WorldWideScience

Sample records for signal oral cancer

  1. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  2. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  3. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complications of oral cancer may include: Complications of radiation therapy, including dry mouth and difficulty swallowing Disfigurement of the face, head, and neck after surgery Other spread ( metastasis ) of the cancer

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens ...

  8. Oral Cancer Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Get involved Dental Research Resources Contact Sitemap Oral Cancer Facts Home » Oral Cancer Facts Oral Cancer Facts ... needed on the Check Your Mouth website. How oral cancer develops We know that all cancers (neoplastic transformations) ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  10. [Effect of Slit-Robo signal on apoptosis of oral cancer cell line Tb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yu-guang; Wang, Li-jing; Han, Bing; Zhang, Jie

    2006-04-01

    To study the effect of Slit-Robo signal on apoptosis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma line Tb. After the treatment in Tb cells with monoclonal antibodies (mAb) R5 of against Robo1 receptor extracellular domain, the apoptosis of Tb cell was examined by clone formation assay, flow cytometry, DNA ladder and Hochst-PI. The expression of fas and fasL proteins was observed by Western blotting analysis. After the treatment by R5 mAb, the proliferative rate decreased and the apoptotic rates increased, and the expression of fas and fasL proteins was up-regulated. Slit-Robo signal could inhibit the apoptosis of tumor cells during genesis of tongue cancer by regulating the expression of fas-fasL proteins.

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  12. Cardiotoxin III Inhibits Proliferation and Migration of Oral Cancer Cells through MAPK and MMP Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Yen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiotoxin III (CTXIII, isolated from the snake venom of Formosan cobra Naja naja atra, has previously been found to induce apoptosis in many types of cancer. Early metastasis is typical for the progression of oral cancer. To modulate the cell migration behavior of oral cancer is one of the oral cancer therapies. In this study, the possible modulating effect of CTXIII on oral cancer migration is addressed. In the example of oral squamous carcinoma Ca9-22 cells, the cell viability was decreased by CTXIII treatment in a dose-responsive manner. In wound-healing assay, the cell migration of Ca9-22 cells was attenuated by CTXIII in a dose- and time-responsive manner. After CTXIII treatment, the MMP-2 and MMP-9 protein expressions were downregulated, and the phosphorylation of JNK and p38-MAPK was increased independent of ERK phosphorylation. In conclusion, CTXIII has antiproliferative and -migrating effects on oral cancer cells involving the p38-MAPK and MMP-2/-9 pathways.

  13. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Squamous Cell Cancer Screening Research Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Key Points Oral cavity ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Home Health Info Health Information The Oral Cancer Exam See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Contact Us Home Health Info Health Information The Oral Cancer Exam See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and ...

  16. Oral Cancer Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... survivors and caregivers. Join or Login Today! The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ... Find an OCF Event. OCF Sitemap Sitemap The Oral Cancer Foundation 3419 Via Lido #205 Newport Beach Ca ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  19. Oral Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in common. The following are risk factors for oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: Tobacco use Using tobacco is ... infection. The following is a protective factor for oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer: Quitting smoking Studies have shown ...

  20. Integrated genomic analyses identify KDM1A's role in cell proliferation via modulating E2F signaling activity and associate with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sathiya Pandi; Singh, Smriti; Gupta, Amit; Yadav, Sandhya; Singh, Shree Ram; Shukla, Sanjeev

    2015-10-28

    The histone demethylase KDM1A specifically demethylates lysine residues and its deregulation has been implicated in the initiation and progression of various cancers. However, KDM1A's molecular role and its pathological consequences, and prognostic significance in oral cancer remain less understood. In the present study, we sought to investigate the expression of KDM1A and its downstream role in oral cancer pathogenesis. By comparing mRNA expression profiles, we identified an elevated KDM1A expression in oral tumors when compared to normal oral tissues. In silico pathway prediction identified the association between KDM1A and E2F1 signaling in oral cancer. Pathway scanning, functional annotation analysis and In vitro assays showed the KDM1A's involvement in oral cancer cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Moreover, real time PCR and luciferase assays confirmed KDM1A's role in regulation of E2F1 signaling activity in oral cancer. Elevated KDM1A expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in oral cancer. Our data indicate that deregulated KDM1A expression is positively associated with proliferative phenotype of oral cancer and confers poor clinical outcome. These cumulative data suggest that KDM1A might be a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target for oral cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer ... Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic ... health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and ...

  4. Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Oral Cancer URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Oral Cancer - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health ... and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by- ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk ...

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All ... oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral Cancer A fact sheet ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings ... of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral Cancer A fact ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and ... Exam Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  15. Essentials of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  16. Essentials of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators.

  17. Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Oral Contraceptives and Cancer Risk On This Page What types of oral contraceptives are available in the United States today? ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail.nih.gov . Order Now Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing ... the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to Know About Oral ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  2. Pathogenesis of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Syafriadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study are to study the pathogenesis of oral cancer and to see the role play of oncogenes, onco-suppressor genes in cancer growth and their mutation type. There are many predisposing factors which may influence the development ofcancer. The factors are divided intrinsic (hereditary and extrinsic factors (bacteria, viruses, fungi, chemical, drugs, radiation, trauma, heat, cold and nutrition. These agents may act individually, in combination with other carcinogen (co-carcinogen or in combination with other agents that do not in themselves causes cancer (promoters, but that help the carcinogens to mutate or depress cells, but in the mechanism still enigma. Oncogenes oncosuppressor genes are normal genes in human. Oncogenes functions are as growth factor (e.g. sis, growth factor receptor (e.g. erbB1, signal transducer (e.g. ras or nuclear factor (e.g. myc, jun. Tumor (oral cancer will be arises if oncogenes and onco-suppressor genes function are disturbed by some carcinogen and these genes have mutation, deletion, amplification or translocation. That was also related to the loss or inactivation of onco-suppressor genes such as p53, so that causes the loss of the normal growth regulation/strait control that associated with tumorigenesis.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v15i2.66

  3. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms ... current and future efforts to improve detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American ...

  5. Oral environment and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Yasusei; Tada, Hidesuke; Fujiwara, Natsumi; Tada, Yoshiko; Tsunematsu, Takaaki; Miyake, Yoichiro; Ishimaru, Naozumi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is now the leading cause of death in Japan. A rapid increase in cancer mortality is expected as Japan is facing a super-aged society. Many causes of cancer are known to be closely linked to life style factors, such as smoking, drinking, and diet. The oral environment is known to be involved in the pathogenesis and development of various diseases such as bronchitis, pneumonia, diabetes, heart disease, and dementia. Because the oral cavity acts as the bodily entrance for air and food, it is constantly exposed to foreign substances, including bacteria and viruses. A large number of bacteria are endemic to the oral cavity, and indigenous oral flora act to prevent the settlement of foreign bacteria. The oral environment is influenced by local factors, including dental plaque, tartar, teeth alignment, occlusion, an incompatible prosthesis, and bad lifestyle habits, and systemic factors, including smoking, consumption of alcohol, irregular lifestyle and eating habits, obesity, stress, hormones, and heredity. It has recently been revealed that the oral environment is associated with cancer. In particular, commensal bacteria in the oral cavity are involved in the development of cancer. Moreover, Candida, human papilloma virus and Epstein-Barr virus as well as commensal bacteria have been reported to be associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. In this review, we introduce recent findings of the correlation between the oral environment and cancer.

  6. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka H. Meurman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the complex metabolic pathways and may thus be involved in carcinogenesis. Poor oral health associates statistically with prevalence of many types of cancer, such as pancreatic and gastrointestinal cancer. Furthermore, several oral micro-organisms are capable of converting alcohol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde which also may partly explain the known association between heavy drinking, smoking, poor oral health and the prevalence of oral and upper gastrointestinal cancer. A different problem is the cancer treatment-caused alterations in oral microbiota which may lead to the emergence of potential pathogens and subsequent other systemic health problems to the patients. Hence clinical guidelines and recommendations have been presented to control oral microbiota in patients with malignant disease, but also in this area the scientific evidence is weak. More controlled studies are needed for further conclusion.

  7. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early stages. ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High ... sheet that describes current and future efforts to improve detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. Limit of 50 ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Job Openings Diversity Getting to NIDCR Contact Us Home Health Info Health Information The Oral Cancer Exam ... Last Reviewed on February 2018 Connect with Us Home NIH Staff Directory Web Policies Privacy FOIA Contact ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Sign In Skip to Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's ... that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All ... so patients know what to expect. What You Need to Know About Oral Cancer For people who ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a Grant) Questions and Answers Grant Writing Tips Careers & ... successfully. Publications​ For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by- ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth ...

  2. [Oral precancer and cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, José; Omaña-Cepeda, Carlos; Jané-Salas, Enric

    2015-11-06

    We reviewed the concept of oral precancerous lesions, oral cancer, and the possibility of early diagnosis. With the keywords: premalignant oral lesions prevention, a search was performed over the past 10 years. Also clinical trials are searched from January 2011 until today with the keywords: oral cancer prevention AND dentistry. It is emphasized that there can be no significant changes related to the concept of precancerous lesions and cancer, and those relating to the early diagnosis. Despite the numerous described methods of screening, biopsy remains the most useful test, and therefore it is essential, mainly if we consider the new possibilities of molecular studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Low-level laser therapy can produce increased aggressiveness of dysplastic and oral cancer cell lines by modulation of Akt/mTOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Felipe F; Giudice, Fernanda S; Corrêa, Luciana; Pinto, Décio S; Hamblin, Michael R; de Sousa, Suzana C O M

    2013-10-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a non-thermal phototherapy used in several medical applications, including wound healing, reduction of pain and amelioration of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, the effects of LLLT upon cancer or dysplastic cells have been so far poorly studied. Head and neck cancer patients receiving LLLT for oral mucositis, for example, might have remaining tumor cells that could be stimulated by LLLT. This study demonstrated that LLLT (GaAlAs--660 nm or 780 nm, 40 mW, 2.05, 3.07 or 6.15 J/cm²) can modify oral dysplastic cells (DOK) and oral cancer cells (SCC9 and SCC25) growth by modulating the Akt/mTOR/CyclinD1 signaling pathway; LLLT significantly modified the expression of proteins related to progression and invasion in all the cell lines, and could aggravate oral cancer cellular behavior, increasing the expression of pAkt, pS6 and Cyclin D1 proteins and producing an aggressive Hsp90 isoform. Apoptosis was detected for SCC25 and was related to pAkt levels. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Imaging in oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeta Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.

  5. Stages of Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  6. Epigallocatechin gallate sensitizes cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy through stimulating AKT/STAT3 pathway and suppressing multidrug resistance 1 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chien-Han; Horng, Chi-Ting; Lee, Chiu-Fang; Chiang, Ni-Na; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Hsu, Yuan-Man; Yang, Jai-Sing; Chen, Fu-An

    2017-03-01

    Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a green tea polyphenol that presents anticancer activities in multiple cancer cells, but no available report was addressed for the underling molecular mechanism of cytotoxic impacts on drug-resistant oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of EGCG were experienced on cisplatin-resistant oral cancer CAR cells. EGCG inhibited cell viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner by a sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. EGCG induced CAR cell apoptosis and autophagy by 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) dye, acridine orange (AO) staining and green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged LC3B assay, respectively. EGCG also significantly enhanced caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities by caspase activity assay. EGCG markedly increased the protein levels of Bax, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3, Atg5, Atg7, Atg12, Beclin-1, and LC3B-II, as well as significantly decreased the expression of Bcl-2, phosphorylated AKT (Ser473) and phosphorylation of STAT3 on Tyr705 by western blotting in CAR cells. Importantly, the protein and gene expression of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) were dose-dependently inhibited by EGCG. Overall, downregulation of MDR1 levels and alterations of AKT/STAT3 signaling contributed to EGCG-induced apoptosis and autophagy in CAR cells. Based on these results, EGCG has the potential for therapeutic effect on oral cancer and may be useful for long-term oral cancer prevention in the future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 845-855, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Oral cancer: prevention and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bobby K

    2002-01-01

    Researchers in oral cancer agree that the early diagnosis of oral carcinoma greatly increases the probability of cure with minimum impairment and deformity. Primary prevention which involves reducing the exposure to tobacco, alcohol and betel quid has been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. Secondary prevention involves screening for the early detection of oral cancer. Oral cancer screening can take many forms. Clinical examination and biopsy allow the early detection of premalignant and early oral cancers. Screening can be made more efficient by inspecting high-risk sites--the floor of the mouth, the ventrolateral surface of the tongue and the soft palate. Due to the cost of population screening, it is advisable to initially target high-risk groups, those over 40 years of age, including smokers and heavy drinkers. It is recommended that dentists perform an annual visual oral cancer examination on all their patients and obtain a specialist opinion for suspicious oral lesions. Ora Test with toluidine blue may be used as an adjunct to soft tissue examination to highlight any invisible, asymptomatic lesions. Exfoliative cytology can detect early oral cancer and can be performed by dentally untrained personnel. It is rapid and relatively non-invasive and therefore may be useful in population-based oral cancer screening programmes. Recently, based on various studies, the oral CDx brush biopsy technique has been proposed as a highly accurate method of detecting oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. More frequent oral cancer examinations are recommended for treated oral cancer patients to monitor the development of secondary tumours. Family members of patients with oral cancer are also at high risk and therefore should be examined more frequently. Whatever screening method is used, a positive screening result must be confirmed by biopsy. A public awareness programme that stresses the importance of at least one annual dental examination

  8. Oral cancer: A multicenter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanawatsirivej, Somsri; Thosaporn, Watcharaporn; Kintarak, Sompid; Subarnbhesaj, Ajiravudh; Darling, Mark; Kryshtalskyj, Eugene; Chiang, Chun-Pin; Shin, Hong-In; Choi, So-Young; Lee, Sang-shin; Shakib, Pouyan-Amini

    2018-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence and clinicopathologic features of the oral cancer patients. Material and Methods Biopsy records of the participating institutions were reviewed for oral cancer cases diagnosed from 2005 to 2014. Demographic data and site of the lesions were collected. Sites of the lesion were subdivided into lip, tongue, floor of the mouth, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, palate, buccal/labial mucosa, maxilla and mandible. Oral cancer was subdivided into 7 categories: epithelial tumors, salivary gland tumors, hematologic tumors, bone tumors, mesenchymal tumors, odontogenic tumors, and others. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics using SPSS software version 17.0. Results Of the 474,851 accessioned cases, 6,151 cases (1.30%) were diagnosed in the category of oral cancer. The mean age of the patients was 58.37±15.77 years. A total of 4,238 cases (68.90%) were diagnosed in males, whereas 1911 cases (31.07%) were diagnosed in females. The male-to-female ratio was 2.22:1. The sites of predilection for oral cancer were tongue, labial/buccal mucosa, gingiva, palate, and alveolar mucosa, respectively. The three most common oral cancer in the descending order of frequency were squamous cell carcinoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Conclusions Although the prevalence of oral cancer is not high compared to other entities, oral cancer pose significant mortality and morbidity in the patients, especially when discovered late in the course of the disease. This study highlights some anatomical locations where oral cancers are frequently encountered. As a result, clinicians should pay attention to not only teeth, but oral mucosa especially in the high prevalence area as well since early detection of precancerous lesions or cancers in the early stage increase the chance of patient being cured and greatly reduce the mortality and morbidity. This study also shows some differences between pediatric and elderly oral cancer patients as well as

  9. Precipitants of oral cancer in India

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjith Raveendran; Nath, Sameera G.

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancers are malignant neoplasms that affect the mouth. Oral cancer remains a major personal tragedy and public health problem. There is a very high incidence of oral cancer in Southern Asia. In India, the oral cavity is the most common site for cancer. The majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas are related to tobacco, areca nut / betel quid chewing, alcoholism. Control of oral potentially malignant diseases will only be achieved by effective and comprehensive primary and secondary pre...

  10. Oral complications in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl, W.

    1983-02-01

    Ionizing radiation used in treating the head and neck area produces oral side effects such as mucositis, salivary changes, trismus and radiation caries. Sequelae of cancer chemotherapy often include oral stomatitis, myelosuppression and immunosuppression. Infections of dental origin in compromised patients are potentially lethal. Specific programs to eliminate dental pathology before radiation and chemotherapy, and to maintain oral hygiene during and after therapy, will minimize these complications.

  11. Sentinel Node in Oral Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tartaglione, Girolamo; Stoeckli, Sandro J; de Bree, Remco

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Nuclear imaging plays a crucial role in lymphatic mapping of oral cancer. This evaluation represents a subanalysis of the original multicenter SENT trial data set, involving 434 patients with T1-T2, N0, and M0 oral squamous cell carcinoma. The impact of acquisition techniques, tracer...

  12. Oral complications of cancer radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizen, S.; Daly, T.E.; Drane, J.B.; Brown, L.R.

    1977-02-01

    Injury to surrounding tissues during radiotherapy for oral cancer can have devastating physical and psychologic consequences for the patient. Oral complications include xerostomia, dental decay, mucositis, taste loss, osteoradionecrosis, infection, and trismus. In many instances, these problems can be eradicated or controlled with appropriate treatment.

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advancing the nation's oral health through research and innovation Health Info Research Grants & Funding Careers & Training News & ... Advancing the nation's oral health through research and innovation Health Info Research Grants & Funding Careers & Training News & ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ... – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A– ... Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ...

  16. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  17. Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... site’s privacy policy when you follow the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... additional information that is consistent with the intended purpose of this site. NIH cannot attest to the ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ ... site’s privacy policy when you follow the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA ...

  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... an endorsement by NIH or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products ...

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions ... notice ( ) means that you are leaving the NIH website. This external link provides additional information that is ...

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes ... Browse Studies by Topic NIDCR-Sponsored Clinical Trials Research NIDCR Strategic Plan Research Results Tools for Researchers ...

  7. Oral candidiasis mimicking tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Tomohisa; Yamashita, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Shingo; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Tahara, Shinya; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2011-06-01

    Candida species inhabit the mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals. Major forms of oral candidiasis are pseudomembranous and atrophic form, but chronic hyperplastic candidiasis (CHC) is rarely seen. We encountered a nodule caused by candidal infection on a forearm flap in the oral cavity mimicking a recurrent tongue cancer, which revealed as CHC by histopathological examination. Like other forms of oral candidiasis, the nodule well responded to the treatment of antifungal agents and eventually disappeared. When an intraoral nodule is observed, the possibility of CHC should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Pablo H; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Although early diagnosis is relatively easy, presentation with advanced disease is not uncommon. The standard of care is primary surgical resection with or without postoperative adjuvant therapy. Improvements in surgical techniques combined with the routine use of postoperative radiation or chemoradiation therapy have resulted in improved survival. Successful treatment is predicated on multidisciplinary treatment strategies to maximize oncologic control and minimize impact of therapy on form and function. Prevention of oral cancer requires better education about lifestyle-related risk factors, and improved awareness and tools for early diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Staging N0 oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1......%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... Need to Know ​​ Main Content Share This Page Facebook External link – please review our disclaimer Twitter External ...

  11. Differential prooxidative effects of the green tea polyphenol, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, in normal and oral cancer cells are related to differences in sirtuin 3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ling; Park, Jong-Yung; Lambert, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    We have previously reported that the green tea catechin, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), can induce oxidative stress in oral cancer cells but exerts antioxidant effects in normal cells. Here, we report that these differential prooxidative effects are associated with sirtuin 3 (SIRT3), an important mitochondrial redox modulator. EGCG rapidly induced mitochondria-localized reactive oxygen species in human oral squamous carcinoma cells (SCC-25, SCC-9) and premalignant leukoplakia cells (MSK-Leuk1), but not in normal human gingival fibroblast cells (HGF-1). EGCG suppressed SIRT3 mRNA and protein expression, as well as, SIRT3 activity in SCC-25 cells, whereas it increased SIRT3 activity in HGF-1 cells. EGCG selectively decreased the nuclear localization of the estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), the transcription factor regulating SIRT3 expression, in SCC-25 cells. This indicates that EGCG may regulate SIRT3 transcription in oral cancer cells via ERRα. EGCG also differentially modulated the mRNA expressions of SIRT3-associated downstream targets including glutathione peroxidase 1 and superoxide dismutase 2 in normal and oral cancer cells. SIRT3 represents a novel potential target through which EGCG exerts differential prooxidant effects in cancer and normal cells. Our results provide new biomarkers to be further explored in animal studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Metabolomic Studies of Oral Biofilm, Oral Cancer, and Beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washio, Jumpei; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2016-06-02

    Oral diseases are known to be closely associated with oral biofilm metabolism, while cancer tissue is reported to possess specific metabolism such as the 'Warburg effect'. Metabolomics might be a useful method for clarifying the whole metabolic systems that operate in oral biofilm and oral cancer, however, technical limitations have hampered such research. Fortunately, metabolomics techniques have developed rapidly in the past decade, which has helped to solve these difficulties. In vivo metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm have produced various findings. Some of these findings agreed with the in vitro results obtained in conventional metabolic studies using representative oral bacteria, while others differed markedly from them. Metabolomic analyses of oral cancer tissue not only revealed differences between metabolomic profiles of cancer and normal tissue, but have also suggested a specific metabolic system operates in oral cancer tissue. Saliva contains a variety of metabolites, some of which might be associated with oral or systemic disease; therefore, metabolomics analysis of saliva could be useful for identifying disease-specific biomarkers. Metabolomic analyses of the oral biofilm, oral cancer, and saliva could contribute to the development of accurate diagnostic, techniques, safe and effective treatments, and preventive strategies for oral and systemic diseases.

  13. Understanding Carcinogenesis for Fighting Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. Oral cancer development is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are able to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will give us important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, assessing cancer risk, and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from research using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as interventions with molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  14. Chemotherapy for Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartner, Lee

    2018-01-01

    The use of chemotherapy, including immunotherapy, in oral squamous cell carcinoma has expanded considerably in the past several years. Its use mirrors that in the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma affecting other structures in the head and neck. This article summarizes the current evidence that guides use of chemotherapy both in combination with radiation and as monotherapy for patients with advanced disease. It also addresses the expanding role of immunotherapy, particularly use of programmed cell death-ligand 1 inhibitors, in the treatment of advanced disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... signs of cancer, such as red and/or white patches. Next, your provider will have you stick out your tongue so it can be checked for swelling or abnormal color or texture. Using gauze, he or she will ...

  16. The application of vizilite in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambandham, Thirugnana; Masthan, K M K; Kumar, M Sathish; Jha, Abhinav

    2013-01-01

    This article depicts the various applications of Vizilite plus in oral cancer. The oral cavity demonstrates a variety of red and white, pigmented and vesiculo- bullous lesions. Oral cancer still happens to carry the highest mortality worldwide, especially in India. In India, the prime focus is on the downstreaming of oral cancer from an advanced stage to an early diseased state. The techniques that are promoted to facilitate an earlier detection and diagnosis of an oral malignancy include Toluidine blue, ViziLite Plus with TBlue, ViziLite, Microlux DL, Orascoptic DK, VEL scope, Oral CDx and brush biopsy.

  17. Treatment Options by Stage (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  18. Treatment Options for Recurrent Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  19. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  20. Treatment Option Overview (Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Head and Neck Cancer Patient Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ... Oropharyngeal Cancer Screening Health Professional Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment Laryngeal Cancer Treatment Lip & Oral Cavity Treatment Metastatic Squamous Neck ...

  1. Role of oral microbiome on oral cancers, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Pourya; Eslami, Hosein; Yousefi, Mehdi; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Kafil, Hossein Samadi

    2016-12-01

    The oral cavity is inhibited by many of the bacterial species. Some of them have a key role in the development of oral disease. Interrelationships between oral microbiome and systemic conditions such as head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Emerging evidence also suggests a link between periodontal disease and oral cancer, and the explanation being that chronic inflammation could be a major factor in both diseases. Squamous cell carcinoma is that the most frequently occurring malignancy of the oral cavity and adjacent sites, representing over 90% of all cancers. The incidence of oral cancer is increasing, significantly among young people and women. Worldwide there are 350,000-400,000 new cases diagnosed every year. Bacteria, viruses, and fungi are strongly implicated as etiological factors in certain cancers. In this review we will discuss the association between the development of oral cancer in potentially malignant oral lesions with chronic periodontitis, chronic Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, candida, other microbes and described mechanisms which may be involved in these carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Changes in Abundance of Oral Microbiota Associated with Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Brian L.; Kuczynski, Justin; Bhattacharya, Aditi; Huey, Bing; Corby, Patricia M.; Queiroz, Erica L. S.; Nightingale, Kira; Kerr, A. Ross; DeLacure, Mark D.; Veeramachaneni, Ratna; Olshen, Adam B.; Albertson, Donna G.

    2014-01-01

    Individual bacteria and shifts in the composition of the microbiome have been associated with human diseases including cancer. To investigate changes in the microbiome associated with oral cancers, we profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. In cancer samples from both a discovery and a subsequent confirmation cohort, abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinates analysis based on 12 taxa separated most cancers from other samples with greatest separation of node positive cases. These studies begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence. PMID:24887397

  3. Aetiology of Oral Cancer in the Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To review the studied risk factors that linked to aetiology of oral cancer in the Sudan. There have been numerous reports in the increase in the incidence of oral cancer from various parts of the world. A recent trend for a rising incidence of oral cancer, with the absence of the well established risk factors, has raised concern. Although, there are inconsistent data on incidence and demographical factors, studies suggest that the physiologic response to risk factors by me...

  4. Liaison between micro-organisms and oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasprasad, Vijayan; Dineshshankar, Janardhanam; Sathiyajeeva, J.; Karthikeyan, M.; Sunitha, J.; Ragunathan, Ramachandran

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer which is a subtype of head and neck, cancer is any neoplastic tissue growth in the oral cavity. It comprises an abnormal mass of cells that foists genetic mutation and impedes the normal cell cycle, resulting in its unrestrained growth. Various studies on the plausible link between oral microbial flora and cancer notwithstanding, our understanding of their link remains obscure and inadequate. The multitude of mechanisms by which the microflora initiate or spur Carcinogenesis are still under study and scrutiny. As is widely known, the oral cavity is an abode to a wide assortment of microbes, each present in contrasting amounts. It is observed that increased growth of the microflora is concomitant with known clinical risk factors for oral cancer. Manifold bacterial species have been found to interfere directly with eukaryotic cellular signaling, adopting a style typical of tumor promoters. Bacteria are also known to impede apoptosis thereby potentially promoting carcinogenesis. The viral role in carcinogenesis (by annulling of p53 tumor suppressor gene and other cellular proteins with subsequent alteration in host genome function) is well documented. Furthermore, the changes occurring in the commensal microflora in accompaniment with cancer development could possibly be used as a diagnostic indicator for early cancer detection. The intention of this review is to obtain a better understanding of the “role” that micro-organisms play in oral cancer etiology. PMID:26538877

  5. [Oral cavity cancer: epidemiology and early diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghantous, Y; Yaffi, V; Abu-Elnaaj, I

    2015-07-01

    Cancer of the oral cavity (Oral cancer) is the 11th most common malignancy in the world, despite the general global trend of a slight decrease in the incidence of oral cancer, tongue cancer incidence is increasing. About 90% of tumors are subtyped to oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The incidence and mortality of this tumor shows variability according to the geographic location in which it is diagnosed, however in the last decade an increase was seen in the percentage of young patients, especially patients with tongue cancer. The overall prognosis of this cancer is roughly 55-65%, this is probably due to late diagnosis. Early diagnosis of oral cancer is the most important factor affecting the overall survival and prognosis, thus several diagnosis methods have been developed in the past few years. Still, the prognosis did not improve as expected. Oral cancer biomarkers in saliva is as easy body fluid, for noninvasive detection. Several researches identified several possible biomarkers, but none was specific. In our review, the incidence and mortality of oral tumors pose a main health problem in many aspects all around the world, as well as differences in behavior of these tumors. We witnessed more cases of anterior tongue cancers affecting mainly the young age patient group, a two decades younger than the normal risk group of oral cancer. Several countries in Europe showed a significant increase of oral cancer prevalence, such as Germany, especially in men. Similar behavior was also reported in the United States, which showed a change in the risk groups. Studies have reported an alarming lack of awareness about oral cancer, its symptoms and early diagnosis. These gaps in knowledge need to be addressed by further public education, possibly targeted at high-risk groups. With the knowledge of possible, specific, early biomarkers, primary detection could improve the prognosis tremendously. Research on the salivary biomarkers of the disease would help to develop

  6. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Is a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Yu Kuo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancers, which affect 650,000 people and cause 350,000 deaths per year, is the sixth leading cancer by cancer incidence and eighth by cancer-related death worldwide. Oral cancer is the most common type of head and neck cancer. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. The overall five-year survival rate of OSCC patients is approximately 63%, which is due to the low response rate to current therapeutic drugs. In this review we discuss the possibility of using caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE as an alternative treatment for oral cancer. CAPE is a strong antioxidant extracted from honeybee hive propolis. Recent studies indicate that CAPE treatment can effectively suppress the proliferation, survival, and metastasis of oral cancer cells. CAPE treatment inhibits Akt signaling, cell cycle regulatory proteins, NF-κB function, as well as activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2. Therefore, CAPE treatment induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in oral cancer cells. According to the evidence that aberrations in the EGFR/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/protein kinase B (Akt signaling, NF-κB function, COX-2 activity, and MMPs activity are frequently found in oral cancers, and that the phosphorylation of Akt, EGFR, and COX-2 correlates to oral cancer patient survival and clinical progression, we believe that CAPE treatment will be useful for treatment of advanced oral cancer patients.

  7. Depression of p53-independent Akt survival signals in human oral cancer cells bearing mutated p53 gene after exposure to high-LET radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakagawa, Yosuke [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Takahashi, Akihisa [Advanced Scientific Research Leader Development Unit, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kajihara, Atsuhisa; Yamakawa, Nobuhiro; Imai, Yuichiro [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ota, Ichiro; Okamoto, Noritomo [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Mori, Eiichiro [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Noda, Taichi [Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Furusawa, Yoshiya [Heavy-ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Kirita, Tadaaki [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ohnishi, Takeo, E-mail: tohnishi@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation induces efficiently apoptosis regardless of p53 gene status. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined whether high-LET radiation depresses the Akt-survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation depresses of survival signals even in the mp53 cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation activates Caspase-9 through depression of survival signals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-LET radiation suppresses cell growth through depression of survival signals. -- Abstract: Although mutations and deletions in the p53 tumor suppressor gene lead to resistance to low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation, high-LET radiation efficiently induces cell lethality and apoptosis regardless of the p53 gene status in cancer cells. Recently, it has been suggested that the induction of p53-independent apoptosis takes place through the activation of Caspase-9 which results in the cleavage of Caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). This study was designed to examine if high-LET radiation depresses serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB, also known as Akt) and Akt-related proteins. Human gingival cancer cells (Ca9-22 cells) harboring a mutated p53 (mp53) gene were irradiated with 2 Gy of X-rays or Fe-ion beams. The cellular contents of Akt-related proteins participating in cell survival signaling were analyzed with Western Blotting 1, 2, 3 and 6 h after irradiation. Cell cycle distributions after irradiation were assayed with flow cytometric analysis. Akt-related protein levels decreased when cells were irradiated with high-LET radiation. High-LET radiation increased G{sub 2}/M phase arrests and suppressed the progression of the cell cycle much more efficiently when compared to low-LET radiation. These results suggest that high-LET radiation enhances apoptosis through the activation of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, and suppresses cell growth by suppressing Akt-related signaling, even in mp

  8. Genetic Abnormalities in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Cancer Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Tae Jun; Kim, Hyun Sil; Kim, Hyung Jun; Nam, Woong; Cha, In-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The cancer progression of oral leukoplakia is an important watchpoint in the follow-up observation of the patients. However, potential malignancies of oral leukoplakia cannot be estimated by histopathologic assessment alone. We evaluated genetic abnormalities at the level of copy number variation (CNV) to investigate the risk for developing cancer in oral leukoplakias. The current study used 27 oral leukoplakias with histological evidence of dysplasia. The first group (progressing dysplasia) consisted of 7 oral lesions from patients with later progression to cancer at the same site. The other group (non- progressing dysplasia) consisted of 20 lesions from patients with no occurrence of oral cancer and longitudinal follow up (>7 years). We extracted DNA from Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) samples and examined chromosomal loci and frequencies of CNVs using Taqman copy number assays. CNV frequently occurred at 3p, 9p, and 13q loci in progressing dysplasia. Our results also indicate that CNV at multiple loci-in contrast to single locus occurrences-is characteristic of progressing dysplasia. This study suggests that genetic abnormalities of the true precancer demonstrate the progression risk which cannot be delineated by current histopathologic diagnosis.

  9. Dissortativity and duplications in oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Pramod; Yadav, Alok; Rai, Aparna; Jalan, Sarika

    2015-08-01

    More than 300 000 new cases worldwide are being diagnosed with oral cancer annually. Complexity of oral cancer renders designing drug targets very difficult. We analyse protein-protein interaction network for the normal and oral cancer tissue and detect crucial changes in the structural properties of the networks in terms of the interactions of the hub proteins and the degree-degree correlations. Further analysis of the spectra of both the networks, while exhibiting universal statistical behaviour, manifest distinction in terms of the zero degeneracy, providing insight to the complexity of the underlying system.

  10. Conflicting Signals for Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujobert, Pierre; Trautmann, Alain

    2016-12-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have provided us with a precise description of the mutational burden of cancers, making it possible to identify targetable oncogene addictions. However, the emergence of resistant clones is an inevitable limitation of therapies targeting these addictions. Alternative approaches to cancer treatment are therefore required. We propose here a novel approach, based on the notion of conflicting signals and on a phenotypic description of cancer cells. "Phenotype" is an inherently complex notion that we describe in the conceptual framework of the epigenetic landscape, with a view to bridging the gap between theory and practice at the patient's bedside. By passing from theory to the description of several examples, we will illustrate how this approach can facilitate data analysis and the design of new strategies for cancer treatment. Cancer Res; 76(23); 6768-73. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Whole genome expression profiling in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancers: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Sanjukta; Multani, Shaleen; Dabholkar, Jyoti; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2015-03-01

    The current study was undertaken with a view to identify differential biomarkers in chewing-tobacco-associated oral cancer tissues in patients of Indian ethnicity. The gene expression profile was analyzed in oral cancer tissues as compared to clinically normal oral buccal mucosa. We examined 30 oral cancer tissues and 27 normal oral tissues with 16 paired samples from contralateral site of the patient and 14 unpaired samples from different oral cancer patients, for whole genome expression using high-throughput IlluminaSentrix Human Ref-8 v2 Expression BeadChip array. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 425 differentially expressed genes with >1.5-fold expression in the oral cancer tissues as compared to normal tissues in the oral cancer patients. Overexpression of 255 genes and downregulation of 170 genes (p TNFSF13B, TMPRSS11A); signal transduction (FOLR2, MME, HTR3B); invasion and metastasis (SPP1, TNFAIP6, EPHB6); differentiation (CLEC4A, ELF5); angiogenesis (CXCL1); apoptosis (GLIPR1, WISP1, DAPL1); and immune responses (CD300A, IFIT2, TREM2); and metabolism (NNMT; ALDH3A1). Besides, several of the genes have been differentially expressed in human cancers including oral cancer. Our data indicated differentially expressed genes in oral cancer tissues and may identify prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers in oral cancers, postvalidation in larger numbers and varied population samples.

  12. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  13. Risk Factor Analysis In Oral Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharti A.R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A case-control study involving 54 cases and 108 matched controls was conducted to find out the association of risk factors like smoking, chewing paan and tobacco and the occurrence of cancers of the oral cavity. More than 80% of the cases were over 40 years of age, with a male: female ratio of 2:1, paan and tobacco chewing were significantly related to the oral cancers (Odds Ratio of 9.3 and 7.8 respectively. Smoking showed a statistically significant relationship with oral cancers among male patients. In addition, the study also established dose-response and time-response relationship these risk factors and oral cancer.

  14. Best Practice in Basic Oral Care among Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Wanyonyi, Celestine; Suila, Jennibeth

    2015-01-01

    Basic oral care maintains oral cleanliness, reduces the impact of oral microbial flora, prevents infections in the oral cavity, thereby preventing cancer treatment complications. Nurses caring for cancer patients are well situated to perform various roles that affect the patients’ oral health such as identifying patients at risk of developing oral complications, and educating cancer patients about the importance and means of having good oral health throughout their treatment to prevent, ...

  15. Human papilloma virus in oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women, and it arises from cells that originate in the cervix uteri. Among several causes of cervical malignancies, infection with some types of human papilloma virus (HPV) is well known to be the greatest cervical cancer risk factor. Over 150 subtypes of HPV have been identified; more than 40 types of HPVs are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region and oral cavity. The recently introduced vaccine for HPV infection is effective against certain subtypes of HPV that are associated with cervical cancer, genital warts, and some less common cancers, including oropharyngeal cancer. Two HPV vaccines, quadrivalent and bivalent types that use virus-like particles (VLPs), are currently used in the medical commercial market. While the value of HPV vaccination for oral cancer prevention is still controversial, some evidence supports the possibility that HPV vaccination may be effective in reducing the incidence of oral cancer. This paper reviews HPV-related pathogenesis in cancer, covering HPV structure and classification, trends in worldwide applications of HPV vaccines, effectiveness and complications of HPV vaccination, and the relationship of HPV with oral cancer prevalence. PMID:28053902

  16. Oral cancer screening: serum Raman spectroscopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi K.; Dhoot, Suyash; Singh, Amandeep; Sawant, Sharada S.; Nandakumar, Nikhila; Talathi-Desai, Sneha; Garud, Mandavi; Pagare, Sandeep; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Nair, Sudhir; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Murali Krishna, C.

    2015-11-01

    Serum Raman spectroscopy (RS) has previously shown potential in oral cancer diagnosis and recurrence prediction. To evaluate the potential of serum RS in oral cancer screening, premalignant and cancer-specific detection was explored in the present study using 328 subjects belonging to healthy controls, premalignant, disease controls, and oral cancer groups. Spectra were acquired using a Raman microprobe. Spectral findings suggest changes in amino acids, lipids, protein, DNA, and β-carotene across the groups. A patient-wise approach was employed for data analysis using principal component linear discriminant analysis. In the first step, the classification among premalignant, disease control (nonoral cancer), oral cancer, and normal samples was evaluated in binary classification models. Thereafter, two screening-friendly classification approaches were explored to further evaluate the clinical utility of serum RS: a single four-group model and normal versus abnormal followed by determining the type of abnormality model. Results demonstrate the feasibility of premalignant and specific cancer detection. The normal versus abnormal model yields better sensitivity and specificity rates of 64 and 80% these rates are comparable to standard screening approaches. Prospectively, as the current screening procedure of visual inspection is useful mainly for high-risk populations, serum RS may serve as a useful adjunct for early and specific detection of oral precancers and cancer.

  17. Dietary Indicators of Oral and Pharyngeal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    LA VECCHIA, CARLO; NEGRI, EVA; D'AVANZO, BARBARA; BOYLE, PETER; FRANCESCHI, SILVIA

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between frequency of consumption of a selected number of indicator foods and oral and oropharyngeal cancer risk was analysed in a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 105 cases of oral and pharyngeal cancer and 1169 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic or digestive diseases. Besides significant and strong direct associations with tobacco (relative risk, RR = 11.0 for current versus never smokers) and alcohol (RR = 5.8 for upper versus lower consumption ...

  18. Protection of Dietary Polyphenols against Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yijian; Yao, Hua; Yao, Yanan; Yenwong Fai, Leonard; Zhang, Zhuo

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a health burden worldwide with approximate 275,000 new cases diagnosed annually. Its poor prognosis is due to local tumor invasion and frequent lymph node metastasis. Better understanding and development of novel treatments and chemo-preventive approaches for the preventive and therapeutic intervention of this type of cancer are necessary. Recent development of dietary polyphenols as cancer preventives and therapeutic agents is of great interest due to their antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic activities. Polyphenols may inhibit carcinogenesis in the stage of initiation, promotion, or progression. In particular, dietary polyphenols decrease incidence of carcinomas and exert protection against oral cancer by induction of cell death and inhibition of tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis. In this review, we discuss current progress of dietary polyphenols against oral cancers in vitro, in vivo, and at population levels. PMID:23771133

  19. General Information about Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pharyngeal, and Laryngeal Cancer Screening Research Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (Adult) (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Lip ...

  20. Propolis in dentistry and oral cancer management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S, Vagish Kumar L

    2014-06-01

    Propolis, known as bee glue, is a wax-cum-resin substance, which is created out of a mix of buds from some trees with the substance secreted from the bee's glands. Its diverse chemical content is responsible for many valuable properties. Multiple applications of propolis have been studied and described in detail for centuries. However, currently available information on propolis is scarce. A literature search in the PubMed database was performed for English language articles, using the search terms propolis, oral health, dentistry, and oral cancer; no restrictions were used for publication dates. The aim of the article was to review propolis and its applications in dentistry including oral cancer.

  1. Implication for second primary cancer from visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions in betel-nut chewing related oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shyun-Yu; Feng, I-Jung; Wu, Yu-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yuan; Hsiung, Chao-Nan; Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Lin, Che-Yi; Chang, Min-Te; Yu, Hsi-Chien; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2017-07-01

    Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions may be used to monitor for a second primary oral cancer. To control for bias, we focused on the visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions of patients with oral cancer with a positive betel-nut chewing habit. Visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions that can predict second primary oral cancers were studied. Nine hundred ninety-seven patients with positive betel-nut chewing habits and oral cancer were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. We analyzed the relevance of their visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesion incidence and relative clinicopathological variables to the development of a second primary oral cancer. Second primary oral cancer risk was significantly higher in patients with positive visible oral and oropharyngeal premalignant lesions (P betel-nut chewing habit with oral cancer, especially young patients with heterogeneous leukoplakia. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Oral cancer: review of current management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Yogesh; D'Cruz, Anil K

    2013-01-01

    India has one of the highest incidences of oral cancer and accounts for about 30% of all new cases annually. A high prevalence of smokeless tobacco use has led to an increasing incidence, which in combination with delayed presentation has made oral cancer a major health problem in India. Limited access to cancer care, relative lack of trained healthcare providers and financial resources are some of the challenges to the management of oral cancer in India despite improvements in diagnostic techniques and management strategies. We reviewed the literature pertaining to the epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, pre-malignancy, tumour progression, management of the primary site, mandible, neck lymph node metastases, reconstruction options and screening of oral cancer. The parameters evaluated were overall survival, disease-free survival, recurrence and loco-regional control. Nine studies on surgical intervention were reviewed. There were 23 studies on the management of chemotherapy and 30 trials analysing radiotherapy as an intervention. India has one of the highest incidences of oral cancer and delayed stage presentation is common. Surgery remains the treatment of choice and adjuvant treatment is recommended in high-risk patients. Elective neck dissection is warranted in clinically lymph node-negative neck for patients with thick tumours, imaging-suspected lymph nodes and those who may not have a reliable follow-up. Functional outcomes and treatment-related morbidity needs to be considered, and reconstruction with free tissue transfer provides the best results. Copyright 2013, NMJI.

  3. Molecular based treatment of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudbø, Jon; Bryne, Magne; Mao, Li; Lotan, Reuben; Reith, Albrecht; Kildal, Wanja; Davidson, Ben; Søland, Tine M; Lippman, Scott M

    2003-12-01

    Given the increase in the age distribution of the population, an increase in cancer incidence rates are to be expected. Oral cancer is a disfiguring disease that continues to increase in incidence, particularly in the young, and to an extent that cannot be fully explained by increased exposure to known risk factors. Despite extensive research on treatment modalities towards oral cancer, the 5-year survival rate of this disease has not been improved over the last 4-5 decades. These facts strongly favour chemoprevention-systemic medication to revert, stop, or delay the carcinogenic process-as an approach to treating oral cancer. A chemopreventive approach to oral cancer most likely should encompass a combination of drugs targeting metabolic pathways relevant to oral carcinogenesis. Candidate drugs are retinoids and selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Chemopreventive trials so far have used surrogate intermediate biomarkers as measurement of treatment effect. However, the efficiency of any drug for chemopreventive use should be assessed through a prospective randomized trial and evaluated by the only definitive end point for prevention of cancer, the incidence rates of new carcinomas.

  4. [Oral cancer: Risk factors and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paré, Arnaud; Joly, Aline

    2017-03-01

    Oral cavity is the most frequent anatomical subsite of upper aero-digestive tract malignancies. Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common histological type and totalizes more than 95% of oral cancer. Main risk factors are tobacco and alcohol exposure and also potentially malignant lesions. These precancerous lesions are a chronic disease of oral mucosa and are responsible for about 20% of oral cancer. The treatment of oral cancer depends on clinical, radiological and endoscopic staging and according to the multidisciplinary tumor board decision. Indeed, tumor staging gives information about loco-regional and metastatic spread. Treatment can include surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. However, the prognostic mainly depends on tumor resectability and patient comorbidities. Tumor removal is often associated with reconstruction procedures in order to restore phonation, swallowing and breathing functions with acceptable aesthetic outcomes. The usual delayed diagnosis explains the poor prognostic of oral cancer in spite of prevention attempt and therapeutic improvement. Indeed, the profile of tobacco and alcoholic patients outside of medical system, the high rate of recurrence and the frequency of second primary malignancies explain the stable incidence for years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Dental implications in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escoda-Francolí, Jaume; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Araceli; Pérez-García, Silvia; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2011-07-01

    A study is made of the dental implications of oral cancer, with a view to avoiding the complications that appear once oncological treatment is started. The study comprised a total of 22 patients diagnosed with oral cancer according to clinical and histological criteria in the Service of Maxillofacial Surgery (Dental Clinic of the University of Barcelona, Spain) during the period 1996-2005, and posteriorly treated in different hospital centers in Barcelona. Of the 22 patients diagnosed with oral cancer in our Service, the present study finally analyzed the 12 subjects who reported for the dental controls. As regards the remaining 10 patients, 5 had died and 5 could not be located; these subjects were thus excluded from the analysis. All of the smokers had abandoned the habit. The most common tumor location was the lateral margin of the tongue. None of the patients visited the dentist regularly before the diagnosis of oral cancer. T1N0M0 was the most common tumor stage. Surgery was carried out in 50% of the cases, while 8.4% of the patients received radiotherapy and 41.6% underwent surgery with postoperative radiotherapy. In turn, 66.6% of the patients reported treatment sequelae such as dysgeusia, xerostomia or speech difficulties, and one patient suffered osteoradionecrosis. Forty-one percent of the patients did not undergo regular dental controls after cancer treatment. As regards oral and dental health, 16.6% presented caries, and 50% had active periodontal disease. Protocols are available for preventing the complications of oral cancer treatment, and thus for improving patient quality of life. However, important shortcomings in the application of such protocols on the part of the public health authorities make it difficult to reach these objectives.

  6. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), polonium, formaldehyde, cadmium, lead, and benzo[a]pyrene, which are carcinogenic agents. Although there is presence of some compounds, carotenoids and phenolic compounds, that have cancer inhibiting properties, they are in low concentrations. Dry snuff use is linked with higher relative risks, while the use of other smokeless tobacco is of intermediate risk. Moist snuff and chewing tobacco have a very low risk for oral cancer. Therefore, from this review article, it was concluded that smokeless tobacco has risk for oral cancer - either low, medium or high depending on the balance between cancer causing agents and cancer inhibiting agents.

  7. Oral Cancer Care and Oromaxillofacial Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, S K

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancers are one of the most common cancers affecting people of Nepal and it the sixth most common cancer in the world. Unlike other cancers the early detection of the disease is possible through a routine examination of the oral cavity which is usually done by a dental practitioner. Through a series of phases like prevention, screening, early intervention, diagnosis and staging, management with tumor ablative surgeries, and rehabilitation to restore the function and esthetic part for better clinical outcome, the role of the specialty of dentistry is immensified. From a patient perspective, having a direct referral line within the dental community between dentists and oral and maxillofacial surgeons will contribute to cost reduction and improvement in outcomes. Trained oral and maxillofacial surgeon especially in the head and neck oncology plays a vital role in exploring functional multidisciplinary efforts to enhance patient care, academic excellence and research initiatives and evaluate for gaps in patient care. This article highlights the role of such professionals in a multidisciplinary team approach for the proper management of head and neck cancers which have significantly and logically additive effect for a better outcome.

  8. Dental rehabilitation after surgery for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace-Balzan, Adrian; Rogers, Simon N

    2012-04-01

    This article reviews the recent literature relating to dental rehabilitation of the oral cancer patient. The impact of loss of teeth on the well being of the oral cancer patient, the process of dental rehabilitation and the latest outcome studies are discussed. For patients treated for oral cancer major concerns may include their ability to masticate, speak and swallow and if these issues are not addressed this may lead to psychological difficulties. The loss of teeth is a determinant of patient health-related quality of life, with a reduced self-perceived oral health status in association with greater numbers of missing teeth. There is, therefore, a patient need and demand for dental rehabilitation which aims to restore orofacial form and function and general well being. Dental rehabilitation begins at time of diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach is critical for best treatment outcomes. Implant-based dental rehabilitation is an effective treatment modality but should be used judiciously. The beneficial effects of dental rehabilitation may be veiled by the side effects of cancer and concurrent comorbidities. The introduction of three-dimensional planning, guided implant surgery and manufacturing tools has facilitated the treatment of head and neck cancer patients and challenges long-held dogma of treatment.

  9. Epidemiological characterization of oral cancer. Study Protocol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Fernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a disease of high impact globally. It ranks as the sixth more frequent one among all types of cancer. In spite of being a widely known pathology and easy access to the diagnosis, the lack of epidemiological data reported in the last 10 years in Chile called attention to. At the global level, the World Health Organization (WHO has developed a project called “GLOBOCAN” in order to collect epidemiological data of the global cancer, between its data, highlights the high incidence and high rate of mortality in the male sex, parameter that shows tendency to replicate in both America and Chile. In consequence to these data, a narrative review of the literature concerning the epidemiological profile of the different forms of oral cancer in the past 15 years was done. The diagnosis of oral cancer crosses transversely the Dental Science, forcing us to establish triads of work between oral and maxillofacial surgeons, pathologists and dentists of the various specialties, so as to allow a timely research, appropriate biopsies and histopathological studies finishes with the purpose of, on the one hand, obtain timely and accurate diagnostics, in addition, maintaining the epidemiological indicators.

