WorldWideScience

Sample records for sign sheeting materials

  1. Development of a model performance-based sign sheeting specification based on the evaluation of nighttime traffic signs using legibility and eye-tracker data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This project focused on the evaluation of traffic sign sheeting performance in terms of meeting the nighttime : driver needs. The goal was to develop a nighttime driver needs specification for traffic signs. The : researchers used nighttime sign legi...

  2. Flexible shielding material sheet for radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokan, Susumu; Fukuoka, Masasuke.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a soft sheet of shielding material for radioactive rays without involving no problem such as environmental contamination, without generating intense second radioactive rays such as conventional cadmium. Structure: 100 weight parts of boron compound (boron carbide, boric acid anhydride) and 5 to 60 weight parts of low molecular-weight polyethylene resin, of which average molecular weight is less than 8000, are agitated in a mixer and during agitation are increased in temperature to a level above a softening temperature of the polyethylene resin to obtain a mixture in which the boron compound is coated with the low molecular-weight polyethylene. Next, 3 to 200 weight parts of the resultant mixture and 100 weight parts of olefin group resin (ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer, styrene-butadiene random copolymer) are evenly mixed within an agitator such as a tumbler to form a sheet having the desired thickness and dimension. The thus obtained shielding material generates no capture gamma radiation. (Kamimura, M.)

  3. Disposal sheet for preventing scattering of radioactive contaminated material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Shun-ichi; Kurioka, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Kenjiro.

    1990-01-01

    Upon disposal of vinyl sheets at the final stage of dismantling operation for nuclear buildings, etc., radioactive contaminated materials caused by cutting concretes, etc. remain on the sheets. In view of the above, members capable of restoring original shape due to the temperature difference are attached to the sheet main body so that the sheet main body may be folded into a bag-like shape. Since the members as described above are bent upon temperature elevation in the sheets, the sheet main body is pulled by the members and then spontaneously folded into a bag-like shape. As a result, the radioactive contaminated materials remaining on the sheets are wrapped into the sheet main body free from touch to operator's hands or without scattering to the surrounding. This can prevent operator's external and internal exposure. (T.M.)

  4. Development of a model performance-based sign sheeting specification based on the evaluation of nighttime traffic signs using legibility and eye-tracker data : data and analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report presents data and technical analyses for Texas Department of Transportation Project 0-5235. This : project focused on the evaluation of traffic sign sheeting performance in terms of meeting the nighttime : driver needs. The goal was to de...

  5. Rapidly cast crystalline thin sheet materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warlimont, H.; Emmerich, K.

    1986-01-01

    The current state and progress of casting thin sheet and ribbons directly from the melt are reviewed. First, the solidification phenomena pertinent to the process are outlined. Subsequently, Fe-Si,l Fe-Si-Al, Fe-Nd-B, Ag-Cu-Ti, alloy steels, Ni superalloys and Si are treated as examples. Finally, the information available on process development is critically assessed

  6. Spread-sheet application to classify radioactive material for shipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.N.

    1998-01-01

    A spread-sheet application has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to aid the shipper when classifying nuclide mixtures of normal form, radioactive materials. The results generated by this spread-sheet are used to confirm the proper US DOT classification when offering radioactive material packages for transport. The user must input to the spread-sheet the mass of the material being classified, the physical form (liquid or not) and the activity of each regulated nuclide. The spread-sheet uses these inputs to calculate two general values: 1)the specific activity of the material and a summation calculation of the nuclide content. The specific activity is used to determine if the material exceeds the DOT minimal threshold for a radioactive material. If the material is calculated to be radioactive, the specific activity is also used to determine if the material meets the activity requirement for one of the three low specific activity designations (LSA-I, LSA-II, LSA-III, or not LSA). Again, if the material is calculated to be radioactive, the summation calculation is then used to determine which activity category the material will meet (Limited Quantity, Type A, Type B, or Highway Route Controlled Quantity). This spread-sheet has proven to be an invaluable aid for shippers of radioactive materials at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. (authors)

  7. Alternative materials for FDOT sign structures : phase I literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Inspections of tubular sign structures by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) have : revealed occurrences of premature corrosion on the inside of galvanized steel tubes. As a result, FDOT : engineers are seeking alternative materials that...

  8. A material model for aluminium sheet forming at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Werkhoven, R.J.; Bolt, P.J.

    2001-01-01

    In order to accurately simulate the deep drawing or stretching of aluminum sheet at elevated temperatures, a model is required that incorporates the temperature and strain-rate dependency of the material. In this paper two models are compared: a phenomenological material model in which the

  9. Self-closing sheet for encapsulating and dumping a bulk of material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates to a sheet (1) to be placed in relation to a split barge (100) for encapsulating a bulk of material (101) to be dumped when the bulk of material is released, the sheet comprising a material containing portion (4) and at least one material free portion (3) extending from...

  10. Toxic substances registry system: Index of material safety data sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS's) listed in this index reflect product inventories and associated MSDS's which were submitted to the Toxic Substances Registry database maintained by the Base Operations Contractor at the Kennedy Space Center. The purpose of this index is to provide KSC government, contractor, and tenant organizations a means to access information on the hazards associated with these chemicals. The Toxic Substance Registry Service (TSRS) was established to manage information dealing with the storage and use of toxic and otherwise hazardous materials at KSC. As a part of this service, the BOC Environmental Health Services maintains a central repository of MSDS's which were provided to TSRS. The data on the TSRS are obtained from NASA, contractor, and tenant organizations who use or store hazardous materials at KSC. It is the responsibility of these organizations to conduct inventories, obtain MSDS's, distribute Hazard Communication information to their employees, and otherwise implement compliance with appropriate Federal, State, and NASA Hazard Communication and Worker Right-to-Know regulations and policies.

  11. Experimental analysis of Nd-YAG laser cutting of sheet materials - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Yadava, Vinod

    2018-01-01

    Cutting of sheet material is considered as an important process due to its relevance among products of everyday life such as aircrafts, ships, cars, furniture etc. Among various sheet cutting processes (ASCPs), laser beam cutting is one of the most capable ASCP to create complex geometries with stringent design requirements in difficult-to-cut sheet materials. Based on the recent research work in the area of sheet cutting, it is found that the Nd-YAG laser is used for cutting of sheet material in general and reflective sheet material in particular. This paper reviews the experimental analysis of Nd-YAG laser cutting process, carried out to study the influence of laser cutting parameters on the process performance index. The significance of experimental modeling and different optimization approaches employed by various researchers has also been discussed in this study.

  12. Difficulties in using Material Safety Data Sheets to analyse occupational exposures to contact allergens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Information on the occurrence of contact allergens and irritants is crucial for the diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are important sources of information concerning exposures in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: From a medical viewpoint...

  13. New directions in the science and technology of advanced sheet explosive formulations and the key energetic materials used in the processing of sheet explosives: Emerging trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talawar, M B; Jangid, S K; Nath, T; Sinha, R K; Asthana, S N

    2015-12-30

    This review presents the work carried out by the international community in the area of sheet explosive formulations and its applications in various systems. The sheet explosive is also named as PBXs and is a composite material in which solid explosive particles like RDX, HMX or PETN are dispersed in a polymeric matrix, forms a flexible material that can be rolled/cut into sheet form which can be applied to any complex contour. The designed sheet explosive must possess characteristic properties such as flexible, cuttable, water proof, easily initiable, and safe handling. The sheet explosives are being used for protecting tanks (ERA), light combat vehicle and futuristic infantry carrier vehicle from different attacking war heads etc. Besides, sheet explosives find wide applications in demolition of bridges, ships, cutting and metal cladding. This review also covers the aspects such as risks and hazard analysis during the processing of sheet explosive formulations, effect of ageing on sheet explosives, detection and analysis of sheet explosive ingredients and the R&D efforts of Indian researchers in the development of sheet explosive formulations. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no review article published in the literature in the area of sheet explosives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Initial rigid response and softening transition of highly stretchable kirigami sheet materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Midori; Okumura, Ko

    2016-04-27

    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the mechanical response of sheet materials on which line cracks or cuts are arranged in a simple pattern. Such sheet materials, often called kirigami (the Japanese words, kiri and gami, stand for cut and paper, respectively), demonstrate a unique mechanical response promising for various engineering applications such as stretchable batteries: kirigami sheets possess a mechanical regime in which sheets are highly stretchable and very soft compared with the original sheets without line cracks, by virtue of out-of-plane deformation. However, this regime starts after a transition from an initial stiff regime governed by in-plane deformation. In other words, the softness of the kirigami structure emerges as a result of a transition from the two-dimensional to three-dimensional deformation, i.e., from stretching to bending. We clarify the physical origins of the transition and mechanical regimes, which are revealed to be governed by simple scaling laws. The results could be useful for controlling and designing the mechanical response of sheet materials including cell sheets for medical regeneration and relevant to the development of materials with tunable stiffness and mechanical force sensors.

  15. Laser cutting of laminated sheet material: a modeling exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, R.F.; Meijer, J.

    1997-01-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum-synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at rates comparable to those of

  16. Laser cutting of laminated sheet material: a modeling exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Roelof F.; Meijer, Johan

    1997-08-01

    Laser cutting has been investigated for a number of aluminum-synthetic laminates, newly developed materials for the aeronautic and automotive industry. The materials consist of alternating aluminum and synthetic layers. It is shown that these materials can be cut at rates comparable to those of homogeneous aluminum alloys. The cuts show little dross attachment. Also some damage on the synthetic layers has to be accepted. These results initiated a modeling exercise, which resulted in a numerical simulation code. The applied cutting model is based on describing the material in several horizontal layers, each with its own specific thermophysical and optical properties. The separate layers are coupled by known mass, energy and force balanced equations.

  17. Written instructions for the transport of hazardous materials: Accident management instruction sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridder, K.

    1988-01-01

    In spite of the regulations and the safety provisions taken, accidents are not entirely avoidable in the transport of hazardous materials. For managing an accident and preventing further hazards after release of dangerous substances, the vehicle drivers must carry with them the accident management instruction sheets, which give instructions on immediate counter measures to be taken by the driver, and on information to be given to the police and the fire brigades. The article in hand discusses the purpose, the contents, and practice-based improvement of this collection of instruction sheets. Particular reference is given to the newly revised version of June 15, 1988 (Verkehrsblatt 1/88) of the 'Directives for setting up accident management instruction sheets - written instructions - for road transport of hazardous materials', as issued by the Federal Ministry of Transport. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Training Sessions and Materials Present Ways to Improve System Efficiency: OIT Technical Assistance Fact Sheet: Training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericksen, E.

    1999-01-01

    Interested in learning about innovative ways to improve the efficiency of your plant's steam, electric motor, and compressed air systems? This US Department of Energy Office of Industrial Technologies fact sheet offers information regarding training sessions, teleconferences, and various training materials to teach you and your company ways to reduce energy use, save money, and reduce waste and pollution through system optimization

  19. An advanced material model for aluminum sheet forming at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurukuri, S.; Miroux, Alexis; Ghosh, Manojit; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Oñate, E.; Owen, D.R.J; Suárez, B.

    2009-01-01

    A physically-based material model according to Nes is used to simulate the warm forming of Al-Mg-Si sheet. This model incorporates the influence of the temperature and strain rate on the flow stress and on the hardening rate based on storage and dynamic recovery of dislocations. The effect of size

  20. The Effects of Plastic Anisotropy in Warm and Hot Forming of Magnesium Sheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleff, Eric M.; Antoniswamy, Aravindha R.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Yavuz, Emre

    Mg alloy sheet materials often exhibit plastic anisotropy at room temperature as a result of the limited slip systems available in the HCP lattice combined with a commonly strong basal texture. Less well studied is plastic anisotropy developed at the elevated temperatures associated with warm and hot forming. At these elevated temperatures, particularly above 200°C, the activation of additional slip systems significantly increases ductility. However, plastic anisotropy is also induced at elevated temperatures by a strong crystallographic texture, and it can require an accounting in material constitutive models to achieve accurate forming simulations. The type and degree of anisotropy under these conditions depend on both texture and deformation mechanism. The current understanding of plastic anisotropy in Mg AZ31B and ZEK100 sheet materials at elevated temperatures is reviewed in this article. The recent construction of material forming cases is also reviewed with strategies to account for plastic anisotropy in forming simulations.

  1. Materials safety data sheets: the basis for control of toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, N. E.; Ketchen, E. E.; Porter, W. E.; Hunt, C. L.

    1977-05-01

    For large industrial and research operations, maintaining reasonable control of all toxic materials used in their operations can be a formidable task. A system utilizing cards has been developed that serves a dual purpose, informing the user regarding hazards of a particular material and also facilitating appropriate workplace surveillance during its use. Selected data, including threshold limit values, routes of absorption, symptoms of exposure, chronic effects, and emergency first-aid procedures, are printed on the card. A portion of the card contains the label that the user detaches and affixes to the container. This label classifies the material according to flammability, toxicity, reactivity, and special properties on a 0 through 4 hazard rating system. This report describes the development and use of such cards, contains the associated Toxic Material Data Sheets that provide full backup data for the labels, and furnishes a glossary of biomedical terms used in the Data Sheets.

  2. Materials safety data sheets the basis for control of toxic chemicals. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, N. E.; Ketchen, E. E.; Porter, W. E.; Hunt, C. L.

    1977-05-01

    For large industrial and research operations, maintaining reasonable control of all toxic materials used in their operations can be a formidable task. A system utilizing cards has been developed that serves a dual purpose, informing the user regarding hazards of a particular material and also facilitating appropriate workplace surveillance during its use. Selected data, including threshold limit values, routes of absorption, symptoms of exposure, chronic effects, and emergency first-aid procedures, are printed on the card. A portion of the card contains the label that the user detaches and affixes to the container. This label classifies the material according to flammability, toxicity, reactivity, and special properties on a 0 through 4 hazard rating system. This report describes the development and use of such cards, contains the associated Toxic Material Data Sheets that provide full backup data for the labels, and furnishes a glossary of biomedical terms used in the Data Sheets.

  3. Confined disclinations: exterior versus material constraints in developable thin elastic sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Efi; Pocivavsek, Luka; Meza, Ruben; Lee, Ka Yee C; Witten, Thomas A

    2015-02-01

    We examine the shape change of a thin disk with an inserted wedge of material when it is pushed against a plane, using analytical, numerical, and experimental methods. Such sheets occur in packaging, surgery, and nanotechnology. We approximate the sheet as having vanishing strain, so that it takes a conical form in which straight generators converge to a disclination singularity. Then, its shape is that which minimizes elastic bending energy alone. Real sheets are expected to approach this limiting shape as their thickness approaches zero. The planar constraint forces a sector of the sheet to buckle into the third dimension. We find that the unbuckled sector is precisely semicircular, independent of the angle δ of the inserted wedge. We generalize the analysis to include conical as well as planar constraints and thereby establish a law of corresponding states for shallow cones of slope ε and thin wedges. In this regime, the single parameter δ/ε^{2} determines the shape. We discuss the singular limit in which the cone becomes a plane, and the unexpected slow convergence to the semicircular buckling observed in real sheets.

  4. Standard Test Method for Solar Transmittance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1986-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar transmittance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form by using a pyranometer, an enclosure, and the sun as the energy source. 1.2 This test method also allows measurement of solar transmittance at angles other than normal incidence. 1.3 This test method is applicable to sheet materials that are transparent, translucent, textured, or patterned. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  5. Standard Test Method for Solar Photometric Transmittance of Sheet Materials Using Sunlight

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the measurement of solar photometric transmittance of materials in sheet form. Solar photometric transmittance is measured using a photometer (illuminance meter) in an enclosure with the sun and sky as the source of radiation. The enclosure and method of test is specified in Test Method E 1175 (or Test Method E 1084). 1.2 The purpose of this test method is to specify a photometric sensor to be used with the procedure for measuring the solar photometric transmittance of sheet materials containing inhomogeneities in their optical properties. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  6. Impulse Hydroforming Method for Very Thin Sheets from Metallic or Hybrid Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Beerwald, C.; Beerwald, M.; Dirksen, U.; Henselek, A.

    2010-01-01

    Forming of very thin metallic and hybrid material foils is a demanding task in several application areas as for example in food or pharmaceutical packaging industries. Narrow forming limits of very thin sheet metals as well as minor process reliability due to necessary exact tool manufacturing (small punch-die clearance), both, causes abiding interest in new and innovative forming processes. In this contribution a new method using high pressure pulses will be introduced to form small geometry...

  7. Materials Safety Data Sheets: the basis for control of toxic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketchen, E.E.; Porter, W.E.

    1979-09-01

    The Material Safety Data Sheets contained in this volume are the basis for the Toxic Chemical Control Program developed by the Industrial Hygiene Department, Health Division, ORNL. The three volumes are the update and expansion of ORNL/TM-5721 and ORNL/TM-5722 Material Safety Data Sheets: The Basis for Control of Toxic Chemicals, Volume I and Volume II. As such, they are a valuable adjunct to the data cards issued with specific chemicals. The chemicals are identified by name, stores catalog number where appropriate, and sequence numbers from the NIOSH Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, 1977 Edition, if available. The data sheets were developed and compiled to aid in apprising the employees of hazards peculiar to the handling and/or use of specific toxic chemicals. Space limitation necessitate the use of descriptive medical terms and toxicological abbreviations. A glossary and an abbreviation list were developed to define some of those sometimes unfamiliar terms and abbreviations. The page numbers are keyed to the catalog number in the chemical stores at ORNL.

  8. A new tensile impact test for the toughness characterization of sheet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Könemann, Markus; Lenz, David; Brinnel, Victoria; Münstermann, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    In the past, the selection of suitable steels has been carried out primarily based on the mechanical properties of different steels. One of these properties is the resistance against crack propagation. For many constructions, this value plays an important role, because it can compare the impact toughness of different steel grades easily and gives information about the loading capacity of the specific materials. For thin sheets, impact toughness properties were usually not considered. One of the reasons for this is that the Charpy-impact test is not applicable for sheets with thicknesses below 2 mm. For a long time, this was not relevant because conventional steels had a sufficient impact toughness in a wide temperature range. However, since new multiphase steel grades with improved mechanical property exploitations are available, it turned out that impact toughness properties need to be considered during the component design phase, as the activation of the cleavage fracture mechanism is observed under challenging loading conditions. Therefore, this work aims to provide a new and practical testing procedure for sheet material or thin walled structures. The new testing procedure is based on tensile tests conducted in an impact pendulum similar to the Charpy impact hammer. A new standard geometry is provided, which enables a comparison between different steels or steel grades. A connection to the conventional Charpy test is presented using a damage mechanics model, which predicts material failure with consideration of to the stress state at various temperatures. Different specimen geometries are analysed to cover manifold stress states. A special advantage of the damage mechanics model is also the possibility to predict the materials behaviour in the transition area. To verify the method a conventional steel was tested in Charpy tests as well as in the new tensile impact test.

  9. Mn2C sheet as an electrode material for lithium-ion battery: A first-principles prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Yungang; Zu, Xiaotao

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Combined with strong Li bond, low Li diffusion barrier, superior electrical conductivity and high theoretical capacity, Mn 2 C Sheet is found to be a new promising electrode material for Lithium-Ion Battery. - Highlights: • Li atom bind strongly with Mn 2 C sheet with a very low adsorption energy. • Pristine Mn 2 C sheet exhibits metallic character. • Li atom can easily and freely migrate on the Mn 2 C sheet. • Lithiation to a high content is feasible. • Theoretical capacity of Mn 2 C sheet arrives at 879 mAhg −1 . - Abstract: A search for high-efficiency electrode materials is crucial for the application of Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Using density functional theory (DFT), we assess the Mn 2 C sheet, a new MXene, as a suitable electrode material. Our studies show that Li atoms can bind strongly to the Mn 2 C sheet, with low adsorption energy of −1.93 eV. A pristine Mn 2 C sheet exhibits metallic characteristic, offering an intrinsic advantage for the transportation of electrons in material. A very low energy barrier of 0.05 eV is predicted, showing that Li ion can easily and freely migrate on the Mn 2 C sheet. In addition, with the increase of Li content, adsorption energy varies minimally within a range of energy that spans only 0.27 eV, showing that lithiation to a high content is feasible. Furthermore, we found that, because of the bilayer adsorptions on both sides of the Mn 2 C sheet, the theoretical capacity of the Mn 2 C sheet is 879 mAhg −1 , which is greater than that of most two-dimentional (2D) electrode materials. All these results reveal a new promising MXene material for LIBs. We also studied the effects of oxidation and fluorination on the electrochemical properties of the Mn 2 C sheet and found that oxidation and fluorination will fade the electrochemical properties of the Mn 2 C sheet in general.

  10. Novel Flexible Wearable Sensor Materials and Signal Processing for Vital Sign and Human Activity Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servati, Amir; Zou, Liang; Wang, Z Jane; Ko, Frank; Servati, Peyman

    2017-07-13

    Advances in flexible electronic materials and smart textile, along with broad availability of smart phones, cloud and wireless systems have empowered the wearable technologies for significant impact on future of digital and personalized healthcare as well as consumer electronics. However, challenges related to lack of accuracy, reliability, high power consumption, rigid or bulky form factor and difficulty in interpretation of data have limited their wide-scale application in these potential areas. As an important solution to these challenges, we present latest advances in novel flexible electronic materials and sensors that enable comfortable and conformable body interaction and potential for invisible integration within daily apparel. Advances in novel flexible materials and sensors are described for wearable monitoring of human vital signs including, body temperature, respiratory rate and heart rate, muscle movements and activity. We then present advances in signal processing focusing on motion and noise artifact removal, data mining and aspects of sensor fusion relevant to future clinical applications of wearable technology.

