process of early signal transduction was affected by growth in a rotating clinostat. Here we directly show a defect in signaling from TCR to MAPK in purified peripheral T-cells activated in the clinostat by OKT3/antiCD28 coated microbeads as compared to static controls.

  20. Effects of Monoclonal Antibody Cetuximab on Proliferation of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Cell lines

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    Zhen CHEN

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab has been used widely in non-small cell lung cancer patients. The aim of this study is to explore the effect of lung cancer cells (A549, H460, H1299, SPC-A-1 which were treated by cetuximab in vitro. Methods We studied the effects of increasing concentrations of cetuximab (1 nmol/L-625 nmol/L in four human lung cancer cell lines (A549, SPC-A-1, H460, H1229. CCK8 measured the inhibition of cell proliferation in each group. A549, SPC-A-1 were marked by PI and the statuses of apoptosis were observed. Western blot were used to detect the proliferation-related signaling protein and apoptosis-related protein in A549. Results The treatment with cetuximab resulted in the effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis in a time- and dosedependent manner. The expression of activated key enzymes (p-AKT, p-EGFR, p-MAPK in EGFR signaling transduction pathway were down-regulated more obviously. Conclusion Cetuximab is an effective targeted drug in the treatment of lung cancer cell lines, tissues, most likely to contribute to the inhibition of key enzymes in EGFR signaling transduction pathway.

  1. Materials as stem cell regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, William L.; McDevitt, Todd C.; Engler, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:24845994

  2. Elucidation of the Signal Transduction Pathways Activated by the Plant Natriuretic Peptide AtPNP-A

    KAUST Repository

    Turek, Ilona

    2014-11-01

    Plant natriuretic peptides (PNPs) comprise a novel class of hormones that share some sequence similarity in the active site with their animal analogues that function as regulators of salt and water balance. A PNP present in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtPNP-A) has been assigned a role in abiotic and biotic stress responses, and the recombinant protein has been demonstrated to elicit cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent stomatal guard cell opening, regulate ion movements, and induce osmoticum-dependent water uptake. Although the importance of the hormone in maintaining ion and fluid homeostasis has been established, key components of the AtPNP-A-dependent signal transduction pathway remain unknown. Since identification of the binding partners of AtPNP-A, including its receptor(s), is fundamental to understanding the mode of its action at the molecular level, comprehensive protein-protein interaction studies, involving yeast two-hybrid screening, affinity-based assays, protein cross-linking and co-immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometric (MS) analyses have been performed. Several candidate binding partners of AtPNP-A identified with at least two independent methods were subsequently expressed as recombinant proteins, purified, and the specificity of their interactions with the recombinant AtPNP-A was verified using surface plasmon resonance. Several specific binary interactants of AtPNP-A were subjected to functional assays aimed at unraveling the consequences of the interactions in planta. These experiments have revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are novel secondary messengers involved in the transduction of AtPNP-A signal in suspension-cultured cells of A. thaliana (Col-0). Further insight into the AtPNP-A dependent signalling events occurring in suspension-cultured cells in ROS-dependent or ROS-independent manner have been obtained from the large-scale proteomics study employing tandem mass tag (TMT) labelling followed by MS analysis to

  3. A model for the biosynthesis and transport of plasma membrane-associated signaling receptors to the cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorina Claudia Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular protein transport is emerging as critical in determining the outcome of receptor-activated signal transduction pathways. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating receptor synthesis and transport to the cell surface. Recent advances in this field indicate that signaling pathways and intracellular transport machinery converge and coordinate to render receptors competent for signaling at their plasma membrane activity sites. The biogenesis and transport to the cell surface of signaling receptors appears to require both general trafficking and receptor-specific factors. Several molecular determinants, residing or associated with compartments of the secretory pathway and known to influence aspects in receptor biogenesis, are discussed and integrated into a predictive cooperative model for the functional expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane.

  4. Schwann cell myelination requires Dynein function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langworthy Melissa M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interaction of Schwann cells with axons triggers signal transduction that drives expression of Pou3f1 and Egr2 transcription factors, which in turn promote myelination. Signal transduction appears to be mediated, at least in part, by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP because elevation of cAMP levels can stimulate myelination in the absence of axon contact. The mechanisms by which the myelinating signal is conveyed remain unclear. Results By analyzing mutations that disrupt myelination in zebrafish, we learned that Dynein cytoplasmic 1 heavy chain 1 (Dync1h1, which functions as a motor for intracellular molecular trafficking, is required for peripheral myelination. In dync1h1 mutants, Schwann cell progenitors migrated to peripheral nerves but then failed to express Pou3f1 and Egr2 or make myelin membrane. Genetic mosaic experiments revealed that robust Myelin Basic Protein expression required Dync1h1 function within both Schwann cells and axons. Finally, treatment of dync1h1 mutants with a drug to elevate cAMP levels stimulated myelin gene expression. Conclusion Dync1h1 is required for retrograde transport in axons and mutations of Dync1h1 have been implicated in axon disease. Our data now provide evidence that Dync1h1 is also required for efficient myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells, perhaps by facilitating signal transduction necessary for myelination.

  5. Communication Between the Cell Membrane and the Nucleus: Role of Protein Compartmentalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelievre, Sophie A; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-10-21

    Understanding how the information is conveyed from outside to inside the cell is a critical challenge for all biologists involved in signal transduction. The flow of information initiated by cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix contacts is mediated by the formation of adhesion complexes involving multiple proteins. Inside adhesion complexes, connective membrane skeleton (CMS) proteins are signal transducers that bind to adhesion molecules, organize the cytoskeleton, and initiate biochemical cascades. Adhesion complex-mediated signal transduction ultimately directs the formation of supramolecular structures in the cell nucleus, as illustrated by the establishment of multi complexes of DNA-bound transcription factors, and the redistribution of nuclear structural proteins to form nuclear subdomains. Recently, several CMS proteins have been observed to travel to the cell nucleus, suggesting a distinctive role for these proteins in signal transduction. This review focuses on the nuclear translocation of structural signal transducers of the membrane skeleton and also extends our analysis to possible translocation of resident nuclear proteins to the membrane skeleton. This leads us to envision the communication between spatially distant cellular compartments (i.e., membrane skeleton and cell nucleus) as a bidirectional flow of information (a dynamic reciprocity) based on subtle multilevel structural and biochemical equilibria. At one level, it is mediated by the interaction between structural signal transducers and their binding partners, at another level it may be mediated by the balance and integration of signal transducers in different cellular compartments.

  6. The carboxyl terminal tyrosine 417 residue of NOK has an autoinhibitory effect on NOK-mediated signaling transductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yinghua; Zhong Shan; Rong Zhili; Ren Yongming; Li Zhiyong; Zhang Shuping; Chang Zhijie; Liu Li

    2007-01-01

    Receptor protein tyrosine kinases (RPTKs) are essential mediators of cell growth, differentiation, migration, and metabolism. Recently, a novel RPTK named NOK has been cloned and characterized. In current study, we investigated the role of the carboxyl terminal tyrosine 417 residue of NOK in the activations of different signaling pathways. A single tyrosine to phenylalanine point mutation at Y417 site (Y417 F) not only dramatically enhanced the NOK-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), but also markedly promoted the NOK-mediated activation of both signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3 (STAT1 and 3). Moreover, the proliferation potential of NIH3T3-NOK (Y417F) stable cells were significantly elevated as compared with that of NIH3T3-NOK. Overall, our results demonstrate that the tyrosine Y417 residue at the carboxyl tail of NOK exhibits an autoinhibitory role in NOK-mediated signaling transductions

  7. Ties that bind: the integration of plastid signalling pathways in plant cell metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunkard, Jacob O; Burch-Smith, Tessa M

    2018-04-13

    Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes. Several excellent recent reviews have provided broad perspectives on plastid signalling pathways. In this review, we will highlight recent advances in our understanding of chloroplast signalling pathways. Our discussion focuses on new discoveries illuminating how chloroplasts determine life and death decisions in cells and on studies elucidating tetrapyrrole biosynthesis signal transduction networks. We will also examine the role of a plastid RNA helicase, ISE2, in chloroplast signalling, and scrutinize intriguing results investigating the potential role of stromules in conducting signals from the chloroplast to other cellular locations. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Signal Transduction Pathways of TNAP: Molecular Network Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Négyessy, László; Györffy, Balázs; Hanics, János; Bányai, Mihály; Fonta, Caroline; Bazsó, Fülöp

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing body of evidence pointing on the involvement of tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) in brain function and diseases like epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease, our understanding about the role of TNAP in the regulation of neurotransmission is severely limited. The aim of our study was to integrate the fragmented knowledge into a comprehensive view regarding neuronal functions of TNAP using objective tools. As a model we used the signal transduction molecular network of a pyramidal neuron after complementing with TNAP related data and performed the analysis using graph theoretic tools. The analyses show that TNAP is in the crossroad of numerous pathways and therefore is one of the key players of the neuronal signal transduction network. Through many of its connections, most notably with molecules of the purinergic system, TNAP serves as a controller by funnelling signal flow towards a subset of molecules. TNAP also appears as the source of signal to be spread via interactions with molecules involved among others in neurodegeneration. Cluster analyses identified TNAP as part of the second messenger signalling cascade. However, TNAP also forms connections with other functional groups involved in neuronal signal transduction. The results indicate the distinct ways of involvement of TNAP in multiple neuronal functions and diseases.

  9. Calcium Signaling in Taste Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medler, Kathryn F.

    2014-01-01

    The sense of taste is a common ability shared by all organisms and is used to detect nutrients as well as potentially harmful compounds. Thus taste is critical to survival. Despite its importance, surprisingly little is known about the mechanisms generating and regulating responses to taste stimuli. All taste responses depend on calcium signals to generate appropriate responses which are relayed to the brain. Some taste cells have conventional synapses and rely on calcium influx through voltage-gated calcium channels. Other taste cells lack these synapses and depend on calcium release to formulate an output signal through a hemichannel. Beyond establishing these characteristics, few studies have focused on understanding how these calcium signals are formed. We identified multiple calcium clearance mechanisms that regulate calcium levels in taste cells as well as a calcium influx that contributes to maintaining appropriate calcium homeostasis in these cells. Multiple factors regulate the evoked taste signals with varying roles in different cell populations. Clearly, calcium signaling is a dynamic process in taste cells and is more complex than has previously been appreciated. PMID:25450977

  10. Hepatitis C virus E2 protein promotes human hepatoma cell proliferation through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway via cellular receptors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Lanjuan; Wang Lu; Ren Hao; Cao Jie; Li Li; Ke Jinshan; Qi Zhongtian

    2005-01-01

    Dysregulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways by various viruses has been shown to be responsible for viral pathogenicity. The molecular mechanism by which hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection caused human liver diseases has been investigated on the basis of abnormal intracellular signal events. Current data are very limited involved in transmembrane signal transduction triggered by HCV E2 protein. Here we explored regulation of the MAPK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) signaling pathway by E2 expressed in Chinese hamster oval cells. In human hepatoma Huh-7 cells, E2 specifically activated the MAPK/ERK pathway including downstream transcription factor ATF-2 and greatly promoted cell proliferation. CD81 and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) on the cell surface mediated binding of E2 to Huh-7 cells. The MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation driven by E2 were suppressed by blockage of CD81 as well as LDLR. Furthermore, pretreatment with an upstream kinase MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126 also impaired the MAPK/ERK activation and cell proliferation induced by E2. Our results suggest that the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway triggered by HCV E2 via its receptors maintains survival and growth of target cells

  11. NADPH oxidase 1 supports proliferation of colon cancer cells by modulating reactive oxygen species-dependent signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Agnes; Markel, Susan; Gaur, Shikha; Liu, Han; Lu, Jiamo; Jiang, Guojian; Wu, Xiwei; Antony, Smitha; Wu, Yongzhong; Melillo, Giovanni; Meitzler, Jennifer L; Haines, Diana C; Butcher, Donna; Roy, Krishnendu; Doroshow, James H

    2017-05-12

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in cell signaling and proliferation. NADPH oxidase 1 (NOX1), a membrane-bound flavin dehydrogenase that generates O 2 ̇̄ , is highly expressed in colon cancer. To investigate the role that NOX1 plays in colon cancer growth, we used shRNA to decrease NOX1 expression stably in HT-29 human colon cancer cells. The 80-90% decrease in NOX1 expression achieved by RNAi produced a significant decline in ROS production and a G 1 /S block that translated into a 2-3-fold increase in tumor cell doubling time without increased apoptosis. The block at the G 1 /S checkpoint was associated with a significant decrease in cyclin D 1 expression and profound inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Decreased steady-state MAPK phosphorylation occurred concomitant with a significant increase in protein phosphatase activity for two colon cancer cell lines in which NOX1 expression was knocked down by RNAi. Diminished NOX1 expression also contributed to decreased growth, blood vessel density, and VEGF and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) expression in HT-29 xenografts initiated from NOX1 knockdown cells. Microarray analysis, supplemented by real-time PCR and Western blotting, revealed that the expression of critical regulators of cell proliferation and angiogenesis, including c-MYC, c-MYB, and VEGF, were down-regulated in association with a decline in hypoxic HIF-1α protein expression downstream of silenced NOX1 in both colon cancer cell lines and xenografts. These studies suggest a role for NOX1 in maintaining the proliferative phenotype of some colon cancers and the potential of NOX1 as a therapeutic target in this disease. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Signaling profiling at the single-cell level identifies a distinct signaling signature in murine hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Wang, Jinyong; Kong, Guangyao; Jiang, Jing; Zhang, Jingfang; Liu, Yangang; Tong, Wei; Zhang, Jing

    2012-07-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function is tightly regulated by cytokine signaling. Although phospho-flow cytometry allows us to study signaling in defined populations of cells, there has been tremendous hurdle to carry out this study in rare HSCs due to unrecoverable critical HSC markers, low HSC number, and poor cell recovery rate. Here, we overcame these difficulties and developed a "HSC phospho-flow" method to analyze cytokine signaling in murine HSCs at the single-cell level and compare HSC signaling profile to that of multipotent progenitors (MPPs), a cell type immediately downstream of HSCs, and commonly used Lin(-) cKit(+) cells (LK cells, enriched for myeloid progenitors). We chose to study signaling evoked from three representative cytokines, stem cell factor (SCF) and thrombopoietin (TPO) that are essential for HSC function and granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) that is dispensable for HSCs. HSCs display a distinct TPO and GM-CSF signaling signature from MPPs and LK cells, which highly correlates with receptor surface expression. In contrast, although majority of LK cells express lower levels of cKit than HSCs and MPPs, SCF-evoked ERK1/2 activation in LK cells shows a significantly increased magnitude for a prolonged period. These results suggest that specific cellular context plays a more important role than receptor surface expression in SCF signaling. Our study of HSC signaling at the homeostasis stage paves the way to investigate signaling changes in HSCs under conditions of stress, aging, and hematopoietic diseases. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  13. Regulation of immune responsiveness in vivo by disrupting an early T-cell signaling event using a cell-permeable peptide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Guimond

    Full Text Available The inducible T cell kinase (ITK regulates type 2 (Th2 cytokines that provide defense against certain parasitic and bacterial infections and are involved in the pathogenesis of lung inflammation such as allergic asthma. Activation of ITK requires the interaction of its SH3 domain with the poly-proline region of its signaling partner, the SH2 domain containing leukocyte phosphoprotein of 76 kilodaltons (SLP-76. The specific disruption of the ITK-SH3/SLP-76 poly-proline interaction in vitro by a cell-permeable competitive inhibitor peptide (R9-QQP interferes with the activation of ITK and the transduction of its cellular functions in T lymphocytes. In the present investigation, we assessed the effects of R9-QQP treatment on the induction of an in vivo immune response as represented by lung inflammation in a murine model of allergic asthma. We found that mice treated with R9-QQP and sensitized and challenged with the surrogate allergen ovalbumin (OVA display significant inhibition of lung inflammation in a peptide-specific manner. Thus, parameters of the allergic response, such as airway hyper-responsiveness, suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration, reduction of bronchial mucus accumulation, and production of relevant cytokines from draining lymph nodes were significantly suppressed. These findings represent the first demonstration of the biological significance of the interaction between ITK and SLP-76 in the induction of an immune response in a whole animal model and specifically underscore the significance of the ITK-SH3 domain interaction with the poly-proline region of SLP-76 in the development of an inflammatory response. Furthermore, the experimental approach of intracellular peptide-mediated inhibition might be applicable to the study of other important intracellular interactions thus providing a paradigm for dissecting signal transduction pathways.

  14. The effect of the inner-hair-cell mediated transduction on the shape of neural tuning curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altoè, Alessandro; Pulkki, Ville; Verhulst, Sarah

    2018-05-01

    The inner hair cells of the mammalian cochlea transform the vibrations of their stereocilia into releases of neurotransmitter at the ribbon synapses, thereby controlling the activity of the afferent auditory fibers. The mechanical-to-neural transduction is a highly nonlinear process and it introduces differences between the frequency-tuning of the stereocilia and that of the afferent fibers. Using a computational model of the inner hair cell that is based on in vitro data, we estimated that smaller vibrations of the stereocilia are necessary to drive the afferent fibers above threshold at low (≤0.5 kHz) than at high (≥4 kHz) driving frequencies. In the base of the cochlea, the transduction process affects the low-frequency tails of neural tuning curves. In particular, it introduces differences between the frequency-tuning of the stereocilia and that of the auditory fibers resembling those between basilar membrane velocity and auditory fibers tuning curves in the chinchilla base. For units with a characteristic frequency between 1 and 4 kHz, the transduction process yields shallower neural than stereocilia tuning curves as the characteristic frequency decreases. This study proposes that transduction contributes to the progressive broadening of neural tuning curves from the base to the apex.

  15. Enhanced transduction and replication of RGD-fiber modified adenovirus in primary T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadhak Sengupta

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Adenoviruses are often used as vehicles to mediate gene delivery for therapeutic purposes, but their research scope in hematological cells remains limited due to a narrow choice of host cells that express the adenoviral receptor (CAR. T cells, which are attractive targets for gene therapy of numerous diseases, remain resistant to adenoviral infection because of the absence of CAR expression. Here, we demonstrate that this resistance can be overcome when murine or human T cells are transduced with an adenovirus incorporating the RGD-fiber modification (Ad-RGD.A luciferase-expressing replication-deficient Ad-RGD infected 3-fold higher number of activated primary T cells than an adenovirus lacking the RGD-fiber modification in vitro. Infection with replication-competent Ad-RGD virus also caused increased cell cycling, higher E1A copy number and enriched hexon antigen expression in both human and murine T cells. Transduction with oncolytic Ad-RGD also resulted in higher titers of progeny virus and enhanced the killing of T cells. In vivo, 35-45% of splenic T cells were transduced by Ad-RGD.Collectively, our results prove that a fiber modified Ad-RGD successfully transduces and replicates in primary T cells of both murine and human origin.

  16. Molecular machinery of signal transduction and cell cycle regulation in Plasmodium

    OpenAIRE

    Koyama, Fernanda C.; Chakrabarti, Debopam; Garcia, Célia R.S.

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of the Plasmodium cell cycle is not understood. Although the Plasmodium falciparum genome is completely sequenced, about 60% of the predicted proteins share little or no sequence similarity with other eukaryotes. This feature impairs the identification of important proteins participating in the regulation of the cell cycle. There are several open questions that concern cell cycle progression in malaria parasites, including the mechanism by which multiple nuclear divisions is co...

  17. Neuron-glia signaling and the protection of axon function by Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintes, Susanne; Goebbels, Sandra; Saher, Gesine; Schwab, Markus H; Nave, Klaus-Armin

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between neurons and glial cells is a feature of all higher nervous systems. In the vertebrate peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells ensheath and myelinate axons thereby allowing rapid saltatory conduction and ensuring axonal integrity. Recently, some of the key molecules in neuron-Schwann cell signaling have been identified. Neuregulin-1 (NRG1) type III presented on the axonal surface determines the myelination fate of axons and controls myelin sheath thickness. Recent observations suggest that NRG1 regulates myelination via the control of Schwann cell cholesterol biosynthesis. This concept is supported by the finding that high cholesterol levels in Schwann cells are a rate-limiting factor for myelin protein production and transport of the major myelin protein P0 from the endoplasmic reticulum into the growing myelin sheath. NRG1 type III activates ErbB receptors on the Schwann cell, which leads to an increase in intracellular PIP3 levels via the PI3-kinase pathway. Surprisingly, enforced elevation of PIP3 levels by inactivation of the phosphatase PTEN in developing and mature Schwann cells does not entirely mimic NRG1 type III stimulated myelin growth, but predominantly causes focal hypermyelination starting at Schmidt-Lanterman incisures and nodes of Ranvier. This indicates that the glial transduction of pro-myelinating signals has to be under tight and life-long control to preserve integrity of the myelinated axon. Understanding the cross talk between neurons and Schwann cells will help to further define the role of glia in preserving axonal integrity and to develop therapeutic strategies for peripheral neuropathies such as CMT1A.

  18. Early transduction produces highly functional chimeric antigen receptor-modified virus-specific T-cells with central memory markers: a Production Assistant for Cell Therapy (PACT) translational application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiali; Huye, Leslie E; Lapteva, Natalia; Mamonkin, Maksim; Hiregange, Manasa; Ballard, Brandon; Dakhova, Olga; Raghavan, Darshana; Durett, April G; Perna, Serena K; Omer, Bilal; Rollins, Lisa A; Leen, Ann M; Vera, Juan F; Dotti, Gianpietro; Gee, Adrian P; Brenner, Malcolm K; Myers, Douglas G; Rooney, Cliona M

    2015-01-01

    Virus-specific T-cells (VSTs) proliferate exponentially after adoptive transfer into hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients, eliminate virus infections, then persist and provide long-term protection from viral disease. If VSTs behaved similarly when modified with tumor-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), they should have potent anti-tumor activity. This theory was evaluated by Cruz et al. in a previous clinical trial with CD19.CAR-modified VSTs, but there was little apparent expansion of these cells in patients. In that study, VSTs were gene-modified on day 19 of culture and we hypothesized that by this time, sufficient T-cell differentiation may have occurred to limit the subsequent proliferative capacity of the transduced T-cells. To facilitate the clinical testing of this hypothesis in a project supported by the NHLBI-PACT mechanism, we developed and optimized a good manufacturing practices (GMP) compliant method for the early transduction of VSTs directed to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Adenovirus (AdV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) using a CAR directed to the tumor-associated antigen disialoganglioside (GD2). Ad-CMVpp65-transduced EBV-LCLs effectively stimulated VSTs directed to all three viruses (triVSTs). Transduction efficiency on day three was increased in the presence of cytokines and high-speed centrifugation of retroviral supernatant onto retronectin-coated plates, so that under optimal conditions up to 88% of tetramer-positive VSTs expressed the GD2.CAR. The average transduction efficiency of early-and late transduced VSTs was 55 ± 4% and 22 ± 5% respectively, and early-transduced VSTs maintained higher frequencies of T cells with central memory or intermediate memory phenotypes. Early-transduced VSTs also had higher proliferative capacity and produced higher levels of TH1 cytokines IL-2, TNF-α, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, MIP-1β and other cytokines in vitro. We developed a rapid and GMP compliant method for the early transduction of

  19. The effect of the immunophilin ligands rapamycin and FK506 on proliferation of mast cells and other hematopoietic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultsch, T; Martin, R; Hohman, R J

    1992-01-01

    The immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and cyclosporin A have an identical spectrum of activities with respect to IgE receptor (Fc epsilon RI)-mediated exocytosis from mast cells and T cell receptor-mediated transcription of IL-2. These findings suggest a common step in receptor-mediated signal transduction leading to exocytosis and transcription and imply that immunosuppressive drugs target specific signal transduction pathways, rather than specific cell types. This hypothesis is supported by studies on the effect of rapamycin on IL-3 dependent proliferation of the rodent mast cell line PT18. Rapamycin inhibits proliferation of PT18 cells, achieving a plateau of 80% inhibition at 1 nM. This inhibition is prevented in a competitive manner by FK506, a structural analogue of rapamycin. Proliferation of rat basophilic leukemia cells and WEHI-3 cells was also inhibited, at doses comparable to those shown previously to inhibit IL-2-dependent proliferation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte line (CTLL) cells. In contrast, proliferation of A-431 cells, a epidermoid cell line, was not affected by rapamycin. DNA histograms indicate that complexes formed between the rapamycin-FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and rapamycin arrest-proliferating PT18 cells in the G0/G1-phase. It is concluded that FKBP-rapamycin complexes may inhibit proliferative signals emanating from IL-3 receptors, resulting in growth arrest of cytokine-dependent, hematopoietic cells. PMID:1384815

  20. Quantitative analysis of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling using live-cell total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Heath E; Haugh, Jason M

    2013-12-02

    This unit focuses on the use of total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy and image analysis methods to study the dynamics of signal transduction mediated by class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) in mammalian cells. The first four protocols cover live-cell imaging experiments, image acquisition parameters, and basic image processing and segmentation. These methods are generally applicable to live-cell TIRF experiments. The remaining protocols outline more advanced image analysis methods, which were developed in our laboratory for the purpose of characterizing the spatiotemporal dynamics of PI3K signaling. These methods may be extended to analyze other cellular processes monitored using fluorescent biosensors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  1. Inhibition of the Ras-ERK pathway in mitotic COS7 cells is due to the inability of EGFR/Raf to transduce EGF signaling to downstream proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Huaiping; Zhang, Tianying; Yi, Yongqing; Ma, Yue

    2016-06-01

    Although previous studies have shown that Ras-ERK signaling in mitosis is closed due to the inhibition of signal transduction, the events involved in the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the Ras-ERK signaling pathway in mitotic COS7 cells. The results demonstrated that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) failed to increase the endocytosis of EGF-EGFR (EGF receptor) complexes in mitotic COS7 cells, although a large amount of endosomes were found in asynchronous COS7 cells. Clathrin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were inhibited whereas caveolin expression levels in mitotic COS7 cells were almost unaffected. Y1068 and Y1086 residues of EGFR in the mitotic COS7 cells were activated. However, Grb2 and Shc in the mitotic COS7 cells did not bind to activated EGFR. Ras activity was inhibited in the mitotic COS7 cells whereas its downstream protein, Raf, was obviously phosphorylated by EGF in mitosis. Treatment with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) also increased the phosphorylation levels of Raf in the mitotic COS7 cells. Nevertheless, Raf phosphorylation in mitosis was significantly inhibited by AG1478. Lastly, activation of EGF-mediated MEK and ERK in the mitotic COS7 cells was obviously inhibited. In summary, our results suggest that the Ras-ERK pathway is inhibited in mitotic COS7 cells which may be the dual result of the difficulty in the transduction of EGF signaling by EGFR or Raf to downstream proteins.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of radiation-induced cell proliferation in human carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Ullrich, R.K.; Mikkelsen, R.; Valerie, K.; Todd, D.; Kavanagh, B.; Contessa, J.; Rorrer, K.; Chen, P.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: At therapeutically applied ionizing radiation (IR) doses of 0.5 to 5 Gy, a certain proportion of cells will undergoes radiation-induced death while a varied proportion of cells will survive and be able of furnishing adaptive responses. One of these adaptive responses has been experimentally and clinically described as repopulation. Despite description of this phenomenon more than 20 years ago, the mechanisms of this response have remained relatively unknown until modern experimental techniques have been applied to studies on cellular radiation responses. materials and Methods: Human mammary, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, and squamous, A431, carcinoma cells (MCC and SCC), expressing epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF-R) at widely varied levels, have been exposed under defined culture conditions to single and repeated IR at doses between 0.5 and 5 Gy. Cellular IR responses of activation and expression changes of growth regulatory genes and activation of signal transduction pathways were linked to IR-induced proliferation responses. Specifically, EGF-R activation and expression were assessed by levels of Tyr phosphorylation (Y p ) of the receptor protein and mRNA, respectively. Phospholipase (PL-C) activation was quantified by Y p levels and production of inositol-triphosphate (IP 3 ), elevation of cytoplasmic Ca 2+ by video-intensified florescence microscopy after Fura-2 loading. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation was measured by a MBP receptor assay. The EGF-R and signal transduction activation events were correlated with a proliferation response of irradiated cells as quantified by MTT assay. Results: The cell lines tested showed an about 3-fold stimulation of EGF-R Y p levels within 5 min of IR which was associated with a 2.5-fold upregulation of EGF-R after 24 hr. Repeated daily 2 Gy exposures of MCF-7 and MDA-cells resulted in up to 9-fold increases in EGF-R mRNA. EGF-R downstream signal transduction was evidenced by activation of the

  3. Stress-induced ECM alteration modulates cellular microRNAs that feedback to readjust the extracellular environment and cell behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna R Shcherbata

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The extracellular environment is a complex entity comprising of the extracellular matrix (ECM and regulatory molecules. It is highly dynamic and under cell-extrinsic stress, transmits the stressed organism’s state to each individual ECM-connected cell. microRNAs (miRNAs are regulatory molecules involved in virtually all the processes in the cell, especially under stress. In this review, we analyse how microRNA expression is regulated downstream of various signal transduction pathways induced by changes in the extracellular environment. In particular, we focus on the muscular dystrophy-associated cell adhesion molecule dystroglycan capable of signal transduction. Then we show how exactly the same miRNAs feedback to regulate the extracellular environment. The ultimate goal of this bi-directional signal transduction process is to change cell behaviour under cell-extrinsic stress in order to respond to it accordingly.

  4. Determinants of cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Matthias; Baumgärtner, Stephan; Legewie, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cells reliably sense environmental changes despite internal and external fluctuations, but the mechanisms underlying robustness remain unclear. We analyzed how fluctuations in signaling protein concentrations give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling using analytical theory and numerical simulations. We characterized the dose-response behavior of signaling cascades by calculating the stimulus level at which a pathway responds ('pathway sensitivity') and the maximal activation level upon strong stimulation. Minimal kinase cascades with gradual dose-response behavior show strong variability, because the pathway sensitivity and the maximal activation level cannot be simultaneously invariant. Negative feedback regulation resolves this trade-off and coordinately reduces fluctuations in the pathway sensitivity and maximal activation. Feedbacks acting at different levels in the cascade control different aspects of the dose-response curve, thereby synergistically reducing the variability. We also investigated more complex, ultrasensitive signaling cascades capable of switch-like decision making, and found that these can be inherently robust to protein concentration fluctuations. We describe how the cell-to-cell variability of ultrasensitive signaling systems can be actively regulated, e.g., by altering the expression of phosphatase(s) or by feedback/feedforward loops. Our calculations reveal that slow transcriptional negative feedback loops allow for variability suppression while maintaining switch-like decision making. Taken together, we describe design principles of signaling cascades that promote robustness. Our results may explain why certain signaling cascades like the yeast pheromone pathway show switch-like decision making with little cell-to-cell variability.