  10. Oral cryotherapy reduced oral mucositis in patients having cancer treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivakovsky, Sylvia

    2016-09-01

    Data sourcesCochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, CANCERLIT, CINAHL, the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform.Study selectionRandomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment compared to usual care, no treatment or other interventions to prevent mucositis. The primary outcome was incidence of mucositis and its severity.Data extraction and synthesisTwo reviewers carried out study assessment and data extraction independently. Treatment effect for continuous data was calculated using mean values and standard deviations and expressed as mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval. Risk ratio (RR) was calculated for dichotomous data. Meta-analysis was performed.ResultsFourteen studies with 1280 participants were included. Subgroup analysis was undertaken according to the main cancer treatment type. Cryotherapy reduced the risk of developing mucositis by 39% (RR = 0.61; 95%CI, 0.52 to 0.72) on patients treated with fluorouracil (5FU). For melphalan-based treatment the risk of developing mucositis was reduced by 41% (RR =0.59; 95%CI, 0.35 to 1.01). Oral cryotherapy was shown to be safe, with very low rates of minor adverse effects, such as headaches, chills, numbness/taste disturbance and tooth pain. This appears to contribute to the high rates of compliance seen in the included studies.ConclusionsThere is confidence that oral cryotherapy leads to a large reduction in oral mucositis in adults treated with 5FU. Although there is less certainty on the size of the reduction on patients treated with melphalan, it is certain there is reduction of severe mucositis.

  11. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

  12. Cryotherapy for oral precancers and cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Hang Yu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an “open” or a “closed” system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers.

  13. Cryotherapy for oral precancers and cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuan-Hang; Lin, Hung-Pin; Cheng, Shih-Jung; Sun, Andy; Chen, Hsin-Ming

    2014-05-01

    Previous studies have used cryotherapy for the treatment of oral precancers including oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) as well as oral cancers including oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Cryotherapy is a method that locally destroys lesional tissues by freezing in situ. It can be carried out by either an "open" or a "closed" system. Lesional tissues are destroyed mainly through disruption of cell membrane, cellular dehydration, enzyme and protein damage, cell swelling and rupture, thermal shock injury to cells, damage to vasculature, and immune-mediated cytotoxicity. Cryotherapy is used frequently for the treatment of OL lesions with promising results. It can also be used to treat OVH and OVC lesions. Because OVH and OVC lesions are usually fungating and bulky, a combination therapy of shave excision and cryotherapy is needed to achieve a complete regression of the lesion. OSCCs have also been treated by cryotherapy. However, cryotherapy is not the main-stream treatment modality for OSCCs. Cryotherapy seems suitable for treatment of thin or relatively thick plaque-typed lesions such as OL lesions. By careful selection of patients, cryotherapy is a simple, safe, easy, conservative, and acceptable treatment modality for certain benign oral lesions and oral precancers. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Interventions for treating oral leukoplakia to prevent oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Giovanni; Franchini, Roberto; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Varoni, Elena Maria; Sardella, Andrea; Kerr, Alexander R; Carrassi, Antonio; MacDonald, L C I; Worthington, Helen V

    2016-07-29

    Oral leukoplakia is a relatively common oral lesion that, in a small proportion of people, precedes the development of oral cancer. Most leukoplakias are asymptomatic; therefore, the primary objective of treatment should be to prevent onset of cancer. This review updates our previous review, published in 2006. To assess the effectiveness, safety and acceptability of treatments for leukoplakia in preventing oral cancer. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 16 May 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 16 May 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 16 May 2016) and CancerLit via PubMed (1950 to 16 May 2016). We searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (to 10 February 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (to 16 May 2016) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials (to 16 May 2016). We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that enrolled people with a diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and compared any treatment versus placebo or no treatment. We collected data using a data extraction form. Oral cancer development, demonstrated by histopathological examination, was our primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were clinical resolution of the lesion, improvement of histological features and adverse events. We contacted trial authors for further details when information was unclear. When valid and relevant data were available, we conducted a meta-analysis of the data using a fixed-effect model when we identified fewer than four studies with no heterogeneity. For dichotomous outcomes, we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We assessed risk of bias in studies by using the Cochrane tool. We assessed the overall quality of the evidence by using standardised

  15. Integrative review on oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Kelle Batista Moura

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar estudos nacional e internacional sobre o câncer bucal. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa da literatura. Foram selecionados 28 artigos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão da pesquisa. Os dados foram processados no software IRAMUTEC e analisados pela classificação hierárquica descendente com base no dendograma. Resultados: Foram apresentados em 05 classes, a saber: 1-A prevenção e o tratamento das morbidades orais. 2- A reabilitação do paciente com câncer de boca. 3-Qualidade de vida dos pacientes em terapia para câncer bucal. 4- A equipe profissional multidisciplinar de saúde nos cuidados de prevenção do câncer oral. 5- O rastreio do câncer oral para diminuição da prevalência. Conclusão: O câncer oral é um grave problema de saúde pública no Brasil e no mundo.  Há necessidade de maiores investimentos nas pesquisas relacionadas com o câncer bucal e implementação das políticas públicas para o rastreio do câncer oral e diminuição da prevalência.

  16. Wnt Signaling and Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatoff, Emma M; Leach, Benjamin I; Dow, Lukas E

    2017-04-01

    The WNT signaling pathway is a critical mediator of tissue homeostasis and repair, and frequently co-opted during tumor development. Almost all colorectal cancers (CRC) demonstrate hyperactivation of the WNT pathway, which in many cases is believed to be the initiating and driving event. In this short review, we provide a focused overview of recent developments in our understanding of the WNT pathway in CRC, describe new research tools that are enabling a deeper understanding of WNT biology, and outline ongoing efforts to target this pathway therapeutically.

  17. Cancer, signal transduction and nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Poulomi; Basu, Sudipta; Sengupta, Shiladitya

    2011-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms underlying different cellular signaling pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer are leading to the identification of novel drug targets as well as novel drug candidates. Multiple targeted therapeutics that modulate aberrant molecular pathways have already reached the clinic. However, targeted therapeutics can exert mechanism-driven side effects as a result of the implication of the molecular target in normal physiological functions besides tumorigenesis. We hypothesize that targeted therapeutics can be optimized by merging them with nanotechnology, which offers the potential for preferential targeting to the tumor, resulting in increased intratumoral concentrations of the active agent with reduced distribution to other parts of the body. This review will address some of the emerging concepts that integrate these two disciplines to engineer novel nanovectors that target different signaling pathways.

  18. Trends of oral cancer in University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the trend and recent pattern of oral cancer in the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria. Method: A retrospective analysis of all cases of oral cancer (excluding lymphoid cancers) documented in the records of the Departments of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and ...

  19. Oral cancer at Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi | Onyango | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The epidemiology of oral cancer in the African population is still uncertain. Earlier reports suggested a relatively low incidence of oral cancer among Africans. However, there have been recent reports of an upward trend in the incidence of oral cancers in developing countries as a consequence of changes in ...

  20. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Huisman, Paulien M.; van Oort, Rob P.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    Purpose This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Methods Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or

  1. ORAL FIELD CANCERIZATION. A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta TRANDAFIR

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oral mucosa cancerization is a process of malignant transformation, which has been widely discussed in the last 60 years. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity are often associated with large areas of histopathological changes in the mucosal epithelium, so that, despite the apparently good results of the treatment of primary malignant tumors in this region, there is a high probability of developing a second primary tumor in the upper aerodigestive tract. This misfortune is due to the accumulation of genetic changes initiated by prolonged action of carcinogens (chronic smoking and chronic alcohol abuse on all mucous membranes of the territory, once known that the carcinogenic process is conducted in several stages. The term “oral field cancerization” (originally proposed by Slaughter refers to several aspects, including: 1 oral cancer forms in multiple areas of premalignant lesions, 2 the area of abnormal tissue (from a molecular view surrounding the initial malignant tumor, 3 oral malignant tumor formed by coalescence of several independent lesions, 4 genetic changes in adjacent mucosa persist even after radical excision of the original tumor, which would explain the appearance of a second primary tumor or local recurrence. Good command of oral field cancerization requires identifying of the markers for an early detection of oral carcinoma, finding opportunities against the development of a second primary tumor or ways to delay tumor development. We present the clinical case of a 64 year-old male patient, diagnosed with a second malignancy of the head and neck segment affecting the left side of the oropharynx, after eight years from the diagnosis and complex treatment of a right mouth floor squamous cell carcinoma, noting that he never gave up smoking or alcohol abuse.

  2. Dental implants in oral cancer reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D David; Ghali, G E

    2011-05-01

    Endosseous implants have revolutionized dental prosthetic rehabilitation, providing a reliable, a stable, and an aesthetic option for dental reconstruction. Dental implants have similarly improved the functionality of reconstructions following cancer surgery. The use of dental implants in oral cancer reconstruction can be divided into 2 categories: (1), for retention of a prosthetic device, for example, palatal obturator, used as the primary means of maxillary reconstruction, and (2), for dental rehabilitation after bony reconstruction of the jaws. This article discusses these different uses of endosseous implants in patients with head and neck cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dietary factors in oral and pharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, J K; Gridley, G; Block, G; Winn, D M; Preston-Martin, S; Schoenberg, J B; Greenberg, R S; Stemhagen, A; Austin, D F; Ershow, A G

    1988-10-05

    A population-based case-control study of oral and pharyngeal cancer conducted in four areas of the United States provided information on a number of risk factors, including diet. Interviews were obtained from 871 oral cancer patients and 979 controls among whites, frequency matched for age and sex. Consumption frequency of 61 food items was assessed in the questionnaire; attention was given to foods that are sources of vitamins A and C and carotene. The major finding was an inverse relationship between fruit intake and risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer; individuals in the highest quartile of intake had about half the risk of those in the lowest quartile. Vitamin C, carotene, or fiber in fruit did not appear to account completely for this relationship, since these nutrients in vegetables did not provide similar protection. This finding suggests the influence of other constituents in fruits, although it is possible that cooking vegetables may have a nutrient-diminishing effect. Dietary intake of other nutrients, such as the B vitamins, vitamin E, folate, and iron, showed no consistent relationship to risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer. Coffee or other hot beverage consumption did not increase risk; intake of nitrite-containing meats or cooking practices, such as smoking, pickling, or charcoal grilling, also did not increase risk. All analyses were adjusted for the effects of tobacco and alcohol, strong risk factors for oral and pharyngeal cancer. Dietary findings among the few subjects who did not use tobacco or alcohol were similar to those for all subjects.

  4. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, William N.; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J. Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E.W.; Lin, Heather Y.; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Martin, Jack W.; Lingen, Mark W.; Boyle, Jay O.; Shin, Dong M.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S.; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A.; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J. Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. OBJECTIVE To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. DESIGN The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. INTERVENTIONS Oral erlotinib treatment (150mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Oral cancer–free survival (CFS). RESULTS A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74%and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95%CI, 0.68–2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74%vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95%CI, 1.25–3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and

  5. Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Oral cancer is of major concern in Southeast Asia primarily because of the prevalent oral habits of betel quid chewing, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Despite recent advances in cancer diagnoses and therapies, the 5.year survival rate of oral cancer patients has remained at a dismal 50% in the last few decades. This paper is an overview of the various etiological agents and risk factors implicated in the development of oral cancer.

  6. Smokeless tobacco, viruses and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Lars; Wallström, Mats; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél

    2014-06-01

    Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common epithelial malignancy in the oral cavity. OSCCs and their variants constitute over 90% of oral malignancies, and the disease is associated with poor prognosis. OSCC is a complex malignancy where environmental factors, viral infections, and genetic alterations most likely interact, and thus give rise to the malignant condition. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007 concluded: "there is sufficient evidence in humans to establish smokeless tobacco as carcinogenic, i.e. smokeless tobacco causes cancer of the oral cavity and pancreas". ST products contain a large array of carcinogens, although the number found is actually smaller than in cigarette smoke. Worldwide, ST products have many different names depending on the region where it is produced. However, there are two main types of ST, chewing tobacco and snuff. It is estimated that approximately 150 million people in the world use ST. Herein, we review available literature regarding smokeless tobacco and oral Carcinogenesis. We also discuss the role of viral infections in combination with ST in OSCC development.

  7. Knowledge and attitudes of Saudi dental undergraduates on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujan, Omar; Alzoghaibi, Ibrahim; Azzeghaiby, Saleh; Altamimi, Mohammed Alsakran; Tarakji, Bassel; Hanouneh, Salah; Idress, Majdy; Alenzi, Faris Q; Iqbal, Mazhar; Taifour, Shahama

    2014-12-01

    Oral cancer awareness among future dental practitioners may have an impact on the early detection and prevention of oral cancer. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess the current knowledge of future Saudi dentists on oral cancer and their opinions on oral cancer prevention. A pretested questionnaire was sent to 550 undergraduate dental students in the fourth, fifth, and sixth year of the Al-Farabi College for Dentistry and Nursing, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Questions relating to knowledge of oral cancer, risk factors, and opinions on oral cancer prevention and practices were posed. Four hundred seventy-nine students returned the questionnaire (87.1 %). Eighty-one percent of respondents correctly answered questions relating to oral cancer awareness. Eighty-seven percent of respondents felt confident in performing a systematic oral examination to detect changes consistent with oral malignancy. Interestingly, 57 % of respondents had seen the use of oral cancer diagnostics aids. Thirty-seven percent of respondents felt inadequately trained to provide tobacco and alcohol cessation advice. There is a need to reinforce the undergraduate dental curriculum with regards to oral cancer education; particularly in its prevention and early detection. Incorporating the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids should be made mandatory.

  8. Oral bisphosphonates and colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiken, Pia; Vestergaard, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are widely used as the main treatment for osteoporosis. In vitro and animal studies suggest that use of BPs may have a potential for colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. Safety and efficacy in terms of osteoporosis prevention have only been evaluated in randomized controlled...

  9. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Fedele, S

    2009-01-01

    The World Health Organization has clearly indentified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals ex...

  10. Dietary indicators of oral and pharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vecchia, C; Negri, E; D'Avanzo, B; Boyle, P; Franceschi, S

    1991-03-01

    The relationship between frequency of consumption of a selected number of indicator foods and oral and oropharyngeal cancer risk was analysed in a case-control study conducted in Northern Italy on 105 cases of oral and pharyngeal cancer and 1169 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic or digestive diseases. Besides significant and strong direct associations with tobacco (relative risk, RR = 11.0 for current versus never smokers) and alcohol (RR = 5.8 for upper versus lower consumption tertile), consumption of six food items (milk, meat, cheese, carrots, green vegetables and fruit) were inversely and significantly related to oral and pharyngeal cancer risk. The strongest protection was apparently related to frequent fruit consumption, with RRs of 0.8 and 0.2 in the two highest tertiles. Allowance for major potential confounding factors, including tobacco, alcohol and social class indicators explained only part of the dietary correlates observed. The two items remaining significant after multivariate analysis were fruit (RR = 0.3 for the upper tertile) and alcohol (RR = 3.8 for the upper tertile). The associations observed may simply reflect a generally poorer nutritional status in the cases, although the observation that fruit consumption appears to be a particularly important protective factor against oropharyngeal cancer is of potential interest, in terms of aetiological clues and preventive implications.

  11. Oral field cancerization: current evidence and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Punnya V; Savitha, J K; Rao, Sanjay S; Sivaranjini, Y

    2012-06-01

    Oral field cancerization implies that oral cancer does not arise as an isolated cellular phenomenon but rather as an anaplastic tendency involving many cells at once and results in the multifocal development of cancer at various rates within the entire field in response to a carcinogen especially tobacco. This concept has been frequently used to explain the occurrence of multiple primary cancers and recurrences following complete excision of oral cancer. This review deals in detail with the origin, principle, various theories used to explain this effect and molecular, genetic, as well as cytogenetic findings related to oral field cancerization. Further, the clinical implications and future research directives are also discussed.

  12. Knowledge and Perceptions of Cypriots about Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charalambous Chrystala

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer in the world. Cyprus recorded 312 new cases between 1998 and 2009, which represent a significant percentage of all cancers reported in Cyprus.

  13. Trismus release in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yao-Chou; Wong, Tung-Yiu; Shieh, Shyh-Jou; Lee, Jing-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Trismus is a common problem among oral cancer patients. This report aimed to study the inciting factors of trismus and to find out the rationale of trismus release. Between 1996 and 2008, 61 oral cancer patients with retrievable records of interincisor distance (IID) were analyzed by retrospective chart review. The IID decreased from 31.4 (12.4) to 24.9 (12.0) mm in 36 patients undergoing cancer ablation only (P = 0.001). Other variables prompting trismus include buccal cancer (P = 0.017), radiotherapy (P = 0.008), and recurrence (P = 0.001). In contrast, the IID improved from 11.7 (7.1) to 22.7 (11.9) mm in 25 patients receiving cancer ablative and trismus releasing surgeries (P = 0.000). The improvement fared better in individuals with IID less than 15 mm than the others (P = 0.037). In conclusion, involvement of buccal region, ablative surgery, radiotherapy, and recurrence are provocative factors of trismus. Patients with IID less than 15 mm will benefit from releasing surgery significantly. Others may better be handled with conservative managements firstly, and enrolled as candidates of surgical release only until the patients entertained a 28-month period of disease-free interval, by which time the risk of recurrence would be markedly reduced.

  14. High dose rate brachytherapy for oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    YamazakI, Hideya; Yoshida, Ken; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Shimizutani, Kimishige; Furukawa, Souhei; Koizumi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Brachytherapy results in better dose distribution compared with other treatments because of steep dose reduction in the surrounding normal tissues. Excellent local control rates and acceptable side effects have been demonstrated with brachytherapy as a sole treatment modality, a postoperative method, and a method of reirradiation. Low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy has been employed worldwide for its superior outcome. With the advent of technology, high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy has enabled health care providers to avoid radiation exposure. This therapy has been used for treating many types of cancer such as gynecological cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. However, LDR and pulsed-dose-rate interstitial brachytherapies have been mainstays for head and neck cancer. HDR brachytherapy has not become widely used in the radiotherapy community for treating head and neck cancer because of lack of experience and biological concerns. On the other hand, because HDR brachytherapy is less time-consuming, treatment can occasionally be administered on an outpatient basis. For the convenience and safety of patients and medical staff, HDR brachytherapy should be explored. To enhance the role of this therapy in treatment of head and neck lesions, we have reviewed its outcomes with oral cancer, including Phase I/II to Phase III studies, evaluating this technique in terms of safety and efficacy. In particular, our studies have shown that superficial tumors can be treated using a non-invasive mold technique on an outpatient basis without adverse reactions. The next generation of image-guided brachytherapy using HDR has been discussed. In conclusion, although concrete evidence is yet to be produced with a sophisticated study in a reproducible manner, HDR brachytherapy remains an important option for treatment of oral cancer. PMID:23179377

  15. Oral complications and management strategies for patients undergoing cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Hai Ming

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given.

  16. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one's overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The present paper aims at drawing health care professionals' attention to oral complications associated with cancer therapy by giving a comprehensive review. Brief comments on contemporary cancer therapies will be given first, followed by detailed description of oral complications associated with cancer therapy. Finally, a summary of preventive strategies and treatment options for common oral complications including oral mucositis, oral infections, xerostomia, and dysgeusia will be given. PMID:24511293

  17. Challenges of the Oral Cancer Burden in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Russell Coelho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over thirty per cent of all cancers reported in the country and oral cancer control is quickly becoming a global health priority. This paper provides a synopsis of the incidence of oral cancer in India by focusing on its measurement in cancer registries across the country. Based on the International Classification of Disease case definition adopted by the World Health Organisation, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer, this review systematically examines primary and secondary data where the incidence or prevalence of oral cancer is known to be directly reported. Variability in age-adjusted incidence with crude incidence is projected to increase by 2030. Challenges focus on measurement of disease incidence and disease-specific risk behavior, predominantly, alcohol, and tobacco use. Future research should be aimed at improving quality of data for early detection and prevention of oral cancer.

  18. Change in knowledge, attitude and practice regarding oral cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Oral cancer is a global health problem with increasing incidence and mortality rates. Screening is useful because of the easily detectable precancerous lesions. Aim: To assess change in knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding oral cancer and screening practices through visual oral examination ...

  19. Signaling, Gene Regulation and Cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there have been tremendous progress in cancer research and treatment, the mortality caused by this disease is still very high. Cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and second leading cause of death in the United States of America. Signaling, Gene Regulation and Cancer covers topics including the role of various signaling pathways in development, regulation of cell fate, tumor angiogenesis, duodenal neoplasias, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer, cancer development and progression, microRNA in cancer and epigenetic regulation of cancer.

  20. Use of next-generation sequencing in oral cavity cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Kruse, Torben A; Thomassen, Mads

    Background: Oral cavity cancer is a subgroup of head and neck cancer which is the world’s 6th most common cancer form. Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) constitute almost all oral cavity cancers, and OSCC are primarily attributed by excessive alcohol consumption and tobacco exposure...... of tumour cells exists. Conclusions: Use of next generation sequencing in oral cavity cancer can give valuable insight into the biology of the disease. By investigating intra tumour heterogeneity we see that the different tumour specimens in each patient are quite homogenous, but evidence of heterogeneous...

  1. PRESSING MORTALITY RATE THROUGH SCREENING oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. K. Widnyani Wulan Laksmi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Based on World Health Organization (WHO data, oral cancer is one of malignancy with the highest mortality. In USA, there are more than 30.000 new cases every year. We can find many risk factors of oral cancer in our daily living. Moreover, it’s easy to find the main risk factors in our society, they are smoking, alcohol consumption, tobacco consumtion, viral infection, and bad oral hygiene. For the early stadium, Five-years survival rate is about 82% and 61% for all stadium. But, more than 50% of oral cancer has been distributed (metastatic regionally and also into the other organ far away from the oral itself when it’s detected. It will decrease 5-years survival rate to be less than 50%. So that, it’s really important to detect the oral cancer at the earlier stadium. Screening is the way to find the earlier stadium. Screening is done by some methods, start from the anamnesis, physical examination, toluidine blue staining, endoscopy, cytology, telomerase examination, and also PET-scan if it’s possible (because of the financial reasons. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  2. Characteristics of Oral Problems and Effects of Oral Care in Terminally Ill Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Nobuhisa

    2017-06-01

    Various distresses appear in the terminal stage of cancer. Oral problems including dry mouth, stomatitis and candidiasis are one of the important problems which should be resolved. The purpose of this study was to investigate oral problems in this stage and improvement of dry mouth by oral care. The study subjects were consecutive terminally ill cancer patients admitted over the past 2 years. Patients were divided based on the status of oral food intake into good oral food intake group (≥30%) and poor oral food intake group. The following 3 items were retrospectively investigated: 1) The incidences of these oral problems, 2) Severity of dry mouth and complication with other oral problems, 3) Improvement of dry mouth using standard oral care by nursing staff and specialist oral care including dentists as needed. There were 115 and 158 patients in good and poor oral intake groups, respectively. 1) The incidences of dry mouth, stomatitis, and candidiasis were significantly higher in poor oral intake group ( p oral intake groups, respectively ( p oral intake group ( p = 0.0002). 3) The rate of dry mouth improvement by oral care was 100% in Grade-1, 86% in Grade-2 and 81% in Grade-3. Oral problems occur in many of terminally ill cancer patients. Accurate diagnosis of oral problems and corresponding appropriate interventions are important for improving quality of end-of-life care.

  3. Oral tapentadol for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Naessens, Katrien; Bell, Rae F

    2015-09-25

    A large proportion of people with advanced cancer will experience moderate to severe pain. Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic medicine acting at the μ-opioid receptor and inhibiting noradrenaline reuptake. The efficacy of tapentadol is stated to be comparable to morphine and oxycodone. To assess the analgesic efficacy of tapentadol for the relief of cancer pain in adults, and the adverse events associated with its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and EMBASE from January 2005 to July 2015, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and review articles, and two clinical trial registries. Searches started from 2005 because this covered the period during which clinical trials were conducted. We contacted the manufacturer of tapentadol in the UK to find additional trials not identified by electronic searches. We did not restrict searches by language. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of tapentadol compared with placebo or active controls in adults with moderate to severe cancer pain. Pain had to be measured using a validated assessment tool, and studies had to include at least 10 participants per treatment arm. Two review authors independently extracted data using a standard form and assessed risk of bias. We extracted available data on study design, participant details, interventions, and outcomes, including analgesic outcome measures, withdrawals, and adverse events. We included four studies with 1029 participants. All the studies used a parallel-group design, and included an initial titration phase to determine the maximum effective and tolerated dose, followed by a maintenance phase. Tapentadol medication was taken twice daily and doses ranged from 50 to 500 mg per day. Rescue medication (morphine or oxycodone immediate-release) was available to participants in all studies.Overall, 440 participants were randomised in classically designed RCTs, and 589

  4. Oral mucosa and lung cancer: Are genetic changes in the oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To compare genetic aberrations in the oral epithelium of lung cancer patients with those without cancer. Subjects and Methods: Buccal smears were performed to collect oral epithelium from each of the participants (smoker cancer patients n = 50, smoker control subjects n = 40, and nonsmoker control subjects n = 25).

  5. Oral mucosa and lung cancer: Are genetic changes in the oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-03

    Feb 3, 2016 ... Aim: To compare genetic aberrations in the oral epithelium of lung cancer patients with those without cancer. Subjects and Methods: Buccal smears were performed to collect oral epithelium from each of the participants (smoker cancer patients n = 50, smoker control subjects n = 40, and nonsmoker control ...

  6. Salivary mineral composition in patients with oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziewulska, Anna; Janiszewska-Olszowska, Joanna; Bachanek, Teresa; Grocholewicz, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the mineral content of saliva in patients with oral cancer in order to identify possible markers that might aid the diagnosis of oral cancer. The study group consisted of 34 patients, aged 35-72 years with a diagnosis of oral cancer, including seven women and 27 men, before the start of treatment. Samples of unstimulated saliva were collected in plastic containers. The concentrations of sodium and potassium were assessed using ion selective electrodes, and the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, iron and phosphorus were assessed using colorimetric methods. Statistically significant differences between the study and control groups were found only for the concentration of sodium--higher concentrations were found in the study group. When comparing different cancer localisations, the highest levels of salivary sodium were found in cases of cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue or parotid gland cancer. The highest calcium levels were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest levels in tongue cancer. The highest levels of magnesium were found in cancer of the floor of the oral cavity, and the lowest in tongue cancer. As regards the different histological types, higher sodium and calcium levels were found in squamous cell carcinomas than in other types. Salivary mineral content in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma is indicative of oral dehydration; however, we found no evidence of any salivary mineral markers that would be useful for the diagnosis of oral cancer.

  7. Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Met in oral squamous cell carcinoma and in an organotypic oral cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusevold, Ingvild J; Søland, Tine M; Khuu, Cuong; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Bryne, Magne

    2010-08-01

    Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, is important in transducing signals for tumour growth and metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of Met expression and its value as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The material consisted of 53 OSCCs and five healthy controls from normal oral mucosa supplied with cell lines, 10 organotypic models supplied with oral cancer cells, and three organotypic models supplied with normal keratinocytes. Met protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Met expression was scarce and limited to the basal layer in normal oral mucosa, but was more extensive in the tumours. Cytoplasmic expression of Met was found in the majority of the tumours, and nuclear expression was found in 72%, including a high fraction of the cells located at the invasive front. Organotypic models with normal or malignant oral cells yielded principally similar results as in the mucosa and the cancers, respectively. A smaller amount of Met immunoreactivity was detected, by western blotting, in the nuclear fraction of cultured oral cancer cells. In conclusion, Met was upregulated in OSCCs and was also found in the nucleus. However, Met was not a marker for prognosis in this study. (c) 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Eur J Oral Sci.

  8. Therapeutic strategies with oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent, S-1 against oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Koji; Ferdous, Tarannum; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2017-08-01

    Oral cancer has been recognized as a tumor with low sensitivity to anticancer agents. However, introduction of S-1, an oral cancer agent is improving treatment outcome for patients with oral cancer. In addition, S-1, as a main drug for oral cancer treatment in Japan can be easily available for outpatients. In fact, S-1 exerts high therapeutic effects with acceptable side effects. Moreover, combined chemotherapy with S-1 shows higher efficacy than S-1 alone, and combined chemo-radiotherapy with S-1 exerts remarkable therapeutic effects. Furthermore, we should consider the combined therapy of S-1 and molecular targeting agents right now as these combinations were reportedly useful for oral cancer treatment. Here, we describe our findings related to S-1 that were obtained experimentally and clinically, and favorable therapeutic strategies with S-1 against oral cancer with bibliographic considerations.

  9. Superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubha Gurudath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Present study was undertaken to estimate and compare erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx levels in oral submucous fibrosis, oral leukoplakia, oral cancer patients, and healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: E-SOD and GPx levels were estimated in OSF, oral leukoplakia, and oral cancer patients with 25 subjects in each group. The results obtained were compared with the corresponding age-/sex- matched control groups. Results: Statistically significant ( P 0.05. Oral cancer group had the lowest levels amongst the study groups. Conclusion: Imbalance in antioxidant enzyme status may be considered as one of the factors responsible for the pathogenesis of cancer and may serve as a potential biomarker and therapeutic target to reduce the malignant transformation in oral premalignant lesions/conditions.

  10. Oral contraception and risk of endometrial cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mueck AO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfred O Mueck1, Harald Seeger1, Xiangyan Ruan2 1Department of Endocrinology and Menopause, University Women's Hospital of Tuebingen, Tuebingen, Germany; 2Department of Gynecological Endocrinology, Beijing Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China Abstract: No placebo-controlled studies concerning hormonal contraception in general have been published, and only investigations on biological mechanisms and observational clinical studies are available. Thus, associations can be described but not their causality. Experimental studies strongly suggest protective effects of the progestagen component of hormonal contraception against development of estrogen-related (type 1 endometrial cancer. In light of this research, it seems biologically plausible that, in more than 20 published studies, a reduction in endometrial cancer risk was achieved in up to 50% of users of combined oral contraceptives (COC, compared with nonusers. Few data exist for progestin-only oral preparations. However, in view of the mechanisms involved, a reduction in cancer risk should also be expected. Whereas hormonal dose-dependency has been investigated in only a few studies, which showed a stronger risk reduction with increasing progestagenic potency, a decreased risk dependent on duration of use has been clearly demonstrated, and after stopping COC this effect has persisted for up to 20 years. Possible confounders, including family history, parity, and smoking, have been investigated in a few studies, with only a minor impact on hormonal effect of endometrial cancer risk, with the exception of obesity, which was a strong risk factor in most but not all studies. There are obvious differences in the incidence of endometrial cancer in women using COC when evaluated in absolute numbers for Western and Asian countries, being about 3–5-fold higher in the US than in Asia. Further research should include the noncontraceptive benefit of COC

  11. Light-based headways: An innovation in oral cancer espial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mankirat Kaur Gill

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, mainly because of the widespread consumption of tobacco and related products. Early detection is very important in the management of oral cancer. However, when the lesion is detected in the oral cavity, it is at a much advanced stage for effective management, resulting in morbidity and mortality. A majority of deaths related to cancer are due in part to late diagnosis. In order to improve the clinical outcome of oral cancer, early detection is very important. One of the emerging technologies in the early detection of oral cancer is the use of noninvasive in vivo tissue imaging that captures the molecular changes at high resolution to improve the detection capability of oral cancer at an early stage.

  12. Wnt Signaling in Prostate Cancer Bone Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Pten, Estrous Cycle MCB - 11 THE EFFECT OF HDACI (AR-42) ON CANINE PROSTATE CANCER METASTASIS. S. Elshafae1, N. Kohart1, L... canine prostate cancer overexpressing Dkk-1 was used in this study to investigate how enhanced Wnt/JNK signaling could alter tumor growth, metastasis and...metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer. Ace-1-Dkk-1, a canine prostate cancer overexpressing human Dkk-1, previously developed in our lab was used in

  13. Knowledge of dentists as regards oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Miranda Lopes Falcão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To verify the knowledge of dentists from Feira de Santana, Bahia, with regard to oral cancer in 2006. Method: An exploratory study was conducted in which a questionnaire was applied to a random sample of 240 dentists in Feira de Santana, Bahia, in 2006. Results: Among those interviewed, it was found that 62.9% were women and 62.9% were between the ages of 20 and 37 years. Of the professionals interviewed, 21.1% reported not investigating the presence of oral lesions in the first consultation, and 69.5% of professionals considered their level of confidence low for performing diagnostic procedures for oral cancer. Only 3.7% of the interviewees obtained an excellent grade with regard to their knowledge. Conclusion: The dentists from Feira de Santana, Bahia, did not show minimum necessary knowledge with regard to the disease. This situation suggests the need to reformulate education in order to qualify professionals to diagnose the disease early, and investments in public health policies that enable the adoption of strategies to reduce morbidity and mortality of the disease.

  14. Altered calcium signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Teneale A; Yapa, Kunsala T D S; Monteith, Gregory R

    2015-10-01

    It is the nature of the calcium signal, as determined by the coordinated activity of a suite of calcium channels, pumps, exchangers and binding proteins that ultimately guides a cell's fate. Deregulation of the calcium signal is often deleterious and has been linked to each of the 'cancer hallmarks'. Despite this, we do not yet have a full understanding of the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with cancer. Such an understanding could aid in guiding the development of therapies specifically targeting altered calcium signaling in cancer cells during tumorigenic progression. Findings from some of the studies that have assessed the remodeling of the calcium signal associated with tumorigenesis and/or processes important in invasion and metastasis are presented in this review. The potential of new methodologies is also discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ER-Dependent Ca++-mediated Cytosolic ROS as an Effector for Induction of Mitochondrial Apoptotic and ATM-JNK Signal Pathways in Gallic Acid-treated Human Oral Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao-Cheng; Lin, Meng-Liang; Su, Hong-Lin; Chen, Shih-Shun

    2016-02-01

    Release of calcium (Ca(++)) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been proposed to be involved in induction of apoptosis by oxidative stress. Using inhibitor of ER Ca(++) release dantrolene and inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(++) uptake Ru-360, we demonstrated that Ca(++) release from the ER was associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and apoptosis of human oral cancer (OC) cells induced by gallic acid (GA). Small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase inhibited tunicamycin-induced induction of 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, C/EBP homologous protein, pro-caspase-12 cleavage, cytosolic Ca(++) increase and apoptosis, but did not attenuate the increase in cytosolic Ca(++) level and apoptosis induced by GA. Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-mediated c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and apoptosis by GA was blocked by dantrolene. The specificity of ROS-mediated ATM-JNK activation was confirmed by treatment with N-acetylcysteine, a ROS scavenger. Blockade of ATM activation by specific inhibitor KU55933, short hairpin RNA, or kinase-dead ATM overexpression suppressed JNK phosphorylation but did not completely inhibit cytosolic ROS production, mitochondrial cytochrome c release, pro-caspase-3 cleavage, and apoptosis induced by GA. Taken together, these results indicate that GA induces OC cell apoptosis by inducing the activation of mitochondrial apoptotic and ATM-JNK signal pathways, likely through ER Ca(++)-mediated ROS production. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  16. Tobacco and alcohol consumption in relation to oral cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Varshney, P. K.; Agrawal, N.; Bariar, L. M.

    2003-01-01

    The present case control study was done on 50 cases of oral cancer and 50 controls These two groups are compared after taking the history in detail with special emphasis on the tobacco and alcohol intake. My various statistical tests, we correlated the strength of association between tobacco/alcohol intake and development of oral cancer. Tobacco only and combined exposure to tobacco and alcohol was found to be strongly related to the development of oral cancer but alcohol alone does not have ...

  17. Oral cancer and dentists: knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Giuseppe; Gaeta, Giovanni Maria; Moscariello, Anna; Angelillo, Italo F

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of the survey was to assess through a mailed questionnaire the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors regarding oral cancer and their relationship with different indicators in a random sample of 1000 dentists in Italy. Respondents know the major risk factors and only half identify the diagnostic procedures. One-third indicated the most common form and the early lesions and this knowledge was more likely in those graduated from dental school and attended a course on oral cancer in the previous year. Approximately two-thirds (64.8%) believed that they were prepared to perform an oral cancer examination and to palpate lymph nodes in patients' necks. Multiple logistic regression revealed that this positive attitude was significantly higher for those who graduated from medical school and for those who have attended a course on oral cancer in the previous year. Half of the dentists routinely perform an oral cancer examination on all patients and it was more likely by those graduated from dental school, those who know that squamous cell is the most common form of oral cancer and that an early oral cancer lesion usually is a small, painless red area, those who believed that they are prepared to perform an oral cancer examination and to palpate lymph nodes in patients' necks, those who have attended a course on oral cancer in the previous year, and those who claim they need information. The importance of health care professionals as communicators of public health messages should be emphasized.

  18. Hedgehog signaling and therapeutics in pancreatic cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, Fergal C

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the role that the hedgehog signaling pathway has in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis. METHOD: PubMed search (2000-2010) and literature based references. RESULTS: Firstly, in 2009 a genetic analysis of pancreatic cancers found that a core set of 12 cellular signaling pathways including hedgehog were genetically altered in 67-100% of cases. Secondly, in vitro and in vivo studies of treatment with cyclopamine (a naturally occurring antagonist of the hedgehog signaling pathway component; Smoothened) has shown that inhibition of hedgehog can abrogate pancreatic cancer metastasis. Thirdly, experimental evidence has demonstrated that sonic hedgehog (Shh) is correlated with desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer. This is important because targeting the Shh pathway potentially may facilitate chemotherapeutic drug delivery as pancreatic cancers tend to have a dense fibrotic stroma that extrinsically compresses the tumor vasculature leading to a hypoperfusing intratumoral circulation. It is probable that patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer will derive the greatest benefit from treatment with Smoothened antagonists. Fourthly, it has been found that ligand dependent activation by hedgehog occurs in the tumor stromal microenvironment in pancreatic cancer, a paracrine effect on tumorigenesis. Finally, in pancreatic cancer, cells with the CD44+CD24+ESA+ immunophenotype select a population enriched for cancer initiating stem cells. Shh is increased 46-fold in CD44+CD24+ESA+ cells compared with normal pancreatic epithelial cells. Medications that destruct pancreatic cancer initiating stem cells are a potentially novel strategy in cancer treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant hedgehog signaling occurs in pancreatic cancer tumorigenesis and therapeutics that target the transmembrane receptor Smoothened abrogate hedgehog signaling and may improve the outcomes of patients with pancreatic cancer.

  19. Anticancer Activity of Apaziquone in Oral Cancer Cells and Xenograft Model: Implications for Oral Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Gunjan; Somasundaram, Raj Thani; Walfish, Paul G; Ralhan, Ranju

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients diagnosed in late stages have limited chemotherapeutic options underscoring the great need for development of new anticancer agents for more effective disease management. We aimed to investigate the anticancer potential of Apaziquone, [EOquin, USAN, E09, 3-hydroxy-5- aziridinyl-1-methyl-2(1H-indole-4,7-dione)-prop-β-en-α-ol], a pro-drug belonging to a class of anti-cancer agents called bioreductive alkylating agents, for OSCC. Apaziquone treatment inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in OSCC cells in vitro. Apaziquone treated OSCC cells showed increased activation of Caspase 9 and Caspase 3, and Poly (ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage suggesting induction of apoptosis by apaziquone in oral cancer cells. Importantly, apaziquone treatment significantly reduced oral tumor xenograft volume in immunocompromised NOD/SCID/Crl mice without causing apparent toxicity to normal tissues. In conclusion, our in vitro and in vivo studies identified and demonstrated the pre-clinical efficacy of Apaziquone, as a potential novel anti-cancer therapeutic candidate for oral cancer management.

  20. Lifestyle risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    The "style of life is the unique way in which individuals try to realize their fictional final goal and meet or avoid the three main tasks of life: work, community, love" (Alfred Adler, founder of the Individual Psychology). Lifestyle refers to the way individuals live their lives and how they handle problems and interpersonal relations. The lifestyle behaviours associated to oral cancer with convincing evidence are tobacco use, betel quid chewing, alcohol drinking, low fruit and vegetable consumption (the detrimental lifestyle is high fat and/or sugar intake, resulting in low fruit and/or vegetable intake). Worldwide, 25% of oral cancers are attributable to tobacco usage (smoking and/or chewing), 7-19% to alcohol drinking, 10-15% to micronutrient deficiency, more than 50% to betel quid chewing in areas of high chewing prevalence. Carcinogenicity is dose-dependent and magnified by multiple exposures. Conversely, low and single exposures do not significantly increase oral cancer risk. These behaviours have common characteristics: (i) they are widespread: one billion men, 250 million women smoke cigarettes, 600-1200 million people chew betel quid, two billion consume alcohol, unbalanced diet is common amongst developed and developing countries; (ii) they were already used by animals and human forerunners millions of years ago because they were essential to overcome conditions such as cold, hunger, famine; their use was seasonal and limited by low availability, in contrast with the pattern of consumption of the modern era, characterized by routine, heavy usage, for recreational activities and with multiple exposures; (iii) their consumption in small doses is not recognized as detrimental by the human body and activates the dopaminergic reward system of the brain, thus giving instant pleasure, "liking" (overconsumption) and "wanting" (craving). For these reasons, effective Public Health measures aimed at preventing oral cancer and other lifestyle-related conditions

  1. Oral cancer risk and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimenos-Küstner, Eduardo; Font-Costa, Imma; López-López, José

    2004-01-01

    The clinical appearance and, especially, the degree of dysplasia that may be shown by pre-cancerous lesions in the oral cavity suggest a potential for malignisation. An increasing number of studies are seeking new, more specific markers that would help to determine the degree of cell alteration and enable a better understanding of the degree of malignant degeneration of these cells. The present review considers the most recent findings for these markers, grouping them into families: tumour growth markers; markers of tumour suppression and anti-tumour response; angiogenesis markers; markers of tumour invasion and metastatic potential; cell surface markers; intracellular markers; markers derived from arachidonic acid; and enzymatic markers.

  2. Diet and prevention of oral cancer: strategies for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainani-Wu, Nita; Epstein, Joel; Touger-Decker, Riva

    2011-02-01

    Oral health care professionals can play an important role in preventing oral cancer by performing oral mucosal examinations to detect pre-cancerous changes and by educating patients about oral cancer prevention strategies, including dietary approaches. Current evidence supports a diet high in fruits, vegetables and plant-based foods for prevention of oral cancer. Dietary supplements-including vitamins and minerals-have not been shown to be effective as substitutes for a diet high in fruits and vegetables. In addition to discussing tobacco and alcohol use with patients (and, if relevant, betel nut and gutka consumption), as well as the risk of sexual transmission of human papillo-mavirus, clinicians should provide dietary advice for the prevention of oral cancer as part of routine patient education practices.

  3. Oral Candida colonization in oral cancer patients and its relationship with traditional risk factors of oral cancer: a matched case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, Ali D; Wiesenfeld, David; O'Brien-Simpson, Neil M; Reynolds, Eric C; McCullough, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Candida, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, has been implicated in oral and oesophageal cancers. This study aimed to examine oral Candida carriage in 52 oral cancer patients and 104 age-, gender- and denture status-matched oral cancer-free subjects. We assessed general health, smoking and alcohol drinking habits, use of alcohol-containing mouthwash and periodontal status (community periodontal index of treatment needs). Yeasts were isolated using oral rinse technique and genetically identified via Real-Time PCR-High resolution melting curve analysis of conserved ribosomal DNA. Conditional and binary logistic regressions were used to identify explanatory variables that are risk factors for oral cancer. The frequencies of oral yeasts' presence and high oral colonization were significantly higher in oral cancer than non-oral cancer patients (p=001; p=0.033, respectively). No significant difference in the isolation profile of Candida species was found between the two groups, except C. parapsilosis was more frequent in non-oral cancer group. Differences were noticed in the incidence of C. albicans strains where significantly more C. albicans genotype-A was isolated from cancer patients and significantly more C. albicans genotype-B isolated from non-cancer patients. Multiple regression analyses showed significant association with cancer observed for alcohol drinking (OR=4.253; 95% CI=1.351, 13.386), Candida presence (OR=3.242; 95% CI=1.505, 6.984) and high oral colonization (OR=3.587; 95% CI=1.153, 11.162). These results indicate that there is a significant association between oral cancer occurrence and Candida oral colonization and that the observed genotypic diversity of C. albicans strains may play a role in oral carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Notch signaling in embryology and cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reichrath, J; Reichrath, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    "The goal of this volume is to comprehensively cover a highly readable overview on our present knowledge of the role of Notch signalling for embryology and cancer, with a focus on new findings in molecular biology...

  5. Wnt5a Signaling in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa S. Asem

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wnt5a is involved in activating several non-canonical WNT signaling pathways, through binding to different members of the Frizzled- and Ror-family receptors. Wnt5a signaling is critical for regulating normal developmental processes, including proliferation, differentiation, migration, adhesion and polarity. However, the aberrant activation or inhibition of Wnt5a signaling is emerging as an important event in cancer progression, exerting both oncogenic and tumor suppressive effects. Recent studies show the involvement of Wnt5a in regulating cancer cell invasion, metastasis, metabolism and inflammation. In this article, we review findings regarding the molecular mechanisms and roles of Wnt5a signaling in various cancer types, and highlight Wnt5a in ovarian cancer.

  6. Changing Trends in oral cancer - a global scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neha; Gupta, Ritu; Acharya, Arun Kumar; Patthi, Basavaraj; Goud, Venkatesh; Reddy, Somanath; Garg, Anshul; Singla, Ashish

    2016-12-01

    Oral cancer is one of the highly prevalent cancers worldwide and a leading cause of mortality in certain regions like South-Central Asia. It is a major public health problem. Late diagnosis, high mortality rates and morbidity are characteristics of the disease worldwide. For control of oral cancer an idea of the coverage of the same in the various regions is necessary. The estimated incidence, mortality and 5-year survival due to lip, oral cavity cancer in world is 3, 00, 373(2.1%), 1, 45, 328(1.8%) and 7, 02, 149(2.2%) respectively according to data of GLOBOCAN 2012. A changing trend in incidence and prevalence of oral cancer has been observed with more women and youngsters being affected by oral cancer.

  7. Nrf2 regulates cellular behaviors and Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Paiboonrungruan, Chorlada; Zhang, Xinyan; Prigge, Justin R; Schmidt, Edward E; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2017-11-04

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have demonstrated that activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has chemopreventive effects against oxidative stress-associated OSCC. However, Nrf2 have dual roles in cancer development; while it prevents carcinogenesis of normal cells, hyperactive Nrf2 also promotes the survival of cancer cells. This study is aimed to understand the function of Nrf2 in regulating cellular behaviors of OSCC cells, and the potential mechanisms through which Nrf2 facilitates OSCC. We established the Nrf2-overexpressing and Nrf2-knockdown OSCC cell lines, and examined the function of Nrf2 in regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and colony formation. Our data showed that Nrf2 overexpression promoted cancer phenotypes in OSCC cells, whereas Nrf2 silencing inhibited these phenotypes. In addition, Nrf2 positively regulated Notch signaling pathway in OSCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this observation, Nrf2 activation in Keap1-/- mice resulted in not only hyperproliferation of squamous epithelial cells in mouse tongue as evidenced by increased expression of PCNA, but also activation of Notch signaling in these cells as evidenced by increased expression of NICD1 and Hes1. In conclusion, Nrf2 regulates cancer behaviors and Notch signaling in OSCC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early detection and personalized treatment in oral cancer: the impact of omics approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ilda Patrícia; Barroso, Leonor; Marques, Francisco; Melo, Joana Barbosa; Carreira, Isabel Marques

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common malignant lesions of the head and neck. This cancer is an aggressive and lethal disease with no significant improvements in the overall survival in the last decades. Moreover, the incidence of oral HPV-positive tumors is rising, especially in young people. This oral neoplasm develops through numerous molecular imbalances that affect key genes and signaling pathways; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and progression of oral tumors are still to be fully determined. In order to improve the quality of life and long-term survival rate of these patients, it is vital to establish accurate biomarkers that help in the early diagnosis, prognosis and development of target treatments. Such biomarkers may possibly allow for selection of patients that will benefit from each therapy modality, helping in the optimization of intensity and sequence of the treatments in order to decrease side effects and improve survival. In this review we discuss the current knowledge of oral cancer and the potential role of omics approaches to identify molecular biomarkers in the improvement of early diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. The pursuit to improve the quality of life and decrease mortality rates of the oral patients needs to be centralized on the identification of critical genes in oral carcinogenesis. Understanding the molecular biology of oral cancer is vital for search new therapies, being the molecular-targeted therapies the most promising treatment for these patients.

  9. Clinical recommendations for oral cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Derek

    2010-01-01

    To address the benefits and limitations of oral cancer screening and the use of adjunctive screening aids to visualise and detect potentially malignant and malignant oral lesions. Squamous cell carcinomas of the lips and cancers of the oropharynx (including the posterior one-third of the base of the tongue and the tonsils were excluded. A specially convened expert panel evaluated the available evidence which was derived from a systematic search of Medline and the Cochrane Library. Further details about the search are available in a supplement to the published article available on the Journal of the America Dental Association's website (http://jada.ada.org/cgi/content/full/141/5/509). Qualitative synthesis of the data was performed by the panel. Where consensus could not be reached majority voting was employed. Recommendations were reviewed by internal and external scientific experts and organisations. After review recommendations were revised where appropriate and the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs approved the final clinical recommendations. No information provided in article. The key recommendations were all classified as level D being based on grade IV evidence or extrapolated from grade I, II or III evidence using a system based on Shekelle et al.(1) The main recommendations can be summarised as:1) Clinicians should remain alert for signs of potentially malignant lesions or early-stage cancers in all patients while performing routine visual and tactile examinations, particularly for patients who use tobacco or who are heavy consumers of alcohol. 2) For seemingly innocuous lesions, clinicians should follow up in seven to 14 days to confirm persistence after removing any possible cause to reduce the potential for false-positive screening results. 3) For lesions that raise suspicion of cancer or for lesions that persist after removal of a possible cause, clinicians should communicate the potential benefits and risks of early diagnosis. Considerations include

  10. Oral cavity infection: an adverse effect after the treatment of oral cancer in aged individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The immune compromised patients after treatment of oral cancer may have a chance of infection by drug-resistant opportunistic microbes. We investigated the occurrence of opportunistic microorganisms in aged individuals receiving follow-up examinations after treatment of oral cancer in China. Material and Methods: These patients were used as test group and the respective age grouped healthy individuals as control group. In this study, the oral cavity microorganisms such as bact...

  11. [Osseointegration of dental implants after radiotherapy for oral cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Judit; Seres, László; Novák, Péter; Nagy, Katalin

    2009-02-01

    The goal of rehabilitation following radical surgery and radiotherapy for oral cancer is the restoration of oral functions and aesthetics. Osseointegrated implants improve prosthesis stability. Previous radiotherapy was originally considered a contraindication for implant placement. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of dental implants following radiotherapy. Nine oral cancer patients who had undergone radical surgery and radiotherapy were selected. A total of 23 implants were inserted. Twenty-one implants (91.3%) have been functioning without discomfort or infection. This study shows that osseointegrated implants should be considered part of the treatment plan for the rehabilitation of oral cancer patients after radiotherapy.

  12. Contemporary management of cancer of the oral cavity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genden, E.M.; Ferlito, A.; Silver, C.E.; Takes, R.P.; Suarez, C.; Owen, R.P.; Haigentz Jr, M.; Stoeckli, S.J.; Shaha, A.R.; Rapidis, A.D.; Rodrigo, J.P.; Rinaldo, A.