  11. 23 CFR Appendix to Subpart F of... - Alternate Method of Determining the Color of Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Retroreflective Sign Materials and Pavement Marking Materials Appendix to Subpart F of Part 655 Highways FEDERAL... Pavement Marking Materials 1. Although the FHWA Color Tolerance Charts depreciate the use of... for Retroreflective Pavement Marking Material With CIE 2° Standard Observer and 45/0 (0/45) Geometry...

  12. Decontamination efficiency of a sheet of vinyl wall paper as a surface material in radioisotope laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuhiko; Funadera, Kanako

    1989-01-01

    It has long been desired to prevent surface materials from cracking in a radioisotope laboratory. We applied a sheet of nonflammable wall paper, vinyl cloth, as a surface material to cover concrete wall. It was sufficiently resistant to the reinforced concrete wall cracking. The efficiency of the decontamination of the vinyl cloth was compared with those of stainless steel, iron and painted plates. The contamination and decontamination indices were determined in these surface materials after contamination with [ 32 P]orthophosphate (pH 3, 7 and 11) for 0 to 48 h. Both of the indices of the vinyl cloth were higher than those of the other materials. Further, it was confirmed that the vinyl cloth was resistant to acid and alkaline conditions and radioisotopes could not be permeable. The wipe off efficiency was also investigated in these materials by use of several decontamination detergents. In any reagents tested, the wipe of efficiency of the vinyl cloth was more than 80%. Thus, the vinyl cloth could be used for the surface material and is one of good surface materials in a radioisotope laboratory. (author)

  13. Standard Test Methods for Solar Energy Transmittance and Reflectance (Terrestrial) of Sheet Materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1971-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover the measurement of solar energy transmittance and reflectance (terrestrial) of materials in sheet form. Method A, using a spectrophotometer, is applicable for both transmittance and reflectance and is the referee method. Method B is applicable only for measurement of transmittance using a pyranometer in an enclosure and the sun as the energy source. Specimens for Method A are limited in size by the geometry of the spectrophotometer while Method B requires a specimen 0.61 m2 (2 ft2). For the materials studied by the drafting task group, both test methods give essentially equivalent results. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  14. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on graphene oxide sheets as high-performance electrochromic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Xueting; Sun, Shibin; Dong, Lihua; Hu, Xiong; Yin, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Electrochromic mechanism of tungsten oxide nanowires-reduced graphene oxide composite. - Highlights: • A novel inorganic-nano-carbon hybrid composite was prepared. • The hybrid composite has sandwich-like structure. • The hybrid composite exhibited high-quality electrohcromic performance. - Abstract: In this work, we report the synthesis of a novel hybrid electrochromic composite through nucleation and growth of ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires on graphene oxide sheets using a facile solvothermal route. The competition between the growth of tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduction of graphene oxide sheets leads to the formation of sandwich-structured tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite. Due to the strongly coupled effect between the ultrathin tungsten oxide nanowires and the reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, the novel electrochromic composite exhibited high-quality electrochromic performance with fast color-switching speed, good cyclic stability, and high coloration efficiency. The present tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide composite represents a new approach to prepare other inorganic-reduced graphene oxide hybrid materials for electrochemical applications

  15. Direct Laser Writing of Single-Material Sheets with Programmable Self-Rolling Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauhofer, Anton; KröDel, Sebastian; Bilal, Osama; Daraio, Chiara; Constantinescu, Andrei

    Direct laser writing, a sub-class of two-photon polymerization, facilitates 3D-printing of single-material microstructures with inherent residual stresses. Here we show that controlled distribution of these stresses allows for fast and cost-effective fabrication of structures with programmable self-rolling capability. We investigate 2D sheets that evolve into versatile 3D structures. Precise control over the shape morphing potential is acquired through variations in geometry and writing parameters. Effects of capillary action and gravity were shown to be relevant for very thin sheets (thickness 1.5um) are dominated by residual stresses and adhesion forces. The presented structures create local tensions up to 180MPa, causing rolling curvatures of 25E3m-1. A comprehensive analytical model that captures the relevant influence factors was developed based on laminate plate theory. The predicted curvature and directionality correspond well with the experimentally obtained data. Potential applications are found in drug encapsulation and particle traps for emulsions with differing surface energies. This work was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

  16. Material characterization and finite element simulations of aluminum alloy sheets during non-isothermal forming process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nan

    The utilization of more non-ferrous materials is one of the key factors to succeed out of the constantly increasing demand for lightweight vehicles in automotive sector. Aluminum-magnesium alloys have been identified as the most promising substitutions to the conventional steel without significant compromise in structural stiffness and strength. However, the conventional forming methods to deform the aluminum alloy sheets are either costly or insufficient in formability which limit the wide applications of aluminum alloy sheets. A recently proposed non-isothermal hot stamping approach, which is also referred as Hot Blank - Cold Die (HB-CD) stamping, aims at fitting the commercial grade aluminum alloy sheets, such as AA5XXX and AA7XXX, into high-volume and cost-effective production for automotive sector. In essence, HB-CD is a mutation of the conventional hot stamping approach for boron steel (22MnB5) which deforms the hot blank within the cold tool set. By elevating the operation temperature, the formability of aluminum alloy sheets can be significantly improved. Meanwhile, heating the blank only and deforming within the cold tool sets allow to reduce the energy and time consumed. This research work aims at conducting a comprehensive investigation of HB-CD with particular focuses on material characterization, constitutive modeling and coupled thermo-mechanical finite element simulations with validation. The material properties of AA5182-O, a popular commercial grade of aluminum alloy sheet in automotive sector, are obtained through isothermal tensile testing at temperatures from 25° to 300°, covering a quasi-static strain-rate range (0.001--0.1s-1). As the state-of-the-art non-contact strain measurement technique, digital image correlation (DIC) system is utilized to evaluate the stress-strain curves as well as to reveal the details of material deformation with full-field and multi-axis strain measurement. Material anisotropy is characterized by extracting the

  17. Preparation of Ni(OH)2-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.F.; Yuan, G.H.; Jiang, Z.H.; Yao, Z.P.; Yue, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CNT is introduced into graphene to prevent restacking by solvothermal reaction. • Ethanol as a low cost and green solvent is used in solvothermal reaction. • Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets were chemically precipitated into GS-CNT to increase the capacitance. - Abstract: Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was prepared for supercapacitance materials through a simple two-step process involving solvothermal synthesis of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite in ethanol and chemical precipitation of Ni(OH) 2 . According to N 2 adsorption/desorption analysis, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite (109.07 m 2 g −1 ) was larger than that of pure graphene sheets (32.06 m 2 g −1 ), indicating that the added carbon nanotubes (15 wt.%) could prevent graphene sheets from restacking in the solvothermal reaction. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that Ni(OH) 2 nanosheets were uniformly loaded into the three-dimensional interconnected network of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite. The microstructure enhanced the rate capability and utilization of Ni(OH) 2 . The specific capacitance of Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was 1170.38 F g −1 at a current density of 0.2 A g −1 in the 6 mol L −1 KOH solution, higher than those provided by pure Ni(OH) 2 (953.67 Fg −1 ) and graphene sheets (178.25 F g −1 ). After 20 cycles at each current density (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 A g −1 ), the capacitance of Ni(OH) 2 -graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite decreased 26.96% of initial capacitance compared to 74.52% for pure Ni(OH) 2

  18. Indirect Versus Direct Heating of Sheet Materials: Superplastic Forming and Diffusion Bonding Using Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocelyn, Alan; Kar, Aravinda; Fanourakis, Alexander; Flower, Terence; Ackerman, Mike; Keevil, Allen; Way, Jerome

    2010-06-01

    Many from within manufacturing industry consider superplastic forming (SPF) to be ‘high tech’, but it is often criticized as too complicated, expensive, slow and, in general, an unstable process when compared to other methods of manipulating sheet materials. Perhaps, the fundamental cause of this negative perception of SPF, and also of diffusion bonding (DB), is the fact that the current process of SPF/DB relies on indirect sources of heating to produce the conditions necessary for the material to be formed. Thus, heat is usually derived from the electrically heated platens of hydraulic presses, to a lesser extent from within furnaces and, sometimes, from heaters imbedded in ceramic moulds. Recent evaluations of these isothermal methods suggest they are slow, thermally inefficient and inappropriate for the process. In contrast, direct heating of only the material to be formed by modern, electrically efficient, lasers could transform SPF/DB into the first choice of designers in aerospace, automotive, marine, medical, architecture and leisure industries. Furthermore, ‘variable temperature’ direct heating which, in theory, is possible with a laser beam(s) may provide a means to control material thickness distribution, a goal of enormous importance as fuel efficient, lightweight structures for transportation systems are universally sought. This paper compares, and contrasts, the two systems and suggests how a change to laser heating might be achieved.

  19. Effect of Bottoming on Material Property during Sheet Forming Process through Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinlabi, Stephen A.; Fatoba, Olawale S.; Mashinini, Peter M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2018-03-01

    Metal forming is one of the conventional manufacturing processes of immense relevance till date even though modern manufacturing processes have evolved over the years. It is a known fact that material tends to return or spring back to its original form during forming or bending. The phenomena have been well managed through its application in various manufacturing processes by compensating for the spring back through overbending and bottoming. Overbending is bending the material beyond the desired shape to allow the material to spring back to the expected shape. Bottoming, on the other hand, is a process of undergoing plastic deformation at the point of bending. This study reports on the finite element analysis of the effect of bottoming on the material property during the sheet forming process with the aim of optimising the process. The result of the analysis revealed that the generated plastic strains are in the order between 1.750e00-1 at the peak of the bending and 3.604e00-2, which was at the early stage of the bending.

  20. Making an Inexpensive Electromagnetic Wiggler Using Sheet Materials for the Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Herman-Biallas, George; Hiatt, Thomas; Neil, George; Snyder, Michael

    2004-01-01

    An inexpensive electromagnetic wiggler, made with twenty-eight, 4 cm periods with a K of 1 and gap of 2.6 cm was made within 10 weeks after receipt of order by an industrial machine shop. The coil design used sheet and plate materials cut to shapes using water jet cutting and was assembled in a simple stack design. The coil design extends the serpentine conductor design of the Duke OK4 to more and smaller conductors. The coils are conduction cooled to imbedded cooling plates. The wiggler features graded end pole fields, trim coil compensation for end field errors and mirror plates on the ends to avoid three dimensional end field effects. Details of the methods used in construction and the wiggler performance are presented.

  1. Material Behavior Based Hybrid Process for Sheet Draw-Forging Thin Walled Magnesium Alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Z.Q.; Shivpuri, R.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are conventionally formed at the elevated temperatures. The thermally improved formability is sensitive to the temperature and strain rate. Due to limitations in forming speeds, tooling strength and narrow processing windows, complex thin walled parts cannot be made by traditional warm drawing or hot forging processes. A hybrid process, which is based on the deformation mechanism of magnesium alloys at the elevated temperature, is proposed that combines warm drawing and hot forging modes to produce an aggressive geometry at acceptable forming speed. The process parameters, such as temperatures, forming speeds etc. are determined by the FEM modeling and simulation. Sensitivity analysis under the constraint of forming limits of Mg alloy sheet material and strength of tooling material is carried out. The proposed approach is demonstrated on a conical geometry with thin walls and with bottom features. Results show that designed geometry can be formed in about 8 seconds, this cannot be formed by conventional forging while around 1000s is required for warm drawing. This process is being further investigated through controlled experiments

  2. High-speed blanking of copper alloy sheets: Material modeling and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Ch.; Ahzi, S.; Daridon, L.

    2006-08-01

    To optimize the blanking process of thin copper sheets ( ≈ 1. mm thickness), it is necessary to study the influence of the process parameters such as the punch-die clearance and the wear of the punch and the die. For high stroke rates, the strain rate developed in the work-piece can be very high. Therefore, the material modeling must include the dynamic effects.For the modeling part, we propose an elastic-viscoplastic material model combined with a non-linear isotropic damage evolution law based on the theory of the continuum damage mechanics. Our proposed modeling is valid for a wide range of strain rates and temperatures. Finite Element simulations, using the commercial code ABAQUS/Explicit, of the blanking process are then conducted and the results are compared to the experimental investigations. The predicted cut edge of the blanked part and the punch-force displacement curves are discussed as function of the process parameters. The evolution of the shape errors (roll-over depth, fracture depth, shearing depth, and burr formation) as function of the punch-die clearance, the punch and the die wear, and the contact punch/die/blank-holder are presented. A discussion on the different stages of the blanking process as function of the processing parameters is given. The predicted results of the blanking dependence on strain-rate and temperature using our modeling are presented (for the plasticity and damage). The comparison our model results with the experimental ones shows a good agreement.

  3. IMPROVED AGING PERFORMANCE OF VIRGIN EPDM ROOF-SHEETING COMPOUNDS WITH AMINE-DEVULCANIZED EPDM WEATHERSTRIP MATERIAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuis, K. A. J.; Dierkes, W. K.; Noordermeer, J. W. M.; Sutanto, P.

    2008-01-01

    Sulfur-cured EPDM building-profile material was reclaimed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder using hexadecylamine as reclaiming aid. This reclaim was blended with increasing amounts of a virgin EPDM roof-sheeting masterbatch and cured at temperatures allowing for a reversion-free vulcanization.

  4. Metacarpal sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Nieradko-Iwanicka

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Archibald's sign, or metacarpal sign is defined as shortening of the IV and V metacarpal bones, is a rare phenomenon found in the Turner syndrome, homocystinuria and in Albright's osteodystrophy. Objectives The aim of the article was to show a rare case of metacarpal sign with atypical shortening of the III and IV metacarpal bones not connected with gonadal dysgenesia, genetic disorders nor osteodystrophy. Material and methods Case report of a 60-year-old female patient. Results Artchibald's metacarpal sign in the described case was accompanied by erosive arthritis in the left lower extremity. No features of genetic disorders nor gonadal disgenesia were found in the patient. Undifferentiated seronegative asymmetric erosive arthritis developed in the patient. The level of parathormon was within the normal range. No signs of tumor were seen in bone scintigraphy. Conclusions Archibald's metacarpal sign may be present in patients without genetic disorders.

  5. Preparation of Ni(OH){sub 2}-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.F. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Heilongjiang University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150022 (China); Yuan, G.H., E-mail: ygh@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Jiang, Z.H., E-mail: jiangzhaohua@hit.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yao, Z.P. [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Yue, M. [Shenzhen BTR New Energy Materials INC., Shenzhen 528206 (China)

    2015-01-05

    Highlights: • CNT is introduced into graphene to prevent restacking by solvothermal reaction. • Ethanol as a low cost and green solvent is used in solvothermal reaction. • Ni(OH){sub 2} nanosheets were chemically precipitated into GS-CNT to increase the capacitance. - Abstract: Ni(OH){sub 2}-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was prepared for supercapacitance materials through a simple two-step process involving solvothermal synthesis of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite in ethanol and chemical precipitation of Ni(OH){sub 2}. According to N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption analysis, the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite (109.07 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}) was larger than that of pure graphene sheets (32.06 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}), indicating that the added carbon nanotubes (15 wt.%) could prevent graphene sheets from restacking in the solvothermal reaction. The results of field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy showed that Ni(OH){sub 2} nanosheets were uniformly loaded into the three-dimensional interconnected network of graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite. The microstructure enhanced the rate capability and utilization of Ni(OH){sub 2}. The specific capacitance of Ni(OH){sub 2}-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite was 1170.38 F g{sup −1} at a current density of 0.2 A g{sup −1} in the 6 mol L{sup −1} KOH solution, higher than those provided by pure Ni(OH){sub 2} (953.67 Fg{sup −1}) and graphene sheets (178.25 F g{sup −1}). After 20 cycles at each current density (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.2 A g{sup −1}), the capacitance of Ni(OH){sub 2}-graphene sheet-carbon nanotube composite decreased 26.96% of initial capacitance compared to 74.52% for pure Ni(OH){sub 2}.

  6. Binding SnO2 nanocrystals in nitrogen-doped graphene sheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaosi; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2013-04-18

    Hybrid anode materials for Li-ion batteries are fabricated by binding SnO2 nanocrystals (NCs) in nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-RGO) sheets by means of an in situ hydrazine monohydrate vapor reduction method. The SnO2NCs in the obtained SnO2NC@N-RGO hybrid material exhibit exceptionally high specific capacity and high rate capability. Bonds formed between graphene and SnO2 nanocrystals limit the aggregation of in situ formed Sn nanoparticles, leading to a stable hybrid anode material with long cycle life. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Silicon Nanoparticles Inserted into Graphene Sheets as High Performance Anode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silicon nanoparticles have been successfully inserted into graphene sheets via a novel method combining freeze-drying and thermal reduction. The structure, electrochemical performance, and cycling stability of this anode material were characterized by SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, charge/discharge cycling, and cyclic voltammetry (CV. CV showed that the Si/graphene nanocomposite exhibits remarkably enhanced cycling performance and rate performance compared with bare Si nanoparticles for lithium ion batteries. XRD and SEM showed that silicon nanoparticles inserted into graphene sheets were homogeneous and had better layered structure than the bare silicon nanoparticles. Graphene sheets improved high rate discharge capacity and long cycle-life performance. The initial capacity of the Si nanoparticles/graphene keeps above 850 mAhg−1 after 100 cycles at a rate of 100 mAg−1. The excellent cycle performances are caused by the good structure of the composites, which ensured uniform electronic conducting sheet and intensified the cohesion force of binder and collector, respectively.

  8. Compensation of the Persistent Current Multipoles in the LHC Dipoles by making the Coil Protection Sheet from Soft Magnetic Material

    CERN Document Server

    Völlinger, C

    2000-01-01

    This note presents a scheme for compensating the persistent current multipole errors of the LHC dipoles by making the coil protection sheets from soft magnetic material of 0.5 mm thickness. The material properties assumed in this study are those of iron sheets with a very low content of impurities (99.99% pure Fe). The non-linearities in the upramp cycle on the b3 multipole component can be reduced by the factor of four (while decreasing the b5 variation by the factor of two. Using sheets of slightly different thicknesses offers a tuning possibility for the series magnet coils and can compensate deviations arising from cables of different suppliers. The calculation method is based on a semi-analytical hysteresis model for hard superconductors and an M(B) - iteration using the method of coupled boundary elements - finite elements (BEM - FEM). It is now possible to compute persistent current multipole errors of geometries with arbitrarily shaped iron yokes and thin layers of soft magnetic material such as tunin...

  9. Studies of deformation-induced texture development in sheet materials using diffraction techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banovic, S.W.; Vaudin, M.D.; Gnaeupel-Herold, T.H.; Saylor, D.M.; Rodbell, K.P

    2004-01-01

    Crystallographic texture measurements were made on a series of rolled aluminum sheet specimens deformed in equi-biaxial tension up to a strain level of 0.11. The measurement techniques used were neutron diffraction with a 4-circle goniometer, electron backscatter diffraction, conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and XRD using an area detector. Results indicated a complex texture orientation distribution function which altered in response to the applied plastic deformation. Increased deformation caused the {1 1 0} planes, to align parallel to the plane of the sheet. The different techniques produced results that were very consistent with each other. The advantages and disadvantages of the various methods are discussed, with particular consideration of the time taken for each method, the range of orientation space accessible, the density of data that can be obtained, and the statistical significance of each data set with respect to rolled sheet product

  10. Facile route for synthesis of mesoporous Cr2O3 sheet as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Zhiqin; Qin, Mingli; Jia, Baorui; Zhang, Lin; Wan, Qi; Wang, Mingshan; Volinsky, Alex A.; Qu, Xuanhui

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous Cr 2 O 3 with a high specific surface area of 162 m 2 g −1 is prepared by the solution combustion method. The mesoporous Cr 2 O 3 has a sheet structure, which consists of nanoparticles with an average size of 20 nm. As an anode electrode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, the mesoporous Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles display enhanced electrochemical performance. Stable and reversible capacity of 480 mA h g −1 after 55 cycles is demonstrated. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the Cr 2 O 3 can be attributed to the high surface area and morphological characteristics of mesoporous materials

  11. Effect of material scatter on the plastic behavior and stretchability in sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiebenga, J.H.; Atzema, E.H.; Atzema, E.H.; An, Y.G.; Vegter, H.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2014-01-01

    Robust design of forming processes is gaining attention throughout the industry. To analyze the robustness of a sheet metal forming process using Finite Element (FE) simulations, an accurate input in terms of parameter scatter is required. This paper presents a pragmatic, accurate and economic

  12. Extruded expanded polystyrene sheets coated by TiO{sub 2} as new photocatalytic materials for foodstuffs packaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loddo, V.; Marci, G. [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Palmisano, G., E-mail: giovanni_palmisano@yahoo.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy); Yurdakal, S. [Kimya Boeluemue, Fen-Edebiyat Fakueltesi, Afyon Kocatepe Ueniversitesi - Ahmet Necdet Sezer Kampuesue - 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Brazzoli, M.; Garavaglia, L. [Sirap-Gema S.p.A. - Via Industriale, 1/3 - 25028 Verolanuova (Brescia) (Italy); Palmisano, L., E-mail: leonardo.palmisano@unipa.it [Schiavello-Grillone Photocatalysis Group - Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica, Elettronica e delle Telecomunicazioni, di tecnologie Chimiche, Automatica e modelli Matematici - Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze (Ed. 6) - 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An extruded polystyrene has been functionalised by TiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A photocatalytic polymer has been developed via a sol-gel method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoformed packagings for foodstuffs application have been prepared. - Abstract: Nanostructured, photoactive anatase TiO{sub 2} sol prepared under very mild conditions using titanium tetraisopropoxide as the precursor is used to functionalise extruded expanded polystyrene (XPS) sheets by spray-coating resulting in stable and active materials functionalised by TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. Photocatalytic tests of these sheets performed in a batch reactor in gas-solid system under UV irradiation show their successful activity in degrading probe molecules (2-propanol, trimethylamine and ethene). Raman spectra ensure the deposition of TiO{sub 2} as crystalline anatase phase on the polymer surface. The presence of TiO{sub 2} with respect to polymer surface can be observed in SEM images coupled to EDAX mapping allowing to monitor the surface morphology and the distribution of TiO{sub 2} particles. Finally thermoforming of these sheets in industrial standard equipment leads to useful containers for foodstuffs.