  5. Isolation, culture and adenoviral transduction of parietal cells from mouse gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gliddon, Briony L; Nguyen, Nhung V; Gunn, Priscilla A; Gleeson, Paul A; Driel, Ian R van

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe a method for the isolation of intact gastric glands from mice and primary culture and transfection of mouse gastric epithelial cells. Collagenase digestion of PBS-perfused mouse stomachs released large intact gastric glands that were plated on a basement membrane matrix. The heterogeneous gland cell cultures typically contain ∼60% parietal cells. Isolated mouse parietal cells remain viable in culture for up to 5 days and react strongly with an antibody specific to the gastric H + /K + ATPase. Isolated intact mouse gastric glands and primary cultures of mouse parietal cells respond to the secretagogue, histamine. Typical morphological changes from a resting to an acid-secreting active parietal cell were observed. In resting cultures of mouse parietal cells, the H + /K + ATPase displayed a cytoplasmic punctate staining pattern consistent with tubulovesicle element structures. Following histamine stimulation, an expansion of internal apical vacuole structures was observed together with a pronounced redistribution of the H + /K + ATPase from the cytoplasm to the apical vacuoles. A reproducible procedure to express genes of interest exogenously in these cultures of mouse parietal cells was also established. This method combines recombinant adenoviral transduction with magnetic field-assisted transfection resulting in ∼30% transduced parietal cells. Adenoviral-transduced parietal cells maintain their ability to undergo agonist-induced activation. This protocol will be useful for the isolation, culture and expression of genes in parietal cells from genetically modified mice and as such will be an invaluable tool for studying the complex exocytic and endocytic trafficking events of the H + /K + ATPase which underpin the regulation of acid secretion

  6. Microenvironment Dependent Photobiomodulation on Function-Specific Signal Transduction Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular photobiomodulation on a cellular function has been shown to be homeostatic. Its function-specific pathway mechanism would be further discussed in this paper. The signal transduction pathways maintaining a normal function in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH, resisting the activation of many other irrelative signal transduction pathways, are so sparse that it can be supposed that there may be normal function-specific signal transduction pathways (NSPs. A low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light may promote the activation of partially activated NSP and/or its redundant NSP so that it may induce the second-order phase transition of a function from its dysfunctional one far from its FSH to its normal one in a function-specific microenvironment and may also induce the first-order functional phase transition of the normal function from low level to high level.

  7. Cancer stem cells and differentiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiong; Jin, Xun; Kim, Hyunggee

    2017-10-01

    Cancer stem cells can generate tumors from only a small number of cells, whereas differentiated cancer cells cannot. The prominent feature of cancer stem cells is its ability to self-renew and differentiate into multiple types of cancer cells. Cancer stem cells have several distinct tumorigenic abilities, including stem cell signal transduction, tumorigenicity, metastasis, and resistance to anticancer drugs, which are regulated by genetic or epigenetic changes. Like normal adult stem cells involved in various developmental processes and tissue homeostasis, cancer stem cells maintain their self-renewal capacity by activating multiple stem cell signaling pathways and inhibiting differentiation signaling pathways during cancer initiation and progression. Recently, many studies have focused on targeting cancer stem cells to eradicate malignancies by regulating stem cell signaling pathways, and products of some of these strategies are in preclinical and clinical trials. In this review, we describe the crucial features of cancer stem cells related to tumor relapse and drug resistance, as well as the new therapeutic strategy to target cancer stem cells named "differentiation therapy."

  8. Modulation of signal transduction by tea catechins and related phytochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masahito; Weinstein, I. Bernard

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies in human populations and experimental studies in rodents provide evidence that green tea and its constituents can inhibit both the development and growth of tumors at a variety of tissue sites. In addition, EGCG, a major biologically active component of green tea, inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cell lines. The purpose of this paper is to review evidence that these effects are mediated, at least in part, through inhibition of the activity of specific receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and related downstream pathways of signal transduction. We also review evidence indicating that the antitumor effects of the related polyphenolic phytochemicals resveratrol, genistein, curcumin, and capsaicin are exerted via similar mechanisms. Some of these agents (EGCG, genistein, and curcumin) appear to directly target specific RTKs, and all of these compounds cause inhibition of the activity of the transcription factors AP-1 and NF-κB, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and enhancing apoptosis. Critical areas of future investigation include: (1) identification of the direct molecular target(s) of EGCG and related polyphenolic compounds in cells; (2) the in vivo metabolism and bioavailability of these compounds; (3) the ancillary effects of these compounds on tumor-stromal interactions; (4) the development of synergistic combinations with other antitumor agents to enhance efficacy in cancer prevention and therapy, and also minimize potential toxicities

  9. Membrane mechanisms and intracellular signalling in cell volume regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Else Kay; Dunham, Philip B.

    1995-01-01

    Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation.......Volume regulation, Signal transduction, Calcium-calmodulin, Stretch-activated channels, Eicosanoids, Macromolecular crowding, Cytoskeleton, Protein phosphorylation, dephosphorylation....

  10. Cross-talk between Smad and p38 MAPK signalling in transforming growth factor β signal transduction in human glioblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dziembowska, Magdalena; Danilkiewicz, Malgorzata; Wesolowska, Aleksandra; Zupanska, Agata; Chouaib, Salem; Kaminska, Bozena

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Malignant tumour cells often do not respond to TGF-β by growth inhibition, but retain responsiveness to cytokine in regulating extracellular matrix deposition, cell adhesion, and migration. We demonstrated that TGF-β1 does not affect viability or proliferation of human glioblastoma T98G, but increases transcriptional responses exemplified by induction of MMP-9 expression. TGF-β receptors were functional in T98G glioblastoma cells leading to SMAD3/SMAD4 nuclear translocation and activation of SMAD-dependent promoter. In parallel, a selective activation of p38 MAPK, and phosphorylation of its substrates: ATF2 and c-Jun proteins were followed by a transient activation of AP-1 transcription factor. Surprisingly, an inhibition of p38 MAPK with a specific inhibitor, SB202190, abolished TGF-inducible activation of Smad-dependent promoter and decreased Smad2 phosphorylation. It suggests an unexpected interaction between Smad and p38 MAPK pathways in TGF-β1-induced signalling

  11. Determinants of cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Jeschke

    Full Text Available Cells reliably sense environmental changes despite internal and external fluctuations, but the mechanisms underlying robustness remain unclear. We analyzed how fluctuations in signaling protein concentrations give rise to cell-to-cell variability in protein kinase signaling using analytical theory and numerical simulations. We characterized the dose-response behavior of signaling cascades by calculating the stimulus level at which a pathway responds ('pathway sensitivity' and the maximal activation level upon strong stimulation. Minimal kinase cascades with gradual dose-response behavior show strong variability, because the pathway sensitivity and the maximal activation level cannot be simultaneously invariant. Negative feedback regulation resolves this trade-off and coordinately reduces fluctuations in the pathway sensitivity and maximal activation. Feedbacks acting at different levels in the cascade control different aspects of the dose-response curve, thereby synergistically reducing the variability. We also investigated more complex, ultrasensitive signaling cascades capable of switch-like decision making, and found that these can be inherently robust to protein concentration fluctuations. We describe how the cell-to-cell variability of ultrasensitive signaling systems can be actively regulated, e.g., by altering the expression of phosphatase(s or by feedback/feedforward loops. Our calculations reveal that slow transcriptional negative feedback loops allow for variability suppression while maintaining switch-like decision making. Taken together, we describe design principles of signaling cascades that promote robustness. Our results may explain why certain signaling cascades like the yeast pheromone pathway show switch-like decision making with little cell-to-cell variability.

  12. T cell receptor (TCR-transgenic CD8 lymphocytes rendered insensitive to transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ signaling mediate superior tumor regression in an animal model of adoptive cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quatromoni Jon G

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tumor antigen-reactive T cells must enter into an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment, continue to produce cytokine and deliver apoptotic death signals to affect tumor regression. Many tumors produce transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ, which inhibits T cell activation, proliferation and cytotoxicity. In a murine model of adoptive cell therapy, we demonstrate that transgenic Pmel-1 CD8 T cells, rendered insensitive to TGFβ by transduction with a TGFβ dominant negative receptor II (DN, were more effective in mediating regression of established B16 melanoma. Smaller numbers of DN Pmel-1 T cells effectively mediated tumor regression and retained the ability to produce interferon-γ in the tumor microenvironment. These results support efforts to incorporate this DN receptor in clinical trials of adoptive cell therapy for cancer.

  13. The emerging role of phosphoinositide clustering in intracellular trafficking and signal transduction [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Picas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoinositides are master regulators of multiple cellular processes: from vesicular trafficking to signaling, cytoskeleton dynamics, and cell growth. They are synthesized by the spatiotemporal regulated activity of phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzymes. The recent observation that some protein modules are able to cluster phosphoinositides suggests that alternative or complementary mechanisms might operate to stabilize the different phosphoinositide pools within cellular compartments. Herein, we discuss the different known and potential molecular players that are prone to engage phosphoinositide clustering and elaborate on how such a mechanism might take part in the regulation of intracellular trafficking and signal transduction.

  14. T-cell receptor transfer into human T cells with ecotropic retroviral vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koste, L; Beissert, T; Hoff, H; Pretsch, L; Türeci, Ö; Sahin, U

    2014-05-01

    Adoptive T-cell transfer for cancer immunotherapy requires genetic modification of T cells with recombinant T-cell receptors (TCRs). Amphotropic retroviral vectors (RVs) used for TCR transduction for this purpose are considered safe in principle. Despite this, TCR-coding and packaging vectors could theoretically recombine to produce replication competent vectors (RCVs), and transduced T-cell preparations must be proven free of RCV. To eliminate the need for RCV testing, we transduced human T cells with ecotropic RVs so potential RCV would be non-infectious for human cells. We show that transfection of synthetic messenger RNA encoding murine cationic amino-acid transporter 1 (mCAT-1), the receptor for murine retroviruses, enables efficient transient ecotropic transduction of human T cells. mCAT-1-dependent transduction was more efficient than amphotropic transduction performed in parallel, and preferentially targeted naive T cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that ecotropic TCR transduction results in antigen-specific restimulation of primary human T cells. Thus, ecotropic RVs represent a versatile, safe and potent tool to prepare T cells for the adoptive transfer.

  15. Tamarind Seed Xyloglucans Promote Proliferation and Migration of Human Skin Cells through Internalization via Stimulation of Proproliferative Signal Transduction Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Nie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xyloglucans (XGs of Tamarindus indica L. Fabaceae are used as drug vehicles or as ingredients of cosmetics. Two xyloglucans were extracted from T. indica seed with cold water (TSw and copper complex precipitation (TSc. Both were analyzed in regard to composition and influence on cell viability, proliferation, cell cycle progression, migration, MAPK phosphorylation, and gene expression of human skin keratinocytes (NHEK and HaCaT and fibroblasts (NHDF in vitro. TSw and TSc differed in molecular weight, rhamnose content, and ratios of xylose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose. Both XGs improved keratinocytes and fibroblast proliferation, promoted the cell cycle, and stimulated migration and intracellular enzyme activity of NHDF after endosomal uptake. Only TSw significantly enhanced HaCaT migration and extracellular enzyme activity of NHDF and HaCaT. TSw and TSc predominantly enhanced the phosphorylation of molecules that referred to Erk signaling in NHEK. In NHDF parts of the integrin signaling and SAPK/JNK pathway were affected. Independent of cell type TSw marginally regulated the expression of genes, which referred to membrane proteins, cytoskeleton, cytokine signaling, and ECM as well as to processes of metabolism and transcription. Results show that T. indica xyloglucans promote skin regeneration by a direct influence on cell proliferation and migration.

  16. The T cell STAT signaling network is reprogrammed within hours of bacteremia via secondary signals1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotson, Andrew N.; Hardy, Jonathan W.; Hale, Matthew B.; Contag, Christopher H.; Nolan, Garry P.

    2014-01-01

    The delicate balance between protective immunity and inflammatory disease is challenged during sepsis, a pathologic state characterized by aspects of both a hyper-active immune response and immunosuppression. The events driven by systemic infection by bacterial pathogens on the T cell signaling network that likely control these responses have not been illustrated in great detail. We characterized how intracellular signaling within the immune compartment is reprogrammed at the single cell level when the host is challenged with a high levels of pathogen. To accomplish this, we applied flow cytometry to measure the phosphorylation potential of key signal transduction proteins during acute bacterial challenge. We modeled the onset of sepsis by intravenous administration of avirulent strains of Listeria and E. coli to mice. Within six hours of bacterial challenge, T cells were globally restricted in their ability to respond to specific cytokine stimulations as determined by assessing the extent of STAT protein phosphorylation. Mechanisms by which this negative feedback response occurred included SOCS1 and SOCS3 gene up regulation and IL-6 induced endocystosis of the IL-6 receptor. In addition, macrophages were partially tolerized in their ability to respond to TLR agonists. Thus, in contrast to the view that there is a wholesale immune activation during sepsis, one immediate host response to blood borne bacteria was induction of a refractory period during which leukocyte activation by specific stimulations was attenuated. PMID:19494279

  17. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2002-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an

  18. Ca2+ signalling in endothelial progenitor cells: a novel means to improve cell-based therapy and impair tumour vascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moccia, Francesco; Lodola, Francesco; Dragoni, Silvia; Bonetti, Elisa; Bottino, Cinzia; Guerra, Germano; Laforenza, Umberto; Rosti, Vittorio; Tanzi, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have recently been employed in cell-based therapy (CBT) to promote regeneration of ischemic organs, such as heart and limbs. Furthermore, EPCs may sustain tumour vascularisation and provide an additional target for anticancer therapies. CBT is limited by the paucity of cells harvested from peripheral blood and suffers from several pitfalls, including the low rate of engrafted EPCs, whereas classic antiangiogenic treatments manifest a number of side effects and may induce resistance into the patients. CBT will benefit of a better understanding of the signal transduction pathway(s) which drive(s) EPC proliferation, trafficking, and incorporation into injured tissues. At the same time, this information might outline alternative molecular targets to impair tumor neovascularisation and improve the therapeutic outcome of antiangiogenic strategies. An increase in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration is the key signal in the regulation of cellular replication, migration, and differentiation. In particular, Ca(2+) signalling may regulate cellcycle progression, due to the Ca(2+)-sensitivity of a number of cycline-dependent kinases, and gene expression, owing to the Ca(2+)-dependence of several transcription factors. Recent work has outlined the role of the so-called store-operated Ca(2+) entry in driving EPC proliferation and migration. Unravelling the mechanisms guiding EPC engraftment into neovessels might supply the biological bases required to improve CBT and anticancer treatments. For example, genetic manipulation of the Ca(2+) signalling machinery could provide a novel approach to increase the extent of limb regeneration or preventing tumour vascularisation by EPCs.

  19. Induction of the unfolded protein response by constitutive G-protein signaling in rod photoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Chen, Jeannie

    2014-10-17

    Phototransduction is a G-protein signal transduction cascade that converts photon absorption to a change in current at the plasma membrane. Certain genetic mutations affecting the proteins in the phototransduction cascade cause blinding disorders in humans. Some of these mutations serve as a genetic source of "equivalent light" that activates the cascade, whereas other mutations lead to amplification of the light response. How constitutive phototransduction causes photoreceptor cell death is poorly understood. We showed that persistent G-protein signaling, which occurs in rod arrestin and rhodopsin kinase knock-out mice, caused a rapid and specific induction of the PERK pathway of the unfolded protein response. These changes were not observed in the cGMP-gated channel knock-out rods, an equivalent light condition that mimics light-stimulated channel closure. Thus transducin signaling, but not channel closure, triggers rapid cell death in light damage caused by constitutive phototransduction. Additionally, we show that in the albino light damage model cell death was not associated with increase in global protein ubiquitination or unfolded protein response induction. Taken together, these observations provide novel mechanistic insights into the cell death pathway caused by constitutive phototransduction and identify the unfolded protein response as a potential target for therapeutic intervention. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Accelerated generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with retroviral transduction and chemical inhibitors under physiological hypoxia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimada, Hidenori [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Hashimoto, Yoshiya [Department of Biomaterials, Osaka Dental University, 8-1, Hanazonocho, Kuzuha, Hirakatashi, Osaka 573-1121 (Japan); Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Tatsuo, E-mail: nakamura@frontier.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Bioartificial Organs, Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, 53 Kawaharacho, Shogoin, Sakyoku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2012-01-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Very rapid generation of human iPS cells under optimized conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Five chemical inhibitors under hypoxia boosted reprogramming. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. -- Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of a defined set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Human iPS cells can be propagated indefinitely, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body except for extra-embryonic tissues. This technology not only represents a new way to use individual-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine but also constitutes a novel method to obtain large amounts of disease-specific cells for biomedical research. Despite their great potential, the long reprogramming process (up to 1 month) remains one of the most significant challenges facing standard virus-mediated methodology. In this study, we report the accelerated generation of human iPS cells from adipose-derived stem (ADS) cells, using a new combination of chemical inhibitors under a setting of physiological hypoxia in conjunction with retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-Myc. Under optimized conditions, we observed human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells as early as 6 days after the initial retroviral transduction. This was followed by the emergence of fully reprogrammed cells bearing Tra-1-81-positive and DsRed transgene-silencing properties on day 10. The resulting cell lines resembled human ES cells in many respects including proliferation rate, morphology, pluripotency-associated markers, global gene expression patterns, genome-wide DNA methylation states, and the ability to differentiate into all three of the germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Our method, when combined with chemical inhibitors under conditions of physiological hypoxia, offers a powerful tool for rapidly

  1. Accelerated generation of human induced pluripotent stem cells with retroviral transduction and chemical inhibitors under physiological hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Hidenori; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Nakada, Akira; Shigeno, Keiji; Nakamura, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Very rapid generation of human iPS cells under optimized conditions. ► Five chemical inhibitors under hypoxia boosted reprogramming. ► We performed genome-wide DNA methylation analysis. -- Abstract: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are generated from somatic cells by the forced expression of a defined set of pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Human iPS cells can be propagated indefinitely, while maintaining the capacity to differentiate into all cell types in the body except for extra-embryonic tissues. This technology not only represents a new way to use individual-specific stem cells for regenerative medicine but also constitutes a novel method to obtain large amounts of disease-specific cells for biomedical research. Despite their great potential, the long reprogramming process (up to 1 month) remains one of the most significant challenges facing standard virus-mediated methodology. In this study, we report the accelerated generation of human iPS cells from adipose-derived stem (ADS) cells, using a new combination of chemical inhibitors under a setting of physiological hypoxia in conjunction with retroviral transduction of Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and L-Myc. Under optimized conditions, we observed human embryonic stem (ES)-like cells as early as 6 days after the initial retroviral transduction. This was followed by the emergence of fully reprogrammed cells bearing Tra-1-81-positive and DsRed transgene-silencing properties on day 10. The resulting cell lines resembled human ES cells in many respects including proliferation rate, morphology, pluripotency-associated markers, global gene expression patterns, genome-wide DNA methylation states, and the ability to differentiate into all three of the germ layers, both in vitro and in vivo. Our method, when combined with chemical inhibitors under conditions of physiological hypoxia, offers a powerful tool for rapidly generating bona fide human iPS cells and facilitates the application of i

  2. Logical network of genotoxic stress-induced NF-kappaB signal transduction predicts putative target structures for therapeutic intervention strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Poltz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Rainer Poltz1, Raimo Franke1,#, Katrin Schweitzer1, Steffen Klamt2, Ernst-Dieter Gilles2, Michael Naumann11Institute of Experimental Internal Medicine, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany; 2Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Magdeburg, Germany; #Present address: Department of Chemical Biology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, GermanyAbstract: Genotoxic stress is induced by a broad range of DNA-damaging agents and could lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. DNA damage is also therapeutically induced for cancer treatment with the aim to eliminate tumor cells. However, the effectiveness of radio- and chemotherapy is strongly hampered by tumor cell resistance. A major reason for radio- and chemotherapeutic resistances is the simultaneous activation of cell survival pathways resulting in the activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB. Here, we present a Boolean network model of the NF-κB signal transduction induced by genotoxic stress in epithelial cells. For the representation and analysis of the model, we used the formalism of logical interaction hypergraphs. Model reconstruction was based on a careful meta-analysis of published data. By calculating minimal intervention sets, we identified p53-induced protein with a death domain (PIDD, receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1, and protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy as putative therapeutic targets to abrogate NF-κB activation resulting in apoptosis. Targeting these structures therapeutically may potentiate the effectiveness of radio- and chemotherapy. Thus, the presented model allows a better understanding of the signal transduction in tumor cells and provides candidates as new therapeutic target structures.Keywords: apoptosis, Boolean network, cancer therapy, DNA-damage response, NF-κB

  3. Signal transduction by the platelet-derived growth factor receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, L.T.; Escobedo, J.A.; Keating, M.T.; Coughlin, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    The mitogenic effects of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) are mediated by the PDGF receptor. The mouse PDGF receptor was recently purified on the basis of its ability to become tyrosine phosphorylated in response to the A-B human platelet form of PDGF, and the receptor amino acid sequence was determined from a full-length cDNA clone. Both the human and mouse receptor cDNA sequences have been expressed in Chinese hamster ovary fibroblast (CHO) cells that normally lack PDGF receptors. This paper summarizes recent results using this system to study signal transduction by the PDGF receptor. Some of the findings show that the KI domain of the PDGF receptor plays an important role in the stimulation of DNA synthesis by PDGF. Surprisingly, the kinase insert region is not essential for PDGF stimulation of PtdIns turnover, pH change, increase in cellular calcium, and receptor autophosphorylation. In addition, PDGF stimulates a conformational change in the receptor

  4. Signal transduction through the IL-4 and insulin receptor families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L M; Keegan, A; Frankel, M; Paul, W E; Pierce, J H

    1995-07-01

    Activation of tyrosine kinase-containing receptors and intracellular tyrosine kinases by ligand stimulation is known to be crucial for mediating initial and subsequent events involved in mitogenic signal transduction. Receptors for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) contain cytoplasmic tyrosine kinase domains that undergo autophosphorylation upon ligand stimulation. Activation of these receptors also leads to pronounced and rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) in cells of connective tissue origin. A related substrate, designated 4PS, is similarly phosphorylated by insulin and IGF-1 stimulation in many hematopoietic cell types. IRS-1 and 4PS possess a number of tyrosine phosphorylation sites that are within motifs that bind specific SH2-containing molecules known to be involved in mitogenic signaling such as PI-3 kinase, SHPTP-2 (Syp) and Grb-2. Thus, they appear to act as docking substrates for a variety of signaling molecules. The majority of hematopoietic cytokines bind to receptors that do not possess intrinsic kinase activity, and these receptors have been collectively termed as members of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily. Despite their lack of tyrosine kinase domains, stimulation of these receptors has been demonstrated to activate intracellular kinases leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple substrates. Recent evidence has demonstrated that activation of different members of the Janus family of tyrosine kinases is involved in mediating tyrosine phosphorylation events by specific cytokines. Stimulation of the interleukin 4 (IL-4) receptor, a member of the hematopoietin receptor superfamily, is thought to result in activation of Jak1, Jak3, and/or Fes tyrosine kinases.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. CD4 expression on EL4 cells as an epiphenomenon of retroviral transduction and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Grant J; Spinoulas, Afroditi; Alexander, Stephen I; Smythe, Jason A; Alexander, Ian E

    2004-04-01

    The EL4 murine tumour cell line, isolated from a chemically induced lymphoma over 50 years ago, has been extensively exploited in immunological research. The conclusions drawn from many of these studies have been based on the presumption that EL4 cells maintain a stable phenotype during experimental manipulation. To the contrary, we have observed 100-fold greater expression of cell surface CD4 (CD4(high)) on a subpopulation of EL4 cells following retroviral transduction and G418 selection when compared with unmodified populations. Although the mechanism responsible for this effect remains to be elucidated, the unexpected expression of CD4, a molecule that functions as both a coreceptor with the T-cell receptor and ligand for the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-16, has the potential to influence experimental outcomes. Upregulation of CD4 should be excluded when EL4 cells are utilized in experiments requiring a consistent immuno-phenotype.

  6. Soluble expression of recomb inant cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2 proteins in bacteria and transduction into living cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Dan Liu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To develop a new method to produce recombinant reprogramming proteins, cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2, in soluble format with low cost for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. METHODS: A short polypeptide sequence derived from the HIV trans-activator of transcription protein (TAT and the nucleus localization signal (NLS polypeptide were fused to the N terminus of the reprogramming proteins and they were constructed into pCold-SUMO vector which can extremely improve the solubility of recombinant proteins. Then these vector plasmids were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3 Chaperone competent cells for amplification. The solubility of these recombinant proteins was determined by SDS-PAGE and Coomassie brilliant blue staining. The recombinant proteins were purified by Ni-NTA resin and identified by Western blot. The transduction of these proteins into HEK 293T cells were evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS: These four reprogramming proteins could be produced in soluble format in pCold-SUMO expression vector system with the assistance of chaperone proteins in bacteria. The proteins were purified successfully with a purity of over 70% with a relative high transduction rate into 293 cells. CONCLUSION: The results in the present study indicate the four important reprogramming proteins, cMyc, Klf4, Oct4, and Sox2, can be produced in soluble format in bacteria with low cost. Our new method thus might be expected to greatly contribute to the future study of iPSCs.

  7. Glycosynapses: microdomains controlling carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion and signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senitiroh Hakomori

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of microdomains in plasma membranes was developed over two decades, following observation of polarity of membrane based on clustering of specific membrane components. Microdomains involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion with concurrent signal transduction that affect cellular phenotype are termed "glycosynapse". Three types of glycosynapse have been distinguished: "type 1" having glycosphingolipid associated with signal transducers (small G-proteins, cSrc, Src family kinases and proteolipids; "type 2" having O-linked mucin-type glycoprotein associated with Src family kinases; and "type 3" having N-linked integrin receptor complexed with tetraspanin and ganglioside. Different cell types are characterized by presence of specific types of glycosynapse or their combinations, whose adhesion induces signal transduction to either facilitate or inhibit signaling. E.g., signaling through type 3 glycosynapse inhibits cell motility and differentiation. Glycosynapses are distinct from classically-known microdomains termed "caveolae", "caveolar membrane", or more recently "lipid raft", which are not involved in carbohydrate-dependent cell adhesion. Type 1 and type 3 glycosynapses are resistant to cholesterol-binding reagents, whereas structure and function of "caveolar membrane" or "lipid raft" are disrupted by these reagents. Various data indicate a functional role of glycosynapses during differentiation, development, and oncogenic transformation.O conceito de microdomínios em membrana plasmática foi desenvolvido há mais de duas décadas, após a observação da polaridade da membrana baseada no agrupamento de componentes específicos da membrana. Microdomínios envolvidos na adesão celular dependente de carboidrato, com transdução de sinal que afeta o fenótipo celular são denominados ''glicosinapses''. Três tipos de glicosinapse foram observados: ''tipo 1'' que possue glicoesfingolipídio associado com transdutores de sinal

  8. Nociceptive tuning by stem cell factor/c-Kit signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milenkovic, Nevena; Frahm, Christina; Gassmann, Max; Griffel, Carola; Erdmann, Bettina; Birchmeier, Carmen; Lewin, Gary R; Garratt, Alistair N

    2007-12-06

    The molecular mechanisms regulating the sensitivity of sensory circuits to environmental stimuli are poorly understood. We demonstrate here a central role for stem cell factor (SCF) and its receptor, c-Kit, in tuning the responsiveness of sensory neurons to natural stimuli. Mice lacking SCF/c-Kit signaling displayed profound thermal hypoalgesia, attributable to a marked elevation in the thermal threshold and reduction in spiking rate of heat-sensitive nociceptors. Acute activation of c-Kit by its ligand, SCF, resulted in a reduced thermal threshold and potentiation of heat-activated currents in isolated small-diameter neurons and thermal hyperalgesia in mice. SCF-induced thermal hyperalgesia required the TRP family cation channel TRPV1. Lack of c-Kit signaling during development resulted in hypersensitivity of discrete mechanoreceptive neuronal subtypes. Thus, c-Kit can now be grouped with a small family of receptor tyrosine kinases, including c-Ret and TrkA, that control the transduction properties of sensory neurons.

  9. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Min Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Mun, Ji-Young [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ohsuk [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sun [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Doo-Byoung, E-mail: dboh@kribb.re.kr [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology (KRIBB), 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Biosystems and Bioengineering Program, University of Science and Technology (UST), Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-19

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method.

  10. Efficient myogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the transduction of engineered MyoD protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Min Sun; Mun, Ji-Young; Kwon, Ohsuk; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Oh, Doo-Byoung

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •MyoD was engineered to contain protein transduction domain and endosome-disruptive INF7 peptide. •The engineered MyoD-IT showed efficient nuclear targeting through an endosomal escape by INF7 peptide. •By applying MyoD-IT, human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) were differentiated into myogenic cells. •hASCs differentiated by applying MyoD-IT fused to myotubes through co-culturing with mouse myoblasts. •Myogenic differentiation using MyoD-IT is a safe method without the concern of altering the genome. -- Abstract: Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) have great potential as cell sources for the treatment of muscle disorders. To provide a safe method for the myogenic differentiation of hASCs, we engineered the MyoD protein, a key transcription factor for myogenesis. The engineered MyoD (MyoD-IT) was designed to contain the TAT protein transduction domain for cell penetration and the membrane-disrupting INF7 peptide, which is an improved version of the HA2 peptide derived from influenza. MyoD-IT showed greatly improved nuclear targeting ability through an efficient endosomal escape induced by the pH-sensitive membrane disruption of the INF7 peptide. By applying MyoD-IT to a culture, hASCs were efficiently differentiated into long spindle-shaped myogenic cells expressing myosin heavy chains. Moreover, these cells differentiated by an application of MyoD-IT fused to myotubes with high efficiency through co-culturing with mouse C2C12 myoblasts. Because internalized proteins can be degraded in cells without altering the genome, the myogenic differentiation of hASCs using MyoD-IT would be a safe and clinically applicable method

  11. The neural cell adhesion molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berezin, V; Bock, E; Poulsen, F M

    2000-01-01

    During the past year, the understanding of the structure and function of neural cell adhesion has advanced considerably. The three-dimensional structures of several of the individual modules of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) have been determined, as well as the structure of the complex...... between two identical fragments of the NCAM. Also during the past year, a link between homophilic cell adhesion and several signal transduction pathways has been proposed, connecting the event of cell surface adhesion to cellular responses such as neurite outgrowth. Finally, the stimulation of neurite...

  12. Simulation of mechano-electrical transduction in the cochlea considering basilar membrane vibration and the ionic current of the inner hair cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sinyoung; Koike, Takuji

    2018-05-01

    The inner hair cells (IHCs) in the cochlea transduce mechanical vibration of the basilar membrane (BM), caused by sound pressure, to electrical signals that are transported along the acoustic nerve to the brain. The mechanical vibration of the BM and the ionic behaviors of the IHCs have been investigated. However, consideration of the ionic behavior of the IHCs related to mechanical vibration is necessary to investigate the mechano-electrical transduction of the cochlea. In this study, a finite-element model of the BM, which takes into account the non-linear activities of the outer hair cells (OHCs), and an ionic current model of IHC were combined. The amplitudes and phases of the vibration at several points on the BM were obtained from the finite-element model by applying sound pressure. These values were fed into the ionic current model, and changes in membrane potential and calcium ion concentration of the IHCs were calculated. The membrane potential of the IHC at the maximum amplitude point (CF point) was higher than that at the non-CF points. The calcium ion concentration at the CF point was also higher than that at the non-CF points. These results suggest that the cochlea achieves its good frequency discrimination ability through mechano-electrical transduction.