    2010-01-01

    Oral cancer represents a common entity comprising a third of all head and neck malignant tumors. The options for curative treatment of oral cavity cancer have not changed significantly in the last three decades; however, the work up, the approach to surveillance, and the options for reconstruction

  13. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenvinge, Erik C. von, E-mail: evonrose@medicine.umaryland.edu; Raufman, Jean-Pierre [University of Maryland School of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 22 S. Greene Street, N3W62, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Department of Veterans Affairs, VA Maryland Health Care System, 10 North Greene Street, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States)

    2011-03-02

    According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  14. Muscarinic Receptor Signaling in Colon Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Raufman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, colon cancer results from accumulating somatic gene mutations; environmental growth factors accelerate and augment this process. For example, diets rich in meat and fat increase fecal bile acids and colon cancer risk. In rodent cancer models, increased fecal bile acids promote colon dysplasia. Conversely, in rodents and in persons with inflammatory bowel disease, low-dose ursodeoxycholic acid treatment alters fecal bile acid composition and attenuates colon neoplasia. In the course of elucidating the mechanism underlying these actions, we discovered that bile acids interact functionally with intestinal muscarinic receptors. The present communication reviews muscarinic receptor expression in normal and neoplastic colon epithelium, the role of autocrine signaling following synthesis and release of acetylcholine from colon cancer cells, post-muscarinic receptor signaling including the role of transactivation of epidermal growth factor receptors and activation of the ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, the structural biology and metabolism of bile acids and evidence for functional interaction of bile acids with muscarinic receptors on human colon cancer cells. In murine colon cancer models, deficiency of subtype 3 muscarinic receptors attenuates intestinal neoplasia; a proof-of-concept supporting muscarinic receptor signaling as a therapeutic target for colon cancer.

  15. Quantitative Review of Oral Cancer Research Output from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib; Muller, Steffen; Ahmed, Shahzad; Tonnies, Justus; Nadir, Faryal; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer among men and second only to breast cancer among women in Pakistan. For the effective control and prevention of oral cancer, Pakistan needs to recognize the importance of research and generation of the evidence-base which can inform policy making and planning and implementation of intervention programs. The objective of this review was to quantify oral cancer research output in Pakistan. A systematic electronic search in "Medline", "ISI-Web of Science" and "Pakmedinet", supplemented by a Google search, was carried out in January and February, 2014, to identify literature from Pakistan relevant to oral cancer. The selection of publications for the review was carried out according to preset criteria. Data were recorded and analyzed using Microsoft Excel. A total of 166 publications comprising 62 case series, 36 cross sectional, 31 case control, 10 basic laboratory research, eleven reviews and two trials, were included in this review. Some 35 % of the publications focused on risk factors for oral cancer. COMSATS Institute of Information Technology was the institution with the highest contribution. There is a lack of research in the field of oral cancer research in Pakistan. Focused efforts should be put in place to improve both quality and quantity of oral cancer research in the country.

  16. Oral symptoms and functional outcome related to oral and oropharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Huisman, Paulien M; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to assess: (1) oral symptoms of patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer; (2) how patients rank the burden of oral symptoms; (3) the impact of the tumor, the treatment, and oral symptoms on functional outcome. Eighty-nine patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer were asked about their oral symptoms related to mouth opening, dental status, oral sensory function, tongue mobility, salivary function, and pain. They were asked to rank these oral symptoms according to the degree of burden experienced. The Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire (MFIQ) was used to assess functional outcome. In a multivariate linear regression analyses, variables related to MFIQ scores (p≤0.10) were entered as predictors with MFIQ score as the outcome. Lack of saliva (52%), restricted mouth opening (48%), and restricted tongue mobility (46%) were the most frequently reported oral symptoms. Lack of saliva was most frequently (32%) ranked as the most burdensome oral symptom. For radiated patients, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, a T3 or T4 stage, and a higher age were predictive of MFIQ scores. For non-radiated patients, a restricted mouth opening, an inability to wear a dental prosthesis, restricted tongue mobility, and surgery of the mandible were predictive of MFIQ scores. Lack of saliva was not only the most frequently reported oral symptom after treatment for oral or oropharyngeal cancer, but also the most burdensome. Functional outcome is strongly influenced by an inability to wear a dental prosthesis in both radiated and non-radiated patients.

  17. Risk for oral cancer associated to smoking, smokeless and oral dip products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, Abdoul Hossain; Dikshit, Madhurima; Bhaduri, Debanshu

    2012-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most common life threatening diseases in India. Tobacco and alcohol are considered to be the most risk factors for oral cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the association of tobacco and poly-ingredient oral dip products with oral cancer. A case-control study of 350 cases and 350 controls, over a period of 19 months, between February 2005 and September 2006 was carried out in Pune, India. The self-reported information about the consumption of tobacco, poly-ingredient oral dip products, alcohol, dietary habits and demographic status were collected by a researcher made questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify the risk of substances abuse. The frequency of smoking, smokeless and oral dip products in cases were significantly higher than controls (P tobacco (P oral dip products, consumption of gutkha (P oral cancer upon adjustment. This study provides strong evidence that gutkha, supari -areca nut- chewing tobacco (tobacco flakes), bidi smoking and mishiri (tobacco powder, which applied as a tooth and gum cleaner) are independent risk for oral cancer.

  18. [Intracellular signaling mechanisms in thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Terán, Paul; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Suárez-Cuenca, Juan Antonio; Luna-Ceballos, Rosa Isela; Erazo Valle-Solís, Aura

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, the papillary variant accounts for 80-90% of all diagnosed cases. In the development of papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF and RAS genes are mainly affected, resulting in a modification of the system of intracellular signaling proteins known as «protein kinase mitogen-activated» (MAPK) which consist of «modules» of internal signaling proteins (Receptor/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) from the cell membrane to the nucleus. In thyroid cancer, these signanling proteins regulate diverse cellular processes such as differentiation, growth, development and apoptosis. MAPK play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer as they are used as molecular biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and as possible therapeutic molecular targets. Mutations in BRAF gene have been correlated with poor response to treatment with traditional chemotherapy and as an indicator of poor prognosis. To review the molecular mechanisms involved in intracellular signaling of BRAF and RAS genes in thyroid cancer. Molecular therapy research is in progress for this type of cancer as new molecules have been developed in order to inhibit any of the components of the signaling pathway (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK; with special emphasis on the (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf section, which is a major effector of ERK pathway. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiffen, Philip J; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McNicol, Ewan D; Bell, Rae F; Carr, Daniel B; McIntyre, Mairead; Wee, Bee

    2017-07-12

    Pain is a common symptom with cancer, and 30% to 50% of all people with cancer will experience moderate to severe pain that can have a major negative impact on their quality of life. Non-opioid drugs are commonly used to treat mild to moderate cancer pain, and are recommended for this purpose in the WHO cancer pain treatment ladder, either alone or in combination with opioids.A previous Cochrane review that examined the evidence for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or paracetamol, alone or combined with opioids, for cancer pain was withdrawn in 2015 because it was out of date; the date of the last search was 2005. This review, and another on NSAIDs, updates the evidence. To assess the efficacy of oral paracetamol (acetaminophen) for cancer pain in adults and children, and the adverse events reported during its use in clinical trials. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, and Embase from inception to March 2017, together with reference lists of retrieved papers and reviews, and two online study registries. We included randomised, double-blind, studies of five days' duration or longer, comparing paracetamol alone with placebo, or paracetamol in combination with an opioid compared with the same dose of the opioid alone, for cancer pain of any intensity. Single-blind and open studies were also eligible for inclusion. The minimum study size was 25 participants per treatment arm at the initial randomisation. Two review authors independently searched for studies, extracted efficacy and adverse event data, and examined issues of study quality and potential bias. We did not carry out any pooled analyses. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE and created a 'Summary of findings' table. Three studies in adults satisfied the inclusion criteria, lasting up to one week; 122 participants were randomised initially, and 95 completed treatment. We found no studies in children. One study was parallel-group, and

  20. Oral Complications and Management Strategies for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hai Ming Wong

    2014-01-01

    With cancer survival rate climbing up over the past three decades, quality of life for cancer patients has become an issue of major concern. Oral health plays an important part in one’s overall quality of life. However, oral health status can be severely hampered by side effects of cancer therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Moreover, prevention and treatment of these complications are often overlooked in clinical practice. The ...

  1. Identification of Gene and MicroRNA Signatures for Oral Cancer Developed from Oral Leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinic, oral leukoplakia (OLK may develop into oral cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this transformation is still unclear. In this work, we present a new pipeline to identify oral cancer related genes and microRNAs (miRNAs by integrating both gene and miRNA expression profiles. In particular, we find some network modules as well as their miRNA regulators that play important roles in the development of OLK to oral cancer. Among these network modules, 91.67% of genes and 37.5% of miRNAs have been previously reported to be related to oral cancer in literature. The promising results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  2. Identification of Gene and MicroRNA Signatures for Oral Cancer Developed from Oral Leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guanghui; He, Yuan; Yang, Shaofang; Chen, Beimin; Zhou, Min; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2015-01-01

    In clinic, oral leukoplakia (OLK) may develop into oral cancer. However, the mechanism underlying this transformation is still unclear. In this work, we present a new pipeline to identify oral cancer related genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) by integrating both gene and miRNA expression profiles. In particular, we find some network modules as well as their miRNA regulators that play important roles in the development of OLK to oral cancer. Among these network modules, 91.67% of genes and 37.5% of miRNAs have been previously reported to be related to oral cancer in literature. The promising results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed approach.

  3. Development of a mobile application for oral cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Mayra Sousa; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Ferreira, Vitor Yuri Nicolau; de Lucena Pereira, Laudenice; Correia, Ricardo João Cruz; da Silva Teixeira, Hélder Bruno; Pereira, Daniel Cláudio; Bonan, Paulo

    2017-01-01

    To develop a mobile application (app) for oral cancer screening. The app was developed using Android system version 4.4.2, with JAVA language. Information concerning sociodemographic data and risk factors for oral cancer development, e.g., tobacco and alcohol use, sun exposure and other contributing factors, such as unprotected oral sex, oral pain and denture use, were included. We surveyed a population at high risk for oral cancer development and then evaluated the sensitivity/specificity/accuracy and predictive values of clinical oral diagnosis between two blinded trained examiners, who used movies and data from the app, and in loco oral examination as gold-standard. A total of 55 individuals at high risk for oral cancer development were surveyed. Of these, 31% presented homogeneous/heterogeneous white lesions with potential of malignancy. The clinical diagnoses performed by the two examiners using videos were found to have sensitivity of 82%-100% (average 91%), specificity of 81%-100% (average 90.5%), and accuracy of 87.27%-95.54% (average 90.90%), as compared with the gold-standard. The Kappa agreement value between the gold-standard and the examiner with the best agreement was 0.597. Mobile apps including videos and data collection interfaces could be an interesting alternative in oral cancer research development.

  4. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Description and incidence of oral complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreizen, S. (Univ. of Texas Dental Branch, Houston (USA))

    1990-01-01

    No part of the body reflects the complications of cancer chemotherapy as visibly and as vividly as the mouth. The infectious, hemorrhagic, cytotoxic, nutritional, and neurologic signs of drug toxicity are reflected in the mouth by changes in the color, character, comfort, and continuity of the mucosa. The stomatologic complications of radiotherapy for oral cancer are physical and physiological in nature, transient or lasting in duration, and reversible or irreversible in type. Some linger as permanent mementos long after the cancer has been destroyed. They stem from radiation injury to the salivary glands, oral mucosa, oral musculature, alveolar bone, and developing teeth. They are expressed clinically by xerostomia, trismus, radiation dermatitis, nutritional stomatitis, and dentofacial malformation. In both cancer chemotherapy and cancer radiotherapy, the oral complications vary in pattern, duration, intensity, and number, with not every patient developing every complication. 21 references.

  5. Management of the oral sequelae of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel L; Rankin, K Vendrell

    2012-05-01

    Oral cancer and the oral sequelae of treatment for oral and other malignancies can significantly affect a patient's oral and systemic health, as well as have a profound impact on quality of life. Compromised oral health prior to, during, and following cancer therapy can affect treatment outcomes. Increasingly, dental professionals in the community are being called upon to provide care for these individuals. Radiation therapy is routinely used for tumors of the head and neck, delivering a concentrated radiation dose to the tumor, but also to the immediately surrounding tissue. Oral complications are related to the site radiated and the total radiation dose. Cancer chemotherapy is provided as a primary treatment for some cancers and as an adjunctive modality for other cancers. The goal is to eradicate the rapidly growing cells of the tumor, but chemotherapy is often toxic to other cells that rapidly divide normally including the oral mucosa. The use of combined chemotherapy and radiation is now considered standard for most locally advanced tumors of the head and neck. The toxicities of this combined therapy are essentially the same as with radiation alone, but develop more rapidly and are typically more severe when they reach maximum level. The most common oral sequelae of cancer treatment are: xerostomia, the sensation of a dry mouth as a result of damage to the salivary glands and/or medication; mucositis, the inflammation and ulceration of the oral mucosa; and infection as a result of the loss of mucosal integrity. Management of oral health during cancer therapy includes identifying at-risk patients, patient education, appropriate pretreatment interventions, and timely management of complications. Appropriate preventive and therapeutic measures will help minimize the risk of oral and associated systemic complications, improve treatment outcomes, and improve the patient's quality of life.

  6. Cancer Genetics and Signaling | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer, Genetics, and Signaling (CGS) Group at the National Cancer Institute at Frederick  offers a competitive postdoctoral training and mentoring program focusing on molecular and genetic aspects of cancer. The CGS Fellows Program is designed to attract and train exceptional postdoctoral fellows interested in pursuing independent research career tracks. CGS Fellows participate in a structured mentoring program designed for scientific and career development and transition to independent positions.

  7. Predicting Scheduling and Attending for an Oral Cancer Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepperd, James A.; Emanuel, Amber S.; Howell, Jennifer L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Oral and pharyngeal cancer is highly treatable if diagnosed early, yet late diagnosis is commonplace apparently because of delays in undergoing an oral cancer examination. Purpose We explored predictors of scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination among a sample of Black and White men who were at high risk for oral cancer because they smoked. Methods During an in-person interview, participants (N = 315) from rural Florida learned about oral and pharyngeal cancer, completed survey measures, and were offered a free examination in the next week. Later, participants received a follow-up phone call to explore why they did or did not attend their examination. Results Consistent with the notion that scheduling and attending an oral cancer exam represent distinct decisions, we found that the two outcomes had different predictors. Defensive avoidance and exam efficacy predicted scheduling an examination; exam efficacy and having coping resources, time, and transportation predicted attending the examination. Open-ended responses revealed that the dominant reasons participants offered for missing a scheduled examination was conflicting obligations, forgetting, and confusion or misunderstanding about the examination. Conclusions The results suggest interventions to increase scheduling and attending an oral cancer examination. PMID:26152644

  8. Oral cancer: knowledge, practices and opinions of dentists in yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer presents with high mortality rates, and the likelihood of survival is remarkably superior when detected early. Dental professionals have an important role and responsibility in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, practices and opinions regarding oral cancer among dentists in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire involving private and public dental practitioners, working in different governorates in Yemen. Of the 800 dentists surveyed, a total of 221 questionnaires were completed and returned (response rate 27.6%). A vast majority of dentists (96.38%) identified tobacco as the major risk factor for oral cancer, and 82.8% knew that squamous cell carcinoma is the most common form. While 47.1% of the dentists agreed that they were adequately trained in oral cancer screening, the majority (86%) believed that they need further training in oral cancer screening. These results suggest that additional training and continuing educational programs on prevention and early detection of oral cancer for dentists are to be highly recommended.

  9. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Philiponis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis - in keeping with the methodology of the main study - we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process "living in limbo." This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself - "self-detected lesion," "lack of concern," "seeking help," "not a straightforward diagnosis," and "hearing the diagnosis." Entry into treatment concludes "Living in Limbo" and is described by the theme "worry and trust." Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, "living in limbo" suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed.

  10. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc; de Bree, Remco; Brakenhoff, Ruud; Coebergh, Jan-Willem

    2011-05-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading. The delay in diagnosis of oral cancer is caused both by patients' delay and doctors' delay. The total delay, including scheduling delay, work-up delay and treatment planning delay, varies in different studies, but averages some six months. The total delay is more or less evenly distributed between patients' and doctors' delay and is partly due to the unawareness of oral cancer among the public and professionals, and partly to barriers in the health care system that may prevent patients from seeking dental and medical care. Due to the relatively low incidence of oral cancer it will be difficult to increase the awareness of this cancer type among the public, thereby reducing patients' delay. However, it should be possible to considerably reduce doctors' delay by increasing the awareness of oral cancer among professionals and by improving their diagnostic ability. Population-based annual or semi-annual screening for oral cancer is not cost-effective, high-risk groups such as heavy smokers and drinkers perhaps excluded. Dentists and physicians, and also oral hygienists and nurse practitioners, may play a valuable role in such screening programs.

  11. Xerostomia after Radiotherapy for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Killerup Kaae, Julie; Stenfeldt, Lone; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Radiation-induced xerostomia is a frequent late side effect after treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers. This may induce swallowing difficulties, compromised oral well-being, reduced nutrition intake, or speech deficiencies. Consequently, quality of life is often impaired...... oral well-being when used on a regular basis. METHODS: From October to December 2014, 31 consecutive patients treated with primary radiotherapy (RT) and concomitant cisplatin (in locally advanced cases) for oral or oropharyngeal cancer consented to participate. All patients had finalized RT 2-8 months...

  12. [Application of exfoliated cells in early diagnosis of oral cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, T; Zhang, X Y; Sun, Z

    2017-03-09

    Exfoliative cytology is a simple and non-invasive examination method that is easily accepted by the patient. A number of new techniques are used to further increase the accuracy of sample collecting. It is widely used in the detection of cervical, oral cavity and various coelom exfoliated cells. This article reviews the development of exfoliative cytology in oral cancer diagnosis. It is realized that the qualitative and quantitative analysis of cancer and precancerous lesions, through DNA quantitative analysis to calculate DNA index (DI value), multiple parameter analysis and statistical modeling calculation to evaluate oral cancer risk index (OCRI) of the patient has great significance in cancer screening, early diagnosis and prognosis review, especially in the field of oral cancer.

  13. Heparanase, a potential marker for premalignant oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiser, Yoav; Shilo, Dekel; Abu El Naaj, Imad; Rachmiel, Adi

    2014-01-01

    In the past we have shown that the heparanase gene expression significantly correlates to oral cancer patient survival. Our aim was to study heparanase expression in all stages of carcinogenesis. Heparanase expression (mRNA and protein), as well as its enzymatic activity were studied separately in the nucleus and cytoplasm of both normal and cancerous cells using an in vivo oral cancer mouse model. Heparanase nuclear expression was associated with normal tissue; at the time carcinogenesis is initiated heparanase translocates to the cytoplasm and increases protein expression and enzymatic activity, as the cancer progresses. Heparanase overall expression is increased in cancer formation from premalignant to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Heparanase is suggested to be a prognostic and diagnostic marker for oral premalignant lesions which could have a major impact on future prognosis and diagnosis of SCC of the oral cavity. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Leptin signaling and cancer chemoresistance: Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candelaria, Pierre V; Rampoldi, Antonio; Harbuzariu, Adriana; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R

    2017-04-10

    Obesity is a major health problem and currently is endemic around the world. Obesity is a risk factor for several different types of cancer, significantly promoting cancer incidence, progression, poor prognosis and resistance to anti-cancer therapies. The study of this resistance is critical as development of chemoresistance is a serious drawback for the successful and effective drug-based treatments of cancer. There is increasing evidence that augmented adiposity can impact on chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer and the development of resistance to these treatments, particularly through one of its signature mediators, the adipokine leptin. Leptin is a pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and pro-tumorigenic adipokine that has been implicated in many cancers promoting processes such as angiogenesis, metastasis, tumorigenesis and survival/resistance to apoptosis. Several possible mechanisms that could potentially be developed by cancer cells to elicit drug resistance have been suggested in the literature. Here, we summarize and discuss the current state of the literature on the role of obesity and leptin on chemoresistance, particularly as it relates to breast and pancreatic cancers. We focus on the role of leptin and its significance in possibly driving these proposed chemoresistance mechanisms, and examine its effects on cancer cell survival signals and expansion of the cancer stem cell sub-populations.

  15. 50 Facts about Oral, Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Oral head and neck cancer" typically refers to squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue, throat, and voice box. However, "head and neck cancer" also refers to other types of cancer that arises in the nasal cavity, sinuses, lips, mouth, thyroid glands, salivary glands, throat, or voice box. ...

  16. ROS signalling in the biology of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, Jennifer N; Cotter, Thomas G

    2017-06-03

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been detected in various cancers and has been shown to have several roles, for example, they can activate pro-tumourigenic signalling, enhance cell survival and proliferation, and drive DNA damage and genetic instability. Counterintuitively ROS can also promote anti-tumourigenic signalling, initiating oxidative stress-induced tumour cell death. Tumour cells express elevated levels of antioxidant proteins to detoxify elevated ROS levels, establish a redox balance, while maintaining pro-tumourigenic signalling and resistance to apoptosis. Tumour cells have an altered redox balance to that of their normal counterparts and this identifies ROS manipulation as a potential target for cancer therapies. This review discusses the generation and sources of ROS within tumour cells, the regulation of ROS by antioxidant defence systems, as well as the effect of elevated ROS production on their signalling targets in cancer. It also provides an insight into how pro- and anti-tumourigenic ROS signalling pathways could be manipulated in the treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Oral cancer in Enugu, Nigeria, 1998-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oji, Chima; Chukwuneke, F N

    2007-06-01

    Cancers of the oral cavity make up 3-4% of all cancers, being in eighth place in men and eleventh in women when the cancer is caused by smoking and alcohol misuse. In this study we recorded all oral cancers in Enugu, eastern Nigeria over the 6-year period from 1998 to 2003. We reviewed all patients who had a diagnosis of invasive oral cancer during this period from notes kept in the Records Department of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Enugu, Nigeria. Carcinoma-in-situ, lymphoma, and leukaemia were not included. All cases were categorised by the site of the tumour and the age and sex of the patient. Eighty one cases of oral cancer were recorded during that period, accounting for 2.7% of all cancers. Forty-eight men and thirty-three women were affected, and the most common site was other sites of the oral cavity (28, 35%), followed by the tongue (24, 30%), floor of the mouth (17, 21%) and finally the lip (12, 15%). They were all advanced at the time of presentation. The patients gave no history of alcohol or tobacco misuse, and their conditions should be seen in terms of chronic illnesses, malnutrition, poverty, and ignorance. We need an urgent awareness campaign, and programmes for the prevention and early detection of oral cancer, in Nigeria.

  18. Combinations of genetic data in a study of oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling Thyge; Møller, Gert Lykke; Mondal, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    for a polygenic disorder will not occur in in control persons genetically unrelated to patients, so the strategy is to analyze combinations of genetic variants present exclusively in patients. In a previous study of oral cancer and leukoplakia 325 SNPs were analyzed. This study has been supplemented...... with an analysis of combinations of two SNP genotypes from among the 325 SNPs. Two clusters of combinations containing 95 patient specific combinations were significantly associated with oral cancer or leukoplakia. Of 373 patients with oral cancer 205 patients had a number of these 95 combinations in their genome...

  19. Proinflammatory signaling functions of thrombin in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Safieh; Rahmani, Farzad; Behnam-Rassouli, Reihane; Hoseinkhani, Fatemeh; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Keramati, Mohammad Reza; Khazaie, Majid; Avan, Amir; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi

    2017-09-01

    Thrombin-induced activation of protease-activated receptors (PARs) represents a link between inflammation and cancer. Proinflammatory signaling functions of thrombin are associated with several inflammatory diseases including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, and of special interest in this review cancer. Thrombin-induced inflammatory responses up-regulates expression of cytokines, adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, and matrix-degrading proteases that facilitate tumor cells proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the mechanisms of thrombin-mediated proinflammatory responses in cancer pathology for a better understanding and hence a better management of this disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacCarthy, Denise

    2011-08-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of \\'field cancerisation\\'\\/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  1. Oral and neck examination for early detection of oral cancer--a practical guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCarthy, Denise; Flint, Stephen R; Healy, Claire; Stassen, Leo F A

    2011-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck region presents a challenge since, unlike other areas of the body, the boundaries are not always easy to delineate. The functional morbidity associated with head and neck cancer and its treatment are considerable. Head and neck cancer is described as cancer of the lip, mouth, tongue, tonsil, pharynx (unspecified), salivary gland, hypopharynx, larynx and other. Oral cancer refers to cancers of the lip, tongue, gingivae, floor of the mouth, palate (hard and soft), maxilla, vestibule and retromolar area up to the anterior pillar of the fauces (tonsil). When patients present with oral cancer, over 60% of them have regional (lymph node) and sometimes distant (metastatic) spread. The overall five-year survival rates for oral cancer average at between 50 and 80%, depending on the stage of the disease, varying from 86% for stage I to 12-16% for stage IV. The incidence of 'field cancerisation'/unstable oral epithelium is high (17%), and even after successful treatment our patients need to be monitored for dental care and further disease. Unlike other areas in the body, the oral epithelium is readily accessible for examination and even self-examination. Dentists and dental hygienists are effective clinicians in the examination of the oral cavity for mouth cancer. An oral and neck examination must be part of every dental examination. An examination protocol is suggested here, which is similar to, but more detailed than, the standardised oral examination method recommended by the World Health Organisation, and consistent with those protocols followed by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.

  2. Factors associated with lip and oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; de Medeiros, Júlia Julliêta; Rodrigues, Larycia Vicente; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim; Lima Neto, Eufrásio de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with the occurrence of primary cancer of the lip and oral cavity regions compared to other types of head and neck cancers according to demographic, socioeconomic data and lifestyle, in Brazil, from 2000 to 2011. A study was conducted using Hospital Cancer Records (Instituto Nacional do Câncer), from 2000 to 2011, totaling 23,153 cases. Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression (response category: primary cancers located in the lip and oral cavity; comparison category; other types of primary cancer in the head and neck, which does not affect the lip and oral cavity) at a significance level α = 5%. The study showed factors associated with higher incidence of cancer in the lip and oral cavity: being of advanced age (OR = 1.16), not having a family history of cancer (OR = 2.38), alcohol consumption (OR = 1.17); former tobacco use (OR = 1.51) or current tobacco use (OR = 1.65); having a previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment (OR =1.66). Being female (OR = 0.92), having completed basic (OR = 0.71) and higher (OR = 0.46) education and having previous diagnosis of cancer with treatment (OR = 0.74) constituted factors associated with lower prevalence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity. Age, absence of family history of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption, and previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment were associated with a higher incidence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity.

  3. Factors associated with lip and oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify factors associated with the occurrence of primary cancer of the lip and oral cavity regions compared to other types of head and neck cancers according to demographic, socioeconomic data and lifestyle, in Brazil, from 2000 to 2011.METHODS: A study was conducted using Hospital Cancer Records (Instituto Nacional do Câncer, from 2000 to 2011, totaling 23,153 cases. Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression (response category: primary cancers located in the lip and oral cavity; comparison category; other types of primary cancer in the head and neck, which does not affect the lip and oral cavity at a significance level α = 5%.RESULTS: The study showed factors associated with higher incidence of cancer in the lip and oral cavity: being of advanced age (OR = 1.16, not having a family history of cancer (OR = 2.38, alcohol consumption (OR = 1.17; former tobacco use (OR = 1.51 or current tobacco use (OR = 1.65; having a previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment (OR =1.66. Being female (OR = 0.92, having completed basic (OR = 0.71 and higher (OR = 0.46 education and having previous diagnosis of cancer with treatment (OR = 0.74 constituted factors associated with lower prevalence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity.CONCLUSION: Age, absence of family history of cancer, smoking habits and alcohol consumption, and previous diagnosis of cancer without treatment were associated with a higher incidence of cancer of the lip and oral cavity.

  4. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral

  5. Occupational risk for oral cancer in nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti

    2017-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. Materials and Methods: The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol...... consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Results: Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx....... These occupations included dentists, artistic workers, hairdressers, journalists, cooks and stewards, seamen and waiters. Conclusion: Several occupational categories, including dentists, had an increased relative risk of tongue cancer. This new finding remains to be explained but could be related to occupational...

  6. Oral sex and oral cancer in the context of human papillomavirus infection: lay public understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario A. Brondani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV is a risk factor for ano-genital and cervical cancers and has been associated with head and neck malignancies in the context of oral sex for the transmission of the virus. However, the level of knowledge that lay people have in terms of HPV transmission through oral sex and oral cancer development remains unknown. A pilot sample of 150 questionnaires was distributed at specific non-profit health organizations in Vancouver, Canada. Questions included perceived risks for oral sex in terms of HPV infection and oral cancer development, and the frequency with which respondents were asked about oral sexual practices by physicians and dentists. Data were analysed statistically by age group (19– 30, 31–50, 50\\, gender (male, female, and sexual orientation (queer, straight. 110 questionnaires were returned fully completed. For the transmission of HPV, 58% of the participants believed that oral sex is an activity of no or low risk, whereas 72% considered the same activity to be of no risk for the development of oral cancer. There was no statistical difference between gender and sexual orientation. Participants never discussed related health risks in regard to oral sex with their physicians or dentists. In conclusion, although recent attention has been given to the potential links between HPV infection and oral cancer, such links remain mostly unknown by the public. Physicians and dentists could discuss oral sex practices to raise awareness with their patients. This is a small sample size study and the results should be interpreted with caution.

  7. Towards virtual surgery in oral cancer to predict postoperative oral functions preoperatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Alphen, M.J.A.; Kreeft, A.M.; van der Heijden, Ferdinand; Smeele, L.E.; Balm, A.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Our aim was to develop a dynamic virtual model of the oral cavity and oropharynx so that we could incorporate patient-specific factors into the prediction of functional loss after advanced resections for oral cancer. After a virtual resection, functional consequences can be assessed, and a more

  8. Oral cancer knowledge and practices of dentists along the Texas-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Olusegun K; Narendran, Sena

    2004-01-01

    The study assessed the knowledge and clinical practices of Texas-Mexico border dentists in oral cancer prevention and early detection. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to all 398 dentists registered to practice along the Texas-Mexico border. Inadequacies and ambivalence in respondents' oral cancer knowledge and practices were evident. Performance of oral cancer examinations was associated with positive perception of undergraduate oral cancer training (P =.02). Most respondents (81%) were interested in oral cancer continuing education (CE). More emphasis on oral cancer training for dental students as well as provision of oral cancer CE to respondents are recommended.

  9. Betel quid chewing, oral cancer and other oral mucosal diseases in Vietnam: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichart, P A; Nguyen, X H

    2008-10-01

    Betel quid chewing (BQC) in Vietnam is still prevalent, however, no detailed information about its association with oral cancer and pre-cancer are available in the English literature. Respective online searches (PubMed, Medline) were negative. Relevant publications in Vietnamese were collected by the authors and translated. Visits to cancer centres and institutes of odontology (Ho Chi Minh City, Hanoi) were made and seminars with respective scientists were held. Field excursions to local markets and interviews with betel quid vendors and individual BQ chewers gave further insights. Generally, BQC is on the decline in Vietnam. 6.7% of the female population still seems to indulge in this habit. In an earlier study, a prevalence of 0.06% of oral cancer was reported. In a study of 1084 cases of oral cancer, the male:female ratio was 1.05:1 (1997). The age group between 60 and 75 years is most often affected by oral cancer. In BQ chewing women, the buccal mucosa (27.9%), tongue (23.1%) and lips (22.4%) are most often affected. Verrucous carcinoma is seen in the age group 70-79 years with women most often being affected (male:female ratio 1:3.4). The most important risk factor for oral cancer in women is BQC compared with men where smoking, alcohol drinking or combined smoking and drinking habits are the most common risk factors. Oral leukoplakia in BQ chewers is observed in 3.8%, oral submucous fibrosis in 13%. BQC in Vietnam is on the decline. Association between BQC and oral cancer in elderly women is still of importance. Eventually, the BQC habit will vanish and only play a role in socio-ritual contexts.

  10. Oral cavity infection: an adverse effect after the treatment of oral cancer in aged individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Zhao, Jun; Jiang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    The immune compromised patients after treatment of oral cancer may have a chance of infection by drug-resistant opportunistic microbes. We investigated the occurrence of opportunistic microorganisms in aged individuals receiving follow-up examinations after treatment of oral cancer in China. These patients were used as test group and the respective age grouped healthy individuals as control group. In this study, the oral cavity microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast were taken for the analysis. After the screening of representative microorganisms, their aptitude of pervasiveness against drugs was studied. Here, we used antimicrobial agents which are common in clinical practice. We also performed studies to investigate the presence of toxin genes in methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The results indicate that the prevalence of drug-resistant microbes was more pronounced in oral cancer patients after initial treatment above 70 years old. The oxacillin resistance of S. aureus isolate confirms that the prevalence of MRSA is increasing in accordance to age-factor and immune compromise in elderly patients. This study reveals the occurrence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity after treatment for oral cancer in aged individuals. Special attention should be directed to MRSA during the treatment of oral cancer, and to realize the fact of immune compromise in elderly patients.

  11. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts. PMID:21439242

  12. Natural ways to prevent and treat oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shweta Danaraddi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the usual causes of mortality all over the world, with a five-year survival rate of only 50%. Oral cancers are treated primarily by surgery with / without adjuvant radiotherapy and / or chemotherapy. However, there is significant post-treatment morbidity and mortality secondary to recurrences. Dietary supplements like fruits and vegetables are rich in phytochemicals and provide a variety of antioxidants like vitamin A, C, E. Spirulina, Selenium, Green tea (EGCG, Neem, Tomatoes (lycopene, Turmeric (curcumin, and some medicinal mushrooms are also used as chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic agents. This overview emphasizes on natural therapies to fight against oral cancer. Thus, there are several natural compounds that can enhance the prevention of oral cancer.

  13. Oral cavity cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Ming Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the incidence and mortality of oral cavity cancer in the cancer registration areas of China in 2010. Materials and Methods: Until June 1, 2013, 219 population-based cancer registries submitted the data of 2010 to the National Central Cancer Registry of China covering about 207,229,403 population, and 120 cancer registries were selected after the quality evaluation for this analysis. Oral cavity cancer cases were selected from the database according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 coded as "C00-C10, C11-C12." We calculated the crude incidence and mortality rates of oral cavity cancer by sex, age, and location (urban/rural. The China population in 2000 and Segi's population were used as standardized populations for the calculation of age standardized rates. Results: In 2010, it was estimated that there were 34,319 new cases diagnosed as oral cavity cancer in China, including 23,096 males and 11,223 females. The crude incidence rate of oral cavity cancer was 2.61/100,000 in 2010, accounting for 1.11% of overall new cancer cases, ranked the 20th in all cancer sites. The age standardized by China population (ASRcn and by world population (ASRwld were 2.06/100,000 and 2.02/100,000, respectively. Cumulative rate (0–74 years old and truncated age standardized rate (35–64 years old were 0.23% and 3.82/100 000, respectively. In 2010, it was estimated that there were 14,652 cases died in oral cavity cancer in China, including 10,363 males and 4289 females. The crude mortality rate of oral cavity cancer was 1.11/100,000 in 2010, accounting for 0.75% of overall cancer deaths, ranked the 20th in all cancer sites. The ASRcn and ASRwld were 0.86/100,000 and 0.85/100,000, respectively. Cumulative rate and truncated age standardized rates were 0.10% and 1.30/100,000, respectively. Conclusions: Both the incidence and mortality of oral cavity cancer in China were still low in 2010. Primary prevention such as smoking

  14. Oral cavity cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chuan-Ming; Ge, Ming-Hua; Zhang, Shuang-Shuang; Tan, Zhuo; Wang, Peng; Zheng, Rong-Shou; Chen, Wan-Qing; Xia, Qing-Min

    2015-10-01

    To analyze the incidence and mortality of oral cavity cancer in the cancer registration areas of China in 2010. Until June 1, 2013, 219 population-based cancer registries submitted the data of 2010 to the National Central Cancer Registry of China covering about 207,229,403 population, and 120 cancer registries were selected after the quality evaluation for this analysis. Oral cavity cancer cases were selected from the database according to the International Classification of Diseases-10 coded as "C00-C10, C11-C12." We calculated the crude incidence and mortality rates of oral cavity cancer by sex, age, and location (urban/rural). The China population in 2000 and Segi's population were used as standardized populations for the calculation of age standardized rates. In 2010, it was estimated that there were 34,319 new cases diagnosed as oral cavity cancer in China, including 23,096 males and 11,223 females. The crude incidence rate of oral cavity cancer was 2.61/100,000 in 2010, accounting for 1.11% of overall new cancer cases, ranked the 20th in all cancer sites. The age standardized by China population (ASRcn) and by world population (ASRwld) were 2.06/100,000 and 2.02/100,000, respectively. Cumulative rate (0-74 years old) and truncated age standardized rate (35-64 years old) were 0.23% and 3.82/100 000, respectively. In 2010, it was estimated that there were 14,652 cases died in oral cavity cancer in China, including 10,363 males and 4289 females. The crude mortality rate of oral cavity cancer was 1.11/100,000 in 2010, accounting for 0.75% of overall cancer deaths, ranked the 20th in all cancer sites. The ASRcn and ASRwld were 0.86/100,000 and 0.85/100,000, respectively. Cumulative rate and truncated age standardized rates were 0.10% and 1.30/100,000, respectively. Both the incidence and mortality of oral cavity cancer in China were still low in 2010. Primary prevention such as smoking control, reducing alcohol consumption, changing the habit of chewing betel nut

  15. Flap Hitching Technique to the Teeth after Oral Cancer Resection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flap Hitching Technique to the Teeth after Oral Cancer. Resection. Krishnakumar Thankappan, Subramania Iyer, Mayuri Rajapurkar, Mohit Sharma, Pramod Subash1. INTRODUCTION. Flap surgery for reconstruction is an integral part in the surgical management of head and neck tumors. After resection of the tumors of oral ...

  16. ORAL-THERAPY FOR SMALL-CELL LUNG-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    POSTMUS, PE; SMIT, EF

    After a remarkable improvement of the very poor prognosis of small cell lung cancer with very simple therapy such as iv and oral cyclophosphamide the role of oral therapy has become minimal. However, since more than a decade results of combination chemotherapy are at a plateau and it is necessary to

  17. ORAL OPIOIDS IN THE TREATMENT OF CANCER PAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZYLICZ, Z; TWYCROSS, RG

    Persistent severe cancer pain should be treated with opioid drugs, principally morphine. It can be administered orally, rectally and parenterally. Morphine is metabolised in the liver mainly to glucuronides, of which morphine-6-glucuronide is a powerful analgesic. Oral morphine should be

  18. Selaginellatamariscina attenuates metastasis via Akt pathways in oral cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Sin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crude extracts of Selaginellatamariscina, an oriental medicinal herb, have been evidenced to treat several human diseases. This study investigated the mechanisms by which Selaginellatamariscina inhibits the invasiveness of human oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC HSC-3 cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina attenuated HSC-3 cell migration and invasion in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-metastatic activities of Selaginellatamariscina occurred at least partially because of the down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 gelatinase activity and the down-regulation of protein expression. The expression and function of both MMP-2 and MMP-9 were regulated by Selaginellatamariscina at a transcriptional level, as shown by quantitative real-time PCR and reporter assays. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP data further indicated that binding of the cAMP response element-binding (CREB protein and activating protein-1 (AP-1 to the MMP-2 promoter diminished at the highest dosage level of Selaginellatamariscina. The DNA-binding activity of specificity protein 1 (SP-1 to the MMP-9 promoter was also suppressed at the same concentration. Selaginellatamariscina did not affect the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, but did inhibit the effects of gelatinase by reducing the activation of serine-threonine kinase Akt. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that Selaginellatamariscina may be a potent adjuvant therapeutic agent in the prevention of oral cancer.

  19. Implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Rasheed, Abdulaziz; Almas, Khalid; Romanos, George E

    2010-12-01

    The overall impression regarding the success of dental implants (DI) in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy remains unclear. The aim of the present review study was to assess the implant survival rate after oral cancer therapy. Databases were explored from 1986 up to and including September 2010 using the following keywords in various combinations: "cancer", "chemotherapy", "dental implant", "oral", "osseointegration", "radiotherapy", "surgery" and "treatment". The eligibility criteria were: (1) original research articles; (2) clinical studies; (3) reference list of pertinent original and review studies; (4) intervention: patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery; and (5) articles published only in English. Twenty-one clinical studies were included. Results from 16 studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone radiotherapy following oral cancer surgery; whereas three studies showed irradiation to have negative effects on the survival of DI. Two studies reported that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone chemotherapy. It is concluded that DI can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer treatment. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Public awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Maweri, Sadeq Ali; Addas, Abdallah; Tarakji, Bassel; Abbas, Alkasem; Al-Shamiri, Hashem M; Alaizari, Nader Ahmed; Shugaa-Addin, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer is in increasing in incidence in Yemen and indeed worldwide. Knowledge regarding risk factors and early signs in the general population can help in prevention and early detection of the disease. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of oral cancer in the general population in Yemen. A cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted on Yemeni adults aged ≥15 years old. A total of 543 persons participated, the collected data being analyzed using SPSS software. The significance level was set at p<0.05. Two thirds (71.5%) of the participants had heard about oral cancer. Smoking and smokeless tobacco usage were identified as the major risk factors by 71.5% and 73.7% of the participants, respectively. Only 24.1% and 21.4%, respectively, were able to correctly identify red and white lesions as early signs of oral cancer. Knowledge of oral cancer was significantly associated with age (p<0.01), gender (p<0.05) and education level (p<0.001). The findings suggest that the knowledge regarding oral cancer in this population is low. Therefore, educational programs are highly needed to improve such knowledge.

  1. Quantitative prediction of oral cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Li, Yicheng; Fu, Yue; Liu, Tong; Liu, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Xinyan; Fu, Jie; Guan, Xiaobing; Chen, Tong; Chen, Xiaoxin; Sun, Zheng

    2017-07-11

    Exfoliative cytology has been widely used for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. We have developed an oral cancer risk index using DNA index value to quantitatively assess cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia, but with limited success. In order to improve the performance of the risk index, we collected exfoliative cytology, histopathology, and clinical follow-up data from two independent cohorts of normal, leukoplakia and cancer subjects (training set and validation set). Peaks were defined on the basis of first derivatives with positives, and modern machine learning techniques were utilized to build statistical prediction models on the reconstructed data. Random forest was found to be the best model with high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (99.2%). Using the Peaks-Random Forest model, we constructed an index (OCRI2) as a quantitative measurement of cancer risk. Among 11 leukoplakia patients with an OCRI2 over 0.5, 4 (36.4%) developed cancer during follow-up (23 ± 20 months), whereas 3 (5.3%) of 57 leukoplakia patients with an OCRI2 less than 0.5 developed cancer (32 ± 31 months). OCRI2 is better than other methods in predicting oral squamous cell carcinoma during follow-up. In conclusion, we have developed an exfoliative cytology-based method for quantitative prediction of cancer risk in patients with oral leukoplakia.

  2. Serum lipid profile in patients with oral cancer and oral precancerous conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajul Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was undertaken to estimate and compare the levels of plasma total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL, high density lipoprotein (HDL, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglycerides in patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions, oral cancer and normal subjects. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 60 patients with oral precancerous lesions/conditions, 60 patients with oral cancer and a control group of 60 healthy individuals. The diagnosis of oral precancerous lesions/conditions and oral cancer was confirmed histopathologically. Under aseptic condition 5 ml venous blood of overnight fasting patient was withdrawn from each individual. Serum was separated by centrifugation and plasma levels of TC, LDL, HDL, VLDL and triglycerides were estimated. Descriptive statistical analysis has been carried out in the present study. Analysis of variance has been used to find the significance of study parameters between three or more groups of patients, Post-hoc test as Tukey has been used to find the pair wise significance. Significance is assessed at 5% level of significance. Results: Statistically significant decrease in levels of plasma TC, LDL, HDL, VLDL and triglycerides was observed in the precancerous and cancerous groups as compared to the control group. On comparison between precancerous and cancerous groups, significant decrease was observed in cancerous group. Conclusion: The change in lipid levels may have an early diagnostic or prognostic role in the oral premalignant lesions/conditions and oral cancer. The presence of decreased plasma lipid profile should increase the suspicion of these lesions to be investigated further.

  3. Applications of the oral scraped (exfoliative) cytology in oral cancer and precancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acha, Amelia; Ruesga, María T; Rodríguez, María J; Martínez de Pancorbo, María A; Aguirre, José M

    2005-01-01

    Scraped (exfoliative) cytology is a simple and harmless procedure, which has been a controversial technique according to its real validity in oral pathology. Lately it has re-emerged due to its application in oral precancer and cancer as a diagnostic and predictive method as well as for monitoring patients. New diagnostic techniques have been developed, such as "brush biopsy" and multiple molecular studies using the cells collected. In this review we are going to analyse the more novel aspects related with the applications of the scraped or exfoliative cytology in oral precancerous and cancerous pathology, specially focusing on molecular studies and their diagnostic and prognostic implications.

  4. Oral cancer, HPV infection and evidence of sexual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Hernán, Fátima; Sánchez-Hernández, Juan-Gabriel; Cano, Jorge; Campo, Julián; del Romero, Jorge

    2013-05-01

    The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer and oral cancer is growing worldwide, both in young non-smokers and in young non-drinkers (smoking and drinking are considered the main risk factors). Epidemiologic studies suggest a strong association between the infection by human papillomavirus (HPV), especially types 16 and 18 (high oncological risk) which have already demonstrated their etiological role in anal tumours as well as in cervix cancer. There is clear epidemiologic evidence that both types of tumours relate to changes in sexual behaviour and that both are linked to sexual transmission of HPV. The number of oral and oropharyngeal cancer cases is rising nowadays, especially among young individuals with no typical toxic habits, such as tobacco and/or alcohol. In this review we set out to update the aspects related to the onset of oral cancer, its relationship with HPV infection and whether this association may be due to the sexual transmission of the virus.

  5. DNA methylation markers for oral pre-cancer progression: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridhar, Krithiga; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gulati, Smriti; Geetha, A V; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Dhillon, Preet K; Rajaraman, Preetha

    2016-02-01

    Although oral cancers are generally preceded by a well-established pre-cancerous stage, there is a lack of well-defined clinical and morphological criteria to detect and signal progression from pre-cancer to malignant tumours. We conducted a critical review to summarize the evidence regarding aberrant DNA methylation patterns as a potential diagnostic biomarker predicting progression. We identified all relevant human studies published in English prior to 30th April 2015 that examined DNA methylation (%) in oral pre-cancer by searching PubMed, Web-of-Science and Embase databases using combined key-searches. Twenty-one studies (18-cross-sectional; 3-longitudinal) were eligible for inclusion in the review, with sample sizes ranging from 4 to 156 affected cases. Eligible studies examined promoter region hyper-methylation of tumour suppressor genes in pathways including cell-cycle-control (n=15), DNA-repair (n=7), cell-cycle-signalling (n=4) and apoptosis (n=3). Hyper-methylated loci reported in three or more studies included p16, p14, MGMT and DAPK. Two longitudinal studies reported greater p16 hyper-methylation in pre-cancerous lesions transformed to malignancy compared to lesions that regressed (57-63.6% versus 8-32.1%; pmethylation patterns reported three novel hyper-methylated loci (TRHDE; ZNF454; KCNAB3). The majority of reviewed studies were small, cross-sectional studies with poorly defined control groups and lacking validation. Whilst limitations in sample size and study design preclude definitive conclusions, current evidence suggests a potential utility of DNA methylation patterns as a diagnostic biomarker for oral pre-cancer progression. Robust studies such as large epigenome-wide methylation explorations of oral pre-cancer with longitudinal tracking are needed to validate the currently reported signals and identify new risk-loci and the biological pathways of disease progression. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listl, Stefan; Jansen, Lina; Stenzinger, Albrecht; Freier, Kolja; Emrich, Katharina; Holleczek, Bernd; Katalinic, Alexander; Gondos, Adam; Brenner, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002–2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well as grade and tumor stage. Overall five-year relative survival for oral cavity cancer patients was 54.6%. According to tumor localization, five-year survival was 86.5% for lip cancer, 48.1% for tongue cancer and 51.7% for other regions of the oral cavity. Differences in survival were identified with respect to age, sex, tumor grade and stage. The present study is the first to provide a comprehensive overview on survival of oral cavity cancer patients in Germany. PMID:23349710

  7. Total, direct, and indirect effects of paan on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, Anwar T; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2015-03-01

    Paan (betel leaf and betel nut quid) used with or without tobacco has been positively associated with oral cancer. Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition caused by paan, lies on the causal pathway between paan use and oral cancer. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate the effect of paan consumption on oral cancer risk when it is mediated by OSMF. We used mediation methods proposed by VanderWeele, which are based on causal inference principles, to characterize the total, direct, and indirect effects of paan, consumed with and without tobacco, on oral cancer mediated by OSMF. We reanalyzed case-control data collected from three hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan, between July 1996 and March 1998. For paan without tobacco, the total effect on oral cancer was OR 7.39, 95 % CI 1.01, 38.11, the natural indirect effect (due to OSMF among paan users) was OR 2.48, 95 % CI 0.99, 10.44, and the natural direct effect (due to paan with OSMF absent) was OR 3.32, 95 % CI 0.68, 10.07. For paan with tobacco, the total direct effect was OR 15.68, 95 % CI 3.00, 54.90, the natural indirect effect was OR 2.18, 95 % CI 0.82, 5.52, and the natural direct effect was OR 7.27, 95 % CI 2.15, 20.43. Paan, whether or not it contained tobacco, raised oral cancer risk irrespective of OSMF. Oral cancer risk was higher among those who used paan with tobacco.