  13. 2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qunting; Yang, Shubin; Feng, Xinliang

    2011-12-08

    2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors are prepared from the direct growth of FeOOH nanorods on the surface of graphene and the subsequent electrochemical transformation of FeOOH to Fe(3)O(4). The Fe(3)O(4) @RGO nanocomposites exhibit superior capacitance (326 F g(-1)), high energy density (85 Wh kg(-1)), large power, and good cycling performance in 1 mol L(-1) LiOH solution. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A Novel CAE Method for Compression Molding Simulation of Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Composite Sheet Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyang Song

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Its high-specific strength and stiffness with lower cost make discontinuous fiber-reinforced thermoplastic (FRT materials an ideal choice for lightweight applications in the automotive industry. Compression molding is one of the preferred manufacturing processes for such materials as it offers the opportunity to maintain a longer fiber length and higher volume production. In the past, we have demonstrated that compression molding of FRT in bulk form can be simulated by treating melt flow as a continuum using the conservation of mass and momentum equations. However, the compression molding of such materials in sheet form using a similar approach does not work well. The assumption of melt flow as a continuum does not hold for such deformation processes. To address this challenge, we have developed a novel simulation approach. First, the draping of the sheet was simulated as a structural deformation using the explicit finite element approach. Next, the draped shape was compressed using fluid mechanics equations. The proposed method was verified by building a physical part and comparing the predicted fiber orientation and warpage measurements performed on the physical parts. The developed method and tools are expected to help in expediting the development of FRT parts, which will help achieve lightweight targets in the automotive industry.

  15. The Fatigue Characteristics of Bolted Lap Joints of 24S-T Alclad Sheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-10-01

    extremely close bolt fits are needed to o%tain maximum life of bolt ~oint~ under repeated etreseeci. -. Szvzral ty~+?+s of bolt patterns hava been tegted...Memorial Institute on spec~meris of 0.102-i.nch sheet. In particular, figure 4 shows, on a load- life diagram, . results of tests Qn single-bolt...results of tests at the Univer- sity of’ il~~nols on single—bolt specimens, Tables 10 and 11 give reeults of tests, made at the U“ uiversity of Illino~8 , on

  16. DEVELOPING SIGNS AND SONGS MATERIALS DEALING WITH THE 2013 CURRICULUM FOR THE SEVENTH GRADE STUDENTS IN MTSN BALANG-BALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop Signs and Songs Materials based on 2013 curriculum for the Seventh Grade Student at MTsN. BalangBalang, Gowa. It was Research and Development (R&D applied ADDIE model standing for Analysis, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate. The procedures were; 1 analyzing materials needed by students; 2designing the blueprint; 3 developing the materials through the syllabus of 2013 Curriculum; 4 implementing the product (try-out product; and 5 evaluating the product. The product was tried out to the seventh grade students at MTsN Balang-balang. Type of data obtained in this study was qualitative. The instruments used in this study were questionnaire and rubrics for teacher and expert. Then, the teacher and expert were involved in order to validate the product. They validated three systematic aspects of the product, namely; the organization of the Materials, English Teaching strategies or method, and the content of the materials. Finally, based on the teacher and expert judgment as well as try-out design result, it was found that the developed materials were applicable to be taught for the Seventh Grade of Junior High School as additional learning and teaching materials which help both students and teachers in learning process based on 2013 Curriculum.

  17. Energy-Based Yield Criteria for Orthotropic Materials, Exhibiting Strength-Differential Effect. Specification for Sheets under Plane Stress State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeptyński P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A general proposition of an energy-based limit condition for anisotropic materials exhibiting strength-differential effect (SDE based on spectral decomposition of elasticity tensors and the use of scaling pressure-dependent functions is specified for the case of orthotropic materials. A detailed algorithm (based on classical solutions of cubic equations for the determination of elastic eigenstates and eigenvalues of the orthotropic stiffness tensor is presented. A yield condition is formulated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. Explicit formulas based on simple strength tests are derived for parameters of criterion in the plane case. The application of both criteria for the description of yielding and plastic deformation of metal sheets is discussed in detail. The plane case criterion is verified with experimental results from the literature.

  18. Beneficial Uses of Dredged Material Fact Sheet: Project Partners and Decision Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disposal of dredged material is managed and conducted by federal, state, and local governments; private entities; and semi-private entities. Cooperation among these groups strengthens the possibility that suitable materials will be used beneficially.

  19. Acquisition of material properties in production for sheet metal forming processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heingärtner, Jörg; Hora, Pavel; Neumann, Anja; Hortig, Dirk; Rencki, Yasar

    2013-01-01

    In past work a measurement system for the in-line acquisition of material properties was developed at IVP. This system is based on the non-destructive eddy-current principle. Using this system, a 100% control of material properties of the processed material is possible. The system can be used for ferromagnetic materials like standard steels as well as paramagnetic materials like Aluminum and stainless steel. Used as an in-line measurement system, it can be configured as a stand-alone system to control material properties and sort out inapplicable material or as part of a control system of the forming process. In both cases, the acquired data can be used as input data for numerical simulations, e.g. stochastic simulations based on real world data

  20. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred

    2010-06-01

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  1. Application Of A New Semi-Empirical Model For Forming Limit Prediction Of Sheet Material Including Superposed Loads Of Bending And Shearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, Christian; Liewald, Mathias; Schleich, Ralf; Sindel, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    The use of lightweight materials offers substantial strength and weight advantages in car body design. Unfortunately such kinds of sheet material are more susceptible to wrinkling, spring back and fracture during press shop operations. For characterization of capability of sheet material dedicated to deep drawing processes in the automotive industry, mainly Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD) are used. However, new investigations at the Institute for Metal Forming Technology have shown that High Strength Steel Sheet Material and Aluminum Alloys show increased formability in case of bending loads are superposed to stretching loads. Likewise, by superposing shearing on in plane uniaxial or biaxial tension formability changes because of materials crystallographic texture. Such mixed stress and strain conditions including bending and shearing effects can occur in deep-drawing processes of complex car body parts as well as subsequent forming operations like flanging. But changes in formability cannot be described by using the conventional FLC. Hence, for purpose of improvement of failure prediction in numerical simulation codes significant failure criteria for these strain conditions are missing. Considering such aspects in defining suitable failure criteria which is easy to implement into FEA a new semi-empirical model has been developed considering the effect of bending and shearing in sheet metals formability. This failure criterion consists of the combination of the so called cFLC (combined Forming Limit Curve), which considers superposed bending load conditions and the SFLC (Shear Forming Limit Curve), which again includes the effect of shearing on sheet metal's formability.

  2. Fact Sheet for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities Residual Risk and Technology Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    proposed amendments to the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Friction Materials Manufacturing Facilities to address the results of the residual risk and technology review

  3. Production of Magnesium-Based Thermoelectric-Sheet Materials for Efficient Energy Harvesting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aizawa, Tatsuhiko

    2008-01-01

    In the first-year of projects related to MURI-program, Mg-Si-Ge-Sn system is found to be a suitable TE-material target for improvement of specific figure-of-merit to be used as the candidate energy harvesting material...

  4. 2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Qunting; Feng, Xinliang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Yang, Shubin [Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research, Ackermannweg 10, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

    2011-12-08

    2D sandwich-like sheets of iron oxide grown on graphene as high energy anode material for supercapacitors are prepared from the direct growth of FeOOH nanorods on the surface of graphene and the subsequent electrochemical transformation of FeOOH to Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}. The Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} rate at RGO nanocomposites exhibit superior capacitance (326 F g{sup -1}), high energy density (85 Wh kg{sup -1}), large power, and good cycling performance in 1 mol L{sup -1} LiOH solution. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Interlocking multi-material components made of structured steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senge, S.; Brachmann, J.; Hirt, G.; Bührig-Polaczek, A.

    2017-10-01

    Lightweight design is a major driving force of innovation, especially in the automotive industry. Using hybrid components made of two or more different materials is one approach to reduce the vehicles weight and decrease fuel consumption. As a possible way to increase the stiffness of multi-material components, this paper presents a process chain to produce such components made of steel sheets and high-pressure die cast aluminium. Prior to the casting sequence the steel sheets are structured in a modified rolling process which enables continuous interlocking with the aluminium. Two structures manufactured by this rolling process are tested. The first one is a channel like structure and the second one is a channel like structure with undercuts. These undercuts enable the formation of small anchors when the molten aluminium fills them. The correlation between thickness reduction during rolling and the shape of the resulting structure was evaluated for both structures. It can be stated that channels with a depth of up to 0.5 mm and a width of 1 mm could be created. Undercuts with different size depending on the thickness reduction could be realised. Subsequent aluminium high-pressure die casting experiments were performed to determine if the surface structure can be filled gap-free with molten aluminium during the casting sequence and if a gap-free connection can be achieved after contraction of the aluminium. The casting experiments showed that both structures could be filled during the high-pressure die casting. The channel like structure results in a gap between steel and aluminium after contraction of the cast metal whereas the structure with undercuts leads to a good interlocking resulting in a gap-free connection.

  6. SIGNS The sandwich sign

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sandwich sign is demonstrated on cross-sectional imaging, commonly on CT or ultrasound. It refers to homogeneous soft- tissue masses representing mesenteric lymphadenopathy as the two halves of a sandwich bun, encasing the mesenteric fat and tubular mesenteric vessels that constitute the 'sandwich filling' (Figs ...

  7. Material Flow and Oxide Particle Distributions in Friction-Stir Welded F/M-ODS Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Suk Hoon; Noh, Sanghoon; Jin, Hyun Ju; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    It is well known that uniform nano-oxide dispersoids act as pinning points to obstruct dislocation and grain boundary motion in ODS(Oxide dispersion strengthened) steel. However, these advantages will disappear while the material is subjected to the high temperature of conventional fusion welding. There is only limited literature available on the joining of ODS steels. Friction stir welding (FSW) is considered to be the best welding technique for welding ODS steels as the technique helps in retaining the homogeneous nano-oxide particles distributions in matrix. FSW is a solid.state, hot.shear joining process in which a rotating tool with a shoulder and terminating in a threaded pin, moves along the butting surfaces of two rigidly clamped plates placed on a backing plate. Heat generated by friction at the shoulder and to a lesser extent at the pin surface, softens the material being welded. Severe plastic deformation and flow of this plasticised metal occurs as the tool is translated along the welding direction. Material is transported from the front of the tool to the trailing edge where it is forged into a joint. Friction stir welding appears to be a very promising technique for the welding of FMS and ODS steels. This study found that, during FSW, the forward movement of the tool pin results in loose contact between the tool pin and the receding material on the advancing side.

  8. Two-dimensional Cu2Si sheet: a promising electrode material for nanoscale electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng Yam, Kah; Guo, Na; Zhang, Chun

    2018-06-01

    Building electronic devices on top of two-dimensional (2D) materials has recently become one of most interesting topics in nanoelectronics. Finding high-performance 2D electrode materials is one central issue in 2D nanoelectronics. In the current study, based on first-principles calculations, we compare the electronic and transport properties of two nanoscale devices. One device consists of two single-atom-thick planar Cu2Si electrodes, and a nickel phthalocyanine (NiPc) molecule in the middle. The other device is made of often-used graphene electrodes and a NiPc molecule. Planer Cu2Si is a new type of 2D material that was recently predicted to exist and be stable under room temperature [11]. We found that at low bias voltages, the electric current through the Cu2Si–NiPc–Cu2Si junction is about three orders higher than that through graphene–NiPc–graphene. Detailed analysis shows that the surprisingly high conductivity of Cu2Si–NiPc–Cu2Si originates from the mixing of the Cu2Si state near Fermi energy and the highest occupied molecular orbital of NiPc. These results suggest that 2D Cu2Si may be an excellent candidate for electrode materials for future nanoscale devices.

  9. GCD TechPort Data Sheets Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnapongse, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    The Thermal Protection System Materials (TPSM) Project consists of three distinct project elements: the 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D MAT) project element; the Conformal Ablative Thermal Protection System (CA-TPS) project element; and the Heatshield for Extreme Entry Environment Technology (HEEET) project element. 3D MAT seeks to design, develop and deliver a game changing material solution based on 3-dimensional weaving and resin infusion approach for manufacturing a material that can function as a robust structure as well as a thermal protection system. CA-TPS seeks to develop and deliver a conformal ablative material designed to be efficient and capable of withstanding peak heat flux up to 500 W/ sq cm, peak pressure up to 0.4 atm, and shear up to 500 Pa. HEEET is developing a new ablative TPS that takes advantage of state-of-the-art 3D weaving technologies and traditional manufacturing processes to infuse woven preforms with a resin, machine them to shape, and assemble them as a tiled solution on the entry vehicle substructure or heatshield.

  10. Few layered vanadyl phosphate nano sheets-MWCNT hybrid as an electrode material for supercapacitor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Shibsankar; De, Sukanta, E-mail: sukanta.physics@presiuniv.ac.in [Department of physics, Presidency University, Kolkata-700073 (India)

    2016-05-06

    It have been already seen that 2-dimensional nano materials are the suitable choice for the supercapacitor application due to their large specific surface area, electrochemical active sites, micromechanical flexibility, expedite ion migration channel properties. Free standing hybrid films of functionalized MWCNT (– COOH group) and α-Vanadyl phosphates (VOPO{sub 4}2H{sub 2}O) are prepared by vacuum filtering. The surface morphology and microstructure of the samples are studied by transmission electron microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope, XRD, Electrochemical properties of hybrid films have been investigated systematically in 1M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} aqueous electrolyte. The hybrid material exhibits a high specific capacitance 236 F/g with high energy density of 65.6 Wh/Kg and a power density of 1476 W/Kg.

  11. Ionizing radiation thickness meters for materials in the form of sheets, coatings or laminates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The draft standard deals with definitions and test methods for all measuring instruments used in connection with ionizing radiation, either for continuous operation or for discontinuous control measurements of plane materials or coating. It applies to systems where the signal relates directly to the measured value as well as to systems where the signal refers to the deviation from a given rated value. (orig./RW) [de

  12. VS4 Nanoparticles Anchored on Graphene Sheets as a High-Rate and Stable Electrode Material for Sodium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Qiang; Zhao, Yingying; Yu, Yanhao; Bian, Xiaofei; Wang, Xudong; Wei, Yingjin; Gao, Yu; Chen, Gang

    2018-02-22

    The size and conductivity of the electrode materials play a significant role in the kinetics of sodium-ion batteries. Various characterizations reveal that size-controllable VS 4 nanoparticles can be successfully anchored on the surface of graphene sheets (GSs) by a simple cationic-surfactant-assisted hydrothermal method. When used as an electrode material for sodium-ion batteries, these VS 4 @GS nanocomposites show large specific capacity (349.1 mAh g -1 after 100 cycles), excellent long-term stability (84 % capacity retention after 1200 cycles), and high rate capability (188.1 mAh g -1 at 4000 mA g -1 ). A large proportion of the capacity was contributed by capacitive processes. This remarkable electrochemical performance was attributed to synergistic interactions between nanosized VS 4 particles and a highly conductive graphene network, which provided short diffusion pathways for Na + ions and large contact areas between the electrolyte and electrode, resulting in considerably improved electrochemical kinetic properties. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effect of material flow on joint strength in activation spot joining of Al alloy and steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Goro; Yogo, Yasuhiro; Takao, Hisaaki

    2014-01-01

    A new joining method for dissimilar metal sheets was developed where a rotated consumable rod of Al alloy is pressed onto an Al alloy sheet at the part overlapped with a mild steel sheet. The metal flow in the joining region is increased by the through-hole in the Al sheet and consumable Al rod. The rod creates the joint interface and pads out of the thinly joined parts through pressing. This produces a higher joint strength than that of conventional friction stir spot welding. Measurements of the joint interface showed the presence of a 5-10 nm thick amorphous layer consisting of Al and Mg oxides

  14. Experimental Characterization and Material Modelling of an AZ31 Magnesium Sheet Alloy at Elevated Temperatures under Consideration of the Tension-Compression Asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Bonk, C.; Dykiert, M.

    2017-09-01

    Magnesium sheet alloys have a great potential as a construction material in the aerospace and automotive industry. However, the current state of research regarding temperature dependent material parameters for the description of the plastic behaviour of magnesium sheet alloys is scarce in literature and accurate statements concerning yield criteria and appropriate characterization tests to describe the plastic behaviour of a magnesium sheet alloy at elevated temperatures in deep drawing processes are to define. Hence, in this paper the plastic behaviour of the well-established magnesium sheet alloy AZ31 has been characterized by means of convenient mechanical tests (e. g. tension, compression and biaxial tests) at temperatures between 180 and 230 °C. In this manner, anisotropic and hardening behaviour as well as differences between the tension-compression asymmetry of the yield locus have been estimated. Furthermore, using the evaluated data from the above mentioned tests, two different yield criteria have been parametrized; the commonly used Hill’48 and an orthotropic yield criterion, CPB2006, which was developed especially for materials with hexagonal close packed lattice structure and is able to describe an asymmetrical yielding behaviour regarding tensile and compressive stress states. Numerical simulations have been finally carried out with both yield functions in order to assess the accuracy of the material models.

  15. Minority carrier diffusion lengths and absorption coefficients in silicon sheet material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, K. A.; Swimm, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the methods which have been developed for the measurement of the minority carrier diffusion length of silicon wafers require that the material have either a Schottky or an ohmic contact. The surface photovoltage (SPV) technique is an exception. The SPV technique could, therefore, become a valuable diagnostic tool in connection with current efforts to develop low-cost processes for the production of solar cells. The technique depends on a knowledge of the optical absorption coefficient. The considered investigation is concerned with a reevaluation of the absorption coefficient as a function of silicon processing. A comparison of absorption coefficient values showed these values to be relatively consistent from sample to sample, and independent of the sample growth method.

  16. Effect of initial strain and material nonlinearity on the nonlinear static and dynamic response of graphene sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sandeep; Patel, B. P.

    2018-06-01

    Computationally efficient multiscale modelling based on Cauchy-Born rule in conjunction with finite element method is employed to study static and dynamic characteristics of graphene sheets, with/without considering initial strain, involving Green-Lagrange geometric and material nonlinearities. The strain energy density function at continuum level is established by coupling the deformation at continuum level to that at atomic level through Cauchy-Born rule. The atomic interactions between carbon atoms are modelled through Tersoff-Brenner potential. The governing equation of motion obtained using Hamilton's principle is solved through standard Newton-Raphson method for nonlinear static response and Newmark's time integration technique to obtain nonlinear transient response characteristics. Effect of initial strain on the linear free vibration frequencies, nonlinear static and dynamic response characteristics is investigated in detail. The present multiscale modelling based results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained through molecular mechanics simulation. Two different types of boundary constraints generally used in MM simulation are explored in detail and few interesting findings are brought out. The effect of initial strain is found to be greater in linear response when compared to that in nonlinear response.

  17. Optimal Materials and Deposition Technique Lead to Cost-Effective Solar Cell with Best-Ever Conversion Efficiency (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the SJ3 solar cell was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Based on NREL and Solar Junction technology, the commercial SJ3 concentrator solar cell - with 43.5% conversion efficiency at 418 suns - uses a lattice-matched multijunction architecture that has near-term potential for cells with {approx}50% efficiency. Multijunction solar cells have higher conversion efficiencies than any other type of solar cell. But developers of utility-scale and space applications crave even better efficiencies at lower costs to be both cost-effective and able to meet the demand for power. The SJ3 multijunction cell, developed by Solar Junction with assistance from foundational technological advances by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has the highest efficiency to date - almost 2% absolute more than the current industry standard multijunction cell-yet at a comparable cost. So what did it take to create this cell having 43.5% efficiency at 418-sun concentration? A combination of materials with carefully designed properties, a manufacturing technique allowing precise control, and an optimized device design.

  18. Bi2S3microspheres grown on graphene sheets as low-cost counter-electrode materials for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Gao, Guandao

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we synthesized 3D Bi2S3 microspheres comprised of nanorods grown along the (211) facet on graphene sheets by a solvothermal route, and investigated its catalytic activities through I-V curves and conversion efficiency tests as the CE in DSSCs. Although the (211) facet has a large band gap for a Bi2S3 semiconductor, owing to the introduction of graphene into the system, its short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency were Jsc = 12.2 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.75 V, FF = 0.60, and η = 5.5%, respectively. By integrating it with graphene sheets, our material achieved the conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is almost triple the best conversion efficiency value of the DSSCs with (211)-faceted 3D Bi2S3 without graphene (1.9%) reported in the latest literature. Since this conversion-efficient 3D material grown on the graphene sheets significantly improves its catalytic properties, it paves the way for designing and applying low-cost Pt-free CE materials in DSSC from inorganic nanostructures.In this work, we synthesized 3D Bi2S3 microspheres comprised of nanorods grown along the (211) facet on graphene sheets by a solvothermal route, and investigated its catalytic activities through I-V curves and conversion efficiency tests as the CE in DSSCs. Although the (211) facet has a large band gap for a Bi2S3 semiconductor, owing to the introduction of graphene into the system, its short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and efficiency were Jsc = 12.2 mA cm-2, Voc = 0.75 V, FF = 0.60, and η = 5.5%, respectively. By integrating it with graphene sheets, our material achieved the conversion efficiency of 5.5%, which is almost triple the best conversion efficiency value of the DSSCs with (211)-faceted 3D Bi2S3 without graphene (1.9%) reported in the latest literature. Since this conversion-efficient 3D material grown on the graphene sheets significantly improves its catalytic properties, it paves the way for

  19. Fact Sheet: Early Warning Signs of Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... items) Social Phobia (1 item) Populations Children and Adolescents (10 items) Men’s Mental Health (5 items) Women’s Mental Health (7 items) Military Service Members (1 item) Older Adults (3 items) Prevention Prevention (2 items) Suicide Prevention (2 items) Research ...