  13. Age-related changes of healthy bone marrow cell signaling in response to growth factors provide insight into low risk MDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornblau, Steven M; Cohen, Aileen C; Soper, David; Huang, Ying-Wen; Cesano, Alessandra

    2014-11-01

    Single Cell Network Profiling (SCNP) is a multiparametric flow cytometry-based assay that quantifiably and simultaneously measures changes in intracellular signaling proteins in response to in vitro extracellular modulators at the single cell level. Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder of hematopoietic stem cells that occurs in elderly subjects and is characterized by dysplasia and ineffective hematopoiesis. The functional responsiveness of MDS bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells, including functionally distinct myeloid and erythroid precursor subsets, to hematopoietic growth factors (HGF) and the relationship of modulated signaling to disease characteristics is poorly understood. SCNP was used first to examine the effects of age on erythropoietin (EPO) and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF)-induced signaling in myeloid, nucleated red blood cells (nRBC), and CD34 expressing cell subsets in healthy BM (n = 15). SCNP was then used to map functional signaling profiles in low risk (LR) MDS (n = 7) for comparison to signaling in samples from healthy donors and to probe signaling associations within clinically defined subgroups. In healthy BM samples, signaling responses to HGF were quite homogeneous (i.e., tightly regulated) with age-dependent effects observed in response to EPO but not to GCSF. Despite the relatively small number of samples assayed in the study, LR MDS could be classified into distinct subgroups based on both cell subset frequency and signaling profiles. As a correlate of underlying genetic abnormalities, signal transduction analyses may provide a functional and potentially clinically relevant classification of MDS. Further evaluation in a larger cohort is warranted. © 2013 Clinical Cytometry Society.

  14. VEGF-A isoform-specific regulation of calcium ion flux, transcriptional activation and endothelial cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fearnley, Gareth W; Bruns, Alexander F; Wheatcroft, Stephen B; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan

    2015-04-24

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) regulates many aspects of vascular physiology such as cell migration, proliferation, tubulogenesis and cell-cell interactions. Numerous isoforms of VEGF-A exist but their physiological significance is unclear. Here we evaluated two different VEGF-A isoforms and discovered differential regulation of cytosolic calcium ion flux, transcription factor localisation and endothelial cell response. Analysis of VEGF-A isoform-specific stimulation of VEGFR2-dependent signal transduction revealed differential capabilities for isoform activation of multiple signal transduction pathways. VEGF-A165 treatment promoted increased phospholipase Cγ1 phosphorylation, which was proportional to the subsequent rise in cytosolic calcium ions, in comparison to cells treated with VEGF-A121. A major consequence of this VEGF-A isoform-specific calcium ion flux in endothelial cells is differential dephosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFATc2. Using reverse genetics, we discovered that NFATc2 is functionally required for VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell migration but not tubulogenesis. This work presents a new mechanism for understanding how VEGF-A isoforms program complex cellular outputs by converting signal transduction pathways into transcription factor redistribution to the nucleus, as well as defining a novel role for NFATc2 in regulating the endothelial cell response. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. VEGF-A isoform-specific regulation of calcium ion flux, transcriptional activation and endothelial cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth W. Fearnley

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A regulates many aspects of vascular physiology such as cell migration, proliferation, tubulogenesis and cell-cell interactions. Numerous isoforms of VEGF-A exist but their physiological significance is unclear. Here we evaluated two different VEGF-A isoforms and discovered differential regulation of cytosolic calcium ion flux, transcription factor localisation and endothelial cell response. Analysis of VEGF-A isoform-specific stimulation of VEGFR2-dependent signal transduction revealed differential capabilities for isoform activation of multiple signal transduction pathways. VEGF-A165 treatment promoted increased phospholipase Cγ1 phosphorylation, which was proportional to the subsequent rise in cytosolic calcium ions, in comparison to cells treated with VEGF-A121. A major consequence of this VEGF-A isoform-specific calcium ion flux in endothelial cells is differential dephosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NFATc2. Using reverse genetics, we discovered that NFATc2 is functionally required for VEGF-A-stimulated endothelial cell migration but not tubulogenesis. This work presents a new mechanism for understanding how VEGF-A isoforms program complex cellular outputs by converting signal transduction pathways into transcription factor redistribution to the nucleus, as well as defining a novel role for NFATc2 in regulating the endothelial cell response.

  16. Regulation of Cell Wall Biogenesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: The Cell Wall Integrity Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The yeast cell wall is a strong, but elastic, structure that is essential not only for the maintenance of cell shape and integrity, but also for progression through the cell cycle. During growth and morphogenesis, and in response to environmental challenges, the cell wall is remodeled in a highly regulated and polarized manner, a process that is principally under the control of the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. This pathway transmits wall stress signals from the cell surface to the Rho1 GTPase, which mobilizes a physiologic response through a variety of effectors. Activation of CWI signaling regulates the production of various carbohydrate polymers of the cell wall, as well as their polarized delivery to the site of cell wall remodeling. This review article centers on CWI signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through the cell cycle and in response to cell wall stress. The interface of this signaling pathway with other pathways that contribute to the maintenance of cell wall integrity is also discussed. PMID:22174182

  17. Signal transduction by HLA-DR is mediated by tyrosine kinase(s) and regulated by CD45 in activated T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Martin, P J; Schieven, G L

    1991-01-01

    Recently, it was shown that HLA class II molecules on B cells and activated human T cells can transmit signals involving tyrosine phosphorylation of specific proteins, activation of the inositol phospholipid pathway, and release of cytosolic free Ca2+(Ca2+)i. The regulation of class II induced si...

  18. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors suppress Lactobacillus casei cell-wall-induced NF-κB and MAPK activations and cell proliferation through protein kinase A--or exchange protein activated by cAMP-dependent signal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takekatsu; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Ohta, Kunio; Shimizu, Tohru; Ohtani, Kaori; Nakayama, Yuko; Nakamura, Taichi; Hitomi, Yashiaki; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Koizumi, Shoichi; Yachie, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    Specific strains of Lactobacillus have been found to be beneficial in treating some types of diarrhea and vaginosis. However, a high mortality rate results from underlying immunosuppressive conditions in patients with Lactobacillus casei bacteremia. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a small second messenger molecule that mediates signal transduction. The onset and progression of inflammatory responses are sensitive to changes in steady-state cAMP levels. L. casei cell wall extract (LCWE) develops arteritis in mice through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intracellular cAMP affects LCWE-induced pathological signaling. LCWE was shown to induce phosphorylation of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways and cell proliferation in mice fibroblast cells. Theophylline and phosphodiesterase inhibitor increased intracellular cAMP and inhibited LCWE-induced cell proliferation as well as phosphorylation of NF-κB and MAPK. Protein kinase A inhibitor H89 prevented cAMP-induced MAPK inhibition, but not cAMP-induced NF-κB inhibition. An exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) agonist inhibited NF-κB activation but not MAPK activation. These results indicate that an increase in intracellular cAMP prevents LCWE induction of pathological signaling pathways dependent on PKA and Epac signaling.

  19. Regulation of adult neural progenitor cell functions by purinergic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yong; Illes, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Extracellular purines are signaling molecules in the neurogenic niches of the brain and spinal cord, where they activate cell surface purinoceptors at embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) and adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Although mRNA and protein are expressed at NSCs/NPCs for almost all subtypes of the nucleotide-sensitive P2X/P2Y, and the nucleoside-sensitive adenosine receptors, only a few of those have acquired functional significance. ATP is sequentially degraded by ecto-nucleotidases to ADP, AMP, and adenosine with agonistic properties for distinct receptor-classes. Nucleotides/nucleosides facilitate or inhibit NSC/NPC proliferation, migration and differentiation. The most ubiquitous effect of all agonists (especially of ATP and ADP) appears to be the facilitation of cell proliferation, usually through P2Y1Rs and sometimes through P2X7Rs. However, usually P2X7R activation causes necrosis/apoptosis of NPCs. Differentiation can be initiated by P2Y2R-activation or P2X7R-blockade. A key element in the transduction mechanism of either receptor is the increase of the intracellular free Ca 2+ concentration, which may arise due to its release from intracellular storage sites (G protein-coupling; P2Y) or due to its passage through the receptor-channel itself from the extracellular space (ATP-gated ion channel; P2X). Further research is needed to clarify how purinergic signaling controls NSC/NPC fate and how the balance between the quiescent and activated states is established with fine and dynamic regulation. GLIA 2017;65:213-230. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. N-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids shift estrogen signaling to inhibit human breast cancer cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Cao

    Full Text Available Although evidence has shown the regulating effect of n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA on cell signaling transduction, it remains unknown whether n-3 PUFA treatment modulates estrogen signaling. The current study showed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 shifted the pro-survival and proliferative effect of estrogen to a pro-apoptotic effect in human breast cancer (BCa MCF-7 and T47D cells. 17 β-estradiol (E2 enhanced the inhibitory effect of n-3 PUFAs on BCa cell growth. The IC50 of DHA or EPA in MCF-7 cells decreased when combined with E2 (10 nM treatment (from 173 µM for DHA only to 113 µM for DHA+E2, and from 187 µm for EPA only to 130 µm for EPA+E2. E2 also augmented apoptosis in n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells. In contrast, in cells treated with stearic acid (SA, C18:0 as well as cells not treated with fatty acid, E2 promoted breast cancer cell growth. Classical (nuclear estrogen receptors may not be involved in the pro-apoptotic effects of E2 on the n-3 PUFA-treated BCa cells because ERα agonist failed to elicit, and ERα knockdown failed to block E2 pro-apoptotic effects. Subsequent studies reveal that G protein coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER1 may mediate the pro-apoptotic effect of estrogen. N-3 PUFA treatment initiated the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen by increasing GPER1-cAMP-PKA signaling response, and blunting EGFR, Erk 1/2, and AKT activity. These findings may not only provide the evidence to link n-3 PUFAs biologic effects and the pro-apoptotic signaling of estrogen in breast cancer cells, but also shed new insight into the potential application of n-3 PUFAs in BCa treatment.

  1. Prenatal Alcohol Exposure Damages Brain Signal Transduction Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldwell, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    .... One and twenty-four hours following fear conditioning this learning deficit is associated with altered brain signal transduction mechanisms that are dependent on an enzyme termed phosphatidylinositol...

  2. State–time spectrum of signal transduction logic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacNamara, Aidan; Terfve, Camille; Henriques, David; Bernabé, Beatriz Peñalver; Saez-Rodriguez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current wealth of high-throughput data, our understanding of signal transduction is still incomplete. Mathematical modeling can be a tool to gain an insight into such processes. Detailed biochemical modeling provides deep understanding, but does not scale well above relatively a few proteins. In contrast, logic modeling can be used where the biochemical knowledge of the system is sparse and, because it is parameter free (or, at most, uses relatively a few parameters), it scales well to large networks that can be derived by manual curation or retrieved from public databases. Here, we present an overview of logic modeling formalisms in the context of training logic models to data, and specifically the different approaches to modeling qualitative to quantitative data (state) and dynamics (time) of signal transduction. We use a toy model of signal transduction to illustrate how different logic formalisms (Boolean, fuzzy logic and differential equations) treat state and time. Different formalisms allow for different features of the data to be captured, at the cost of extra requirements in terms of computational power and data quality and quantity. Through this demonstration, the assumptions behind each formalism are discussed, as well as their advantages and disadvantages and possible future developments. (paper)

  3. Activation of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 is a key factor in paraquat-induced cell death : modulation by the Nrf2/Trx axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niso-Santano, Mireia; González-Polo, Rosa A; Bravo-San Pedro, José M; Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén; Lastres-Becker, Isabel; Ortiz-Ortiz, Miguel A; Soler, Germán; Morán, José M; Cuadrado, Antonio; Fuentes, José M

    2010-01-01

    Although oxidative stress is fundamental to the etiopathology of Parkinson disease, the signaling molecules involved in transduction after oxidant exposure to cell death are ill-defined, thus making it difficult to identify molecular targets of therapeutic relevance. We have addressed this question

  4. Cell membrane disruption stimulates cAMP and Ca2+ signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuru Togo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Disruption of cellular plasma membranes is a common event in many animal tissues, and the membranes are usually rapidly resealed. Moreover, repeated membrane disruptions within a single cell reseal faster than the initial wound in a protein kinase A (PKA- and protein kinase C (PKC-dependent manner. In addition to wounded cells, recent studies have demonstrated that wounding of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK cells potentiates membrane resealing in neighboring cells in the short-term by purinergic signaling, and in the long-term by nitric oxide/protein kinase G signaling. In the present study, real-time imaging showed that cell membrane disruption stimulated cAMP synthesis and Ca2+ mobilization from intracellular stores by purinergic signaling in neighboring MDCK cells. Furthermore, inhibition of PKA and PKC suppressed the ATP-mediated short-term potentiation of membrane resealing in neighboring cells. These results suggest that cell membrane disruption stimulates PKA and PKC via purinergic signaling to potentiate cell membrane resealing in neighboring MDCK cells.

  5. Expression of tyrosine kinase gene in mouse thymic stromal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rinke de Wit, T. F.; Izon, D. J.; Revilla, C.; Oosterwegel, M.; Bakker, A. Q.; van Ewijk, W.; Kruisbeek, A. M.

    1996-01-01

    Amongst the most important signal transduction molecules involved in regulating growth and differentiation are the protein tyrosine kinases (PTK). Since T cell development is a consequence of interactions between thymic stromal cells (TSC) and thymocytes, identification of the PTK in both

  6. Coupling Planar Cell Polarity Signaling to Morphogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D. Axelrod

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells and other groups of cells acquire a polarity orthogonal to their apical–basal axes, referred to as Planar Cell Polarity (PCP. The process by which these cells become polarized requires a signaling pathway using Frizzled as a receptor. Responding cells sense cues from their environment that provide directional information, and they translate this information into cellular asymmetry. Most of what is known about PCP derives from studies in the fruit fly, Drosophila. We review what is known about how cells translate an unknown signal into asymmetric cytoskeletal reorganization. We then discuss how the vertebrate processes of convergent extension and cochlear hair-cell development may relate to Drosophila PCP signaling.

  7. Gli2a protein localization reveals a role for Iguana/DZIP1 in primary ciliogenesis and a dependence of Hedgehog signal transduction on primary cilia in the zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Eeden Freek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In mammalian cells, the integrity of the primary cilium is critical for proper regulation of the Hedgehog (Hh signal transduction pathway. Whether or not this dependence on the primary cilium is a universal feature of vertebrate Hedgehog signalling has remained contentious due, in part, to the apparent divergence of the intracellular transduction pathway between mammals and teleost fish. Results Here, using a functional Gli2-GFP fusion protein, we show that, as in mammals, the Gli2 transcription factor localizes to the primary cilia of cells in the zebrafish embryo and that this localization is modulated by the activity of the Hh pathway. Moreover, we show that the Igu/DZIP1protein, previously implicated in the modulation of Gli activity in zebrafish, also localizes to the primary cilium and is required for its proper formation. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate a conserved role of the primary cilium in mediating Hedgehog signalling activity across the vertebrate phylum and validate the use of the zebrafish as a representative model for the in vivo analysis of vertebrate Hedgehog signalling.

  8. Adenovirus serotype 5 vectors with Tat-PTD modified hexon and serotype 35 fiber show greatly enhanced transduction capacity of primary cell cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Yu

    Full Text Available Recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5 vectors represent one of the most efficient gene delivery vectors in life sciences. However, Ad5 is dependent on expression of the coxsackievirus-adenovirus-receptor (CAR on the surface of target cell for efficient transduction, which limits it's utility for certain cell types. Herein we present a new vector, Ad5PTDf35, which is an Ad5 vector having serotype 35 fiber-specificity and Tat-PTD hexon-modification. This vector shows dramatically increased transduction capacity of primary human cell cultures including T cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, pancreatic islets and exocrine cells, mesenchymal stem cells and tumor initiating cells. Biodistribution in mice following systemic administration (tail-vein injection show significantly reduced uptake in the liver and spleen of Ad5PTDf35 compared to unmodified Ad5. Therefore, replication-competent viruses with these modifications may be further developed as oncolytic agents for cancer therapy. User-friendly backbone plasmids containing these modifications were developed for compatibility to the AdEasy-system to facilitate the development of surface-modified adenoviruses for gene delivery to difficult-to-transduce cells in basic, pre-clinical and clinical research.

  9. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: the cell-wall corral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinière, Alexandre; Runions, John

    2013-01-01

    Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment.

  10. ProFITS of maize: a database of protein families involved in the transduction of signalling in the maize genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Zhenhai

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize (Zea mays ssp. mays L. is an important model for plant basic and applied research. In 2009, the B73 maize genome sequencing made a great step forward, using clone by clone strategy; however, functional annotation and gene classification of the maize genome are still limited. Thus, a well-annotated datasets and informative database will be important for further research discoveries. Signal transduction is a fundamental biological process in living cells, and many protein families participate in this process in sensing, amplifying and responding to various extracellular or internal stimuli. Therefore, it is a good starting point to integrate information on the maize functional genes involved in signal transduction. Results Here we introduce a comprehensive database 'ProFITS' (Protein Families Involved in the Transduction of Signalling, which endeavours to identify and classify protein kinases/phosphatases, transcription factors and ubiquitin-proteasome-system related genes in the B73 maize genome. Users can explore gene models, corresponding transcripts and FLcDNAs using the three abovementioned protein hierarchical categories, and visualize them using an AJAX-based genome browser (JBrowse or Generic Genome Browser (GBrowse. Functional annotations such as GO annotation, protein signatures, protein best-hits in the Arabidopsis and rice genome are provided. In addition, pre-calculated transcription factor binding sites of each gene are generated and mutant information is incorporated into ProFITS. In short, ProFITS provides a user-friendly web interface for studies in signal transduction process in maize. Conclusion ProFITS, which utilizes both the B73 maize genome and full length cDNA (FLcDNA datasets, provides users a comprehensive platform of maize annotation with specific focus on the categorization of families involved in the signal transduction process. ProFITS is designed as a user-friendly web interface and it is

  11. MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction regulates the actin cytoskeleton through the downregulation of WAVE2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Ueno, M; Liu, D; Masuya, D; Nakano, J; Yokomise, H; Nakagawa, T; Miyake, M

    2006-10-19

    Motility-related protein-1 (MRP-1/CD9) is involved in cell motility. We studied the change in the actin cytoskeleton, and the expression of actin-related protein (Arp) 2 and Arp3 and the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) family according to MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction into HT1080 cells. The frequency of cells with lamellipodia was significantly lower in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells than in control HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction affected the subcellular localization of Arp2 and Arp3 proteins. Furthermore, MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction induced a downregulation of WAVE2 expression (PMRP-1/CD9 monoclonal antibody inhibited downregulation of WAVE2 in MRP-1/CD9-transfected HT1080 cells (PMRP-1/CD9 gene transduction. Furthermore, downregulation of WAVE2 by transfection of WAVE2-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) mimicked the morphological effects of MRP-1/CD9 gene transduction and suppressed cell motility. However, transfection of each siRNA for Wnt1, Wnt2b1 or Wnt5a did not affect WAVE2 expression. Transfection of WAVE2-specific siRNA also did not affect expressions of these Wnts. These results indicate that MRP-1/CD9 regulates the actin cytoskeleton by downregulating of the WAVE2, through the Wnt-independent signal pathway.

  12. The EP4 receptor antagonist, L-161,982, blocks prostaglandin E2-induced signal transduction and cell proliferation in HCA-7 colon cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherukuri, Durga Prasad; Chen, Xiao B.O.; Goulet, Anne-Christine; Young, Robert N.; Han, Yongxin; Heimark, Ronald L.; Regan, John W.; Meuillet, Emmanuelle; Nelson, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that elevated levels of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) can increase intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, and thus play a role in colorectal tumorigenesis. PGE 2 exerts its effects through four G-protein-coupled PGE receptor (EP) subtypes, named the EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4. Increased phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinases (ERK1/2) is required for PGE 2 to stimulate cell proliferation of human colon cancer cells. However, the EP receptor(s) that are involved in this process remain unknown. We provide evidence that L-161,982, a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, completely blocks PGE 2 -induced ERK phosphorylation and cell proliferation of HCA-7 cells. In order to identify downstream target genes of ERK1/2 signaling, we found that PGE 2 induces expression of early growth response gene-1 (EGR-1) downstream of ERK1/2 and regulates its expression at the level of transcription. PGE 2 treatment induces phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) at Ser133 residue and CRE-mediated luciferase activity in HCA-7 cells. Studies with dominant-negative CREB mutant (ACREB) provide clear evidence for the involvement of CREB in PGE 2 driven egr-1 transcription in HCA-7 cells. In conclusion, this study reveals that egr-1 is a target gene of PGE 2 in HCA-7 cells and is regulated via the newly identified EP4/ERK/CREB pathway. Finally our results support the notion that antagonizing EP4 receptors may provide a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of colon cancer

  13. Nicotine as a mitogenic stimulus for pancreatic acinar cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parimal Chowdhury; Kodetthoor B Udupa

    2006-01-01

    Cell proliferation is an important process in life for growth of normal and cancer cells. The signal transduction pathways activated during this process are strictly regulated. This editorial focuses on the role of nicotine,a mitogen, in the induction of signaling pathways resulting in proliferation of pancreatic tumor cells and compares these events with those in normal acinar cells isolated from the rat pancreas. The data shows striking similarities between these two cellular systems.In addition, the editorial reviews very recent literature of the contribution of MAPK signaling in cell lines associated with human diseases. A prospective cellular model of nicotine induced activation of MAPK cascade is presented.

  14. Apoptotic Cells Induced Signaling for Immune Homeostasis in Macrophages and Dendritic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uriel Trahtemberg

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Inefficient and abnormal clearance of apoptotic cells (efferocytosis contributes to systemic autoimmune disease in humans and mice, and inefficient chromosomal DNA degradation by DNAse II leads to systemic polyarthritis and a cytokine storm. By contrast, efficient clearance allows immune homeostasis, generally leads to a non-inflammatory state for both macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs, and contributes to maintenance of peripheral tolerance. As many as 3 × 108 cells undergo apoptosis every hour in our bodies, and one of the primary “eat me” signals expressed by apoptotic cells is phosphatidylserine (PtdSer. Apoptotic cells themselves are major contributors to the “anti-inflammatory” nature of the engulfment process, some by secreting thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 or adenosine monophosphate and possibly other immune modulating “calm-down” signals that interact with macrophages and DCs. Apoptotic cells also produce “find me” and “tolerate me” signals to attract and immune modulate macrophages and DCs that express specific receptors for some of these signals. Neither macrophages nor DCs are uniform, and each cell type may variably express membrane proteins that function as receptors for PtdSer or for opsonins like complement or opsonins that bind to PtdSer, such as protein S and growth arrest-specific 6. Macrophages and DCs also express scavenger receptors, CD36, and integrins that function via bridging molecules such as TSP-1 or milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 protein and that differentially engage in various multi-ligand interactions between apoptotic cells and phagocytes. In this review, we describe the anti-inflammatory and pro-homeostatic nature of apoptotic cell interaction with the immune system. We do not review some forms of immunogenic cell death. We summarize the known apoptotic cell signaling events in macrophages and DCs that are related to toll-like receptors, nuclear factor kappa B, inflammasome, the lipid

  15. Benfotiamine counteracts glucose toxicity effects on endothelial progenitor cell differentiation via Akt/FoxO signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Valentina; Menghini, Rossella; Rizza, Stefano; Vivanti, Alessia; Feccia, Tiziana; Lauro, Davide; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Lauro, Renato; Federici, Massimo

    2006-08-01

    Dysfunction of mature endothelial cells is thought to play a major role in both micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes. However, recent advances in biology of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have highlighted their involvement in diabetes complications. To determine the effect of glucotoxicity on EPCs, human EPCs have been isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy donors and cultured in the presence or absence of high glucose (33 mmol/l) or high glucose plus benfotiamine to scavenge glucotoxicity. Morphological analysis revealed that high glucose significantly affected the number of endothelial cell colony forming units, uptake and binding of acLDL and Lectin-1, and the ability to differentiate into CD31- and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive cells. Functional analysis outlined a reduced EPC involvement in de novo tube formation, when cocultured with mature endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) on matrigel. To explain the observed phenotypes, we have investigated the signal transduction pathways known to be involved in EPC growth and differentiation. Our results indicate that hyperglycemia impairs EPC differentiation and that the process can be restored by benfotiamine administration, via the modulation of Akt/FoxO1 activity.

  16. Chemokines: a new dendritic cell signal for T cell activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A Thaiss

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the main inducers and regulators of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses against viruses and tumors. One checkpoint to avoid misguided CTL activation, which might damage healthy cells of the body, is the necessity for multiple activation signals, involving both antigenic as well as additional signals that reflect the presence of pathogens. DCs provide both signals when activated by ligands of pattern recognition receptors and licensed by helper lymphocytes. Recently, it has been established that such T cell licensing can be facilitated by CD4+ T helper cells (classical licensing or by NKT cells (alternative licensing. Licensing regulates the DC/CTL cross-talk at multiple layers. Direct recruitment of CTLs through chemokines released by licensed DCs has recently emerged as a common theme and has a crucial impact on the efficiency of CTL responses. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of DC licensing for cross-priming and implications for the temporal and spatial regulation underlying this process. Future vaccination strategies will benefit from a deeper insight into the mechanisms that govern CTL activation.

  17. Cancer dormancy and cell signaling: Induction of p21waf1 initiated by membrane IgM engagement increases survival of B lymphoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marches, Radu; Hsueh, Robert; Uhr, Jonathan W.

    1999-01-01

    The p21WAF1 (p21) cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor plays a major role in regulating cell cycle arrest. It was recently reported that the p53-independent elevation of p21 protein levels is essential in mediating the G1 arrest resulting from signal transduction events initiated by the crosslinking of membrane IgM on Daudi Burkitt lymphoma cells. Although the role of p21 in cell cycle regulation is well documented, there is little information concerning its role in antibody-mediated apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the involvement of p21 in the regulation of apoptosis by suppressing its induction in anti-IgM-treated Daudi cells through a p21 antisense expression construct approach. Reduction in induced p21 protein levels resulted in diminished G1 arrest and increased apoptosis. The increased susceptibility to anti-IgM-mediated apoptosis was associated with increased caspase-3-like activity and poly-(ADP)ribose polymerase cleavage. These data suggest that p21 may directly interfere with the caspase cascade, thus playing a dual role in regulating both cell cycle progression and apoptosis. PMID:10411940

  18. The c-Myc target glycoprotein1balpha links cytokinesis failure to oncogenic signal transduction pathways in cultured human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Wu

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available An increase in chromosome number, or polyploidization, is associated with a variety of biological changes including breeding of cereal crops and flowers, terminal differentiation of specialized cells such as megakaryocytes, cellular stress and oncogenic transformation. Yet it remains unclear how cells tolerate the major changes in gene expression, chromatin organization and chromosome segregation that invariably accompany polyploidization. We show here that cancer cells can initiate increases in chromosome number by inhibiting cell division through activation of glycoprotein1b alpha (GpIbalpha, a component of the c-Myc signaling pathway. We are able to recapitulate cytokinesis failure in primary cells by overexpression of GpIbalpha in a p53-deficient background. GpIbalpha was found to localize to the cleavage furrow by microscopy analysis and, when overexpressed, to interfere with assembly of the cellular cortical contraction apparatus and normal division. These results indicate that cytokinesis failure and tetraploidy in cancer cells are directly linked to cellular hyperproliferation via c-Myc induced overexpression of GpIbalpha.

  19. Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dontu, Gabriela; Jackson, Kyle W; McNicholas, Erin; Kawamura, Mari J; Abdallah, Wissam M; Wicha, Max S

    2004-01-01

    Notch signaling has been implicated in the regulation of cell-fate decisions such as self-renewal of adult stem cells and differentiation of progenitor cells along a particular lineage. Moreover, depending on the cellular and developmental context, the Notch pathway acts as a regulator of cell survival and cell proliferation. Abnormal expression of Notch receptors has been found in different types of epithelial metaplastic lesions and neoplastic lesions, suggesting that Notch may act as a proto-oncogene. The vertebrate Notch1 and Notch4 homologs are involved in normal development of the mammary gland, and mutated forms of these genes are associated with development of mouse mammary tumors. In order to determine the role of Notch signaling in mammary cell-fate determination, we have utilized a newly described in vitro system in which mammary stem/progenitor cells can be cultured in suspension as nonadherent 'mammospheres'. Notch signaling was activated using exogenous ligands, or was inhibited using previously characterized Notch signaling antagonists. Utilizing this system, we demonstrate that Notch signaling can act on mammary stem cells to promote self-renewal and on early progenitor cells to promote their proliferation, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in secondary mammosphere formation upon addition of a Notch-activating DSL peptide. In addition to acting on stem cells, Notch signaling is also able to act on multipotent progenitor cells, facilitating myoepithelial lineage-specific commitment and proliferation. Stimulation of this pathway also promotes branching morphogenesis in three-dimensional Matrigel cultures. These effects are completely inhibited by a Notch4 blocking antibody or a gamma secretase inhibitor that blocks Notch processing. In contrast to the effects of Notch signaling on mammary stem/progenitor cells, modulation of this pathway has no discernable effect on fully committed, differentiated, mammary epithelial cells. These studies

  20. Altered Signal Transduction in Renal Cell Injury Following Hemorrhagic Shock or Anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    Camal ter, R. F. ; Saffiotti, U. Effects of serum and serum-derved factors on growth and differentiation of mouse keratinocytes. In Vitro 22: 423-428...growth and differentiation of mouse epidermal cells in culture. Cell 19: 245-254; 1980. 19. Kaighn, M. E.; Camaller , R. F.; Bertolero, F.; SaffLotti, U

  1. ErbB receptors and cell polarity: New pathways and paradigms for understanding cell migration and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feigin, Michael E.; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.

    2009-01-01

    The ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases is involved in initiation and progression of a number of human cancers, and receptor activation or overexpression correlates with poor patient survival. Research over the past two decades has elucidated the molecular mechanisms underlying ErbB-induced tumorigenesis, which has resulted in the development of effective targeted therapies. ErbB-induced signal transduction cascades regulate a wide variety of cell processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell polarity, migration and invasion. Within tumors, disruption of these core processes, through cooperative oncogenic lesions, results in aggressive, metastatic disease. This review will focus on the ErbB signaling networks that regulate migration and invasion and identify a potential role for cell polarity pathways during cancer progression

  2. Signaling hierarchy regulating human endothelial cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Melissa A; Hirschi, Karen K

    2009-05-01

    Our present knowledge of the regulation of mammalian endothelial cell differentiation has been largely derived from studies of mouse embryonic development. However, unique mechanisms and hierarchy of signals that govern human endothelial cell development are unknown and, thus, explored in these studies. Using human embryonic stem cells as a model system, we were able to reproducibly and robustly generate differentiated endothelial cells via coculture on OP9 marrow stromal cells. We found that, in contrast to studies in the mouse, bFGF and VEGF had no specific effects on the initiation of human vasculogenesis. However, exogenous Ihh promoted endothelial cell differentiation, as evidenced by increased production of cells with cobblestone morphology that coexpress multiple endothelial-specific genes and proteins, form lumens, and exhibit DiI-AcLDL uptake. Inhibition of BMP signaling using Noggin or BMP4, specifically, using neutralizing antibodies suppressed endothelial cell formation; whereas, addition of rhBMP4 to cells treated with the hedgehog inhibitor cyclopamine rescued endothelial cell development. Our studies revealed that Ihh promoted human endothelial cell differentiation from pluripotent hES cells via BMP signaling, providing novel insights applicable to modulating human endothelial cell formation and vascular regeneration for human clinical therapies.