  8. Calcium wave signaling in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARKASH, JAI; ASOTRA, KAMLESH

    2010-01-01

    Ca2+ functions as an important signaling messenger right from beginning of the life to final moment of the end of the life. Ca2+ is needed at several steps of the cell cycle such as early G1, at the G1/S, and G2/M transitions. The Ca2+ signals in the form of time-dependent changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, [Ca2+]i, are presented as brief spikes organized into regenerative Ca2+ waves. Ca2+-mediated signaling pathways have also been shown to play important roles in carcinogenesis such as transformation of normal cells to cancerous cells, tumor formation and growth, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis. Since the global Ca2+ oscillations arise from Ca2+ waves initiated locally, it results in stochastic oscillations because although each cell has many IP3Rs and Ca2+ ions, the law of large numbers does not apply to the initiating event which is restricted to very few IP3Rs due to steep Ca2+ concentration gradients. The specific Ca2+ signaling information is likely to be encoded in a calcium code as the amplitude, duration, frequency, waveform or timing of Ca2+ oscillations and decoded again at a later stage. Since Ca2+ channels or pumps involved in regulating Ca2+ signaling pathways show altered expression in cancer, one can target these Ca2+ channels and pumps as therapeutic options to decrease proliferation of cancer cells and to promote their apoptosis. These studies can provide novel insights into alterations in Ca2+ wave patterns in carcinogenesis and lead to development of newer technologies based on Ca2+ waves for the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. PMID:20875431

  9. Human papillomavirus prevalence is high in oral samples of patients with tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordfors, Cecilia; Vlastos, Andrea; Du, Juan; Ahrlund-Richter, Andreas; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Grün, Nathalie; Romanitan, Mircea; Haeggblom, Linnea; Roosaar, Ann; Dahllöf, Göran; Donà, Maria Gabriella; Benevolo, Maria; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Dalianis, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Presence of HPV DNA was analyzed in mouthwash and tonsillar swab samples, if indicative of HPV-positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer in 76 patients, with suspected head neck cancer, undergoing diagnostic endoscopy at Karolinska University Hospital. The diagnosis and tumor HPV status was later obtained from patients' records. As controls, 37 tumor-free dental visitors were included. Of the 76 patients, 22/29 (76%) and 16/18 (89%) had an HPV-positive tonsillar and base of tongue cancer respectively, with 18/22 (82%) and 8/16 (50%) respectively having tumor concordant HPV-type positive oral samples. Two other HPV-positive oral samples in the base of tongue cancer group did not correlate to the tumor HPV status. Among the remaining patients, 19 with other head neck cancer and 10 with benign conditions, 4/29 (14%) had HPV-positive oral samples. Consequently, of the HPV-positive oral samples, dominated by HPV16 and high signals, 27/32 (84%) were derived from 26 patients with concordant HPV-type positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer and one patient with an unknown primary head and neck cancer. The other five HPV-positive oral samples, with mainly low signals were derived from two patients with non-concordant HPV-type positive tumor biopsies, two patients with HPV-negative tumor biopsies and a patient with a benign condition. Of the dental patients, 3/37 (8%) had HPV-positive tonsillar swabs with weak signals. In patients with suspected head neck cancer, HPV-positive oral samples, especially HPV16 with high signals, could be indicative of HPV-positive tonsillar or base of tongue cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Diagnostic aids in the screening of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Stefano

    2009-01-30

    The World Health Organization has clearly identified prevention and early detection as major objectives in the control of the oral cancer burden worldwide. At the present time, screening of oral cancer and its pre-invasive intra-epithelial stages, as well as its early detection, is still largely based on visual examination of the mouth. There is strong available evidence to suggest that visual inspection of the oral mucosa is effective in reducing mortality from oral cancer in individuals exposed to risk factors. Simple visual examination, however, is well known to be limited by subjective interpretation and by the potential, albeit rare, occurrence of dysplasia and early OSCC within areas of normal-looking oral mucosa. As a consequence, adjunctive techniques have been suggested to increase our ability to differentiate between benign abnormalities and dysplastic/malignant changes as well as to identify areas of dysplasia/early OSCC that are not visible to naked eye. These include the use of toluidine blue, brush biopsy, chemiluminescence and tissue autofluorescence. The present paper reviews the evidence supporting the efficacy of the aforementioned techniques in improving the identification of dysplastic/malignant changes of the oral mucosa. We conclude that available studies have shown promising results, but strong evidence to support the use of oral cancer diagnostic aids is still lacking. Further research with clear objectives, well-defined population cohorts, and sound methodology is strongly required.

  11. Interventions for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer receiving treatment: oral cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Philip; Glenny, Anne-Marie; Worthington, Helen V; Littlewood, Anne; Clarkson, Jan E; McCabe, Martin G

    2015-12-23

    Oral mucositis is a side effect of chemotherapy, head and neck radiotherapy, and targeted therapy, affecting over 75% of high risk patients. Ulceration can lead to severe pain and difficulty eating and drinking, which may necessitate opioid analgesics, hospitalisation and nasogastric or intravenous nutrition. These complications may lead to interruptions or alterations to cancer therapy, which may reduce survival. There is also a risk of death from sepsis if pathogens enter the ulcers of immunocompromised patients. Ulcerative oral mucositis can be costly to healthcare systems, yet there are few preventive interventions proven to be beneficial. Oral cryotherapy is a low-cost, simple intervention which is unlikely to cause side-effects. It has shown promise in clinical trials and warrants an up-to-date Cochrane review to assess and summarise the international evidence. To assess the effects of oral cryotherapy for preventing oral mucositis in patients with cancer who are receiving treatment. We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 17 June 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 17 June 2015), EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 17 June 2015), CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 17 June 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 17 June 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry, and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching databases. We included parallel-design randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of oral cryotherapy in patients with cancer receiving treatment. We used outcomes from a published core outcome set registered on the COMET website. Two review authors independently screened the results of electronic searches, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We contacted study authors for information

  12. Relationship between Serum Albumin and Oral Epithelial Cancers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, and displays great geographic variation in its incidence worldwide. While tobacco and alcohol are the major aetiological factors, other important aetiological factors include diet, infections, and exposure to ultraviolet radiation. This study attempts to determine whether ...

  13. Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization for MicroRNA Detection in Archived Oral Cancer Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonggao Shi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The noncoding RNA designated as microRNA (miRNA is a large group of small single-stranded regulatory RNA and has generated wide-spread interest in human disease studies. To facilitate delineating the role of microRNAs in cancer pathology, we sought to explore the feasibility of detecting microRNA expression in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues. Using FFPE materials, we have compared fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH procedures to detect miR-146a with (a different synthetic probes: regular custom DNA oligonucleotides versus locked nucleic acid (LNA incorporated DNA oligonucleotides; (b different reporters for the probes: biotin versus digoxigenin (DIG; (c different visualization: traditional versus tyramide signal amplification (TSA system; (d different blocking reagents for endogenous peroxidase. Finally, we performed miR-146a FISH on a commercially available oral cancer tissue microarray, which contains 40 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and 10 cases of normal epithelia from the human oral cavity. A sample FISH protocol for detecting miR-146a is provided. In summary, we have established reliable in situ hybridization procedures for detecting the expression of microRNA in FFPE oral cancer tissues. This method is an important tool for studies on the involvement of microRNA in oral cancer pathology and may have potential prognostic or diagnostic value.

  14. Survival of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Listl; Lina Jansen; Albrecht Stenzinger; Kolja Freier; Katharina Emrich; Bernd Holleczek; Alexander Katalinic; Adam Gondos; Hermann Brenner

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe the survival of patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer in Germany. The analyses relied on data from eleven population-based cancer registries in Germany covering a population of 33 million inhabitants. Patients with a diagnosis of oral cavity cancer (ICD-10: C00-06) between 1997 and 2006 are included. Period analysis for 2002-2006 was applied to estimate five-year age-standardized relative survival, taking into account patients' sex as well...

  15. A clinicopathological study of various oral cancer diagnostic techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ulaganathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most commonly occurring malignant tumors in the head and neck regions with high incident rate and mortality rate in the developed countries than in the developing countries. Generally, the survival rate of cancer patients may increase when diagnosed at early stage, followed by prompt treatment and therapy. Recently, cancer diagnosis and therapy design for a specific cancer patient have been performed with the advanced computer-aided techniques. The responses of the cancer therapy could be continuously monitored to ensure the effectiveness of the treatment process that hardly requires diagnostic result as quick as possible to improve the quality and patient care. This paper gives an overview of oral cancer occurrence, different types, and various diagnostic techniques. In addition, a brief introduction is given to various stages of immunoanalysis including tissue image preparation, whole slide imaging, and microscopic image analysis.

  16. Signaling by Extracellular Vesicles Advances Cancer Hallmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, Masamitsu; Bachmann, Michael H; Contag, Christopher H

    2016-02-01

    Mammalian cells secrete various extracellular vesicles (EVs; exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies) that differ in biogenesis, composition, and function. Each vesicle type can originate from normal or cancerous cells, transfer molecular cargo to both neighboring and distant cells, and modulate cellular behaviors involved in eubiology and pathology, such as tumor development. Here, we review evidence for the role of EVs in the establishment and maintenance of cancer hallmarks, including sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppression, resisting cell death, reprogramming energy metabolism, acquiring genomic instability, and remodeling the tumor microenvironment. We also discuss how EVs are implicated in the induction of angiogenesis, control of cellular invasion, initiation of premetastatic niches, maintenance of inflammation, and evasion of immune surveillance. The deeper understanding of the biology of EVs and their contribution to the development and progression of tumors is leading to new opportunities in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A genetic programming approach to oral cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mei Sze; Tan, Jing Wei; Chang, Siow-Wee; Yap, Hwa Jen; Abdul Kareem, Sameem; Zain, Rosnah Binti

    2016-01-01

    The potential of genetic programming (GP) on various fields has been attained in recent years. In bio-medical field, many researches in GP are focused on the recognition of cancerous cells and also on gene expression profiling data. In this research, the aim is to study the performance of GP on the survival prediction of a small sample size of oral cancer prognosis dataset, which is the first study in the field of oral cancer prognosis. GP is applied on an oral cancer dataset that contains 31 cases collected from the Malaysia Oral Cancer Database and Tissue Bank System (MOCDTBS). The feature subsets that is automatically selected through GP were noted and the influences of this subset on the results of GP were recorded. In addition, a comparison between the GP performance and that of the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and logistic regression (LR) are also done in order to verify the predictive capabilities of the GP. The result shows that GP performed the best (average accuracy of 83.87% and average AUROC of 0.8341) when the features selected are smoking, drinking, chewing, histological differentiation of SCC, and oncogene p63. In addition, based on the comparison results, we found that the GP outperformed the SVM and LR in oral cancer prognosis. Some of the features in the dataset are found to be statistically co-related. This is because the accuracy of the GP prediction drops when one of the feature in the best feature subset is excluded. Thus, GP provides an automatic feature selection function, which chooses features that are highly correlated to the prognosis of oral cancer. This makes GP an ideal prediction model for cancer clinical and genomic data that can be used to aid physicians in their decision making stage of diagnosis or prognosis.

  18. Oral cannabidiol does not produce a signal for abuse liability in frequent marijuana smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalonis, Shanna; Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J; Lofwall, Michelle R; Votaw, Victoria R; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L

    2017-03-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g., pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability. Healthy, frequent marijuana users (n=31) were enrolled in this within subject, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multisite study that administered oral cannabidiol (0, 200, 400, 800mg) alone and in combination with smoked marijuana (0.01%, 5.3-5.8% THC). Participants received one dose combination across 8 once-weekly outpatient sessions (7.5h). The primary findings on the drug interaction effects were previously reported (Haney et al., 2016). The present study is a secondary analysis of the data to examine the abuse liability profile of oral cannabidiol (200, 400, 800mg) in comparison to oral placebo and active smoked marijuana (5.3-5.8% THC). Active marijuana reliably produced abuse-related subjective effects (e.g., high) (p0.05). Overall, CBD did not display any signals of abuse liability at the doses tested and these data may help inform U.S. regulatory decisions regarding CBD schedule on the CSA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral cannabidiol does not produce a signal for abuse liability in frequent marijuana smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalonis, Shanna; Haney, Margaret; Malcolm, Robert J.; Lofwall, Michelle R.; Votaw, Victoria R.; Sparenborg, Steven; Walsh, Sharon L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Cannabidiol (CBD) is a naturally occurring constituent of the marijuana plant. In the past few years, there has been great interest in the therapeutic effects of isolated CBD and it is currently being explored for numerous disease conditions (e.g., pain, epilepsy, cancer, various drug dependencies). However, CBD remains a Schedule I drug on the U.S. Controlled Substances Act (CSA). Despite its status, there are no well-controlled data available regarding its abuse liability. Methods Healthy, frequent marijuana users (n=31) were enrolled in this within subject, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multisite study that administered oral cannabidiol (0, 200, 400, 800 mg) alone and in combination with smoked marijuana (0.01%, 5.3-5.8% THC). Participants received one dose combination across 8 once-weekly outpatient sessions (7.5 hrs). The primary findings on the drug interaction effects were previously reported (Haney et al., 2016). The present study is a secondary analysis of the data to examine the abuse liability profile of oral cannabidiol (200, 400, 800 mg) in comparison to oral placebo and active smoked marijuana (5.3-5.8% THC). Results Active marijuana reliably produced abuse-related subjective effects (e.g., high) (p.05). Conclusions Overall, CBD did not display any signals of abuse liability at the doses tested and these data may help inform U.S. regulatory decisions regarding CBD schedule on the CSA. PMID:28088032

  20. Early oral intake after reconstruction with a free flap for cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidera, Alice K; Kelly, Bronwen N; Rigby, Paul; MacKinnon, Craig A; Tan, Swee T

    2013-04-01

    To allow healing of the surgical wound patients are traditionally given nothing by mouth for 6-12 days after resection and reconstruction of a cancer of the oral cavity. Our aim was to assess the impact of introducing oral intake within 6 days postoperatively. Consecutive patients who had resection and reconstruction of a cancer of the oral cavity with a free flap within an 8-year period were selected from the head and neck database. Personal and social data; type, stage, and site of the tumour; type of resection and free flap; postoperative complications; and duration of hospital stay were recorded, supplemented by review of casenotes for the time that oral intake was started, duration of nasogastric and tracheostomy intubation, and changes in body weight. Patients in the early oral intake group started oral intake within 5 days postoperatively, and those in the late group began feeding from postoperative day 6. The duration of hospital stay in the early group was significantly shorter than that in the late group. There was, however, no difference in the morbidity, including orocutaneous fistula, between the two groups. The duration of nasogastric and tracheostomy intubation was shorter, and weight loss was less, in the early group than in the late group, but not significantly so. Early oral feeding does not increase the morbidity for patients having resection and reconstruction with free flaps for cancers of the oral cavity. Early oral intake is associated with a shorter hospital stay, and this may have implications for improved postoperative outcome. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Patients with oral cancer developing from pre-existing oral leukoplakia: do they do better than those with de novo oral cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Manon; Ten Hove, Ivo; Allard, Remy H B; Bezemer, Dick P D; van der Waal, Isaäc

    2008-03-01

    It has been suggested that patients with squamous cell carcinomas derived from oral leukoplakia have a better prognosis than patients with carcinomas that are not associated with oral leukoplakia. To study the mortality rate of 19 patients with a squamous cell carcinoma derived from pre-existing oral leukoplakia. The mortality rate of 19 patients with a proven oral squamous cell carcinoma derived from a pre-existing oral leukoplakia was compared with that of a similar size group of patients with oral carcinoma without a pre-existing oral leukoplakia, being matched for gender, age, smoking habits, use of alcohol, oral subsite and histopathologic grade. Treatment in all patients was primarily by surgical excision. The mortality rates up to 5 years have been computed according to the Kaplan-Meier method. No significant difference of the mortality rates up to 5 years of follow-up was observed between the two groups of patients. Patients with oral cancer developing from pre-existing oral leukoplakia do not do better than those with de novo oral cancer.

  2. The prosthodontic pathway of the oral cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Krista Z; Rogers, Simon N; Butterworth, Chris J

    2012-03-01

    Oral cancer patients undergo life-altering curative treatment that consists of surgery or a combination of surgery and radiotherapy. This can severely alter the functional anatomy of the oral cavity and create a challenging environment for successful oral rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary team approach is required to rehabilitate these patients successfully. It is essential to have assessment by an oral rehabilitation specialist before treatment, especially where primary rehabilitation interventions are being considered. Following cancer treatment, patients may suffer from a range of difficulties, from dento-facial appearance, to chewing, speech and swallowing. This dysfunction often leads to psychosocial problems, such as reduced self esteem, social contact and quality of life. Conventional prosthodontics has a role to play in the management of these patients but osseointegrated implants (OII), can be required to overcome the anatomical and physiological barriers. OII can be used in an environment where there is poor soft tissue function or little bone support, and where there is a dry mouth. This paper introduces readers to the prosthodontic pathway taken by some oral cancer patients. It provides an overview of current oral rehabilitation techniques that supplement the supportive dental care provided by general dental practitioners and their team after cancer treatment.

  3. Oral cancer via the bargain bin: The risk of oral cancer associated with a smokeless tobacco product (Naswar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Zohaib; Dreger, Steffen; Shah, Syed Majid Hussain; Pohlabeln, Hermann; Khan, Sheraz; Ullah, Zakir; Rehman, Basheer; Zeeb, Hajo

    2017-01-01

    In the wake of smokeless tobacco (SLT) being advocated as a mean of tobacco harm reduction, it is pertinent to establish individual health risks associated with each SLT product. This case-control study was aimed at assessing the risk of oral cancer associated with a smokeless tobacco product (Naswar). The study was conducted from September 2014 till May 2015 in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Exposure and covariate information was collected through a structured questionnaire. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) along with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). 84 oral cancer cases (62% males) and 174 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. Ever users of Naswar had more than a 20-fold higher risk of oral cancer compared to never-users (OR 21.2, 95% CI 8.4-53.8). Females had a higher risk of oral cancer with the use of Naswar (OR 29.0, 95% CI 5.4-153.9) as compared to males (OR 21.0, 95% CI 6.1-72.1). Based on this result, 68% (men) and 38% (women) of the oral cancer burden in Pakistan is attributable to Naswar. The risk estimates observed in this study are comparable to risk estimates reported by previous studies on other forms of SLT use and the risk of oral cancer in Pakistan. The exposure-response relationship also supports a strong role of Naswar in the etiology of oral cancer in Pakistan. Although still requiring further validation through independent studies, these findings may be used for smokeless tobacco control in countries where Naswar use is common.

  4. Café Discussions on Oral Sex, Oral Cancer, and HPV Infection: Summative Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been placed on the potential links between oral sex, HPV infection, and oral cancer development. Such links were addressed by researchers, clinicians, and the community during two Café Scientifique discussions in October and November 2008, in Vancouver, Canada. The Cafes gathered panels of experts on oral pathology, dentistry, oncology, social work, and community-based research who interacted with an audience of policy makers, health care administrators, sociologists, sexologists, pharmacists, clinical and social researchers, social workers, technicians, and graduate, undergraduate, and high school students. This commentary summarizes the main points discussed during these two events to encourage a worldwide open dialogue about potential risks for oral cancer beyond tobacco smoking and excessive alcohol consumption as such malignancies have high mortality and morbidity, but are yet preventable diseases. PMID:20054632

  5. Dormancy activation mechanism of oral cavity cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiang; Li, Xin; Zhao, Baohong; Shang, Dehao; Zhong, Ming; Deng, Chunfu; Jia, Xinshan

    2015-07-01

    Radiotherapy and chemotherapy are targeted primarily at rapidly proliferating cancer cells and are unable to eliminate cancer stem cells in the G0 phase. Thus, these treatments cannot prevent the recurrence and metastasis of cancer. Understanding the mechanisms by which cancer stem cells are maintained in the dormant G0 phase, and how they become active is key to developing new cancer therapies. The current study found that the anti-cancer drug 5-fluorouracil, acting on the oral squamous cell carcinoma KB cell line, selectively killed proliferating cells while sparing cells in the G0 phase. Bisulfite sequencing PCR showed that demethylation of the Sox2 promoter led to the expression of Sox2. This then resulted in the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage and suggested that the transformation of cancer stem cells from the G0 phase to the division stage is closely related to an epigenetic modification of the cell.

  6. Systematic reviews of oral complications from cancer therapies, Oral Care Study Group, MASCC/ISOO : methodology and quality of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brennan, Michael T.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.

    Oral complications are commonly experienced by patients undergoing cancer therapies. The Oral Care Study Group of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer/International Society of Oral Oncology (MASCC/ISOO) has completed nine systematic reviews including Bisphosphonate

  7. Oral cancer: exploring the stories in United Kingdom newspaper articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, C M; Johnson, I G; Morgan, M Z

    2016-09-09

    Objective Reports suggest that patients with oral cancer delay seeking help because they are unaware of the symptoms. The majority of adults (95%) engage with news reports and 40% read newspapers. Newspaper oral cancer stories may influence awareness and health-seeking behaviour. The aim of this study was to explore how oral cancer is portrayed in UK newspaper print media.Design Qualitative content analysis of articles from ten newspapers with the widest UK print circulation. All articles using the terms 'mouth cancer' and 'oral cancer' over a three year period were retrieved. Duplicates, non-cancer and non-human articles were excluded.Results 239 articles were analysed. Common topics included 'recent research', 'survivor stories', 'health information' and 'celebrity linkage'. Articles were often emotive, featuring smoking, alcohol, sex and celebrity. Articles lacked a proper evidence base and often failed to provide accurate information about signs and symptoms, information about prevention and signposting to treatment.Conclusions Opportunities to save lives are being missed. Further work to improve social responsibility in the media and develop guidance to enhance the quality of information, health reporting and signposting to help are indicated.

  8. Oral morphine prescribing practices in severe cancer pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Barathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nearly one million cancer patients in India need oral morphine for pain relief. Despite doctors prescribing oral morphine in our center, many cancer patients with severe pain found to be not facilitated with adequate pain relief. Aim: This audit was conducted to look at the "oral morphine prescribing practices for severe cancer pain" at a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Twenty case files of patients, who were admitted with severe cancer pain, and receiving oral morphine were analyzed in pre- and posteducational session. Local standards were set to assess the adequacy of pain relief. Deficiency in achieving analgesia was found in preinterventional audit. A clinical audit was conducted before and after the educational session on oral morphine prescribing. The education for doctors and nurses focused on starting patients on morphine, titration, and administering rescue dose. Then local guidelines on oral morphine prescribing were circulated. And analysis of following factors were done following pre- and posteducational session: Pain intensity at the beginning of treatment, starting dose of morphine, increments in morphine dose, number of rescue doses given, and fall in pain intensity at the end of 1 week. The outcomes were compared with the standards. Results: Preintervention audit showed that only 50% of patients achieved adequate pain relief. Rescue dose was administered in only 20% of patients. While reaudit following the educational session showed that 80% of patients achieved adequate pain relief and 100% received rescue doses. Conclusion: Educational sessions have significant impact on improving oral morphine prescribing practice among doctors and nurses. It was found failing to administer regular as well as rescue doses resulted in inadequate pain relief in patients receiving oral morphine.

  9. Oral cavity and lip cancer: United Kingdom National Multidisciplinary Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerawala, C; Roques, T; Jeannon, J-P; Bisase, B

    2016-05-01

    This is the official guideline endorsed by the specialty associations involved in the care of head and neck cancer patients in the UK. It provides recommendations on the assessment and management of patients with cancer of the oral cavity and the lip. Recommendations • Surgery remains the mainstay of management for oral cavity tumours. (R) • Tumour resection should be performed with a clinical clearance of 1 cm vital structures permitting. (R) • Elective neck treatment should be offered for all oral cavity tumours. (R) • Adjuvant radiochemotherapy in the presence of advanced neck disease or positive margins improves control rates. (R) • Early stage lip cancer can be treated equally well by surgery or radiation therapy. (R).

  10. Trends in frequency and prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma in Mexicans. A 20 years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Peniche-Becerra, Adriana-Graciela; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    To establish the time trends of the frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer in regard to age and gender in a 20-years (time period 1989 - 2008) cohort of Mexicans. 13,235 head and neck biopsies from the archive of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico were revised. The cases with diagnoses of oral cancer were selected. Gender and age at diagnosis was obtained from medical records. The frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma were assessed biannually in regard to the total number of population served by the oral pathology laboratory. The statistical significance of trends was established using the linear logistic regression (curve estimation) test (s 0.05). 298 cases (138 males; 160 females) of oral cancer were included; 167 (92 females; 75 males; female:male ratio: 1.1:1) corresponded to oral squamous cell carcinoma. From 1989 to 2008 the prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma increased 200% (s 0.05) and 100% (s 0.000) respectively. The increase of frequency and prevalence was observed in both genders however only in females was significant (s 0.000). We do not identify changes in the age at diagnosis. Oral cancer, specifically oral squamous cell carcinoma, has increase in Mexicans females in the last 20 years.

  11. Assessment of quality of life in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Carranza, Eusebio; Infante-Cossío, Pedro; Hernández-Guisado, José María; Hens-Aumente, Elena; Gutierrez-Pérez, José Luis

    2008-11-01

    Quality of life (QL) in oral cancer patients has become one of the most important parameters to consider in the diagnosis and post-treatment follow-up. The purpose of this article has been to review the papers published that study the QL in oral cancer patients, the different QL questionnaires used, the clinical results obtained, and the systematic revisions available in the indexed literature for the last 10 years. The term QL appears as a keyword in an increasing number of articles throughout the past 10 years; however, few studies focus on oral cancer. Most of them assess all head and neck cancers, which conform to a heterogeneous group with several different features depending on location (oral cavity, oropharynx, larynx, hypopharynx, nasopharynx and salivary glands). Most studies evaluate QL in short periods of time, normally within the first year after the diagnosis. Series do not discern between different therapeutic options, and they generally center on Northern European or Northern American populations. There are few instruments translated and validated into Spanish that measure QL, a fundamental characteristic to link QL to own patients' socio-cultural parameters. Data related with QL are mostly related to patient (age, sex, co-morbidity), tumour (location, size), and treatment (surgical treatment, radiotherapy association, reconstruction, cervical dissection, and/or feeding tube). Nowadays QL's assessment is considered an essential component of an oral cancer patient as well as the survival, morbidity and years free of disease. Although many aspects related to QL in oral cancer patients have been published throughout the past 10 years, more systematic research is needed to be able to apply it on a daily basis.

  12. Oral microbiome and history of smoking and colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ikuko; Vasquez, Adrian A; Moyerbrailean, Gregory; Land, Susan; Sun, Jun; Lin, Ho-Sheng; Ram, Jeffrey L

    2016-10-01

    The equilibrium of oral microbiome may be altered by environmental factors, including cigarette smoking. Several recent studies also suggest that oral pathogens causing periodontal disease, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, are involved in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. For this study oral rinse DNA samples from 190 participants in a population-based case-control study for colorectal cancer were used to amplify a V3-V4 region of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq paired end chemistry on two runs, yielding approximately 35 million filtered reads which were assigned to bacterial phyla. No association was found between Fusobacterium abundance or presence and colorectal cancer. However, adjusted for age and experimental batch, colorectal cancer history was associated with increased presence of genus Lactobacillus and increased relative abundance of Rothia by 28% and current smoking was associated with a 33% decrease in relative counts of Betaproteobacteria (primarily Neisseria) and 23% increase in relative abundance of Veillonellaceae family. We also found that smoking had significant effects on the 2nd component scores and 2nd coordinate distances in principal component and coordinate analyses. It remains to be elucidated whether the observed differences can be translated into biochemical changes in oral environment, thus potentially affecting oral health.

  13. Portable LED-induced autofluorescence spectroscopy for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Duann, Jeng-Ren; Lin, Yung-Jiun; Yang, Chin-Siang; Ou-Yang, Mang

    2017-04-01

    Oral cancer is a serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. To improve the cancer screening procedure, we developed a portable light-emitting-diode (LED)-induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager that contains two wavelength LED excitation light sources and multiple filters to capture ex vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. Compared with conventional means of oral cancer diagnosis, the LIAF imager is a handier, faster, and more highly reliable solution. The compact design with a tiny probe allows clinicians to easily observe autofluorescence images of hidden areas located in concave deep oral cavities. The ex vivo trials conducted in Taiwan present the design and prototype of the portable LIAF imager used for analyzing 31 patients with 221 measurement points. Using the normalized factor of normal tissues under the excitation source with 365 nm of the central wavelength and without the bandpass filter, the results revealed that the sensitivity was larger than 84%, the specificity was not smaller than over 76%, the accuracy was about 80%, and the area under curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was achieved at about 87%, respectively. The fact shows the LIAF spectroscopy has the possibilities of ex vivo diagnosis and noninvasive examinations for oral cancer.

  14. Portable multispectral imaging system for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yao-Fang; Ou-Yang, Mang; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2013-09-01

    This study presents the portable multispectral imaging system that can acquire the image of specific spectrum in vivo for oral cancer diagnosis. According to the research literature, the autofluorescence of cells and tissue have been widely applied to diagnose oral cancer. The spectral distribution is difference for lesions of epithelial cells and normal cells after excited fluorescence. We have been developed the hyperspectral and multispectral techniques for oral cancer diagnosis in three generations. This research is the third generation. The excited and emission spectrum for the diagnosis are acquired from the research of first generation. The portable system for detection of oral cancer is modified for existing handheld microscope. The UV LED is used to illuminate the surface of oral cavity and excite the cells to produce fluorescent. The image passes through the central channel and filters out unwanted spectrum by the selection of filter, and focused by the focus lens on the image sensor. Therefore, we can achieve the specific wavelength image via fluorescence reaction. The specificity and sensitivity of the system are 85% and 90%, respectively.

  15. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 are effective biomarkers for detection of oral dysplasia and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chang, Chi-Feng; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Wang, Huei-Jen; Liou, Yu-Ligh; Yen, Carolyn; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated whether the methylation of ZNF582, PAX1, SOX1, NKX6.1, and PTPRR genes in oral scrapings could be used to detect oral dysplasia and oral cancer and to predict oral cancer recurrence. Oral scrapings were collected from 65 normal oral mucosa subjects, 107 oral precancer patients, and 95 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Methylation levels of the five genes were quantified by real-time methylation-specific PCR after bisulfite conversion. Among the five tested genes, methylated ZNF582 (ZNF582 m ) and PAX1 (PAX1 m ) were found to be appropriate biomarkers for oral dysplasia and oral cancers. ZNF582 m could detect mild dysplasia or worse oral lesions with the sensitivity and specificity being 0.85 and 0.87, respectively. PAX1 m performed better in identifying moderate dysplasia or worse oral lesions with the sensitivity and specificity being 0.72 and 0.86, respectively. Moreover, the methylation levels and positive rates for ZNF582 m and PAX1 m were increased when disease severity increased. Thus, they may be applicable as a triage tool for patients with abnormal visual oral examinations. After cancer excision, both ZNF582 m and PAX1 m levels decreased. However, their levels increased again at the subsequently recurrent sites in some patients approximately 3-4 months before cancer recurrence. Finally, areca-quid chewing alone and in combination with cigarette smoking or alcohol drinking were found to be correlated with ZNF582 and PAX1 hypermethylation. We conclude that hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 are effective biomarkers for the detection of oral dysplasia and oral cancer and for the prediction of oral cancer recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oral microbiome, periodontitis and risk of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão-Moreira, Leonardo Victor; da Cruz, Maria Carmen Fontoura Nogueira

    2016-02-01

    A wide range of studies has been successfully exploring the association between the human microenvironment, sustained inflammation, and cancer. Growing evidence has then emerged in this field over the past few years. Nevertheless, reliable data addressing the impact of the oral microbiome and periodontitis on the pathogenesis and risk of head and neck malignancies remain scarce. Hence, this communication focuses on briefly discuss the relationship between the oral microbiome, periodontitis and head and neck cancer based on the current understanding of such a disease-associated scenario. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Review article about nutrition and primary prevention of oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atena Shiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a worldwide problem that is caused by a variety of different factors increasing over a number of years. Oral cancer is a very prevalent disease and one of the most 10 common causes of death. It is important that the risk factors can be controlled. Selecting the correct health behaviors and preventing exposure to convinced environmental risk factors can help to prevent the expansion of cancer. Scientists guess that as many as 30-40 percent of all cancer-related deaths are caused by human behaviors such as smoking, consumption of alcohol, poor diet quality and physical inactivity. This result explains the tendency in the following behaviors that can influence the possibility of getting cancer, especially oral cancer in addition to providing information and classes about healthy eating habits and a subsequent healthy lifestyle at home. In fact, a diet rich in fresh fruits, whole grains and vegetables can decrease the risk of the oral cancer because of certain compounds such as vitamin C, E, carotenoids and lycopene. Moreover, limit consumption of meat, particularly processed meat, and replace it with vegetable proteins and fish (rich of omega 3 are helpful and effective.

  18. An assessment of oral cancer curricula in dental hygiene programmes: implications for cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, K K; Kaste, L M; Homsi, K D; LeHew, C W

    2016-11-01

    To assess oral cancer prevention and early detection curricula in Illinois associate-degree dental hygiene programmes and highlight global health applications. An email invitation was sent to each Illinois associate-degree granting dental hygiene programme's oral cancer contact to participate in a survey via a SurveyMonkey™ link to a 21-item questionnaire. Questions elicited background information on each programme and inquired about curriculum and methods used for teaching oral cancer prevention and early detection. Eight of the 12 (67%) programmes responded. Three (37.5%) reported having a specific oral cancer curriculum. Five (62.5%) require students to perform examinations for signs and symptoms of oral cancer at each clinic visit. Variations exist across the programmes in the number of patients each student sees annually and the number of oral cancer examinations each student performs before graduation. Seven programmes (87.5%) conduct early detection screening in community settings. All programmes included risk assessment associated with tobacco. All other risk factors measured were treated inconsistently. Significant differences in training and experience were reported across Illinois dental hygiene programmes. Training is neither standardized nor uniformly comprehensive. Students' preparation for delivering prevention and early detection services to their patients could be strengthened to ensure competence including reflection of risk factors and behaviours in a global context. Regular review of curricular guidelines and programme content would help dental hygienists meet the expectations of the Crete Declaration on Oral Cancer Prevention. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. [Current Status and Effectiveness of Perioperative Oral Health Care Management for Lung Cancer and Esophageal Cancer Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Takeshi; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Yoshida, Takahiro; Inui, Tomohiro; Takasugi, Haruka; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Kawakita, Naoya; Inoue, Seiya; Sakiyama, Shoji; Tangoku, Akira; Azuma, Masayuki; Yamamura, Yoshiko

    2016-01-01

    The effectiveness of perioperative oral health care management to decrease the risk of postoperative pneumonia have been reported lately. Since 2014, we introduced perioperative oral health care management for lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients. We report current status and effectiveness of perioperative oral health care management for lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients. Every 100 cases of lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients treated by surgery were classified 2 group with or without perioperative oral health care management and compared about postoperative complications retrospectively. In the lung cancer patients, the group with oral health care management could prevent postoperative pneumonia significantly and had shorter length of hospital stay than the group without oral health care management. In the esophageal cancer patients, there was little occurrence of postoperative pneumonia without significant difference between both group with or without oral health care management. A large number of esophageal cancer patients received neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and some patients developed oral mucositis and received oral care treatment before surgery. Treatment for oral mucositis probably improved oral environment and affected prevention of postoperative pneumonia. Perioperative oral health care management can prevent postoperative pneumonia of lung cancer and esophageal cancer patients by improvement of oral hygiene.

  20. More Accurate Oral Cancer Screening with Fewer Salivary Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Michael Menke

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Signal detection and Bayesian inferential tools were applied to salivary biomarkers to improve screening accuracy and efficiency in detecting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Potential cancer biomarkers are identified by significant differences in assay concentrations, receiver operating characteristic areas under the curve (AUCs, sensitivity, and specificity. However, the end goal is to report to individual patients their risk of having disease given positive or negative test results. Likelihood ratios (LRs and Bayes factors (BFs estimate evidential support and compile biomarker information to optimize screening accuracy. In total, 26 of 77 biomarkers were mentioned as having been tested at least twice in 137 studies and published in 16 summary papers through 2014. Studies represented 10 212 OSCC and 25 645 healthy patients. The measure of biomarker and panel information value was number of biomarkers needed to approximate 100% positive predictive value (PPV. As few as 5 biomarkers could achieve nearly 100% PPV for a disease prevalence of 0.2% when biomarkers were ordered from highest to lowest LR. When sequentially interpreting biomarker tests, high specificity was more important than test sensitivity in achieving rapid convergence toward a high PPV. Biomarkers ranked from highest to lowest LR were more informative and easier to interpret than AUC or Youden index. The proposed method should be applied to more recently published biomarker data to test its screening value.

  1. Routine endoscopy for esophageal cancer is suggestive for patients with oral, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Han Hung

    Full Text Available This study attempted to reveal the incidence and risk of synchronous and metachronous esophageal cancer in subjects with oral, oropharyngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer based on a population-wide database in Taiwan.We retrieved data for this cross-sectional study from the Taiwanese Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. The study group included 2,965 subjects who had received their first-time diagnosis of oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer in 2002∼2009. We assigned the date of their first diagnosis of oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer as the index date. We also randomly retrieved 29,650 comparison subjects matched with the study subjects in terms of gender and age group. We assigned their first medical utilization that occurred in the index year as the index date for the comparison group. We further performed a conditional logistic regression to investigate the association between esophageal cancer and oral cancer.Results showed that prevalences of esophageal cancer within 3 months before and after the index date were respectively 2.19% and 0.04% for the study and comparison groups. A conditional logistic regression revealed that the odds ratio (OR of esophageal cancer for subjects with oral/oropharyngeal/hypopharyngeal cancer was 55.33 (95% confidence interval (CI: 29.86∼102.52 compared to comparison subjects. Furthermore, compared to comparison subjects, ORs for esophageal cancer were respectively 18.41 (95% CI: 8.50-39.85, 40.49 (95% CI: 15.11∼108.64, and 240.96 (95% CI: 125.49-462.69 for study subjects with a malignancy of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx.We concluded that there were relatively high chances for synchronous and metachronous esophageal cancers being detected through panendoscopy in patients with oral, oropharyngeal, and hypopharyngeal cancers. The routine use of panendoscopy in such patients should be encouraged with a higher priority.

  2. Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Info Health Information Are You At Risk for Oral Cancer? What African American Men Need to Know Are ... symptoms? Are African American men at risk for oral cancer? Yes, African American men are one of the ...

  3. Analysis of various risk factors affecting potentially malignant disorders and oral cancer patients of Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Kadashetti

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Chewing tobacco/betel quid is a strong risk factor in the development of PMD and oral cancer. Also age, gender, SES, education, and occupation influence the development of PMD and oral cancer.

  4. KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTION OF ARECA/SMOKELESS TOBACCO USERS ABOUT ORAL CANCER

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liaquat, Nida; Jaffar, Abdul Majeed; Haroon, Muhammad Zeeshan; Khan, Muhammad Bilal; Habib, Hammad

    2016-01-01

    .... ST is a major public health problem. It cause localized oral lesions and poses risk for developing oral cancers owing to it containing more than 30 cancer causing substances, in addition to nicotine which is a highly addictive...

  5. HPV and cancer of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübbers, Christian U; Akgül, Baki

    2015-01-01

    Increased awareness of human papillomavirus (HPV) as an etiological cause of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has increased the interest in analysis of distinct oral sub-sites. It is currently under debate, whether HPV plays a role in the development of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC). The weakness in most published studies is the lack of performing different HPV detection tests combined with analysis for biological activity of the virus. In addition, different sub-sites of the oral cavity had been combined to a single entity, which retrospectively leads to a highly heterogeneous basis of data. In this review we mainly discuss the unclear role of HPV in OSCC development.

  6. Incidence of oral cancer occult metastasis and survival of T1-T2N0 oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naaj, Imad Abu; Leiser, Yoav; Shveis, Myrela; Sabo, Edmond; Peled, Micha

    2011-10-01

    In head and neck cancer, the most important prognostic factor is the presence or absence of neck metastasis. Although still debated in the published data regarding the "wait and see" policy for Stage T1-T2 oral cancer, a large number of clinicians support the necessity of neck dissection, especially in cases of oral tongue carcinoma, because of the poor prognosis and high risk of recurrence. The aim of the present study was to summarize and quantify the incidence of occult metastasis in oral cancer treatment at the oral and maxillofacial surgery department, Rambam Medical Center, in the past 10 years. A total of 142 neck dissections performed at our department in the past 10 years (1998 to 2009) and a series of 68 patients (44 men and 22 women) treated for Stage T1N0 or T2N0 oral cancer were included in the present retrospective study. All patients underwent surgical resection of the oral cancer and selective neck dissection of the ipsilateral side. Occult lymph node metastases were detected in 11 patients (16% overall, 9 in the tongue, 1 in the buccal mucosa, and 1 in the gingiva of the mandible). The frequency of occult metastasis from tongue carcinoma was 34% (9 of 26 cases). The 5-year survival rate in the present study was 78.9%. In patients who underwent chemotherapy, radiotherapy, brachytherapy, or a combination of the 3 after surgical management, the overall survival rate decreased significantly to 22.5% (P = .006, log-rank test). The incidence of occult metastasis in patients with oral cancer in the present study was 16% overall. In those with tongue carcinoma, a much greater incidence (34%) of occult metastasis was detected. Furthermore, the need for chemoradiotherapy after initial surgical management, mainly because of occult metastasis, was a significant negative predictor of patient outcome. The results of the present study emphasize the need for prophylactic neck dissection in patients with oral cancer diagnosed with Stage T1N0 or T2N0 disease

  7. New Management Strategies of Oral Tongue Cancer in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Jachmen; Bashar, Abul; Molla, Motiur Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Malignancies of the tongue represent one of the greatest management challenges for the maxillofacial surgeons as well as oncologists, because of the adverse effects of treatment on oral and pharyngeal function, the eventual quality of life, and the poor prognosis of advanced disease. Therefore, it is important to use judgment and experience in determining the best method of treatment. We reviewed forty cases of oral tongue cancer patients admitted in the Dental and Facio-Maxillary Surgical Oncology department in National Institute of Cancer Research and Hospital, and department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dhaka Dental College and Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh, during the past four years and followed till the lesion healed or recurred and followed later on upto two years. All cases were thoroughly examined, investigated with routine blood examinations and radiography of the involved region. Preoperative biopsy of the lesion and staging was done in each and every case. Postoperative biopsy was taken where there was a doubt about the possibility of recurrence. Squamous cell carcinoma (well differentiated) is by far the most common malignancy of the oral tongue. Generally a correlation is recognized between tumor size, nodal presence, metastasis, and eventual prognosis. When surgeons detect oral tongue cancer at an early stage, they can often treat it with surgery or can, often treat it with surgery or radiation. In later stages the cancer may require a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Standard and uniform protocol has not been explored till now for the practice in our country. So current management strategies of oral tongue cancer cannot be underestimated.

  8. Prevalence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in oral cavity after treatment for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kaoru; Ohara, Masaru; Kojima, Taro; Nishimura, Rumi; Ogawa, Tetsuji; Hino, Takamune; Okada, Mitsugi; Toratani, Shigeaki; Kamata, Nobuyuki; Sugai, Motoyuki; Sugiyama, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Drug-resistant opportunistic infections may cause health problems in immunocompromised hosts. Representative microorganisms in opportunistic infections of the oral cavity are Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. We investigated the prevalence of drug-resistant opportunistic microorganisms in elderly adults receiving follow-up examinations after primary treatment of oral cancer. Oral microorganisms were collected from patients satisfactorily treated for oral cancer (defined as good outcomes to date) and a group of healthy adults (controls). After identification of microorganisms, the prevalence of drug-resistant microorganisms was studied. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing were also performed for methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA). Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences in the prevalences of the three microorganisms between the groups. Surprisingly, 69.2% of S aureus isolates showed oxacillin resistance, suggesting that MRSA colonization is increasing among older Japanese. These MRSA isolates possessed SCCmec types II and IV but no representative toxin genes. Our results indicate that a basic infection control strategy, including standard precautions against MRSA, is important for elderly adults, particularly after treatment for oral cancer.

  9. Oral cancer among patients under the age of 35 years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iype E

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the commonest cancers among males. AIMS: To assess the aetiological factors, patient characteristics, treatment and the outcome in young patients with oral cancer. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective descriptive study of patients under the age of 35 years with cancer of the oral cavity treated between 1982-1996, with the last follow-up till 2001, using the tumour registry data of Regional Cancer Centre (RCC, Trivandrum, Kerala, India. SUBJECT AND METHOD: The detailed clinical, treatment and follow-up data were obtained from the computerised records of RCC and recorded on a preset proforma. This was analysed with emphasis on age, sex, risk factors, site, histology, clinical extent and treatment methods and survival in the study group. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: The survival analysis was carried by Kaplan-Meier method and the difference in survival was analysed using log-rank test. RESULTS: Out of 264 patients analysed, tongue was the commonest site identified in 136 (52% patients followed by buccal mucosa in 69 (26% patients. A male female ratio of 2.3:1 was observed with a significantly higher male preponderance in buccal mucosa (4.3:1. Prior exposure to tobacco or alcohol was noted in 59.4% patients, with more habitués in buccal mucosa cancer. Histological confirmation was present only in 83.7% patients and among them most were squamous cell carcinoma (85.9%. Radiotherapy, surgery or combined modalities of treatment were employed for majority of patients. The 5-year survival was 57.3%. T stage of the tumour was found to be significant in predicting disease free survival (P=0.03. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of early detection for clinical down staging is stressed. There is a need to investigate the aetiology of intra oral cancers in younger patients since a significant proportion (almost 40% of these patients do not have associated risk factors for cancer.

  10. Decorin in human oral cancer: A promising predictive biomarker of S-1 neoadjuvant chemosensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasamatsu, Atsushi, E-mail: kasamatsua@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Uzawa, Katsuhiro, E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Minakawa, Yasuyuki; Ishige, Shunsaku; Kasama, Hiroki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke; Ogawara, Katsunori [Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Shiiba, Masashi; Takiguchi, Yuichi [Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral–Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba 260-8670 (Japan)

    2015-01-30

    Highlights: • DCN is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. • DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms in vitro and in vivo. • DCN predicts the clinical responses to S-1 NAC for patients with oral cancer. - Abstract: We reported previously that decorin (DCN) is significantly up-regulated in chemoresistant cancer cell lines. DCN is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan that exists and functions in stromal and epithelial cells. Accumulating evidence suggests that DCN affects the biology of several types of cancer by directly/indirectly targeting the signaling molecules involved in cell growth, survival, metastasis, and angiogenesis, however, the molecular mechanisms of DCN in chemoresistance and its clinical relevance are still unknown. Here we assumed that DCN silencing cells increase chemosusceptibility to S-1, consisted of tegafur, prodrug of 5-fluorouracil. We first established DCN knockdown transfectants derived from oral cancer cells for following experiments including chemosusceptibility assay to S-1. In addition to the in vitro data, DCN knockdown zenografting tumors in nude mice demonstrate decreasing cell proliferation and increasing apoptosis with dephosphorylation of AKT after S-1 chemotherapy. We also investigated whether DCN expression predicts the clinical responses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) using S-1 (S-1 NAC) for oral cancer patients. Immunohistochemistry data in the preoperative biopsy samples was analyzed to determine the cut-off point for status of DCN expression by receiver operating curve analysis. Interestingly, low DCN expression was observed in five (83%) of six cases with complete responses to S-1 NAC, and in one (10%) case of 10 cases with stable/progressive disease, indicating that S-1 chemosensitivity is dramatically effective in oral cancer patients with low DCN expression compared with high DCN expression. Our findings suggest that DCN is a key regulator for chemoresistant mechanisms, and

  11. Occupational Risk for Oral Cancer in Nordic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Laura; Suojanen, Juho; Kyyronen, Pentti; Lindqvist, Christian; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Lynge, Elsebeth; Sparen, Par; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Pukkala, Eero

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate occupational risk for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity or pharynx after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use. The data covered 14.9 million people and 28,623 cases of cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx in the Nordic countries 1961-2005. Alcohol consumption by occupation was estimated based on mortality from liver cirrhosis and incidence of liver cancer. Smoking by occupation was estimated based on the incidence of lung cancer. Only few occupations had relative risks of over 1.5 for cancer of the tongue, oral cavity and pharynx. These occupations included dentists, artistic workers, hairdressers, journalists, cooks and stewards, seamen and waiters. Several occupational categories, including dentists, had an increased relative risk of tongue cancer. This new finding remains to be explained but could be related to occupational chemical exposures, increased consumption of alcohol and tobacco products, or infection with human papilloma virus. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Oral precancerous lesions: Problems of early detection and oral cancer prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gileva, Olga S.; Libik, Tatiana V.; Danilov, Konstantin V.

    2016-08-01

    The study presents the results of the research in the structure, local and systemic risk factors, peculiarities of the clinical manifestation, and quality of primary diagnosis of precancerous oral mucosa lesions (OMLs). In the study a wide range of OMLs and high (25.4%) proportion of oral precancerous lesions (OPLs) in their structure was indicated. The high percentage of different diagnostic errors and the lack of oncological awareness of dental practitioners, as well as the sharp necessity of inclusion of precancer/cancer early detection techniques into their daily practice were noted. The effectiveness of chemilumenescence system of early OPLs and oral cancer detection was demonstrated, the prospects of infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool were also discussed.

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    AND METHODS: Forty patients (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90) with 24 T1 and 16 T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Planar lymphoscintigraphy, emission and transmission tomography were performed. Detection and excision of the sentinel nodes were guided by a gamma probe. The sentinel nodes were step...

  14. Candida virulence and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production in oral cancer and non-cancer subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnuaimi, A D; Ramdzan, A N; Wiesenfeld, D; O'Brien-Simpson, N M; Kolev, S D; Reynolds, E C; McCullough, M J

    2016-11-01

    To compare biofilm-forming ability, hydrolytic enzymes and ethanol-derived acetaldehyde production of oral Candida isolated from the patients with oral cancer and matched non-oral cancer. Fungal biofilms were grown in RPMI-1640 medium, and biofilm mass and biofilm activity were assessed using crystal violet staining and XTT salt reduction assays, respectively. Phospholipase, proteinase, and esterase production were measured using agar plate method, while fungal acetaldehyde production was assessed via gas chromatography. Candida isolated from patients with oral cancer demonstrated significantly higher biofilm mass (P = 0.031), biofilm metabolic activity (P Candida were more prevalent in patients with oral cancer than non-oral cancer (P = 0.01). In univariate regression analysis, high biofilm mass (P = 0.03) and biofilm metabolic activity (P Candida isolates to form biofilms, to produce hydrolytic enzymes, and to metabolize alcohol to acetaldehyde with their ability to promote oral cancer development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Oral rehabilitation with dental implants after cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowman, R A; Wilson, P R; Wiesenfeld, D

    2011-06-01

    Patients who undergo surgical management of oral cancer may greatly benefit from an implant-supported prosthesis. This study reports on the clinical experience of dental implant placement in patients following resection of oral cancer over a 15-year period. Controversies including the use of dental implants in irradiated tissues, and hyperbaric oxygen treatment will also be discussed. Thirty-one patients who had dental implants placed as part of their oral rehabilitation between 1992 and 2007 were investigated. Demographic data and factors including implant survival, type of prosthesis provided, radiotherapy and the hyperbaric oxygen therapy were analysed. In this retrospective study, there was a retention rate of 110 implants from a total of 115 implants placed. A high rate of implant retention was found, with 5 implant failures from a total of 115 implants placed. The 5 failed implants occurred in free flap bone that had been irradiated. Dental implants provide an important role in the oral rehabilitation of oral cancer patients. There may be an increased risk of implant failure in free flap bone that has been irradiated. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  16. Oral cancer preventive campaigns: are we reaching the real target?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Paladino Nemoto

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral cavity malignant neoplasms have a high mortality rate. For this reason, preventive campaigns have been developed, both to educate the population and to diagnose lesions at an early stage. However, there are studies that contest the validity of these endeavors, principally because the target audience of the campaigns may not conform to the group at highest risk for oral malignancy. Objective: To describe the profile of patients who avail themselves of the preventive campaign, identify the presence of oral lesions in that population, and compare that data with the epidemiological profile of patients with oral cancer. Methods: Cross-sectional historical cohort study performed by analysis of epidemiological data of the campaign "Abra a Boca para a Saúde" collected in the years from 2008 to 2013. Results: In the years analyzed, 11,965 people were treated and 859 lesions were diagnosed, all benign. There was a female predominance (52.7%, with mean age of 44 years (±15.4 years; 26% were smokers and 29% reported alcohol consumption. It is known that the group at highest risk to develop oral cancer is 60to 70-year-old men, who are alcoholic smokers. Conclusion: The population that seeks preventive campaigns is not the main risk group for the disease. This fact explains the low number of lesions and the lack of cancer detection.