  20. Soft material-based microculture system having air permeable cover sheet for the protoplast culture of Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jong Il; Ko, Jung-Moon; Kim, So Hyeon; Baek, Ju Yeoul; Cha, Hyeon-Cheol; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2006-08-01

    In plant cell culture, the delivery of nutrition and gas (mainly oxygen) to the cells is the most important factor for viability. In this paper, we propose a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microculture system that is designed to have good aeration. PDMS is known to have excellent air permeability, and through the experimental method, we investigated the relation between the degree of air delivery and the thickness of the PDMS sheet covering the culture chamber. We determined the proper thickness of the cover sheet, and cultured protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum in a culture chamber covered with a PDMS sheet having thickness of 400 microm. The cells were successfully divided, and lived well inside the culture chamber for 10 days. In addition, protoplasts were cultured inside the culture chambers covered with the cover glass and the PDMS sheet, respectively, and the microcolonies were formed well inside the PDMS covered chamber after 10 days.

  1. Development of powder metallurgy 2XXX series Al alloy plate and sheet materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications, FY 1983/1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to fabricate and evaluate PM 2124 Al alloy plate and sheet materials according to NASA program goals for damage tolerance and fatigue resistance. Previous research has indicated the outstanding strength-toughness relationship available with PM 2124 Al-Zr modified alloy compositions in extruded product forms. The range of processing conditions was explored in the fabrication of plate and sheet gage materials, as well as the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties. The PM composition based on Al-3.70 Cu-1.85 Mg-0.20 Mn with 0.60 wt. pct. Zr was selected. Flat rolled material consisting of 0.250 in. thick plate was fabricated using selected thermal mechanical treatments (TMT). The schedule of TMT operations was designed to yield the extreme conditions of grain structure normally encountered in the fabrication of flat rolled products, specifically recrystallized and unrecrystallized. The PM Al alloy plate and sheet materials exhibited improved strength properties at thin gages compared to IM Al alloys, as a consequence of their enhanced ability to inhibit recrystallization and grain growth. In addition, the PM 2124 Al alloys offer much better combinations of strength and toughnessover equivalent IM Al. The alloy microstructures were examined by optical metallographic texture techniques in order to establish the metallurgical basis for these significant property improvements.

  2. Decontamination sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Emiko; Kanesaki, Ken.

    1995-01-01

    The decontamination sheet of the present invention is formed by applying an adhesive on one surface of a polymer sheet and releasably appending a plurality of curing sheets. In addition, perforated lines are formed on the sheet, and a decontaminating agent is incorporated in the adhesive. This can reduce the number of curing operation steps when a plurality steps of operations for radiation decontamination equipments are performed, and further, the amount of wastes of the cured sheets, and operator's exposure are reduced, as well as an efficiency of the curing operation can be improved, and propagation of contamination can be prevented. (T.M.)

  3. A Novel 2D Porous Print Fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 Sheet with High Performance as the Anode Material for Lithium-ion Battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Suyue; Zhang, Peigen; Xie, Anjian; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Shen, Yuhua

    2016-01-01

    Anode materials are very crucial in lithium ion batteries. Exploring the simple and low cost production of anodes with excellent electrochemical performance remains a great challenge. Here, we used natural flower spikes of Typha orientalis as the bio-templates and organizers to prepare a novel two-dimensional (2D) porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheet with thickness of about 30 nm. The prepared large-area sheets were orderly assembled by many nanosheets or nanoparticles, and two kinds of pore structures, such as pores with average diameter of about 50 nm or pore channels with aspect ratio of ca. 4, presented between adjacent nanosheets. The pre-treatment by ammonium for flower spikes has a great effect on the microstructure and electrochemical performance of the products. As the anode material for lithium ion battery (LIB), the as-obtained porous print fabric-like α-Fe_2O_3 sheets show an initial discharge capacity of 2264 mA h g"−"1 and the specific capacity of 1028 mA h g"−"1 after 100 cycles at a current density of 500 mA g"−"1, which is higher than the theoretical capacity of α-Fe_2O_3 (1007 mA h g"−"1). This highly reversible capacity is attributed to the very thin large-area sheet structure, and many pores or pore channels among the interconnected nanosheets, which could increase lithium-ion mobility, facilitate the transport of electrons and shorten the distance for Li"+ diffusion, and also buffer large volume changes of the anodes during lithium insertion and extraction at the same time. The synthesis process is very simple, providing a low-cost production approach toward high-performance energy storage materials.

  4. FDTD modeling of thin impedance sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luebbers, Raymond J.; Kunz, Karl S.

    1991-01-01

    Thin sheets of resistive or dielectric material are commonly encountered in radar cross section calculations. Analysis of such sheets is simplified by using sheet impedances. In this paper it is shown that sheet impedances can be modeled easily and accurately using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) methods.

  5. Behavior of sheet-like crystalline ammonium trivanadate hemihydrate (NH4V3O8×0.5H2O) as a novel ammonia sensing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonardi, S.G.; Primerano, P.; Donato, N.; Neri, G.

    2013-01-01

    This work reports the use of ammonium trivanadate hemihydrate (NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O) as a novel sensing material for ammonia resistive sensors. It was prepared by a simple and fast hydrothermal method from V 2 O 5 as a precursor and characterized by SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TG techniques. The as-synthesized material showed a sheet-like morphology and was found thermally stable up to 250–280 °C. It reacted promptly and irreversibly when exposed to ammonia at room temperature. A full reversibility was instead registered undergoing the formed ammonia adduct at a temperature higher than 200 °C. A NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O-based resistive gas sensor was fabricated and its sensing properties were evaluated. Experimental results obtained have given a preliminary demonstration of the feasibility of using NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O as a novel ammonia sensing material since it yields several advantages including easy synthesis of the sensing layer, good sensitivity and reproducibility and fast response. - Graphical abstract: Sheet-like morphology of the synthesized trivanadate hemihydrate (NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O). Inset: Its electrical response to different ammonia concentrations in air. - Highlights: • A simple hydrothermal method for the fast synthesis of trivanadate hemihydrate (NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O) is reported. • Sheet particles could be obtained. • A preliminary demonstration of the feasibility of using NH 4 V 3 O 8 ×0.5H 2 O as a novel ammonia sensing material is presented

  6. GASN sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-12-01

    This document gathers around 50 detailed sheets which describe and present various aspects, data and information related to the nuclear sector or, more generally to energy. The following items are addressed: natural and artificial radioactive environment, evolution of energy needs in the world, radioactive wastes, which energy for France tomorrow, the consequences in France of the Chernobyl accident, ammunitions containing depleted uranium, processing and recycling of used nuclear fuel, transport of radioactive materials, seismic risk for the basic nuclear installations, radon, the precautionary principle, the issue of low doses, the EPR, the greenhouse effect, the Oklo nuclear reactors, ITER on the way towards fusion reactors, simulation and nuclear deterrence, crisis management in the nuclear field, does nuclear research put a break on the development of renewable energies by monopolizing funding, nuclear safety and security, the plutonium, generation IV reactors, comparison of different modes of electricity production, medical exposure to ionizing radiations, the control of nuclear activities, food preservation by ionization, photovoltaic solar collectors, the Polonium 210, the dismantling of nuclear installations, wind energy, desalination and nuclear reactors, from non-communication to transparency about nuclear safety, the Jules Horowitz reactor, CO 2 capture and storage, hydrogen, solar energy, the radium, the subcontractors of maintenance of the nuclear fleet, biomass, internal radio-contamination, epidemiological studies, submarine nuclear propulsion, sea energy, the Three Mile Island accident, the Chernobyl accident, the Fukushima accident, the nuclear after Fukushima

  7. Signing off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-01

    sharp that they cause paper cuts. Stains. If you accidentally spill some food or drink on your clothes, make sure you attempt to remove it as soon as possible and preferably within the same lunar cycle. Some teachers seem to think they should be worn with pride like the stains on a chemistry teacher's white coat. This is a myth. Materials. For scientists continually teaching about the wonder of smart materials, physics teachers are remarkably conservative in their choice of materials for their clothes. Try to break out from the traditional corduroy and tweed and practise what you teach. It is not acceptable to wear the actual tie you wore at school, as this will be at least 20 years old, be rather frayed and will have your name sewn in the back by your mum. Steven Chapman Science Year Manager, British Association for the Advancement of Science Signing Off takes a humorous and irreverent look at physics education. The views expressed here are those of the author and are not endorsed by the Editorial Board for Physics Education. Can you contribute a zany attitude or humorous anecdote? Please send your offering to ped@iop.org marked Signing Off.

  8. The acquisition of dangerous biological materials: Technical facts sheets to assist risk assessments of 46 potential BW agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aceto, Donato Gonzalo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gaudioso, Jennifer M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Numerous terrorist organizations have openly expressed interest in producing and deploying biological weapons. However, a limiting factor for many terrorists has been the acquisition of dangerous biological agents, as evidenced by the very few successful instances of biological weapons use compared to the number of documented hoaxes. Biological agents vary greatly in their ability to cause loss of life and economic damage. Some agents, if released properly, can kill many people and cause an extensive number of secondary infections; other agents will sicken only a small number of people for a short period of time. Consequently, several biological agents can potentially be used to perpetrate a bioterrorism attack but few are likely capable of causing a high consequence event. It is crucial, from a US national security perspective, to more deeply understand the likelihood that terrorist organizations can acquire the range of these agents. Few studies have attempted to comprehensively compile the technical information directly relevant to the acquisition of dangerous bacteria, viruses and toxins. In this report, technical fact sheets were assembled for 46 potentially dangerous biological agents. Much of the information was taken from various research sources which could ultimately and significantly expedite and improve bioterrorism threat assessments. By systematically examining a number of specific agent characteristics included in these fact sheets, it may be possible to detect, target, and implement measures to thwart future terrorist acquisition attempts. In addition, the information in these fact sheets may be used as a tool to help laboratories gain a rudimentary understanding of how attractive a method laboratory theft is relative to other potential acquisition modes.

  9. Experiments on sheet metal shearing

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Emil

    2013-01-01

    Within the sheet metal industry, different shear cutting technologies are commonly used in several processing steps, e.g. in cut to length lines, slitting lines, end cropping etc. Shearing has speed and cost advantages over competing cutting methods like laser and plasma cutting, but involves large forces on the equipment and large strains in the sheet material.Numerical models to predict forces and sheared edge geometry for different sheet metal grades and different shear parameter set-ups a...

  10. Determining a strategy for efficiently managing sign retroreflectivity in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) has developed minimum retroreflectivity requirements for sign sheeting that will : become a federal mandate for roadside signs in 2015 and for overhead signs in 2018. In 2012, the New Hampshire De...

  11. Friction Stir Welding of Al-Cu Bilayer Sheet by Tapered Threaded Pin: Microstructure, Material Flow, and Fracture Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beygi, R.; Kazeminezhad, M.; Kokabi, A. H.; Loureiro, A.

    2015-06-01

    The fracture behavior and intermetallic formation are investigated after friction stir welding of Al-Cu bilayer sheets performed by tapered threaded pin. To do so, temperature, axial load, and torque measurements during welding, and also SEM and XRD analyses and tensile tests on the welds are carried out. These observations show that during welding from Cu side, higher axial load and temperature lead to formation of different kinds of Al-Cu intermetallics such as Al2Cu, AlCu, and Al4Cu9. Also, existence of Al(Cu)-Al2Cu eutectic structures, demonstrates liquation during welding. The presence of these intermetallics leads to highly brittle fracture and low strength of the joints. In samples welded from Al side, lower axial load and temperature are developed during welding and no intermetallic compound is observed which results in higher strength and ductility of the joints in comparison with those welded from Cu side.

  12. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  13. Chemical and radiation stability of SuperLig reg-sign 644, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and CS-100 cesium ion exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Adami, S.R.; Bray, L.A.

    1995-09-01

    At the request of the Initial Pretreatment Module Project within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) under the task ''Develop and Test Sorbents.'' The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the chemical and radiolytic stability of several cesium-selective ion exchange materials in simulated alkaline Hanford tank waste matrices. Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes to remove of cesium and other radionuclides by ion exchange was proposed previously as one method of minimizing the amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. In this study, PNL evaluated three cesium-selective materials SuperLig reg-sign 644, resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F), and CS-100 for chemical and radiation stability in 1 M NaOH and a simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). The objective of the study is to investigate the stability of the newly produced SuperLig reg-sign 644 under a variety of conditions in an attempt to simulate and predict the degradation process. The following specific conclusions and recommendations resulted from the study

  14. Chemical and radiation stability of SuperLig{reg_sign}644, resorcinol-formaldehyde, and CS-100 cesium ion exchange materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.N.; Adami, S.R.; Bray, L.A. [and others

    1995-09-01

    At the request of the Initial Pretreatment Module Project within Westinghouse Hanford Company, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted this study for the Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) under the task ``Develop and Test Sorbents.`` The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the chemical and radiolytic stability of several cesium-selective ion exchange materials in simulated alkaline Hanford tank waste matrices. Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes to remove of cesium and other radionuclides by ion exchange was proposed previously as one method of minimizing the amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. In this study, PNL evaluated three cesium-selective materials SuperLig{reg_sign}644, resorcinol-formaldehyde (R-F), and CS-100 for chemical and radiation stability in 1 M NaOH and a simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW). The objective of the study is to investigate the stability of the newly produced SuperLig{reg_sign}644 under a variety of conditions in an attempt to simulate and predict the degradation process. The following specific conclusions and recommendations resulted from the study.

  15. A comparative study of electrochemical performance of graphene sheets, expanded graphite and natural graphite as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Li-Zhong; Zhao, Dong-Lin; Zhang, Tai-Ming; Xie, Wei-Gang; Zhang, Ji-Ming; Shen, Zeng-Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene sheets (GSs), expanded graphite (EG) and natural graphite (NG) were comparatively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. • The reversible capacity of GS electrode was almost twice that of EG electrode and three times that of NG electrode. • The first-cycle coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of NG were much bigger than those of GSs and EG. • GS and EG electrodes exhibited higher electrochemical activity and more favorable kinetic properties. -- Abstract: Three kinds of carbon materials, i.e., graphene sheets (GSs), expanded graphite (EG) and natural graphite (NG) were comparatively investigated as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries via scanning electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The test results showed that the reversible capacities of GS electrode were 1130 and 636 mA h g −1 at the current densities of 0.2 and 1 mA cm −2 , respectively, which were almost twice those of EG electrode and three times those of NG electrode. The first-cycle coulombic efficiency and capacity retention of NG were much bigger than those of GSs and EG. The notable capacity fading observed in GSs and EG may be ascribed to the disorder-induced structure instability. The larger voltage hysteresis in GS and EG electrodes was not only related to the surface functional groups, but also to the active defects in GSs and EG, which results in greater hindrance and higher overvoltage during lithium extraction from electrode. The kinetics properties of GSs, EG and NG electrodes were compared by AC impedance measurements. GS and EG electrodes exhibited higher electrochemical activity and more favorable kinetic properties during charge and discharge process

  16. Utilizing Waste Thermocol Sheets and Rusted Iron Wires to Fabricate Carbon-Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Based Supercapacitors: Turning Wastes into Value-Added Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadiyar, Madagonda M; Liu, Xudong; Ye, Zhibin

    2018-05-14

    In the present work, we demonstrate the synthesis of porous activated carbon (specific surface area, 1,883 m2 g-1), Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and carbon-Fe3O4 nanocomposites using local waste thermocol sheets and rusted iron wires. The resulting carbon, Fe3O4 nanoparticles, and carbon-Fe3O4 composites are used as electrode materials for supercapacitor application. In particular, C-Fe3O4 composite electrodes exhibit a high specific capacitance of 1,375 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and longer cyclic stability with 98 % of capacitance retention over 10,000 cycles. Subsequently, asymmetric supercapacitor, i. e., C-Fe3O4//Ni(OH)2/CNT device exhibits a high energy density of 91.1 Wh kg-1 and a remarkable cyclic stability, showing 98% of capacitance retention over 10,000 cycles. Thus, this work has important implications not only for the fabrication of low-cost electrodes for high-performance supercapacitors but also for the recycling of waste thermocol sheets and rust iron wires for value-added reuse. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Chemical and radiation stability of a proprietary cesium ion exchange material manufactured from WWL membrane and SuperLig reg-sign 644

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.N.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Berry, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    Pretreatment of nuclear process wastes for ion exchange removal of Cs and other radionuclides is one way to minimize amount of high-level radioactive waste at Hanford. This study evaluated Cs-selective SuperLig reg-sign 644 (IBC Advanced Technologies, American Fork UT) entrapped in a proprietary WWL web membrane (3M) for chemical/radiation stability in simulated caustic neutralized current acid waste (NCAW), 0.5M HNO 3 , water, and air. After exposure up to 2.0E+09 rad, the material was evaluated for Cs uptake in 5M sodium NCAW simulants with varying Cs contents. Radiolytic stability appears to be sufficient for ion exchange pretreatment of radioactive Cs: essentially no decrease in Cs selectivity or loading (Kd) was observed during 60 Cs gamma irradiation in water or 0.5M HNO 3 up to 1.0E+09 rad. Cs Kd decreased by a factor of 2 after 2.0E+09 rad exposure. Cs Kd did not change during irradiation in 5M NCAW or ambient air up to 1.0E+08 rad, but decreased by more than an order of magnitude between 1.0E+08 and 2.0E+09 rad (not typical of process conditions). Chemical stability under caustic conditions is lower than in air or under neutral/acidic conditions. Results indicate that this material is less stable in caustic solution irrespective of radiation exposure. Samples of the membrane retained their physical form throughout the entire experiment and were only slightly brittle after exposure to 2.0E+09 rad. (The material evaluated was a finely ground (400 mesh) particulate engineered to form a polymeric fiber (WWL), not the macroscopic form of SuperLig reg-sign 644 resin (20 to 50 mesh).)

  18. Nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide ultrathin nanoflakes decorated on graphene sheets with a 3D nanonetwork structure as supercapacitive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Tao; Li, Ruiyi; Li, Zaijun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The microwave heating reflux approach was developed for the fabrication of nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide ultrathin nanoflakes decorated on graphene sheets, in which ammonia and ethanol were used as the precipitator and medium for the synthesis. The obtained composite shows a 3D flowerclusters morphology with nanonetwork structure and largely enhanced supercapacitive performance. - Highlights: • The paper reported the microwave synthesis of nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide/graphene composite. • The novel synthesis method is rapid, green, efficient and can be well used to the mass production. • The as-synthesized composite offers a 3D flowerclusters morphology with nanonetwork structure. • The composite offers excellent supercapacitive performance. • This study provides a promising route to design and synthesis of advanced graphene-based materials with the superiorities of time-saving and cost-effective characteristics. - Abstract: The study reported a novel microwave heating reflux method for the fabrication of nickel–cobalt layered double hydroxide ultrathin nanoflakes decorated on graphene sheets (GS/NiCo-LDH). Ammonia and ethanol were employed as precipitant and reaction medium for the synthesis, respectively. The resulting GS/NiCo-LDH offers a 3D flowerclusters morphology with nanonetwork structure. Due to the greatly enhanced rate of electron transfer and mass transport, the GS/NiCo-LDH electrode exhibits excellent supercapacitive performances. The maximum specific capacitance was found to be 1980.7 F g −1 at the current density of 1 A g −1 . The specific capacitance can remain 1274.7 F g −1 at the current density of 15 A g −1 and it has an increase of about 2.9% after 1500 cycles. Moreover, the study also provides a promising approach for the design and synthesis of metallic double hydroxides/graphene hybrid materials with time-saving and cost-effective characteristics, which can be potentially applied

  19. 21 CFR 880.5180 - Burn sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Burn sheet. 880.5180 Section 880.5180 Food and... Burn sheet. (a) Identification. A burn sheet is a device made of a porous material that is wrapped aroung a burn victim to retain body heat, to absorb wound exudate, and to serve as a barrier against...

  20. sign-by-sign'' correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Sabine; Lepori, Domenico; Meuwly, Jean-Yves; Duvoisin, Bertrand; Meuli, Reto; Schnyder, Pierre; Denys, Alban; Michetti, Pierre; Felley, Christian; Melle, Guy van

    2003-01-01

    Our objective was a prospective comparison of MR enteroclysis (MRE) with multidetector spiral-CT enteroclysis (MSCTE). Fifty patients with various suspected small bowel diseases were investigated by MSCTE and MRE. The MSCTE was performed using slices of 2.5 mm, immediately followed by MRE, obtaining T1- and T2-weighted sequences, including gadolinium-enhanced acquisition with fat saturation. Three radiologists independently evaluated MSCTE and MRE searching for 12 pathological signs. Interobserver agreement was calculated. Sensitivities and specificities resulted from comparison with pathological results (n=29) and patient's clinical evolution (n=21). Most pathological signs, such as bowel wall thickening (BWT), bowel wall enhancement (BWE) and lymphadenopathy (ADP), showed better interobserver agreement on MSCTE than on MRE (BWT: 0.65 vs 0.48; BWE: 0.51 vs 0.37; ADP: 0.52 vs 0.15). Sensitivity of MSCTE was higher than that of MRE in detecting BWT (88.9 vs 60%), BWE (78.6 vs 55.5%) and ADP (63.8 vs 14.3%). Wilcoxon signed-rank test revealed significantly better sensitivity of MSCTE than that of MRE for each observer (p=0.028, p=0.046, p=0.028, respectively). Taking the given study design into account, MSCTE provides better sensitivity in detecting lesions of the small bowel than MRE, with higher interobserver agreement. (orig.)