  3. Tumor necrosis factor α triggers proliferation of adult neural stem cells via IKK/NF-κB signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaltschmidt Christian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain inflammation has been recognized as a complex phenomenon with numerous related aspects. In addition to the very well-described neurodegenerative effect of inflammation, several studies suggest that inflammatory signals exert a potentially positive influence on neural stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α is one of the best-characterized mediators of inflammation. To date, conclusions about the action of TNF on neural stem or progenitor cells (NSCs, NPCs have been conflicting. TNF seems to activate NSC proliferation and to inhibit their differentiation into NPCs. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the molecular signal transduction mechanisms induced by TNF and resulting in NSC proliferation. Results Here we describe for the first time the TNF-mediated signal transduction cascade in neural stem cells (NSCs that results in increased proliferation. Moreover, we demonstrate IKK-α/β-dependent proliferation and markedly up-regulated cyclin D1 expression after TNF treatment. The significant increase in proliferation in TNF-treated cells was indicated by increased neurosphere volume, increased bromodeoxyuridin (BrdU incorporation and a higher total cell number. Furthermore, TNF strongly activated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB as measured by reporter gene assays and by an activity-specific antibody. Proliferation of control and TNF-treated NSCs was strongly inhibited by expression of the NF-κB super-repressor IκB-AA1. Pharmacological blockade of IκB ubiquitin ligase activity led to comparable decreases in NF-κB activity and proliferation. In addition, IKK-β gene product knock-down via siRNA led to diminished NF-κB activity, attenuated cyclin D1 expression and finally decreased proliferation. In contrast, TGFβ-activated kinase 1 (TAK-1 is partially dispensable for TNF-mediated and endogenous proliferation. Understanding stem cell proliferation is crucial

  4. Characterization of sur-2, a Novel Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction Component in C. elegans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DesJardins, Edward

    1998-01-01

    ... (oncogenes). A subset of proto-oncogenes comprise the RAS signal transduction pathway. Vulval development in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled by a RAS signal transduction pathway...

  5. Disruption of MEK/ERK/c-Myc signaling radiosensitizes prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Carmela; Di Rocco, Agnese; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Mauro, Annunziata; Festuccia, Claudio; Del Fattore, Andrea; Berardinelli, Paolo; De Felice, Francesca; Musio, Daniela; Bouché, Marina; Tombolini, Vincenzo; Zani, Bianca Maria; Marampon, Francesco

    2018-06-29

    Prostate cancer (PCa) cell radioresistance causes the failure of radiation therapy (RT) in localized or locally advanced disease. The aberrant accumulation of c-Myc oncoprotein, known to promote PCa onset and progression, may be due to the control of gene transcription and/or MEK/ERK-regulated protein stabilization. Here, we investigated the role of MEK/ERK signaling in PCa. LnCAP, 22Rv1, DU145, and PC3 PCa cell lines were used in in vitro and in vivo experiments. U0126, trametinib MEK/ERK inhibitors, and c-Myc shRNAs were used. Radiation was delivered using an x-6 MV photon linear accelerator. U0126 in vivo activity alone or in combination with irradiation was determined in murine xenografts. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling down-regulated c-Myc protein in PCa cell lines to varying extents by affecting expression of RNA and protein, which in turn determined radiosensitization in in vitro and in vivo xenograft models of PCa cells. The crucial role played by c-Myc in the MEK/ERK pathways was demonstrated in 22Rv1 cells by the silencing of c-Myc by means of short hairpin mRNA, which yielded effects resembling the targeting of MEK/ERK signaling. The clinically approved compound trametinib used in vitro yielded the same effects as U0126 on growth and C-Myc expression. Notably, U0126 and trametinib induced a drastic down-regulation of BMX, which is known to prevent apoptosis in cancer cells. The results of our study suggest that signal transduction-based therapy can, by disrupting the MEK/ERK/c-Myc axis, reduce human PCa radioresistance caused by increased c-Myc expression in vivo and in vitro and restores apoptosis signals.

  6. Follow-the-leader cell migration requires biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironmental signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Michelle L.; Rupp, Paul; Trainor, Paul A.; Schnell, Santiago; Kulesa, Paul M.

    2013-06-01

    Directed cell migration often involves at least two types of cell motility that include multicellular streaming and chain migration. However, what is unclear is how cell contact dynamics and the distinct microenvironments through which cells travel influence the selection of one migratory mode or the other. The embryonic and highly invasive neural crest (NC) are an excellent model system to study this question since NC cells have been observed in vivo to display both of these types of cell motility. Here, we present data from tissue transplantation experiments in chick and in silico modeling that test our hypothesis that cell contact dynamics with each other and the microenvironment promote and sustain either multicellular stream or chain migration. We show that when premigratory cranial NC cells (at the pre-otic level) are transplanted into a more caudal region in the head (at the post-otic level), cells alter their characteristic stream behavior and migrate in chains. Similarly, post-otic NC cells migrate in streams after transplantation into the pre-otic hindbrain, suggesting that local microenvironmental signals dictate the mode of NC cell migration. Simulations of an agent-based model (ABM) that integrates the NC cell behavioral data predict that chain migration critically depends on the interplay of biased cell-cell contact and local microenvironment signals. Together, this integrated modeling and experimental approach suggests new experiments and offers a powerful tool to examine mechanisms that underlie complex cell migration patterns.

  7. Lycopene inhibits IGF-I signal transduction and growth in normal prostate epithelial cells by decreasing DHT-modulated IGF-I production in co-cultured reactive stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunxian; Allen, Jeffrey D; Arnold, Julia T; Blackman, Marc R

    2008-04-01

    Prostate stromal and epithelial cell communication is important in prostate functioning and cancer development. Primary human stromal cells from normal prostate stromal cells (PRSC) maintain a smooth muscle phenotype, whereas those from prostate cancer (6S) display reactive and fibroblastic characteristics. Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) stimulates insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production by 6S but not PSRC cells. Effects of reactive versus normal stroma on normal human prostate epithelial (NPE or PREC) cells are poorly understood. We co-cultured NPE plus 6S or PRSC cells to compare influences of different stromal cells on normal epithelium. Because NPE and PREC cells lose androgen receptor (AR) expression in culture, DHT effects must be modulated by associated stromal cells. When treated with camptothecin (CM), NPE cells, alone and in stromal co-cultures, displayed a dose-dependent increase in DNA fragmentation. NPE/6S co-cultures exhibited reduced CM-induced cell death with exposure to DHT, whereas NPE/PRSC co-cultures exhibited CM-induced cell death regardless of DHT treatment. DHT blocked CM-induced, IGF-I-mediated, NPE death in co-cultured NPE/6S cells without, but not with, added anti-IGF-I and anti-IGF-R antibodies. Lycopene consumption is inversely related to human prostate cancer risk and inhibits IGF-I and androgen signaling in rat prostate cancer. In this study, lycopene, in dietary concentrations, reversed DHT effects of 6S cells on NPE cell death, decreased 6S cell IGF-I production by reducing AR and beta-catenin nuclear localization and inhibited IGF-I-stimulated NPE and PREC growth, perhaps by attenuating IGF-I's effects on serine phosphorylation of Akt and GSK3beta and tyrosine phosphorylation of GSK3. This study expands the understanding of the preventive mechanisms of lycopene in prostate cancer.

  8. Characterization of sur-2, a Novel Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction Component in C. elegans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DesJardins, Edward

    1999-01-01

    ... (oncogenes). A subset of proto-oncogenes comprise the RAS signal transduction pathway. Vulval development in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans is controlled by a RAS signal transduction pathway. C...

  9. Vectorial signalling mechanism required for cell-cell communication during sporulation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Veronica; Schujman, Gustavo E; Gueiros-Filho, Frederico J; de Mendoza, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Spore formation in Bacillus subtilis takes place in a sporangium consisting of two chambers, the forespore and the mother cell, which are linked by pathways of cell-cell communication. One pathway, which couples the proteolytic activation of the mother cell transcription factor σ(E) to the action of a forespore synthesized signal molecule, SpoIIR, has remained enigmatic. Signalling by SpoIIR requires the protein to be exported to the intermembrane space between forespore and mother cell, where it will interact with and activate the integral membrane protease SpoIIGA. Here we show that SpoIIR signal activity as well as the cleavage of its N-terminal extension is strictly dependent on the prespore fatty acid biosynthetic machinery. We also report that a conserved threonine residue (T27) in SpoIIR is required for processing, suggesting that signalling of SpoIIR is dependent on fatty acid synthesis probably because of acylation of T27. In addition, SpoIIR localization in the forespore septal membrane depends on the presence of SpoIIGA. The orchestration of σ(E) activation in the intercellular space by an acylated signal protein provides a new paradigm to ensure local transmission of a weak signal across the bilayer to control cell-cell communication during development. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Protein diffusion in plant cell plasma membranes: The cell-wall corral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre eMartinière

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Studying protein diffusion informs us about how proteins interact with their environment. Work on protein diffusion over the last several decades has illustrated the complex nature of biological lipid bilayers. The plasma membrane contains an array of membrane-spanning proteins or proteins with peripheral membrane associations. Maintenance of plasma membrane microstructure can be via physical features that provide intrinsic ordering such as lipid microdomains, or from membrane-associated structures such as the cytoskeleton. Recent evidence indicates, that in the case of plant cells, the cell wall seems to be a major player in maintaining plasma membrane microstructure. This interconnection / interaction between cell-wall and plasma membrane proteins most likely plays an important role in signal transduction, cell growth, and cell physiological responses to the environment.

  11. Cell to cell signalling during vertebrate limb bud development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panman, Lia

    2004-01-01

    Communication between cells is essential during embryonic development. The vertebrate limb bud provides us a model to study signalling interactions between cells during patterning of embryonic tissues and organogenesis. In chapter 1 I give an introduction about limb bud development that is focussed

  12. alpha-Toxin is a mediator of Staphylococcus aureus-induced cell death and activates caspases via the intrinsic death pathway independently of death receptor signaling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantel, H; Sinha, B; Domschke, W; Peters, Georg; Schulze-Osthoff, K; Jänicke, R U

    2001-01-01

    Infections with Staphylococcus aureus, a common inducer of septic and toxic shock, often result in tissue damage and death of various cell types. Although S. aureus was suggested to induce apoptosis, the underlying signal transduction pathways remained elusive. We show that caspase activation and

  13. Signal transduction by growth factor receptors: signaling in an instant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dengjel, Joern; Akimov, Vyacheslav; Blagoev, Blagoy

    2007-01-01

    Phosphorylation-based signaling events happening within the first minute of receptor stimulation have so far only been analyzed by classical cell biological approaches like live-cell microscopy. The development of a quench flow system with a time resolution of one second coupled to a read...

  14. Apoptosis Signal-Regulating Kinase 1 Is Involved in Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF)-Enhanced Cell Motility and Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 Expression in Human Chondrosarcoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Chang, Sunny Li-Yun; Fong, Yi-Chin; Hsu, Chin-Jung; Tang, Chih-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Chondrosarcoma is the primary malignancy of bone that is characterized by a potent capacity to invade locally and cause distant metastasis, and is therefore associated with poor prognoses. Chondrosarcoma further shows a predilection for metastasis to the lungs. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a small molecule in the neurotrophin family of growth factors that is associated with the disease status and outcome of cancers. However, the effect of BDNF on cell motility in human chondrosarcoma cells is mostly unknown. Here, we found that human chondrosarcoma cell lines had significantly higher cell motility and BDNF expression compared to normal chondrocytes. We also found that BDNF increased cell motility and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) in human chondrosarcoma cells. BDNF-mediated cell motility and MMP-1 up-regulation were attenuated by Trk inhibitor (K252a), ASK1 inhibitor (thioredoxin), JNK inhibitor (SP600125), and p38 inhibitor (SB203580). Furthermore, BDNF also promoted Sp1 activation. Our results indicate that BDNF enhances the migration and invasion activity of chondrosarcoma cells by increasing MMP-1 expression through a signal transduction pathway that involves the TrkB receptor, ASK1, JNK/p38, and Sp1. BDNF thus represents a promising new target for treating chondrosarcoma metastasis. PMID:23892595

  15. Resolving Early Signaling Events in T-Cell Activation Leading to IL-2 and FOXP3 Transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Perley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Signal intensity and feedback regulation are known to be major factors in the signaling events stemming from the T-cell receptor (TCR and its various coreceptors, but the exact nature of these relationships remains in question. We present a mathematical model of the complex signaling network involved in T-cell activation with cross-talk between the Erk, calcium, PKC and mTOR signaling pathways. The model parameters are adjusted to fit new and published data on TCR trafficking, Zap70, calcium, Erk and Isignaling. The regulation of the early signaling events by phosphatases, CD45 and SHP1, and the TCR dynamics are critical to determining the behavior of the model. Additional model corroboration is provided through quantitative and qualitative agreement with experimental data collected under different stimulating and knockout conditions. The resulting model is analyzed to investigate how signal intensity and feedback regulation affect TCR- and coreceptor-mediated signal transduction and their downstream transcriptional profiles to predict the outcome for a variety of stimulatory and knockdown experiments. Analysis of the model shows that: (1 SHP1 negative feedback is necessary for preventing hyperactivity in TCR signaling; (2 CD45 is required for TCR signaling, but also partially suppresses it at high expression levels; and (3 elevated FOXP3 and reduced IL-2 signaling, an expression profile often associated with T regulatory cells (Tregs, is observed when the system is subjected to weak TCR and CD28 costimulation or a severe reduction in CD45 activity.

  16. Functional Independence and Interdependence of the Src Homology Domains of Phospholipase C-γ1 in B-Cell Receptor Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, Karen E.; Stoica, Bogdan A.; Verí, Maria-Concetta; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Miscia, Sebastiano; Graham, Laurie J.; Rellahan, Barbara L.; Ishiai, Masamichi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Bonvini, Ezio

    1999-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR)-induced activation of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1) and PLCγ2 is crucial for B-cell function. While several signaling molecules have been implicated in PLCγ activation, the mechanism coupling PLCγ to the BCR remains undefined. The role of PLCγ1 SH2 and SH3 domains at different steps of BCR-induced PLCγ1 activation was examined by reconstitution in a PLCγ-negative B-cell line. PLCγ1 membrane translocation required a functional SH2 N-terminal [SH2(N)] domain, was decreased by mutation of the SH3 domain, but was unaffected by mutation of the SH2(C) domain. Tyrosine phosphorylation did not require the SH2(C) or SH3 domains but depended exclusively on a functional SH2(N) domain, which mediated the association of PLCγ1 with the adapter protein, BLNK. Forcing PLCγ1 to the membrane via a myristoylation signal did not bypass the SH2(N) domain requirement for phosphorylation, indicating that the phosphorylation mediated by this domain is not due to membrane anchoring alone. Mutation of the SH2(N) or the SH2(C) domain abrogated BCR-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and signaling events, while mutation of the SH3 domain partially decreased signaling. PLCγ1 SH domains, therefore, have interrelated but distinct roles in BCR-induced PLCγ1 activation. PMID:10523627

  17. Cytoskeleton in Mast Cell Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dráber, Pavel; Sulimenko, Vadym; Dráberová, Eduarda

    2012-01-01

    Mast cell activation mediated by the high affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) is a key event in allergic response and inflammation. Other receptors on mast cells, as c-Kit for stem cell factor and G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) synergistically enhance the FcεRI-mediated release of inflammatory mediators. Activation of various signaling pathways in mast cells results in changes in cell morphology, adhesion to substrate, exocytosis, and migration. Reorganization of cytoskeleton is pivotal in all these processes. Cytoskeletal proteins also play an important role in initial stages of FcεRI and other surface receptors induced triggering. Highly dynamic microtubules formed by αβ-tubulin dimers as well as microfilaments build up from polymerized actin are affected in activated cells by kinases/phosphatases, Rho GTPases and changes in concentration of cytosolic Ca2+. Also important are nucleation proteins; the γ-tubulin complexes in case of microtubules or Arp 2/3 complex with its nucleation promoting factors and formins in case of microfilaments. The dynamic nature of microtubules and microfilaments in activated cells depends on many associated/regulatory proteins. Changes in rigidity of activated mast cells reflect changes in intermediate filaments build up from vimentin. This review offers a critical appraisal of current knowledge on the role of cytoskeleton in mast cells signaling. PMID:22654883

  18. Intestinal Stem Cell Niche: The Extracellular Matrix and Cellular Components

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    Laween Meran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium comprises a monolayer of polarised columnar cells organised along the crypt-villus axis. Intestinal stem cells reside at the base of crypts and are constantly nourished by their surrounding niche for maintenance, self-renewal, and differentiation. The cellular microenvironment including the adjacent Paneth cells, stromal cells, smooth muscle cells, and neural cells as well as the extracellular matrix together constitute the intestinal stem cell niche. A dynamic regulatory network exists among the epithelium, stromal cells, and the matrix via complex signal transduction to maintain tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of these biological or mechanical signals could potentially lead to intestinal injury and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of different intestinal stem cell niche components and dissect the interaction between dynamic matrix factors and regulatory signalling during intestinal stem cell homeostasis.

  19. Robustness of MEK-ERK Dynamics and Origins of Cell-to-Cell Variability in MAPK Signaling

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    Sarah Filippi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular signaling processes can exhibit pronounced cell-to-cell variability in genetically identical cells. This affects how individual cells respond differentially to the same environmental stimulus. However, the origins of cell-to-cell variability in cellular signaling systems remain poorly understood. Here, we measure the dynamics of phosphorylated MEK and ERK across cell populations and quantify the levels of population heterogeneity over time using high-throughput image cytometry. We use a statistical modeling framework to show that extrinsic noise, particularly that from upstream MEK, is the dominant factor causing cell-to-cell variability in ERK phosphorylation, rather than stochasticity in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of ERK. We furthermore show that without extrinsic noise in the core module, variable (including noisy signals would be faithfully reproduced downstream, but the within-module extrinsic variability distorts these signals and leads to a drastic reduction in the mutual information between incoming signal and ERK activity.

  20. Dual small-molecule targeting of SMAD signaling stimulates human induced pluripotent stem cells toward neural lineages.

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    Methichit Wattanapanitch

    Full Text Available Incurable neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD, Huntington's disease (HD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD are very common and can be life-threatening because of their progressive disease symptoms with limited treatment options. To provide an alternative renewable cell source for cell-based transplantation and as study models for neurological diseases, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs from human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs and then differentiated them into neural progenitor cells (NPCs and mature neurons by dual SMAD signaling inhibitors. Reprogramming efficiency was improved by supplementing the histone deacethylase inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA, and inhibitor of p160-Rho associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK, Y-27632, after retroviral transduction. We obtained a number of iPS colonies that shared similar characteristics with human embryonic stem cells in terms of their morphology, cell surface antigens, pluripotency-associated gene and protein expressions as well as their in vitro and in vivo differentiation potentials. After treatment with Noggin and SB431542, inhibitors of the SMAD signaling pathway, HDF-iPSCs demonstrated rapid and efficient differentiation into neural lineages. Six days after neural induction, neuroepithelial cells (NEPCs were observed in the adherent monolayer culture, which had the ability to differentiate further into NPCs and neurons, as characterized by their morphology and the expression of neuron-specific transcripts and proteins. We propose that our study may be applied to generate neurological disease patient-specific iPSCs allowing better understanding of disease pathogenesis and drug sensitivity assays.

  1. ISL1 protein transduction promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation from human embryonic stem cells.

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    Hananeh Fonoudi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs have the potential to provide an unlimited source of cardiomyocytes, which are invaluable resources for drug or toxicology screening, medical research, and cell therapy. Currently a number of obstacles exist such as the insufficient efficiency of differentiation protocols, which should be overcome before hESC-derived cardiomyocytes can be used for clinical applications. Although the differentiation efficiency can be improved by the genetic manipulation of hESCs to over-express cardiac-specific transcription factors, these differentiated cells are not safe enough to be applied in cell therapy. Protein transduction has been demonstrated as an alternative approach for increasing the efficiency of hESCs differentiation toward cardiomyocytes. METHODS: We present an efficient protocol for the differentiation of hESCs in suspension by direct introduction of a LIM homeodomain transcription factor, Islet1 (ISL1 recombinant protein into the cells. RESULTS: We found that the highest beating clusters were derived by continuous treatment of hESCs with 40 µg/ml recombinant ISL1 protein during days 1-8 after the initiation of differentiation. The treatment resulted in up to a 3-fold increase in the number of beating areas. In addition, the number of cells that expressed cardiac specific markers (cTnT, CONNEXIN 43, ACTININ, and GATA4 doubled. This protocol was also reproducible for another hESC line. CONCLUSIONS: This study has presented a new, efficient, and reproducible procedure for cardiomyocytes differentiation. Our results will pave the way for scaled up and controlled differentiation of hESCs to be used for biomedical applications in a bioreactor culture system.

  2. Differential TCR signals for T helper cell programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Penelope A

    2018-05-02

    Upon encounter with their cognate antigen naïve CD4 T cells become activated and are induced to differentiate into several possible T helper (Th) cell subsets. This differentiation depends on a number of factors including antigen presenting cells, cytokines and costimulatory molecules. The strength of the T cell receptor (TCR) signal, related to the affinity of TCR for antigen and antigen dose, has emerged as a dominant factor in determining Th cell fate. Recent studies have revealed that TCR signals of high or low strength do not simply induce quantitatively different signals in the T cells, but rather qualitatively distinct pathways can be induced based on TCR signal strength. This review examines the recent literature in this area and highlights important new developments in our understanding of Th cell differentiation and TCR signal strength. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Illegitimate WNT signaling promotes proliferation of multiple myeloma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen, Patrick W. B.; Tjin, Esther; Meijer, Helen P.; Klok, Melanie D.; Mac Gillavry, Harold D.; van Oers, Marinus H. J.; Lokhorst, Henk M.; Bloem, Andries C.; Clevers, Hans; Nusse, Roel; van der Neut, Ronald; Spaargaren, Marcel; Pals, Steven T.

    2004-01-01

    The unrestrained growth of tumor cells is generally attributed to mutations in essential growth control genes, but tumor cells are also influenced by signals from the environment. In multiple myeloma (MM), the factors and signals coming from the bone marrow microenvironment are possibly even essential for the growth of the tumor cells. As targets for intervention, these signals may be equally important as mutated oncogenes. Given their oncogenic potential, WNT signals form a class of paracrine growth factors that could act to influence MM cell growth. In this paper, we report that MM cells have hallmarks of active WNT signaling, whereas the cells have not undergone detectable mutations in WNT signaling genes such as adenomatous polyposis coli and β-catenin (CTNNB1). We show that the malignant MM plasma cells overexpress β-catenin, including its N-terminally unphosphorylated form, suggesting active β-catenin/T cell factor-mediated transcription. Further accumulation and nuclear localization of β-catenin, and/or increased cell proliferation, was achieved by stimulation of WNT signaling with either Wnt3a, LiCl, or the constitutively active S33Y mutant of β-catenin. In contrast, by blocking WNT signaling by dominant-negative T cell factor, we can interfere with the growth of MM cells. We therefore suggest that MM cells are dependent on an active WNT signal, which may have important implications for the management of this incurable form of cancer. PMID:15067127

  4. Efficacy of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG in human glioma cell lines and tumorigenic glioma stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvageot, Claire Marie-Elisabeth; Weatherbee, Jessica Leigh; Kesari, Santosh; Winters, Susan Elizabeth; Barnes, Jessica; Dellagatta, Jamie; Ramakrishna, Naren Raj; Stiles, Charles Dean; Kung, Andrew Li-Jen; Kieran, Mark W; Wen, Patrick Yung Chih

    2009-04-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) arises from genetic and signaling abnormalities in components of signal transduction pathways involved in proliferation, survival, and the cell cycle axis. Studies to date with single-agent targeted molecular therapy have revealed only modest effects in attenuating the growth of these tumors, suggesting that targeting multiple aberrant pathways may be more beneficial. Heat-shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone that is involved in the conformational maturation of a defined group of client proteins, many of which are deregulated in GBM. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is a well-characterized HSP90 inhibitor that should be able to target many of the aberrant signal transduction pathways in GBM. We assessed the ability of 17-AAG to inhibit the growth of glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells both in vitro and in vivo and assessed its ability to synergize with radiation and/or temozolomide, the standard therapies for GBM. Our results reveal that 17-AAG is able to inhibit the growth of both human glioma cell lines and glioma stem cells in vitro and is able to target the appropriate proteins within these cells. In addition, 17-AAG can inhibit the growth of intracranial tumors and can synergize with radiation both in tissue culture and in intracranial tumors. This compound was not found to synergize with temozolomide in any of our models of gliomas. Our results suggest that HSP90 inhibitors like 17-AAG may have therapeutic potential in GBM, either as a single agent or in combination with radiation.

  5. Gibberellin biosynthesis and signal transduction is essential for internode elongation in deepwater rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayano, Madoka; Kani, Takahiro; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kitaoka, Takuya; Kuroha, Takeshi; Angeles-Shim, Rosalyn B; Kitano, Hidemi; Nagai, Keisuke; Ashikari, Motoyuki

    2014-10-01

    Under flooded conditions, the leaves and internodes of deepwater rice can elongate above the water surface to capture oxygen and prevent drowning. Our previous studies showed that three major quantitative trait loci (QTL) regulate deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. In this study, we investigated the age-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. We also investigated the relationship between deepwater-dependent internode elongation and the phytohormone gibberellin (GA) by physiological and genetic approach using a QTL pyramiding line (NIL-1 + 3 + 12). Deepwater rice did not show internode elongation before the sixth leaf stage under deepwater condition. Additionally, deepwater-dependent internode elongation occurred on the sixth and seventh internodes during the sixth leaf stage. These results indicate that deepwater rice could not start internode elongation until the sixth leaf stage. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the phytohormone contents showed a deepwater-dependent GA1 and GA4 accumulation in deepwater rice. Additionally, a GA inhibitor abolished deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. On the contrary, GA feeding mimicked internode elongation under ordinary growth conditions. However, mutations in GA biosynthesis and signal transduction genes blocked deepwater-dependent internode elongation. These data suggested that GA biosynthesis and signal transduction are essential for deepwater-dependent internode elongation in deepwater rice. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cell signaling during Trypanosoma cruzi invasion

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    Fernando Yukio Maeda

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell signaling is an essential requirement for mammalian cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi. Depending on the parasite strain and the parasite developmental form, distinct signaling pathways may be induced. In this short review, we focus on the data coming from studies with metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT generated in vitro and tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (TCT, used as counterparts of insect-borne and bloodstream parasites respectively. During invasion of host cells by MT or TCT, intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and host cell lysosomal exocytosis are triggered. Invasion mediated by MT surface molecule gp82 requires the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K and protein kinase C (PKC in the host cell, associated with Ca2+-dependent disruption of the actin cytoskeleton. In MT, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK, PI3K, phospholipase C (PLC and PKC appear to be activated. TCT invasion, on the other hand, does not rely on mTOR activation, rather on target cell PI3K, and may involve the host cell autophagy for parasite internalization. Enzymes, such oligopeptidase B and the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase cruzipain, have been shown to generate molecules that induce target cell Ca2+ signal. In addition, TCT may trigger host cell responses mediated by TGF-β receptor or integrin family member. Further investigations are needed for a more complete and detailed picture of T. cruzi invasion.

  7. Comparative proteomic analysis to dissect differences in signal transduction in activating TSH receptor mutations in the thyroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Kerstin; Boisnard, Alexandra; Ihling, Christian; Ludgate, Marian; Eszlinger, Markus; Krohn, Knut; Sinz, Andrea; Fuhrer, Dagmar

    2012-02-01

    In the thyroid, cAMP controls both thyroid growth and function. Gain-of-function mutations in the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) lead to constitutive cAMP formation and are a major cause of autonomous thyroid adenomas. The impact of activating TSHR mutations on the signal transduction network of the thyrocyte is not fully understood. To gain more insights into constitutive TSHR signaling, rat thyrocytes (FRTL-5 cells) with stable expression of three activating TSHR mutants (mutTSHR: A623I, L629F and Del613-621), which differ in their functional characteristics in vitro, were analyzed by a quantitative proteomic approach and compared to the wild-type TSHR (WT-TSHR). This study revealed (1) differences in the expression of Rab proteins suggesting an increased TSHR internalization in mutTSHR but not in the WT-TSHR; (2) differential stimulation of PI3K/Akt signaling in mutTSHR vs. WT-TSHR cells, (3) activation of Epac, impairing short-time Akt phosphorylation in both, mutTSHR and WT-TSHR cells. Based on the analysis of global changes in protein expression patterns, our findings underline the complexity of gain-of-function TSHR signaling in thyrocytes, which extends beyond pure cAMP and/or IP formation. Moreover, evidence for augmented endocytosis in the mutTSHR, adds to a new concept of TSHR signaling in thyroid autonomy. Further studies are required to clarify whether the observed differences in Rab, PI3K and Epac signaling may contribute to differences in the phenotypic presentation, i.e. stimulation of function and growth of thyroid autonomy in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Control of endothelial cell tube formation by Notch ligand intracellular domain interactions with activator protein 1 (AP-1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forghany, Zary; Robertson, Francesca; Lundby, Alicia

    2018-01-01

    Notch signaling is a ubiquitous signal transduction pathway found in most if not all metazoan cell types characterized to date. It is indispensable for cell differentiation as well as tissue growth, tissue remodelling and apoptosis. Although the canonical Notch signaling pathway is well character...

  9. Systems Perturbation Analysis of a Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates for Cancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Allen, Laura; Hochfelder, Colleen; Majumder, Mahbubul; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model’s components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components based on the magnitude of their influence on the rest of the system. Based on the premise that the most influential components might serve as better drug targets, we characterized them for biological functions, housekeeping genes, essential genes, and druggable proteins. The most influential components under all environmental conditions were enriched with several biological processes. The inositol pathway was found as most influential under inactivating perturbations, whereas the kinase and small lung cancer pathways were identified as the most influential under activating perturbations. The most influential components were enriched with essential genes and druggable proteins. Moreover, known cancer drug targets were also classified in influential components based on the affected components in the network. Additionally, the systemic perturbation analysis of the model revealed a network motif of most influential components which affect each other. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel combinations of cancer drug targets with various effects on other most influential components. We found that the combinatorial perturbation consisting of PI3K inactivation and overactivation of IP3R1 can lead to increased activity levels of apoptosis

  10. MUC1 (CD227) interacts with lck tyrosine kinase in Jurkat lymphoma cells and normal T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P; Tinder, T L; Basu, G D; Gendler, S J

    2005-01-01

    MUC1 (CD227) is a large transmembrane epithelial mucin glycoprotein, which is aberrantly overexpressed in most adenocarcinomas and is a target for immune therapy for epithelial tumors. Recently, MUC1 has been detected in a variety of hematopoietic cell malignancies including T and B cell lymphomas and myelomas; however, its function in these cells is not clearly defined. Using the Jurkat T cell lymphoma cell line and normal human T cells, we demonstrate that MUC1 is not only expressed in these cells but is also phosphorylated upon T cell receptor (TCR) ligation and associates with the Src-related T cell tyrosine kinase, p56lck. Upon TCR-mediated activation of Jurkat cells, MUC1 is found in the low-density membrane fractions, where linker of T cell activation is contained. Abrogation of MUC1 expression in Jurkat cells by MUC1-specific small interfering RNA resulted in defects in TCR-mediated downstream signaling events associated with T cell activation. These include reduction in Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, leading to a decrease in CD69 expression, proliferation, and interleukin-2 production. These results suggest a regulatory role of MUC1 in modulating proximal signal transduction events through its interaction with proteins of the activation complex.