  17. Does buccal cancer have worse prognosis than other oral cavity cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilon, P Ryan; Stokes, William A; Fuller, Colin W; Nguyen, Shaun A; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-06-01

    To determine whether buccal squamous cell carcinoma has worse overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity. Retrospective analysis of a large population database. We began with a Kaplan-Meier analysis of OS and DSS for buccal versus nonbuccal tumors with unmatched data, followed by an analysis of cases matched for race, age at diagnosis, stage at diagnosis, and treatment modality. This was supported by a univariate Cox regression comparing buccal cancer to nonbuccal cancer, followed by a multivariate Cox regression that included all significant variables studied. With unmatched data, buccal cancer had significantly lesser OS and DSS values than cancers in the rest of the oral cavity (P cancer versus nonbuccal oral cancer were no longer significant. Univariate Cox regression models with respect to OS and DSS showed a significant difference between buccal cancer and nonbuccal cancer. However, with multivariate analysis, buccal hazard ratios for OS and DSS were not significant. With the largest series of buccal carcinoma to date, our study concludes that the OS and DSS of buccal cancer are similar to those of cancers in other oral cavity sites once age at diagnosis, tumor stage, treatment, and race are taken into consideration. The previously perceived poor prognosis of buccal carcinoma may be due to variations in tumor presentation, such as later stage and older patient age. 2b. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Influence of oral sex and oral cancer information on young adults' oral sexual-risk cognitions and likelihood of HPV vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections.

  19. A multi-centre evaluation of oral cancer in Southern and Western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Oral cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths among African populations. Lack of standard cancer registries and under-reporting has inaccurately depicted its magnitude in Nigeria. Development of multi-centre collaborative oral pathology networks such as the African Oral Pathology Research Consortium ...

  20. Serum antioxidant vitamins and the risk of oral cancer in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study compared serum antioxidant vitamin levels in oral cancer patients and controls in order to validate the role of vitamin deficiencies in the etiology of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Serum vitamin A, C, and E levels of 33 oral cancer patients and 30 controls at University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, were ...

  1. Knowledge and Screening Practices for Oral Cancers amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral cancer presents with both a high morbidity and mortality rate, and these reduce dramatically when disease is detected early. The dental profession has a very important role towards early detection, prompt referral and treatment. This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered ...

  2. Early diagnosis in primary oral cancer: is it possible?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waal, I.; de Bree, R.; Brakenhoff, R.; Coebergh, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In this treatise oral carcinogenesis is briefly discussed, particularly with regard to the number of cell divisions that is required before cancer reaches a measurable size. At that stage, metastatic spread may have already taken place. Therefore, the term "early diagnosis" is somewhat misleading.

  3. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2005-01-01

    with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were re-classified histologically to find possible ITC and to describe technical pitfalls. RESULTS: Primarily we found metastatic spread in 12 of 108 sentinel lymph nodes: five macrometastasis and seven micrometastasis. After re-classification, we found seven lymph nodes...

  4. Oral cancer: a retrospective study of 100 Danish cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Rindum, J; Pindborg, J J

    1997-01-01

    One hundred Danes with oral cancer who were collected consecutively from 1986 to 1991 were evaluated retrospectively. The study included subjective and objective observations in 56% men and in 44% women. M:F ratio was 1.2:1. Fifty percent of the patients were non-smokers. Nine percent were women...

  5. Oral care of the cancer patient receiving radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holtzhausen, T. (Medical Univ. of Southern Africa, Pretoria (South Africa). Dept. of Community Dentistry)

    1982-07-01

    Radiation therapy is frequently being used for the patient with oral cancer. The survival rate is increasing, due to more effective treatment technique. The question of whether any teeth should be extracted, the mode of therapy and the side effects of radiation like Xerostomia, caries, stomatitis, trismus and osteo-radionecrosis and also post radiation care are discussed.

  6. [Use of oral contraceptives and increased risk of cervical cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmeink, C.E.; Lenselink, C.H.; Bekkers, R.L.M.

    2008-01-01

    A recently published meta-analysis and a large cohort study showed independently that use of oral contraceptives (OC) leads to an increased relative risk (RR) of cervical cancer. This RR increased with the duration of OC use and was 1.90 after 5 years or more (95% CI: 1.69-2.13). The increased RR

  7. Oral Candidiasis amongst cancer patients at Qods Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Within the past two decades, Candida species have emerged as major human pathogens and are currently the fourth most common cause of nosocomial infection. Propose of this study was to determine the occurrence of oral Candidiasis among cancer patients at Qods hospitals in Sanandaj. Materials and ...

  8. Relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bushranaaz Fathima Jaleel

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: By employing a simple blood grouping test during community field programs, people with blood group A in the age group of 40-59 years having tobacco chewing habits can be apprised that they are more at risk to develop oral cancer than people with other blood groups.

  9. A review of the relationship between alcohol and oral cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reidy, J

    2011-10-01

    This paper aims to review the current literature regarding the association between alcohol consumption and oral cancer. The authors have discussed the constituents of alcohol-containing beverages, the metabolism of ethanol and its effect on the oral microflora. The local and systemic carcinogenic effects of alcohol have been detailed. The beneficial effects of alcohol consumption on general health have also been considered. A possible relationship between alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer has been suggested in the literature. The authors conclude that this relationship has not yet been firmly established. However, the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses in high-risk populations should be restricted, pending the outcome of further research.

  10. Cytologic and DNA-Cytometric Early Diagnosis of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten W. Remmerbach

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this prospective study was to report on the diagnostic accuracy of conventional oral exfoliative cytology taken from white‐spotted, ulcerated or other suspicious oral lesions in our clinic. In addition we checked DNA‐image cytometry as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. Our hypothesis is that DNA‐aneuploidy is a sensitive and specific marker for the early identification of tumor cells in oral brushings. Study design. 251 cytological diagnoses obtained from exfoliative smears of 181 patients from macroscopically suspicious lesions of the oral mucosa and from clinically seemingly benign oral lesions which were exisiced for establishing histological diagnoses were compared with histological and/or clinical follow‐ups of the respective patients. Additionally nuclear DNA‐contents were measured after Feulgen restaining using a TV image analysis system. Results. Sensitivity of our cytological diagnosis on oral smears for the detection of cancer cells was 94.6%, specificity 99.5%, positive predictive value 98.1% and negative predictive value 98.5%. DNA‐aneuploidy was assumed if abnormal DNA‐stemlines or cells with DNA‐content greater 9c were observed. On this basis the prevalence of DNA‐aneuploidy in smears of oral squamous cell carcinomas in situ or invasive carcinomas was 96.4%. Sensitivity of DNA‐aneuploidy in oral smears for the detection of cancer cells was 96.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100% and negative 99.0%. The combination of both techniques increased the sensivity to 98.2%, specificity to 100%, positive predictive value to 100% and negative to 99.5%. Conclusions. Brush cytology of all visible oral lesions, if they are clinically considered as suspicious for cancer, are an easily practicable, cheap, non‐invasive, painless, safe and accurate screening method for detection of oral precancerous lesions, carcinoma in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinoma in all stages. We conclude that

  11. Microbiota, oral microbiome, and pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, Dominique S; Izard, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Only 30% of patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer survive 1 year after the diagnosis. Progress in understanding the causes of pancreatic cancer has been made, including solidifying the associations with obesity and diabetes, and a proportion of cases should be preventable through lifestyle modifications. Unfortunately, identifying reliable biomarkers of early pancreatic cancer has been extremely challenging, and no effective screening modality is currently available for this devastating form of cancer. Recent data suggest that the microbiota may play a role in the disease process, but many questions remain. Future studies focusing on the human microbiome, both etiologically and as a marker of disease susceptibility, should shed light on how to better tackle prevention, early detection, and treatment of this highly fatal disease.

  12. The color of cancer: Margin guidance for oral cancer resection using elastic scattering spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillone, Gregory A; Wang, Zimmern; Krisciunas, Gintas P; Tsai, Angela C; Kannabiran, Vishnu R; Pistey, Robert W; Zhao, Qing; Rodriguez-Diaz, Eladio; A'Amar, Ousama M; Bigio, Irving J

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) as a diagnostic adjunct to frozen section analysis in patients with diagnosed squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Prospective analytic study. Subjects for this single institution, institutional review board-approved study were recruited from among patients undergoing surgical resection for squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity. A portable ESS device with a contact fiberoptic probe was used to obtain spectral signals. Four to 10 spectral readings were obtained on each subject from various sites including gross tumor and normal-appearing mucosa in the surgical margin. Each reading was correlated with the histopathologic findings of biopsies taken from the exact location of the spectral readings. A diagnostic algorithm based on multidimensional pattern recognition/machine learning was developed. Sensitivity and specificity, error rate, and area under the curve were used as performance metrics for tests involving classification between disease and nondisease classes. Thirty-four (34) subjects were enrolled in the study. One hundred seventy-six spectral data point/biopsy specimen pairs were available for analysis. ESS distinguished normal from abnormal tissue, with a sensitivity ranging from 84% to 100% and specificity ranging from 71% to 89%, depending on how the cutoff between normal and abnormal tissue was defined (i.e., mild, moderate, or severe dysplasia). There were statistically significant differences in malignancy scores between histologically normal tissue and invasive cancer and between noninflamed tissue and inflamed tissue. This is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of ESS in guiding mucosal resection margins in oral cavity cancer. ESS provides fast, real-time assessment of tissue without the need for pathology expertise. ESS appears to be effective in distinguishing between normal mucosa and invasive cancer and between "normal" tissue (histologically normal and mild

  13. Oral complications of cancer therapies. Mucosal alterations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squier, C.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The initial effect of anticancer therapy, such as radiation and chemotherapy, is on the rapidly proliferating cells of the oral epithelium. As a consequence, the epithelium may show atrophy and ulceration. The sites of these alterations are related to the rate of epithelial proliferation. Regions of rapid proliferation, such as the oral lining mucosa, show a greater frequency of ulceration than masticatory mucosa or skin. Subsequent changes in the mucosa reflect damage to connective tissue, including fibroblasts and blood vessels. This results in hyalinization of collagen, hypovascularity, and ischemia. Indirect effects of anticancer therapy may include granulocytopenia and reduced salivary secretion, so that the protective mucin coating of the epithelium is compromised. These changes result in tissue with reduced barrier function and impaired ability to heal and to resist entry of pathogens, thus increasing the risk of systemic infections.

  14. Role of Gold Nanoparticles in Early Detection of Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Sanjay Reddy

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology is the science of the small; the very small. It is the use and manipulation of matter at a tiny scale. At this size, atoms and molecules work differently and provide a variety of surprising and interesting uses. These nanoparticles can be used to detect/mondor cancer (by utilizing or adding optical, magnetic, and fluorescent properties. This novel imaging tool can lead to significant improvements in cancer therapy due to earlier detection, accurate staging and microtumor identification. In this review, we will summarize the current state of the art of gold nanoparticles in early detection of oral cancer.

  15. The Optimal Treatment Modality for Taiwan Oral Cavity Cancer Patients-Experience of a Medical Center

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-Ta Liao; Chien-Yu Lin; Kang-Hsing Fan; Hung-Ming Wang

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity cancer ranks sixth in cancer incidence in Taiwan, and it is the most common malignancy diagnosed in Taiwanese men aged between 30 and 50 years. Despite recent declines in high risk habits, the incidence of oral cavity cancer in Taiwan is still increasing with more than 5000 new cases diagnosed in 2011. Currently, the main treatment modality for oral cavity cancer is surgical excision, either with or without adjuvant therapy. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guideli...

  16. Erlotinib and the Risk of Oral Cancer: The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, William N; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Lee, J Jack; Mao, Li; Cohen, Ezra E W; Lin, Heather Y; Gillenwater, Ann M; Martin, Jack W; Lingen, Mark W; Boyle, Jay O; Shin, Dong M; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Shinn, Nancy; Heymach, John V; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Tang, Ximing; Kim, Edward S; Saintigny, Pierre; Blair, Elizabeth A; Meiller, Timothy; Gutkind, J Silvio; Myers, Jeffrey; El-Naggar, Adel; Lippman, Scott M

    2016-02-01

    Standard molecularly based strategies to predict and/or prevent oral cancer development in patients with oral premalignant lesions (OPLs) are lacking. To test if the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib would reduce oral cancer development in patients with high-risk OPLs defined by specific loss of heterozygosity (LOH) profiles. Secondary objectives included prospective determination of LOH as a prognostic marker in OPLs. The Erlotinib Prevention of Oral Cancer (EPOC) study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-bind trial. Accrual occurred from November 2006 through July 2012, with a median follow-up time of 35 months in an ambulatory care setting in 5 US academic referral institutions. Patients with OPLs were enrolled in the protocol, and each underwent LOH profiling (N = 379); they were classified as high-risk (LOH-positive) or low-risk (LOH-negative) patients based on their LOH profiles and oral cancer history. The randomized sample consisted of 150 LOH-positive patients. Oral erlotinib treatment (150 mg/d) or placebo for 12 months. Oral cancer-free survival (CFS). A total of 395 participants were classified with LOH profiles, and 254 were classified LOH positive. Of these, 150 (59%) were randomized, 75 each to the placebo and erlotinib groups. The 3-year CFS rates in placebo- and erlotinib-treated patients were 74% and 70%, respectively (hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.68-2.38; P = .45). The 3-year CFS was significantly lower for LOH-positive compared with LOH-negative groups (74% vs 87%, HR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.25-3.83; P = .01). Increased EGFR gene copy number correlated with LOH-positive status (P < .001) and lower CFS (P = .01). The EGFR gene copy number was not predictive of erlotinib efficacy. Erlotinib-induced skin rash was associated with improved CFS (P = .01). In this trial, LOH was validated as a marker of oral cancer risk and found to be associated with increased EGFR copy number (the target of the intervention

  17. Trends in frequency and prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma in mexicans. A 20 years retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitán Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Peniche Becerra, Adriana Gabriela; Quezada Rivera, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To establish the time trends of the frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer in regard to age and gender in a 20-years (time period 1989 ? 2008) cohort of Mexicans. Design and Setting. 13,235 head and neck biopsies from the archive of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico were revised. The cases with diagnoses of oral cancer were selected. Gender and age at diagnosis was obtained from medical records. The frequency and...

  18. Effects of NFKB1 and NFKBIA gene polymorphisms on susceptibility to environmental factors and the clinicopathologic development of oral cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiao-Wen Lin

    Full Text Available Oral cancer, which is the fourth most common cancer in Taiwanese men, is associated with environmental carcinogens. The possibility that genetic predisposition in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB-signaling pathways activation is linked to the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC requires investigation. The current study examines associations between polymorphisms within promoter regions of NFKB1 encoding NF-κB1 and NFKBIA encoding IkappaBalpha (IκBα with both the susceptibility to develop OSCC and the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors.Genetic polymorphisms of NFKB1 and NFKBIA were analyzed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR for 462 patients with oral cancer and 520 non-cancer controls. We found that NFKB1 -94 ATGG1/ATGG2, -94 ATGG2/ATGG2, and the combination of -94 ATGG1/ATGG2 and ATGG2/ATGG2 genotypes NFKBIA -826 T (CT+TT and -881 G (AG+GG allelic carriages, were more prevalent in OSCC patients than in non-cancer participants. Moreover, we found that NFKB1 or NFKBIA gene polymorphisms seem to be related to susceptibility to develop oral cancer linked to betel nut and tobacco consumption. Finally, patients with oral cancer who had at least one -519 T allele of the NFKBIA gene were at higher risk for developing distant metastasis (P<.05, compared with those patients CC homozygotes.Our results suggest that NFKB1 -94 ATTG2, NFKBIA -826 T, and -881 G alleles are associated with oral carcinogenesis. The combination of NFKB1 or NFKBIA gene polymorphisms and environmental carcinogens appears related to an increased risk of oral cancer. More importantly, the genetic polymorphism of NFKBIA -519 might be a predictive factor for the distal metastasis of OSCC in Taiwanese.

  19. Quality of Life of Patients with Oral Cavity Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzebo, Senada; Mahmutovic, Jasmina; Erkocevic, Hasiba

    2017-03-01

    In recent years the quality of life of patients is very important in monitoring the treatment and therapeutic procedure success. It has become a significant factor in assessing the therapeutic procedure accomplishment, and for the first time the patient alone can access the success of the respective therapy. Cancer of the oral cavity is one of the most common cancers of the head and neck, and is one of the ten most common causes of death in the world. In the majority of cases, cancer of the oral cavity is detected in an advanced stage when therapeutic options are reduced, and the prognosis is much worse. Cancer of the oral cavity is 10 times more common in men. Assessment of quality of life should be an indicator of the multidisciplinary treatment success and it should point to areas in which the affected person requires support. To examine the quality of life of patients with oral cavity cancer. The study was conducted at the Clinic of Maxillofacial Surgery of the Clinical Center University of Sarajevo (CCUS), through a survey on patients with verified oral cavity cancer, questionnaire related to socio-demographic characteristics of the patients and the University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire (UW-QOL). The results were included in the database and statistically processed in the SPSS program, 19.0 version for Windows. Afterwards, the results were thoroughly analyzed and documented, presented in absolute numbers and statistical values using statistical indicators in simple and understandable tables and figures. The study results showed that out of the total score of 100, the median value of quality of life of patients with oral cavity cancer, for the physical health component in the definition of quality was M=69.75 ±29.12 and for social-emotional health M=65.11 ± 27.47. This could be considered as satisfactory quality of life, in the sphere above half of the rating scale, although both values significantly deviate from the UW-QOL scale norm

  20. Early Stage Diagnosis of Oral Cancer Using 1H NMR–Based Metabolomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Tiziani

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and represents a significant disease burden. If detected at an early stage, survival from oral cancer is better than 90% at 5 years, whereas late stage disease survival is only 30%. Therefore, there is an obvious clinical utility for novel metabolic markers that help to diagnose oral cancer at an early stage and to monitor treatment response. In the current study, blood samples of oral cancer patients were analyzed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to derive a metabolic signature for oral cancer. Using multivariate chemometric analysis, we obtained an excellent discrimination between serum samples from cancer patients and from a control group and could also discriminate between different stages of disease. The metabolic profile obtained for oral cancer is significant, even for early stage disease and relatively small tumors. This suggests a systemic metabolic response to cancer, which bears great potential for early diagnosis.

  1. Potential Compounds for Oral Cancer Treatment: Resveratrol, Nimbolide, Lovastatin, Bortezomib, Vorinostat, Berberine, Pterostilbene, Deguelin, Andrographolide, and Colchicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bundela, Saurabh; Sharma, Anjana; Bisen, Prakash S.

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the main causes of cancer-related deaths in South-Asian countries. There are very limited treatment options available for oral cancer. Research endeavors focused on discovery and development of novel therapies for oral cancer, is necessary to control the ever rising oral cancer related mortalities. We mined the large pool of compounds from the publicly available compound databases, to identify potential therapeutic compounds for oral cancer. Over 84 million compounds wer...

  2. Characterization of Chronic Mechanical Irritation in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerónimo P. Lazos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Oral mucosa could host many lesions originated by chronic mechanical irritation (CMI from teeth or dentures, and it has been proposed as risk factor for oral cancer. Nevertheless, the features of CMI factors in oral cancer and other lesions are not assessed. The aim of this study is to describe CMI features regarding type (dental, prosthetic, and/or functional, localization, and time span. Materials and Methods. Three groups were studied in this cross-sectional study: Oral Cancer (OC; Chronic Traumatic Ulcer (CTU; and Benign Irritative Mechanical Lesions (BIML. All sources of mechanical irritation were included: dental, prosthetic, and functional. Results. 285 patients (176 females, 109 males were studied: OC = 38, CTU = 44, and BIML = 203. The most frequent CMI factor was dental, followed by functional and prosthetic in all groups; 76.5% (n=218 presented functional factors. Buccal mucosa (45% and tongue (42% were the most affected sites. Time of action of CMI displayed statistically significant differences between BIML, CTU, and OC groups, with a mean of 21, 33, and 49 months, respectively. Conclusions. CMI should be properly recorded with as much detail as alcohol and tobacco consumption. CMI associated lesions are produced by dental or prosthetic factors, usually in relation to functional factors, involving mainly tongue and buccal mucosa.

  3. Classification of oral cancers using Raman spectroscopy of serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Aditi; Talathi, Sneha; Sawant, Sharada; Krishna, C. Murali

    2014-03-01

    Oral cancers are the sixth most common malignancy worldwide, with low 5-year disease free survival rates, attributable to late detection due to lack of reliable screening modalities. Our in vivo Raman spectroscopy studies have demonstrated classification of normal and tumor as well as cancer field effects (CFE), the earliest events in oral cancers. In view of limitations such as requirement of on-site instrumentation and stringent experimental conditions of this approach, feasibility of classification of normal and cancer using serum was explored using 532 nm excitation. In this study, strong resonance features of β-carotenes, present differentially in normal and pathological conditions, were observed. In the present study, Raman spectra of sera of 36 buccal mucosa, 33 tongue cancers and 17 healthy subjects were recorded using Raman microprobe coupled with 40X objective using 785 nm excitation, a known source of excitation for biomedical applications. To eliminate heterogeneity, average of 3 spectra recorded from each sample was subjected to PC-LDA followed by leave-one-out-cross-validation. Findings indicate average classification efficiency of ~70% for normal and cancer. Buccal mucosa and tongue cancer serum could also be classified with an efficiency of ~68%. Of the two cancers, buccal mucosa cancer and normal could be classified with a higher efficiency. Findings of the study are quite comparable to that of our earlier study, which suggest that there exist significant differences, other than β- carotenes, between normal and cancerous samples which can be exploited for the classification. Prospectively, extensive validation studies will be undertaken to confirm the findings.

  4. Multiple concomitant oral cavity cancers: Incidence, management, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Huang, Yenlin; Tsai, Chia-Hsuan; Barrera, Megias J; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Couves, Adam J; Cheng, Ming-Huei; Chang, Kai-Ping

    2017-06-01

    Little is known about the appropriate treatment and long-term survival of patients with multiple concomitant oral cavity cancers (MOC). The aim of this study was to clarify the clinicopathological features of MOC, to compare the prognosis of MOC patients with that of patients with single oral cavity cancers (SOC), and to describe reconstructive options based on the concept of economy in autologous tissue transfer. Data from 603 patients diagnosed with at least one squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity who underwent surgery for primary oral cavity cancers between 2006 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively to identify MOC patients. Among 603 cases of surgically resected primary oral cancers, 20 cases (3.3%) with MOC were identified. Patients with MOC did not differ from patients with SOC in age, and their index lesions did not differ in pT value, pN value, pathological stage, extracapsule spread, or perineural or bone invasion. The 5-year overall and disease-free survival rates for MOC and SOC cases were 72.6% versus 68.7%, and 65.3% versus 64.8%, respectively (P = 0.785 and 0.770, respectively). The anterolateral thigh flap was widely applied. According to its origin of blood supply, the reconstructive options of MOC patients with separated defects were classified and proposed. MOC and SOC were similar in clinicopathological characteristics. The prognosis of patients with MOC was similar to that of patients with SOC. Resections were performed with curative intent. A multidisciplinary team management approach is essential for customized treatment in MOC patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. How will I be after my operation for oral cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanatas, A; Singh, P; Lowe, D; Rogers, S N

    2015-07-01

    Validated health-related quality of life measures for patients with oral cancer have been available for over a decade. We used the Liverpool head and neck cancer database to identify 1060 patients who had curative operations for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck at the regional maxillofacial unit between 1995 and 2010. We then produced one-page summary tables for subsites of oral cancer by stage and common treatments based on patient-reported outcomes from the University of Washington quality of life (UWQoL) head and neck cancer questionnaire. Data had been collected in a series of annual surveys. Sites included were buccal and retromolar (n=189), oral tongue (n=358), floor of the mouth (n=321), and other oral sites (n=192). A total of 633 patients completed at least one questionnaire (total 1931) between 9 and 60 months after treatment (71% of those alive at 9 months). Only questionnaires completed around 2 years from diagnosis or operation were analysed. Data include crude survival at 1, 2, and 5 years, the 12 UWQoL domains, which comprise the number of patients who chose the best 2 responses for each, overall health-related QoL, and the number who chose the worst responses (based on an algorithm). The data are sufficiently detailed to be used in discussions with patients about likely outcomes. They can help patients to make decisions about the type of treatment, provide a reference for realistic expectations, and enable them to be better informed when they give their consent. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mobile health application for remote oral cancer surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birur, Praveen N; Sunny, Sumsum P; Jena, Sidhant; Kandasarma, Uma; Raghavan, Shubhasini; Ramaswamy, Bhanushree; Shanmugam, Sunitha Perumal; Patrick, Sanjana; Kuriakose, Rohan; Mallaiah, Janhavi; Suresh, Amritha; Chigurupati, Radhika; Desai, Rani; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2015-12-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a mobile phone-based remote oral cancer surveillance program (Oncogrid) connecting primary care dental practitioners and frontline health care workers (FHW) with oral cancer specialists. The study population (N = 3,440) included a targeted cohort (n = 2,000) and an opportunistic cohort (n = 1,440) screened by FHW and dental professionals, respectively. The authors compared the screening efficacy in both groups, with specialist diagnosis considered the reference standard. The outcomes measured were lesion detection and capture of interpretable images of the oral cavity. In the targeted cohort, among 51 of 81 (61%) interpretable images, 23 of 51 (45%) of the lesions were confirmed by specialists, while the opportunistic cohort showed 100% concordance with the specialists (106 of 106). Sixty-two of 129 (48%) of the recommended patients underwent biopsy; 1 of 23 (4%) were in the targeted cohort, and 61 of 106 (57%) were in the opportunistic cohort. Ninety percent of the lesions were confirmed to be malignant or potentially malignant. The mobile health-based approach adopted in this study aided remote early detection of oral cancer by primary care dental practitioners in a resource-constrained setting. Further optimization of this program is required to adopt the system for FHW. Evaluation of its efficacy in a larger population is also warranted. The increased efficiency of early detection by dentists, when assisted by a remote mobile health-based approach, is a step toward a more effective oral cancer screening program. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Subcellular differential expression of Ep-ICD in oral dysplasia and cancer is associated with disease progression and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Raj Thani; Kaur, Jatinder; Leong, Iona; MacMillan, Christina; Witterick, Ian J; Walfish, Paul G; Ralhan, Ranju

    2016-07-16

    Identification of patients with oral dysplasia at high risk of cancer development and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) at increased risk of disease recurrence will enable rigorous personalized treatment. Regulated intramembranous proteolysis of Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) resulting in release of its intracellular domain Ep-ICD into cytoplasm and nucleus triggers oncogenic signaling. We analyzed the expression of Ep-ICD in oral dysplasia and cancer and determined its clinical significance in disease progression and prognosis. In a retrospective study, immunohistochemical analysis of nuclear and cytoplasmic Ep-ICD and EpEx (extracellular domain of EpCAM), was carried out in 115 OSCC, 97 oral dysplasia and 105 normal oral tissues, correlated with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcome over 60 months for oral dysplasia and OSCC patients. Disease-free survival (DFS) was determined by Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox regression analysis. In comparison with normal oral tissues, significant increase in nuclear Ep-ICD and membrane EpEx was observed in dysplasia, and OSCC (p = 0.013 and Oral dysplasia patients with increased overall Ep-ICD developed cancer in short time period (mean = 47 months; p = 0.044). OSCC patients with increased nuclear Ep-ICD and membrane EpEx had significantly reduced mean DFS of 33.7 months (p = 0.018). Our study provided clinical evidence for Ep-ICD as a predictor of cancer development in patients with oral dysplasia and recurrence in OSCC patients, suggesting its potential utility in enhanced management of those patients detected to have increased risk of progression to cancer and recurrence in OSCC patients.

  8. Oral Cancer Awareness and Knowledge in the City of Valongo, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Luís Silva; Salazar, Filomena; Pacheco, Júlio; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2012-01-01

    We conducted a questionnaire survey among 602 subjects in order to analyze the awareness and knowledge on oral cancer among residents of the city of Valongo in Portugal. The cancer that most subjects were aware of was breast cancer (99%). Oral cancer was the least mentioned cancer (68.6%). There was awareness of the relationship between oral cancer and smoking among 89.5% subjects, but less of the association with alcohol misuse (63.3%). Nonhealing mouth ulcers were identified as a sign or symptom of oral cancer by 90.0% and red or white patch by only 52.8% subjects. Whereas 94.5% agreed that early detection could improve the treatment outcome, a disheartening 28.1% believed that whether a person developed an oral cancer or not is a matter of luck and therefore is unavoidable. Surprisingly only 1.7% were ever submitted to or had knowledge of receiving a consultation regarding oral cancer. In conclusion, this survey demonstrates a general lack of awareness and knowledge on oral cancer in a population of Valongo. An oral health promotion strategy should involve elements of basic education on oral cancer for this population, and regular oral cancer screenings should be implemented in Valongo. PMID:22919388

  9. Oral Cancer Awareness and Knowledge in the City of Valongo, Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Silva Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a questionnaire survey among 602 subjects in order to analyze the awareness and knowledge on oral cancer among residents of the city of Valongo in Portugal. The cancer that most subjects were aware of was breast cancer (99%. Oral cancer was the least mentioned cancer (68.6%. There was awareness of the relationship between oral cancer and smoking among 89.5% subjects, but less of the association with alcohol misuse (63.3%. Nonhealing mouth ulcers were identified as a sign or symptom of oral cancer by 90.0% and red or white patch by only 52.8% subjects. Whereas 94.5% agreed that early detection could improve the treatment outcome, a disheartening 28.1% believed that whether a person developed an oral cancer or not is a matter of luck and therefore is unavoidable. Surprisingly only 1.7% were ever submitted to or had knowledge of receiving a consultation regarding oral cancer. In conclusion, this survey demonstrates a general lack of awareness and knowledge on oral cancer in a population of Valongo. An oral health promotion strategy should involve elements of basic education on oral cancer for this population, and regular oral cancer screenings should be implemented in Valongo.

  10. A Signalling Device for Non-Oral Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Thomas W.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes simple modifications to a basic 9-volt portable transistor radio to serve as a durable, inexpensive signalling device operable by a single external switch. The unit still functions as a radio, but can also help partially speaking students and users of communication aids to signal for help. (Author/PB)

  11. The role of yearly chest radiography in the early detection of lung cancer following oral cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stalpers, L. J.; van Vierzen, P. B.; Brouns, J. J.; Bruaset, I.; Manni, J. J.; Verbeek, A. L.; Ruys, J. H.; van Daal, W. A.

    1989-01-01

    In a study of 213 patients with oral cancer, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of lung malignancies in patients offered a yearly chest radiography in the follow-up. Three conclusions can be drawn. (1) Metastatic or primary lung cancer was diagnosed in 22 (10.3%) patients. The 2-year

  12. Science Signaling Podcast for 14 March 2017: The Cancer Moonshot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Michael B; VanHook, Annalisa M

    2017-03-14

    This Podcast features a conversation with Science Signaling's Chief Scientific Editor Michael Yaffe about opportunities for signaling researchers to contribute to the Cancer Moonshot, a federally funded initiative to accelerate cancer research. Administered by the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the goal of the program is to improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer. Signaling pathways are not only critical for the initiation and progression of cancer; they are also critical targets for treatment. In addition to developing new therapies, there are many other opportunities for signaling researchers to advance the goals of the Cancer Moonshot, such as improving methods of diagnosis and prevention.Listen to Podcast. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Exhaled breath and oral cavity VOCs as potential biomarkers in oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza, M; Gonzalez-Soto, J; Pereiro, R; de Vicente, J C; Sanz-Medel, A

    2017-03-01

    Corporal mechanisms attributed to cancer, such as oxidative stress or the action of cytochrome P450 enzymes, seem to be responsible for the generation of a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that could be used as non-invasive diagnosis biomarkers. The present work presents an attempt to use VOCs from exhaled breath and oral cavity air as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. A total of 52 breath samples were collected (in 3 L Tedlar bags) from 26 OSCC patients and 26 cancer-free controls. The samples were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. Different statistical strategies (e.g., Icoshift, SIMCA, LDA, etc) were used to classify the analytical data. Results revealed that compounds such as undecane, dodecane, decanal, benzaldehyde, 3,7-dimethyl undecane, 4,5-dimethyl nonane, 1-octene, and hexadecane had relevance as possible biomarkers for OSCC. LDA classification with these compounds showed well-defined clusters for patients and controls (non-smokers and smokers). In addition to breath analysis, preliminary studies were carried out to evaluate the possibility of lesion-surrounded air (analyzed OSCC tumors are in the oral cavity) as a source of biomarkers. The oral cavity location of the squamous cell carcinoma tumors constitutes an opportunity to non-invasively collect the air surrounding the lesion. Small quantities (20 ml) of air collected in the oral cavity were analyzed using the above methodology. Results showed that aldehydes present in the oral cavity might constitute potential OSCC biomarkers.

  14. Oral and dental health care of oral cancer patients: hyposalivation, caries and infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurman, Jukka H; Grönroos, Lisa

    2010-06-01

    Oral cancer and its treatment can cause a variety of problems to patients, also as regards maintaining their daily oral hygiene. Surgery mutilates tissues which may hamper cleaning the teeth and mucosal surfaces. The patient may have complicated reconstructive structures that also need continuous attention. Radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation further complicates the situation and decreases the quality of life. Consequently, dental caries, mucosal diseases such as candidosis and sialadenitis become problematic to treat. Hence every effort should be focused on prevention. In caries prevention intensified fluoride therapy together with dietary counseling is needed. Oral cancer patients also need to be frequently referred to dental hygienists for professional cleaning. Drinking enough daily and moisturizing mucosal surfaces with commercial dry-mouth products, vegetable oils, milk products and respective topical agents need to be individually recommended. In addition, patients with severe dry mouth cases may also benefit from the prescription of pilocarpine tablets. In oral candidosis, the microbiological diagnosis must be confirmed before administration of antifungal drugs in order to avoid the selection pressure to resistant strains. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral Cavity Cancer: Risk Factors, Pathology, and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernani, Vinicius; Saba, Nabil F

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity cancers are predominantly squamous cell carcinomas, which arise from premalignant lesions through a multistep carcinogenesis process. Tobacco and alcohol are the major etiologic factors, although human papillomavirus has also recently been implicated as a causative agent. The possibility of a second primary malignancy should be considered during the diagnostic evaluation of head and neck cancers, as well as during the posttreatment surveillance phase. The goals of treatment are not only to improve survival outcomes but also to preserve organ function. These cancers are generally treated with a combination of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. A multidisciplinary approach, involving surgeons, medical oncologists, and radiation oncologists, as well as dentists, dietitians, and rehabilitation therapists, is generally required for optimal treatment planning and management of patients with head and neck cancer. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Oral cancer aetiopathogenesis; past, present and future aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Crispian

    2011-05-01

    Oral cancer appears to be increasing in incidence, and mortality has hardly improved over the past 25 years. Better understanding of the aetiopathogenesis should lead to more accurate and earlier diagnosis and more effective treatments with fewer adverse effects. Cancer is the result of DNA mutations arising spontaneously and from the action of various mutagens, especially in tobacco and alcohol. A sequence of genetic changes leads eventually to loss of growth control and autonomy. Countering these changes are mechanisms to metabolise carcinogens, repair DNA damage, control growth, and defend against cancer. Cancer is a consequence of an interaction of these many factors. Diagnosis is increasingly aided by detection of cellular and now molecular changes. Treatment is increasingly looking towards chemotherapy and now gene therapy. However, there is no doubt that prevention is the most important aspect, particularly patient education and the reduction of lifestyle risk habits and environmental factors.

  17. Tobacco chewing and female oral cavity cancer risk in Karunagappally cohort, India

    OpenAIRE

    Jayalekshmi, P A; Gangadharan, P.; Akiba, S; Nair, R R K; Tsuji, M; Rajan, B

    2009-01-01

    This study examined oral cancer in a cohort of 78?140 women aged 30?84 years in Karunagappally, Kerala, India, on whom baseline information was collected on lifestyle, including tobacco chewing, and sociodemographic factors during the period 1990?1997. By the end of 2005, 92 oral cancer cases were identified by the Karunagappally Cancer Registry. Poisson regression analysis of grouped data, taking into account age and income, showed that oral cancer incidence was strongly related to daily fre...

  18. Oral Cancer Screening at Workplace in India?One-year Follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    P A Uplap; G A Mishra; Majumdar, P; Gupta, S D; P S Rane; P K Sadalge; A M Avasare; S S Goswami; V A Dhar; S S Shastri

    2011-01-01

    Background: Oral cancer remains the commonest form of cancer and cancer-related deaths among Indian males due to popularity of avoidable risk factors such as tobacco and alcohol use. A workplace oral cancer screening and tobacco cessation study was commenced on World No Tobacco Day 2007 at a chemical industry in rural Maharashtra. Aims: The objectives were to screen the employees for oral neoplasia and to correlate it with their tobacco consumption pattern. In addition, the objective was to p...

  19. Can dental implants osseointegrate in oral cancer patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokstad, Asbjorn

    2011-01-01

    Medline from 1986 to September 2010. Hand-searching of unspecified journals over an unspecified period of time. Clinical studies, though not confined to a particular type (e.g. randomised controlled trial), involving patients having undergone radio- and chemotherapy following oral cancer surgery. Only those articles published in English were included. No details are given of the number of reviewers, of any quality assessment of the included papers, nor of how they proposed to synthesise the data or conduct subgroup and sensitivity analysis. A narrative report of findings from 21 included studies. No report is made of the types of study, nor their quality. In 16 studies that examined whether dental implants osseointegrated following radiation, between 68% and 100% did (no confidence intervals reported). Studies ranged in duration from 2 months to 13 years. Dental implants can osseointegrate and remain functionally stable in patients having undergone oral cancer therapy.

  20. C-reactive protein: An inflammatory biomarker in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Kumar Mengji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP is a plasma phase protein that takes part in systemic responses to inflammatory reactions. Its serum concentration can increase up to 1000 folds or more in relation to acute stimuli due to infections, tissue injuries, and malignant disorders. It is highly resistant to proteolysis, principally synthesized in the liver in response to proinflammatory cytokines, i.e. interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor. These cytokines are seen to be related to neoplastic disorders. It forms an integral component of innate immunity and serves primarily to recognize potential pathogens and damaged cells. The present article summarizes the importance of CRP and its significance in oral cancer and associated disorders. It was found that a lowered CRP level may prove to be beneficial in prevention and treatment of oral cavity cancer.

  1. Sentinel lymph nodes in cancer of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Christensen, Rikke Kølby; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2007-01-01

    when compared with (B) step-sectioning and immunostaining of the entire sentinel lymph node at 250 microM levels. METHODS: Forty patients with T1/T2 cN0 oral cancer were enrolled. Three patients were excluded. In one patient no sentinel lymph node was identified. The remaining two had unidentified......BACKGROUND: Extended histopathologic work-up has increased the detection of micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma and breast cancer. The aim of this study was to examine if (A) step-sectioning of the central 1000 microM at 250 microM levels with immunostaining were accurate...

  2. Photodynamic Therapy Using Temoporfin Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Recurrent Oral Cavity or Oropharyngeal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-02

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  3. Factors associated with refusal of radiotherapy among oral cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agaku IT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is commonly favored in the management of oral cancer but radiotherapy may be essential because of the size or location of the tumor. Refusal of radiotherapy by patients is an important issue, which must be taken into consideration during treatment planning. This study assessed prevalence and correlates of radiotherapy refusal among oral cancer patients. Methods: Data was analyzed for 47, 174 oral cancer cases in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER database during 1988–2008. Point estimates were calculated overall and by selected socio-demographic and clinical characteristics. A multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to determine predictors of radiotherapy refusal. Results: The overall prevalence of refusal of radiotherapy was 2.31%. Factors associated with increased likelihood of refusal of radiotherapy included age ± 45 years (adjusted odds ratio, aOR=2.48; P=0.031; gingival/floor of mouth tumors (aOR=1.32; P=0.010; receipt of surgery (aOR=1.21; P=0.04. Conversely, protective factors included being married (aOR=0.59; P<0.001; non-Hispanic blacks (aOR=0.53; P=0.001; involvement of paired structures (aOR=0.61; P<0.001 as well as multiple tumors (aOR=0.75; P=0.021. Sex was not a significant predictor on multivariate analysis. Conclusion: Prevalence of refusal of radiotherapy among oral cancer patients is relatively low and is significantly associated with age, marital status, as well as location, extent and severity of disease. Clinicians may anticipate patients likely to refuse radiotherapy and develop patient-tailored counseling considering the benefits and risks of proposed treatment. Final treatment decision must however take into consideration the wishes of the fully informed patient.

  4. Hedgehog Signaling in Prostate Development, Regeneration and Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade Bushman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The prostate is a developmental model system study of prostate growth regulation. Historically the research focus was on androgen regulation of development and growth and instructive interactions between the mesenchyme and epithelium. The study of Hh signaling in prostate development revealed important roles in ductal morphogenesis and in epithelial growth regulation that appear to be recapitulated in prostate cancer. This overview of Hh signaling in the prostate will address the well-described role of paracrine signaling prostate development as well as new evidence suggesting a role for autocrine signaling, the role of Hh signaling in prostate regeneration and reiterative activities in prostate cancer.

  5. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  6. Oral cancer prevention and control--the approach of the World Health Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Poul Erik

    2009-01-01

    Cancer is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality today. It is estimated that around 43% of cancer deaths are due to tobacco use, unhealthy diets, alcohol consumption, inactive lifestyles and infection. Low-income and disadvantaged groups are generally more exposed to avoidable risk factors such as environmental carcinogens, alcohol, infectious agents, and tobacco use. These groups also have less access to the health services and health education that would empower them to make decisions to protect and improve their own health. Oro-pharyngeal cancer is significant component of the global burden of cancer. Tobacco and alcohol are regarded as the major risk factors for oral cancer. The population-attributable risks of smoking and alcohol consumption have been estimated to 80% for males, 61% for females, and 74% overall. The evidence that smokeless tobacco causes oral cancer was confirmed recently by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Studies have shown that heavy intake of alcoholic beverages is associated with nutrient deficiency, which appears to contribute independently to oral carcinogenesis. Oral cancer is preventable through risk factors intervention. Prevention of HIV infection will also reduce the incidence of HIV/AIDS-related cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma and lymphoma. The WHO Global Oral Health Programme is committed to work for country capacity building in oral cancer prevention, inter-country exchange of information and experiences from integrated approaches in prevention and health promotion, and the development of global surveillance systems for oral cancer and risk factors. The WHO Global Oral Health Programme has established a global surveillance system of oral cavity cancer in order to assess risk factors and to help the planning of effective national intervention programmes. Epidemiological data on oral cancer (ICD-10: C00-C08) incidence and mortality are stored in the Global Oral Health Data Bank. In 2007, the World

  7. Salivary IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α as Potential Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haafsa Arshad Sahibzada

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saliva has been useful as a liquid biopsy for the diagnosis of various oral or systemic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is no exception. While its early detection and prevention is important, salivary cytokines expression, specifically of Interleukin-8 (IL-8, Interleukin-6 (IL-6 and Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, does contribute to the pathogenesis of cancer and these cytokines serve as potential biomarkers. Their excessive production plays a role in cancer progression and establishment of angiogenesis. However, other inflammatory or immunological conditions may affect the levels of cytokines in saliva. This article reviews the expression of levels of specific cytokines i.e., IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α, their signaling pathways in the development of oral cancer, and how they are essential for the diagnosis of OSCC and updates related to it. Apart from serum, the saliva-based test can be a cost-effective tool in the follow-up and diagnosis of OSCC. Moreover, large-scale investigations are still needed for the validation of salivary cytokines.

  8. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Esra Sahingur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host-microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis.

  9. Chemokine Function in Periodontal Disease and Oral Cavity Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahingur, Sinem Esra; Yeudall, W. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The chemotactic cytokines, or chemokines, comprise a superfamily of polypeptides with a wide range of activities that include recruitment of immune cells to sites of infection and inflammation, as well as stimulation of cell proliferation. As such, they function as antimicrobial molecules and play a central role in host defenses against pathogen challenge. However, their ability to recruit leukocytes and potentiate or prolong the inflammatory response may have profound implications for the progression of oral diseases such as chronic periodontitis, where tissue destruction may be widespread. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that chronic inflammation is a key component of tumor progression. Interaction between cancer cells and their microenvironment is mediated in large part by secreted factors such as chemokines, and serves to enhance the malignant phenotype in oral and other cancers. In this article, we will outline the biological and biochemical mechanisms of chemokine action in host–microbiome interactions in periodontal disease and in oral cancer, and how these may overlap and contribute to pathogenesis. PMID:25999952

  10. Alterations in plasma lipid profile patterns in oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Neerupakam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the alterations in the plasma lipid profile patterns in oral cancer patients and controls. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised of 15 oral cancer patients and 15 controls. The lipid profile patterns, such as, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, Very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL lipoprotein, and triglycerides were estimated in both the groups. Changes in the plasma lipid profiles of both groups were compared. Results: This study evaluated all the plasma lipid profile patterns in both the groups. A significant decrease in the total cholesterol and HDL was observed in oral cancer subjects when compared with the control groups. Conclusion: Lipids are the major cell membrane components, which are essential for various biological functions, such as, maintaining cell integrity, cell growth, and division of normal and malignant cells. The lower plasma lipid status may be a useful indicator for initial changes occurring in neoplastic cells.

  11. Comparative effectiveness of instructional methods: oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nereyda P; Marks, John G; Sandow, Pamela R; Seleski, Christine E; Logan, Henrietta L

    2014-04-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of different methods of instruction for the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination. A group of thirty sophomore students at the University of Florida College of Dentistry were randomly assigned to three training groups: video instruction, a faculty-led hands-on instruction, or both video and hands-on instruction. The training intervention involved attending two sessions spaced two weeks apart. The first session used a pretest to assess students' baseline didactic knowledge and clinical examination technique. The second session utilized two posttests to assess the comparative effectiveness of the training methods on didactic knowledge and clinical technique. The key findings were that students performed the clinical examination significantly better with the combination of video and faculty-led hands-on instruction (p<0.01). All students improved their clinical exam skills, knowledge, and confidence in performing the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination independent of which training group they were assigned. Utilizing both video and interactive practice promoted greater performance of the clinical technique on the oral and pharyngeal cancer examination.

  12. Oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer during postoperative irradiation. An alleviating effect on acute radiation mucositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsura, Kouji; Masuko, Noriko; Hayashi, Takafumi [Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry; Sugita, Tadashi; Sakai, Kunio; Tsuchida, Emiko; Matsumoto, Yasuo; Sasamoto, Ryuta

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of oral hygiene care of patients with oral cancer on alleviating acute radiation mucositis. Eighteen patients receiving postoperative radiotherapy for tongue and oral floor cancer were evaluated. Radiotherapy was given in 2 Gy per fraction, 5 times a week for a total dose of 50 Gy in most patients. Radiation field included the tongue and oral floor. During radiotherapy, 8 patients were treated by dento-maxillofacial radiologists with special concern on oral hygiene (oral hygiene group) and the remaining 10 patients were treated with routine dental care (standard medication group). Mucositis were evaluated using JCOG grade and EORTC/RTOG score by radiotherapists or dento-maxillofacial radiologists at 10 Gy intervals. Oral hygiene plans comprised motivation to maintain oral hygiene and establishing the habits of oral self care 4 times per day. Once a week, oral hygiene and oral cleaning of patients were checked by dento-maxillofacial radiologists. Oral self care included mechanical tooth brushing and a chemical mouthwash. No patients with grade 3 and score 4 mucositis were noted in the oral hygiene group. Severe mucositis occurred less frequently in the oral hygiene group than in the standard medication group. Interruption of radiotherapy due to severe mucositis did not occur in the oral hygiene group. On the other hand, interruption of radiotherapy occurred in four patients in the standard medication group, and in three it was due to severe oral pain. Our results suggested that our method of oral hygiene was more effective for alleviating acute radiation mucositis than other methods so far reported. In addition, our method is considered to be useful in preventing rampant dental caries and severe periodontitis due to the xerostomia induced by radiotherapy. (author)

  13. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype, smoking habit, metastasis and oral cancer in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Wen; Hsu, Chia-Fang; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Tsou, Yung-An; Hua, Chun-Hung; Chang, Wen-Shin; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Bau, Da-Tian

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association and interaction of genotypic polymorphism in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) with smoking habits and oral cancer in Taiwan. Two well-known polymorphic variants of MTHFR, C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131), were analyzed in association with oral cancer risk, and their joint effects with individual smoking habits on oral cancer risk are discussed. In total, 620 oral cancer patients and 620 non-cancer controls in central Taiwan were recruited and genotyped. The MTHFR C677T genotype, but not the A1298C, was differently distributed between the oral cancer and control groups. The T allele of MTHFR C677T was significantly more frequently found in controls than in oral cancer patients. Joint effects of smoking and MTHFR C677T genotype significantly affected oral cancer susceptibility. The MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes in association with smoking conferred lower odds ratios of 0.66 and 0.54 (95% confidence interval=0.49-0.82 and 0.39-0.86), respectively. Those patients with MTHFR C677T CT and TT genotypes also had a lower risk of oral cancer metastasis. MTHFR C677T genotype may have joint effects with smoking on oral carcinogenesis, and may be a useful biomarker for prediction and prognosis of oral cancer.

  14. Detection and Screening of Oral Cancer and Pre-cancerous Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Yen Kao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a fatal disease, accounting for the fourth highest incidence of malignancy in males and the seventh in females in Taiwan. The relatively high prevalence of oral cancer in Taiwan is mainly because there is a high-risk group of 2.5 million people with the habit of smoking and betel nut chewing. Unfortunately, 50% of new cases in our medical center who present with TNM stage III or IV lesions have a shorter than 5-year survival after treatment. This highlights the need for: (1 early treatment of fresh oral cancer cases; (2 screening of the high-risk population to detect new lesions; (3 careful follow-up of cases after treatment; and (4 detection of occult early neck nodal adenopathy in surgical cases. It is generally accepted that prevention and screening of oral cancer are equally important to treatment due to its location. In this review article, we describe the nature of oral cancer and highlight the various conventional and novel methods of screening for this disease and ongoing important related research. Related literature is reviewed and future work that needs to be done is detailed.