  1. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, F.G.; Cataldo, D.A.; Cline, J.F.; Skiens, W.E.; Van Voris, P.

    1993-01-26

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a geotextile'' and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  2. Root-growth-inhibiting sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Frederick G.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Cline, John F.; Skiens, W. Eugene; Van Voris, Peter

    1993-01-01

    In accordance with this invention, a porous sheet material is provided at intervals with bodies of a polymer which contain a 2,6-dinitroaniline. The sheet material is made porous to permit free passage of water. It may be either a perforated sheet or a woven or non-woven textile material. A particularly desirable embodiment is a non-woven fabric of non-biodegradable material. This type of material is known as a "geotextile" and is used for weed control, prevention of erosion on slopes, and other landscaping purposes. In order to obtain a root repelling property, a dinitroaniline is blended with a polymer which is attached to the geotextile or other porous material.

  3. LSE-Sign: A lexical database for Spanish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Costello, Brendan; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The LSE-Sign database is a free online tool for selecting Spanish Sign Language stimulus materials to be used in experiments. It contains 2,400 individual signs taken from a recent standardized LSE dictionary, and a further 2,700 related nonsigns. Each entry is coded for a wide range of grammatical, phonological, and articulatory information, including handshape, location, movement, and non-manual elements. The database is accessible via a graphically based search facility which is highly flexible both in terms of the search options available and the way the results are displayed. LSE-Sign is available at the following website: http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/lse/.

  4. Preparation, characterization, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy study on carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-sheets, and onion like carbon materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abouelsayed, A.; Anis, Badawi; Hassaballa, Safwat; Khalil, Ahmed S.G.; Rashed, Usama M.; Eid, Kamal A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad; El hotaby, W.

    2017-01-01

    We present the optical properties of carbon nanotubes, graphene nanosheets, and onion like carbon (OLC) samples with different cages size in wide frequency range from 0.06 to 1650 THz. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman, and UV–Vis-IR-THz spectroscopy. The broad absorption bands centered at around 10, 3, 2.5, 1.5, and 1.8 THz for SWCNTs, MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, large cages (OLC 1 ), and small cages (OLC 2 ) samples, respectively, are assigned to plasmon resonance due to the localization of free carriers in a finite length. For SWCNTs, both the plasmon band position and the Drude weight (D) are located at higher values as compared with MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, and OLC sample, suggesting that the dimensionality of the system plays a major role regarding the carrier mobility of the graphene structure. The differences in the estimated values of D, the Fermi energy (E f ), and density of carriers (N) in case of OLC samples can be due to the variation in sizes of the cages and the variation of the defects in the structure of the outermost layers of cages, where each cages consist of multi-layers of graphene enclosed one into another. - Highlights: • Preparation and spectroscopic studies on carbonaceous materials were performed. • Drude-Lorentz model were used for fitting the optical conductivity spectra. • The plasmonic resonances have been observed in THz frequency range. • The charge density N has been effected by disordered of the grapheme structure. • The σ DC values is decreased in case of 2D carbonaceous materials.

  5. Preparation, characterization, Raman, and terahertz spectroscopy study on carbon nanotubes, graphene nano-sheets, and onion like carbon materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abouelsayed, A., E-mail: as.abouelsayed@gmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Anis, Badawi [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt); Hassaballa, Safwat [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884 (Egypt); Khalil, Ahmed S.G. [Center for Environmental and Smart Technology, Fayoum University, Fayoum (Egypt); Egypt Nanotechnology Center, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Arab Academy for Science, Technology and Maritime Transport, Smart Village Campus, Giza (Egypt); Rashed, Usama M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884 (Egypt); Eid, Kamal A.; Al-Ashkar, Emad; El hotaby, W. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth St. (fromer El Tahrir St.), Dokki, P.O. 12622, Giza (Egypt)

    2017-03-01

    We present the optical properties of carbon nanotubes, graphene nanosheets, and onion like carbon (OLC) samples with different cages size in wide frequency range from 0.06 to 1650 THz. The samples were characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM), Raman, and UV–Vis-IR-THz spectroscopy. The broad absorption bands centered at around 10, 3, 2.5, 1.5, and 1.8 THz for SWCNTs, MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, large cages (OLC{sub 1}), and small cages (OLC{sub 2}) samples, respectively, are assigned to plasmon resonance due to the localization of free carriers in a finite length. For SWCNTs, both the plasmon band position and the Drude weight (D) are located at higher values as compared with MWCNTs, graphene nanosheets, and OLC sample, suggesting that the dimensionality of the system plays a major role regarding the carrier mobility of the graphene structure. The differences in the estimated values of D, the Fermi energy (E{sub f}), and density of carriers (N) in case of OLC samples can be due to the variation in sizes of the cages and the variation of the defects in the structure of the outermost layers of cages, where each cages consist of multi-layers of graphene enclosed one into another. - Highlights: • Preparation and spectroscopic studies on carbonaceous materials were performed. • Drude-Lorentz model were used for fitting the optical conductivity spectra. • The plasmonic resonances have been observed in THz frequency range. • The charge density N has been effected by disordered of the grapheme structure. • The σ{sub DC} values is decreased in case of 2D carbonaceous materials.

  6. Experiment and simulation of a LiFePO4 battery pack with a passive thermal management system using composite phase change material and graphite sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunjing; Xu, Sichuan; Chang, Guofeng; Liu, Jinling

    2015-02-01

    A passive thermal management system (TMS) for LiFePO4 battery modules using phase change material (PCM) as the heat dissipation source to control battery temperature rise is developed. Expanded graphite matrix and graphite sheets are applied to compensate low thermal conductivity of PCM and improve temperature uniformity of the batteries. Constant current discharge and mixed charge-discharge duties were applied on battery modules with and without PCM on a battery thermal characteristics test platform. Experimental results show that PCM cooling significantly reduces the battery temperature rise during short-time intense use. It is also found that temperature uniformity across the module deteriorates with the increasing of both discharge time and current rates. The maximum temperature differences at the end of 1C and 2C-rate discharges are both less than 5 °C, indicating a good performance in battery thermal uniformity of the passive TMS. Experiments on warm-keeping performance show that the passive TMS can effectively keep the battery within its optimum operating temperature for a long time during cold weather uses. A three dimensional numerical model of the battery pack with the passive TMS was conducted using ANSYS Fluent. Temperature profiles with respect to discharging time reveal that simulation shows good agreement with experiment at 1C-discharge rate.

  7. Headaches - danger signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migraine headache - danger signs; Tension headache - danger signs; Cluster headache - danger signs; Vascular headache - danger signs ... and other head pain. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  8. Chlamydia - CDC Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Archive STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Genital Herpes Hepatitis HIV/AIDS & STDs Human Papillomavirus ( ... sheet Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) – CDC fact sheet Gonorrhea – CDC fact sheet STDs Home Page Bacterial Vaginosis ( ...

  9. Name signs in Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakken Jepsen, Julie

    2018-01-01

    in spoken languages, where a person working as a blacksmith by his friends might be referred to as ‘The Blacksmith’ (‘Here comes the Blacksmith!’) instead of using the person’s first name. Name signs are found not only in Danish Sign Language (DSL) but in most, if not all, sign languages studied to date....... This article provides examples of the creativity of the users of Danish Sign Language, including some of the processes in the use of metaphors, visual motivation and influence from Danish when name signs are created.......A name sign is a personal sign assigned to deaf, hearing impaired and hearing persons who enter the deaf community. The mouth action accompanying the sign reproduces all or part of the formal first name that the person has received by baptism or naming. Name signs can be compared to nicknames...

  10. Signing off

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-03-01

    What are you thinking about? There is a crisis in recruiting physics teachers throughout Northern Europe. Detailed research has shown that the problem may be one of image. It seems that being a teacher is seen as something slightly strange. So is being a physicist. This makes anyone who is a physics teacher (strange)2. This effect becomes overwhelming when more than one physics teacher is present, making attendance at gatherings of physics teachers almost unthinkable for the average person. So just what is it that sets physicists aside from the rest of the population? Why do they think we are so strange? Clearly it is how we think about things. We enter a room and estimate its volume. We visit the fairground and we wonder about the g force. At a football match we estimate the size of the crowd. At sunset we see scattering and at the beach, as the sun glints off the clear water, we think about Brewster's angle, and we estimate the number of pebbles on the beach. We find potential visits and lesson-material at hospitals, concerts, restaurants and on every possible mode of transport. Thinking about things like that is what makes us physics teachers. Surely everyone has seen The Wizard of Oz. I want you to imagine that you are watching it along with some friends who are not physics teachers. Let's see what they are all thinking about. One is a Roads Engineer. What a state the yellow brick road is in! As the major route in the country of Oz it obviously needs an upgrade. A nice black tarmac surface, some road markings and lighting at the major intersections. There is something else wrong. Dorothy, the Tin man, Scarecrow and Lion are just walking along. Where are the road works, traffic jams and hold-ups? Another friend is a school principal. What an amazing leadership style the Wizard has. Perhaps it would work at school? Those munchkins run around a bit though. There would be a need for some rules about how to play in the playground. Perhaps if the mayor of the

  11. FY 1998 results of the regional consortium R and D project/the venture promotion type regional consortium R and D (small-/medium-size venture creation type). Development of multilayer functional materials (Development of health sheets); 1998 nendo tasekiso kino zairyo no kaihatsu (kenko sheet no kaihatsu) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D were conducted with the aim of developing multilayer functional materials (health sheets) relating to the bedding which fit the human skin. The study was made on the following: production/processing method to control shapes of new materials made from abrasive grain, powder mixing technology to improve functions, development of nonwoven fabrics with flexibility, water absorbability, compressibility, durability, thermal processability, etc. As a result, multilayer functional materials were obtained by combining functions which the nonwoven fabric and alumina-based abrasive grain have. By further pulverizing the alumina-based abrasive grain, the far infrared radiation function was improved, and at the same time the color variation was also made possible by selection of raw materials. In the fabrication of nonwoven fabrics, raw materials of rayon, polyester, acrylic fiber, etc. were selected, and soft composite nonwoven sheets were obtained by building three- to five-layer and by intermittent water jet processing. Moreover, an assessment method using KES feeling measuring system was established. (NEDO)

  12. Warning Signs of Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Aggressive Behavior Print Share Warning Signs for Bullying There are many warning signs that may indicate ... Get help right away . Signs a Child is Bullying Others Kids may be bullying others if they: ...

  13. Advanced friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.

    2012-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  14. Advanced friction modeling in sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Huetink, Han

    2011-01-01

    The Coulomb friction model is frequently used for sheet metal forming simulations. This model incorporates a constant coefficient of friction and does not take the influence of important parameters such as contact pressure or deformation of the sheet material into account. This article presents a

  15. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  16. Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Boli; Li, Dan; Liu, Zhengjiao; Gu, Lili; Xie, Wenhe; Li, Qun; Guo, Pengqian; Liu, Dequan; He, Deyan, E-mail: hedy@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The C-MnO/rGO composites were anchored on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. • The novel architecture of anodes effectively improved the electrochemical performance of lithium ion battery. • The active MnO nanodendrites became smaller nanoparticles still wrapped in graphene sheets after cycles. - Abstract: Carbon-wrapped MnO nanodendrites interspersed on reduced graphene oxide sheets (C-MnO/rGO) were prepared on nickel foam by a facile vacuum filtration and a subsequent thermal treatment. As a binder-free anode of lithium-ion battery, the nanodendritic structure of C-MnO accommodates the huge volume expansion and shortens the diffusion length for lithium ion and electron, rGO sheets prevent C-MnO nanodendites from aggregation and offer a good electronic conduction. As a result, the electrode with such a novel architecture delivers superior electrochemical properties including high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and cycle stability. Moreover, MnO nanodendrites change to nanoparticles wrapped in graphene sheets during the lithiation/delithiation process, which is a more beneficial microstructure to further increase the specific capacity and cycle life of the electrode.

  17. High performance electrode material for supercapacitors based on α-Co(OH)2 nano-sheets prepared through pulse current cathodic electro-deposition (PC-CED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mustafa; Rashidi, Amir; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the well-defined nano-sheets of α-Co(OH)2 were prepared through the cathodic electrosynthesis from an additive-free aqueous cobalt nitrate bath. The pulse current cathodic electro-deposition (PC-CED) was used as the means for the controlling the OH- electrogeneration on the cathode surface. The characteristics and electrochemical behavior of the prepared cobalt hydroxide were also assessed through SEM, TEM, XRD, BET, and IR. The results proved the product to be composed of crystalline pure α phase of cobalt hydroxide with sheet-like morphology at nanoscale. Evaluations of the electrochemical behaviour of the α-Co(OH)2 nano-sheets revealed that they are capable to delivering the specific capacitance of 1122 F g-1 at a discharge load of 3 A g-1 and SC retention of 84% after 4000 continues discharging cycles, suggesting the nano-sheets as promising candidates for use in electrochemical supercapacitors. Further, the method used for the preparation of the compounds enjoys the capability of being scaled up. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Treatment of chronic desquamative gingivitis using tissue-engineered human cultured gingival epithelial sheets: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kazuhiro; Momose, Manabu; Murata, Masashi; Saito, Yoshinori; lnoie, Masukazu; Shinohara, Chikara; Wolff, Larry F; Yoshie, Hiromasa

    2004-04-01

    Human cultured gingival epithelial sheets were used as an autologous grafting material for regenerating gingival tissue in the maxillary left and mandibular right quadrants of a patient with chronic desquamative gingivitis. Six months post-surgery in both treated areas, there were gains in keratinized gingiva and no signs of gingival inflammation compared to presurgery. In the maxillary left quadrant, preoperative histopathologic findings revealed the epithelium was separated from the connective tissue and inflammatory cells were extensive. After grafting with the gingival epithelial sheets, inflammatory cells were decreased and separation between epithelium and connective tissue was not observed. The human cultured gingival epithelial sheets fabricated using tissue engineering technology showed significant promise for gingival augmentation in periodontal therapy.

  19. 17 CFR 229.1001 - (Item 1001) Summary term sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... sheet that is written in plain English. The summary term sheet must briefly describe in bullet point format the most material terms of the proposed transaction. The summary term sheet must provide security... transaction. The bullet points must cross-reference a more detailed discussion contained in the disclosure...

  20. Physics of the magnetotail current sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.

    1993-01-01

    The Earth's magnetotail plays an important role in the solar-wind--magnetosphere coupling. At the midplane of the magnetotail is a current sheet where the dominant magnetic field component reverses sign. The charged particle motion in and near the current sheet is collisionless and nonintegrable, exhibiting chaotic scattering. The current understanding of the dynamical properties of the charged particle motion is discussed. In particular, the relationships between particle dynamics and global attributes of the system are elucidated. Geometrical properties of the phase space determine important physical observables on both micro- and macroscales

  1. Photovoltaics Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-02-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Photovoltaics (PV) subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Solar Energy Technologies Office works with industry, academia, national laboratories, and other government agencies to advance solar PV, which is the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity by a semiconductor, in support of the goals of the SunShot Initiative. SunShot supports research and development to aggressively advance PV technology by improving efficiency and reliability and lowering manufacturing costs. SunShot’s PV portfolio spans work from early-stage solar cell research through technology commercialization, including work on materials, processes, and device structure and characterization techniques.

  2. Sheet production apparatus for removing a crystalline sheet from the surface of a melt using gas jets located above and below the crystalline sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellerman, Peter L.; Thronson, Gregory D.

    2017-06-14

    In one embodiment, a sheet production apparatus comprises a vessel configured to hold a melt of a material. A cooling plate is disposed proximate the melt and is configured to form a sheet of the material on the melt. A first gas jet is configured to direct a gas toward an edge of the vessel. A sheet of a material is translated horizontally on a surface of the melt and the sheet is removed from the melt. The first gas jet may be directed at the meniscus and may stabilize this meniscus or increase local pressure within the meniscus.

  3. Selectively reflective transparent sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waché, Rémi; Florescu, Marian; Sweeney, Stephen J.; Clowes, Steven K.

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the possibility to selectively reflect certain wavelengths while maintaining the optical properties on other spectral ranges. This is of particular interest for transparent materials, which for specific applications may require high reflectivity at pre-determined frequencies. Although there exist currently techniques such as coatings to produce selective reflection, this work focuses on new approaches for mass production of polyethylene sheets which incorporate either additives or surface patterning for selective reflection between 8 to 13 μ m. Typical additives used to produce a greenhouse effect in plastics include particles such as clays, silica or hydroxide materials. However, the absorption of thermal radiation is less efficient than the decrease of emissivity as it can be compared with the inclusion of Lambertian materials. Photonic band gap engineering by the periodic structuring of metamaterials is known in nature for producing the vivid bright colors in certain organisms via strong wavelength-selective reflection. Research to artificially engineer such structures has mainly focused on wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. However few studies to date have been carried out to investigate the properties of metastructures in the mid infrared range even though the patterning of microstructure is easier to achieve. We present preliminary results on the diffuse reflectivity using FDTD simulations and analyze the technical feasibility of these approaches.

  4. 'Felson Signs' revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Phiji P.; Irodi, Aparna; Keshava, Shyamkumar N.; Lamont, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we revisit, with the help of images, those classic signs in chest radiography described by Dr Benjamin Felson himself, or other illustrious radiologists of his time, cited and discussed in 'Chest Roentgenology'. We briefly describe the causes of the signs, their utility and the differential diagnosis to be considered when each sign is seen. Wherever possible, we use CT images to illustrate the basis of some of these classic radiographic signs.

  5. Signed languages and globalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiddinga, A.; Crasborn, O.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf people who form part of a Deaf community communicate using a shared sign language. When meeting people from another language community, they can fall back on a flexible and highly context-dependent form of communication called international sign, in which shared elements from their own sign

  6. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  7. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden); Rodhe, Lars [Geological Survey of Sweden, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  8. Ice sheet hydrology - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter; Naeslund, Jens-Ove; Rodhe, Lars

    2007-03-01

    This report summarizes the theoretical knowledge on water flow in and beneath glaciers and ice sheets and how these theories are applied in models to simulate the hydrology of ice sheets. The purpose is to present the state of knowledge and, perhaps more importantly, identify the gaps in our understanding of ice sheet hydrology. Many general concepts in hydrology and hydraulics are applicable to water flow in glaciers. However, the unique situation of having the liquid phase flowing in conduits of the solid phase of the same material, water, is not a commonly occurring phenomena. This situation means that the heat exchange between the phases and the resulting phase changes also have to be accounted for in the analysis. The fact that the solidus in the pressure-temperature dependent phase diagram of water has a negative slope provides further complications. Ice can thus melt or freeze from both temperature and pressure variations or variations in both. In order to provide details of the current understanding of water flow in conjunction with deforming ice and to provide understanding for the development of ideas and models, emphasis has been put on the mathematical treatments, which are reproduced in detail. Qualitative results corroborating theory or, perhaps more often, questioning the simplifications made in theory, are also given. The overarching problem with our knowledge of glacier hydrology is the gap between the local theories of processes and the general flow of water in glaciers and ice sheets. Water is often channelized in non-stationary conduits through the ice, features which due to their minute size relative to the size of glaciers and ice sheets are difficult to incorporate in spatially larger models. Since the dynamic response of ice sheets to global warming is becoming a key issue in, e.g. sea-level change studies, the problems of the coupling between the hydrology of an ice sheet and its dynamics is steadily gaining interest. New work is emerging

  9. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  10. Evolution of the MHD sheet pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthaeus, W.H.; Montgomery, D.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) problem of recurrent interest for both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas is the evolution of the unstable sheet pinch, a current sheet across which a dc magnetic field reverses sign. The evolution of such a sheet pinch is followed with a spectral-method, incompressible, two-dimensional, MHD turbulence code. Spectral diagnostics are employed, as are contour plots of vector potential (magnetic field lines), electric current density, and velocity stream function (velocity streamlines). The nonlinear effect which seems most important is seen to be current filamentation: the concentration of the current density onto sets of small measure near a mgnetic X point. A great deal of turbulence is apparent in the current distribution, which, for high Reynolds numbers, requires large spatial grids (greater than or equal to (64) 2 ). 11 figures, 1 table

  11. Lubricant Film Breakdown and Material Pick-Up in Sheet Forming of Advanced High Strength Steels and Stainless Steels when Using Environmental Friendly Lubricants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Olsson, M.; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    chemically with the tool and workpiece material forming thin films, which adhere strongly to the surfaces and reduce the tendency to metal-metal contact and material pick-up. Production tests of new, environmentally benign tribo-systems are, however, costly and laboratory tests are preferred as a preliminary...... the tribological performance, i.e. tendency to material pick-up and galling, of the evaluated tribo-systems. Moreover the SEM analysis shows that different workpiece materials result in different types of material pick-up....