  11. Identification of bovine leukemia virus tax function associated with host cell transcription, signaling, stress response and immune response pathway by microarray-based gene expression analysis

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    Arainga Mariluz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV is associated with enzootic bovine leukosis and is closely related to human T-cell leukemia virus type I. The Tax protein of BLV is a transcriptional activator of viral replication and a key contributor to oncogenic potential. We previously identified interesting mutant forms of Tax with elevated (TaxD247G or reduced (TaxS240P transactivation effects on BLV replication and propagation. However, the effects of these mutations on functions other than transcriptional activation are unknown. In this study, to identify genes that play a role in the cascade of signal events regulated by wild-type and mutant Tax proteins, we used a large-scale host cell gene-profiling approach. Results Using a microarray containing approximately 18,400 human mRNA transcripts, we found several alterations after the expression of Tax proteins in genes involved in many cellular functions such as transcription, signal transduction, cell growth, apoptosis, stress response, and immune response, indicating that Tax protein has multiple biological effects on various cellular environments. We also found that TaxD247G strongly regulated more genes involved in transcription, signal transduction, and cell growth functions, contrary to TaxS240P, which regulated fewer genes. In addition, the expression of genes related to stress response significantly increased in the presence of TaxS240P as compared to wild-type Tax and TaxD247G. By contrast, the largest group of downregulated genes was related to immune response, and the majority of these genes belonged to the interferon family. However, no significant difference in the expression level of downregulated genes was observed among the Tax proteins. Finally, the expression of important cellular factors obtained from the human microarray results were validated at the RNA and protein levels by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blotting

  12. DNA Synthesis during Endomitosis Is Stimulated by Insulin via the PI3K/Akt and TOR Signaling Pathways in the Silk Gland Cells of Bombyx mori

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    Yaofeng Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Silk gland cells undergo multiple endomitotic cell cycles during silkworm larval ontogeny. Our previous study demonstrated that feeding is required for continued endomitosis in the silk gland cells of silkworm larvae. Furthermore, the insulin signaling pathway is closely related to nutritional signals. To investigate whether the insulin signaling pathway is involved in endomitosis in silk gland cells, in this study, we initially analyzed the effects of bovine insulin on DNA synthesis in endomitotic silk gland cells using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU labeling technology, and found that bovine insulin can stimulate DNA synthesis. Insulin signal transduction is mainly mediated via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt, the target of rapamycin (TOR and the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK pathways in vertebrates. We ascertained that these three pathways are involved in DNA synthesis in endomitotic silk gland cells using specific inhibitors against each pathway. Moreover, we investigated whether these three pathways are involved in insulin-stimulated DNA synthesis in endomitotic silk gland cells, and found that the PI3K/Akt and TOR pathways, but not the ERK pathway, are involved in this process. These results provide an important theoretical foundation for the further investigations of the mechanism underlying efficient endomitosis in silk gland cells.

  13. The Androgen Receptor Bridges Stem Cell-Associated Signaling Nodes in Prostate Stem Cells

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    Alastair H. Davies

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic potential of stem cells relies on dissecting the complex signaling networks that are thought to regulate their pluripotency and self-renewal. Until recently, attention has focused almost exclusively on a small set of “core” transcription factors for maintaining the stem cell state. It is now clear that stem cell regulatory networks are far more complex. In this review, we examine the role of the androgen receptor (AR in coordinating interactions between signaling nodes that govern the balance of cell fate decisions in prostate stem cells.

  14. CD70 reverse signaling enhances NK cell function and immunosurveillance in CD27-expressing B-cell malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sayed, Mohamad F; Ruckstuhl, Carla A; Hilmenyuk, Tamara; Claus, Christina; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Bornhauser, Beat C; Radpour, Ramin; Riether, Carsten; Ochsenbein, Adrian F

    2017-07-20

    The interaction of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) CD27 with its ligand CD70 is an emerging target to treat cancer. CD27 signaling provides costimulatory signals to cytotoxic T cells but also increases the frequency of regulatory T cells. Similar to other TNFR ligands, CD70 has been shown to initiate intracellular signaling pathways (CD70 reverse signaling). CD27 is expressed on a majority of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but its role in the immune control of lymphoma and leukemia is unknown. We therefore generated a cytoplasmic deletion mutant of CD27 (CD27-trunc) to study the role of CD70 reverse signaling in the immunosurveillance of B-cell malignancies in vivo. Expression of CD27-trunc on malignant cells increased the number of tumor-infiltrating interferon γ-producing natural killer (NK) cells. In contrast, the antitumoral T-cell response remained largely unchanged. CD70 reverse signaling in NK cells was mediated via the AKT signaling pathway and increased NK cell survival and effector function. The improved immune control by activated NK cells prolonged survival of CD27-trunc-expressing lymphoma-bearing mice. Finally, CD70 reverse signaling enhanced survival and effector function of human NK cells in a B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenotransplants model. Therefore, CD70 reverse signaling in NK cells contributes to the immune control of CD27-expressing B-cell lymphoma and leukemia. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. What do we really know about 5-HT1A receptor signaling in neuronal cells?

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    JENNY LUCY FIEDLER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Serotonin (5-HT is a neurotransmitter that plays an important role in neuronal plasticity. Variations in the levels of 5-HT at the synaptic cleft, expression or dysfunction of serotonin receptors may alter brain development and predispose to various mental diseases. Here, we review the transduction pathways described in various cell types transfected with recombinant 5-HT1A receptor (5-HT1AR, specially contrasting with those findings obtained in neuronal cells. The 5-HT1AR is detected in early stages of neural development and is located in the soma, dendrites and spines of hippocampal neurons. The 5-HT1AR differs from other serotonin receptors because it is coupled to different pathways, depending on the targeted cell. The signaling pathway associated with this receptor is determined by Gα isoforms and some cascades involve βγ signaling. The activity of 5-HT1AR usually promotes a reduction in neuronal excitability and firing, provokes a variation in cAMP and Ca2+, levels which may be linked to specific types of behavior and cognition. Furthermore, evidence indicates that 5-HT1AR induces neuritogesis and synapse formation, probably by modulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton through MAPK and PI3K-Akt signaling pathways. Advances in understanding the actions of 5-HT1AR and its association with different signaling pathways in the central nervous system will reveal their pivotal role in health and disease.

  16. Mitochondrial regulation of cell death: a phylogenetically conserved control

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    Lorenzo Galluzzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are fundamental for eukaryotic cells as they participate in critical catabolic and anabolic pathways. Moreover, mitochondria play a key role in the signal transduction cascades that precipitate many (but not all regulated variants of cellular demise. In this short review, we discuss the differential implication of mitochondria in the major forms of regulated cell death.

  17. Dopamine receptors modulate cytotoxicity of natural killer cells via cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway.

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    Wei Zhao

    Full Text Available Dopamine (DA, a neurotransmitter in the nervous system, has been shown to modulate immune function. We have previously reported that five subtypes of DA receptors, including D1R, D2R, D3R, D4R and D5R, are expressed in T lymphocytes and they are involved in regulation of T cells. However, roles of these DA receptor subtypes and their coupled signal-transduction pathway in modulation of natural killer (NK cells still remain to be clarified. The spleen of mice was harvested and NK cells were isolated and purified by negative selection using magnetic activated cell sorting. After NK cells were incubated with various drugs for 4 h, flow cytometry measured cytotoxicity of NK cells against YAC-1 lymphoma cells. NK cells expressed the five subtypes of DA receptors at mRNA and protein levels. Activation of D1-like receptors (including D1R and D5R with agonist SKF38393 enhanced NK cell cytotoxicity, but activation of D2-like receptors (including D2R, D3R and D4R with agonist quinpirole attenuated NK cells. Simultaneously, SKF38393 elevated D1R and D5R expression, cAMP content, and phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding (CREB level in NK cells, while quinpirole reduced D3R and D4R expression, cAMP content, and phosphorylated CREB level in NK cells. These effects of SKF38393 were blocked by SCH23390, an antagonist of D1-like receptors, and quinpirole effects were abolished by haloperidol, an antagonist of D2-like receptors. In support these results, H89, an inhibitor of phosphokinase A (PKA, prevented the SKF38393-dependent enhancement of NK cells and forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase (AC, counteracted the quinpirole-dependent suppression of NK cells. These findings show that DA receptor subtypes are involved in modulation of NK cells and suggest that D1-like receptors facilitate NK cells by stimulating D1R/D5R-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway and D2-like receptors suppress NK cells by inhibiting D3R/D4R-cAMP-PKA-CREB signaling pathway. The

  18. Effects of liver depression and psychological stress on human uterine leiomyoma cells by an AR-cAMP-PKA signal transduction pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Tian; Li, Shuang; Ma, Ruihong; Guan, Sufen; Li, Jiacui; Li, Hongqin; Zhang, Hexin; Lin, Qiu; Zhao, Zhimei; Wang, Baojuan

    2017-06-01

    Based on the emotional theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and combined with the modern medicine theory of psychological stress, a research model of human uterine leiomyoma cells (ULM) was cultured in vitro to determine the effectiveness of adrenergic receptor (AR) agonists in human ULM cell growth. In addition, we studied the functional influence of "liver depression and psychological stress theory" on fibroid formation by intervening in the AR-cAMP-PKA signaling pathway. The intention was to establish a new method to prevent and cure fibroids through "liver depression and psychological stress theory" and provide an experimental basis for the Traditional Chinese Medicine emotional theory. Primary human ULM cells were enriched by collagenase digestion. Immunohistochemistry and hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining were used for cytological identification. Using this model, we studied intervention using specific AR agonists on ULM cells to observe the influence of "liver depression and psychological stress theory" on estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factors (FGF). Norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) are adrenergic receptor agonists. They promoted ULM cell proliferation and increased the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF. In contrast, isoproterenol (ISO) inhibited ULM cell proliferation and decreased the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF. The protein expression of cAMP and PKA in ULM cells was reduced and the levels of ER, PR, VEGF and FGF were increased when co-treatment with the α-AR blocker (phentolamine). The β-AR blocker (metoprolol) displayed an opposite effect. AR agonists modulated ER, PR, VEGF and FGF levels in ULM cells in an AR-cAMP-PKA-dependent signaling pathways to influence fibroid occurrence and development. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Multifaceted effects of oligodendroglial exosomes on neurons: impact on neuronal firing rate, signal transduction and gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Kuo, Wen Ping; Frühbeis, Carsten; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Zehendner, Christoph M; Luhmann, Heiko J; Pinto, Sheena; Toedling, Joern; Trotter, Jacqueline; Krämer-Albers, Eva-Maria

    2014-09-26

    Exosomes are small membranous vesicles of endocytic origin that are released by almost every cell type. They exert versatile functions in intercellular communication important for many physiological and pathological processes. Recently, exosomes attracted interest with regard to their role in cell-cell communication in the nervous system. We have shown that exosomes released from oligodendrocytes upon stimulation with the neurotransmitter glutamate are internalized by neurons and enhance the neuronal stress tolerance. Here, we demonstrate that oligodendroglial exosomes also promote neuronal survival during oxygen-glucose deprivation, a model of cerebral ischaemia. We show the transfer from oligodendrocytes to neurons of superoxide dismutase and catalase, enzymes which are known to help cells to resist oxidative stress. Additionally, we identify various effects of oligodendroglial exosomes on neuronal physiology. Electrophysiological analysis using in vitro multi-electrode arrays revealed an increased firing rate of neurons exposed to oligodendroglial exosomes. Moreover, gene expression analysis and phosphorylation arrays uncovered differentially expressed genes and altered signal transduction pathways in neurons after exosome treatment. Our study thus provides new insight into the broad spectrum of action of oligodendroglial exosomes and their effects on neuronal physiology. The exchange of extracellular vesicles between neural cells may exhibit remarkable potential to impact brain performance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanically Gated Ion Channels in Mammalian Hair Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xufeng Qiu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Hair cells in the inner ear convert mechanical stimuli provided by sound waves and head movements into electrical signal. Several mechanically evoked ionic currents with different properties have been recorded in hair cells. The search for the proteins that form the underlying ion channels is still in progress. The mechanoelectrical transduction (MET channel near the tips of stereociliary in hair cells, which is responsible for sensory transduction, has been studied most extensively. Several components of the sensory mechanotransduction machinery in stereocilia have been identified, including the multi-transmembrane proteins tetraspan membrane protein in hair cell stereocilia (TMHS/LHFPL5, transmembrane inner ear (TMIE and transmembrane channel-like proteins 1 and 2 (TMC1/2. However, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding the molecules that form the channel pore. In addition to the sensory MET channel, hair cells express the mechanically gated ion channel PIEZO2, which is localized near the base of stereocilia and not essential for sensory transduction. The function of PIEZO2 in hair cells is not entirely clear but it might have a role in damage sensing and repair processes. Additional stretch-activated channels of unknown molecular identity and function have been found to localize at the basolateral membrane of hair cells. Here, we review current knowledge regarding the different mechanically gated ion channels in hair cells and discuss open questions concerning their molecular composition and function.

  1. BMP signaling regulates satellite cell-dependent postnatal muscle growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stantzou, Amalia; Schirwis, Elija; Swist, Sandra; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Polydorou, Ioanna; Zarrouki, Faouzi; Mouisel, Etienne; Beley, Cyriaque; Julien, Anaïs; Le Grand, Fabien; Garcia, Luis; Colnot, Céline; Birchmeier, Carmen; Braun, Thomas; Schuelke, Markus; Relaix, Frédéric; Amthor, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Postnatal growth of skeletal muscle largely depends on the expansion and differentiation of resident stem cells, the so-called satellite cells. Here, we demonstrate that postnatal satellite cells express components of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling machinery. Overexpression of noggin in postnatal mice (to antagonize BMP ligands), satellite cell-specific knockout of Alk3 (the gene encoding the BMP transmembrane receptor) or overexpression of inhibitory SMAD6 decreased satellite cell proliferation and accretion during myofiber growth, and ultimately retarded muscle growth. Moreover, reduced BMP signaling diminished the adult satellite cell pool. Abrogation of BMP signaling in satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts strongly diminished cell proliferation and upregulated the expression of cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p57 In conclusion, these results show that BMP signaling defines postnatal muscle development by regulating satellite cell-dependent myofiber growth and the generation of the adult muscle stem cell pool. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Normal chemotaxis in Dictyostelium discoideum cells with a depolarized plasma membrane potential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijn, Bert van; Vogelzang, Sake A.; Ypey, Dirk L.; Molen, Loek G. van der; Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1990-01-01

    We examined a possible role for the plasma membrane potential in signal transduction during cyclic AMP-induced chemotaxis in the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Chemotaxis, cyclic GMP and cyclic AMP responses in cells with a depolarized membrane potential were measured. Cells can be

  3. Stem cell signaling. An integral program for tissue renewal and regeneration : Wnt signaling and stem cell control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, Hans; Loh, Kyle M; Nusse, Roel

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells fuel tissue development, renewal, and regeneration, and these activities are controlled by the local stem cell microenvironment, the "niche." Wnt signals emanating from the niche can act as self-renewal factors for stem cells in multiple mammalian tissues. Wnt proteins are lipid-modified,

  4. Nrf2 regulates cellular behaviors and Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Paiboonrungruan, Chorlada; Zhang, Xinyan; Prigge, Justin R; Schmidt, Edward E; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2017-11-04

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have demonstrated that activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has chemopreventive effects against oxidative stress-associated OSCC. However, Nrf2 have dual roles in cancer development; while it prevents carcinogenesis of normal cells, hyperactive Nrf2 also promotes the survival of cancer cells. This study is aimed to understand the function of Nrf2 in regulating cellular behaviors of OSCC cells, and the potential mechanisms through which Nrf2 facilitates OSCC. We established the Nrf2-overexpressing and Nrf2-knockdown OSCC cell lines, and examined the function of Nrf2 in regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and colony formation. Our data showed that Nrf2 overexpression promoted cancer phenotypes in OSCC cells, whereas Nrf2 silencing inhibited these phenotypes. In addition, Nrf2 positively regulated Notch signaling pathway in OSCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this observation, Nrf2 activation in Keap1 -/- mice resulted in not only hyperproliferation of squamous epithelial cells in mouse tongue as evidenced by increased expression of PCNA, but also activation of Notch signaling in these cells as evidenced by increased expression of NICD1 and Hes1. In conclusion, Nrf2 regulates cancer behaviors and Notch signaling in OSCC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Mitogen activated protein kinase signaling in the kidney: Target for intervention?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Borst, M.H.; Wassef, L.; Kelly, D.J.; van Goor, H.; Navis, Ger Jan

    2006-01-01

    Mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are intracellular signal transduction molecules, which connect cell-surface receptor signals to intracellular processes. MAPKs regulate a range of cellular activities including cell proliferation, gene expression, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cytokine

  6. Cytokine signalling in embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Kalisz, Mark; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2006-01-01

    Cytokines play a central role in maintaining self-renewal in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells through a member of the interleukin-6 type cytokine family termed leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). LIF activates the JAK-STAT3 pathway through the class I cytokine receptor gp130, which forms a trimeric...... pathways seem to converge on c-myc as a common target to promote self-renewal. Whereas LIF does not seem to stimulate self-renewal in human embryonic stem cells it cannot be excluded that other cytokines are involved. The pleiotropic actions of the increasing number of cytokines and receptors signalling...... via JAKs, STATs and SOCS exhibit considerable redundancy, compensation and plasticity in stem cells in accordance with the view that stem cells are governed by quantitative variations in strength and duration of signalling events known from other cell types rather than qualitatively different stem...

  7. TGF-β Signaling Regulates Pancreatic β-Cell Proliferation through Control of Cell Cycle Regulator p27 Expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Dai, Ping; Hatakeyama, Tomoya; Harada, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hideo; Yoshimura, Norio; Takamatsu, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Proliferation of pancreatic β-cells is an important mechanism underlying β-cell mass adaptation to metabolic demands. Increasing β-cell mass by regeneration may ameliorate or correct both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, which both result from inadequate production of insulin by β-cells of the pancreatic islet. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling is essential for fetal development and growth of pancreatic islets. In this study, we exposed HIT-T15, a clonal pancreatic β-cell line, to TGF-β signaling. We found that inhibition of TGF-β signaling promotes proliferation of the cells significantly, while TGF-β signaling stimulation inhibits proliferation of the cells remarkably. We confirmed that this proliferative regulation by TGF-β signaling is due to the changed expression of the cell cycle regulator p27. Furthermore, we demonstrated that there is no observed effect on transcriptional activity of p27 by TGF-β signaling. Our data show that TGF-β signaling mediates the cell-cycle progression of pancreatic β-cells by regulating the nuclear localization of CDK inhibitor, p27. Inhibition of TGF-β signaling reduces the nuclear accumulation of p27, and as a result this inhibition promotes proliferation of β-cells

  8. Integrating physiological regulation with stem cell and tissue homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada, Daisuke; Levi, Boaz P.; Morrison, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Stem cells are uniquely able to self-renew, to undergo multilineage differentiation, and to persist throughout life in a number of tissues. Stem cells are regulated by a combination of shared and tissue-specific mechanisms and are distinguished from restricted progenitors by differences in transcriptional and epigenetic regulation. Emerging evidence suggests that other aspects of cellular physiology, including mitosis, signal transduction, and metabolic regulation also differ between stem cells and their progeny. These differences may allow stem cells to be regulated independently of differentiated cells in response to circadian rhythms, changes in metabolism, diet, exercise, mating, aging, infection, and disease. This allows stem cells to sustain homeostasis or to remodel relevant tissues in response to physiological change. Stem cells are therefore not only regulated by short-range signals that maintain homeostasis within their tissue of origin, but also by long-range signals that integrate stem cell function with systemic physiology. PMID:21609826

  9. Morin ameliorates chemically induced liver fibrosis in vivo and inhibits stellate cell proliferation in vitro by suppressing Wnt/β-catenin signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MadanKumar, Perumal; NaveenKumar, Perumal; Manikandan, Samidurai [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); Devaraj, Halagowder [Department of Zoology, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India); NiranjaliDevaraj, Sivasithamparam, E-mail: niranjali@yahoo.com [Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, Guindy Campus, Chennai 600 025, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-06-01

    The anti-fibrotic effect of morin was examined in LX-2 cells (culture-activated human hepatic stellate cells) and in diethylnitrosamine induced rat model of liver fibrosis. The in vitro study was designed to determine whether morin affects the survival of cultured LX-2 cells, while the in vivo study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and anti-fibrotic efficacy of morin on diethylnitrosamine induced liver fibrosis in male albino Wistar rat. The activities of liver function enzymes in serum, liver lipid peroxide levels, activities of serum antioxidant enzymes and liver architecture were monitored to cast light on the antioxidant and hepatoprotective nature of morin. To establish the anti-fibrotic effects of morin, the levels of key Wnt signaling molecules which are strongly associated with the signal transduction pathway of HSC activation were measured. Overall, from the in vitro results, it was observed that morin at 50 μM concentration inhibited the proliferation of cultured LX-2 cells, inhibited Wnt signaling and induced G1 cell cycle arrest. The in vivo results further confirmed that morin by downregulating the expressions of GSK-3β, β-catenin and cyclin D1 ameliorated DEN-induced liver fibrosis. Hence morin could be employed as a promising chemopreventive natural supplement for liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • In vivo and in vitro results revealed the active participation of Wnt signaling. • Morin at 50 μM inhibited LX-2 cell proliferation by suppressing Wnt signaling. • Morin exhibited hepatoprotective effects against DEN induced liver fibrosis. • Morin inhibited HSC activation in vivo by downregulating Wnt/β-catenin signaling.

  10. An agent-based model of signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameson Miller

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We report the application of agent-based modeling to examine the signal transduction network and receptor arrays for chemotaxis in Escherichia coli, which are responsible for regulating swimming behavior in response to environmental stimuli. Agent-based modeling is a stochastic and bottom-up approach, where individual components of the modeled system are explicitly represented, and bulk properties emerge from their movement and interactions. We present the Chemoscape model: a collection of agents representing both fixed membrane-embedded and mobile cytoplasmic proteins, each governed by a set of rules representing knowledge or hypotheses about their function. When the agents were placed in a simulated cellular space and then allowed to move and interact stochastically, the model exhibited many properties similar to the biological system including adaptation, high signal gain, and wide dynamic range. We found the agent based modeling approach to be both powerful and intuitive for testing hypotheses about biological properties such as self-assembly, the non-linear dynamics that occur through cooperative protein interactions, and non-uniform distributions of proteins in the cell. We applied the model to explore the role of receptor type, geometry and cooperativity in the signal gain and dynamic range of the chemotactic response to environmental stimuli. The model provided substantial qualitative evidence that the dynamic range of chemotactic response can be traced to both the heterogeneity of receptor types present, and the modulation of their cooperativity by their methylation state.

  11. An agent-based model of signal transduction in bacterial chemotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jameson; Parker, Miles; Bourret, Robert B; Giddings, Morgan C

    2010-05-13

    We report the application of agent-based modeling to examine the signal transduction network and receptor arrays for chemotaxis in Escherichia coli, which are responsible for regulating swimming behavior in response to environmental stimuli. Agent-based modeling is a stochastic and bottom-up approach, where individual components of the modeled system are explicitly represented, and bulk properties emerge from their movement and interactions. We present the Chemoscape model: a collection of agents representing both fixed membrane-embedded and mobile cytoplasmic proteins, each governed by a set of rules representing knowledge or hypotheses about their function. When the agents were placed in a simulated cellular space and then allowed to move and interact stochastically, the model exhibited many properties similar to the biological system including adaptation, high signal gain, and wide dynamic range. We found the agent based modeling approach to be both powerful and intuitive for testing hypotheses about biological properties such as self-assembly, the non-linear dynamics that occur through cooperative protein interactions, and non-uniform distributions of proteins in the cell. We applied the model to explore the role of receptor type, geometry and cooperativity in the signal gain and dynamic range of the chemotactic response to environmental stimuli. The model provided substantial qualitative evidence that the dynamic range of chemotactic response can be traced to both the heterogeneity of receptor types present, and the modulation of their cooperativity by their methylation state.

  12. Diverse phosphorylation patterns of B cell receptor-associated signaling in naïve and memory human B cells revealed by phosphoflow, a powerful technique to study signaling at the single cell level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin R Toapanta

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Following interaction with cognate antigens, B cells undergo cell activation, proliferation and differentiation. Ligation of the B cell receptor (BCR leads to the phosphorylation of BCR-associated signaling proteins within minutes of antigen binding, a process with profound consequences for the fate of the cells and development of effector immunity. Phosphoflow allows a rapid evaluation of various signaling pathways in complex heterogenous cell subsets. This novel technique was used in combination with multi-chromatic flow cytometry and fluorescent-cell barcoding to study phosphorylation of BCR-associated signaling pathways in naïve and memory human B cell subsets. Proteins of the initiation (Syk, propagation (Btk, Akt and integration (p38MAPK and Erk1/2 signaling units were studied. Switched memory (Sm CD27+ and Sm CD27- phosphorylation patterns were similar when stimulated with anti-IgA or -IgG. In contrast, naïve and unswitched memory (Um cells showed significant differences following IgM stimulation. Enhanced phosphorylation of Syk was observed in Um cells, suggesting a lower activation threshold. This is likely the result of higher amounts of IgM on the cell surface, higher pan-Syk levels and enhanced susceptibility to phosphatase inhibition. All other signaling proteins evaluated also showed some degree of enhanced phosphorylation in Um cells. Furthermore, both the PLC-γ2 and PI3K pathways were activated in Um cells, while only the PI3K pathway was activated on naïve cells. Um cells were the only ones that activated signaling pathways when stimulated with fluorescently-labeled S. Typhi and S. pneumoniae. Finally, simultaneous evaluation of signaling proteins at the single cell level (multi-phosphorylated cells revealed that interaction with gram positive and negative bacteria resulted in complex and diverse signaling patterns. Phosphoflow holds great potential to accelerate vaccine development by identifying signaling profiles in good

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons stimulate cell proliferation of human breast cancer MCF-7 cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Jan; Plíšková, M.; Vojtěšek, B.; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, M.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 270, Suppl. 1 (2003), s. 127 ISSN 0014-2956. [FEBS Special Meeting 2003 on Signal Transduction. 03.07.2003-08.07.2003, Brussels] R&D Projects: GA ČR GP525/01/D076; GA ČR GA525/03/1527 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : cell proliferation * estrogen receptor * p53 Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  14. Vitamin D controls T cell antigen receptor signaling and activation of human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina Rode; Kongsbak-Wismann, Martin; Schjerling, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Phospholipase C (PLC) isozymes are key signaling proteins downstream of many extracellular stimuli. Here we show that naive human T cells had very low expression of PLC-gamma1 and that this correlated with low T cell antigen receptor (TCR) responsiveness in naive T cells. However, TCR triggering...... led to an upregulation of approximately 75-fold in PLC-gamma1 expression, which correlated with greater TCR responsiveness. Induction of PLC-gamma1 was dependent on vitamin D and expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Naive T cells did not express VDR, but VDR expression was induced by TCR...... signaling via the alternative mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 pathway. Thus, initial TCR signaling via p38 leads to successive induction of VDR and PLC-gamma1, which are required for subsequent classical TCR signaling and T cell activation....

  15. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu; Hu, Honghong; Ries, Amber; Merilo, Ebe; Kollist, Hannes; Schroeder, Julian I

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  16. Central functions of bicarbonate in S-type anion channel activation and OST1 protein kinase in CO 2 signal transduction in guard cell

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Shaowu

    2011-03-18

    Plants respond to elevated CO(2) via carbonic anhydrases that mediate stomatal closing, but little is known about the early signalling mechanisms following the initial CO(2) response. It remains unclear whether CO(2), HCO(3)(-) or a combination activates downstream signalling. Here, we demonstrate that bicarbonate functions as a small-molecule activator of SLAC1 anion channels in guard cells. Elevated intracellular [HCO(3)(-)](i) with low [CO(2)] and [H(+)] activated S-type anion currents, whereas low [HCO(3)(-)](i) at high [CO(2)] and [H(+)] did not. Bicarbonate enhanced the intracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation in wild-type and ht1-2 kinase mutant guard cells. ht1-2 mutant guard cells exhibited enhanced bicarbonate sensitivity of S-type anion channel activation. The OST1 protein kinase has been reported not to affect CO(2) signalling. Unexpectedly, OST1 loss-of-function alleles showed strongly impaired CO(2)-induced stomatal closing and HCO(3)(-) activation of anion channels. Moreover, PYR/RCAR abscisic acid (ABA) receptor mutants slowed but did not abolish CO(2)/HCO(3)(-) signalling, redefining the convergence point of CO(2) and ABA signalling. A new working model of the sequence of CO(2) signalling events in gas exchange regulation is presented.

  17. Curcumin targets fibroblast–tumor cell interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudás, József; Fullár, Alexandra; Romani, Angela; Pritz, Christian; Kovalszky, Ilona; Hans Schartinger, Volker; Mathias Sprinzl, Georg; Riechelmann, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of OSCC tumor cells. We hypothesized that Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells. Normal and 2 μM Curcumin-treated co-culture were performed for 4 days, followed by analysis of tumor cell invasivity, mRNA/protein expression of EMT-markers and mediators, activity measure of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and western blot analysis of signal transduction in tumor cells and fibroblasts. In Curcumin-treated co-culture, in tumor cells, the levels of nuclear factor κB (NFκBα) and early response kinase (ERK)—decreased, in fibroblasts, integrin αv protein synthesis decreased compared to corresponding cells in normal co-culture. The signal modulatory changes induced by Curcumin caused decreased release of EMT-mediators in CAFs and reversal of EMT in tumor cells, which was associated with decreased invasion. These data confirm the palliative potential of Curcumin in clinical application. - Graphical abstract: Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells by inhibiting the production of EMT mediators in CAFs and by modification of intracellular signaling in tumor cells. This causes less invasivity and reversal of EMT in tumor cells. Highlights: ► Curcumin targets tumor–fibroblast interaction in head and neck cancer. ► Curcumin suppresses mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. ► Curcumin decreases the invasivity of tumor cells

  18. Curcumin targets fibroblast–tumor cell interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudás, József, E-mail: jozsef.dudas@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Fullár, Alexandra, E-mail: fullarsz@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); 1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 26, 1085 Budapest (Hungary); Romani, Angela, E-mail: angela.romani@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pritz, Christian, E-mail: christian.pritz@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kovalszky, Ilona, E-mail: koval@korb1.sote.hu [1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 26, 1085 Budapest (Hungary); Hans Schartinger, Volker, E-mail: volker.schartinger@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Mathias Sprinzl, Georg, E-mail: georg.sprinzl@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Riechelmann, Herbert, E-mail: herbert.riechelmann@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-04-01

    Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of OSCC tumor cells. We hypothesized that Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells. Normal and 2 μM Curcumin-treated co-culture were performed for 4 days, followed by analysis of tumor cell invasivity, mRNA/protein expression of EMT-markers and mediators, activity measure of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and western blot analysis of signal transduction in tumor cells and fibroblasts. In Curcumin-treated co-culture, in tumor cells, the levels of nuclear factor κB (NFκBα) and early response kinase (ERK)—decreased, in fibroblasts, integrin αv protein synthesis decreased compared to corresponding cells in normal co-culture. The signal modulatory changes induced by Curcumin caused decreased release of EMT-mediators in CAFs and reversal of EMT in tumor cells, which was associated with decreased invasion. These data confirm the palliative potential of Curcumin in clinical application. - Graphical abstract: Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells by inhibiting the production of EMT mediators in CAFs and by modification of intracellular signaling in tumor cells. This causes less invasivity and reversal of EMT in tumor cells. Highlights: ► Curcumin targets tumor–fibroblast interaction in head and neck cancer. ► Curcumin suppresses mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. ► Curcumin decreases the invasivity of tumor cells.