  15. Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Therkildsen, Christina; Bernstein, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability......, but show few gross genomic alterations. We characterized expression of the Wnt signaling pathway markers β-catenin, E-cadherin, TCF-4, and PTEN using immunohistochemical staining in colorectal cancers from individuals with HNPCC. Reduced membranous staining for β-catenin was found in 64% and for E......% of the tumors. In summary, altered expression of target molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway was demonstrated in the vast majority of the HNPCC-associated tumors, which support deranged Wnt-signaling as a central tumorigenic mechanism also in MMR defective colorectal cancer....

  16. Deranged Wnt signaling is frequent in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isinger-Ekstrand, Anna; Therkildsen, Christina; Bernstein, Inge

    2011-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is frequently deranged in colorectal cancer and is a key target for future preventive and therapeutic approaches. Colorectal cancers associated with the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome are characterized by wide-spread microsatellite instability......, but show few gross genomic alterations. We characterized expression of the Wnt signaling pathway markers ß-catenin, E-cadherin, TCF-4, and PTEN using immunohistochemical staining in colorectal cancers from individuals with HNPCC. Reduced membranous staining for ß-catenin was found in 64% and for E......% of the tumors. In summary, altered expression of target molecules in the Wnt signaling pathway was demonstrated in the vast majority of the HNPCC-associated tumors, which support deranged Wnt-signaling as a central tumorigenic mechanism also in MMR defective colorectal cancer....

  17. Correlation of serum biomarkers (TSA & LSA) and epithelial dysplasia in early diagnosis of oral precancer and oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhney, Hemant; Kumar, C Anand

    Oral cancer is currently the most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths, which is usually preceded by oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditions. Altered glycosylation of glycoconjugates, such as sialic acid, fucose, etc. are amongst the important molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. The purpose of our study was to evaluate usefulness of serum Total Sialic Acid (TSA) and serum Lipid-Bound Sialic Acid (LSA) as markers of oral precancerous lesions and histopathologically correlating them with grades of epithelial dysplasia. Blood samples were collected from 50 patients with oral precancer (Leukoplakia & OSMF), 25 patients with untreated oral cancer and 25 healthy subjects. Serum sialic acid (total and lipid bound) levels were measured spectrophotometrically. Tissue samples from all the patients were evaluated for dysplasia. Serum levels of total and lipid bound sialic acid were significantly elevated in patients with oral precancer and cancer when compared with healthy subjects. Analysis of variance test documented that there is progressive rise in serum levels of sialic acid with the degree of dysplastic changes in oral precancer patients. We observed positive correlation between serum levels of the markers and the extent of malignant disease (TNM Clinical staging) as well as histopathological grades. The results suggested that serum levels of TSA and LSA progressively increases with grades of dysplasia in precancerous groups and cancer group, when compared with healthy controls. These glycoconjugates, especially LSA has the clinical utility in indicating a premalignant change.

  18. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 genes in mouth rinse samples as biomarkers for oral dysplasia and oral cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shih-Jung; Chang, Chi-Feng; Ko, Hui-Hsin; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Wang, Huei-Jen; Lin, Hsiao-Shan; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2018-02-01

    Effective biomarkers for oral cancer screening are important for early diagnosis and treatment of oral cancer. Oral epithelial cell samples collected by mouth rinse were obtained from 65 normal control subjects, 108 patients with oral potentially malignant disorders, and 94 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation levels of zinc-finger protein 582 (ZNF582) and paired-box 1 (PAX1) genes were quantified by real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction after bisulfite conversion. An abrupt increase in methylated ZNF582 (ZNF582 m ) and PAX1 (PAX1 m ) levels and positive rates from mild dysplasia to moderate/severe dysplasia, indicating that both ZNF582 m and PAX1 m are effective biomarkers for differentiating moderate dysplasia or worse (MODY+) oral lesions. When ZNF582 m /PAX1 m tests were used for identifying MODY+ oral lesions, the sensitivity, specificity, and odds ratio (OR) were 0.65/0.64, 0.75/0.82, and 5.6/8.0, respectively. Hypermethylated ZNF582 and PAX1 genes in oral epithelial cells collected by mouth rinse are effective biomarkers for the detection of oral dysplasia and oral cancer. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genotypic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms in oral cancer: global scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Shaleen; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2016-11-01

    Globocan 2012 reports the global oral cancer incidence of 300,373 new oral cancer cases annually, contributing to 2.1 % of the world cancer burden. The major well-established risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco, betel/areca nut, alcohol and high-risk oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) 16/18. However, only 5-10 % of individuals with high-risk lifestyle develop oral cancer. Thus, genomic variants in individuals represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) influence susceptibility to oral cancer. With a view to understanding the role of genomic variants in oral cancer, we reviewed SNPs in case-control studies with a minimum of 100 cases and 100 controls. PubMed and HuGE navigator search engines were used to obtain data published from 1990 to 2015, which identified 67 articles investigating the role of SNPs in oral cancer. Single publications reported 93 SNPs in 55 genes, with 34 SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. Meta-analysis of data in multiple studies defined nine SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. The genes were associated with critical functions deregulated in cancers, including cell proliferation, immune function, inflammation, transcription, DNA repair and xenobiotic metabolism.

  20. Peri-Implant Tissue Findings in Bone Grafted Oral Cancer Patients Compared to non Bone Grafted Patients without Oral Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Wolff; Hideki Agata; Sándor, George K.; Suvi Haimi

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives The aim of this study was to compare microbiological, histological, and mechanical findings from tissues around osseointergrated dental implants in patients who had undergone tumour resection and subsequent bone grafting with non bone grafted patients without a history of oral cancer and to develop an effective tool for the monitoring of the peri-implant tissues. A third aim was to assess and compare the masticatory function of the two patient groups after reconstruction w...

  1. [Perioperative Oral Management of Lung Cancer Patients; Medical, Dental, and Regional Dental Clinic Collaboration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Igai, Hitoshi; Ibe, Takashi; Kawatani, Natsuko; Uchiyama, Toshio; Gomi, Akinori; Takahashi, Sayako; Otake, Hiroaki; Shimizu, Kimihiro; Mogi, Akira; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    To prevent oral problems in lung cancer patients, dental intervention should be performed in conjunction with cancer treatment in cancer base hospitals. This paper reports on the perioperative oral care management of lung cancer patients. From January 2013 to August 2015, perioperative oral management was performed in 123 patients undergoing pulmonary lobectomy. We ensure cooperation between the departments of medicine and dentistry. First, the dentist plans oral management based on the patient's individual oral status. Then, the actual oral management is performed by an in-hospital dentist and at the regional dental clinic. The patients comprised 70 males and 53 females with an average age of 69.4 years;118 had primary lung cancer and 5 had metastatic lung cancer. Abnormal findings were detected in approximately 50% of the patients, of whom 6 received oral treatment before starting their cancer treatment. Two patients(1.3%)had postoperative complications. In all cases, the oral care support team provided both tooth and oral mucosal care. About half of the referred patients required oral treatment. There were no serious adverse events due to the oral care intervention. Further investigation is necessary to establish appropriate treatment policy guidelines for dental disease requiring oral maintenance.

  2. 548 Immunoglobulin a Deficiency, HPV and Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Jorge; Garip, Emilio; Benitez, Monica; Guzman, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Background Selective IgA deficiency is the most common primary immunodeficiency. Serum IgA level lower than 7 mg/dL is considered selective IgA deficiency. Most people with selective IgA deficiency are asymptomatic, with incidental findings. Others may present recurrent respiratory infections, allergic symptoms, other infections and autoimmune diseases. It represents a genetically heterogeneous group of abnormalities. We report 2 cases of IgA-deficiency, HPV, and cancer, which required oral mucosa and tongue surgery. Methods Case I: Female patient, 30 years old. Medical history: vaginal HPV and Herpes. No promiscuous conduct. Complaint: recurrent infections. Physical exam: oral white lesions are observed. Laboratory findings: serum immunoglobulin A: lower than 7 mg%, secretory immunoglobulin A: lower than 1 mg%. Both exams were repeated and determinations showed low values. Cytology - Glucose - serum protein electrophoresis - Ig G - Ig M - CD3 - CD4 - CD8 - CD19 - CD56 all determinations showed normal values. HIV I /II: negative. Biopsy of oral mucosa with the following report: severe dysplasia and intraepithelial carcinoma. Signs of HPV. Surgery was performed on oral mucosa with the following pathology report: moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Microscopic, morphological changes related to cytopathogenic viral effects. The patient presented good evolution. Case II: Female patient 40 years of age. Medical history: HPV and genital herpes. No promiscuous conduct. Complaint: leukoplakia in tongue edges. Physical examination: oral white lesions. Laboratory serum immunoglobulin A: value obtained: lower than 7 mg%. Cytology - Glucose - serum protein electrophoresis - Ig G - Ig M - CD3 - CD4 - CD8 - CD19 - CD56 with normal values. HIV I/II: negative. Surgery was performed in tongue and regional lymph node. Tongue Pathology: moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with negative edges. HPV (+) PCR. Conclusion We report on the possible association

  3. HH/GLI signalling as a new therapeutic target for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Wang, Lijun; Zuo, Hui; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Wantao; Mao, Li; Zhang, Ping

    2011-06-01

    Aberrant activation of HH/GLI has recently been reported in multiple cancer types, yet its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of HH/GLI in OSCC. Expression of GLI1 and GLI2 was examined in OSCC samples from 136 patients by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathology parameters and clinical outcomes of the patients. Two HH/GLI specific small molecule inhibitors cyclopamine and GANT61, were used to test the potential role of HH/GLI in OSCC. We found that GLI2, one of the main transcriptional activators of HH/GLI signalling, was expressed in 60 (44%) of the 136 OSCC samples and the expression was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Only 44% of the patients whose tumours expressed GLI2 survived at 5years after surgery compared to 77% of those whose tumours lacked the GLI2 expression (PHH/GLI pathway plays an important role in OSCC progression. Together with the finding that expression of GLI2 is strongly associated with a poor clinic outcome of OSCC patients, the data suggest that a subset of OSCC patients may benefit from anti-HH/GLI therapies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Challenges of Early Detection of Oral Cancer: Raising Awareness as a First Step to Successful Campaigning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Eva; Koller, Michael; Wiltfang, Jörg; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen; Möller, Björn; Hertrampf, Katrin

    2016-01-01

    In Germany, ~13 000 people are found to have oral and pharyngeal cancer every year. Awareness and knowledge about this cancer remain insufficient, particularly amongst elderly people. A campaign for early detection was launched in Northern Germany in April 2012. The first step of the campaign was to increase awareness about oral cancer. Prior to a…

  5. Oral Mucositis Prevention and Management by Therapeutic Laser in Head and Neck Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Fekrazad, Reza; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Oral mucositis is considered a severe complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. The aim of this review study was to assess the effect of low level laser therapy for prevention and management of oral mucositis in cancer patients.

  6. Src Family Kinases Mediate Betel Quid-Induced Oral Cancer Cell Motility and Could Be a Biomarker for Early Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Yi-Fu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9 presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs. Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01. These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  7. Advances of Liver X Receptor Signaling Pathways in Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun LIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Liver X receptors (LXRs, a kind of ligand-activated transcription factors, belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily (NRS, and function as central transcriptional regulators for lipid homeostasis, for which agonists have been developed as potential drugs for cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndromes. In sex hormone-dependent cancers, dysregulation of lipid metabolism has been manifested. Prostate cancer is the most frequent cancer in males in Europe and a leading cause of cancer deaths, with similar proportion in other developed countries. A lot of studies have confirmed that both LXR and its agonists may play some roles in the progression of prostate cancer, and LXR signaling pathways may have a close association with the development and progression of prostate cancer. Hence, to investigate the signaling pathways mediated by LXR and its agonists and their effects in prostate cancer is favorable to optimization of new treatment methods.

  8. Malnutrition in patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer-prevalence and relationship with oral symptoms : an explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriet; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Vissink, Arjan; van Oort, Rob P.; van der Laan, Bernard F. A. M.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to assess prevalence of malnutrition after treatment for oral/oropharyngeal cancer and to explore how oral symptoms relate to malnutrition after treatment. In this cross-sectional study, malnutrition (weight loss a parts per thousand yenaEuro parts per thousand 10% in 6 months or a

  9. In vivo Raman spectroscopy for oral cancers diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S. P.; Deshmukh, Atul; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Krishna, C. Murali

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is sixth among the major malignancies worldwide. Tobacco habits are known as major causative factor in tumor carcinogenesis in oral cancer. Optical spectroscopy methods, including Raman, are being actively pursued as alternative/adjunct for cancer diagnosis. Earlier studies have demonstrated the feasibility of classifying normal, premalignant and malignant oral ex-vivo tissues. In the present study we have recorded in vivo spectra from contralateral normal and diseased sites of 50 subjects with pathologically confirmed lesions of buccal mucosa using fiber-optic-probe-coupled HE-785 Raman spectrometer. Spectra were recorded on similar points as per teeth positions with an average acquisition time of 8 seconds. A total of 215 and 225 spectra from normal and tumor sites, respectively, were recorded. Finger print region (1200-1800 cm-1) was utilized for classification using LDA. Standard-model was developed using 125 normal and 139 tumor spectra from 27 subjects. Two separate clusters with an efficiency of ~95% were obtained. Cross-validation with leave-one-out yielded ~90% efficiency. Remaining 90 normal and 86 tumor spectra were used as test data and predication efficiency of model was evaluated. Findings of the study indicate that Raman spectroscopic methods in combination with appropriate multivariate tool can be used for objective, noninvasive and rapid diagnosis.

  10. Making meaning of cancer: A qualitative analysis of oral-digestive cancer survivors' reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moye, Jennifer; Jahn, Allison; Norris-Bell, Rebecca; Herman, Levi I; Gosian, Jeffrey; Naik, Aanand D

    2018-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to confirm and extend research on meaning making after cancer. In all, 119 adults aged 41 to 88 years ( M = 65.50 years and standard deviation = 9.16 years) were interviewed 12 months after diagnosis of oral-digestive cancers. About half tried to understand why they got cancer (43%) and said that cancer changed their view of life (53%). Most (75%) reported that previous life experiences helped them cope with cancer. Cancer survivors made meanings in the areas of existential, social, and personal domains with both positive and negative content. Practitioners may wish to examine meaning making in these areas for those in distress after cancer.

  11. Estrogen and Progesterone hormone receptor expression in oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, M; Biegner, T; Teriete, P; Hoefert, S; Krimmel, M; Munz, A; Reinert, S

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have shown an increase in the incidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in younger patients. The hypothesis that tumors could be hormonally induced during pregnancy or in young female patients without the well-known risk factors alcohol or tobacco abuse seems to be plausible. Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERα) and Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen. OSCCs were stratified in a young female (n=7) study cohort and older patients (n=46). In the young female study cohort three patients (n=3/7) developed OSCC during or shortly after pregnancy. Breast cancer tissues were used as positive control for ERα and PR expression. ERα expression was found in four oral precursor lesions (squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=4/35, 11%) and in five OSCC specimen (n=5/46, 11%). The five ERα positive OSCC samples were older male patients. All patients within the young female study cohort were negatively stained for both ERα and PR. ER expression could be regarded as a seldom risk factor for OSCC. PR expression seems to be not relevant for the development of OSCC.

  12. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; Some considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral cancer present with advanced disease. There are several ways of trying to diagnose oral cancer in a lower tumor stage, being 1) mass screening or screening in selected patients, 2) reduction of patients’ delay, and 3) reduction of doctors’ delay. Oral cancer population-based screening (“mass screening”) programs do not meet the guidelines for a successful outcome. There may be some benefit when focusing on high-risk groups, such as heavy smokers and heavy drinkers. Reported reasons for patients’ delay range from fear of a diagnosis of cancer, limited accessibility of primary health care, to unawareness of the possibility of malignant oral diseases. Apparently, information campaigns in news programs and TV have little effect on patients’ delay. Mouth self-examination may have some value in reducing patients’ delay. Doctors’ delay includes dentists’ delay and diagnostic delay caused by other medical and dental health care professionals. Doctors’ delay may vary from almost zero days up to more than six months. Usually, morbidity of cancer treatment is measured by quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. In the past decades this topic has drawn a lot of attention worldwide. It is a challenge to decrease the morbidity that is associated with the various treatment modalities that are used in oral cancer without substantially compromising the survival rate. Smoking cessation contributes to reducing the risk of oral cancers, with a 50% reduction in risk within five years. Indeed, risk factor reduction seems to be the most effective tool in an attempt to decrease the morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, quality of life

  13. Dental management of patients irradiated for oral cancer. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regezi, J.A.; Courtney, R.M.; Kerr, D.A.

    1976-08-01

    Management of patients irradiated for oral cancer should include consideration of their oral health prior to, and after, radiation therapy. Data from 130 patients, followed for a period of 1 to 10 years, are presented and evaluated. The philosophy of retention and maintenance of as many teeth as possible is supported by this data. Extraction of teeth with severe periodontal disease after irradiation also proves to be a relatively safe operation. Osteoradionecrosis tends to be limited in extent and is generally well tolerated by the patient when treated conservatively. A treatment regimen is presented that significantly reduces the morbidity from therapeutic irradiation of the jaws. A comprehensive dental evaluation and follow-up plan coupled with patient cooperation are instrumental to the success of this program.

  14. Mutations in circulating mitochondrial DNA: Cassandra of oral cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Eugene S

    2012-07-01

    Cell-free circulating nucleic acids in human blood are increasing being researched as a source of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for clinical oncology. High copy number per cell and frequent mutations in various malignancies make mitochondrial genome an attractive target for such an investigation, but practical development and validation of biomarkers based on cell-free mitochondrial DNA has been lagging. Uzawa and colleagues report in the July issue of Oncotarget that in a retrospective study of patients with oral cancer the load of mutant mitochondrial DNA in patient's serum was a strong indicator of postoperative recurrence. Based on these observations, the predictive value of circulating mutant mitochondrial DNA merits further evaluation in patients with oral and other malignancies.

  15. Animal Models--Decoding the Molecular Biology of Oral Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa; Raj, Thirumal

    2015-04-01

    Animal models have long been used to understand the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis, including that of oral mucosa.(1) One of the earliest models used was the chemical-induced oral cancer model, among which the Syrian Hamster check pouch was preferred for its ideal anatomical location and physiological features.(2) Salley et al(3) demonstrated that the cheek pouch mucosa underwent gradual changes from hyperplasia, carcinoma in situ to squamous cell carcinoma when exposed to polycyclic hydrocarbon 9, 10 dimethyl-1,2, benzanthracene (DMBA). Morris(4) standardized the dosage of carcinogen to 0.5% solution of DMBA in acetone and established that 5-week old animals were ideal to induce tumor with minimum time lag and maximum yield. Lin et al(5) demonstrated the synergistic effect of arecaidine with DMBA.

  16. AR-Signaling in Human Malignancies: Prostate Cancer and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T. Schweizer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 1940s Charles Huggins reported remarkable palliative benefits following surgical castration in men with advanced prostate cancer, and since then the androgen receptor (AR has remained the main therapeutic target in this disease. Over the past couple of decades, our understanding of AR-signaling biology has dramatically improved, and it has become apparent that the AR can modulate a number of other well-described oncogenic signaling pathways. Not surprisingly, mounting preclinical and epidemiologic data now supports a role for AR-signaling in promoting the growth and progression of several cancers other than prostate, and early phase clinical trials have documented preliminary signs of efficacy when AR-signaling inhibitors are used in several of these malignancies. In this article, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the use of AR-directed therapies in prostate as well as other cancers, with an emphasis on the rationale for targeting AR-signaling across tumor types.

  17. Trend Analysis of Betel Nut-associated Oral Cancer 
and Health Burden in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yan Jia; Chen, Jie; Zhong, Wai Sheng; Ling, Tian You; Jian, Xin Chun; Lu, Ruo Huang; Tang, Zhan Gui; Tao, Lin

    To forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health based on historical oral cancer patient data in Hunan province, China. Oral cancer patient data in five hospitals in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan province) were collected for the past 12 years. Three methods were used to analyse the data; Microsoft Excel Forecast Sheet, Excel Trendline, and the Logistic growth model. A combination of these three methods was used to forecast the future trend of betel nut-associated oral cancer and the resulting burden on health. Betel nut-associated oral cancer cases have been increasing rapidly in the past 12  years in Changsha. As of 2016, betel nuts had caused 8,222 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and close to 25,000 cases in Hunan, resulting in about ¥5 billion in accumulated financial loss. The combined trend analysis predicts that by 2030, betel nuts will cause more than 100,000 cases of oral cancer in Changsha and more than 300,000 cases in Hunan, and more than ¥64 billion in accumulated financial loss in medical expenses. The trend analysis of oral cancer patient data predicts that the growing betel nut industry in Hunan province will cause a humanitarian catastrophe with massive loss of human life and national resources. To prevent this catastrophe, China should ban betel nuts and provide early oral cancer screening for betel nut consumers as soon as possible.

  18. Prevention of HPV-Related Oral Cancer by Dentists: Assessing the Opinion of Dutch Dental Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelman, Marcella R; Brand, Henk S; Forouzanfar, Thymour; Daley, Ellen M; Jager, Derk H Jan

    2017-07-24

    The aim of this study is to assess dental students' opinions of the dentists' role in primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oral cancer using a cross-sectional web-based survey. A questionnaire, containing questions about knowledge of HPV and oral cancer, confidence in head and neck examination and role of the dentist in preventing HPV-related oral cancer, was sent to all students of the Academic Centre of Dentistry Amsterdam (n = 912). One hundred and twenty-six (n = 126) students completed the questionnaire. Significantly, more master students (75%) than bachelor students (54.3%) were aware that HPV is a causative factor for oral cancer. Master students had more knowledge of HPV than bachelor students, but knowledge about HPV vaccination was irrespective of the study phase. The majority of dental students agreed that it is important to discuss HPV vaccination with patients. Eighty-nine percent of the students think that more education about symptoms of oral cancer will increase screening for oral cancer. Development of a protocol for screening in dental practices was considered even more important. According to dental students, dentists should discuss HPV as a risk factor for oral cancer with patients. Future dentists are willing to be involved in both primary and secondary prevention of HPV-related oral cancer. Therefore, screening for oral cancer and education about HPV vaccination should be integral elements of the dental curriculum.

  19. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  20. Anti-cancer activity of bromelain nanoparticles by oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Priyanka; Patnaik, Soma; Srivastava, Amit K; Mudiam, Mohan K R; Shukla, Yogeshwer; Panda, Amulya K; Pant, Aditya B; Kumar, Pradeep; Gupta, Kailash C

    2014-12-01

    Oral administration of anti-cancer drugs is an effective alternative to improve their efficacy and reduce undesired toxicity. Bromelain (BL) is known as an effective anti-cancer phyto-therapeutic agent, however, its activity is reduced upon oral administration. In addressing the issue, BL was encapsulated in Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to formulate nanoparticles (NPs). Further, the NPs were coated with Eudragit L30D polymer to introduce stability against the gastric acidic conditions. The resultant coated NPs were characterized for BL entrapment, proteolytic activity and mean particle size. The stability and release pattern of NPs were evaluated under simulated gastrointestinal tract (GIT) pH conditions. Cytotoxicity studies carried out in human cell lines of diverse origin have shown significant dose advantage (-7-10 folds) with NPs in reducing the IC50 values compared with free BL. The cellular uptake of NPs in MCF-7, HeLa and Caco-2 cells monolayer was significantly enhanced several folds as compared to free BL. Altered expression of marker proteins associated with apoptosis and cell death (P53, P21, Bcl2, Bax) also confirmed the enhanced anti-carcinogenic potential of formulated NPs. Oral administration of NPs reduced the tumor burden of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice and also increased their life-span (160.0 ± 5.8%) when compared with free BL (24 ± 3.2%). The generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of apoptosis and impaired mitochondrial membrane potential in EAC cells treated with NPs confirmed the suitability of Eudragit coated BL-NPs as a promising candidate for oral chemotherapy.

  1. The 100 most cited articles on oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena-Cristóbal, Maite; Diniz-Freitas, Márcio; Monteiro, Luis; Dios, Pedro Diz; Warnakulasuriya, Saman

    2018-01-30

    Citations analysis is one of the most widely used bibliometric tools to evaluate the academic importance of a study in a specific area of knowledge. The objective of the present study was to identify the 100 most cited articles on oral cancer and to analyse their principal characteristics. We performed a literature search in the Web of Science database using the Science Citation Index Expanded tool to determine the number of citations of all articles on oral cancer identified up to 10th August 2017. The 100 most referenced articles were then selected and the following information was gathered: ranking based on the number of citations; citation density; citations in Scopus; number and names of the authors; language and year of publication; country and institution of origin; financial support; journal of publication, with its impact factor, category and quartile; type of research; evidence level; and area of study. The number of citations of the 100 articles varied from 1959 to 165, and the number of authors from a single author to 23. The oldest article was from 1948 and the most recent was from 2013. All the studies were published in English, the majority (56%) was from the United States and 80% were published in journals in the first quartile. The majority of articles were of studies that had received financial support, were published in journals with a high impact factor and were focussed on the aetiology and pathogenesis of oral cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Cigarette Smoke Modulates NOD1 Signal Pathway and Human β Defensins Expression in Human Oral Mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Ya-Jie; Wang, Xiang; Gao, Ya-Fan; Duan, Ning; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Fang-Fang; Han, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Wen-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) signal pathway and human β defensins (hBDs) play crucial roles in innate immune. Cigarette smoke has been confirmed to dampen innate immune in some human tissues, such as oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential effects of smoking on NOD1 signaling and hBDs expression in oral mucosa. Tissue specimens of normal oral mucosa were collected from donors undergoing routine surgical treatment. All 20 participants were classified equally as two groups: non-smokers and smokers. By using Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, we investigated differential expression of crucial molecules in NOD1 signal pathway, hBD-1, -2, and -3 in oral mucosa tissues between non-smokers and smokers. Immortalized human oral mucosal epithelial (Leuk-1) cells were treated with various concentrations of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 24h. Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays were performed to study CSE-induced alteration of protein expression. Leuk-1 cells were treated with 4% CSE, iE-DAP (NOD1 agonist), CSE + iE-DAP, BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), 4% CSE + BAY 11-7082, respectively. Real-time PCR and ELISA were performed to detect the mRNA levels and secretion of hBD-1, -2, and -3, respectively. The levels of NOD1, NF-κB, hBD-1 and hBD-3 significantly reduced in oral mucosa tissues of smokers compared with non-smokers. The levels of RIP2 (receptor-interacting protein 2), phospho-NF-κB (P-NF-κB) and hBD-2 remarkably enhanced in oral mucosal tissues of smokers. CSE treatment suppressed NOD1 and NF-κB expression and activated RIP2 and P-NF-κB expression in Leuk-1 cells. The mRNA and secretory levels of hBD-1 and -3 were down-regulated by CSE, while the mRNA and secretory level of hBD-2 were up-regulated by CSE. The iE-DAP or BAY 11-7082 treatment reversed the regulatory effects of CSE on levels of hBDs. The present study indicated that cigarette smoke could potentially modulate the expression of crucial

  3. Oral Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Herpes Oral Herpes Main Content Title: Oral Herpes Description: Herpes ( ...

  4. Oral Warts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Warts Oral Warts Main Content Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts ...

  5. Radiotherapic Valuation of Paraffin Wax for Patients with Oral Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Kyung Su; Seo, Seuk Jin; Lee, Je Hee; Yoo, Sook Heun [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Seoul National University Hosdital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    This study is designed to investigate radiotherapic valuation of Paraffin Wax, which is newly formed for this study and generally utilized in dentistry, and Mouth Piece and Putty impression, which are commonly used in radiotherapy, for oral cavity as a compensator. Each compensator was formed by 10 x 10 x 1 cm and measured radiation dose attenuation ratio with reference of water phantom which is made of tissue-equivalent materials. Two patients with oral cancer underwent DRR (Digitally Reconstructed Radiogrph) of Offline Review Program of Aria System and Portal vision for 5 times for each material to evaluate reproducibility by each filling materials. Moreover, MU (monitor unit) changes by dose absorption were considered in the case of inevitable implication of an filling materials in the range for radiotherapy. Radiation dose attenuation ratios were shown -0.7{approx}+3.7% for Mouth Piece, +0.21{approx}+0.39% for Paraffin Wax and -2.71{approx}-1.76% for Putty impression. Error ranges of reproducibility of positions were measured {+-}3 mm for Mouth Piece, {+-}2 mm for Paraffin Wax and {+-}2 mm for Putty impression. Difference of prescription MU from dose absorption with an filling material increased +7.8% (250 MU) in Putty impression and -0.9% (230 MU) in Paraffin Wax as converted into a percentage from the standard phantom, Water 232 MU. Dose reduction of boundary between cavity and tissue was observed for Mouth Piece. Mouth Piece also had low reproducibility of positions as it had no reflection of anatomy of oral cavity even though it was a proper material to separate Maxilla and Mandible during therapy. On the other hand, Putty impression was a suitable material to correctly re-position oral cavity as before. However, it risked normal tissues getting unnecessary over irradiation and it caused radiation dose decrease by -2.5% for 1cm volume in comparison of it of water phantom. Dose reduction in Paraffin Wax, Fat Tissue-Equivalent Material, was smaller than other

  6. Oral cancer diagnosed using PET/CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hee; Yang, Byoung Eun; Cho, Young Min [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Gon [Sam Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    PET/CT is a new imaging technology that combines high-quality Position Emission Tomography (PET) and Computed Tomography (CT). This imaging provides simultaneous anatomical and metabolic information. Therefore PET/CT is useful diagnostic modality for early detection og malignant tumor, accurate at aging, decision on therapeutic plan, monitoring response to therapy and rapid detection of recurrence. We report oral and maxillofacial cancers diagnosed by using PET/CT and the usefulness of PET/CT in the evaluation of postoperative recurrence.

  7. ORAL CANCER AT KENYATTA NATIONAL HOSPITAL, NAIROBI JF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2004-06-06

    Jun 6, 2004 ... June 2004. Table 4. Site distribution of oral cancer according to age groups. Site. 0-9. 10-19. 20-29. 30-39 40-49. 50-59. 60-69. 70-79. 80-89. 90+. Total. Lower lip. 2. 2. 7. 2. 12. 16. 26. 7. 0. 1. 75. Upper lip. 0. 1. 0. 1. 4. 1. 3. 1. 0. 0. 11. Tongue. 0. 2. 9. 9. 55. 45. 71. 24. 5. 0. 220. Mandible. 2. 3. 7. 16. 24. 36.

  8. Malnutrition in patients treated for oral or oropharyngeal cancer--prevalence and relationship with oral symptoms: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Vissink, Arjan; van Oort, Rob P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Roodenburg, Jan L N

    2011-10-01

    This study aimed to assess prevalence of malnutrition after treatment for oral/oropharyngeal cancer and to explore how oral symptoms relate to malnutrition after treatment. In this cross-sectional study, malnutrition (weight loss ≥ 10% in 6 months or ≥ 5% in 1 month), oral symptoms (EORTC QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire and additional questions to assess chewing problems), dental status, trismus and dietary intake were assessed in 116 adult patients treated for oral/oropharyngeal cancer. Prevalence of malnutrition was 16% (95%CI: 10% to 23%). Prevalence of malnutrition in the period 0-3 months after treatment was significantly higher (25%) than in the periods >3-12 months (13%) and >12-36 months after treatment (3%, p = 0.008). Logistic multivariate regression analysis revealed that swallowing problems (p = 0.021) and insufficient protein intake were significantly related to malnutrition (p = 0.016). In conclusion, malnutrition is a considerable problem in patients treated for oral/oropharyngeal cancer, shortly after treatment. Of all oral symptoms, only swallowing problems were significantly related to malnutrition in the period after treatment for oral/oropharyngeal cancer.

  9. Opening new doors: Hedgehog signaling and the pancreatic cancer stroma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damhofer, H.

    2015-01-01

    In pancreatic cancer, a very difficult to treat tumor type with a dismal prognosis, Hedgehog (Hh) ligands are produced by tumor cells and signal to the surrounding tumor microenvironment. This thesis gives new insights into the different aspects of stromal biology and Hh signaling by describing for

  10. Association of Smokeless Tobacco with Oral Cancer - Evidence From the South Asian Studies: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Kamran Habib; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-09-01

    Smokeless tobacco (SLT) is associated with many heath hazards including oral cancer. Its use is more common in South Asian countries. The current paper aims to systematically review the South Asian studies to assess the association of SLT and oral cancer. Detailed automated literature searches of PubMed, Medline, EMBASE and ISI Web of Science from January 1980 to July 2015 were conducted using the key words "oral cancer", "oral precancer", "oral premalignant lesions", "oral squamous cell carcinoma", "smokeless tobacco", "betel quid", "areca nut", "Gutkha" in various combinations. Letters to the editor, review articles, and case-reports were excluded. Atotal of 21 studies were included. Three studies were of cohort design while the remaining were of case-control design. Nine studies reported betel quid as a risk factor for oral cancer, while fifteen studies reported data on other types of chewing tobacco. The odds ratio (OR) for betel quid and risk of oral cancer varied from 3.1 to 15.7 (11.0-22.1); and for chewable tobacco and risk of oral cancer varied from 1.2 (1.0-1.4) to 12.9 (7.5-22.3). Astrong association between different types of SLTand oral cancer was observed. Well-structured programmes should be employed in South Asian region, both in terms of educating the general public about the health hazards of SLTas well as providing cessation assistance.

  11. Focal adhesion signaling in breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Yafeng

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms of survival and migratory pathways in cancer cells is essential to better comprehending cancer progression, metastasis formation and drug resistance, thereby benefiting the development of novel anticancer treatments. The overall goal of the work is to better

  12. Aberrant activation of notch signaling in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Spyros; Clarke, Rob B; Brennan, Keith

    2006-02-01

    A role for Notch signaling in human breast cancer has been suggested by both the development of adenocarcinomas in the murine mammary gland following pathway activation and the loss of Numb expression, a negative regulator of the Notch pathway, in a large proportion of breast carcinomas. However, it is not clear currently whether Notch signaling is frequently activated in breast tumors, and how it causes cellular transformation. Here, we show accumulation of the intracellular domain of Notch1 and hence increased Notch signaling in a wide variety of human breast carcinomas. In addition, we show that increased RBP-Jkappa-dependent Notch signaling is sufficient to transform normal breast epithelial cells and that the mechanism of transformation is most likely through the suppression of apoptosis. More significantly, we show that attenuation of Notch signaling reverts the transformed phenotype of human breast cancer cell lines, suggesting that inhibition of Notch signaling may be a therapeutic strategy for this disease.

  13. Can calcium signaling be harnessed for cancer immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooke, Ronald

    2014-10-01

    Experimental evidence shows the importance of the immune system in controlling tumor appearance and growth. Immunotherapy is defined as the treatment of a disease by inducing, enhancing or suppressing an immune response. In the context of cancer treatment, it involves breaking tolerance to a cancer-specific self-antigen and/or enhancing the existing anti-tumor immune response, be it specific or not. Part of the complexity in developing such treatment is that cancers are selected to escape adaptive or innate immune responses. These escape mechanisms are numerous and they may cumulate in one cancer. Moreover, different cancers of a same type may present different combinations of escape mechanisms. The limited success of immunotherapeutics in the clinic as stand-alone products may in part be explained by the fact that most of them only activate one facet of the immune response. It is important to identify novel methods to broaden the efficacy of immunotherapeutics. Calcium signaling is central to numerous cellular processes, leading to immune responses, cancer growth and apoptosis induced by cancer treatments. Calcium signaling in cancer therapy and control will be integrated to current cancer immunotherapy approaches. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium Signaling in Health and Disease. Guest Editors: Geert Bultynck, Jacques Haiech, Claus W. Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, and Marc Moreau. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk of cancer with combined oral contraceptive use among Iranian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisy, Afasaneh; Lotfinejad, Shirin; Zhian, Faegh

    2014-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use is the most common type of contraception. More than 300 million women worldwide take oral contraceptives every day. However, there is a concern about the relationship with the incidence of cancer. This analytical retrospective study aimed to investigate the relationship between the incidence of cervical and breast cancers and oral contraceptive use in 128 Iranian patients with cervical cancer, 235 with breast cancer and equal numbers of controls. Data were collected through interviews with an organized set of questions. Details were also extracted from patient files. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, and Pearson's correlation analysis. The result revealed correlations between both cervical and breast cancers and history of contraceptive pills use. While cervical cancer significantly correlated with duration of use of pills, breast cancer had significant correlations with the type of oral contraceptive and age at first use. No significant relationships were found between the two types of cancer and age at discontinuation of oral contraceptives, patterns of use, and intervals from the last use. The use of oral contraceptives may triple the incidence of cervical cancer and doubles the incidence of breast cancer. Therefore, performing Pap smears every six months and breast cancer screening are warranted for long-term oral contraceptive users.

  15. Dentists' perception of the role they play in early detection of oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amyza; Kong, Yink Heay; Vengu, Nedunchelian; Badrudeen, Haja; Zain, Rosnah Binti; Cheong, Sok Ching

    2014-01-01

    Dentists are typically the first professionals who are approached to treat ailments within the oral cavity. Therefore they should be well-equipped in detecting suspicious lesions during routine clinical practice. This study determined the levels of knowledge on early signs and risk factors associated with oral cancer and identified which factors influenced dentist participation in prevention and early detection of oral cancer. A survey on dentists' knowledge and their practices in prevention and early detection of oral cancer was conducted using a 26-item self-administered questionnaire. A response rate of 41.7% was achieved. The level of knowledge on early signs and risk habits associated with oral cancer was high and the majority reported to have conducted opportunistic screening and advised patients on risk habit cessation. Factors that influenced the dentist in practising prevention and early detection of oral cancer were continuous education on oral cancer, age, nature of practice and recent graduation. Notably, dentists were receptive to further training in the area of oral cancer detection and cessation of risk habits. Taken together, the study demonstrated that the dental clinic is a good avenue to conduct programs on opportunistic screening, and continuous education in these areas is necessary to adequately equip dentists in running these programs. Further, this study also highlighted knowledge deficits and practice shortcomings which will help in planning and developing programs that further encourage better participation of dentists in prevention and early detection of oral cancer.

  16. Oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer incidence trends and disparities in the United States: 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherspoon, Darien J; Chattopadhyay, Amit; Boroumand, Shahdokht; Garcia, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    Changes in the incidence of oral cancer based on anatomic location and demographic factors over time have been reported in the United States. The purpose of this study was to use recent data to examine oral cancer incidence trends and disparities by demographic factors and anatomic location. Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) incidence data from 2000 to 2010 were used to characterize and analyze oral cancer incidence trends by anatomic region and subsite, age at diagnosis, gender, race/ethnicity, and stage at diagnosis. Poisson regression was used to compare incidence risk by select demographic factors. About 75,468 incident oral cancer cases were diagnosed from 2000 to 2010. The tonsil was the most frequently diagnosed anatomic subsite (23.1%) and the subsite with the greatest contribution to the overall, age-standardized cumulative incidence rate of 8.4 cases per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI): 8.3, 8.4). An increasing incidence trend was observed for cancers in the oropharyngeal region, in contrast to a decreasing trend seen in the oral cavity region. In the Poisson regression model, all race/ethnicity groups showed a lower incidence risk relative to whites for oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer, and white males displayed the highest incidence rate of all race/ethnicity-gender groups during the study period (14.1 per 100,000; 95% CI: 14.0, 14.2). This study's epidemiological findings are especially important for oral health care providers, patient education, and the identification of risk profiles associated with oral cancer. The distinct epidemiological trends of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers dictate that oral cancer can no longer be viewed as a discrete entity. Oral health providers should have a strong understanding of the different risk factors associated with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers and educate their patients accordingly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer signaling networks and their implications for personalized medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Creixell, Pau

    as well as cancer resistance to treatment, represent not only a huge challenge, but also one with potentially extreme benefit for our understanding of the disease and for patients. This thesis summarizes my efforts during the last years in contributing positively to overcome this challenge. This thesis...... is divided into six parts. Starting with a brief introduction to the history and some basic concepts of cancer, signaling networks and human protein kinases (part I), we quickly move on to describing existing methods to analyze cancer signaling networks, including methods proposed by us, as well as three...

  18. Lifetime cancer risk and combined oral contraceptives: the Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Lisa; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Lee, Amanda J; Fielding, Shona; Hannaford, Philip C

    2017-06-01

    Oral contraceptives have been used by hundreds of millions of women around the world. Important questions remain regarding the very long-term cancer risks that are associated with oral contraception. Despite previous research, important questions remain about the safety of these contraceptives: (1) How long do endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancer benefits persist? (2) Does combined oral contraceptive use during the reproductive years produce new cancer risks later in life? (3) What is the overall balance of cancer among past users as they enter the later stages of their lives? The purpose of this study was to examine the very long-term cancer risks or benefits associated with the use of combined oral contraceptives, including the estimated overall life-time balance. The 46,022 women who were recruited to the UK Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study in 1968 and 1969 were observed for up to 44 years. Directly standardized rates of specific and any cancer were calculated for "ever" and "never" users of combined oral contraceptives; data were standardized for age, parity, social class, and smoking. Attributable risk and preventive fraction percentages were calculated. Poisson regression that adjusted for the same variables was used to estimate incidence rate ratios between ever and never users and to examine effects by time since last oral contraceptive use. There were 4661 ever users with at least 1 cancer during 884,895 woman-years of observation and 2341 never users with at least 1 cancer during 388,505 woman-years of observation. Ever use of oral contraceptives was associated with reduced colorectal (incidence rate ratio, 0.81; 99% confidence interval, 0.66-0.99), endometrial (incidence rate ratio, 0.66; 99% confidence interval, 0.48-0.89), ovarian (incidence rate ratio, 0.67; 99% confidence interval, 0.50-0.89), and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer (incidence rate ratio, 0.74; 99% confidence interval, 0.58-0.94). An increased

  19. Prevention of Carcinogen-Induced Oral Cancer by Sulforaphane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Julie E; Zang, Yan; Sen, Malabika; Li, Changyou; Wang, Lin; Egner, Patricia A; Fahey, Jed W; Normolle, Daniel P; Grandis, Jennifer R; Kensler, Thomas W; Johnson, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    Chronic exposure to carcinogens represents the major risk factor for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Beverages derived from broccoli sprout extracts (BSE) that are rich in glucoraphanin and its bioactive metabolite sulforaphane promote detoxication of airborne pollutants in humans. Herein, we investigated the potential chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane using in vitro models of normal and malignant mucosal epithelial cells and an in vivo model of murine oral cancer resulting from the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO). Sulforaphane treatment of Het-1A, a normal mucosal epithelial cell line, and 4 HNSCC cell lines led to dose- and time-dependent induction of NRF2 and the NRF2 target genes NQO1 and GCLC, known mediators of carcinogen detoxication. Sulforaphane also promoted NRF2-independent dephosphorylation/inactivation of pSTAT3, a key oncogenic factor in HNSCC. Compared with vehicle, sulforaphane significantly reduced the incidence and size of 4NQO-induced tongue tumors in mice. A pilot clinical trial in 10 healthy volunteers evaluated the bioavailability and pharmacodynamic activity of three different BSE regimens, based upon urinary sulforaphane metabolites and NQO1 transcripts in buccal scrapings, respectively. Ingestion of sulforaphane-rich BSE demonstrated the greatest, most consistent bioavailability. Mucosal bioactivity, defined as 2-fold or greater upregulation of NQO1 mRNA, was observed in 6 of 9 evaluable participants ingesting glucoraphanin-rich BSE; 3 of 6 ingesting sulforaphane-rich BSE; and 3 of 9 after topical-only exposure to sulforaphane-rich BSE. Together, our findings demonstrate preclinical chemopreventive activity of sulforaphane against carcinogen-induced oral cancer, and support further mechanistic and clinical investigation of sulforaphane as a chemopreventive agent against tobacco-related HNSCC. Cancer Prev Res; 9(7); 547-57. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  20. Notch signaling as a therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jianxun; Hendzel, Michael J; Allalunis-Turner, Joan

    2011-05-31

    Aberrant Notch signaling can induce mammary gland carcinoma in transgenic mice, and high expressions of Notch receptors and ligands have been linked to poor clinical outcomes in human patients with breast cancer. This suggests that inhibition of Notch signaling may be beneficial for breast cancer treatment. In this review, we critically evaluate the evidence that supports or challenges the hypothesis that inhibition of Notch signaling would be advantageous in breast cancer management. We find that there are many remaining uncertainties that must be addressed experimentally if we are to exploit inhibition of Notch signaling as a treatment approach in breast cancer. Nonetheless, Notch inhibition, in combination with other therapies, is a promising avenue for future management of breast cancer. Furthermore, since aberrant Notch4 activity can induce mammary gland carcinoma in the absence of RBPjκ, a better understanding of the components of RBPjκ-independent oncogenic Notch signaling pathways and their contribution to Notch-induced tumorigenesis would facilitate the deployment of Notch inhibition strategies for effective treatment of breast cancer.

  1. Available web-based teaching resources for health care professionals on screening for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Insua, Angel; Seoane-Romero, Juan M; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Rapidis, Alexander; Diz, Pedro; Seoane, Juan

    2015-03-01

    To identify websites with adequate information on oral cancer screening for healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to assess both their quality and contents. Websites were identified using Google and HON medical professional search engines using the terms "screening for oral cancer". The first 100 sites retrieved by each engine were analysed using the DISCERN questionnaire (reliability), the V instrument (contents on oral cancer) and further by the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Grade Level and the Flesch Reading Ease (readability). The overall rating showed minimal shortcomings in the quality of the information in the websites. The coverage and correctness of information on "visual examination" was rated as fair/good, whereas updating of contents resulted very variable (eg: 81% for visual examination and 18.2% for molecular biomarkers). These results permitted to rank the websites housing relevant information for oral cancer. Top ranking websites were affiliated to the Oral Cancer Foundation (USA), WHO Collaborating Centre for oral cancer (UK) whose webpage is entitled "Oral Cancer Education and Research", and the Clinical Guidelines maintained by the British Columbia Cancer Agency (Canada) and the British Dental Association (UK) respectively. There are web-based, HCP-addressed, resources on screening for oral cancer housing heterogeneous information both in quality and contents. The use of specific evaluation tools permits the selection of reliable websites on this topic with a potential to improve the existing educational gaps among HCPs.

  2. Peri-Implant Tissue Findings in Bone Grafted Oral Cancer Patients Compared to non Bone Grafted Patients without Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wolff

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare microbiological, histological, and mechanical findings from tissues around osseointergrated dental implants in patients who had undergone tumour resection and subsequent bone grafting with non bone grafted patients without a history of oral cancer and to develop an effective tool for the monitoring of the peri-implant tissues. A third aim was to assess and compare the masticatory function of the two patient groups after reconstruction with dental implants.Material and Methods: A total of 20 patients were divided into 2 groups. The first group was edentulous and treated with dental implants without the need for bone grafting. The second edentulous group, with a history of oral cancer involving the mandible, received onlay bone grafts with concurrent placement of dental implants. Microbiological, histological, mechanical and biochemical assessment methods, crevicular fluid flow rate, hygiene-index, implant mobility, and the masticatory function were analysed and compared in both patient groups.Results: The microbiological examinations showed no evidence of the three most common pathogenic bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedius, Actinobacillus actinomycetencomitans. A causal relationship between specific microbes and peri-implant inflammation could not be found. All biopsies in both patient groups revealed early signs of soft tissue peri-implant inflammation.Conclusions: The crevicular fluid volume and grade of gingival inflammation around the dental implants were related. Peri-implant tissue findings were similar in the two patient groups despite the history of oral cancer and the need for bone grafting at the time of dental implant placement.

  3. Are we able to reduce the mortality and morbidity of oral cancer; some considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Isaäc

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer makes up 1%-2% of all cancers that may arise in the body. The majority of oral cancers consists of squamous cell carcinomas. Oral cancer carries a considerable mortality rate, being mainly dependent on the stage of the disease at admission. Worldwide some 50% of the patients with oral cancer present with advanced disease. There are several ways of trying to diagnose oral cancer in a lower tumor stage, being 1) mass screening or screening in selected patients, 2) reduction of patients' delay, and 3) reduction of doctors' delay. Oral cancer population-based screening ("mass screening") programs do not meet the guidelines for a successful outcome. There may be some benefit when focusing on high-risk groups, such as heavy smokers and heavy drinkers. Reported reasons for patients' delay range from fear of a diagnosis of cancer, limited accessibility of primary health care, to unawareness of the possibility of malignant oral diseases. Apparently, information campaigns in news programs and TV have little effect on patients' delay. Mouth self-examination may have some value in reducing patients'delay. Doctors' delay includes dentists' delay and diagnostic delay caused by other medical and dental health care professionals. Doctors' delay may vary from almost zero days up to more than six months. Usually, morbidity of cancer treatment is measured by quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. In the past decades this topic has drawn a lot of attention worldwide. It is a challenge to decrease the morbidity that is associated with the various treatment modalities that are used in oral cancer without substantially compromising the survival rate. Smoking cessation contributes to reducing the risk of oral cancers, with a 50% reduction in risk within five years. Indeed, risk factor reduction seems to be the most effective tool in an attempt to decrease the morbidity and mortality of oral cancer.

  4. Study of the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders in Argentine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarate, Ana Maria; Don, Julieta; Secchi, Dante; Carrica, Andres; Galindez Costa, Fernanda; Panico, Rene; Brusa, Martin; Barra, José Luis; Brunotto, Mabel

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the prevalence of TP53Arg72Pro mutations and their possible relationship with oral carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders in Argentine patients. A cross-sectional study was performed on 111 exfoliated cytologies from patients with oral cancer (OC), oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and controls. The TP53Arg72Pro mutations were determined using conventional PCR. We evaluated univariate and multivariate study variables, setting p oral leukoplakia (OL) diagnosis; (b) multivariate association among the TP53CC genotype and females over 45 years with no tobacco nor alcohol habits with oral lichen planus pathology; (c) multivariate association between the TP53GC genotype and males with alcohol and tobacco habits and OC and OL pathologies. Our results showed that the wild-type Arg72variant was related to control patients and Pro72variant was related to OC and OPMD, in Argentine patients.