  12. Machine Shop Suggested Job and Task Sheets. Part I. 25 Elementary Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This volume consists of elementary job and task sheets adaptable for use in the regular vocational industrial education programs for the training of machinists and machine shop operators. Twenty-five simple machine shop job sheets are included. Some or all of this material is provided for each job sheet: an introductory sheet with aim, checking…

  13. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  14. Mobility Balance Sheet 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorritsma, P.; Derriks, H.; Francke, J.; Gordijn, H.; Groot, W.; Harms, L.; Van der Loop, H.; Peer, S.; Savelberg, F.; Wouters, P.

    2009-06-01

    The Mobility Balance Sheet provides an overview of the state of the art of mobility in the Netherlands. In addition to describing the development of mobility this report also provides explanations for the growth of passenger and freight transport. Moreover, the Mobility Balance Sheet also focuses on a topical theme: the effects of economic crises on mobility. [nl

  15. Comparative properties of ceramic-based roofing sheets from local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ceramic roofing sheets were fabricated in the laboratory by using ideal raw materials. The fabricating materials are coiled coconut fibre, palm fruit fibre, fresh water, river sand, polymeric dust, saw dust and cement. The resulting product was compared with factory -produced ceramic-based roofing sheets that are easily ...

  16. New radiation warning sign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.; Mason, C.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Radiation accidents involving orphan radioactive sources have happened as a result of people not recognizing the radiation trefoil symbol or from being illiterate and not understanding a warning statement on the radiation source. The trefoil symbol has no inherent meaning to people that have not been instructed in its use. A new radiation warning sign, to supplement the existing trefoil symbol, has been developed to address these issues. Human Factors experts, United Nations member states, and members of the international community of radiation protection professionals were consulted for input on the design of a new radiation warning sign that would clearly convey the message of 'Danger- Run Away- Stay Away' when in close proximity to a dangerous source of radiation. Cultural differences of perception on various warning symbols were taken into consideration and arrays of possible signs were developed. The signs were initially tested in international children for identification with the desired message and response. Based on these test results and further input from radiation protection professionals, five warning signs were identified as the most successful in conveying the desired message and response. These five signs were tested internationally in eleven countries by a professional survey company to determine the best sign for this purpose. The conclusion of the international testing is presented. The new radiation warning sign is currently a draft ISO standard under committee review. The design of the propose d radiation warning sign and the proposed implementation strategy outlined in the draft ISO standard is presented. (authors)

  17. Hydromagnetic transport phenomena from a stretching or shrinking nonlinear nanomaterial sheet with Navier slip and convective heating: A model for bio-nano-materials processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uddin, M.J., E-mail: jashim_74@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, American International University-Bangladesh, Banani Dhaka 1213 (Bangladesh); Bég, O. Anwar [Gort Engovation Research (Propulsion/Biomechanics), Gabriel' s Wing House, 15 Southmere Ave., Bradford, BD7 3NU England (United Kingdom); Amin, N. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 UTM Johor (Malaysia)

    2014-11-15

    Steady two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic laminar free convective boundary layer slip flow of an electrically conducting Newtonian nanofluid from a translating stretching/shrinking sheet in a quiescent fluid is studied. A convective heating boundary condition is incorporated. The transport equations along with the boundary conditions are first converted into dimensionless form and following the implementation of a linear group of transformations, the similarity governing equations are developed. The transformed equations are solved numerically using the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth fifth order method from Maple. Validation of the Maple solutions is achieved with previous non-magnetic published results. The effects of the emerging thermophysical parameters; namely, stretching/shrinking, velocity slip, magnetic field, convective heat transfer and buoyancy ratio parameters, on the dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration (nanoparticle fraction) are depicted graphically and interpreted at length. It is found that velocity increases whilst temperature and concentration reduce with the velocity slip. Magnetic field causes to reduce velocity and enhances temperature and concentration. Velocity, temperature as well as concentration rises with convective heating parameter. The study is relevant to the synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids of potential interest in wound treatments, skin repair and smart coatings for biological devices. - Highlights: • This paper analyses MHD slip flow of nofluid with convective boundary conditions. • Group method is used to transform governing equations into similarity equations. • The Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method is used for numerical computations. • The study is relevant to synthesis of bio-magnetic nanofluids.

  18. Three-dimensional graphene sheets with NiO nanobelt outgrowths for enhanced capacity and long term high rate cycling Li-ion battery anode material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Waipeng; Zhang, Yingmeng; Key, Julian; Shen, Pei Kang

    2018-03-01

    An efficient synthesis method to grow well attached NiO nanobelts from 3D graphene sheets (3DGS) is reported herein. Ni-ion exchanged resin provides the initial Ni reactant portion, which serves both as a catalyst to form 3DGS and then as a seeding agent to grow the NiO nanobelts. The macroporous structure of 3DGS provides NiO containment to achieve a high cycling stability of up to 445 mAh g-1 after 360 cycles (and >112% capacity retention after 515 cycles) at a high current density of 2 A g-1. With a 26.8 wt.% content of NiO on 3DGS, increases in specific and volumetric capacity were 41.6 and 75.7% respectively over that of 3DGS at matching current densities. Therefore, the seeded growth of NiO nanobelts from 3DGS significantly boosts volumetric capacity, while 3DGS enables high rate long term cycling of the NiO. The high rate cycling stability of NiO on 3DGS can be attributed to (i) good attachment and contact to the large surface of 3DGS, (ii) high electron conductivity and rapid Li-ion transfer (via the interconnected, highly conductive graphitized walls of 3DGS) and (iii) buffering void space in 3DGS to contain volume expansion of NiO during charge/discharge.

  19. The transposition of the balance sheet to financial and functional balance sheet. Research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana GĂDĂU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the title suggests, through this paper we want to highlight the necessity of treating again the content and the form of the balance sheet in order to adapt it to a more efficient analysis, this way surpassing the informational valences of the classic balance sheet. The functional and the financial balance sheet will be taken into account. These models of balance sheet permit the complex analyses regarding the solvability or the bankruptcy risk of an enterprise to take place, and also other analyses, like the analysis of the structure and the financial/ functional equilibrium, the analysis of the company on operating cycles and their role in the functioning of the company. Through the particularities offered by each of these two models of balance sheet, we want to present the advantages of a superior informing. This content of this material is based on a vast investigation of the specialized literature.

  20. Zirconium/polyvinyl alcohol modified flat-sheet polyvinyldene fluoride membrane for decontamination of arsenic: Material design and optimization, study of mechanisms, and application prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dandan; Yu, Yang; Chen, J Paul

    2016-07-01

    Arsenic contamination in industrial wastewater and groundwater has become an important environmental issue. In this study, a novel zirconium/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) modified polyvinyldene fluoride (PVDF) membrane was developed for arsenate removal from simulated contaminated water. A PVDF flat-sheet membrane was first fabricated; it was then soaked in a zirconium-PVA solution and dried, and finally reacted with a glutaraldehyde solution, by which the zirconium ions were impregnated onto the PVDF surface through the ether and hydroxyl groups according to the cross-linkage mechanism. The fabrication procedure was optimized by the Box-Behnken experimental design approach. The adsorption kinetics study showed that most of uptake occurred in 5 h and the equilibrium was established in 24 h. The acidic condition was beneficial for the arsenate removal and the optimal removal efficiency can be obtained at pH 2.0. The experimental data of the adsorption isotherm was better described by Langmuir equation than Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity of 128 mg-As/g was achieved at pH 2.0. In the filtration study, the modified membrane with an area of 12.56 cm(2) could treat 15.6 L arsenate solution (equivalent to 75,150 bed volumes) with an influent concentration of 98.6 μg/L to meet the maximum contaminate level of 10 μg/L. Several instrumental studies revealed that the removal was mainly associated with ion exchange between chloride and arsenate ions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Buckling Behavior of Substrate Supported Graphene Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuijian Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The buckling of graphene sheets on substrates can significantly degrade their performance in materials and devices. Therefore, a systematic investigation on the buckling behavior of monolayer graphene sheet/substrate systems is carried out in this paper by both molecular mechanics simulations and theoretical analysis. From 70 simulation cases of simple-supported graphene sheets with different sizes under uniaxial compression, two different buckling modes are investigated and revealed to be dominated by the graphene size. Especially, for graphene sheets with length larger than 3 nm and width larger than 1.1 nm, the buckling mode depends only on the length/width ratio. Besides, it is revealed that the existence of graphene substrate can increase the critical buckling stress and strain to 4.39 N/m and 1.58%, respectively, which are about 10 times those for free-standing graphene sheets. Moreover, for graphene sheets with common size (longer than 20 nm, both theoretical and simulation results show that the critical buckling stress and strain are dominated only by the adhesive interactions with substrate and independent of the graphene size. Results in this work provide valuable insight and guidelines for the design and application of graphene-derived materials and nano-electromechanical systems.

  2. Standardization of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  3. Moldable cork ablation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A successful thermal ablative material was manufactured. Moldable cork sheets were tested for density, tensile strength, tensile elongation, thermal conductivity, compression set, and specific heat. A moldable cork sheet, therefore, was established as a realistic product.

  4. Carbon sheet pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Sagara, A.; Kawamura, T.; Motojima, O.; Ono, T.

    1993-07-01

    A new hydrogen pumping scheme has been proposed which controls recycling of the particles for significant improvement of the energy confinement in toroidal magnetic fusion devices. In this scheme, a part of the vacuum vessel surface near the divertor is covered with carbon sheets of a large surface area. Before discharge initiation, the sheets are baked up to 700 ∼ 1000degC to remove the previously trapped hydrogen atoms. After being cooled down to below ∼ 200degC, the unsaturated carbon sheets trap high energy charge exchange hydrogen atoms effectively during a discharge and overall pumping efficiency can be as high as ∼ 50 %. (author)

  5. Research showcase, winter 2014 : reducing traffic noise impacts, university transportation centers, advanced prismatic sheeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This issue of Research Showcase features articles on two successful research efforts, one on quiet : pavements and the other on the bene ts of prismatic sign sheeting, and an article on university : transportation center participation in Florida.

  6. Supplementary Material

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mraga

    1. Supplementary Material. A soluble-lead Redox Flow Battery with corrugated graphite sheet and reticulated vitreous carbon as positive and negative current collectors by A Banerjee et al (pp 163-. 170). Figure S1. SEM images for bare substrates: (a) graphite sheet, (b) 20 ppi RVC, (c) 30 ppi. RVC and (d) 45 ppi RVC.

  7. Signs of political economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Lamizet

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Like any political system, economy is a system of signs and representations. The Semiotics of economy elaborates its analytical methods to interpret such signs, which give meaning to the economy by representing its performances in public debate and in the media. Four major features distinguish the Semiotics of political economy from other semiotic forms or other systems of information and political representation. First of all, the relationship between the signification of the economy and the real or the imaginary phenomena to which they refer always pertains to the order of values. The second characteristic of economic signs is the significance of the state of lack they express. The third characteristic of signs of the economy is the form of sign production, which can be designated by the concept of emission of signs and their diffusion. Finally, as all signs, the economic sign is arbitrary. In the field of Economics, such arbitrariness does not imply that the Subject is free to superimpose whatever value to the signs themselves, but refers to the rupture between the world and its possible transformation. The very meaning of the word economy is here at stake. Oikos, in Greek (the term from which the word economy is derived refers to a known, familiar space. Economy transforms the real, natural world into a symbolic social world, into a world of relations with others whom we recognise and whose actions are relatively predictable. It might be useful to consider the contemporary issue of debt, its implications and its multiple meanings, which includes both the ethical and moral dimension of the condemnation of debt as well as the imaginary political dimension based on the expression of an idea of independence.

  8. Anesthesia Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education About NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Anesthesia Anesthesia Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area En español ... Version (464 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is anesthesia? Anesthesia is a medical treatment that prevents patients ...

  9. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIGMS NIGMS Home > Science Education > Structural Biology Structural Biology Tagline (Optional) Middle/Main Content Area PDF Version (688 KB) Other Fact Sheets What is structural biology? Structural biology is the study of how biological ...

  10. Radiation protecting sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    As protection sheets used in radioactivity administration areas, a thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet with a thickness of less 0.5 mm, solid content (ash) of less than 5% and a shore D hardness of less than 60 is used. A composite sheet with thickness of less than 0.5 mm laminated or coated with such a thermoplastic polyurethane composition as a surface layer and the thermoplastic polyurethane composition sheet applied with secondary fabrication are used. This can satisfy all of the required properties, such as draping property, abrasion resistance, high breaking strength, necking resistance, endurance strength, as well as chemical resistance and easy burnability in burning furnace. Further, by forming uneveness on the surface by means of embossing, etc. safety problems such as slippage during operation and walking can be overcome. (T.M.)

  11. Global ice sheet modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, T.J.; Fastook, J.L.

    1994-05-01

    The University of Maine conducted this study for Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of a global climate modeling task for site characterization of the potential nuclear waste respository site at Yucca Mountain, NV. The purpose of the study was to develop a global ice sheet dynamics model that will forecast the three-dimensional configuration of global ice sheets for specific climate change scenarios. The objective of the third (final) year of the work was to produce ice sheet data for glaciation scenarios covering the next 100,000 years. This was accomplished using both the map-plane and flowband solutions of our time-dependent, finite-element gridpoint model. The theory and equations used to develop the ice sheet models are presented. Three future scenarios were simulated by the model and results are discussed

  12. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  13. Microstructural Changes in Brazing Sheet due to Solid-Liquid Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittebrood, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminium brazing sheet is the material of choice to produce automotive heat exchangers. Although in Dutch the official translation of aluminium brazing sheet is “aluminium hardsoldeerplaat” the English name is used in the industry. Aluminium brazing sheet is basically a sandwich material and

  14. The sign learning theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KING OF DAWN

    The sign learning theory also holds secrets that could be exploited in accomplishing motor tasks. ... Introduction ... In his classic work: Cognitive Map in Rats and Men (1948),Tolman talked about five groups of experiments viz: latent learning ...

  15. Crocodile jaw sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brij Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This teaching image highlights the CT abdominal imaging finding of 'crocodile jaw sign' which should raise concern about the presence of an incomplete annular pancreas which causes partial encasement of the duodenum.

  16. 75 FR 53841 - Display of Official Sign; Permanent Increase in Standard Maximum Share Insurance Amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-02

    ... to replace the old version of the official sign with the revised official sign at required locations.... Additionally, a credit union must replace the old version of the official sign with the revised official sign... internet signs and deplete its stockpiles of other printed advertising materials. NCUA also believes that...

  17. Adolf Kussmaul and Kussmaul's sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navreet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kussmaul's has provided us with three important signs: Pulses paradoxus, Kussmaul's sign and Kussmaul Breathing. This article discusses Kussmaul's sign, its discovery, first description, pathophyiology and exceptions.

  18. Multiscale friction modeling for sheet metal forming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hol, J.; Cid Alfaro, M.V.; de Rooij, Matthias B.; Meinders, Vincent T.; Felder, Eric; Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    The most often used friction model for sheet metal forming simulations is the relative simple Coulomb friction model. This paper presents a more advanced friction model for large scale forming simulations based on the surface change on the micro-scale. The surface texture of a material changes when

  19. World War II Informational Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Defense, Washington, DC.

    This commemorative book provides numerous fact sheets on various aspects of World War II, both on the fighting front and the homefront. Replicas of posters of the war era, descriptions of battles with maps, contributions of women and minorities to the war effort, even music of the wartime era, add to this collection of resource materials useful to…

  20. Flammability studies of impregnated paper sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan Simkovic; Anne Fuller; Robert White

    2011-01-01

    Paper sheets impregnated with flame retardants made from agricultural residues and other additives were studied with the cone calorimeter. The use of sugar beet ethanol eluent (SBE), CaCl2, and ZnCl2 lowered the peak rate of heat release (PRHR) the most in comparison to water treated material. The average effective heat of...

  1. Aluminium sheet forming at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Bolt, P.J.; Werkhoven, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    The formability of aluminum sheet depends on the temperature of the material and the strain rate. E.g. the limiting drawing ratio can be improved by increasing the temperature uniformly, but even more by heating the flange and cooling the punch. To accurately simulate the deep drawing or stretching

  2. Disintegration of liquid sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Adel; Chigier, Norman

    1990-01-01

    The development, stability, and disintegration of liquid sheets issuing from a two-dimensional air-assisted nozzle is studied. Detailed measurements of mean drop size and velocity are made using a phase Doppler particle analyzer. Without air flow the liquid sheet converges toward the axis as a result of surface tension forces. With airflow a quasi-two-dimensional expanding spray is formed. The air flow causes small variations in sheet thickness to develop into major disturbances with the result that disruption starts before the formation of the main break-up region. In the two-dimensional variable geometry air-blast atomizer, it is shown that the air flow is responsible for the formation of large, ordered, and small chaotic 'cell' structures.

  3. Safety advice sheets

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    You never know when you might be faced with questions such as: when/how should I dispose of a gas canister? Where can I find an inspection report? How should I handle/store/dispose of a chemical substance…?   The SI section of the DGS/SEE Group is primarily responsible for safety inspections, evaluating the safety conditions of equipment items, premises and facilities. On top of this core task, it also regularly issues “Safety Advice Sheets” on various topics, designed to be of assistance to users but also to recall and reinforce safety rules and procedures. These clear and concise sheets, complete with illustrations, are easy to display in the appropriate areas. The following safety advice sheets have been issued so far: Other sheets will be published shortly. Suggestions are welcome and should be sent to the SI section of the DGS/SEE Group. Please send enquiries to general-safety-visits.service@cern.ch.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant Evenson

    2007-03-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 166, Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996). The corrective action sites (CASs) are located in Areas 2, 3, 5, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 166 is comprised of the following CASs: • 02-42-01, Cond. Release Storage Yd - North • 02-42-02, Cond. Release Storage Yd - South • 02-99-10, D-38 Storage Area • 03-42-01, Conditional Release Storage Yard • 05-19-02, Contaminated Soil and Drum • 18-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank • 18-99-03, Wax Piles/Oil Stain The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the seven CASs within CAU 166. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 31, 2006, through February 28, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 166 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2006).

  5. Anchoring ZnO Nanoparticles in Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets as a High-Performance Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel binary nanocomposite, ZnO/nitrogen-doped graphene (ZnO/NG, is synthesized via a facile solution method. In this prepared ZnO/NG composite, highly-crystalline ZnO nanoparticles with a size of about 10 nm are anchored uniformly on the N-doped graphene nanosheets. Electrochemical properties of the ZnO/NG composite as anode materials are systematically investigated in lithium-ion batteries. Specifically, the ZnO/NG composite can maintain the reversible specific discharge capacity at 870 mAh g−1 after 200 cycles at 100 mA g−1. Besides the enhanced electronic conductivity provided by interlaced N-doped graphene nanosheets, the excellent lithium storage properties of the ZnO/NG composite can be due to nanosized structure of ZnO particles, shortening the Li+ diffusion distance, increasing reaction sites, and buffering the ZnO volume change during the charge/discharge process.

  6. Computational triadic algebras of signs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadrozny, W. [T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We present a finite model of Peirce`s ten classes of signs. We briefly describe Peirce`s taxonomy of signs; we prove that any finite collection of signs can be extended to a finite algebra of signs in which all interpretants are themselves being interpreted; and we argue that Peirce`s ten classes of signs can be defined using constraints on algebras of signs. The paper opens the possibility of defining multimodal cognitive agents using Peirce`s classes of signs, and is a first step towards building a computational logic of signs based on Peirce`s taxonomies.

  7. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  8. Energy information sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-02

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the general public. Written for the general public, the EIA publication Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption and capability. The information contained herein pertains to energy data as of December 1991. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other EIA publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two

  10. Research on Al-alloy sheet forming formability during warm/hot sheet hydroforming based on elliptical warm bulging test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Gaoshen; Wu, Chuanyu; Gao, Zepu; Lang, Lihui; Alexandrov, Sergei

    2018-05-01

    An elliptical warm/hot sheet bulging test under different temperatures and pressure rates was carried out to predict Al-alloy sheet forming limit during warm/hot sheet hydroforming. Using relevant formulas of ultimate strain to calculate and dispose experimental data, forming limit curves (FLCS) in tension-tension state of strain (TTSS) area are obtained. Combining with the basic experimental data obtained by uniaxial tensile test under the equivalent condition with bulging test, complete forming limit diagrams (FLDS) of Al-alloy are established. Using a quadratic polynomial curve fitting method, material constants of fitting function are calculated and a prediction model equation for sheet metal forming limit is established, by which the corresponding forming limit curves in TTSS area can be obtained. The bulging test and fitting results indicated that the sheet metal FLCS obtained were very accurate. Also, the model equation can be used to instruct warm/hot sheet bulging test.

  11. Predicting Hot Deformation of AA5182 Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, John T.; Carpenter, Alexander J.; Jodlowski, Jakub P.; Taleff, Eric M.

    Aluminum 5000-series alloy sheet materials exhibit substantial ductilities at hot and warm temperatures, even when grain size is not particularly fine. The relatively high strain-rate sensitivity exhibited by these non-superplastic materials, when deforming under solute-drag creep, is a primary contributor to large tensile ductilities. This active deformation mechanism influences both plastic flow and microstructure evolution across conditions of interest for hot- and warm-forming. Data are presented from uniaxial tensile and biaxial bulge tests of AA5182 sheet material at elevated temperatures. These data are used to construct a material constitutive model for plastic flow, which is applied in finite-element-method (FEM) simulations of plastic deformation under multiaxial stress states. Simulation results are directly compared against experimental data to explore the usefulness of this constitutive model. The effects of temperature and stress state on plastic response and microstructure evolution are discussed.