  19. Calcium signaling properties of a thyrotroph cell line, mouse TαT1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomić, Melanija; Bargi-Souza, Paula; Leiva-Salcedo, Elias; Nunes, Maria Tereza; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-12-01

    TαT1 cells are mouse thyrotroph cell line frequently used for studies on thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit gene expression and other cellular functions. Here we have characterized calcium-signaling pathways in TαT1 cells, an issue not previously addressed in these cells and incompletely described in native thyrotrophs. TαT1 cells are excitable and fire action potentials spontaneously and in response to application of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), the native hypothalamic agonist for thyrotrophs. Spontaneous electrical activity is coupled to small amplitude fluctuations in intracellular calcium, whereas TRH stimulates both calcium mobilization from intracellular pools and calcium influx. Non-receptor-mediated depletion of intracellular pool also leads to a prominent facilitation of calcium influx. Both receptor and non-receptor stimulated calcium influx is substantially attenuated but not completely abolished by inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels, suggesting that depletion of intracellular calcium pool in these cells provides a signal for both voltage-independent and -dependent calcium influx, the latter by facilitating the pacemaking activity. These cells also express purinergic P2Y1 receptors and their activation by extracellular ATP mimics TRH action on calcium mobilization and influx. The thyroid hormone triiodothyronine prolongs duration of TRH-induced calcium spikes during 30-min exposure. These data indicate that TαT1 cells are capable of responding to natively feed-forward TRH signaling and intrapituitary ATP signaling with acute calcium mobilization and sustained calcium influx. Amplification of TRH-induced calcium signaling by triiodothyronine further suggests the existence of a pathway for positive feedback effects of thyroid hormones probably in a non-genomic manner. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. TSLP signaling pathway map: a platform for analysis of TSLP-mediated signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jun; Sharma, Jyoti; Raju, Rajesh; Palapetta, Shyam Mohan; Prasad, T S Keshava; Huang, Tai-Chung; Yoda, Akinori; Tyner, Jeffrey W; van Bodegom, Diederik; Weinstock, David M; Ziegler, Steven F; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a four-helix bundle cytokine that plays a critical role in the regulation of immune responses and in the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. TSLP signals through a heterodimeric receptor complex consisting of an interleukin-7 receptor α chain and a unique TSLP receptor (TSLPR) [also known as cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2)]. Cellular targets of TSLP include dendritic cells, B cells, mast cells, regulatory T (Treg) cells and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The TSLP/TSLPR axis can activate multiple signaling transduction pathways including the JAK/STAT pathway and the PI-3 kinase pathway. Aberrant TSLP/TSLPR signaling has been associated with a variety of human diseases including asthma, atopic dermatitis, nasal polyposis, inflammatory bowel disease, eosinophilic eosophagitis and, most recently, acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A centralized resource of the TSLP signaling pathway cataloging signaling events is not yet available. In this study, we present a literature-annotated resource of reactions in the TSLP signaling pathway. This pathway map is publicly available through NetPath (http://www.netpath.org/), an open access signal transduction pathway resource developed previously by our group. This map includes 236 molecules and 252 reactions that are involved in TSLP/TSLPR signaling pathway. We expect that the TSLP signaling pathway map will provide a rich resource to study the biology of this important cytokine as well as to identify novel therapeutic targets for diseases associated with dysregulated TSLP/TSLPR signaling. Database URL: http://www.netpath.org/pathways?path_id=NetPath_24.

  1. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-signaling mediates radiation-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells with loss of p53 function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Harold E.; Han, Sue J.; Kasza, Thomas; Han, Richard; Choi, Hyeong-Seon; Palmer, Kenneth C.; Kim, Hyeong-Reh C.

    1997-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) signals a diversity of cellular responses in vitro, including cell proliferation, survival, transformation, and chemotaxis. PDGF functions as a 'competence factor' to induce a set of early response genes expressed in G 1 including p21 WAF1/CIP1 , a functional mediator of the tumor suppressor gene p53 in G 1 /S checkpoint. For PDGF-stimulated cells to progress beyond G 1 and transit the cell cycle completely, progression factors in serum such as insulin and IGF-1 are required. We have recently shown a novel role of PDGF in inducing apoptosis in growth-arrested murine fibroblasts. The PDGF-induced apoptosis is rescued by insulin, suggesting that G 1 /S checkpoint is a critical determinant for PDGF-induced apoptosis. Because recent studies suggest that radiation-induced signal transduction pathways interact with growth factor-mediated signaling pathways, we have investigated whether activation of the PDGF-signaling facilitates the radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of functional p53. For this study we have used the 125-IL cell line, a mutant p53-containing, highly metastatic, and hormone-unresponsive human prostate carcinoma cell line. PDGF signaling is constitutively activated by transfection with a p28 v-sis expression vector, which was previously shown to activate PDGF α- and β- receptors. Although the basal level of p21 WAF1/CIP1 expression and radiation-induced apoptosis were not detectable in control 125-IL cells as would be predicted in mutant p53-containing cells, activation of PDGF-signaling induced expression of p21 WAF1/CIP1 and radiation-induced apoptosis. Our study suggests that the level of 'competence' growth factors including PDGF may be one of the critical determinants for radiation-induced apoptosis, especially in cells with loss of p53 function at the site of radiotherapy in vivo

  2. Information theory and signal transduction systems: from molecular information processing to network inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, Siobhan S; Sim, Aaron; Filippi, Sarah; Johnson, Robert; Liepe, Juliane; Smith, Dominic; Stumpf, Michael P H

    2014-11-01

    Sensing and responding to the environment are two essential functions that all biological organisms need to master for survival and successful reproduction. Developmental processes are marshalled by a diverse set of signalling and control systems, ranging from systems with simple chemical inputs and outputs to complex molecular and cellular networks with non-linear dynamics. Information theory provides a powerful and convenient framework in which such systems can be studied; but it also provides the means to reconstruct the structure and dynamics of molecular interaction networks underlying physiological and developmental processes. Here we supply a brief description of its basic concepts and introduce some useful tools for systems and developmental biologists. Along with a brief but thorough theoretical primer, we demonstrate the wide applicability and biological application-specific nuances by way of different illustrative vignettes. In particular, we focus on the characterisation of biological information processing efficiency, examining cell-fate decision making processes, gene regulatory network reconstruction, and efficient signal transduction experimental design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Gongming [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Shen, Nan [Department of Clinical Pharmacy, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China); Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Nong, Luming, E-mail: lumingnong@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Changzhou No. 2 Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Changzhou 213003 (China); Ren, Kewei, E-mail: keweiren@hotmail.com [Department of Orthopedics, The Affiliated Jiangyin Hospital of Southeast University Medical School, Jiangyin 214400 (China)

    2016-01-15

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  4. Periodic mechanical stress activates EGFR-dependent Rac1 mitogenic signals in rat nucleus pulpous cells via ERK1/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Gongming; Shen, Nan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Huiqing; Xu, Nanwei; Zhou, Dong; Nong, Luming; Ren, Kewei

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenic effects of periodic mechanical stress on nucleus pulpous cells have been studied extensively but the mechanisms whereby nucleus pulpous cells sense and respond to mechanical stimulation remain a matter of debate. We explored this question by performing cell culture experiments in our self-developed periodic stress field and perfusion culture system. Under periodic mechanical stress, rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation was significantly increased (p < 0.05 for each) and was associated with increases in the phosphorylation and activation of EGFR, Rac1, and ERK1/2 (p < 0.05 for each). Pretreatment with the ERK1/2 selective inhibitor PD98059 reduced periodic mechanical stress-induced nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each), while the activation levels of EGFR and Rac1 were not inhibited. Proliferation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 were inhibited after pretreatment with the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 in nucleus pulpous cells in response to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each), while the phosphorylation site of EGFR was not affected. Inhibition of EGFR activity with AG1478 abrogated nucleus pulpous cell proliferation (p < 0.05 for each) and attenuated Rac1 and ERK1/2 activation in nucleus pulpous cells subjected to periodic mechanical stress (p < 0.05 for each). These findings suggest that periodic mechanical stress promotes nucleus pulpous cell proliferation in part through the EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 signaling pathway, which links these three important signaling molecules into a mitogenic cascade. - Highlights: • The mechanism involved in nucleus pulpous cells to respond to mechanical stimuli. • Periodic mechanical stress can stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR. • EGFR activates Rac1 and leads to rat nucleus pulpous cell proliferation. • EGFR and Rac1 activate ERK1/2 mitogenic signals in nucleus pulpous cells. • EGFR-Rac1-ERK1/2 is constitutes at least one critical signal transduction pathway.

  5. Knockdown of human serine/threonine kinase 33 suppresses human small cell lung carcinoma by blocking RPS6/BAD signaling transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, E L; Liu, C X; Ma, Z X; Mou, X Y; Mu, X A; Ni, Y H; Li, X L; Zhang, D; Ju, Y R

    2017-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is characterized by rapid growth rate and a tendency to metastasize to distinct sites of patients' bodies. The human serine/threonine kinase 33 (STK33) gene has shown its potency as a therapeutic target for prevention of lung carcinomas including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but its function in the oncogenesis and development of SCLC remains unrevealed. In the current study, it was hypothesized that STK33 played a key role in the proliferation, survival, and invasion of SCLC cells. The expression of STK33 in human SCLC cell lines NCI-H466 and DMS153 was inhibited by specific shRNA. The cell proliferation, cell apoptosis, and cell invasion of the cells were assessed with a series of in vitro assays. To explore the mechanism through which STK33 gene exerted its function in the carcinogenesis of SCLC cells, the effect of STK33 knockdown on the activity of S6K1/RPS6/BAD signaling was detected. Then the results were further confirmed with STK33 inhibitor ML281 and in vivo assays. The results demonstrated that inhibition of STK33 in SCLC cells suppressed the cell proliferation and invasion while induced cell apoptosis. Associated with the change in the phenotypic features, knockdown of STK33 also decreased the phosphorylation of RPS6 and BAD while increased the expression of cleaved caspase 9, indicating that apoptosis induced by STK33 suppression was mediated via mitochondrial pathway. Similar to the results of STK33 knockdown, incubating NCI-H466 cells with STK33 inhibitor also reduced the cell viability by suppressing RPS6/BAD pathways. Additionally, STK33 knockdown also inhibited tumor growth and RPS6/BAD activity in mice models. Findings outlined in our study were different from that in NSCLC to some extent: knockdown of STK33 in SCLC cells induced the apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway but independent of S6K1 function, inferring that the function of STK33 might be cancer type specific.

  6. Which downstream signal transduction pathway(s) of H-ras are necessary for the cellular response(s) to ionizing radiation? (Results of an astro research fellowship year)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudoltz, Marc S.; Muschel, Ruth J.; McKenna, W. Gillies

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Background: The H-ras oncogene encodes a protein which is an essential component of multiple downstream effector pathways required for induction of proliferation and differentiation. Ras plays a role in the control some of these signal transduction pathways, such as the MAP kinase pathway which controls gene expression and the Rac-Rho pathway which controls cell morphology. Previous work from our laboratory has associated H-ras expression with radiation resistance, a prolonged delay in G2 following exposure to ionizing radiation, and suppression of radiation-induced apoptosis. In addition, H-ras cooperates with myc in transformation. Recent work by White et al. (Cell 80:533-541, 1995) and Joneson et al. (Science 271: 810-812, 1996) describes three mutations in H-ras which were engineered to eliminate different downstream signal transduction pathways of H-ras. T35S contains a serine in place of threonine at amino acid 35 and is defective for ras-induced cytoskeletal changes and initiation of DNA synthesis. E37G contains a glutamic acid in place of glycine at amino acid 37 which eliminates interaction of H-ras with a GDP/GTP exchange factor. C40 contains a substitution of cysteine for tyrosine at amino acid 40 and is defective for H-ras induction of the MAP kinase pathway. We propose that by expressing these mutant H-ras proteins in immortalized cells the downstream pathways of H-ras which regulate the cellular response(s) to ionizing radiation may be determined. Materials and Methods: pHP-5 plasmids encoding these H-ras mutant genes (see White et al.) were transfected by calcium phosphate precipitation into MR4 cells, rat embryo fibroblasts immortalized by expression of v-myc. In this vector, the cDNA for H-ras is placed under the control of a CMV constitutive promoter, and selection is provided by hygromycin. The transfections performed were as follows: V12Ras (no mutation), T35S, E37G, C40, T35S + E37G, and T35S + C40. Twenty four hours after transfection

  7. Wnt Signalling in Gastrointestinal Epithelial Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin J. Flanagan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wnt signalling regulates several cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration, and is critical for embryonic development. Stem cells are defined by their ability for self-renewal and the ability to be able to give rise to differentiated progeny. Consequently, they are essential for the homeostasis of many organs including the gastrointestinal tract. This review will describe the huge advances in our understanding of how stem cell functions in the gastrointestinal tract are regulated by Wnt signalling, including how deregulated Wnt signalling can hijack these functions to transform cells and lead to cancer.

  8. Wnt/β-catenin signaling regulates cancer stem cells in lung cancer A549 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Ying; Wang, Xiuwen; Wang, Yawei; Ma, Daoxin

    2010-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling plays an important role not only in cancer, but also in cancer stem cells. In this study, we found that β-catenin and OCT-4 was highly expressed in cisplatin (DDP) selected A549 cells. Stimulating A549 cells with lithium chloride (LiCl) resulted in accumulation of β-catenin and up-regulation of a typical Wnt target gene cyclin D1. This stimulation also significantly enhanced proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities in A549 cells. Moreover, the up-regulation of OCT-4, a stem cell marker, was observed through real-time PCR and Western blotting. In a reverse approach, we inhibited Wnt signaling by knocking down the expression of β-catenin using RNA interference technology. This inhibition resulted in down-regulation of the Wnt target gene cyclin D1 as well as the proliferation, clone formation, migration and drug resistance abilities. Meanwhile, the expression of OCT-4 was reduced after the inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Taken together, our study provides strong evidence that canonical Wnt signaling plays an important role in lung cancer stem cell properties, and it also regulates OCT-4, a lung cancer stem cell marker.

  9. Cellular Architecture Regulates Collective Calcium Signaling and Cell Contractility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A key feature of multicellular systems is the ability of cells to function collectively in response to external stimuli. However, the mechanisms of intercellular cell signaling and their functional implications in diverse vascular structures are poorly understood. Using a combination of computational modeling and plasma lithography micropatterning, we investigate the roles of structural arrangement of endothelial cells in collective calcium signaling and cell contractility. Under histamine stimulation, endothelial cells in self-assembled and microengineered networks, but not individual cells and monolayers, exhibit calcium oscillations. Micropatterning, pharmacological inhibition, and computational modeling reveal that the calcium oscillation depends on the number of neighboring cells coupled via gap junctional intercellular communication, providing a mechanistic basis of the architecture-dependent calcium signaling. Furthermore, the calcium oscillation attenuates the histamine-induced cytoskeletal reorganization and cell contraction, resulting in differential cell responses in an architecture-dependent manner. Taken together, our results suggest that endothelial cells can sense and respond to chemical stimuli according to the vascular architecture via collective calcium signaling.

  10. Salicylic acid induces vanillin synthesis through the phospholipid signaling pathway in Capsicum chinense cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodas-Junco, Beatriz A; Cab-Guillén, Yahaira; Muñoz-Sánchez, J Armando; Vázquez-Flota, Felipe; Monforte-González, Miriam; Hernández-Sotomayor, S M Teresa

    2013-10-01

    Signal transduction via phospholipids is mediated by phospholipases such as phospholipase C (PLC) and D (PLD), which catalyze hydrolysis of plasma membrane structural phospholipids. Phospholipid signaling is also involved in plant responses to phytohormones such as salicylic acid (SA). The relationships between phospholipid signaling, SA, and secondary metabolism are not fully understood. Using a Capsicum chinense cell suspension as a model, we evaluated whether phospholipid signaling modulates SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), a key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway. Salicylic acid was found to elicit PAL activity and consequently vanillin production, which was diminished or reversed upon exposure to the phosphoinositide-phospholipase C (PI-PLC) signaling inhibitors neomycin and U73122. Exposure to the phosphatidic acid inhibitor 1-butanol altered PLD activity and prevented SA-induced vanillin production. Our results suggest that PLC and PLD-generated secondary messengers may be modulating SA-induced vanillin production through the activation of key biosynthetic pathway enzymes.

  11. Regulated portals of entry into the cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Sean D.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2003-03-01

    The plasma membrane is the interface between cells and their harsh environment. Uptake of nutrients and all communication among cells and between cells and their environment occurs through this interface. `Endocytosis' encompasses several diverse mechanisms by which cells internalize macromolecules and particles into transport vesicles derived from the plasma membrane. It controls entry into the cell and has a crucial role in development, the immune response, neurotransmission, intercellular communication, signal transduction, and cellular and organismal homeostasis. As the complexity of molecular interactions governing endocytosis are revealed, it has become increasingly clear that it is tightly coordinated and coupled with overall cell physiology and thus, must be viewed in a broader context than simple vesicular trafficking.

  12. Molecular methods for the study of signal transduction in plants

    KAUST Repository

    Irving, Helen R.

    2013-09-03

    Novel and improved analytical methods have led to a rapid increase in our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying plant signal transduction. Progress has been made both at the level of single-component analysis and in vivo imaging as well as at the systems level where transcriptomics and particularly phosphoproteomics afford a window into complex biological responses. Here we review the role of the cyclic nucleotides cAMP and cGMP in plant signal transduction as well as the discovery and biochemical and biological characterization of an increasing number of complex multi-domain nucleotide cyclases that catalyze the synthesis of cAMP and cGMP from ATP and GTP, respectively. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

  13. Basolateral BMP signaling in polarized epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Saitoh

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs regulate various biological processes, mostly mediated by cells of mesenchymal origin. However, the roles of BMPs in epithelial cells are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate that, in polarized epithelial cells, BMP signals are transmitted from BMP receptor complexes exclusively localized at the basolateral surface of the cell membrane. In addition, basolateral stimulation with BMP increased expression of components of tight junctions and enhanced the transepithelial resistance (TER, counteracting reduction of TER by treatment with TGF-β or an anti-tumor drug. We conclude that BMPs maintain epithelial polarity via intracellular signaling from basolaterally localized BMP receptors.

  14. Probing Embryonic Stem Cell Autocrine and Paracrine Signaling Using Microfluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przybyla, Laralynne; Voldman, Joel

    2012-07-01

    Although stem cell fate is traditionally manipulated by exogenously altering the cells' extracellular signaling environment, the endogenous autocrine and paracrine signals produced by the cells also contribute to their two essential processes: self-renewal and differentiation. Autocrine and/or paracrine signals are fundamental to both embryonic stem cell self-renewal and early embryonic development, but the nature and contributions of these signals are often difficult to fully define using conventional methods. Microfluidic techniques have been used to explore the effects of cell-secreted signals by controlling cell organization or by providing precise control over the spatial and temporal cellular microenvironment. Here we review how such techniques have begun to be adapted for use with embryonic stem cells, and we illustrate how many remaining questions in embryonic stem cell biology could be addressed using microfluidic technologies.

  15. Prolonged sulforaphane treatment activates survival signaling in nontumorigenic NCM460 colon cells but apoptotic signaling in tumorigenic HCT116 colon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huawei; Trujillo, Olivia N; Moyer, Mary P; Botnen, James H

    2011-01-01

    Sulforaphane (SFN) is a naturally occurring chemopreventive agent; the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis is a key mechanism by which SFN exerts its colon cancer prevention. However, little is known about the differential effects of SFN on colon cancer and normal cells. In this study, we demonstrated that SFN (15 μmol/L) exposure (72 h) inhibited cell proliferation by up to 95% in colon cancer cells (HCT116) and by 52% in normal colon mucosa-derived (NCM460) cells. Our data also showed that SFN exposure (5 and 10 μmol/L) led to the reduction of G1 phase cell distribution and an induction of apoptosis in HCT116 cells, but to a much lesser extent in NCM460 cells. Furthermore, the examination of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling status revealed that SFN upregulated the phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) in NCM460 cells but not in HCT116 cells. In contrast, SFN enhanced the phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and decreased cellular myelocytomatosis oncogene (c-Myc) expression in HCT116 cells but not NCM460 cells. Taken together, the activation of survival signaling in NCM460 cells and apoptotic signaling in HCT116 cells may play a critical role in SFN's stronger potential of inhibiting cell proliferation in colon cancer cells than in normal colon cells. Copyright © 2011, Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  16. [Study of signal transduction pathway in the expression of inflammatory factors stimulated by lipopolysaccharides from Porphyromonas endodontalis in osteoblasts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Di; Qiu, Li-hong; Li, Ren; Li, Zi-mu; Li, Chen

    2010-04-01

    To quantify the interleukin (IL)-1beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA expression induced by lipopolysaccharides ([PS) extracted from Porphyromonoas endodontalis (P. endodontalis) in osteoblasts, and to relate P. endodontalis LPS to the bone resorptive pathogenesis in the lesions of chronic apical periodontitis. MG63 cells was pretreated with PD98059 or SB203580 for 1 h and then treated with P. endodontolis LPS for 6 h. The expression of IL-1beta mRNA and IL-6 mRNA were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique. The production of IL-1beta mRNA induced by P. endodontalis LPS decreased in osteoblasts pretreated with PD98059. Both of the production of IL-1beta mRNA and JL-6 mRNA induced by P. endodontalis LPS decreased in osteoblasts pretreated with SB203580. The synthesis of IL-1beta mRNA stimulated by Pendodontalis LPS in MG63 probably occur via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction system. The synthesis of IL-6 mRNA stimulated by P.endodontalis LPS in MG63 probahly occur via p38MAPK signal transduction system.

  17. Identifying a compound modifying a cellular response, comprises attaching cells having a reporter system onto solid supports, releasing a library member, screening and identifying target cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for identifying compounds capable of modulating a cellular response. The methods involve attaching living cells to solid supports comprising a library of test compounds. Test compounds modulating a cellular response, for example via a cell surface molecule...... may be identified by selecting solid supports comprising cells, wherein the cellular response of interest has been modulated. The cellular response may for example be changes in signal transduction pathways modulated by a cell surface molecule....

  18. Benefits of gene transduction of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor in cancer vaccine using genetically modified dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Toshiyasu; Iwahashi, Makoto; Nakamura, Masaki; Matsuda, Kenji; Nakamori, Mikihito; Ueda, Kentaro; Naka, Teiji; Katsuda, Masahiro; Miyazawa, Motoki; Yamaue, Hiroki

    2007-10-01

    Granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a key cytokine for the generation and stimulation of dendritic cells (DCs), and it may also play a pivotal role in promoting the survival of DCs. In this study, the feasibility of creating a cancer vaccine using DCs adenovirally transduced with the carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene and the GM-CSF gene was examined. In addition, the effect of the co-transduction of GM-CSF gene on the lifespan of these genetically modified DCs was determined. A cytotoxic assay using peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) was performed in a 4-h 51Cr release assay. The apoptosis of DCs was examined by TdT-mediated dUTP-FITC nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. CEA-specific CTLs were generated from PBMCs stimulated with genetically modified DCs expressing CEA. The cytotoxicity of these CTLs was augmented by co-transduction of DCs with the GM-CSF gene. Co-transduction of the GM-CSF gene into DCs inhibited apoptosis of these DCs themselves via up-regulation of Bcl-x(L) expression, leading to the extension of the lifespan of these DCs. Furthermore, the transduction of the GM-CSF gene into DCs also suppressed the incidence of apoptosis of DCs induced by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta-1). Immunotherapy using these genetically modified DCs may therefore be useful with several advantages as follows: i) adenoviral toxicity to DCs can be reduced; ii) the lifespan of vaccinated DCs can be prolonged; and iii) GM-CSF may protect DCs from apoptosis induced by tumor-derived TGFbeta-1 in the regional lymph nodes.

  19. Establishment of LIF-dependent human iPS cells closely related to basic FGF-dependent authentic iPS cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hirai

    Full Text Available Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs can be divided into a leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF-dependent naïve type and a basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF-dependent primed type. Although the former are more undifferentiated than the latter, they require signal transduction inhibitors and sustained expression of the transgenes used for iPSC production. We used a transcriptionally enhanced version of OCT4 to establish LIF-dependent human iPSCs without the use of inhibitors and sustained transgene expression. These cells belong to the primed type of pluripotent stem cell, similar to bFGF-dependent iPSCs. Thus, the particular cytokine required for iPSC production does not necessarily define stem cell phenotypes as previously thought. It is likely that the bFGF and LIF signaling pathways converge on unidentified OCT4 target genes. These findings suggest that our LIF-dependent human iPSCs could provide a novel model to investigate the role of cytokine signaling in cellular reprogramming.

  20. c-MPL provides tumor-targeted T-cell receptor-transgenic T cells with costimulation and cytokine signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Christopher D; Brenner, Daniel A; Mukherjee, Malini; Hirsch, Rachel A; Ott, Leah; Wu, Meng-Fen; Liu, Hao; Dakhova, Olga; Orange, Jordan S; Brenner, Malcolm K; Lin, Charles Y; Arber, Caroline

    2017-12-21

    Adoptively transferred T-cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells depend on host-derived costimulation and cytokine signals for their full and sustained activation. However, in patients with cancer, both signals are frequently impaired. Hence, we developed a novel strategy that combines both essential signals in 1 transgene by expressing the nonlymphoid hematopoietic growth factor receptor c-MPL (myeloproliferative leukemia), the receptor for thrombopoietin (TPO), in T cells. c-MPL signaling activates pathways shared with conventional costimulatory and cytokine receptor signaling. Thus, we hypothesized that host-derived TPO, present in the tumor microenvironment, or pharmacological c-MPL agonists approved by the US Food and Drug Administration could deliver both signals to c-MPL-engineered TCR-transgenic T cells. We found that c-MPL + polyclonal T cells expand and proliferate in response to TPO, and persist longer after adoptive transfer in immunodeficient human TPO-transgenic mice. In TCR-transgenic T cells, c-MPL activation enhances antitumor function, T-cell expansion, and cytokine production and preserves a central memory phenotype. c-MPL signaling also enables sequential tumor cell killing, enhances the formation of effective immune synapses, and improves antileukemic activity in vivo in a leukemia xenograft model. We identify the type 1 interferon pathway as a molecular mechanism by which c-MPL mediates immune stimulation in T cells. In conclusion, we present a novel immunotherapeutic strategy using c-MPL-enhanced transgenic T cells responding to either endogenously produced TPO (a microenvironment factor in hematologic malignancies) or c-MPL-targeted pharmacological agents. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Surface code—biophysical signals for apoptotic cell clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biermann, Mona; Maueröder, Christian; Brauner, Jan M; Chaurio, Ricardo; Herrmann, Martin; Muñoz, Luis E; Janko, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Apoptotic cell death and the clearance of dying cells play an important and physiological role in embryonic development and normal tissue turnover. In contrast to necrosis, apoptosis proceeds in an anti-inflammatory manner. It is orchestrated by the timed release and/or exposure of so-called ‘find-me’, ‘eat me’ and ‘tolerate me’ signals. Mononuclear phagocytes are attracted by various ‘find-me’ signals, including proteins, nucleotides, and phospholipids released by the dying cell, whereas the involvement of granulocytes is prevented via ‘stay away’ signals. The exposure of anionic phospholipids like phosphatidylserine (PS) by apoptotic cells on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane is one of the main ‘eat me’ signals. PS is recognized by a number of innate receptors as well as by soluble bridging molecules on the surface of phagocytes. Importantly, phagocytes are able to discriminate between viable and apoptotic cells both exposing PS. Due to cytoskeleton remodeling PS has a higher lateral mobility on the surfaces of apoptotic cells thereby promoting receptor clustering on the phagocyte. PS not only plays an important role in the engulfment process, but also acts as ‘tolerate me’ signal inducing the release of anti-inflammatory cytokines by phagocytes. An efficient and fast clearance of apoptotic cells is required to prevent secondary necrosis and leakage of intracellular danger signals into the surrounding tissue. Failure or prolongation of the clearance process leads to the release of intracellular antigens into the periphery provoking inflammation and development of systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease like systemic lupus erythematosus. Here we review the current findings concerning apoptosis-inducing pathways, important players of apoptotic cell recognition and clearance as well as the role of membrane remodeling in the engulfment of apoptotic cells by phagocytes. (paper)

  2. Klotho, stem cells, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Ao; Neyra, Javier A; Zhan, Ming; Hu, Ming Chang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders.

  3. Signal transduction by normal isoforms and W mutant variants of the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, A D; Ellis, C; Lyman, S D; Anderson, D M; Williams, D E; Bernstein, A; Pawson, T

    1991-09-01

    Germline mutations at the Dominant White Spotting (W) and Steel (Sl) loci have provided conclusive genetic evidence that c-kit mediated signal transduction pathways are essential for normal mouse development. We have analysed the interactions of normal and mutant W/c-kit gene products with cytoplasmic signalling proteins, using transient c-kit expression assays in COS cells. In addition to the previously identified c-kit gene product (Kit+), a second normal Kit isoform (KitA+) containing an in-frame insertion, Gly-Asn-Asn-Lys, within the extracellular domain, was detected in murine mast cell cultures and mid-gestation placenta. Both Kit+ and KitA+ isoforms showed increased autophosphorylation and enhanced association with phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3' kinase and PLC gamma 1, when stimulated with recombinant soluble Steel factor. No association or increase in phosphorylation of GAP and two GAP-associated proteins, p62 and p190, was observed. The two isoforms had distinct activities in the absence of exogenous soluble Steel factor; Kit+, but not KitA+, showed constitutive tyrosine phosphorylation that was accompanied by a low constitutive level of association with PI-3' kinase and PLC gamma 1. Introduction of the point substitutions associated with W37 (Glu582----Lys) or W41 (Val831----Met) mutant alleles into c-kit expression constructs abolished (W37) or reduced (W41) the Steel factor-induced association of the Kit receptor with signalling proteins in a manner proportional to the overall severity of the corresponding W mutant phenotype. These data suggest a diversity of normal Kit signalling pathways and indicate that W mutant phenotypes result from primary defects in the Kit receptor that affect its interaction with cytoplasmic signalling proteins.

  4. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Okada, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. - Highlights: • We established highly efficient gene transduction protocols for murine T cells. • CD8"+ CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity. • CD4"+ CAR-T cells secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. • This finding can contribute to the development of T-cell biology and immunotherapy.