  5. Implant survival in mandibles of irradiated oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerit, Kaan C; Posch, Martin; Seemann, Maximilian; Hainich, Sibylle; Dörtbudak, Orhun; Turhani, Dritan; Ozyuvaci, Hakan; Watzinger, Franz; Ewers, Rolf

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze long-term implant survival in the mandible after radiotherapy and radical surgery in oral cancer patients. Between 1990 and 2003, 71 patients (15 females, 56 males; average age 57.8 years, range 16-84.1 years) were treated with dental implants after radiochemotherapy and ablative surgery of oral cancer. Radiation therapy was delivered in daily fractions of 2 Gy given on 25 days (total dose of 50 Gy). Oral defects were reconstructed microsurgically with jejunal, iliac crest or radial forearm grafts. Thereafter 316 dental implants were placed in the non-irradiated residual bone (84; 27%), irradiated residual bone (154; 49%) or grafted bone (78; 25%) at various intervals (mean interval 1.41 (+/- 1.01) years, range 0.34-6.35 years). The mean follow-up time after implant insertion was 5.42 (+/- 3.21) years (range 0.3-13.61 years). The overall 2-, 3-, 5-, and 8-year survival rates of all implants were 95%, 94%, 91% and 75%. Forty-four implants were lost in 21 patients during the observation period. Irradiation of the mandibular bone showed significantly (P = 0.0028) lower implant survival compared with non-irradiated mandibular bone. The 8-year survival rate in the non-irradiated residual bone (two loss), irradiated residual bone (29 loss) or grafted bone (13 loss) were 95%, 72% and 54%, respectively. Time of implantation after irradiation showed no statistically significant influence. Implant brand, length or diameter or the incidence of resective surgery on the mandible and gender of patients had no statistically significant influence on implant survival. Radiation therapy with 50 Gy was significantly related to shorter implant survival in mandibular bone. Survival was lowest in grafted bone. Time of implant placement had no statistically significant influence on survival under the conditions of this study. Although implant survival is lower in irradiated mandibles, implants significantly facilitate prosthodontic treatment and

  6. Rehabilitation with dental implants of oral cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werkmeister, R; Szulczewski, D; Walteros-Benz, P; Joos, U

    1999-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the risks and complications of rehabilitation with dental implants after tumour surgery and radiotherapy. After a disease-free survival of 18 months, 29 patients who had undergone oral cancer treatment were rehabilitated with dental implants. The complication rate of implants in irradiated, non-irradiated and grafted bone was analyzed at least 3 years after implant placement. In the healing period, 28.6% of the implants in irradiated bone and 8.4% in non-irradiated bone showed soft tissue complications. Of the implants, 26.7% in the irradiated and 14.7% in the non-irradiated mandibular bone were lost in the first 36 months after placement. Thirty-one point two percent of implants inserted in non-irradiated bone grafts were affected and did not osseointegrate. Of 109 inserted implants, 70 were suitable for prosthetic rehabilitation. There are high complication rates after implant placement in oral cancer patients. Irradiation adversely affects soft tissue healing. Osseointegration is frequently disturbed, especially when implants were placed in non-vascularized bone grafts.

  7. The application of data mining techniques to oral cancer prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ting; Chiang, Wei-Fan; Liu, Shyun-Yeu; Roan, Jinsheng; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2015-05-01

    This study adopted an integrated procedure that combines the clustering and classification features of data mining technology to determine the differences between the symptoms shown in past cases where patients died from or survived oral cancer. Two data mining tools, namely decision tree and artificial neural network, were used to analyze the historical cases of oral cancer, and their performance was compared with that of logistic regression, the popular statistical analysis tool. Both decision tree and artificial neural network models showed superiority to the traditional statistical model. However, as to clinician, the trees created by the decision tree models are relatively easier to interpret compared to that of the artificial neural network models. Cluster analysis also discovers that those stage 4 patients whose also possess the following four characteristics are having an extremely low survival rate: pN is N2b, level of RLNM is level I-III, AJCC-T is T4, and cells mutate situation (G) is moderate.

  8. The role of dental care providers and oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the surgical and medical management of oral cancer in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Beomjune B; Kim, Dongsoo D

    2013-01-01

    Oral cancer results in significant morbidity and mortality in those afflicted. Despite modern treatments, mortality is high, with overall 5-year survival rates that approximate 50%. However, early stage disease (Stages 1 and 2) carries a significantly better prognosis than late stage disease (Stages 3 and 4), therefore, prevention and early detection continue to be important in improving oral cancer control. The role of dental care providers in routine oral cancer screenings, smoking cessation, treatment, and rehabilitation of oral cancer patients is emphasized in this article. This article also discusses the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer and the role of oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the surgical and medical management of oral cancer patients in the United States.

  9. Knowledge of Future Dental Practitioners towards Oral Cancer: Exploratory Findings from a Public University in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess knowledge and awareness of oral cancer in the early identification of risk factors among undergraduate dental students. Methods. A total of 162 undergraduate (third, fourth, and fifth year dental students at International Islamic University, Malaysia, were approached to participate in the study, and those who agreed were administered. A 9-item pretested questionnaire contains questions on oral examination, oral cancer risk factors, and requests for further information. Descriptive statistics were conducted using chi-square testing. Results. The response rate of the study was 70.3% (114/162, with 26 (22.8% males and 88 (77.2% females. All undergraduate dental students were familiar with examining the oral mucosa of their patients and most were likely to advise patients about the risk factors for developing oral cancer (98.2%. Nearly one-third (32.4% of students reported examining patients with oral lesions as early signs for oral cancer (P<0.001 and nearly 70% agreed that they did not have sufficient knowledge regarding the prevention and detection of oral cancer (P<0.001. In addition, more than 95.6% agreed that there is a need for additional information/teaching regarding oral cancer. Further, 61.3% and 14.1% identified tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol as major risk factors for developing oral cancer. Conclusion. This study demonstrated lack of awareness about risk factors among undergraduate dental students regarding oral cancer. Reinforcing awareness and enhancing the benefits of early detection on prevention of oral cancer should be done through training and/or educational intervention.

  10. Knowledge and attitudes about oral cancer among dentists in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jornet, Pia; Camacho-Alonso, Fabio; Molina-Miñano, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Detecting oral cancer (OC) at an early stage is the most effective means of improving survival and reducing morbility from disease. The objective was to study the knowledge, opinions and attitudes held by general dentists in Spain regarding aspects of OC in general clinic practice. A 44-item questionnaire relating to OC was randomly distributed by email to 1000 dentists in the different autonomous communities in Spain. The response rate was 42.7%. Only 49.7% of the dentists who replied considered themselves to have up-to-date knowledge on OC. A total of 94.7% of those interviewed hold the opinion that it is the dentists who are qualified to carry out the oral examination. In addition, 41.8% felt that family doctors and 13.8% that dental hygienists were also capable of making this examination. We should highlight that dentists who rated their undergraduate OC training favourably were more likely to agree that their OC knowledge was current than those who rated their undergraduate training unfavourably [odds ratio (OR) = 4.1, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-4.2, P = 0.019). Respondents who performed oral cancer examinations on all patients 40 years of age or older were 1.8 times more likely to agree that their OC knowledge was current; however, the differences were not significant (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 0.6-2.7, P = 0.392). Gaps in knowledge exist, strongly suggesting the need for continued courses of education detection and prevention of OC.

  11. Awareness and knowledge of oral cancer among university students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Alabsi, Aied M; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Ali, Riyadh Saif

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge of oral cancer and its associated factors among university students in Malaysia. A cross sectional study was conducted among 200 university students in Malaysia. A self administered questionnaire was used to collect data. It included questions on socio- demographic data, awareness and knowledge of oral cancer. Mean age of the respondents was 21.5 ± 2.5 and the age ranged from 18 to 27 years. The majority of the respondents were aware of oral cancer (92.0%) and recognized the followings as signs and symptoms of oral cancer: ulcer and oral bleeding (71.0%), followed by swelling (61.5%). A satisfactory knowledge was observed on the following risk factors; smoking (95.5%), poor oral hygiene (90.5%), family history (90.0%), alcohol (84.5%) and poor fitting dentures (83.0%). However, unsatisfactory knowledge was observed about hot/spicy food (46.5%), obesity (36.0%), old age (31.5%), dietary factor (29.0%) and smokeless tobacco (25.5%). Knowledge of oral cancer was associated significantly with age (p<0.01), year of study (p<0.01) and course of study (p<0.01). Instead of satisfactory awareness and knowledge of oral cancer and its clinical presentations, inadequate knowledge was observed about its risk factors. There is a need to introduce oral cancer education among university students.

  12. Morphological and molecular features of oral fluid-derived exosomes: oral cancer patients versus healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Dayan, Dan; Chaushu, Gavriel; Salo, Tuula; Vered, Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Oral cancer (OC) patients are at high risk to develop recurrent disease or secondary primary cancers with no available biomarkers to detect these events until a visible lesion is readily present and diagnosed by biopsy. Exosomes secreted by cancer cells are involved in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. We aimed to determine morphological and molecular differences between oral fluid (OF)-derived exosomes of OC patients and those isolated from healthy individuals (HI). OF from OC patients (n = 36) and HI (n = 25) was initially assessed by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). Following ultracentrifugation, exosomal pellets of OC patients and HI were morphologically examined by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blotting (WB) were used to analyze the expression of exosomal markers--CD9, CD81 and CD63. NTA showed that OC samples of OF had a significantly higher concentration of nanoparticles/ml (p = 0.01) and modal nanoparticle size (p = 0.002) compared to HI. The difference in size was structurally highlighted by AFM three-dimensional images applied on exosomal pellets. ELISA and WB showed differential expression of exosomal markers in OC exosomes compared to HI: lower expression of CD81 and CD9 in contrast to a higher expression of CD63 (~53 kDa). OF-derived exosomes from OC patients differ both morphologically and molecularly from exosomes present in HI. This study is a baseline that provides a starting point for finding exosomal biomarkers for early detection of malignant changes in high-risk patients without overt clinical signs/lesions.

  13. Quality of life related to oral function in edentulous head and neck cancer patients posttreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoen, Pieter J.; Reintsema, Harry; Bouma, Jelte; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical treatment of malignancies in the oral cavity and subsequent radiotherapy often result in an oral condition unfavorable for prosthodontic rehabilitation. This study assessed the quality of life related to oral function in edentulous head and neck cancer patients following oncology

  14. Systematic review of natural agents for the management of oral mucositis in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yarom, Noam; Ariyawardana, Anura; Hovan, Allan

    2013-01-01

    , suggestion, and no guideline possible. RESULTS: A total of 49 papers across 15 interventions were examined. A new suggestion was developed in favor of systemic zinc supplements administered orally in the prevention of oral mucositis in oral cancer patients receiving radiation therapy or chemoradiation (Level...

  15. Oral mucositis prevention and management by therapeutic laser in head and neck cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekrazad, Reza; Chiniforush, Nasim

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucositis is considered a severe complication in cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy for head and neck cancer. The aim of this review study was to assess the effect of low level laser therapy for prevention and management of oral mucositis in cancer patients. The electronic databases searched included Pubmed, ISI Web of Knowledge and Google scholar with keywords as "oral mucositis", "low level laser therapy" from 2000 to 2013. The results of most studies showed that photobiomodulation (PBM) reduced the severity of mucositis. Also, it can delay the appearance of severe mucositis. Low level laser therapy is a safe approach for management and prevention of oral mucositis.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of color doppler ultrasonography in evaluation of cervical lymph nodes in oral cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaksharam Jayachandran

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: CDUS plays a definitive role as an adjunct to clinical evaluation of differentiating metastatic from reactive cervical lymph involvement in patients with oral cancer as it aid in grading and staging of oral cancer and can determine the treatment plan prognosis and morbidity by diminishing the possibility nodal dissection.

  17. Latino Youths' Knowledge of Oral Cancer and Use of Tobacco and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canto, Maria Teresa; Goodman, Harold S.; Horowitz, Alice M.; Watson, Maria Rosa; Duran-Medina, Carmen

    1998-01-01

    Latino youths completed surveys about their knowledge of risk factors for oral cancer and tobacco and alcohol use. Additionally, trained youths attempted to purchase cigarettes from local stores. Respondents were ill-informed about oral cancer. Over half knew risk factors for smoking and alcohol use. Over half of the stores would have sold…

  18. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mutational Profile in Taiwanese Population | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major oral cancer subtype that is the fourth most common cancer affecting Taiwanese men. Despite known risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing often indulged by Taiwanese men, the genetic contribution to the incidence or progression of OSCC has yet been elucidated in the Taiwanese population.

  19. Oral cancer incidence and survival rates in the Republic of Ireland, 1994-2009.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, Hala

    2016-12-20

    Oral cancer is a significant public health problem world-wide and exerts high economic, social, psychological, and physical burdens on patients, their families, and on their primary care providers. We set out to describe the changing trends in incidence and survival rates of oral cancer in Ireland between 1994 and 2009.

  20. Anti-cancer activity of Aster tataricus on SCC-9 human oral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oral squamous carcinoma is a head and neck cancer, which is one of the types of malignant cancers. Present study evaluates the anticancer activity of Aster tataricus (AT) on SCC-9 human oral squamous carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract of AT was prepared by a standard procedure of ...

  1. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in cancer patients treated with oral anticancer drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W.F. van Leeuwen (Roelof); D.H.S. Brundel (D. H S); C. Neef (Cees); T. van Gelder (Teun); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron); D.M. Burger (David); F.G.A. Jansman (Frank)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) in patients with cancer are common, but have not previously been quantified for oral anticancer treatment. We assessed the prevalence and seriousness of potential PDDIs among ambulatory cancer patients on oral anticancer treatment.

  2. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in cancer patients treated with oral anticancer drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, R. W. F.; Brundel, D. H. S.; Neef, C.; van Gelder, T.; Mathijssen, R. H. J.; Burger, D. M.; Jansman, F. G. A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) in patients with cancer are common, but have not previously been quantified for oral anticancer treatment. We assessed the prevalence and seriousness of potential PDDIs among ambulatory cancer patients on oral anticancer treatment. Methods: A

  3. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions in cancer patients treated with oral anticancer drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, R. van; Brundel, D.H.; Neef, C.; Gelder, T. van; Mathijssen, R.H.; Burger, D.M.; Jansman, F.G.A.

    2013-01-01

    Background:Potential drug-drug interactions (PDDIs) in patients with cancer are common, but have not previously been quantified for oral anticancer treatment. We assessed the prevalence and seriousness of potential PDDIs among ambulatory cancer patients on oral anticancer treatment.Methods:A search

  4. IC 50 of Ganoderma lucidum extract on oral cancer cells, ORL-48T ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Malaysia ranked 14 in the world for oral cancer incidence. Despite recent advancement in treatment modalities, the prognosis and survival rates for oral cancer patients have not improved significantly over the past decades. Ganodermalucidum has long been used in Chinese traditional and conventional medicine for ...

  5. Delays in Referral of Oral Cancer Patients, A10 yr Retrospective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study attempts to find out who delays in the management of oral cancer patients viz: the General Medical Practitioner (GMP), the Consultants or on the other hand, the patients. All oral cancer patients referred to our Hospital between 1987 and 1996 were reviewed. The most important findings are that 68 patients were ...

  6. Trends in oral cavity cancer incidence, mortality, survival and treatment in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Boukje A. C.; Brands, Marieke T.; Geurts, Sandra M. E.; Merkx, Matthias A. W.; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Information on epidemiology is essential to evaluate care for the growing group of oral cancer patients. We investigated trends in incidence, mortality and relative survival rates for oral cavity cancer (OCC) and its subsites in the Netherlands from 1991 to 2010, and relate these to changes in stage

  7. Hedgehog signaling regulates telomerase reverse transcriptase in human cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapati Mazumdar

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog (HH signaling pathway is critical for normal embryonic development, tissue patterning and cell differentiation. Aberrant HH signaling is involved in multiple human cancers. HH signaling involves a multi-protein cascade activating the GLI proteins that transcriptionally regulate HH target genes. We have previously reported that HH signaling is essential for human colon cancer cell survival and inhibition of this signal induces DNA damage and extensive cell death. Here we report that the HH/GLI axis regulates human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT, which determines the replication potential of cancer cells. Suppression of GLI1/GLI2 functions by a C-terminus truncated GLI3 repressor mutant (GLI3R, or by GANT61, a pharmacological inhibitor of GLI1/GLI2, reduced hTERT protein expression in human colon cancer, prostate cancer and Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM cell lines. Expression of an N-terminus deleted constitutively active mutant of GLI2 (GLI2ΔN increased hTERT mRNA and protein expression and hTERT promoter driven luciferase activity in human colon cancer cells while GANT61 inhibited hTERT mRNA expression and hTERT promoter driven luciferase activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation with GLI1 or GLI2 antibodies precipitated fragments of the hTERT promoter in human colon cancer cells, which was reduced upon exposure to GANT61. In contrast, expression of GLI1 or GLI2ΔN in non-malignant 293T cells failed to alter the levels of hTERT mRNA and protein, or hTERT promoter driven luciferase activity. Further, expression of GLI2ΔN increased the telomerase enzyme activity, which was reduced by GANT61 administration in human colon cancer, prostate cancer, and GBM cells. These results identify hTERT as a direct target of the HH signaling pathway, and reveal a previously unknown role of the HH/GLI axis in regulating the replication potential of cancer cells. These findings are of significance in understanding the important regulatory

  8. Visual screening of oral cavity cancer in a male population: Experience from a medical center

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, I-How; Jiang, Rong-San; Wong, Yong-Kie; Wu, Shang-Heng; Chen, Fun-Jou; Liu, Shih-An

    2011-01-01

    Background: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an oral cavity cancer visual screening program conducted in a tertiary academic medical center. We also wanted to determine which group of participants was at greater risk of contracting oral cavity cancer. Methods: Participants were first asked to relate their personal habits during the past 6 months. Visual screening of the oral cavity was then performed under adequate lighting and with proper instruments. Results: From March 2005 ...

  9. PS2-37: Oral Cancer Information on the Web: Assessing the Quality and Content of English and Spanish Oral Cancer Websites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jeannie Y; Thyvalikakath, Thankam; Schleyer, Titus; Wali, Teena; Kerr, Ross

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims: In the United States, about 8,000 people a year die from oral cancer and more than 30,000 new cases are diagnosed annually. A recent study showed that 80% of American adult Internet users have searched the Web for health information and 15% of those specifically searched for dental health information. Having high quality oral cancer information available via the Web is important given the significance of this health problem. The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality and content of multiple English and Spanish oral cancer websites. Methods: We developed a search strategy using the keywords: oral cancer, mouth cancer, and tongue cancer to find oral cancer sites via Medline Plus, Google, and Yahoo. We then used the translations cancer oral, cancer de la boca, and cancer de la lengua to search Medline Plus en Español, Google Español, and Yahoo Telemundo. We added sites to the datasets based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two native speaking raters evaluated each site within their set for quality using the modified Information Quality Tool (IQT). We then developed a survey tool to asses the content of the sites. Two native speaking oral cancer experts evaluated each site within their set using this new tool. Results: Our search strategy produced 24 English language sites and 24 Spanish language sites for evaluation. English language websites had an average IQT score of 74.7 (out of 100) and average content score of 51.5 (out of 100). Spanish-language sites had an average IQT score of 48.8 and an average content score of 25.9. Conclusions: Despite higher scores for the English language websites, our analysis showed that there was a great variation in overall quality and content with room for improvement for both language types. English sites could make the biggest improvements by providing more information about their sponsors and who controls site content as well as updated and fixing links and author credentials. The Spanish sites should

  10. Tea consumption and the risk of oral cancer incidence: a case-control study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jin-Ye; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Jia-Wei; Luo, Jian-Feng; Zhong, Lai-Ping; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the relation of tea consumption with the risk of oral cancer incidence. A multicenter case-control study based on hospitalized population was conducted for evaluating the association of tea consumption with oral cancer risk in China. Black tea and green tea were separately analyzed. 723 cases and 857 controls were included. Unconditional multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of oral cancer for tea consumption. The ORs for green tea consumption⩾8g/day compared withconsumption⩾6g/day compared withconsumption was associated with decreased oral cancer risk. The results of this study indicated that green tea consumption may decrease the risk of oral cancer in men especially for those smoking heavily. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A novel intravital multi-harmonic generation microscope for early diagnosis of oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chih-Feng; Shih, Ting-Fang; Sun, Chi-Kuang

    2013-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed human cancers and leading causes of cancer death all over the world, but the prognosis and overall survival rate are still poor because of delay in diagnosis and lack of early intervention. The failure of early diagnosis is due to insufficiency of proper diagnostic and screening tools and most patients are reluctant to undergo biopsy. Optical virtual biopsy techniques, for imaging cells and tissues at microscopic details capable of differentiating benign from malignant lesions non-invasively, are thus highly desirable. A novel multi-harmonic generation microscope, excited by a 1260 nm Cr:forsterite laser, with second and third harmonic signals demonstrating collagen fiber distribution and cell morphology in a sub-micron resolution, was developed for clinical use. To achieve invivo observation inside the human oral cavity, a small objective probe with a suction capability was carefully designed for patients' comfort and stability. By remotely changing its focus point, the same objective can image the mucosa surface with a low magnification, illuminated by side light-emitting diodes, with a charge-coupled device (CCD) for site location selection before the harmonic generation biopsy was applied. Furthermore, the slow galvanometer mirror and the fast resonant mirror provide a 30 fps frame rate for high-speed real-time observation and the z-motor of this system is triggered at the same rate to provide fast 3D scanning, again ensuring patients' comfort. Focusing on the special cytological and morphological changes of the oral epithelial cells, our preliminary result disclosed excellent consistency with traditional histopathology studies.

  12. Freeze-Dried Black Raspberries in Preventing Oral Cancer Recurrence in High-Risk Appalachian Patients Previously Treated With Surgery For Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-04

    Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  13. Assessment of the Survival of Dental Implants in Irradiated Jaws Following Treatment of Oral Cancer: A Retrospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshi Chauhan Rana; Swati Solanki; Pujari, Sudarshan C; Eisha Shaw; Swati Sharma; Abhishek Anand Anand; Harkanwal Preet Singh

    2016-01-01

    Background: In patients undergoing head and neck surgery for various pathologic conditions, implants are one of the best restorative options and are increasing widely used. Therefore, we evaluated the success of dental implants in the irradiated jaws of patients following treatment of oral cancer oral cancer treated patients. Materials and Methods: Data of oral cancer treated patients was collected retrospectively from 2002 to 2008. We took 46 oral cancer treated patients in which implants we...

  14. Visual perception enhancement for detection of cancerous oral tissue by multi-spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiang-Chen; Tsai, Meng-Tsan; Chiang, Chun-Ping

    2013-05-01

    Color reproduction systems based on the multi-spectral imaging technique (MSI) for both directly estimating reflection spectra and direct visualization of oral tissues using various light sources are proposed. Images from three oral cancer patients were taken as the experimental samples, and spectral differences between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues were calculated at three time points during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) to analyze whether they were consistent with disease processes. To check the successful treatment of oral cancer with ALA-PDT, oral cavity images by swept source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) are demonstrated. This system can also reproduce images under different light sources. For pre-cancerous detection, the oral images after the second ALA-PDT are assigned as the target samples. By using RGB LEDs with various correlated color temperatures (CCTs) for color difference comparison, the light source with a CCT of about 4500 K was found to have the best ability to enhance the color difference between pre-cancerous and normal oral mucosal tissues in the oral cavity. Compared with the fluorescent lighting commonly used today, the color difference can be improved by 39.2% from 16.5270 to 23.0023. Hence, this light source and spectral analysis increase the efficiency of the medical diagnosis of oral cancer and aid patients in receiving early treatment.

  15. Family history of cancer, personal history of medical conditions and risk of oral cavity cancer in France: the ICARE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radoï, Loredana; Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Guida, Florence; Cyr, Diane; Menvielle, Gwenn; Schmaus, Annie; Carton, Matthieu; Cénée, Sylvie; Sanchez, Marie; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-11-28

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of family history of cancer and personal history of other medical conditions in the aetiology of the oral cavity cancer in France. We used data from 689 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and 3481 controls included in a population-based case-control study, the ICARE study. Odds-ratios (ORs) associated with family history of cancer and personal medical conditions and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression and were adjusted for age, gender, area of residence, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Personal history of oral candidiasis was related to a significantly increased risk of oral cavity cancer (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.1-12.1). History of head and neck cancers among the first-degree relatives was associated with an OR of 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-2.8). The risk increased with the number of first-degree relatives with head and neck cancer. A family history of head and neck cancer is a marker of an increased risk of oral cavity cancer and should be taken into account to target prevention efforts and screening. Further studies are needed to clarify the association between oral cavity cancer and personal history of candidiasis.

  16. Presence of Helicobacter pylori in betel chewers and non betel chewers with and without oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarasingha Indranee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betel chewing has been shown to predispose to periodontal disease and oral cancer. Studies show that people with gum disease are more likely to test positive for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. It is not known if the lesions produced by betel quid and the resulting, chemical changes predispose to colonization by H. pylori. Further the role of this organism in oral cancer is not known. Our objective was to determine the presence of H. pylori in oral lesions of thirty oral cancer patients and to determine the presence of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in oral cancer patients who are betel chewers and non betel chewers, healthy betel chewers and healthy non-betel chewers and to compare the presence of H. pylori in these four groups. This case control study was conducted at the Cancer Institute Maharagama and the Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Methods One hundred and seventy three subjects, of whom fifty three were patients presenting with oral cancer to the Cancer Institute Maharagama, sixty healthy betel chewers and sixty healthy non-betel chewers from the Religious and Welfare Service Centre Maharagama were tested for H. pylori by serology. Thirty oral biopsies from oral cancer patients were cultured under microaerophilic condition to isolate H. pylori. The statistic used was Chi-square test. Results Of the fifty-three oral cancer patients, forty-four were betel chewers. Among the 53 oral cancer patients examined, ten of forty-four (10/44 = 22.7% patients who are betel chewers and four of nine (4/9 = 44.4% patients who are non-betel chewers were detected positive for IgG antibody against H. pylori. In the healthy group (betel chewers and non betel chewers ten (16.7% of the healthy betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori by serology. None of the healthy non-betel chewers tested positive for H. pylori Fourteen [26.4%] of oral cancer patients tested positive for H

  17. The Oral Carriage of Candida in Oral Cancer Patients of Indian Origin Undergoing Radiotherapy and/or Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Manish; Shah, Raksha; Chandolia, Betina; Mathur, Ayush; Chauhan, Yashwant; Chawda, Jyoti; Mosby, Siddarth; Bhagalia, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer is a challenging disease in Indian subcontinent because of increased use of tobacco and associated products. Although surgery is the main treatment modality, radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) are employed in inaccessible cases. Both RT & CT will result in painful and debilitating adverse effects in oral cavity e.g., mucositis, ulceration, dysgeusia, xerostomia and opportunistic infections. One of the most common opportunistic infection is caused by fungus Candida. Our aim was to investigate the incidence of oral colonization of Candida species with differentiation between carrier and infective state of the organism. We also investigate the effect of treatment modality (RT and CT) on the incidence of Candida, in oral cancer patients, undergoing RT and/or CT, in order to prevent and treat the Candida infection in a better way. It was a cross-sectional case-control study; done in Gujarat, India. Fifty patients of oral cancer undergoing RT, CT alone or combined were investigated and compared with the healthy controls. The samples were collected from mid-dorsum of tongue by using imprint culture technique. The samples were inoculated on Sabouraud's dextrose agar medium and the organisms were identified by wet mount, germ tube test, chlamydospore formation and sugar fermentation tests. There was significant increase in oral Candida colonization from 20% in healthy controls to 70% in oral cancer patients undergoing RT and/or CT (p = 0.001, < 0.05). A significant increase in infective state of Candida (71.4%) was noted (p = 0.001, < 0.05) with predominance of non-albicans species of Candida, chiefly C. tropicalis (42.8%). RT and CT leads to increased oral colonization and infection by Candida with a shift towards growth of non-albicans species. As the pattern of candidal species infection is changing, such studies are important for better diagnosis and treatment planning to gain good control over the disease.

  18. A Looking-Glass of Non-Coding RNAs in Oral Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Iulia Irimie

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a multifactorial pathology and is characterized by the lack of efficient treatment and accurate diagnostic tools. This is mainly due the late diagnosis; therefore, reliable biomarkers for the timely detection of the disease and patient stratification are required. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs are key elements in the physiological and pathological processes of various cancers, which is also reflected in oral cancer development and progression. A better understanding of their role could give a more thorough perspective on the future treatment options for this cancer type. This review offers a glimpse into the ncRNA involvement in oral cancer, which can help the medical community tap into the world of ncRNAs and lay the ground for more powerful diagnostic, prognostic and treatment tools for oral cancer that will ultimately help build a brighter future for these patients.

  19. Gedunin inhibits pancreatic cancer by altering sonic hedgehog signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramani, Ramadevi; Gonzalez, Elizabeth; Nandy, Sushmita Bose; Arumugam, Arunkumar; Camacho, Fernando; Medel, Joshua; Alabi, Damilola; Lakshmanaswamy, Rajkumar

    2017-02-14

    The lack of efficient treatment options for pancreatic cancer highlights the critical need for the development of novel and effective chemotherapeutic agents. The medicinal properties found in plants have been used to treat many different illnesses including cancers. This study focuses on the anticancer effects of gedunin, a natural compound isolated from Azadirachta indica. Anti-proliferative effect of gedunin on pancreatic cancer cells was assessed using MTS assay. We used matrigel invasion assay, scratch assay, and soft agar colony formation assay to measure the anti-metastatic potential of gedunin. Immunoblotting was performed to analyze the effect of gedunin on the expression of key proteins involved in pancreatic cancer growth and metastasis. Gedunin induced apoptosis was measured using flow cytometric analysis. To further validate, xenograft studies with HPAC cells were performed. Gedunin treatment is highly effective in inducing death of pancreatic cancer cells via intrinsic and extrinsic mediated apoptosis. Our data further indicates that gedunin inhibited metastasis of pancreatic cancer cells by decreasing their EMT, invasive, migratory and colony formation capabilities. Gedunin treatment also inhibited sonic hedgehog signaling pathways. Further, experiments with recombinant sonic hedgehog protein and Gli inhibitor (Gant-61) demonstrated that gedunin induces its anti-metastatic effect through inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling. The anti-cancer effect of gedunin was further validated using xenograft mouse model. Overall, our data suggests that gedunin could serve as a potent anticancer agent against pancreatic cancers.

  20. Molecular cues on obesity signals, tumor markers and endometrial cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Brown, Danielle; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela M; Lee, Regina; Pattillo, Roland; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R

    2015-01-01

    Tumor markers are important tools for early diagnosis, prognosis, therapy response and endometrial cancer monitoring. A large number of molecular and pathologic markers have been described in types I and II endometrial cancers, which has served to define the main oncogenic, epidemiological, genetic, clinical and histopathological features. Ongoing attempts to stratify biological markers of endometrial cancer are presented. However, data on changes in tumor marker profiles in obesity-related endometrial cancer are scarce. Obesity is a pandemic in Western countries that has an important impact on endometrial cancers, albeit through not very well-defined mechanisms. Although endometrial cancer is more common in Caucasian women, higher mortality is found in African Americans who also show higher incidence of obesity. Here, we describe how obesity signals (estrogen, leptin, leptin induced-molecules, Notch; cytokines and growth factors) could affect endometrial cancer. Leptin signaling and its crosstalk may be associated to the more aggressive and poor prognosis type II endometrial cancer, which affects more postmenopausal and African-American women. In this regard, studies on expression of novel molecular markers (Notch, interleukin-1 and leptin crosstalk outcome) may provide essential clues for detection, prevention, treatment and prognosis.

  1. Molecular cues on obesity signals, tumor markers and endometrial cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley-Brown, Danielle; Oprea-Ilies, Gabriela M.; Lee, Regina; Pattillo, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Tumor markers are important tools for early diagnosis, prognosis, therapy response and endometrial cancer monitoring. A large number of molecular and pathologic markers have been described in types I and II endometrial cancers, which has served to define the main oncogenic, epidemiological, genetic, clinical and histopathological features. Ongoing attempts to stratify biological markers of endometrial cancer are presented. However, data on changes in tumor marker profiles in obesity-related endometrial cancer are scarce. Obesity is a pandemic in Western countries that has an important impact on endometrial cancers, albeit through not very well-defined mechanisms. Although endometrial cancer is more common in Caucasian women, higher mortality is found in African Americans who also show higher incidence of obesity. Here, we describe how obesity signals (estrogen, leptin, leptin induced-molecules, Notch; cytokines and growth factors) could affect endometrial cancer. Leptin signaling and its crosstalk may be associated to the more aggressive and poor prognosis type II endometrial cancer, which affects more postmenopausal and African-American women. In this regard, studies on expression of novel molecular markers (Notch, interleukin-1 and leptin crosstalk outcome) may provide essential clues for detection, prevention, treatment and prognosis. PMID:25781554

  2. Tumour thickness in oral cancer using an intra-oral ultrasound probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, Wouter L; Teertstra, Hendrik J; Tan, Ing B; Pameijer, Frank A; Smeele, Ludi E; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F; van den Brekel, Michiel W M

    2011-01-01

    To investigate tumour-thickness measurement with an intra-operative ultrasound (US) probe. A retrospective data analysis was undertaken for a total of 65 patients with a T1-2 oral cavity cancer, who were seen at a tertiary referral centre between 2004 and 2010. The correspondence between tumour thickness measured by ultrasonography and histopathology was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficient, and also between tumour thickness and the development of neck metastasis. In 11 cases, intra-oral measurement was not optimal due to limited mouth opening (n=2) or impossibility to depict the lesion (n=9). Tumour thickness measured by US correlated well with histopathology (n=23, R=0.93). Tumour thickness of ≤7 mm carries a risk of lymph node metastasis of 12%, whereas in tumours exceeding 7 mm this risk is 57% (p=0.001). Twenty-five percent developed neck metastasis and 19% had local recurrence. Tumour thickness is an important predictive marker for lymph node metastases. As such, it can help in decision-making with regard to management of the primary tumour and neck. Based upon our findings, a wait-and-see policy is only warranted for superficial lesions with tumour thickness of less than 7 mm, but only if regular follow-up using US-guided aspiration of the neck is ensured.

  3. LED induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager with eight multi-filters for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ting-Wei; Cheng, Nai-Lun; Tsai, Ming-Hsui; Chiou, Jin-Chern; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2016-03-01

    Oral cancer is one of the serious and growing problem in many developing and developed countries. The simple oral visual screening by clinician can reduce 37,000 oral cancer deaths annually worldwide. However, the conventional oral examination with the visual inspection and the palpation of oral lesions is not an objective and reliable approach for oral cancer diagnosis, and it may cause the delayed hospital treatment for the patients of oral cancer or leads to the oral cancer out of control in the late stage. Therefore, a device for oral cancer detection are developed for early diagnosis and treatment. A portable LED Induced autofluorescence (LIAF) imager is developed by our group. It contained the multiple wavelength of LED excitation light and the rotary filter ring of eight channels to capture ex-vivo oral tissue autofluorescence images. The advantages of LIAF imager compared to other devices for oral cancer diagnosis are that LIAF imager has a probe of L shape for fixing the object distance, protecting the effect of ambient light, and observing the blind spot in the deep port between the gumsgingiva and the lining of the mouth. Besides, the multiple excitation of LED light source can induce multiple autofluorescence, and LIAF imager with the rotary filter ring of eight channels can detect the spectral images of multiple narrow bands. The prototype of a portable LIAF imager is applied in the clinical trials for some cases in Taiwan, and the images of the clinical trial with the specific excitation show the significant differences between normal tissue and oral tissue under these cases.

  4. Long-Term Surgical Complications in the Oral Cancer Patient: a Comprehensive Review. Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Kolokythas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral and oropharyngeal cancer remains among the top ten most common malignancies in the United States and worldwide. Over the last several decades the approach to treatment of oral cancer has changed very little with regards to primary tumour extirpation while the approach to the “at risk” lymph nodes has evolved significantly. Perhaps the most significant change in the surgical treatment of cancer is the introduction of free flap for reconstruction post resection. Despite these surgical advances, oral cancer ablation, still results in the sacrifice of several functional and aesthetic organs. The aim of this article was to provide a comprehensive review of the potential long-term complications associated with surgical treatment of oral cancer and their management.Material and Methods: The available English language literature relevant to long-term surgical complications associated with surgical treatment of oral cancer was reviewed. The potential common as well as rarer complications that may be encountered and their treatment are summarized.Results: In total 50 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The topics covered in the first part of this review series include ablative surgery complications, issues with speech, swallowing and chewing and neurologic dysfunction.Conclusions: The early complications associated with oncologic surgery for oral cancer are similar to other surgical procedures. The potential long-term complications however are quite challenging for the oncologic team and the patient who survives oral cancer, primarily due to the highly specialized regional tissues involved in the surgical field.

  5. Does the 'inverse screening law' apply to oral cancer screening and regular dental check-ups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netuveli, Gopalkrishnan; Sheiham, Aubrey; Watt, Richard G

    2006-01-01

    Early detection through regular screening is a measure used in certain cancer prevention strategies. This approach has been advocated for the prevention of oral cancers in the UK. The objective of this study was to assess whether people at higher risk of oral cancer in the UK visit dentists on a regular basis, and thereby afford opportunities for oral cancer screening. Data from two large national surveys were used. Firstly, data from the Health Survey for England, 2001, were used to assess the relationship between dental attendance (the outcome measure) and recognized oral cancer risk factors; there were 13,784 participants with complete data. We used known risk factors for oral cancer (age >40 years, male sex, alcohol intake >28 units per week, cigarettes >20 per day, and fruit and vegetables check-ups. In persons with 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of these risk factors, the odds ratio for regular dental check-ups was 1.00, 0.93, 0.81, 0.64, 0.50 and 0.28, respectively. The probability of regular dental attendance was low in all groups with a higher risk of oral cancer. In the longitudinal sample, the low probability of visiting a dentist regularly was stable over time. Opportunistic screening for oral cancer in general dental practice in the UK is unlikely to be an effective preventive strategy.

  6. Long-Term Surgical Complications in the Oral Cancer Patient: a Comprehensive Review. Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Antonia Kolokythas

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Oral and oropharyngeal cancer remains among the top ten most common malignancies in the United States and worldwide. Over the last several decades the approach to treatment of oral cancer has changed very little with regards to primary tumour extirpation while the approach to the “at risk” lymph nodes has evolved significantly. Perhaps the most significant change in the surgical treatment of cancer is the introduction of free flap for reconstruction post resection. Despite these s...

  7. Challenges in global improvement of oral cancer outcomes: findings from rural Northern India

    OpenAIRE

    Dangi Jyoti; Kinnunen Taru H; Zavras Athanasios I

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In India, 72% of the population resides in rural areas and 30-40% of cancers are found in the oral cavity. The majority of Haryana residents live in villages where inadequate medical facilities, no proper primary care infrastructure or cancer screening tools and high levels of illiteracy all contribute to poor oral cancer (OC) outcomes. In this challenging environment, the objective of this study was to assess the association between various risk factors for OC among refer...

  8. Oral cancer in Cali, Colombia: a population-based analysis of incidence and mortality trends.

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Ordóñez; Natalia Aragón; Luz Stella García; Paola Collazos; Luis Eduardo Bravo

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To describe the time trends of the incidence and mortality rates of oral cancer (OC) in Cali, Colombia between 1962-2007. Materials and methods. Age-standardized (Segi’s world population) incidence (ASIR) and mortality (ASMR) rates for oral cancer were estimated using data from the Population-based Cancer Registry of Cali, Colombia and from the database of the Municipal Secretary of Public Health (MSPH) respectively. Annual percentage change (APC) was used to measure the changes in...

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Cancer of the Oral Cavity and Pharynx from 1988 to 2009: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Binh Y.; Chang, Shen-Chih; Hashibe, Mia; Vecchia, Carlo La; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2010-01-01

    The evidence for the human carcinogenic effects of alcohol drinking on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx has been considered sufficient in the IARC Monograph 44 on alcohol and cancer in 1988. We evaluated human carcinogenic evidence related to oral and pharyngeal cancer risk based on cohort and case-control studies published from 1988 to 2009. A large body of evidence from epidemiological studies of different designs and conducted in different populations has consistently sup...

  10. Notch Signaling Activation Is Associated with Patient Mortality and Increased FGF1-Mediated Invasion in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Alice N; Burch, M Benjamin; Cooper, Tiffiny S; Della Manna, Deborah L; Wei, Shi; Ojesina, Akinyemi I; Rosenthal, Eben L; Yang, Eddy S

    2016-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a cancer subtype that lacks validated prognostic and therapeutic biomarkers, and human papillomavirus status has not proven beneficial in predicting patient outcomes. A gene expression pathway analysis was conducted using OSCC patient specimens to identify molecular targets that may improve management of this disease. RNA was isolated from 19 OSCCs treated surgically at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB; Birmingham, AL) and evaluated using the NanoString nCounter system. Results were confirmed using the oral cavity subdivision of the Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer (HNSCC) study generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. Further characterization of the in vitro phenotype produced by Notch pathway activation in HNSCC cell lines included gene expression, proliferation, cell cycle, migration, invasion, and radiosensitivity. In both UAB and TCGA samples, Notch pathway upregulation was significantly correlated with patient mortality status and with expression of the proinvasive gene FGF1 In vitro Notch activation in HNSCC cells increased transcription of FGF1 and induced a marked increase in cell migration and invasion, which was fully abrogated by FGF1 knockdown. These results reveal that increased Notch pathway signaling plays a role in cancer progression and patient outcomes in OSCC. Accordingly, the Notch-FGF interaction should be further studied as a prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for OSCC. Patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity who succumb to their disease are more likely to have upregulated Notch signaling, which may mediate a more invasive phenotype through increased FGF1 transcription. Mol Cancer Res; 14(9); 883-91. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Immobilisation precision in VMAT for oral cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfadilah, M. N.; Ahmad, R.; Heng, S. P.; Lam, K. S.; Radzi, A. B. Ahmad; John, L. S. H.

    2017-05-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate and quantify a precision of the interfraction setup with different immobilisation devices throughout the treatment time. Local setup accuracy was analysed for 8 oral cancer patients receiving radiotherapy; 4 with HeadFIX® mouthpiece moulded with wax (HFW) and 4 with 10 ml/cc syringe barrel (SYR). Each patients underwent Image Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) with total of 209 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data sets for position set up errors measurement. The setup variations in the mediolateral (ML), craniocaudal (CC), and anteroposterior (AP) dimensions were measured. Overall mean displacement (M), the population systematic (Σ) and random (σ) errors and the 3D vector length were calculated. Clinical target volume to planning target volume (CTV-PTV) margins were calculated according to the van Herk formula (2.5Σ+0.7σ). The M values for both group were reason, a daily IGRT is highly recommended to improve the immobilisation precision.

  12. Foods, nutrients and the risk of oral and pharyngeal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, F; Bosetti, C; Filomeno, M; Levi, F; Garavello, W; Galimberti, S; Negri, E; La Vecchia, C

    2013-11-26

    Besides tobacco and alcohol, dietary habits may have a relevant role in oral cavity and pharyngeal (OCP) cancer. We analysed the role of selected food groups and nutrients on OCP cancer in a case-control study carried out between 1997 and 2009 in Italy and Switzerland. This included 768 incident, histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma cases and 2078 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression models including terms for tobacco, alcohol and other relevant covariates. Significant inverse trends in risk were observed for all vegetables (OR=0.19, for the highest vs the lowest consumption) and all fruits (OR=0.39), whereas significant direct associations were found for milk and dairy products (OR=1.50), eggs (OR=1.71), red meat (OR=1.55), potatoes (OR=1.85) and desserts (OR=1.68), although trends in risk were significant only for potatoes and desserts. With reference to nutrients, significant inverse relations were observed for vegetable protein (OR=0.45, for the highest vs the lowest quintile), vegetable fat (OR=0.54), polyunsaturated fatty acids (OR=0.53), α-carotene (OR=0.51), β-carotene (OR=0.28), β-cryptoxanthin (OR=0.37), lutein and zeazanthin (OR=0.34), vitamin E (OR=0.26), vitamin C (OR=0.40) and total folate (OR=0.34), whereas direct ones were observed for animal protein (OR=1.57), animal fat (OR=2.47), saturated fatty acids (OR=2.18), cholesterol (OR=2.29) and retinol (OR=1.88). Combinations of low consumption of fruits and vegetables, and high consumption of meat with high tobacco and alcohol, led to 10- to over 20-fold excess risk of OCP cancer. Our study confirms and further quantifies that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and poor in meat and products of animal origin has a favourable role against OCP cancer.

  13. Ultracision Harmonic Scalpel in oral and oropharyngeal cancer resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirelli, Giancarlo; Del Piero, Giulia Carolina; Perrino, Fiorella

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the benefits and risks when using an Ultracision Harmonic Scalpel in the surgical treatment of oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas. Prospective non-randomized. Clinica Otorinolaringoiatrica, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria. Trieste, Italy. In this study, conducted from April 2008 to August 2010, 36 consecutive patients underwent resection of oral or oropharyngeal carcinoma and lateral lymphadenectomy using the Ultracision Harmonic Scalpel. Evaluation criteria included length of the surgical procedure, intraoperative blood loss, quantity of neck drainage on the first, second and third postoperative days, postoperative complications, and a subjective assessment of postoperative pain and lymphatic oedema of the neck. Results were compared with previous surgical procedures carried out between May 2006 and March 2008 using cold knife and bipolar haemostasis (n = 36) when the Harmonic Scalpel was not available. In patients treated with the Harmonic Scalpel, operating time was significantly reduced, both for resection of the carcinoma and the lateral lymphadenectomy. Intraoperative blood loss and neck drainage on the first and second postoperative days were significantly less and pain scores were significantly lower than in the cold knife group. No postoperative complications were noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group. The only disadvantage noted in the Harmonic Scalpel group was the high incidence of lymphatic oedema of the neck. Use of the Harmonic Scalpel during resection of oral cancer and lateral lymphadenectomy is safe and confers some advantages over conventional methods. Copyright © 2013 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mineral derivatives in alleviating oral mucositis during cancer therapy: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Lee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Oral mucositis (mouth ulcers is a cancer therapy side effect. Costly treatment interventions are often neglected in favor of cost-effective agents. This review assessed the general efficacy of mineral derivatives (a cost-effective agent in alleviating oral mucositis (OM during cancer therapy compared to the standard care, or placebo—including a decision tree to aide healthcare workers.Data Sources. Electronic searches of MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CANCERLIT via PubMed, and CINAHL via EBSCO (year 2000 to 11 September 2014 were undertaken for randomised controlled trials. A meta-search strategy extracted content from aggregate online databases.Review Methods. Randomized controlled trials were assessed (participants, intervention, outcome, results, and risk of bias for inclusion. The author abstracted binary and continuous data synthesised to Hedges’ g in a random effects model. The primary outcome measures were severity (incidence of peak oral mucositis, duration of oral mucositis, and time to onset; secondary outcome measures were the incidence of pain, and analgesic use. Serum mineral levels, total parenteral nutrition, and adverse events were discussed. The decision tree was mapped using sensitivity, specificity, pre-test and post-test Bayesian probability.Results. 1027 citations were identified and 16 studies were included (n = 1120; mean age 49 years. Cancer therapies consisted of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chemo-radiotherapy, or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Outcome mineral derivatives were zinc (n = 549, calcium phosphate (n = 227, povidone-iodine (n = 228, or selenium (n = 116. Severity was measured across variable OM grading systems: In 13 studies, individuals in treatment groups (n = 958 experienced peak OM less than controls (g = −0.47, 95% CI −0.7 to −0.2, p = 0.0006; time to OM onset was significantly delayed in treatment than controls (g = −0.51, 95% CI−0.8 to −0.2, p = 0.0002; five

  15. Oral cancer: Current role of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shao-Hui; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2013-03-01

    The term oral cavity cancer (OSCC) constitutes cancers of the mucosal surfaces of the lips, floor of mouth, oral tongue, buccal mucosa, lower and upper gingiva, hard palate and retromolar trigone. Treatment approaches for OSCC include single management with surgery, radiotherapy [external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and/or brachytherapy], as well as adjuvant systemic therapy (chemotherapy and/or target agents); various combinations of these modalities may also be used depending on the disease presentation and pathological findings. The selection of sole or combined modality is based on various considerations that include disease control probability, the anticipated functional and cosmetic outcomes, tumor resectability, patient general condition, and availability of resources and expertise. For resectable OSCC, the mainstay of treatment is surgery, though same practitioners may advocate for the use of radiotherapy alone in selected "early" disease presentations or combined with chemotherapy in more locally advanced stage disease. In general, the latter is more commonly reserved for cases where surgery may be problematic. Thus, primary radiotherapy ± chemotherapy is usually reserved for patients unable to tolerate or who are otherwise unsuited for surgery. On the other hand, brachytherapy may be considered as a sole modality for early small primary tumor. It also has a role as an adjuvant to surgery in the setting of inadequate pathologically assessed resection margins, as does postoperative external beam radiotherapy ± chemotherapy, which is usually reserved for those with unfavorable pathological features. Brachytherapy can also be especially useful in the re-irradiation setting for persistent or recurrent disease or for a second primary arising within a previous radiation field. Biological agents targeting the epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) have emerged as a potential modality in combination with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy and are currently under

  16. Extracellular matrix component signaling in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Multhaupt, Hinke A. B.; Leitinger, Birgit; Gullberg, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Cell responses to the extracellular matrix depend on specific signaling events. These are important from early development, through differentiation and tissue homeostasis, immune surveillance, and disease pathogenesis. Signaling not only regulates cell adhesion cytoskeletal organization...... and motility but also provides survival and proliferation cues. The major classes of cell surface receptors for matrix macromols. are the integrins, discoidin domain receptors, and transmembrane proteoglycans such as syndecans and CD44. Cells respond not only to specific ligands, such as collagen, fibronectin......, or basement membrane glycoproteins, but also in terms of matrix rigidity. This can regulate the release and subsequent biol. activity of matrix-bound growth factors, for example, transforming growth factor-β. In the environment of tumors, there may be changes in cell populations and their receptor profiles...