  12. 1998 energy balance sheet of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of the energy balance sheet of France for the year 1998 according to the data published by the energy observatory from the general direction of energy and raw materials (DGEMP) and according to the press communication given by C. Pierret, French state secretary of the industry. The following points are commented: the energy balance sheet (national production and energy independence, the energy shares in the consumption), the decay of the energy bill, and the details of the bill by energy type. (J.S.)

  13. Toward the Ideal Signing Avatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Adamo-Villani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses ongoing research on the effects of a signing avatar's modeling/rendering features on the perception of sign language animation. It reports a recent study that aimed to determine whether a character's visual style has an effect on how signing animated characters are perceived by viewers. The stimuli of the study were two polygonal characters presenting two different visual styles: stylized and realistic. Each character signed four sentences. Forty-seven participants with experience in American Sign Language (ASL viewed the animated signing clips in random order via web survey. They (1 identified the signed sentences (if recognizable, (2 rated their legibility, and (3 rated the appeal of the signing avatar. Findings show that while character's visual style does not have an effect on subjects' perceived legibility of the signs and sign recognition, it has an effect on subjects' interest in the character. The stylized signing avatar was perceived as more appealing than the realistic one.

  14. The Forbidden Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilstrup, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    While the field of semiotics has been active since it was started by Peirce, it appears like the last decade has been especially productive with a number of important new concepts being developed within the biosemiotics community. The novel concept of the Semiotic scaffold by Hoffmeyer is an impo......While the field of semiotics has been active since it was started by Peirce, it appears like the last decade has been especially productive with a number of important new concepts being developed within the biosemiotics community. The novel concept of the Semiotic scaffold by Hoffmeyer...... is an important addition that offers insight into the hardware requirements for bio-semiosis. As any type of semiosis must be dependent upon Semiotic scaffolds, I recently argued that the process of semiosis has to be divided into two separate processes of sign establishment and sign interpretation....... I also show that biological semiosis offers examples of forbidden signs, where the faulty interpretation of signs may lead to decimation of whole evolutionary lines of organisms. A new concept of Evolutionary memory which is applicable to both human and biological semiosis is explained...

  15. Sign Language Web Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  16. Buffer Zone Sign Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    The certified pesticide applicator is required to post a comparable sign, designating a buffer zone around the soil fumigant application block in order to control exposure risk. It must include the don't walk symbol, product name, and applicator contact.

  17. Flemish Sign Language Standardisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herreweghe, Mieke; Vermeerbergen, Myriam

    2009-01-01

    In 1997, the Flemish Deaf community officially rejected standardisation of Flemish Sign Language. It was a bold choice, which at the time was not in line with some of the decisions taken in the neighbouring countries. In this article, we shall discuss the choices the Flemish Deaf community has made in this respect and explore why the Flemish Deaf…

  18. Buffer Zone Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    New requirements for buffer zones and sign posting contribute to soil fumigant mitigation and protection for workers and bystanders. The buffer provides distance between the pesticide application site and bystanders, reducing exposure risk.

  19. Burns Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Sign ... disease. Please consult with a qualified health care professional for answers to personal medical questions. NIGMS is ...

  20. Sepsis Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Sign ... disease. Please consult with a qualified health care professional for answers to personal medical questions. NIGMS is ...

  1. Trauma Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Sign ... disease. Please consult with a qualified health care professional for answers to personal medical questions. NIGMS is ...

  2. Collisionless current sheet equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Allanson, O.

    2018-01-01

    Current sheets are important for the structure and dynamics of many plasma systems. In space and astrophysical plasmas they play a crucial role in activity processes, for example by facilitating the release of magnetic energy via processes such as magnetic reconnection. In this contribution we will focus on collisionless plasma systems. A sensible first step in any investigation of physical processes involving current sheets is to find appropriate equilibrium solutions. The theory of collisionless plasma equilibria is well established, but over the past few years there has been a renewed interest in finding equilibrium distribution functions for collisionless current sheets with particular properties, for example for cases where the current density is parallel to the magnetic field (force-free current sheets). This interest is due to a combination of scientific curiosity and potential applications to space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper we will give an overview of some of the recent developments, discuss their potential applications and address a number of open questions.

  3. Cholera Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news-room/fact-sheets/detail/cholera","@context":"http://schema.org","@type":"Article"}; العربية 中文 français русский español ... that includes feedback at the local level and information-sharing at the global level. Cholera cases are ...

  4. Pseudomonas - Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2012-01-01

    Fact sheet on Pseudomonas, including:What is Pseudomonas?What infections does it cause?Who is susceptible to pseudomonas infection?How will I know if I have pseudomonas infection?How can Pseudomonas be prevented from spreading?How can I protect myself from Pseudomonas?How is Pseudomonas infection treated?

  5. NTPR Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current

  6. Production (information sheets)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    Documentation sheets: Geo energy 2 Integrated System Approach Petroleum Production (ISAPP) The value of smartness 4 Reservoir permeability estimation from production data 6 Coupled modeling for reservoir application 8 Toward an integrated near-wellbore model 10 TNO conceptual framework for "E&P

  7. Hibernia fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This fact sheet gives details of the Hibernia oil field including its location, discovery date, oil company's interests in the project, the recoverable reserves of the two reservoirs, the production system used, capital costs of the project, and overall targets for Canadian benefit. Significant dates for the Hibernia project are listed. (UK)

  8. Forced tearing of ductile and brittle thin sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallinen, T; Mahadevan, L

    2011-12-09

    Tearing a thin sheet by forcing a rigid object through it leads to complex crack morphologies; a single oscillatory crack arises when a tool is driven laterally through a brittle sheet, while two diverging cracks and a series of concertinalike folds forms when a tool is forced laterally through a ductile sheet. On the other hand, forcing an object perpendicularly through the sheet leads to radial petallike tears in both ductile and brittle materials. To understand these different regimes we use a combination of experiments, simulations, and simple theories. In particular, we describe the transition from brittle oscillatory tearing via a single crack to ductile concertina tearing with two tears by deriving laws that describe the crack paths and wavelength of the concertina folds and provide a simple phase diagram for the morphologies in terms of the material properties of the sheet and the relative size of the tool.

  9. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  10. Rubella - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Rubéola The best way ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  11. Machine Shop Suggested Job and Task Sheets. Part II. 21 Advanced Jobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This volume consists of advanced job and task sheets adaptable for use in the regular vocational industrial education programs for the training of machinists and machine shop operators. Twenty-one advanced machine shop job sheets are included. Some or all of this material is provided for each job: an introductory sheet with aim, checking…

  12. Cell sheet technology and cell patterning for biofabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannachi, Imen Elloumi; Yamato, Masayuki; Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women' s Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-06-01

    We have developed cell sheet technology as a modern method for the fabrication of functional tissue-like and organ-like structures. This technology allows for a sheet of interconnected cells and cells in full contact with their natural extracellular environment to be obtained. A cell sheet can be patterned and composed according to more than one cell type. The key technology of cell sheet engineering is that a fabricated cell sheet can be harvested and transplanted utilizing temperature-responsive surfaces. In this review, we summarize different aspects of cell sheet engineering and provide a survey of the application of cell sheets as a suitable material for biofabrication and clinics. Moreover, since cell micropatterning is a key tool for cell sheet engineering, in this review we focus on the introduction of our approaches to cell micropatterning and cell co-culture to the principles of automation and how they can be subjected to easy robotics programming. Finally, efforts towards making cell sheet technology suitable for biofabrication and robotic biofabrication are also summarized. (topical review)

  13. Development of Rolling Schedules for AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Materials 2 2.2 Hot Rolling 3 2.2 Sample Characterization: Microstructure and Tensile Properties 3 3. Rolling Experiments 5 3.1 High-Temperature...material systems for protective and structural applications, especially in ground vehicles. Magnesium (Mg), due to its low density (~25% that of steel ...applications, wrought Mg is difficult to produce in thin sheets because of its inherently low ductility . As a result, Mg sheet is often produced at

  14. Study on Positive and Negative Signs in Chronic Schizophrenic Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahel Hemmati

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Schizophrenia has different clinical manifestations, although, it is one disorder patients divided to two groups type 1 and type 2. type 1 who have positive and type 2 who have negative signs. Materials & Methods: They have chronic schizophrenia and treated at least with one antipsychotic drug. With checklist the signs were controlled. Results: In these chronic patients, hallucinations (positive sign are seen with almost all of negative signs. In the other hand, (1 Flat affect (2 A logia & volition (3 Social inattentiveness (4 Inability to feel intimacy are seen more than another signs. Conclusion: For these above  patients new antipsychotic must be examined.

  15. Planetary Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Charles; Briggs, Stephen; Victor, David

    2016-07-01

    The climate is beginning to behave in unusual ways. The global temperature reached unprecedented highs in 2015 and 2016, which led climatologists to predict an enormous El Nino that would cure California's record drought. It did not happen the way they expected. That tells us just how unreliable temperature has become as an indicator of important aspects of climate change. The world needs to go beyond global temperature to a set of planetary vital signs. Politicians should not over focus policy on one indicator. They need to look at the balance of evidence. A coalition of scientists and policy makers should start to develop vital signs at once, since they should be ready at the entry into force of the Paris Agreement in 2020. But vital signs are only the beginning. The world needs to learn how to use the vast knowledge we will be acquiring about climate change and its impacts. Is it not time to use all the tools at hand- observations from space and ground networks; demographic, economic and societal measures; big data statistical techniques; and numerical models-to inform politicians, managers, and the public of the evolving risks of climate change at global, regional, and local scales? Should we not think in advance of an always-on social and information network that provides decision-ready knowledge to those who hold the responsibility to act, wherever they are, at times of their choosing?

  16. Film sheet cassette

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    A novel film sheet cassette is described for handling CAT photographic films under daylight conditions and facilitating their imaging. A detailed description of the design and operation of the cassette is given together with appropriate illustrations. The resulting cassette is a low-cost unit which is easily constructed and yet provides a sure light-tight seal for the interior contents of the cassette. The individual resilient fingers on the light-trap permit the ready removal of the slide plate for taking pictures. The stippled, non-electrostatic surface of the pressure plate ensures an air layer and free slidability of the film for removal and withdrawal of the film sheet. The advantage of the daylight system is that a darkroom need not be used for inserting and removing the film in and out of the cassette resulting in a considerable time saving. (U.K.)

  17. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  18. Information sheets on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    These sheets, presented by the Cea, bring some information, in the energy domain, on the following topics: the world energy demand and the energy policy in France and in Europe, the part of the nuclear power in the energy of the future, the greenhouse gases emissions and the fight against the greenhouse effect, the carbon dioxide storage cost and the hydrogen economy. (A.L.B.)

  19. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  20. The Danish Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The entries of the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary have four sections:  Entry header: In this section the sign headword is shown as a photo and a gloss. The first occurring location and handshape of the sign are shown as icons.  Video window: By default the base form of the sign headword...... forms of the sign (only for classifier entries). In addition to this, frequent co-occurrences with the sign are shown in this section. The signs in the The Danish Sign Language Dictionary can be looked up through:  Handshape: Particular handshapes for the active and the passive hand can be specified...... to find signs that are not themselves lemmas in the dictionary, but appear in example sentences.  Topic: Topics can be chosen as search criteria from a list of 70 topics....

  1. X-ray screening materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to x-ray screening materials and especially to materials in sheet form for use in the production of, for example, protective clothing such as aprons and lower back shields, curtains, mobile screens and suspended shields. The invention is based on the observation that x-ray screening materials in sheet form having greater flexiblity than the hitherto known x-ray screening materials of the same x-ray absorber content can be produced if, instead of using a single sheet of filled sheet material of increased thickness, one uses a plurality of sheets of lesser thickness together forming a laminar material of the desired thickness and one bonds the individual sheets together at their edges and, optionally, at other spaced apart points away from the edges thereby allowing one sheet to move relative to another. (U.K.)

  2. Sheet pinch devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.; Baker, W.R.; Ise, J. Jr.; Kunkel, W.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Stone, J.M.

    1958-01-01

    Three types of sheet-like discharges are being studied at Berkeley. The first of these, which has been given the name 'Triax', consists of a cylindrical plasma sleeve contained between two coaxial conducting cylinders A theoretical analysis of the stability of the cylindrical sheet plasma predicts the existence of a 'sausage-mode' instability which is, however, expected to grow more slowly than in the case of the unstabilized linear pinch (by the ratio of the radial dimensions). The second pinch device employs a disk shaped discharge with radial current guided between flat metal plates, this configuration being identical to that of the flat hydromagnetic capacitor without external magnetic field. A significant feature of these configurations is the absence of a plasma edge, i.e., there are no regions of sharply curved magnetic field lines anywhere in these discharges. The importance of this fact for stability is not yet fully investigated theoretically. As a third configuration a rectangular, flat pinch tube has been constructed, and the behaviour of a flat plasma sheet with edges is being studied experimentally

  3. History of metaphoric signs in radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Stephen R., E-mail: bakersr@umdnj.edu; Noorelahi, Yasser M., E-mail: dr.ynoorelahi@gmail.com; Ghosh, Shanchita, E-mail: Ghoshs1@umdnj.edu; Yang, Lily C., E-mail: yangclily@gmail.com; Kasper, David J., E-mail: dkasp86@gmail.com

    2013-09-15

    Purpose: To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. Materials and methods: A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. Results: The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Conclusion: Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry.

  4. History of metaphoric signs in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Stephen R.; Noorelahi, Yasser M.; Ghosh, Shanchita; Yang, Lily C.; Kasper, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To survey the nearly 100 year history of metaphoric sign naming in radiology describing the pace of their overall accumulation in the radiology canon, their specific rates of growth by modality and subspecialty and the characteristics of the referents to which the signs are attached. Materials and methods: A comprehensive list of metaphoric signs was compiled from a search of articles in several major English language radiology journals, from a roster compiled in a monograph on the subject published in 1984 and from a search of several databases to find signs published in the first half of the 20th century. Results: The growth of radiological metaphorical signs naming was slow for several decades after the first one was published in 1918. It then increased rapidly until the 1980s encompassing all modalities and subspecialties. Recently the practice has shown a marked and steady decline. Conclusion: Metaphoric sign naming was a frequently reported contribution to the radiological literature in the second half of the 20th century corresponding with Radiology's growth as a descriptive discipline. Its decline since then may be a consequence of Radiology's evolution into a more analytic, data-driven field of inquiry

  5. Malaysian sign language dataset for automatic sign language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT ... SL recognition system based on the Malaysian Sign Language (MSL). Implementation results are described. Keywords: sign language; pattern classification; database.

  6. Green's Theorem for Sign Data

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Louis M.

    2012-01-01

    Sign data are the signs of signal added to noise. It is well known that a constant signal can be recovered from sign data. In this paper, we show that an integral over variant signal can be recovered from an integral over sign data based on the variant signal. We refer to this as a generalized sign data average. We use this result to derive a Green's theorem for sign data. Green's theorem is important to various seismic processing methods, including seismic migration. Results in this paper ge...

  7. Sign language typology: The contribution of rural sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, C.; Pfau, R.

    2015-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the field of sign language typology has shown that sign languages exhibit typological variation at all relevant levels of linguistic description. These initial typological comparisons were heavily skewed toward the urban sign languages of developed countries, mostly in the Western

  8. Sign language perception research for improving automatic sign language recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Holt, G.A.; Arendsen, J.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of

  9. Sign Lowering and Phonetic Reduction in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrone, Martha E; Mauk, Claude E

    2010-04-01

    This study examines sign lowering as a form of phonetic reduction in American Sign Language. Phonetic reduction occurs in the course of normal language production, when instead of producing a carefully articulated form of a word, the language user produces a less clearly articulated form. When signs are produced in context by native signers, they often differ from the citation forms of signs. In some cases, phonetic reduction is manifested as a sign being produced at a lower location than in the citation form. Sign lowering has been documented previously, but this is the first study to examine it in phonetic detail. The data presented here are tokens of the sign WONDER, as produced by six native signers, in two phonetic contexts and at three signing rates, which were captured by optoelectronic motion capture. The results indicate that sign lowering occurred for all signers, according to the factors we manipulated. Sign production was affected by several phonetic factors that also influence speech production, namely, production rate, phonetic context, and position within an utterance. In addition, we have discovered interesting variations in sign production, which could underlie distinctions in signing style, analogous to accent or voice quality in speech.

  10. Refuting the lipstick sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassbaugh, Jason A; Bean, Betsey R; Greenhouse, Alyssa R; Yu, Henry H; Arrington, Edward D; Friedman, Richard J; Eichinger, Josef K

    2017-08-01

    Arthroscopic examination of the tendon has been described as the "gold standard" for diagnosis of tendinitis of the long head of the biceps (LHB). An arthroscopic finding of an inflamed and hyperemic LHB within the bicipital groove has been described as the "lipstick sign." Studies evaluating direct visualization in diagnosis of LHB tendinitis are lacking. During a 1-year period, 363 arthroscopic shoulder procedures were performed, with 16 and 39 patients prospectively selected as positive cases and negative controls, respectively. All positive controls had groove tenderness, positive Speed maneuver, and diagnostic ultrasound-guided bicipital injection. Negative controls had none of these findings. Six surgeons reviewed randomized deidentified arthroscopic pictures of enrolled patients The surgeons were asked whether the images demonstrated LHB tendinitis and if the lipstick sign was present. Overall sensitivity and specificity were 49% and 66%, respectively, for detecting LHB tendinitis and 64% and 31%, respectively, for erythema. The nonweighted κ score for interobserver reliability ranged from 0.042 to 0.419 (mean, 0.215 ± 0.116) for tendinitis and from 0.486 to 0.835 (mean, 0.680 ± 0.102) for erythema. The nonweighted κ score for intraobserver reliability ranged from 0.264 to 0.854 (mean, 0.615) for tendinitis and from 0.641 to 0.951 (mean, 0.783) for erythema. The presence of the lipstick sign performed only moderately well in a rigorously designed level III study to evaluate its sensitivity and specificity. There is only fair agreement among participating surgeons in diagnosing LHB tendinitis arthroscopically. Consequently, LHB tendinitis requiring tenodesis remains a clinical diagnosis that should be made before arthroscopic examination. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Neutron spatial distribution measurement with 6Li-contained thermoluminescent sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konnai, A.; Odano, N.; Sawamura, H.; Ozasa, N.; Ishikawa, Y.

    2006-01-01

    We have been developing a thermoluminescent (TL) sheet for photon dosimetry (TL sheet) with thermoluminescent material of LiF:Mg, Cu, P and a co-polymer of ethylene and tetrafluoroethylene. For the purpose of a development of simple method for neutron spatial distribution measurement, TL sheet for neutron detection (NTL sheet) is made by adding 94.7% enriched 6 LiF to TL sheet. TL material in TL sheet is directly excited by ionizing radiation whereas, in the case of neutron detection, TL material in NTL sheet is indirectly excited by neutron capture reaction. That is neutron distribution can be obtained with TL caused by α particle from 6 Li(n, α) 3 H reaction. Responses of NTL sheets to neutrons were examined at the neutron beam irradiation facility for Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in JRR-4 research reactor in Japan Atomic Energy Agency. TL and NTL sheets were exposed to striped and roundly distributed neutron fields. Attenuations of neutron flux in air and water were also observed using NTL sheets. TL sheets were also exposed on the same conditions and compared with NTL sheets. TL intensity ratios of NTL sheet to TL sheet were consistent with the calculated value from 6 Li content. Thermal neutron attenuation observed by NTL sheet also corresponded with the result measured by Au wire radioactivation and TLD chips, which were currently used in BNCT at JRR-4. These results were analyzed with by Monte Carlo simulation. The present results indicated that NTL sheet is applicable to measurement of neutron spatial distribution. (author)

  12. Signs in Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Salmiah Binti Abdul; Jensen, Ole B.; Silva, Victor

    Travelling in unfamiliar areas is usually very interesting, however it can also be stressful. People travel or move around in an urban space according to their needs, and the environment can also influence the way people move about from one place to another. If a person gets lost, a map or GPS can...... and geosemiotic studies with regards to the road traffic signs used in urban spaces. The paper ends with a discussion on how people choreograph their movement in their everyday life from two different perspectives: above vs. below....

  13. Signs In Place

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamid, Salmiah Binti Abdul; Jensen, Ole B.; Silva, Victor

    2012-01-01

    Travelling in unfamiliar areas is usually very interesting; however, it can also be stressful. People travel or move around in an urban space according to their needs, and the environment can influence the way people move about from one place to another. If a person gets lost, a map or GPS can...... and geosemiotic studies with regards to the road traffic signs used in urban spaces. The paper ends with a discussion on how people choreograph their movement in their everyday life from two different perspectives: above vs. below...

  14. Designing radiation protection signs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, M.A.; Richey, C.L.

    1995-01-01

    Entry into hazardous areas without the proper protective equipment is extremely dangerous and must be prevented whenever possible. Current postings of radiological hazards at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) do not incorporate recent findings concerning effective warning presentation. Warning information should be highly visible, quickly, and easily understood. While continuing to comply with industry standards (e.g., Department of Energy (DOE) guidelines), these findings can be incorporated into existing radiological sign design, making them more effective in terms of usability and compliance. Suggestions are provided for designing more effective postings within stated guidelines

  15. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

  16. Lateral dimension-dependent antibacterial activity of graphene oxide sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaobin; Hu, Ming; Zeng, Tingying Helen; Wu, Ran; Jiang, Rongrong; Wei, Jun; Wang, Liang; Kong, Jing; Chen, Yuan

    2012-08-21

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a promising precursor to produce graphene-family nanomaterials for various applications. Their potential health and environmental impacts need a good understanding of their cellular interactions. Many factors may influence their biological interactions with cells, and the lateral dimension of GO sheets is one of the most relevant material properties. In this study, a model bacterium, Escherichia coli ( E. coli ), was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of well-dispersed GO sheets, whose lateral size differs by more than 100 times. Our results show that the antibacterial activity of GO sheets toward E. coli cells is lateral size dependent. Larger GO sheets show stronger antibacterial activity than do smaller ones, and they have different time- and concentration-dependent antibacterial activities. Large GO sheets lead to most cell loss after 1 h incubation, and their concentration strongly influences antibacterial activity at relative low concentration (oxidation capacity toward glutathione is similar, consistent with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy results. This suggests the lateral size-dependent antibacterial activity of GO sheets is caused by neither their aggregation states, nor oxidation capacity. Atomic force microscope analysis of GO sheets and cells shows that GO sheets interact strongly with cells. Large GO sheets more easily cover cells, and cells cannot proliferate once fully covered, resulting in the cell viability loss observed in the followed colony counting test. In contrast, small GO sheets adhere to the bacterial surfaces, which cannot effectively isolate cells from environment. This study highlights the importance of tailoring the lateral dimension of GO sheets to optimize the application potential with minimal risks for environmental health and safety.