  5. Highly efficient gene transfer using a retroviral vector into murine T cells for preclinical chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T cell therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusabuka, Hotaka; Fujiwara, Kento; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Hirobe, Sachiko; Nakagawa, Shinsaku, E-mail: nakagawa@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp; Okada, Naoki, E-mail: okada@phs.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2016-04-22

    Adoptive immunotherapy using chimeric antigen receptor-expressing T (CAR-T) cells has attracted attention as an efficacious strategy for cancer treatment. To prove the efficacy and safety of CAR-T cell therapy, the elucidation of immunological mechanisms underlying it in mice is required. Although a retroviral vector (Rv) is mainly used for the introduction of CAR to murine T cells, gene transduction efficiency is generally less than 50%. The low transduction efficiency causes poor precision in the functional analysis of CAR-T cells. We attempted to improve the Rv gene transduction protocol to more efficiently generate functional CAR-T cells by optimizing the period of pre-cultivation and antibody stimulation. In the improved protocol, gene transduction efficiency to murine T cells was more than 90%. In addition, almost all of the prepared murine T cells expressed CAR after puromycin selection. These CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity and secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. We believe that our optimized gene transduction protocol for murine T cells contributes to the advancement of T cell biology and development of immunotherapy using genetically engineered T cells. - Highlights: • We established highly efficient gene transduction protocols for murine T cells. • CD8{sup +} CAR-T cells had antigen-specific cytotoxic activity. • CD4{sup +} CAR-T cells secreted multiple cytokines by antigen stimulation. • This finding can contribute to the development of T-cell biology and immunotherapy.

  6. Gene expression of panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells using radioactive cDNA microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Joong Youn; Yu, Su Jin; Soh, Jeong Won; Kim, Meyoung Kon

    2001-01-01

    Polyacetylenic alcohols derived from Panax ginseng have been studied to be an anticancer reagent previously. One of the Panax ginseng polyacetylenic alcohols, i.e., panaxydol, has been studied to possess an antiproliferative effect on human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-1). In ths study, radioactive cDNA microarrays enabled an efficient approach to analyze the pattern of gene expression (3.194 genes in a total) simultaneously. The bioinformatics selection of human cDNAs, which is specifically designed for immunology, apoptosis and signal transduction, were arrayed on nylon membranes. Using with 33 P labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles of our interest including apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle, and signal transduction. Gene expression profiles were also classified into several categories in accordance with the duration of panaxydol treatment. Consequently, the gene profiles of our interest were significantly up (199 genes, > 2.0 of Z-ratio) or down-(196 genes, < 2.0 of Z-ratio) regulated in panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells

  7. Gene expression of panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells using radioactive cDNA microarrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Joong Youn; Yu, Su Jin; Soh, Jeong Won; Kim, Meyoung Kon [College of Medicine, Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    Polyacetylenic alcohols derived from Panax ginseng have been studied to be an anticancer reagent previously. One of the Panax ginseng polyacetylenic alcohols, i.e., panaxydol, has been studied to possess an antiproliferative effect on human melanoma cell line (SK-MEL-1). In ths study, radioactive cDNA microarrays enabled an efficient approach to analyze the pattern of gene expression (3.194 genes in a total) simultaneously. The bioinformatics selection of human cDNAs, which is specifically designed for immunology, apoptosis and signal transduction, were arrayed on nylon membranes. Using with {sup 33}P labeled probes, this method provided highly sensitive gene expression profiles of our interest including apoptosis, cell proliferation, cell cycle, and signal transduction. Gene expression profiles were also classified into several categories in accordance with the duration of panaxydol treatment. Consequently, the gene profiles of our interest were significantly up (199 genes, > 2.0 of Z-ratio) or down-(196 genes, < 2.0 of Z-ratio) regulated in panaxydol-treated human melanoma cells.

  8. Porcine pluripotency cell signaling develops from the inner cell mass to the epiblast during early development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Vanessa Jane; Christensen, Josef; Gao, Yu

    2009-01-01

      The signaling mechanisms regulating pluripotency in porcine embryonic stem cells and embryos are unknown. In this study, we characterize cell signaling in the in-vivo porcine inner cell mass and later-stage epiblast. We evaluate expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, genes within the JAK/STAT pathway...... pluripotency in human embryonic stem cells is detectable in the porcine epiblast, but not in the inner cell mass. Copyright (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.......  The signaling mechanisms regulating pluripotency in porcine embryonic stem cells and embryos are unknown. In this study, we characterize cell signaling in the in-vivo porcine inner cell mass and later-stage epiblast. We evaluate expression of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, genes within the JAK/STAT pathway...... (LIF, LIFR, GP130), FGF pathway (bFGF, FGFR1, FGFR2), BMP pathway (BMP4), and downstream-activated genes (STAT3, c-Myc, c-Fos, and SMAD4). We discovered two different expression profiles exist in the developing porcine embryo. The D6 porcine blastocyst (inner cell mass stage) is devoid...

  9. Endothelial juxtaposition of distinct adult stem cells activates angiogenesis signaling molecules in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Elham; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Siavashi, Vahid; Araghi, Atefeh

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis needs a comprehensive understanding of endothelial cell (EC) function and biological factors and cells that interplay with ECs. Stem cells are considered the key components of pro- and anti-angiogenic milieu in a wide variety of physiopathological states, and interactions of EC-stem cells have been the subject of controversy in recent years. In this study, the potential effects of three tissue-specific adult stem cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), rat adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs) and rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), on the endothelial activation of key angiogenic signaling molecules, including VEGF, Ang-2, VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and Tie2-pho, were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMECs) were cocultured with the stem cells or incubated with the stem cell-derived conditioned media on Matrigel. Following HUVEC-stem cell coculture, CD31-positive ECs were flow sorted and subjected to western blotting to analyze potential changes in the expression of the pro-angiogenic signaling molecules. Elongation and co-alignment of the stem cells were seen along the EC tubes in the EC-stem cell cocultures on Matrigel, with cell-to-cell dye communication in the EC-rBMSC cocultures. Moreover, rBMSCs and rADSCs significantly improved endothelial tubulogenesis in both juxtacrine and paracrine manners. These two latter stem cells dynamically up-regulated VEGF, Ang-2, VREGR-2, and Tie-2 but down-regulated Tie2-pho and the Tie2-pho/Tie-2 ratio in HUVECs. Induction of pro-angiogenic signaling in ECs by marrow- and adipose-derived MSCs further indicates the significance of stem cell milieu in angiogenesis dynamics.

  10. A proteomic view at T cell costimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf Lichtenfels

    Full Text Available The "two-signal paradigm" in T cell activation predicts that the cooperation of "signal 1," provided by the T cell receptor (TCR through engagement of major histocompatility complex (MHC-presented peptide, with "signal 2″ provided by costimulatory molecules, the prototype of which is CD28, is required to induce T cell effector functions. While the individual signalling pathways are well understood, little is known about global changes in the proteome pattern during TCR/CD28-mediated activation. Therefore, comparative 2-DE-based proteome analyses of CD3(+ CD69(- resting T cells versus cells incubated with (i the agonistic anti-CD3 antibody OKT3 mimicking signal 1 in absence or presence of IL-2 and/or with (ii the agonistic antibody 15E8 triggering CD28-mediated signaling were performed. Differentially regulated spots were defined leading to the identification of proteins involved in the regulation of the metabolism, shaping and maintenance of the cytoskeleton and signal transduction. Representative members of the differentially expressed protein families, such as calmodulin (CALM, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor 2 (GDIR2, and platelet basic protein (CXCL7, were independently verified by flow cytometry. Data provide a detailed map of individual protein alterations at the global proteome level in response to TCR/CD28-mediated T cell activation.

  11. Neogenesis and proliferation of β-cells induced by human betacellulin gene transduction via retrograde pancreatic duct injection of an adenovirus vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokui, Yae; Kozawa, Junji; Yamagata, Kazuya; Zhang, Jun; Ohmoto, Hiroshi; Tochino, Yoshihiro; Okita, Kohei; Iwahashi, Hiromi; Namba, Mitsuyoshi; Shimomura, Iichiro; Miyagawa, Jun-ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Betacellulin (BTC) has been shown to have a role in the differentiation and proliferation of β-cells both in vitro and in vivo. We administered a human betacellulin (hBTC) adenovirus vector to male ICR mice via retrograde pancreatic duct injection. As a control, we administered a β-galactosidase adenovirus vector. In the mice, hBTC protein was mainly overexpressed by pancreatic duct cells. On immunohistochemical analysis, we observed features of β-cell neogenesis as newly formed insulin-positive cells in the duct cell lining or islet-like cell clusters (ICCs) closely associated with the ducts. The BrdU labeling index of β-cells was also increased by the betacellulin vector compared with that of control mice. These results indicate that hBTC gene transduction into adult pancreatic duct cells promoted β-cell differentiation (mainly from duct cells) and proliferation of pre-existing β-cells, resulting in an increase of the β-cell mass that improved glucose tolerance in diabetic mice

  12. Modulation of B-cell receptor and microenvironment signaling by a guanine exchange factor in B-cell malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Wei; Sharma, Sanjai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) cells over-express a guanine exchange factor (GEF), Rasgrf-1. This GEF increases active Ras as it catalyzes the removal of GDP from Ras so that GTP can bind and activate Ras. This study aims to study the mechanism of action of Rasgrf-1 in B-cell malignancies. Methods: N-terminus truncated Rasgrf-1 variants have a higher GEF activity as compared to the full-length transcript therefore a MCL cell line with stable over-expression of truncated Rasgrf-1 was established. The B-cell receptor (BCR) and chemokine signaling pathways were compared in the Rasgrf-1 over-expressing and a control transfected cell line. Results: Cells over-expressing truncated form of Rasgrf-1 have a higher proliferative rate as compared to control transfected cells. BCR was activated by lower concentrations of anti-IgM antibody in Rasgrf-1 over-expressing cells as compared to control cells indicating that these cells are more sensitive to BCR signaling. BCR signaling also phosphorylates Rasgrf-1 that further increases its GEF function and amplifies BCR signaling. This activation of Rasgrf-1 in over-expressing cells resulted in a higher expression of phospho-ERK, AKT, BTK and PKC-alpha as compared to control cells. Besides BCR, Rasgrf-1 over-expressing cells were also more sensitive to microenvironment stimuli as determined by resistance to apoptosis, chemotaxis and ERK pathway activation. Conclusions: This GEF protein sensitizes B-cells to BCR and chemokine mediated signaling and also upregulates a number of other signaling pathways which promotes growth and survival of these cells

  13. Natural killer cell signal integration balances synapse symmetry and migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona J Culley

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells discern the health of other cells by recognising the balance of activating and inhibitory ligands expressed by each target cell. However, how the integration of activating and inhibitory signals relates to formation of the NK cell immune synapse remains a central question in our understanding of NK cell recognition. Here we report that ligation of LFA-1 on NK cells induced asymmetrical cell spreading and migration. In contrast, ligation of the activating receptor NKG2D induced symmetrical spreading of ruffled lamellipodia encompassing a dynamic ring of f-actin, concurrent with polarization towards a target cell and a "stop" signal. Ligation of both LFA-1 and NKG2D together resulted in symmetrical spreading but co-ligation of inhibitory receptors reverted NK cells to an asymmetrical migratory configuration leading to inhibitory synapses being smaller and more rapidly disassembled. Using micropatterned activating and inhibitory ligands, signals were found to be continuously and locally integrated during spreading. Together, these data demonstrate that NK cells spread to form large, stable, symmetrical synapses if activating signals dominate, whereas asymmetrical migratory "kinapses" are favoured if inhibitory signals dominate. This clarifies how the integration of activating and inhibitory receptor signals is translated to an appropriate NK cell response.

  14. Multinuclear giant cell formation is enhanced by down-regulation of Wnt signaling in gastric cancer cell line, AGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Shi-Mun; Kim, Rockki; Ryu, Jae-Hyun; Jho, Eek-Hoon; Song, Ki-Joon; Jang, Shyh-Ing; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2005-01-01

    AGS cells, which were derived from malignant gastric adenocarcinoma tissue, lack E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion but have a high level of nuclear β-catenin, which suggests altered Wnt signal. In addition, approximately 5% of AGS cells form multinuclear giant cells in the routine culture conditions, while taxol treatment causes most AGS cells to become giant cells. The observation of reduced nuclear β-catenin levels in giant cells induced by taxol treatment prompted us to investigate the relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. After overnight serum starvation, the shape of AGS cells became flattened, and this morphological change was accompanied by decrease in Myc expression and an increase in the giant cell population. Lithium chloride treatment, which inhibits GSK3β activity, reversed these serum starvation effects, which suggests an inverse relationship between Wnt signaling and giant cell formation. Furthermore, the down-regulation of Wnt signaling caused by the over-expression of ICAT, E-cadherin, and Axin enhanced giant cell formation. Therefore, down-regulation of Wnt signaling may be related to giant cell formation, which is considered to be a survival mechanism against induced cell death

  15. Ric-8A, a Gα protein guanine nucleotide exchange factor potentiates taste receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Fenech

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Taste receptors for sweet, bitter and umami tastants are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs. While much effort has been devoted to understanding G-protein-receptor interactions and identifying the components of the signalling cascade downstream of these receptors, at the level of the G-protein the modulation of receptor signal transduction remains relatively unexplored. In this regard a taste-specific regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS, RGS21, has recently been identified. To study whether guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs are involved in the transduction of the signal downstream of the taste GPCRs we investigated the expression of Ric-8A and Ric-8B in mouse taste cells and their interaction with G-protein subunits found in taste buds. Mammalian Ric-8 proteins were initially identified as potent GEFs for a range of Gα subunits and Ric-8B has recently been shown to amplify olfactory signal transduction. We find that both Ric-8A and Ric-8B are expressed in a large portion of taste bud cells and that most of these cells contain IP3R-3 a marker for sweet, umami and bitter taste receptor cells. Ric-8A interacts with Gα-gustducin and Gαi2 through which it amplifies the signal transduction of hTas2R16, a receptor for bitter compounds. Overall, these findings are consistent with a role for Ric-8 in mammalian taste signal transduction.

  16. Indirect immobilized Jagged1 suppresses cell cycle progression and induces odonto/osteogenic differentiation in human dental pulp cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manokawinchoke, Jeeranan; Nattasit, Praphawi; Thongngam, Tanutchaporn; Pavasant, Prasit; Tompkins, Kevin A; Egusa, Hiroshi; Osathanon, Thanaphum

    2017-08-31

    Notch signaling regulates diverse biological processes in dental pulp tissue. The present study investigated the response of human dental pulp cells (hDPs) to the indirect immobilized Notch ligand Jagged1 in vitro. The indirect immobilized Jagged1 effectively activated Notch signaling in hDPs as confirmed by the upregulation of HES1 and HEY1 expression. Differential gene expression profiling using an RNA sequencing technique revealed that the indirect immobilized Jagged1 upregulated genes were mainly involved in extracellular matrix organization, disease, and signal transduction. Downregulated genes predominantly participated in the cell cycle, DNA replication, and DNA repair. Indirect immobilized Jagged1 significantly reduced cell proliferation, colony forming unit ability, and the number of cells in S phase. Jagged1 treated hDPs exhibited significantly higher ALP enzymatic activity, osteogenic marker gene expression, and mineralization compared with control. Pretreatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor attenuated the Jagged1-induced ALP activity and mineral deposition. NOTCH2 shRNA reduced the Jagged1-induced osteogenic marker gene expression, ALP enzymatic activity, and mineral deposition. In conclusion, indirect immobilized Jagged1 suppresses cell cycle progression and induces the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of hDPs via the canonical Notch signaling pathway.

  17. Integrin-mediated signal transduction linked to Ras pathway by GRB2 binding to focal adhesion kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hanks, S K; Hunter, T; van der Geer, P

    The cytoplasmic focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase (FAK) localizes with surface integrin receptors at sites where cells attach to the extracellular matrix. Increased FAK tyrosine phosphorylation occurs upon integrin engagement with fibronectin. Here we show that adhesion of murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts to fibronectin promotes SH2-domain-mediated association of the GRB2 adaptor protein and the c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) with FAK in vivo, and also results in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In v-Src-transformed NIH3T3, the association of v-Src, GRB2 and Sos with FAK is independent of cell adhesion to fibronectin. The GRB2 SH2 domain binds directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK. Mutation of tyrosine residue 925 of FAK (YENV motif) to phenylalanine blocks GRB2 SH2-domain binding to FAK in vitro. Our results show that fibronectin binding to integrins on NIH3T3 fibroblasts promotes c-Src and FAK association and formation of an integrin-activated signalling complex. Phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr 925 upon fibronectin stimulation creates an SH2-binding site for GRB2 which may link integrin engagement to the activation of the Ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway.

  18. Chansporter complexes in cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2017-09-01

    Ion channels facilitate diffusion of ions across cell membranes for such diverse purposes as neuronal signaling, muscular contraction, and fluid homeostasis. Solute transporters often utilize ionic gradients to move aqueous solutes up their concentration gradient, also fulfilling a wide variety of tasks. Recently, an increasing number of ion channel-transporter ('chansporter') complexes have been discovered. Chansporter complex formation may overcome what could otherwise be considerable spatial barriers to rapid signal integration and feedback between channels and transporters, the ions and other substrates they transport, and environmental factors to which they must respond. Here, current knowledge in this field is summarized, covering both heterologous expression structure/function findings and potential mechanisms by which chansporter complexes fulfill contrasting roles in cell signaling in vivo. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  19. Computational cell model based on autonomous cell movement regulated by cell-cell signalling successfully recapitulates the "inside and outside" pattern of cell sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajioka Itsuki

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Development of multicellular organisms proceeds from a single fertilized egg as the combined effect of countless numbers of cellular interactions among highly dynamic cells. Since at least a reminiscent pattern of morphogenesis can be recapitulated in a reproducible manner in reaggregation cultures of dissociated embryonic cells, which is known as cell sorting, the cells themselves must possess some autonomous cell behaviors that assure specific and reproducible self-organization. Understanding of this self-organized dynamics of heterogeneous cell population seems to require some novel approaches so that the approaches bridge a gap between molecular events and morphogenesis in developmental and cell biology. A conceptual cell model in a computer may answer that purpose. We constructed a dynamical cell model based on autonomous cell behaviors, including cell shape, growth, division, adhesion, transformation, and motility as well as cell-cell signaling. The model gives some insights about what cellular behaviors make an appropriate global pattern of the cell population. Results We applied the model to "inside and outside" pattern of cell-sorting, in which two different embryonic cell types within a randomly mixed aggregate are sorted so that one cell type tends to gather in the central region of the aggregate and the other cell type surrounds the first cell type. Our model can modify the above cell behaviors by varying parameters related to them. We explored various parameter sets with which the "inside and outside" pattern could be achieved. The simulation results suggested that direction of cell movement responding to its neighborhood and the cell's mobility are important for this specific rearrangement. Conclusion We constructed an in silico cell model that mimics autonomous cell behaviors and applied it to cell sorting, which is a simple and appropriate phenomenon exhibiting self-organization of cell population. The model

  20. Silver Nanoparticle-Directed Mast Cell Degranulation Is Mediated through Calcium and PI3K Signaling Independent of the High Affinity IgE Receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser B Alsaleh

    Full Text Available Engineered nanomaterial (ENM-mediated toxicity often involves triggering immune responses. Mast cells can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses and are key effectors in allergic diseases and inflammation. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs are one of the most prevalent nanomaterials used in consumer products due to their antimicrobial properties. We have previously shown that AgNPs induce mast cell degranulation that was dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. Furthermore, we identified a role for scavenger receptor B1 (SR-B1 in AgNP-mediated mast cell degranulation. However, it is completely unknown how SR-B1 mediates mast cell degranulation and the intracellular signaling pathways involved. In the current study, we hypothesized that SR-B1 interaction with AgNPs directs mast cell degranulation through activation of signal transduction pathways that culminate in an increase in intracellular calcium signal leading to mast cell degranulation. For these studies, we utilized bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC isolated from C57Bl/6 mice and RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophilic leukemia cell line. Our data support our hypothesis and show that AgNP-directed mast cell degranulation involves activation of PI3K, PLCγ and an increase in intracellular calcium levels. Moreover, we found that influx of extracellular calcium is required for the cells to degranulate in response to AgNP exposure and is mediated at least partially via the CRAC channels. Taken together, our results provide new insights into AgNP-induced mast cell activation that are key for designing novel ENMs that are devoid of immune system activation.

  1. Influence of arsenate and arsenite on signal transduction pathways: an update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druwe, Ingrid L.; Vaillancourt, Richard R. [The University of Arizona College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2010-08-15

    Arsenic has been a recognized contaminant and toxicant, as well as a medicinal compound throughout human history. Populations throughout the world are exposed to arsenic and these exposures have been associated with a number of human cancers. Not much is known about the role of arsenic as a human carcinogen and more recently its role in non-cancerous diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension and diabetes mellitus have been uncovered. The health effects associated with arsenic are numerous and the association between arsenic exposure and human disease has intensified the search for molecular mechanisms that describe the biological activity of arsenic in humans and leads to the aforementioned disease states. Arsenic poses a human health risk due in part to the regulation of cellular signal transduction pathways and over the last few decades, some cellular mechanisms that account for arsenic toxicity, as well as, signal transduction pathways have been discovered. However, given the ubiquitous nature of arsenic in the environment, making sense of all the data remains a challenge. This review will focus on our knowledge of signal transduction pathways that are regulated by arsenic. (orig.)

  2. AlliedSignal solid oxide fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.; Barr, K.; Kelly, P.; Montgomery, K. [AlliedSignal Aerospace Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    AlliedSignal has been developing high-performance, lightweight solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology for a broad spectrum of electric power generation applications. This technology is well suited for use in a variety of power systems, ranging from commercial cogeneration to military mobile power sources. The AlliedSignal SOFC is based on stacking high-performance thin-electrolyte cells with lightweight metallic interconnect assemblies to form a compact structure. The fuel cell can be operated at reduced temperatures (600{degrees} to 800{degrees}C). SOFC stacks based on this design has the potential of producing 1 kW/kg and 1 ML. This paper summarizes the technical status of the design, manufacture, and operation of AlliedSignal SOFCs.

  3. Signal transduction in neurons: effects of cellular prion protein on fyn kinase and ERK1/2 kinase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasi Vittorio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc co-localizes with caveolin-1 and participates to signal transduction events by recruiting Fyn kinase. As PrPc is a secreted protein anchored to the outer surface membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor (secPrP and caveolin-1 is located in the inner leaflet of plasma membrane, there is a problem of how the two proteins can physically interact each other and transduce signals. Results By using the GST-fusion proteins system we observed that PrPc strongly interacts with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain and with a caveolin-1 hydrophilic C-terminal region, but not with the caveolin-1 N-terminal region. In vitro binding experiments were also performed to define the site(s of PrPc interacting with cav-1. The results are consistent with a participation of PrPc octapeptide repeats motif in the binding to caveolin-1 scaffolding domain. The caveolar localization of PrPc was ascertained by co-immunoprecipitation, by co-localization after flotation in density gradients and by confocal microscopy analysis of PrPc and caveolin-1 distributions in a neuronal cell line (GN11 expressing caveolin-1 at high levels. Conclusions We observed that, after antibody-mediated cross-linking or copper treatment, PrPc was internalized probably into caveolae. We propose that following translocation from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains, secPrP could interact with caveolin-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  4. Signal transduction in neurons: effects of cellular prion protein on fyn kinase and ERK1/2 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Vittorio

    2010-12-16

    It has been reported that cellular prion protein (PrPc) co-localizes with caveolin-1 and participates to signal transduction events by recruiting Fyn kinase. As PrPc is a secreted protein anchored to the outer surface membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (secPrP) and caveolin-1 is located in the inner leaflet of plasma membrane, there is a problem of how the two proteins can physically interact each other and transduce signals. By using the GST-fusion proteins system we observed that PrPc strongly interacts with caveolin-1 scaffolding domain and with a caveolin-1 hydrophilic C-terminal region, but not with the caveolin-1 N-terminal region. In vitro binding experiments were also performed to define the site(s) of PrPc interacting with cav-1. The results are consistent with a participation of PrPc octapeptide repeats motif in the binding to caveolin-1 scaffolding domain. The caveolar localization of PrPc was ascertained by co-immunoprecipitation, by co-localization after flotation in density gradients and by confocal microscopy analysis of PrPc and caveolin-1 distributions in a neuronal cell line (GN11) expressing caveolin-1 at high levels. We observed that, after antibody-mediated cross-linking or copper treatment, PrPc was internalized probably into caveolae. We propose that following translocation from rafts to caveolae or caveolae-like domains, secPrP could interact with caveolin-1 and induce signal transduction events.

  5. Development Of PIXE Measurement Of Ca Changes Resulting From Viral Transduction In Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Harry J.; Chienthavorn, Orapin; Eronen, Hannele; Sajavaara, Timo; Laitinen, Mikko; Norarat, Rattanaporn; Gilbert, Leona K.

    2011-06-01

    Ca is a life-element of particular interest because it is both bound to proteins, and as Ca2+ which functions as a signal molecule in apoptosis. Here we report development of chemical-matrix blind assaying the Ca fluxes from transduced HepG2 cells using particle induced X-ray emission. The cells were transduced with recombinant baculoviruses hosting the DNA for non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of the human pavovirus B19. Different recombinant baculoviruses were used that carried different DNA payloads of this NS1. Two different approaches have been developed to assay Ca in cells. The first is where the cells were directly cultured using a self-supporting pioloform as a substrate. In the second approach the cells are permeabilized, and bound-Ca content in the debris, and unbound-Ca in the wash solutions were measured using an internal V reference standard. The results support a difference in the Ca contents depending on the payload of the infecting virus, however the PIXE signals were too close to the minimum detection limit to draw reliable conclusions.

  6. The targeted transduction of MMP-overexpressing tumor cells by ACPP-HPMA copolymer-coated adenovirus conjugates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Li

    Full Text Available We have designed and tested a new way to selectively deliver HPMA polymer-coated adenovirus type 5 (Ad5 particles into matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-overexpressing tumor cells. An activatable cell penetrating peptide (ACPP was designed and attached to the reactive 4-nitrophenoxy groups of HPMA polymers by the C-terminal amino acid (asparagine, N. ACPPs are activatable cell penetrating peptides (CPPs with a linker between polycationic and polyanionic domains, and MMP-mediated cleavage releases the CPP portion and its attached cargo to enable cell entry. Our data indicate that the transport of these HPMA polymer conjugates by a single ACPP molecule to the cytoplasm occurs via a nonendocytotic and concentration-independent process. The uptake was observed to finish within 20 minutes by inverted fluorescence microscopy. In contrast, HPMA polymer-coated Ad5 without ACPPs was internalized solely by endocytosis. The optimal formulation was not affected by the presence of Ad5 neutralizing antibodies during transduction, and ACPP/polymer-coated Ad5 also retained high targeting capability to several MMP-overexpressing tumor cell types. For the first time, ACPP-mediated cytoplasmic delivery of polymer-bound Ad5 to MMP-overexpressing tumor cells was demonstrated. These findings are significant, as they demonstrate the use of a polymer-based system for the targeted delivery into MMP-overexpressing solid tumors and highlight how to overcome major cellular obstacles to achieve intracellular macromolecular delivery.

  7. Investigation of the response of low-dose irradiated cells. Pt. 2. Radio-adaptive response of human embryonic cells is related to cell-to-cell communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keiichiro; Watanabe, Masami.

    1994-01-01

    To clarify the radio-adaptive response of normal cells to low-dose radiation, we irradiated human embryonic cells and HeLa cells with low-dose X-ray and examined the changes in sensitivity to subsequent high-dose X-irradiation. The results obtained were as follows; (1) When HE cells were irradiated by a high-dose of 200 cGy, the growth ratio of the living cells five days after the irradiation decreased to 37% of that of the cells which received no X-irradiation. When the cells received a preliminary irradiation of 10 to 20 cGy four hours before the irradiation of 200 cGy, the relative growth ratios increased significantly to 45-53%. (2) This preliminary irradiation effect was not observed in HeLa cells, being cancer cells. (3) When the HE cells suspended in a Ca 2+ iron-free medium or TPA added medium while receiving the preliminary irradiation of 13 cGy, the effect of the preliminary irradiation in increasing the relative growth ratio of living cells was not observed. (4) This indicates that normal cells shows an adaptive response to low-dose radiation and become more radioresistant. This phenomenon is considered to involve cell-to-cell communication maintained in normal cells and intracellular signal transduction in which Ca 2+ ion plays a role. (author)

  8. Reduced modeling of signal transduction – a modular approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ederer Michael

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combinatorial complexity is a challenging problem in detailed and mechanistic mathematical modeling of signal transduction. This subject has been discussed intensively and a lot of progress has been made within the last few years. A software tool (BioNetGen was developed which allows an automatic rule-based set-up of mechanistic model equations. In many cases these models can be reduced by an exact domain-oriented lumping technique. However, the resulting models can still consist of a very large number of differential equations. Results We introduce a new reduction technique, which allows building modularized and highly reduced models. Compared to existing approaches further reduction of signal transduction networks is possible. The method also provides a new modularization criterion, which allows to dissect the model into smaller modules that are called layers and can be modeled independently. Hallmarks of the approach are conservation relations within each layer and connection of layers by signal flows instead of mass flows. The reduced model can be formulated directly without previous generation of detailed model equations. It can be understood and interpreted intuitively, as model variables are macroscopic quantities that are converted by rates following simple kinetics. The proposed technique is applicable without using complex mathematical tools and even without detailed knowledge of the mathematical background. However, we provide a detailed mathematical analysis to show performance and limitations of the method. For physiologically relevant parameter domains the transient as well as the stationary errors caused by the reduction are negligible. Conclusion The new layer based reduced modeling method allows building modularized and strongly reduced models of signal transduction networks. Reduced model equations can be directly formulated and are intuitively interpretable. Additionally, the method provides very good

  9. A balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and Equarin expression in lens cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Miguel; Pandit, Tanushree; Gunhaga, Lena

    2012-01-01

    In embryonic and adult lenses, a balance of cell proliferation, cell cycle exit, and differentiation is necessary to maintain physical function. The molecular mechanisms regulating the transition of proliferating lens epithelial cells to differentiated primary lens fiber cells are poorly characterized. To investigate this question, we used gain- and loss-of-function analyses to modulate fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signals in chick lens/retina explants. Here we show that FGF activity plays a key role for proliferation independent of BMP signals. Moreover, a balance of FGF and BMP signals regulates cell cycle exit and the expression of Ccdc80 (also called Equarin), which is expressed at sites where differentiation of lens fiber cells occurs. BMP activity promotes cell cycle exit and induces Equarin expression in an FGF-dependent manner. In contrast, FGF activity is required but not sufficient to induce cell cycle exit or Equarin expression. Furthermore, our results show that in the absence of BMP activity, lens cells have increased cell cycle length or are arrested in the cell cycle, which leads to decreased cell cycle exit. Taken together, these findings suggest that proliferation, cell cycle exit, and early differentiation of primary lens fiber cells are regulated by counterbalancing BMP and FGF signals. PMID:22718906

  10. The putative bZIP transcription factor BzpN slows proliferation and functions in the regulation of cell density by autocrine signals in Dictyostelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E Phillips

    Full Text Available The secreted proteins AprA and CfaD function as autocrine signals that inhibit cell proliferation in Dictyostelium discoideum, thereby regulating cell numbers by a negative feedback mechanism. We report here that the putative basic leucine zipper transcription factor BzpN plays a role in the inhibition of proliferation by AprA and CfaD. Cells lacking BzpN proliferate more rapidly than wild-type cells but do not reach a higher stationary density. Recombinant AprA inhibits wild-type cell proliferation but does not inhibit the proliferation of cells lacking BzpN. Recombinant CfaD also inhibits wild-type cell proliferation, but promotes the proliferation of cells lacking BzpN. Overexpression of BzpN results in a reduced cell density at stationary phase, and this phenotype requires AprA, CfaD, and the kinase QkgA. Conditioned media from high-density cells stops the proliferation of wild-type but not bzpN(- cells and induces a nuclear localization of a BzpN-GFP fusion protein, though this localization does not require AprA or CfaD. Together, the data suggest that BzpN is necessary for some but not all of the effects of AprA and CfaD, and that BzpN may function downstream of AprA and CfaD in a signal transduction pathway that inhibits proliferation.