  17. Multimodality imaging of TGFβ signaling in breast cancer metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serganova, Inna; Moroz, Ekaterina; Vider, Jelena; Gogiberidze, George; Moroz, Maxim; Pillarsetty, Nagavarakishore; Doubrovin, Michael; Minn, Andy; Thaler, Howard T.; Massague, Joan; Gelovani, Juri; Blasberg, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    The skeleton is a preferred site for breast cancer metastasis. We have developed a multimodality imaging approach to monitor the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling pathway in bone metastases, sequentially over time in the same animal. As model systems, two MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells lines with different metastatic tropisms, SCP2 and SCP3, were transduced with constitutive and TGFβ-inducible reporter genes and were tested in vitro and in living animals. The sites and expansion of metastases were visualized by bioluminescence imaging using a constitutive firefly luciferase reporter, while TGFβ signaling in metastases was monitored by microPET imaging of HSV1-TK/GFP expression with [18F]FEAU and by a more sensitive and cost-effective bioluminescence reporter, based on nonsecreted Gaussia luciferase. Concurrent and sequential imaging of metastases in the same animals provided insight into the location and progression of metastases, and the timing and course of TGFβ signaling. The anticipated and newly observed differences in the imaging of tumors from two related cell lines have demonstrated that TGFβ signal transduction pathway activity can be noninvasively imaged with high sensitivity and reproducibility, thereby providing the opportunity for an assessment of novel treatments that target TGFβ signaling.—Serganova, I., Moroz, E., Vider, J., Gogiberidze, G., Moroz, M., Pillarsetty, N., Doubrovin, M., Minn, A., Thaler, H. T., Massague, J., Gelovani, J., Blasberg, R. Multimodality imaging of TGFβ signaling in breast cancer metastases. PMID:19325038

  18. Oral epithelial stem cells - implications in normal development and cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P T; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-07-15

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Oral epithelial stem cells – implications in normal development and cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagerakis, Silvana; Pannone, Giuseppe; Zheng, Li; About, Imad; Taqi, Nawar; Nguyen, Nghia P.T.; Matossian, Margarite; McAlpin, Blake; Santoro, Angela; McHugh, Jonathan; Prince, Mark E.; Papagerakis, Petros

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosa is continuously exposed to environmental forces and has to be constantly renewed. Accordingly, the oral mucosa epithelium contains a large reservoir of epithelial stem cells necessary for tissue homeostasis. Despite considerable scientific advances in stem cell behavior in a number of tissues, fewer studies have been devoted to the stem cells in the oral epithelium. Most of oral mucosa stem cells studies are focused on identifying cancer stem cells (CSC) in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) among other head and neck cancers. OSCCs are the most prevalent epithelial tumors of the head and neck region, marked by their aggressiveness and invasiveness. Due to their highly tumorigenic properties, it has been suggested that CSC may be the critical population of cancer cells in the development of OSCC metastasis. This review presents a brief overview of epithelium stem cells with implications in oral health, and the clinical implications of the CSC concept in OSCC metastatic dissemination. PMID:24803391

  20. Bmi-1 extends the life span of normal human oral keratinocytes by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Reuben H., E-mail: rkim@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Lieberman, Mark B.; Lee, Rachel [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Shin, Ki-Hyuk [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Mehrazarin, Shebli; Oh, Ju-Eun [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Park, No-Hee [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kang, Mo K., E-mail: mkang@dentistry.ucla.edu [UCLA School of Dentistry, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Dental Research Institute, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    We previously demonstrated that Bmi-1 extended the in vitro life span of normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK). We now report that the prolonged life span of NHOK by Bmi-1 is, in part, due to inhibition of the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. Serial subculture of NHOK resulted in replicative senescence and terminal differentiation and activation of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway. This was accompanied with enhanced intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 levels, phosphorylation of Smad2/3, and increased expression of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. An ectopic expression of Bmi-1 in NHOK (HOK/Bmi-1) decreased the level of intracellular and secreted TGF-{beta}1 induced dephosphorylation of Smad2/3, and diminished the level of p15{sup INK4B} and p57{sup KIP2}. Moreover, Bmi-1 expression led to the inhibition of TGF-{beta}-responsive promoter activity in a dose-specific manner. Knockdown of Bmi-1 in rapidly proliferating HOK/Bmi-1 and cancer cells increased the level of phosphorylated Smad2/3, p15{sup INK4B}, and p57{sup KIP2}. In addition, an exposure of senescent NHOK to TGF-{beta} receptor I kinase inhibitor or anti-TGF-{beta} antibody resulted in enhanced replicative potential of cells. Taken together, these data suggest that Bmi-1 suppresses senescence of cells by inhibiting the TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in NHOK.

  1. Influence of cancer treatment on the Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavities of cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramla, Shilpa; Sharma, Vinay; Patel, Mrudula

    2016-06-01

    Cancer treatment causes mucositis and the manifestation of oral candidiasis. This study investigated the virulence properties and antifungal susceptibilities of Candida albicans isolated from cancer patients undergoing therapy. C. albicans were isolated from 49 patients on cancer treatment and 21 healthy individuals and their virulence attributes measured. A correlation was determined between the length of treatment and the fungal counts and their virulence factors. Although Candida carriage was similar in all the study groups, high quantities of C. albicans and variety of Candida were found in cancer patients. Germ tubes were produced by all the strains. Significantly high number of yeast isolated from radiotherapy and chemotherapy produced large quantities of phospholipase compared to healthy individuals (p albicans. Proteinase production was seen in a significant number of isolates from the radiotherapy group (p albicans in cancer patients on therapy which also increased with the length of chemotherapy suggesting enhanced risk of oral and systemic infection. Therefore, during treatment, prophylactic topical antifungal therapy may be considered.

  2. CLINICO-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF ORAL CANCER: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil H Agrawal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: India is heading towards various types of non-communicable diseases, which are also known as modern epidemics. Among these modern epidemics cancer is among the ten commonest cause of mortality in developing countries including India. Oral cancer is a major problem in India and accounts for 50-70% of all the cancers diagnosed. Ninety percent (90% of oral cancers in South East Asia including India are linked to tobacco chewing and tobacco smoking. Research question: What is the profile of Oral cancer (Oral cavity cases reported in the hospital? Objective: To study the clinico-epidemiological profile associated with Oral cancer cases. Methods: Study Design: Hospital based, Cross -sectional study. Settings: Shri Siddhivinayak Ganapati Cancer Hospital, Miraj, Maharashtra. Participants and Sample size: As it is a time bound study sample size comprised of all the confirmed cases of oral cancer reported in the hospital during the study period. The study was carried out from 1st March 2005 to 28th February 2006. Study variables included demographic factors, socioeconomic factors, enquiries regarding modifiable risk factors such as tobacco usage, alcohol consumption, site involved (within oral cavity, staging, histopathological examination, treatment modality used. Data entry and statistical analysis was done using Microsoft excel. Data presented in form of percentages and proportions. Results: Out of the total 160 cases, majority of the subjects were above 40 years age. 36 (22% of subjects were young adults (below 40 years age. 125 (78% subjects were male. Most of the subjects belonged to upper lower and lower middle socio-economic scale according to modified Kuppuswamy classification. It was observed that 139 (87% cases consumed tobacco in all forms. Out of these, ninety cases consumed tobacco in chewable form. Tobacco was chewed mainly in the form of gutka. Only ten (10 female subjects chewed tobacco. No female subjects smoked. The most

  3. The global incidence of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by subsite in 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Kevin D; Ferlay, Jacques; Jemal, Ahmedin; Sankaranarayanan, Rengaswamy; Chaturvedi, Anil K; Bray, Freddie; Soerjomataram, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    By using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer publication Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents and GLOBOCAN, this report provides the first consolidated global estimation of the subsite distribution of new cases of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by country, sex, and age for the year 2012. Major geographically based, sex-based, and age-based variations in the incidence of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers by subsite were observed. Lip cancers were highly frequent in Australia (associated with solar radiation) and in central and eastern Europe (associated with tobacco smoking). Cancers of the oral cavity and hypopharynx were highly common in south-central Asia, especially in India (associated with smokeless tobacco, bidi, and betel-quid use). Rates of oropharyngeal cancers were elevated in northern America and Europe, notably in Hungary, Slovakia, Germany, and France and were associated with alcohol use, tobacco smoking, and human papillomavirus infection. Nasopharyngeal cancers were most common in northern Africa and eastern/southeast Asia, indicative of genetic susceptibility combined with Epstein-Barr virus infection and early life carcinogenic exposures (nitrosamines and salted foods). The global incidence of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers of 529,500, corresponding to 3.8% of all cancer cases, is predicted to rise by 62% to 856,000 cases by 2035 because of changes in demographics. Given the rising incidence of lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancers and the variations in incidence by subsites across world regions and countries, there is a need for local, tailored approaches to prevention, screening, and treatment interventions that will optimally reduce the lip, oral cavity, and pharyngeal cancer burden in future decades. CA Cancer J Clin 2017;67:51-64. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  4. Oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Siri Beier; Mouridsen, Henning T.; Bergmann, Olav Jonas

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine oral mucosal lesions, microbial changes, and taste disturbances induced by adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in breast cancer patients during and 1 year after treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Forty-five consecutive breast cancer patients, eligible for adjuvant CT...... with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin or methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil were followed before, during, 6 months and 1 year after CT and were compared to a control group of 31 breast cancer patients not receiving adjuvant CT. RESULTS: During CT, oral mucosal lesions developed including erythema (n = 10, 22%) and ulceration...... in the CT group. CONCLUSION: In breast cancer patients, moderate-intensive adjuvant CT caused oral mucosal lesions, oral candidosis, taste disturbances and a more acidophilic oral microflora. These adverse effects were temporary and the majority of the patients were mildly affected....

  5. Application of fuzzy consensus for oral pre-cancer and cancer susceptibility assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satarupa Banerjee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Health questionnaire data assessment conventionally relies upon statistical analysis in understanding disease susceptibility using discrete numbers and fails to reflect physician’s perspectives and missing narratives in data, which play subtle roles in disease prediction. In addressing such limitations, the present study applies fuzzy consensus in oral health and habit questionnaire data for a selected Indian population in the context of assessing susceptibility to oral pre-cancer and cancer. Methodically collected data were initially divided into age based small subgroups and fuzzy membership function was assigned to each. The methodology further proposed the susceptibility to oral precancers (viz. leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and squamous cell carcinoma in patients considering a fuzzy rulebase through If-Then rules with certain conditions. Incorporation of similarity measures using the Jaccard index was used during conversion into the linguistic output of fuzzy set to predict the disease outcome in a more accurate manner and associated condition of the relevant features. It is also expected that this analytical approach will be effective in devising strategies for policy making through real-life questionnaire data handling.

  6. Predictive model of oral cancer metastasis for different cancer sites and age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwardena, Bogahawatte Samarakoon Mudiyanselage Samadarani; Rasnayaka, Rasnayaka Mudiynaselage Sumudu Geethika Kumari; Masood, Yaghma; Masood, Mohd; Kumarasiri, Pallegoda Vithanage Ranjith; Tilakaratne, Wanninayake Mudiyanselage

    2016-05-01

    The high incidence rates for oral cancer (excluding lip) are especially found in the South and South-East Asia. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sex, age, site, and metastasis of a large sample with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). A total of 989 OSCC treated with neck dissection were selected. All the relevant data were recorded from biopsy request forms. The patients were divided into seven groups, and there were nine different oral sites. The male-to-female ratio of the sample was 4:1. Most of the patients were aged between 30 and 60 years. Of the 989 patients, approximately 40% patients had metastasis. Age age groups, but it was not statistically significant. Palate cancers had more than 14 times higher chance of metastasis, followed by maxilla (4.6 times) and tongue (2.8 times). The present study provides important information on the metastatic potential of OSCC in different oral sites, and identifies high-risk age groups for metastasis. This will be helpful in planning neck treatment for OSCC. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. An update on light-based technologies and fluorescent imaging in oral cancer detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease that constitutes an important portion of tumors of head and neck region. More than 90% of oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC. Regardless of the fact that the oral cavity is easily accessible to the accumulation of carcinogens, most oral cancers are typically detected at an advanced stage leading to lower survival rate among subjects. Therefore, early detection of the oral cancer and its precursor lesions may be the most effective means to improve prognosis and treatment in most patients. One of the emerging technologies is the use of optical methods to capture the molecular changes at high-resolution to improve the detection capability of early stage disease. Optical diagnosis techniques when compared with traditional approaches such as vital staining, biopsy has many advantages such as objectivity, speed, and cost. Moreover, these incorporate particularly noninvasive methods of oral cancer detection. The present article highlights various optical methods and their role in oral cancer detection.

  8. English and Spanish oral cancer information on the internet: a pilot surface quality and content evaluation of oral cancer web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jeannie Y; Thyvalikakath, Thankam; Spallek, Heiko; Wali, Teena; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Schleyer, Titus

    2011-01-01

    Oral and pharyngeal cancers are responsible for over 7600 deaths each year in the United States. Given the significance of the disease and the fact that many individuals increasingly rely on health information on the Internet, it is important that patients and others can access clear and accurate oral cancer information on the Web. The objective of this study was threefold: (a) develop an initial method to evaluate surface and content quality of selected English- and Spanish-language oral cancer Web sites; (b) conduct a pilot evaluation; and (c) discuss implications of our findings for dental public health. We developed a search strategy to find oral cancer sites frequented by the public using Medline Plus, Google, and Yahoo in English and Spanish. We adapted the Information Quality Tool (IQT) to perform a surface evaluation and developed a novel tool to evaluate site content for 24 sites each in English and Spanish. English-language sites had an average IQT score of 76.6 (out of 100) and an average content score of 52.1 (out of 100). Spanish-language sites had an average IQT score of 50.3 and an average content score of 25.6. The study produced a quality assessment of oral cancer Web sites useful for clinicians and patients. Sites provided more information on clinical presentation, and etiology, and risk factors, than other aspects of oral cancer. The surface and quality of Spanish-language sites was low, possibly putting Hispanic populations at a disadvantage regarding oral cancer information on the Web.

  9. Human papillomavirus and oral cancer: the International Agency for Research on Cancer multicenter study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, R; Castellsague, X; Pawlita, M; Lissowska, J; Kee, F; Balaram, P; Rajkumar, T; Sridhar, H; Rose, B; Pintos, J; Fernandez, L; Idris, A; Sanchez, MJ; Nieto, A; Talamini, R; Tavani, A; Bosch, F.X.; Reidel, U; Snijders, P.J.F.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Viscidi, R; Munoz, N.; Franceschi, S

    2003-01-01

    = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1 to 2.1) and the oropharynx (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 2.1 to 5.9). Antibodies against HPV16 E6 or E7 were also associated with risk for cancers of the oral cavity (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.7 to 4.8) and the oropharynx (OR = 9.2, 95% CI = 4.8 to 17.7). CONCLUSIONS: HPV appears to play an

  10. Ror2 Signaling and Its Relevance in Breast Cancer Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Bayerlová

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease and has been classified into five molecular subtypes based on gene expression profiles. Signaling processes linked to different breast cancer molecular subtypes and different clinical outcomes are still poorly understood. Aberrant regulation of Wnt signaling has been implicated in breast cancer progression. In particular Ror1/2 receptors and several other members of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway were associated with aggressive breast cancer behavior. However, Wnt signals are mediated via multiple complex pathways, and it is clinically important to determine which particular Wnt cascades, including their domains and targets, are deregulated in poor prognosis breast cancer. To investigate activation and outcome of the Ror2-dependent non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway, we overexpressed the Ror2 receptor in MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, stimulated the cells with its ligand Wnt5a, and we knocked-down Ror1 in MDA-MB231 cells. We measured the invasive capacity of perturbed cells to assess phenotypic changes, and mRNA was profiled to quantify gene expression changes. Differentially expressed genes were integrated into a literature-based non-canonical Wnt signaling network. The results were further used in the analysis of an independent dataset of breast cancer patients with metastasis-free survival annotation. Overexpression of the Ror2 receptor, stimulation with Wnt5a, as well as the combination of both perturbations enhanced invasiveness of MCF-7 cells. The expression–responsive targets of Ror2 overexpression in MCF-7 induced a Ror2/Wnt module of the non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway. These targets alter regulation of other pathways involved in cell remodeling processing and cell metabolism. Furthermore, the genes of the Ror2/Wnt module were assessed as a gene signature in patient gene expression data and showed an association with clinical outcome. In summary, results of this study

  11. Changes and predictors of radiation-induced oral mucositis in patients with oral cavity cancer during active treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ching; Lai, Yeur-Hur; Huang, Bing-Shen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Fan, Kang-Hsing; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chien

    2015-06-01

    Radiation-induced oral mucositis (OM) is the most debilitating side effect of radiation treatment in oral cavity cancer. The purpose of the study was to investigate change of prevalence of severe OM, OM-related symptoms, and predictors in oral cavity cancer patients during active treatment. Longitudinal study design with repeated measures was used. Patients with oral cavity cancer were recruited from a head and neck outpatient radiation department at a major medical center in Taiwan. Patients' OM-related symptoms were measured at three time points. Patients' oral mucosa was assessed at nine time points. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to analyze the predictive factors of prevalence of severe OM and OM-related symptoms. Patients reported highest prevalence of severe OM at T5 (5 weeks after beginning RT) and T6 (6 weeks after beginning radiation therapy, RT), with the combined chemotherapy and RT (CCRT) patients reporting a higher prevalence than those receiving RT alone. The peak of OM-related symptoms was at T8 (8 week after beginning RT), with primary symptoms of mouth pain, mouth dryness, eating difficulties, swallowing difficulties, and taste change. Patients with CCRT, a higher cumulative radiation dose, smoking, and lower body mass index (BMI) were at high risk to develop severe OM. OM-related symptoms were predicted by type of treatment, cumulative radiation dose, and smoking. Patients with oral cavity cancer suffer from OM and OM-related symptoms during aggressive RT or CCRT. Patient-specific oral care and emotional support are needed to relieve distressful OM-related symptoms during active treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Professional oral health care reduces oral mucositis pain in patients treated by superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kosei; Kobayashi, Wataru; Sakaki, Hirotaka; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Kon, Takao; Mimura, Mayu; Ito, Ryohei; Furudate, Ken; Kimura, Hiroto

    2015-11-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a painful complication of radiation therapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. OM can compromise nutrition, require opioid analgesics and hospitalization for pain control, and lead to interruption of treatment. Severe oral mucositis appears inevitable in superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy concurrent with radiotherapy (SSIACRT), requiring management of OM for the patient. The objective of this study was to assess the utility of professional oral health care (POHC) for the management of OM in patients undergoing SSIACRT. Thirty-three patients were enrolled in this study. The first 17 patients underwent SSIACRT before we created an oral management team, and thus did not receive POHC. The remaining 16 patients received POHC. Fever duration, duration of oral feeding difficulty, opioid usage, duration of opioid administration, duration of hospitalization, and number of hospital days from the end of irradiation to discharge were compared between these two groups. Median total dose of morphine during SSIACRT, median number of hospital days from end of irradiation to discharge, and duration of hospitalization all differed significantly between groups (P opioid administration, fever duration, and duration of oral feeding difficulty did not differ significantly between groups. These findings indicate that POHC may reduce opioid use and shorten the hospital stay. Such results might be obtained through infection control by POHC. This report appears to be the first study to evaluate the efficiency of POHC in SSIACRT for oral cancer from the perspective of mucositis pain and opioid use.

  13. Gene polymorphisms and oral cancer risk in tobacco habitués.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Shaleen; Pradhan, Sultan; Saranath, Dhananjaya

    2016-05-01

    Oral cancer incidence of 77,003 poses a major health concern in India, with 5-10 % tobacco habitués developing oral cancer. The current study examined the role of specific genomic variants in oral cancer. We examined five genomic variants represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes associated with cell proliferation and cellular invasion. The SNPs rs2124437 (RASGRP3), rs1335022 (GRIK2), rs4512367 (PREX2), rs4748011 (CCDC3), and rs1435218 (LNX1) were analyzed in 500 histopathologically confirmed oral cancers and 500 healthy controls with a minimum of 10 years of tobacco usage. Allelic discrimination real-time PCR SYBR Green assay was used. The genotypic and allelic frequencies between cases and controls were analyzed using SPSS software (version 19) and odds ratio (OR) using Hutchon.net, indicating increased risk to oral cancers. A significant association of the SNPs in oral cancer was observed in RASGRP3 AA (rs2124437) (p oral cancer in tobacco habitués.

  14. No role for human papillomavirus infection in oral cancers in a region in southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laprise, Claudie; Madathil, Sreenath A; Allison, Paul; Abraham, Priya; Raghavendran, Anantharam; Shahul, Hameed P; ThekkePurakkal, Akhil-Soman; Castonguay, Geneviève; Coutlée, François; Schlecht, Nicolas F; Rousseau, Marie-Claude; Franco, Eduardo L; Nicolau, Belinda

    2016-02-15

    Oral cancer is a major public health issue in India with ∼ 77,000 new cases and 52,000 deaths yearly. Paan chewing, tobacco and alcohol use are strong risk factors for this cancer in India. Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are also related to a subset of head and neck cancers (HNCs). We examined the association between oral HPV and oral cancer in a sample of Indian subjects participating in a hospital-based case-control study. We recruited incident oral cancer cases (N = 350) and controls frequency-matched by age and sex (N = 371) from two main referral hospitals in Kerala, South India. Sociodemographic and behavioral data were collected by interviews. Epithelial cells were sampled using Oral CDx® brushes from the oral cancer site and the normal mucosa. Detection and genotyping of 36 HPV genotypes were done using a polymerase chain reaction protocol. Data collection procedures were performed by qualified dentists via a detailed protocol with strict quality control, including independent HPV testing in India and Canada. HPV DNA was detected in none of the cases or controls. Associations between oral cancer and risk factors usually associated with HPV infection, such as oral sex and number of lifetime sexual partners, were examined by logistic regression and were not associated with oral cancer. Lack of a role for HPV infection in this study may reflect cultural or religious characteristics specific to this region in India that are not conducive to oral HPV transmission. A nationwide representative prevalence study is needed to investigate HPV prevalence variability among Indian regions. © 2015 UICC.

  15. Detection of oral squamous-cell cancer and precancerous lesions by fluorescence imaging in a hamster cheek-pouch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Stephen; Kluftinger, A. M.; Hung, J.; Davis, N. L.; Quenville, N. F.; Palcic, Branko

    1993-03-01

    The role of non-skin phototoxic dose of Photofrin in the detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ was assessed in a small animal model of oral squamous cell cancer (SCC). Nine,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) impregnated cotton sutures, covered with a silicone sheath, were sewn into the hamster cheek pouch to produce dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive cancer. The yield of SCC was 83% by 20 weeks. Fluorescence imaging was performed using a specially designed device that exploits differences of fluorescence properties of normal, precancerous, and cancerous tissues with and without Photofrin. The fluorescence was induced by a helium-cadmium laser (442 nm) and then measured at two different wavelengths by an image intensified camera. Computed images using a mathematical transformation of fluorescence data were then displayed on a video monitor. Areas with dysplasia and both in situ and invasive cancers could be clearly delineated from the adjacent normal tissues. Lesions as small as 2 mm in diameter could be identified. Because of the presence of endogenous porphyrins, the addition of a non-skin phototoxic dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg iv) did not enhance the signal to noise ratio. Our results suggest that fluorescence imaging can accurately detect both precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa without exogenous porphyrins. It may have an important role as a non-invasive, clinical diagnostic tool in oropharyngeal cancer.

  16. Induction of invasion in an organotypic oral cancer model by CoCl2, a hypoxia mimetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusevold, Ingvild J; Husvik, Camilla; Schreurs, Olav; Schenck, Karl; Bryne, Magne; Søland, Tine M

    2010-04-01

    Invasion is a hallmark of malignancy. The aim of this study was to develop an in vitro model that can be used for experimental studies of cancer cell invasion. The organotypic oral cancer model was constructed by growing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells on a collagen matrix in which normal human fibroblasts were incorporated. Immunohistochemical staining of the model showed that the expression of invasion-related molecules such as phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (p-ERK1/2), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), p75(NTR), and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met) was similar to that seen in OSCC. Treatment of the model with cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) to mimic hypoxic conditions increased cancer cell invasion, defined as the appearance of cancer cell islands protruding into the matrix. Models treated with CoCl(2) showed increased expression of p75(NTR) and laminin-5 in the cancer cells, and a more pronounced fragmentation of collagen IV in the basal membrane area, in contrast to models that were left untreated. The results indicate that the present model is well suited for studies on cancer cell invasion in the matrix and that the addition of CoCl(2) on day 3 of the experiment is indicated because it markedly increases the invasion and improves the model.

  17. Resveratrol suppresses TPA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression through the inhibition of MAPK pathways in oral cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Feng-Yan; Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chen, Chang-Tai; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Chou, Ming-Yung; Chuang, Yi-Ting; Lin, Chiao-Wen; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-01

    Naturally occurring agents, such as resveratrol, have been determined to benefit health. Numerous studies have demonstrated that resveratrol has antioxidative, cardioprotective, and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of resveratrol exerts on the metastasis of oral cancer cells remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect the anti-invasive activity of resveratrol on a human oral cancer cell line (SCC-9) in vitro and the underlying mechanisms. Cell viability was examined by MTT assay, whereas cell motility was measured by migration and wound-healing assays. Zymography, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and promoter assays confirmed the inhibitory effects of resveratrol on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in oral cancer cells. We established that various concentrations (0-100 μM) of resveratrol inhibited the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced migration capacities of SCC-9 cells and caused no cytotoxic effects. Zymography and Western blot analyses suggested that resveratrol inhibited TPA-induced MMP-9 gelatinolytic activity and protein expression. In addition, the results indicated that resveratrol inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)1/2 and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 involved in downregulating protein expression and the transcription of MMP-9. In summary, resveratrol inhibited MMP-9 expression and oral cancer cell metastasis by downregulating JNK1/2 and ERK1/2 signals pathways and, thus, exerts beneficial effects in chemoprevention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Hyperspectral microscopy and cluster analysis for oral cancer diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Anneliese; Manickavasagam, Arunthathi; Hosny, Neveen; Festy, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Oral cancer incidences have been increasing in recent years and late detection often leads to poor prognosis. Raman spectroscopy has been identified has a valuable diagnostic tool for cancer but its time consuming nature has prevented its clinical use. For Raman to become a realistic aid to histopathology, a rapid pre-screening technique is required to find small regions of interest on tissue sections [1]. The aim of this work is to investigate the feasibility of hyperspectral imaging in the visible spectral range as a fast imaging technique before Raman is performed. We have built a hyperspectral microscope which captures 300 focused and intensity corrected images with wavelength ranging from 450- 750 nm in around 30 minutes with sub-micron spatial resolution and around 10 nm spectral resolution. Hyperstacks of known absorbing samples, including fluorescent dyes and dried blood droplets, show excellent results with spectrally accurate transmission spectra and concentration-dependent intensity variations. We successfully showed the presence of different components from a non-absorbent saliva droplet sample. Data analysis is the greatest hurdle to the interpretation of more complex data such as unstained tissue sections.

  19. Novel modeling of cancer cell signaling pathways enables systematic drug repositioning for distinct breast cancer metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong; Jin, Guangxu; Cui, Kemi; Ren, Ding; Liu, Timothy; Chen, Peikai; Wong, Solomon; Li, Fuhai; Fan, Yubo; Rodriguez, Angel; Chang, Jenny; Wong, Stephen T C

    2013-10-15

    A new type of signaling network element, called cancer signaling bridges (CSB), has been shown to have the potential for systematic and fast-tracked drug repositioning. On the basis of CSBs, we developed a computational model to derive specific downstream signaling pathways that reveal previously unknown target-disease connections and new mechanisms for specific cancer subtypes. The model enables us to reposition drugs based on available patient gene expression data. We applied this model to repurpose known or shelved drugs for brain, lung, and bone metastases of breast cancer with the hypothesis that cancer subtypes have their own specific signaling mechanisms. To test the hypothesis, we addressed specific CSBs for each metastasis that satisfy (i) CSB proteins are activated by the maximal number of enriched signaling pathways specific to a given metastasis, and (ii) CSB proteins are involved in the most differential expressed coding genes specific to each breast cancer metastasis. The identified signaling networks for the three types of breast cancer metastases contain 31, 15, and 18 proteins and are used to reposition 15, 9, and 2 drug candidates for the brain, lung, and bone metastases. We conducted both in vitro and in vivo preclinical experiments as well as analysis on patient tumor specimens to evaluate the targets and repositioned drugs. Of special note, we found that the Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, sunitinib and dasatinib, prohibit brain metastases derived from breast cancer, addressing one particularly challenging aspect of this disease. ©2013 AACR.

  20. Available web-based teaching resources for health care professionals on screening for oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela-Centelles, Pablo; Insua, Angel; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Rapidis, Alexander; Diz, Pedro; Seoane, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To identify websites with adequate information on oral cancer screening for healthcare professionals (HCPs) and to assess both their quality and contents. Study Design: Websites were identified using Google and HON medical professional search engines using the terms “screening for oral cancer”. The first 100 sites retrieved by each engine were analysed using the DISCERN questionnaire (reliability), the V instrument (contents on oral cancer) and further by the Flesch-Kinkaid Reading Grade Level and the Flesch Reading Ease (readability). Results: The overall rating showed minimal shortcomings in the quality of the information in the websites. The coverage and correctness of information on “visual examination” was rated as fair/good, whereas updating of contents resulted very variable (eg: 81% for visual examination and 18.2% for molecular biomarkers). These results permitted to rank the websites housing relevant information for oral cancer. Top ranking websites were affiliated to the Oral Cancer Foundation (USA), WHO Collaborating Centre for oral cancer (UK) whose webpage is entitled “Oral Cancer Education and Research”, and the Clinical Guidelines maintained by the British Columbia Cancer Agency (Canada) and the British Dental Association (UK) respectively. Conclusions: There are web-based, HCP-addressed, resources on screening for oral cancer housing heterogeneous information both in quality and contents. The use of specific evaluation tools permits the selection of reliable websites on this topic with a potential to improve the existing educational gaps among HCPs. Key words:Oral cancer, early diagnosis, screening, secondary prevention, internet, teaching resources, continuous education. PMID:25475775

  1. Nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for treatment of oral cancer: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Giovana; Bernegossi, Jéssica; Fonseca-Santos, Bruno; Chorilli, Marlus

    2014-01-01

    Oral cancer (oral cavity and oropharynx) is a common and aggressive cancer that invades local tissue, can cause metastasis, and has a high mortality rate. Conventional treatment strategies, such as surgery and chemoradiotherapy, have improved over the past few decades; however, they remain far from optimal. Currently, cancer research is focused on improving cancer diagnosis and treatment methods (oral cavity and oropharynx) nanotechnology, which involves the design, characterization, production, and application of nanoscale drug delivery systems. In medicine, nanotechnologies, such as polymeric nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, nanostructured lipid carriers, gold nanoparticles, hydrogels, cyclodextrin complexes, and liquid crystals, are promising tools for diagnostic probes and therapeutic devices. The objective of this study is to present a systematic review of nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for oral cancers.

  2. Pretreatment circulating monocyte count associated with poor prognosis in patients with oral cavity cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu-Duan; Wang, Chao-Ping; Chen, Chih-Yu; Lin, Li-Wen; Hwang, Tzer-Zen; Lu, Li-Fen; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Chung, Fu-Mei; Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Houng, Jer-Yiing

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the pretreatment total and differential leukocyte counts can predict the prognosis of patients with oral cavity cancer. In a retrospective analysis of patients treated between 2004 and 2011, medical records of 202 patients with oral cavity cancer were evaluated. Patients with oral cavity cancer, the peripheral total white blood cell (WBC) count, monocyte, and neutrophil counts and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio increased with the advancement of clinical stage. In contrast, the lymphocyte count decreased. Further, total WBC, monocyte, and neutrophil counts were increased in those with pathologic stage T4 and poor tumor differentiation, and the monocyte count was also increased in those with lymph node metastasis. Moreover, the pretreatment circulating monocyte count was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival. A higher pretreatment circulating monocyte count can be considered as a useful prognostic marker in patients with oral cavity cancer. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Gene therapy for oral cancer: efficient delivery of a 'suicide gene' to murine oral cancer cells in physiological milieu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Mark; Overlid, Nathan; Konopka, Krystyna; Düzgünes, Nejat

    2005-12-01

    Gene therapy is a new therapeutic modality in which defective genes are replaced with functional ones, or genes are delivered that can specifically kill cancer cells. Efficient gene delivery is an important component of gene therapy approaches. Potential safety problems with viral vectors necessitate the development of efficient nonviral vectors. DNA complexes with synthetic cationic liposomes or polymers constitute a simple means of transferring DNA into target cells. Gene delivery mediated by many nonviral vectors, however, is inhibited by serum components, and this is expected to limit the efficiency of gene delivery in vivo. In this study, the authors examined two novel gene transfection reagents, Metafectene and GeneJammer, for their ability to deliver a reporter gene to SCCVII murine squamous cell carcinoma cells in the presence of high concentrations of mouse serum. After establishing conditions that achieved significant gene delivery, the authors introduced the Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine kinase (HSV-tk) gene into the cells using the cationic liposome reagent, Metafectene, followed by the administration of ganciclovir. After seven days of incubation, 90 percent and 82 percent cytotoxicity was observed in 0 percent and 60 percent mouse serum, respectively. The authors' observations suggest that Metafectene may be useful for the gene therapy of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a murine model involving the induction of oral tumors by SCCVII cells.

  4. Comparative evaluation of genetic assays to identify oral pre-cancerous fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, J.F.; Braakhuis, B.J.; Brink, A.; Broeckaert, M.A.; Beliën, J.A.M.; Meijer, G.A.; Kuik, D.J.; Leemans, C.R.; Bloemena, E.; van der Waal, I.; Brakenhoff, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Oral squamous cell carcinomas often develop in a pre-cancerous field, defined as mucosal epithelium with cancer-related genetic alterations, and which may appear as a clinically visible lesion. The test characteristics of three genetic assays that were developed to detect pre-cancerous

  5. Signaling Pathways in Cancer: a Matter of Dosage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.F.C. Gaspar (Claudia)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe main issue addressed in this thesis is how different levels of signaling activity of the Wnt and TGF-β/BMP pathways can affect transcriptional responses in particular relevant for self-renewal and differentiation both in homeostasis and in cancer. Chapter 1 presents an overview

  6. Cancer stem cells and field cancerization of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simple, M; Suresh, Amritha; Das, Debashish; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2015-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high propensity for local failure, which is attributed to recurrence at the primary site or the development of second primary tumors (SPT). Field cancerization that refers to the existence of transformed cells in areas adjacent to the primary tumor, has been attributed to be one of the probable reasons underlying disease relapse. The carcinogenic process necessitates multiple molecular events for the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. This implies that only the long-time residents of the epithelium, such as the stem cells, might be the candidates capable of accumulating these genetic hits. These transformed stem cells- the 'Cancer stem cells' (CSCs), are further known to be equipped with the properties of tumor initiation and migration, both of which are essential for orchestrating field cancerization. The concept that the CSCs might be responsible for field cancerization in OSCC has not been explored extensively. If the role of CSCs as the primary units of field cancerization process is established, their presence in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor may be an indicator for local recurrence and/or development of second primary tumors. In this review, we examine the available evidence in literature exploring the possibilities of CSCs driving the process of field cancerization and thereby being the underlying mechanism for disease recurrence and development of SPT. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Efficacy of oral contrast agents for upper gastrointestinal signal suppression in MRCP: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisch, Anne; Walter, Thula C; Hamm, Bernd; Denecke, Timm

    2017-09-01

    Orally administered substances which suppress signals from gastrointestinal fluid can be used to enhance image quality in magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). In daily practice, the available substances range from commercial products to regular viands such as fruit juices. To provide an overview on the significance of and the substances used as gastrointestinal fluid signal suppressors in MRCP. A systematic review of the existing literature was performed to evaluate the efficacy and efficiency of oral T2-signal suppressors in MRCP. Twenty-five publications on 16 different oral contrast media were identified. The most commonly used substances were ferumoxsil, ferric ammonium citrate, and pineapple juice. Twenty-three out of 25 publications supported the use of oral signal suppressors in MRCP. Advantages of oral signal suppressors include improved visualization of the pancreatobiliary ductal system, increased help with differential diagnoses, and higher detection rates of relevant diagnoses due to a reduction of overlaying signals. The application of oral substances for gastrointestinal signal suppression in MRCP is recommendable. A variety of substances are used in daily routine with good but varying effectivity and patient tolerance.

  8. Trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Moon, E K; Park, J Y; Jung, K W; Oh, C M; Kong, H J; Won, Y J

    2014-11-01

    This study assessed trends in the incidence of and survival rates for oral cavity cancer in the Korean population. Data from the Korea Central Cancer Registry were extracted for 10,282 patients diagnosed with oral cavity cancer (C01-C06) between 1999 and 2010 to evaluate the age-standardised incidence rate, annual percentage change (APC) and 5-year relative survival rate (RSR) according to gender and age. In males, the incidence rate slightly decreased [APC of -0.2% (P = 0.6427)]; in females, the incidence rate increased [APC of 3.1% (P oral tongue cancer (C02) significantly increased [APC of 2.2% and 4.1%, respectively (P oral tongue cancer incidence was most prominent in the younger age group (cancer increased only among males [APC of 4.8% (P oral cavity cancer in females increased, whereas it stabilised or decreased in males. However, the incidence of oral tongue cancer increased in both males and females, especially in the younger age group. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A dielectrophoretic method of discrimination between normal oral epithelium, and oral and oropharyngeal cancer in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K A; Mulhall, H J; Labeed, F H; Lewis, M P; Hoettges, K F; Kalavrezos, N; McCaul, J; Liew, C; Porter, S; Fedele, S; Hughes, M P

    2015-08-07

    Despite the accessibility of the oral cavity to clinical examination, delays in diagnosis of oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma (OOPC) are observed in a large majority of patients, with negative impact on prognosis. Diagnostic aids might help detection and improve early diagnosis, but there remains little robust evidence supporting the use of any particular diagnostic technology at the moment. The aim of the present feasibility first-in-human study was to evaluate the preliminary diagnostic validity of a novel technology platform based on dielectrophoresis (DEP). DEP does not require labeling with antibodies or stains and it is an ideal tool for rapid analysis of cell properties. Cells from OOPC/dysplasia tissue and healthy oral mucosa were collected from 57 study participants via minimally-invasive brush biopsies and tested with a prototype DEP platform using median membrane midpoint frequency as main analysis parameter. Results indicate that the current DEP platform can discriminate between brush biopsy samples from cancerous and healthy oral tissue with a diagnostic sensitivity of 81.6% and a specificity of 81.0%. The present ex vivo results support the potential application of DEP testing for identification of OOPC. This result indicates that DEP has the potential to be developed into a low-cost, rapid platform as an assistive tool for the early identification of oral cancer in primary care; given the rapid, minimally-invasive and non-expensive nature of the test, dielectric characterization represents a promising platform for cost-effective early cancer detection.

  10. Oral contraceptive use and impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M T; Jensen, A; Frederiksen, K

    2013-01-01

    Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk.......Oral contraceptive use decreases the risk of ovarian cancer, but no previous studies have assessed the impact of cumulative intake of estrogen and progestin on ovarian cancer risk....

  11. Association between general and oral health-related quality of life in patients treated for oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakos, Georgios; Gil-Montoya, José-Antonio; Montero, Javier; Bravo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Background Less is known about the association between general health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral HRQoL (OHRQoL) among patients with specific diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the association between patient-centered outcome measurements (HRQoL and OHRQoL) of oral cancer patients at least 6 months after treatment. Material and Methods HRQoL was measured with the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12); OHRQoL was evaluated using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and the Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP). Results Higher OHRQoL scores were associated with lower SF-12 domains scores. The OHIP-14 explained 16.5 % of the total variance of SF-12 Physical Component Summary (PCS) and the OIDP explained 16.1 %. In the SF-12 Mental Component Summary (MCS), the total variance explained was 23.9 % by the OHIP-14 and 21.8 % by the OIDP. Conclusions There was a significant association between long-term OHRQoL and HRQoL in oral and oropharyngeal cancer patients. These results may help to carry out new interventions aiming to improve patient´s life overall. Key words:Mouth neoplasms, quality of life, health status, oral health. PMID:26449436

  12. Towards safety of oral anti-cancer agents, the need to educate our pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa Saeed Mekdad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The global prevalence of cancer is rising. Use of oral anticancer medications has expanded exponentially. Knowledge about these medications as well as safe handling guidelines has not kept abreast with the rapidity these medications are applied in clinical practice. They pose serious hazards on all personal involved in handling these medications as well as on patients and their caregivers. We addressed the gaps in knowledge and safe handling of oral anticancer agents among pharmacists in institutional based cancer care. Materials and Methods: We used a 41 item questionnaire to explore three domains, pharmacists’ knowledge, safe handling practice and confidence and self-improving strategies towards these agents among pharmacists in multicentre specialized cancer care. Results: Participants included 120 pharmacists dedicated to handle and dispense oral anticancer agents. About 20% of Pharmacists have adequate knowledge about oral anticancer agents. Less than 50% apply safe handling principles adequately. Only a quarter are confident in educating cancer patients and their caregivers about Oral Anti-Cancer Agents. Conclusions: Pharmacists’ knowledge about Oral Anticancer agents needs to be improved. Safe handling and dispensing practice of these medications should be optimized. Pharmacists’ confidence towards educating patients and their caregiver needs to be addressed. Enhancing safety of oral anticancer agents should be a priority. Involving all key players, research and quality improving projects are needed to improve all aspects of the safety of oral anticancer agents.

  13. Modulation of signal transduction pathways by natural compounds in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, Alok; Fofaria, Neel M; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Srivastava, Sanjay K

    2015-10-01

    Cancer is generally regarded as the result of abnormal growth of cells. According to World Health Organization, cancer is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Mother nature provides a large source of bioactive compounds with excellent therapeutic efficacy. Numerous phytochemicals from nature have been investigated for anticancer properties. In this review article, we discuss several natural compounds, which have shown anti-cancer activity. Natural compounds induce cell cycle arrest, activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways, generate Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), and down-regulate activated signaling pathways, resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation, progression and metastasis of cancer. Several preclinical studies have suggested that natural compounds can also increase the sensitivity of resistant cancers to available chemotherapy agents. Furthermore, combining FDA approved anti-cancer drugs with natural compounds results in improved efficacy. On the basis of these exciting outcomes of natural compounds against several cancer types, several agents have already advanced to clinical trials. In conclusion, preclinical results and clinical outcomes against cancer suggest promising anticancer efficacy of agents from natural sources. Copyright © 2015 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Estimation of serum antioxidant enzymes in histopathological grades of oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral cancer: A clinicopathologic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalu Rai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was undertaken to assess the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide distmutase (SOD, beta carotene, and vitamin E in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF, oral leukoplakia (OL, and oral cancer patients. Though several studies have been done on the levels of antioxidants in these disorders, there are very few available reports in patients with various histological staging of these disorders. Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 40 patients who were divided into three groups: Group I as control with 20 normal individuals, group II with histopathologically confirmed different stages of OSMF and OL, and group III with histopathologically confirmed different stages of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Standard methods for estimation of serum values were used and statistical comparisons were performed using SPSS software 16.0 version and the level of significance was calculated. Results: The mean levels of vitamin E, beta carotene, MDA, and SOD among Group I subjects were 9.89 ± 0.75, 112.10 ± 11.97, 2.92 ± 0.36, and 189.45 ± 14.17, respectively. In group II patients with OL having mild dysplasia, serum vitamin E, beta carotene, MDA, and SOD levels were found to be 7.89 ± 0.87, 70.75 ± 2.82, 9.89 ± 0.92, and 119.63 ± 24.97, respectively. In moderate dysplasia, these values were 7.16 ± 0.55, 69.80 ± 5.54, 10.56 ± 0.46, and 115.20 ± 23.03, respectively. Serum vitamin E, beta carotene, MDA, and SOD levels were 7.70 ± 0.57, 70.50 ± 3.54, 9.81 ± 0.11, and 115.00 ± 8.49, respectively, in grade I OSMF and 7.32 ± 0.29, 69.67 ± 3.43, 9.76 ± 0.38, and 113.67 ± 8.32, respectively, in grade II OSMF. In group III patients with well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSCC, serum vitamin E, beta carotene, MDA, and SOD levels were 7.01 ± 0.36, 64.32 ± 3.42, 12.98 ± 0.67, and 59.22 ± 4.01, respectively, and in patients with moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (MDSCC, the values

  15. Appropriate and necessary oral care for people with cancer: guidance to obtain the right oral and dental care at the right time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Joel B; Güneri, Pelin; Barasch, Andrei

    2014-07-01

    The identification of experienced and knowledgeable dental specialists to provide appropriate oral care for cancer patients, as well as the integration of this care within general oncology management, may be a challenge. This paper discusses the general and additional requirements for dental care providers to support the cancer patient and provide prevention and/or treatment for oral complications of cancer therapy. We performed a literature review of specific issues regarding the oral cavity and adjacent structures in the cancer patient, including detection and early diagnosis of oral malignancy. We incorporated the systemic effects of cancer and its therapy that affect oral disease and treatment. We present a summary of how to seek expert dental care for cancer patients and for referral from the dental and medical community. Due to the complexity conferred by the disease and its treatment, cancer patients require educated, experienced dentists for treatment and/or prevention of oral-related morbidity. Correct diagnosis and evidence-based prophylactic and therapeutic oral care can significantly improve patient quality of life and reduce morbidity and healthcare costs. The knowledge and expertise of dental professionals regarding prevention/treatment of complications and secondary malignant lesions in cancer patients are critical. Integration of oral care with the oncology care and in survivors requires effective communication between dental and medical providers beginning ideally at diagnosis. These clinicians may be identified at the cancer center, nearby hospital dental programs, and, less commonly, in the community.

  16. Increased entropy of signal transduction in the cancer metastasis phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The statistical study of biological networks has led to important novel biological insights, such as the presence of hubs and hierarchical modularity. There is also a growing interest in studying the statistical properties of networks in the context of cancer genomics. However, relatively little is known as to what network features differ between the cancer and normal cell physiologies, or between different cancer cell phenotypes. Results Based on the observation that frequent genomic alterations underlie a more aggressive cancer phenotype, we asked if such an effect could be detectable as an increase in the randomness of local gene expression patterns. Using a breast cancer gene expression data set and a model network of protein interactions we derive constrained weighted networks defined by a stochastic information flux matrix reflecting expression correlations between interacting proteins. Based on this stochastic matrix we propose and compute an entropy measure that quantifies the degree of randomness in the local pattern of information flux around single genes. By comparing the local entropies in the non-metastatic versus metastatic breast cancer networks, we here show that breast cancers that metastasize are characterised by a small yet significant increase in the degree of randomness of local expression patterns. We validate this result in three additional breast cancer expression data sets and demonstrate that local entropy better characterises the metastatic phenotype than other non-entropy based measures. We show that increases in entropy can be used to identify genes and signalling pathways implicated in breast cancer metastasis and provide examples of de-novo discoveries of gene modules with known roles in apoptosis, immune-mediated tumour suppression, cell-cycle and tumour invasion. Importantly, we also identify a novel gene module within the insulin growth factor signalling pathway, alteration of which may predispose the tumour to

  17. Increased entropy of signal transduction in the cancer metastasis phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teschendorff Andrew E

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The statistical study of biological networks has led to important novel biological insights, such as the presence of hubs and hierarchical modularity. There is also a growing interest in studying the statistical properties of networks in the context of cancer genomics. However, relatively little is known as to what network features differ between the cancer and normal cell physiologies, or between different cancer cell phenotypes. Results Based on the observation that frequent genomic alterations underlie a more aggressive cancer phenotype, we asked if such an effect could be detectable as an increase in the randomness of local gene expression patterns. Using a breast cancer gene expression data set and a model network of protein interactions we derive constrained weighted networks defined by a stochastic information flux matrix reflecting expression correlations between interacting proteins. Based on this stochastic matrix we propose and compute an entropy measure that quantifies the degree of randomness in the local pattern of information flux around single genes. By comparing the local entropies in the non-metastatic versus metastatic breast cancer networks, we here show that breast cancers that metastasize are characterised by a small yet significant increase in the degree of randomness of local expression patterns. We validate this result in three additional breast cancer expression data sets and demonstrate that local entropy better characterises the metastatic phenotype than other non-entropy based measures. We show that increases in entropy can be used to identify genes and signalling pathways implicated in breast cancer metastasis and provide examples of de-novo discoveries of gene modules with known roles in apoptosis, immune-mediated tumour suppression, cell-cycle and tumour invasion. Importantly, we also identify a novel gene module within the insulin growth factor signalling pathway, alteration of which may

  18. Identifying factors to improve oral cancer screening uptake: a qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Vida Zohoori

    Full Text Available To engage with high risk groups to identify knowledge and awareness of oral cancer signs and symptoms and the factors likely to contribute to improved screening uptake.Focus group discussions were undertaken with 18 males; 40+ years of age; smokers and/or drinkers (15+ cigarettes per day and/or 15+ units of alcohol per week, irregular dental attenders living in economically deprived areas of Teesside.There was a striking reported lack of knowledge and awareness of oral cancer and its signs and symptoms among the participants. When oral/mouth cancer leaflets produced by Cancer Research UK were presented to the participants, they claimed that they would seek help on noticing such a condition. There was a preference to seek help from their general practitioner rather than their dentist due to perceptions that a dentist is 'inaccessible' on a physical and psychological level, costly, a 'tooth specialist' not a 'mouth specialist', and also not able to prescribe medication and make referrals to specialists. Interestingly, none of the 18 participants who were offered a free oral cancer examination at a dental practice took up this offer.The uptake of oral cancer screening may be improved by increasing knowledge of the existence and signs and symptoms of oral cancer. Other factors that may increase uptake are increased awareness of the role of dentists in diagnosing oral cancer, promotion of oral cancer screening by health professionals during routine health checks, and the use of a "health" screening setting as opposed to a "dental" setting for such checks.

  19. Factors influencing oral health in patients during cancer treatment; with emphasis on the relationship between the oral microbiome and oral mucositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laheij, A.M.G.A.

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of cancer therapy for oral health were studied. The effects of irradiation to the head and neck area for the protein composition of parotid saliva were mapped. It was found that irradiation to the head and neck area likely altered the gland tissues resulting in a change in the

  20. Hedgehog Signaling Inhibitors as Anti-Cancer Agents in Osteosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ram Kumar, Ram Mohan, E-mail: rkumar@research.balgrist.ch; Fuchs, Bruno [Laboratory for Orthopaedic Research, Balgrist University Hospital, Sarcoma Center-UZH University of Zurich, Zurich 8008 (Switzerland)

    2015-05-13

    Osteosarcoma is a rare type of cancer associated with a poor clinical outcome. Even though the pathologic characteristics of OS are well established, much remains to be understood, particularly at the molecular signaling level. The molecular mechanisms of osteosarcoma progression and metastases have not yet been fully elucidated and several evolutionary signaling pathways have been found to be linked with osteosarcoma pathogenesis, especially the hedgehog signaling (Hh) pathway. The present review will outline the importance and targeting the hedgehog signaling (Hh) pathway in osteosarcoma tumor biology. Available data also suggest that aberrant Hh signaling has pro-migratory effects and leads to the development of osteoblastic osteosarcoma. Activation of Hh signaling has been observed in osteosarcoma cell lines and also in primary human osteosarcoma specimens. Emerging data suggests that interference with Hh signal transduction by inhibitors may reduce osteosarcoma cell proliferation and tumor growth thereby preventing osteosarcomagenesis. From this perspective, we outline the current state of Hh pathway inhibitors in osteosarcoma. In summary, targeting Hh signaling by inhibitors promise to increase the efficacy of osteosarcoma treatment and improve patient outcome.