  11. The Putative bZIP Transcripton Factor BzpN Slows Proliferation and Functions in the Regulation of Cell Density by Autocrine Signals in Dictyostelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan E.; Huang, Eryong; Shaulsky, Gad; Gomer, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    The secreted proteins AprA and CfaD function as autocrine signals that inhibit cell proliferation in Dictyostelium discoideum, thereby regulating cell numbers by a negative feedback mechanism. We report here that the putative basic leucine zipper transcription factor BzpN plays a role in the inhibition of proliferation by AprA and CfaD. Cells lacking BzpN proliferate more rapidly than wild-type cells but do not reach a higher stationary density. Recombinant AprA inhibits wild-type cell proliferation but does not inhibit the proliferation of cells lacking BzpN. Recombinant CfaD also inhibits wild-type cell proliferation, but promotes the proliferation of cells lacking BzpN. Overexpression of BzpN results in a reduced cell density at stationary phase, and this phenotype requires AprA, CfaD, and the kinase QkgA. Conditioned media from high-density cells stops the proliferation of wild-type but not bzpN− cells and induces a nuclear localization of a BzpN-GFP fusion protein, though this localization does not require AprA or CfaD. Together, the data suggest that BzpN is necessary for some but not all of the effects of AprA and CfaD, and that BzpN may function downstream of AprA and CfaD in a signal transduction pathway that inhibits proliferation. PMID:21760904

  12. The putative bZIP transcription factor BzpN slows proliferation and functions in the regulation of cell density by autocrine signals in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jonathan E; Huang, Eryong; Shaulsky, Gad; Gomer, Richard H

    2011-01-01

    The secreted proteins AprA and CfaD function as autocrine signals that inhibit cell proliferation in Dictyostelium discoideum, thereby regulating cell numbers by a negative feedback mechanism. We report here that the putative basic leucine zipper transcription factor BzpN plays a role in the inhibition of proliferation by AprA and CfaD. Cells lacking BzpN proliferate more rapidly than wild-type cells but do not reach a higher stationary density. Recombinant AprA inhibits wild-type cell proliferation but does not inhibit the proliferation of cells lacking BzpN. Recombinant CfaD also inhibits wild-type cell proliferation, but promotes the proliferation of cells lacking BzpN. Overexpression of BzpN results in a reduced cell density at stationary phase, and this phenotype requires AprA, CfaD, and the kinase QkgA. Conditioned media from high-density cells stops the proliferation of wild-type but not bzpN(-) cells and induces a nuclear localization of a BzpN-GFP fusion protein, though this localization does not require AprA or CfaD. Together, the data suggest that BzpN is necessary for some but not all of the effects of AprA and CfaD, and that BzpN may function downstream of AprA and CfaD in a signal transduction pathway that inhibits proliferation.

  13. Is autoinducer-2 a universal signal for interspecies communication: a comparative genomic and phylogenetic analysis of the synthesis and signal transduction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner-Döbler Irene

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quorum sensing is a process of bacterial cell-to-cell communication involving the production and detection of extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers. Recently, it has been proposed that autoinducer-2 (AI-2, a furanosyl borate diester derived from the recycling of S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH to homocysteine, serves as a universal signal for interspecies communication. Results In this study, 138 completed genomes were examined for the genes involved in the synthesis and detection of AI-2. Except for some symbionts and parasites, all organisms have a pathway to recycle SAH, either using a two-step enzymatic conversion by the Pfs and LuxS enzymes or a one-step conversion using SAH-hydrolase (SahH. 51 organisms including most Gamma-, Beta-, and Epsilonproteobacteria, and Firmicutes possess the Pfs-LuxS pathway, while Archaea, Eukarya, Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Cyanobacteria prefer the SahH pathway. In all 138 organisms, only the three Vibrio strains had strong, bidirectional matches to the periplasmic AI-2 binding protein LuxP and the central signal relay protein LuxU. The initial two-component sensor kinase protein LuxQ, and the terminal response regulator luxO are found in most Proteobacteria, as well as in some Firmicutes, often in several copies. Conclusions The genomic analysis indicates that the LuxS enzyme required for AI-2 synthesis is widespread in bacteria, while the periplasmic binding protein LuxP is only present in Vibrio strains. Thus, other organisms may either use components different from the AI-2 signal transduction system of Vibrio strains to sense the signal of AI-2, or they do not have such a quorum sensing system at all.

  14. Discovery of intramolecular signal transduction network based on a new protein dynamics model of energy dissipation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Wei Ma

    Full Text Available A novel approach to reveal intramolecular signal transduction network is proposed in this work. To this end, a new algorithm of network construction is developed, which is based on a new protein dynamics model of energy dissipation. A key feature of this approach is that direction information is specified after inferring protein residue-residue interaction network involved in the process of signal transduction. This enables fundamental analysis of the regulation hierarchy and identification of regulation hubs of the signaling network. A well-studied allosteric enzyme, E. coli aspartokinase III, is used as a model system to demonstrate the new method. Comparison with experimental results shows that the new approach is able to predict all the sites that have been experimentally proved to desensitize allosteric regulation of the enzyme. In addition, the signal transduction network shows a clear preference for specific structural regions, secondary structural types and residue conservation. Occurrence of super-hubs in the network indicates that allosteric regulation tends to gather residues with high connection ability to collectively facilitate the signaling process. Furthermore, a new parameter of propagation coefficient is defined to determine the propagation capability of residues within a signal transduction network. In conclusion, the new approach is useful for fundamental understanding of the process of intramolecular signal transduction and thus has significant impact on rational design of novel allosteric proteins.

  15. Analysis and logical modeling of biological signaling transduction networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongyao

    The study of network theory and its application span across a multitude of seemingly disparate fields of science and technology: computer science, biology, social science, linguistics, etc. It is the intrinsic similarities embedded in the entities and the way they interact with one another in these systems that link them together. In this dissertation, I present from both the aspect of theoretical analysis and the aspect of application three projects, which primarily focus on signal transduction networks in biology. In these projects, I assembled a network model through extensively perusing literature, performed model-based simulations and validation, analyzed network topology, and proposed a novel network measure. The application of network modeling to the system of stomatal opening in plants revealed a fundamental question about the process that has been left unanswered in decades. The novel measure of the redundancy of signal transduction networks with Boolean dynamics by calculating its maximum node-independent elementary signaling mode set accurately predicts the effect of single node knockout in such signaling processes. The three projects as an organic whole advance the understanding of a real system as well as the behavior of such network models, giving me an opportunity to take a glimpse at the dazzling facets of the immense world of network science.

  16. Generation of TCR-Expressing Innate Lymphoid-like Helper Cells that Induce Cytotoxic T Cell-Mediated Anti-leukemic Cell Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Norihiro; Uemura, Yasushi; Zhang, Rong; Kitayama, Shuichi; Iriguchi, Shoichi; Kawai, Yohei; Yasui, Yutaka; Tatsumi, Minako; Ueda, Tatsuki; Liu, Tian-Yi; Mizoro, Yasutaka; Okada, Chihiro; Watanabe, Akira; Nakanishi, Mahito; Senju, Satoru; Nishimura, Yasuharu; Kuzushima, Kiyotaka; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki; Kaneko, Shin

    2018-06-05

    CD4 + T helper (Th) cell activation is essential for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against malignancy. We reprogrammed a Th clone specific for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)-derived b3a2 peptide to pluripotency and re-differentiated the cells into original TCR-expressing T-lineage cells (iPS-T cells) with gene expression patterns resembling those of group 1 innate lymphoid cells. CD4 gene transduction into iPS-T cells enhanced b3a2 peptide-specific responses via b3a2 peptide-specific TCR. iPS-T cells upregulated CD40 ligand (CD40L) expression in response to interleukin-2 and interleukin-15. In the presence of Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) peptide, antigen-specific dendritic cells (DCs) conditioned by CD4-modified CD40L high iPS-T cells stimulated WT1-specific CTL priming, which eliminated WT1 peptide-expressing CML cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, CD4 modification of CD40L high iPS-T cells generates innate lymphoid helper-like cells inducing bcr-abl-specific TCR signaling that mediates effectiveanti-leukemic CTL responses via DC maturation, showing potential for adjuvant immunotherapy against leukemia. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The ARG1-LIKE2 gene of Arabidopsis functions in a gravity signal transduction pathway that is genetically distinct from the PGM pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Changhui; Rosen, Elizabeth S.; Boonsirichai, Kanokporn; Poff, Kenneth L.; Masson, Patrick H.

    2003-01-01

    The arl2 mutants of Arabidopsis display altered root and hypocotyl gravitropism, whereas their inflorescence stems are fully gravitropic. Interestingly, mutant roots respond like the wild type to phytohormones and an inhibitor of polar auxin transport. Also, their cap columella cells accumulate starch similarly to wild-type cells, and mutant hypocotyls display strong phototropic responses to lateral light stimulation. The ARL2 gene encodes a DnaJ-like protein similar to ARG1, another protein previously implicated in gravity signal transduction in Arabidopsis seedlings. ARL2 is expressed at low levels in all organs of seedlings and plants. arl2-1 arg1-2 double mutant roots display kinetics of gravitropism similar to those of single mutants. However, double mutants carrying both arl2-1 and pgm-1 (a mutation in the starch-biosynthetic gene PHOSPHOGLUCOMUTASE) at the homozygous state display a more pronounced root gravitropic defect than the single mutants. On the other hand, seedlings with a null mutation in ARL1, a paralog of ARG1 and ARL2, behave similarly to the wild type in gravitropism and other related assays. Taken together, the results suggest that ARG1 and ARL2 function in the same gravity signal transduction pathway in the hypocotyl and root of Arabidopsis seedlings, distinct from the pathway involving PGM.

  18. Resveratrol inhibits PDGF receptor mitogenic signaling in mesangial cells: role of PTP1B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Balachandar; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Das, Falguni; Mahimainathan, Lenin; Kamat, Amrita; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Choudhury, Goutam Ghosh

    2008-01-01

    Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis is associated with overactive PDGF receptor signal transduction. We show that the phytoalexin resveratrol dose dependently inhibits PDGF-induced DNA synthesis in mesangial cells with an IC50 of 10 μM without inducing apoptosis. Remarkably, the increased SIRT1 deacetylase activity induced by resveratrol was not necessary for this inhibitory effect. Resveratrol significantly blocked PDGF-stimulated c-Src and Akt kinase activation, resulting in reduced cyclin D1 expression and attenuated pRb phosphorylation and cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) activity. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited PDGFR phosphorylation at the PI 3 kinase and Grb-2 binding sites tyrosine-751 and tyrosine-716, respectively. This deficiency in PDGFR phosphorylation resulted in significant inhibition of PI 3 kinase and Erk1/2 MAPK activity. Interestingly, resveratrol increased the activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B, which dephosphorylates PDGF-stimulated phosphorylation at tyrosine-751 and tyrosine-716 on PDGFR with concomitant reduction in Akt and Erk1/2 kinase activity. PTP1B significantly inhibited PDGF-induced DNA synthesis without inducing apoptosis. These results for the first time provide evidence that the stilbene resveratrol targets PTP1B to inhibit PDGFR mitogenic signaling.—Venkatesan, B., Ghosh-Choudhury, N., Das, F., Mahimainathan, L., Kamat, A., Kasinath, B. S., Abboud, H. E., Choudhury, G. G. Resveratrol inhibits PDGF receptor mitogenic signaling in mesangial cells: role of PTP1B. PMID:18567737

  19. Adipocyte activation of cancer stem cell signaling in breast cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benjamin; Wolfson; Gabriel; Eades; Qun; Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Signaling within the tumor microenvironment has a critical role in cancer initiation and progression. Adipocytes, one of the major components of the breast microenvironment,have been shown to provide pro-tumorigenic signals that promote cancer cell proliferation and invasiveness in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. Adipocyte secreted factors such as leptin and interleukin-6(IL-6) have a paracrine effect on breast cancer cells. In adipocyte-adjacent breast cancer cells, the leptin and IL-6 signaling pathways activate janus kinase 2/signal transducer and activatorof transcription 5, promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and upregulating stemness regulators such as Notch, Wnt and the Sex determining region Y-box 2/octamer binding transcription factor 4/Nanog signaling axis. In this review we will summarize the major signaling pathways that regulate cancer stem cells in breast cancer and describe the effects that adipocyte secreted IL-6 and leptin have on breast cancer stem cell signaling. Finally we will introduce a new potential treatment paradigm of inhibiting the adipocyte-breast cancer cell signaling via targeting the IL-6 or leptin pathways.

  20. Triple SILAC quantitative proteomic analysis reveals differential abundance of cell signaling proteins between normal and lung cancer-derived exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David J; Fondrie, William E; Yang, Austin; Mao, Li

    2016-02-05

    Exosomes are 30-100 nm sized membrane vesicles released by cells into the extracellular space that mediate intercellular communication via transfer of proteins and other biological molecules. To better understand the role of these microvesicles in lung carcinogenesis, we employed a Triple SILAC quantitative proteomic strategy to examine the differential protein abundance between exosomes derived from an immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line and two non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines harboring distinct activating mutations in the cell signaling molecules: Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In total, we were able to quantify 721 exosomal proteins derived from the three cell lines. Proteins associated with signal transduction, including EGFR, GRB2 and SRC, were enriched in NSCLC exosomes, and could actively regulate cell proliferation in recipient cells. This study's investigation of the NSCLC exosomal proteome has identified enriched protein cargo that can contribute to lung cancer progression, which may have potential clinical implications in biomarker development for patients with NSCLC. The high mortality associated with lung cancer is a result of late-stage diagnosis of the disease. Current screening techniques used for early detection of lung cancer lack the specificity for accurate diagnosis. Exosomes are nano-sized extracellular vesicles, and the increased abundance of select protein cargo in exosomes derived from cancer cells may be used for diagnostic purposes. In this paper, we applied quantitative proteomic analysis to elucidate abundance differences in exosomal protein cargo between two NSCLC cell lines with distinctive oncogene mutations and an immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cell line. This study revealed proteins associated with cell adhesion, the extracellular matrix, and a variety of signaling molecules were enriched in NSCLC exosomes. The present data reveals

  1. mTOR signaling promotes foam cell formation and inhibits foam cell egress through suppressing the SIRT1 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haixiang; Fu, Yucai; Huang, Yusheng; Zheng, Xinde; Yu, Wei; Wang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is a chronic immuno‑inflammatory disease accompanied by dyslipidemia. The authors previously demonstrated that sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) may prevent atherogenesis through influencing the liver X receptor/C‑C chemokine receptor type 7/nuclear factor‑κB (LXR‑CCR7/NF‑κB) signaling pathway. Previous studies have suggested a role for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated the potential association between mTOR signaling and SIRT1‑LXR‑CCR7/NF‑κB signaling (SIRT1 signaling) in AS pathogenesis. To induce foam cell formation, U937 cells were differentiated into macrophages by exposure to phorbol 12‑myristate 13‑acetate (PMA) for 24 h, followed by treatment with palmitate and oxidized low density lipoprotein for a further 24 h. Oil red O staining revealed a large accumulation of lipid droplets present in foam cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased protein levels of phosphorylated (p)‑mTOR and its downstream factor p‑ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K). Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analyses additionally revealed decreased expression of SIRT1, LXRα and CCR7 and increased expression of NF‑κB and its downstream factor tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF‑α) in an atherogenetic condition induced by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). In addition, abundant lipid droplets accumulated in U937‑LPA‑treated foam cells. Rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor, suppressed the expression and activity of mTOR and p70S6K, however enhanced expression of SIRT1, LXRα, and CCR7. Conversely, rapamycin deceased TNF‑α and NF‑κB activity, the latter of which was further confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis demonstrating increased levels of NF‑κB present in the cytoplasm compared with the nucleus. The findings of the present study suggest that mTOR signaling promotes foam cell formation and inhibits foam

  2. Transduction motif analysis of gastric cancer based on a human signaling network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G.; Li, D.Z.; Jiang, C.S.; Wang, W. [Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Command, Department of Gastroenterology, Fuzhou, China, Department of Gastroenterology, Fuzhou General Hospital of Nanjing Command, Fuzhou (China)

    2014-04-04

    To investigate signal regulation models of gastric cancer, databases and literature were used to construct the signaling network in humans. Topological characteristics of the network were analyzed by CytoScape. After marking gastric cancer-related genes extracted from the CancerResource, GeneRIF, and COSMIC databases, the FANMOD software was used for the mining of gastric cancer-related motifs in a network with three vertices. The significant motif difference method was adopted to identify significantly different motifs in the normal and cancer states. Finally, we conducted a series of analyses of the significantly different motifs, including gene ontology, function annotation of genes, and model classification. A human signaling network was constructed, with 1643 nodes and 5089 regulating interactions. The network was configured to have the characteristics of other biological networks. There were 57,942 motifs marked with gastric cancer-related genes out of a total of 69,492 motifs, and 264 motifs were selected as significantly different motifs by calculating the significant motif difference (SMD) scores. Genes in significantly different motifs were mainly enriched in functions associated with cancer genesis, such as regulation of cell death, amino acid phosphorylation of proteins, and intracellular signaling cascades. The top five significantly different motifs were mainly cascade and positive feedback types. Almost all genes in the five motifs were cancer related, including EPOR, MAPK14, BCL2L1, KRT18, PTPN6, CASP3, TGFBR2, AR, and CASP7. The development of cancer might be curbed by inhibiting signal transductions upstream and downstream of the selected motifs.

  3. CTNNB1 signaling in sertoli cells downregulates spermatogonial stem cell activity via WNT4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Boyer

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of the WNT signaling effector CTNNB1 (β-catenin in the Sertoli cells of the Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ mouse model results in progressive germ cell loss and sterility. In this study, we sought to determine if this phenotype could be due to a loss of spermatogonial stem cell (SSC activity. Reciprocal SSC transplants between Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ and wild-type mice showed that SSC activity is lost in Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ testes over time, whereas the mutant testes could not support colonization by wild-type SSCs. Microarray analyses performed on cultured Sertoli cells showed that CTNNB1 induces the expression of genes associated with the female sex determination pathway, which was also found to occur in Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ testes. One CTNNB1 target gene encoded the secreted signaling molecule WNT4. We therefore tested the effects of WNT4 on SSC-enriched germ cell cultures, and found that WNT4 induced cell death and reduced SSC activity without affecting cell cycle. Conversely, conditional inactivation of Wnt4 in the Ctnnb1(tm1Mmt/+;Amhr2(tm3(creBhr/+ model rescued spermatogenesis and male fertility, indicating that WNT4 is the major effector downstream of CTNNB1 responsible for germ cell loss. Furthermore, WNT4 was found to signal via the CTNNB1 pathway in Sertoli cells, suggesting a self-reinforcing positive feedback loop. Collectively, these data indicate for the first time that ectopic activation of a signaling cascade in the stem cell niche depletes SSC activity through a paracrine factor. These findings may provide insight into the pathogenesis of male infertility, as well as embryonic gonadal development.

  4. Redox signaling during hypoxia in mammalian cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A. Smith

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia triggers a wide range of protective responses in mammalian cells, which are mediated through transcriptional and post-translational mechanisms. Redox signaling in cells by reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 occurs through the reversible oxidation of cysteine thiol groups, resulting in structural modifications that can change protein function profoundly. Mitochondria are an important source of ROS generation, and studies reveal that superoxide generation by the electron transport chain increases during hypoxia. Other sources of ROS, such as the NAD(PH oxidases, may also generate oxidant signals in hypoxia. This review considers the growing body of work indicating that increased ROS signals during hypoxia are responsible for regulating the activation of protective mechanisms in diverse cell types.

  5. In situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes: linking basic nanotechniques to cell biology, immunology and medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Jiang; Jin, Hua; Yang, Fen; Chen, Zheng W.; Cai, Jiye

    2014-10-01

    The cell membrane, which consists of a viscous phospholipid bilayer, different kinds of proteins and various nano/micrometer-sized domains, plays a very important role in ensuring the stability of the intracellular environment and the order of cellular signal transductions. Exploring the precise cell membrane structure and detailed functions of the biomolecules in a cell membrane would be helpful to understand the underlying mechanisms involved in cell membrane signal transductions, which could further benefit research into cell biology, immunology and medicine. The detection of membrane biomolecules at the single molecule level can provide some subtle information about the molecular structure and the functions of the cell membrane. In particular, information obtained about the molecular mechanisms and other information at the single molecule level are significantly different from that detected from a large amount of biomolecules at the large-scale through traditional techniques, and can thus provide a novel perspective for the study of cell membrane structures and functions. However, the precise investigations of membrane biomolecules prompts researchers to explore cell membranes at the single molecule level by the use of in situ imaging methods, as the exact conformation and functions of biomolecules are highly controlled by the native cellular environment. Recently, the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes has attracted increasing attention from cell biologists and immunologists. The size of biomolecules and their clusters on the cell surface are set at the nanoscale, which makes it mandatory to use high- and super-resolution imaging techniques to realize the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In the past few decades, some amazing imaging techniques and instruments with super resolution have been widely developed for molecule imaging, which can also be further employed for the in situ single molecule imaging of cell membranes. In

  6. Single-cell analysis reveals a link between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipp, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Elevation of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) is a key signal during T cell activation and is commonly used as a read-out parameter for stimulation of T cell signaling. Upon T cell stimulation a variety of calcium signals is produced by individual cells of the T cell population and the type of calcium signal strongly influences cell fate decisions. The heterogeneous nature of T cells is masked in ensemble measurements, which highlights the need for single-cell measurements. In this study we used single-cell calcium measurements in Jurkat cells to investigate signaling pathways, which are triggered by different proteins, namely CD3 and CD59. By application of an automated cluster algorithm the presented assay provides unbiased analysis of a large data set of individual calcium time traces generated by the whole cell population. By using this method we could demonstrate that the Jurkat population generates heterogeneous calcium signals in a stimulus-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data revealed the existence of a link between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways. Single-cell calcium measurements in Jurkat cells expressing different levels of the T cell receptor (TCR) complex indicated that CD59-mediated calcium signaling is critically dependent on TCR surface expression levels. In addition, triggering CD59-mediated calcium signaling resulted in down-regulation of TCR surface expression levels, which is known to happen upon direct TCR triggering too. Moreover, by using siRNA-mediated protein knock-downs and protein knock-out Jurkat mutants we could show that CD3- and CD59-mediated calcium signaling require identical key proteins. We therefore explored by which mechanism CD59-mediated signaling couples into TCR-mediated signaling. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) experiments and live-cell protein-protein interaction assays provided no evidence of a direct physical interaction between CD3- and CD59-mediated signaling pathways

  7. NK cell activation: distinct stimulatory pathways counterbalancing inhibitory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, A B; Wu, J; Phillips, J H; Lanier, L L

    2000-01-01

    A delicate balance between positive and negative signals regulates NK cell effector function. Activation of NK cells may be initiated by the triggering of multiple adhesion or costimulatory molecules, and can be counterbalanced by inhibitory signals induced by receptors for MHC class I. A common pathway of inhibitory signaling is provided by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIMs) in the cytoplasmic domains of these receptors which mediate the recruitment of SH2 domain-bearing tyrosine phosphate-1 (SHP-1). In contrast to the extensive progress that has been made regarding the negative regulation of NK cell function, our knowledge of the signals that activate NK cells is still poor. Recent studies of the activating receptor complexes have shed new light on the induction of NK cell effector function. Several NK receptors using novel adaptors with immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) and with PI 3-kinase recruiting motifs have been implicated in NK cell stimulation.

  8. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and abscisic acid signal transduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heimovaara-Dijkstra, S.; Testerink, C.; Wang, M.

    1998-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is a classical plant hormone, responsible for regulation of abscission, diverse aspects of plant and seed development, stress responses and germination. It was found that ABA signal transduction in plants can involve the activity of type 2C-phosphatases (PP2C),

  9. Kaempferol induces autophagic cell death of hepatocellular carcinoma cells via activating AMPK signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bing; Yu, Yi-Qun; Yang, Qi-Lian; Shen, Chun-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Juan

    2017-10-17

    In the present study, we demonstrate that Kaempferol inhibited survival and proliferation of established human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines (HepG2, Huh-7, BEL7402, and SMMC) and primary human HCC cells. Kaempferol treatment in HCC cells induced profound AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation, which led to Ulk1 phosphorylation, mTOR complex 1 inhibition and cell autophagy. Autophagy induction was reflected by Beclin-1/autophagy gene 5 upregulation and p62 degradation as well as light chain 3B (LC3B)-I to LC3B-II conversion and LC3B puncta formation. Inhibition of AMPK, via AMPKα1 shRNA or dominant negative mutation, reversed above signaling changes. AMPK inhibition also largely inhibited Kaempferol-induced cytotoxicity in HCC cells. Autophagy inhibition, by 3-methyaldenine or Beclin-1 shRNA, also protected HCC cells from Kaempferol. Kaempferol downregulated melanoma antigen 6, the AMPK ubiquitin ligase, causing AMPKα1 stabilization and accumulation. We conclude that Kaempferol inhibits human HCC cells via activating AMPK signaling.

  10. Using Nucleofection of siRNA Constructs for Knockdown of Primary Cilia in P19.CL6 Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation into Cardiomyocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Christian Alexandro; Larsen, Lars Allan; Christensen, Søren Tvorup

    2009-01-01

    Primary cilia assemble as solitary organelles in most mammalian cells during growth arrest and are thought to coordinate a series of signal transduction pathways required for cell cycle control, cell migration, and cell differentiation during development and in tissue homeostasis. Recently, prima...

  11. Morphogen and community effects determine cell fates in response to BMP4 signaling in human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemashkalo, Anastasiia; Ruzo, Albert; Heemskerk, Idse; Warmflash, Aryeh

    2017-09-01

    Paracrine signals maintain developmental states and create cell fate patterns in vivo and influence differentiation outcomes in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) in vitro Systematic investigation of morphogen signaling is hampered by the difficulty of disentangling endogenous signaling from experimentally applied ligands. Here, we grow hESCs in micropatterned colonies of 1-8 cells ('µColonies') to quantitatively investigate paracrine signaling and the response to external stimuli. We examine BMP4-mediated differentiation in µColonies and standard culture conditions and find that in µColonies, above a threshold concentration, BMP4 gives rise to only a single cell fate, contrary to its role as a morphogen in other developmental systems. Under standard culture conditions BMP4 acts as a morphogen but this requires secondary signals and particular cell densities. We find that a 'community effect' enforces a common fate within µColonies, both in the state of pluripotency and when cells are differentiated, and that this effect allows a more precise response to external signals. Using live cell imaging to correlate signaling histories with cell fates, we demonstrate that interactions between neighbors result in sustained, homogenous signaling necessary for differentiation. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. The Regulation of Lactogenic Differentiation in Mammary Epithelial Cells by Ras-Dependent and -Independent Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-06

    Lynch, 2002). In normal cells, programmed cell 19 death controls excessive proliferation. Most cancer cells, however, have devised methods for...also phosphorylates and inactivates caspase 9, a cell death -promoting protease. Phosphorylation of another Akt target, FKHR1, prevents its nuclear...Cancer Res 50:4204–4208. Gao J, Horseman N. 1999. Prolactin-independent modulation of the beta-casein response element by Erk2 Map kinase. Cell

  13. [Germ cell membrane lipids in spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Xiao; Quan, Song

    2016-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. During spermatogenesis, membrane remodeling takes place, and cell membrane permeability and liquidity undergo phase-specific changes, which are all associated with the alteration of membrane lipids. Lipids are important components of the germ cell membrane, whose volume and ratio fluctuate in different phases of spermatogenesis. Abnormal lipid metabolism can cause spermatogenic dysfunction and consequently male infertility. Germ cell membrane lipids are mainly composed of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids, which play critical roles in cell adhesion and signal transduction during spermatogenesis. An insight into the correlation of membrane lipids with spermatogenesis helps us to better understand the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  14. Protein kinase C signaling and cell cycle regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian R Black

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A link between T cell proliferation and the protein kinase C (PKC family of serine/threonine kinases has been recognized for about thirty years. However, despite the wealth of information on PKC-mediated control of T cell activation, understanding of the effects of PKCs on the cell cycle machinery in this cell type remains limited. Studies in other systems have revealed important cell cycle-specific effects of PKC signaling that can either positively or negatively impact proliferation. The outcome of PKC activation is highly context-dependent, with the precise cell cycle target(s and overall effects determined by the specific isozyme involved, the timing of PKC activation, the cell type, and the signaling environment. Although PKCs can regulate all stages of the cell cycle, they appear to predominantly affect G0/G1 and G2. PKCs can modulate multiple cell cycle regulatory molecules, including cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks, cdk inhibitors and cdc25 phosphatases; however, evidence points to Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins as key mediators of PKC-regulated cell cycle-specific effects. Several PKC isozymes can target Cip/Kip proteins to control G0/G1→S and/or G2→M transit, while effects on D-type cyclins regulate entry into and progression through G1. Analysis of PKC signaling in T cells has largely focused on its roles in T cell activation; thus, observed cell cycle effects are mainly positive. A prominent role is emerging for PKCθ, with non-redundant functions of other isozymes also described. Additional evidence points to PKCδ as a negative regulator of the cell cycle in these cells. As in other cell types, context-dependent effects of individual isozymes have been noted in T cells, and Cip/Kip cdk inhibitors and D-type cyclins appear to be major PKC targets. Future studies are anticipated to take advantage of the similarities between these various systems to enhance understanding of PKC-mediated cell cycle regulation in

  15. A Combined In Vivo HSC Transduction/Selection Approach Results in Efficient and Stable Gene Expression in Peripheral Blood Cells in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported on an in vivo hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy approach. It involves the subcutaneous injections of G-CSF/AMD3100 to mobilize HSCs from the bone marrow into the peripheral blood stream and the intravenous injection of an integrating helper-dependent adenovirus vector system. HSCs transduced in the periphery homed back to the bone marrow, where they persisted long-term. However, high transgene marking rates found in primitive bone marrow HSCs were not reflected in peripheral blood cells. Here, we tested small-molecule drugs to achieve selective mobilization and transduction of HSCs. We found more efficient GFP marking in bone marrow HSCs but no increased marking in the peripheral blood