  17. "I Am the Book"--Deaf Poets' Views on Signed Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; de Quadros, Ronice Müller

    2014-01-01

    Despite research commenting on and analyzing signed poetry, there is little research exploring the aims and intentions of the signing poets. This paper considers the producers of signed poetry, rather than their products. Using material gathered from interviews with three established signing deaf poets, we consider what they hope to achieve when…

  18. Dense sheet Z-pinches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetsu, Miyamoto

    1999-01-01

    The steady state and quasi-steady processes of infinite- and finite-width sheet z-pinches are studied. The relations corresponding to the Bennett relation and Pease-Braginskii current of cylindrical fiber z-pinches depend on a geometrical factor in the sheet z-pinches. The finite-width sheet z-pinch is approximated by a segment of infinite-width sheet z-pinch, if it is wide enough, and corresponds to a number of (width/thickness) times fiber z-pinch plasmas of the diameter that equals the sheet thickness. If the sheet current equals this number times the fiber current, the plasma created in the sheet z-pinches is as dense as in the fiber z-pinches. The total energy of plasma and magnetic field per unit mass is approximately equal in both pinches. Quasi-static transient processes are different in several aspects from the fiber z-pinch. No radiation collapse occurs in the sheet z-pinch. The stability is improved in the sheet z-pinches. The fusion criterions and the experimental arrangements to produce the sheet z-pinches are also discussed. (author)

  19. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  20. Psoas sign: a reevaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kye, Jong Sik; Lim, Jae Hoon; Yoon, Yup; Ahn, Chi Yul

    1987-01-01

    In general, the psoas sign has been known to be a reliabler index of presence of a retroperitoneal pathology. However, obliterated psoas margin may be caused by various other conditions in so far as the amount of fat around the psoas muscle is not enough to be visualized. On the other hand, retroperitoneal pathology does not always obliterates the psoas margin. Authors analyzed obliterated psoas margins in 72 patients by comparing simple radiographs and computed tomography, and attempted to explain the mechanism of obliterated psoas margin, on simple radiograph. The results are as follows : 1. The psoas margin is obliterated by the retroperitoneal pathology and various other conditions such as kidney-psoas contract, scanty extraperitoneal fat, scoliosis, bowel interposition and angled psoas muscle. 2. The psoas margin is preserved as far as the perinephric fat is intact and X-ray beam strikes the lateral margin of the psoas muscle tangentially. 3. The psoas sign is considered not to be a reliable index of a retroperitoneal pathology

  1. Sign language: an international handbook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfau, R.; Steinbach, M.; Woll, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sign language linguists show here that all the questions relevant to the linguistic investigation of spoken languages can be asked about sign languages. Conversely, questions that sign language linguists consider - even if spoken language researchers have not asked them yet - should also be asked of

  2. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  3. Traffic sign detection and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Traffic sign recognition (TSR) is a research field that has seen much activity in the recent decade. This paper introduces the problem and presents 4 recent papers on traffic sign detection and 4 recent papers on traffic sign classification. It attempts to extract recent trends in the field...

  4. The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The stretch zone of automotive steel sheets. L' AMBRIŠKO1,∗ and L PEŠEK2. 1Institute of Structural Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering,. Technical University of Košice, Vysokoškolská 4, 042 00 Košice, Slovak Republic. 2Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Metallurgy,. Technical University of Košice, Letná 9, ...

  5. Materialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Perforation of metal sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenstrup, Jens Erik

    simulation is focused on the sheet deformation. However, the effect on the tool and press is included. The process model is based on the upper bound analysis in order to predict the force progress and hole characteristics etc. Parameter analyses are divided into two groups, simulation and experimental tests......The main purposes of this project are:1. Development of a dynamic model for the piercing and performation process2. Analyses of the main parameters3. Establishing demands for process improvements4. Expansion of the existing parameter limitsThe literature survey describes the process influence...

  7. Signs in neuroradiology - part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Fabricio Guimaraes, E-mail: goncalves.neuroradio@gmail.co [McGill University Health Centre (MUHC), Montreal, Quebec (Canada). Montreal General Hospital; Barra, Filipe Ramos; Jovem, Cassio Lemos [Hospital Universitario de Brasilia, DF (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis; Matos, Valter de Lima [Hospital Santa Luzia, Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Amaral, Lazaro Luis Faria do [MedImagem - Hospital da Beneficencia Portuguesa de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Carpio-O' Donovan, Raquel del [McGill University Health Centre (MUHC), Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-03-15

    The use of signs or analogies for interpretation and description of medical images is an old and common practice among radiologists. Comparison of findings with animals, food or objects is not unprecedented and routinely performed. Many signs are quite specific and, in some cases, pathognomonic. Indeed, notwithstanding their degree of specificity, signs may help in the characterization of certain diseases. Several neuroradiological signs have been already described. The authors will present 15 neuroradiology signs in the present essay, approaching their main characteristics, the significance of their role in the clinical practice, as well as their respective imaging findings. (author)

  8. Signs in neuroradiology - part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, Fabricio Guimaraes; Amaral, Lazaro Luis Faria do

    2011-01-01

    The use of signs or analogies for interpretation and description of medical images is an old and common practice among radiologists. Comparison of findings with animals, food or objects is not unprecedented and routinely performed. Many signs are quite specific and, in some cases, pathognomonic. Indeed, notwithstanding their degree of specificity, signs may help in the characterization of certain diseases. Several neuroradiological signs have been already described. The authors will present 15 neuroradiology signs in the present essay, approaching their main characteristics, the significance of their role in the clinical practice, as well as their respective imaging findings. (author)

  9. New technology for the production of magnesium strips and sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kawalla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new production technology for magnesium strip, based on twin-roll-casting and strip rolling was developed in Freiberg Germany. By means of this economic method it is possible to produce strips in deep drawing quality with good forming properties in order to satisfy the request for low cost Mg sheets in the automotive and electronic industry. Both, coils as single sheets, were manufactured and rolled to a thickness of 1mm(0,5 mm. The technology of the new process and the properties of the twin-roll-casted material and the final sheets are presented.

  10. Investigation of the Formability of TRIP780 Steel Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang

    The formability of a metal sheet is dependent on its work hardening behaviour and its forming limits; and both aspects must be carefully determined in order to accurately simulate a particular forming process. This research aims to characterize the formability of a TRIP780 sheet steel using advanced experimental testing and analysis techniques. A series of flat rolling and tensile tests, as well as shear tests were conducted to determine the large deformation work hardening behaviour of this TRIP780 steel. Nakazima tests were carried out up to fracture to determine the forming limits of this sheet material. A highly-automated method for generating a robust FLC for sheet materials from DIC strain measurements was created with the help of finite element simulations, and evaluated against the conventional method. A correction algorithm that aims to compensate for the process dependent effects in the Nakazima test was implemented and tested with some success.

  11. Translating Signs, Producing Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Neilson

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper moves between two streets: Liverpool Road in the Sydney suburb of Ashfield and Via Sarpi in the Italian city of Milan. What connects these streets is that both have become important sites for businesses in the Chinese diaspora. Moreover, both are streets on which locals have expressed desires for Chinese signs to be translated into the national lingua franca. The paper argues that the cultural politics inherent in this demand for translation cannot be fully understood in the context of national debates about diversity and integration. It is also necessary to consider the emergence of the official Chinese Putonghua as global language, which competes with English but also colonizes dialects and minority languages. In the case of these dual language signs, the space between languages can neither be reduced to a contact zone of minority and majority cultures nor celebrated as a ‘third space’ where the power relations implied by such differences are subverted. At stake is rather a space characterised by what Naoki Sakai calls the schema of co-figuration, which allows the representation of translation as the passage between two equivalents that resemble each other and thus makes possible their determination as conceptually different and comparable. Drawing on arguments about translation and citizenship, the paper critically interrogates the ethos of interchangeability implied by this regime of translation. A closing argument is made for a vision of the common that implies neither civilisational harmony nor the translation of all values into a general equivalent. Primary sources include government reports, internet texts and media stories. These are analyzed using techniques of discourse analysis and interpreted with the help of secondary literature concerning globalisation, language and migration. The disciplinary matrix cuts and mixes between cultural studies, translation studies, citizenship studies, globalization studies and

  12. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  13. Sign language comprehension: the case of Spanish sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ortiz, I R

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were interpreters). Sign language comprehension was assessed using passages of secondary level. After being exposed to the passages, the participants had to tell what they had understood about them, answer a set of related questions, and offer a title for the passage. Sign language comprehension by deaf participants was quite acceptable but not as good as that by hearing signers who, unlike deaf participants, were not only late learners of sign language as a second language but had also learned it through formal training.

  14. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  15. Bridged graphite oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Alonso, Margarita (Inventor); McAllister, Michael J. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Bridged graphite oxide material comprising graphite sheets bridged by at least one diamine bridging group. The bridged graphite oxide material may be incorporated in polymer composites or used in adsorption media.

  16. Tribo-systems for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of more than 10 years work by the author’s research group through participation in national as well as international framework programmes on developing and testing environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials and coatings inhibiting galling. Partners ......’s research group has especially been involved in the development of a system of tribo-tests for sheet metal forming and in testing and modelling of friction and limits of lubrication of new, environmentally friendly lubricants and tool materials....

  17. Materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available . It is generally included as part of a structurally insulated panel (SIP) where the foam is sandwiched between external skins of steel, wood or cement. Cement composites Cement bonded composites are an important class of building materials. These products... for their stone buildings, including the Egyptians, Aztecs and Inca’s. As stone is a very dense material it requires intensive heating to become warm. Rocks were generally stacked dry but mud, and later cement, can be used as a mortar to hold the rocks...

  18. Hutchinson’s Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Lau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old African American male presents with two days of gradually worsening vesicular pruritic rash over the left naris, left upper lip, and inferior to medial epicanthus, initially noted just on the upper lip the night before. By the next day it had spread to the nose and cheek. Patient denies any fever, pain, discharge from the rash, ear or nose, or changes in vision. He denies exposure to any new hygiene products, household cleaning products, recent outdoor activities, travel, or insect bites. Past medical history significant for a childhood varicella infection. Patient works for a moving company, and had an episode of heat exhaustion at work one week prior to onset. Denies alcohol or drug abuse. Significant findings: The unilateral distribution of vesicular lesions over the patient’s left naris, cheek, and upper lip are consistent with Herpes zoster reactivation with Hutchinson’s sign. Hutchinson’s sign is a herpes zoster vesicle present on the tip or side of the nose.1 It reflects zoster involvement of the 1st branch of the trigeminal nerve, and is concerning for herpes zoster ophthalmicus.1 Herpes zoster vesicles may present as papular lesions or macular vesicles on an erythematous base.2,3 Emergent diagnosis must be made to prevent long-term visual sequelae.4 Discussion: The history of a childhood viral exanthem, specifically a past varicella infection, helps direct the diagnosis.2 Herpes zoster ophthalmicus is an ophthalmological emergency and results from viral reactivation within the V1 branch of CN V, leading to direct ocular involvement.1 Symptoms of ocular involvement include red eye, blurry vision, eye pain or photophobia.1 If left untreated, corneal ulceration, scarring, perforation, glaucoma, cataracts, and blindness may occur.1 Fluorescein staining with slit lamp examination will show a characteristic “dendritic ulcer” within the epithelial layer of the cornea.1 Treatment is generally

  19. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  20. Systems Integration Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the Systems Integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The Systems Integration subprogram enables the widespread deployment of safe, reliable, and cost-effective solar energy technologies by addressing the associated technical and non-technical challenges. These include timely and cost-effective interconnection procedures, optimal system planning, accurate prediction of solar resources, monitoring and control of solar power, maintaining grid reliability and stability, and many more. To address the challenges associated with interconnecting and integrating hundreds of gigawatts of solar power onto the electricity grid, the Systems Integration program funds research, development, and demonstration projects in four broad, interrelated focus areas: grid performance and reliability, dispatchability, power electronics, and communications.

  1. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  2. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, P.

    2007-01-01

    During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

  3. Landsat 6 contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  4. Supporting Documentation for the 2008 Update to the Insulation Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL

    2008-02-01

    The Insulation Fact Sheet provides consumers for general guidance and recommended insulation levels for their home. This fact sheet has been on-line since 1995 and this update addresses new insulation materials, as well as updated costs for energy and materials.

  5. A Dislocation based Constitutive Model for Warm Forming of Aluminum Sheet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurukuri, S.; Ghosh, M.; van den Boogaard, Antonius H.

    2008-01-01

    The formability of aluminum sheet can be improved considerably by increasing the temperature. At elevated temperatures, the mechanical response of the material becomes strain rate dependent. To accurately simulate warm forming of aluminum sheet, a material model is required that incorporates the

  6. Lubricant Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2008-01-01

    appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stretch forming, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production. Application of the tests for evaluating new lubricants before introducing them in production has......Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...

  7. Plasma dynamics in current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, S.Yu.; Drejden, G.V.; Kirij, N.P.; AN SSSR, Leningrad

    1992-01-01

    Plasma dynamics in successive stages of current sheet evolution is investigated on the base of analysis of time-spatial variations of electron density and electrodynamic force fields. Current sheet formation is realized in a two-dimensional magnetic field with zero line under the action of relatively small initial disturbances (linear regimes). It is established that in the limits of the formed sheet is concentrated dense (N e ∼= 10 16 cm -3 ) (T i ≥ 100 eV, bar-Z i ≥ 2) hot pressure of which is balanced by the magnetic action of electrodynamic forces is carried out both plasma compression in the sheet limits and the acceleration along the sheet surface from a middle to narrow side edges

  8. Precisely Assembled Nanofiber Arrays as a Platform to Engineer Aligned Cell Sheets for Biofabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vince Beachley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid cell sheet engineering approach was developed using ultra-thin nanofiber arrays to host the formation of composite nanofiber/cell sheets. It was found that confluent aligned cell sheets could grow on uniaxially-aligned and crisscrossed nanofiber arrays with extremely low fiber densities. The porosity of the nanofiber sheets was sufficient to allow aligned linear myotube formation from differentiated myoblasts on both sides of the nanofiber sheets, in spite of single-side cell seeding. The nanofiber content of the composite cell sheets is minimized to reduce the hindrance to cell migration, cell-cell contacts, mass transport, as well as the foreign body response or inflammatory response associated with the biomaterial. Even at extremely low densities, the nanofiber component significantly enhanced the stability and mechanical properties of the composite cell sheets. In addition, the aligned nanofiber arrays imparted excellent handling properties to the composite cell sheets, which allowed easy processing into more complex, thick 3D structures of higher hierarchy. Aligned nanofiber array-based composite cell sheet engineering combines several advantages of material-free cell sheet engineering and polymer scaffold-based cell sheet engineering; and it represents a new direction in aligned cell sheet engineering for a multitude of tissue engineering applications.

  9. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Schembri; Jordan Fenlon; Kearsy Cormier; Trevor Johnston

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflec...

  10. A Collaborative Design Curriculum for Reviving Sheet Metal Handicraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Patrick K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Galvanised sheet metal was a popular and important material for producing handmade home utensils in Hong Kong from the 1930s onwards. It was gradually replaced by new materials like stainless steel and plastic because similar goods made with these are cheaper, more standardised, more durable and of much better quality. The handicrafts behind sheet…

  11. Awareness of Deaf Sign Language and Gang Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cynthia; Morgan, Robert L.

    There have been increasing incidents of innocent people who use American Sign Language (ASL) or another form of sign language being victimized by gang violence due to misinterpretation of ASL hand formations. ASL is familiar to learners with a variety of disabilities, particularly those in the deaf community. The problem is that gang members have…

  12. Automatic sign language recognition inspired by human sign perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Holt, G.A.

    2010-01-01

    Automatic sign language recognition is a relatively new field of research (since ca. 1990). Its objectives are to automatically analyze sign language utterances. There are several issues within the research area that merit investigation: how to capture the utterances (cameras, magnetic sensors,

  13. Inuit Sign Language: a contribution to sign language typology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, J.; Baker, A.; Pfau, R.

    2011-01-01

    Sign language typology is a fairly new research field and typological classifications have yet to be established. For spoken languages, these classifications are generally based on typological parameters; it would thus be desirable to establish these for sign languages. In this paper, different

  14. Signs of the arctic: Typological aspects of Inuit Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuit, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, the native sign language used by deaf Inuit people is described. Inuit Sign Language (IUR) is used by less than 40 people as their sole means of communication, and is therefore highly endangered. Apart from the description of IUR as such, an additional goal is to contribute to the

  15. Ranks of dense alternating sign matrices and their sign patterns

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fiedler, Miroslav; Gao, W.; Hall, F.J.; Jing, G.; Li, Z.; Stroev, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 471, April (2015), s. 109-121 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07880S Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : alternating sign matrix * dense matrix * sign pattern matrix Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515000257

  16. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign…

  17. Africa: signs of hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dawning of the 21st century generally brought new hope to African leaders and countless thousands of ordinary citizens of many countries on the continent. The first signs of a new turn of events shone through by the end of the last decade of the previous century. This was manifested by economic growth rates that started to pick up in a number of African states, by pro-democracy movements which in country after country succeeded in replacing authoritarian regimes, and by the winding down and termination of some of Africa’s most devastating wars. The results of this analysis confirm the above-mentioned positive political, economic and conflict trends in Africa. It is clearly a significant turn of events given the well-known political and economic predicament with which Africa is struggling. When this negative legacy and Cold War background of Africa is considered, the importance of present developments is clear to see. The identified heightened sense of purpose among the leaders and peoples of Africa and the changed mood and need among Africans to take charge of their own future that found expression in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD are indeed significant and bode well for the future of the continent. A word of warning here is, however, necessary. Our conduct with Africa must be very cautious and we must guard against over-optimism and the exaggerated belief that Africa is now on a trajectory of sustained development and peace. We cannot generalise about Africa – for that the continent is just too big and diverse from a geographical, cultural, economic and political point of view.

  18. Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... website Submit Search NIH Office of Dietary Supplements Vitamin and Mineral Supplement Fact Sheets Search the list ... Supplements: Background Information Botanical Dietary Supplements: Background Information Vitamin and Mineral Fact Sheets Botanical Supplement Fact Sheets ...

  19. Research Status on the Heterogeneous Sheet Connection Forming Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Wen-yong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The heterogeneous sheet connection forming is one of the effective ways to realize lightweight in many fields,such as equipment manufacturing and transportation. However, there are obvious differences in the material properties,when using the traditional connection methods,there is a certain technical bottlenecks. In this paper, the technological characteristics and research status of the welding method and mechanical connection method are discussed in detail,such as the TIC welding and the laser welding. The advantages and development potential of the technology are introduced in the field of the heterogeneous sheet connection,in combination with the industry development and the use demand,the development of the heterogeneous sheet connection technology is expected,to provide the technical support for the research and development of new heterogeneous sheet connection technology.

  20. Research on Computer Integrated Manufacturing of Sheet Metal Parts for Lithium Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Wei-Min

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lithium battery has been widely used as the main driving force of the new energy vehicle in recent years. Sheet metal parts are formed by means of pressure forming techniques with the characteristics of light weight, small size and high structural strength. The sheet metal forming has higher productivity and material utilization than the mechanical cutting, therefore sheet metal parts are widely used in many fields, such as modern automotive industry, aviation, aerospace, machine tools, instruments and household appliances. In this paper, taking a complex lithium battery box as an example, the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal parts is studied, and the digital integrated design and manufacturing process system is proposed. The technology is studied such as sheet metal design, unfolding, sheet nesting and laser cutting, CNC turret punch stamping programming, CNC bending etc. The feasibility of the method is verified through the examples of products and the integrated manufacturing of sheet metal box is completed.

  1. The elasto plastic fracture mechanics in ductile metal sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Malik, M.N.; Naeem, A.; Haq, A.U.; Atkins, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The crack initiation of propagation in ductile metal sheets are caused by various micro and macro changes taking place due to material properties, applied loads, shape of the indenter (tool geometry) and the environmental conditions. These microstructural failures are directly related to the atomic bonding, crystal lattices, grain boundary status, material flaws in matrix, inhomogeneities and anisotropy in the metal sheets. The Elasto-Plastic related energy based equations are applied to these Rigid Plastic materials to determine the onset of fracture in metal forming. The combined stress and strain criterion of a critical plastic work per unit volume is no more considered as a universal ductile fracture criterion, rather a critical plastic work per unit volume dependence on all sort of stresses (hydrostatic) are the required features for the sheet metal failure (fracture). In this present study, crack initiation and propagation are related empirically with fracture toughness and the application of the theory in industry to save energy. (author)

  2. Learning to Detect Traffic Signs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelmose, Andreas; Trivedi, Mohan M.; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares the performance of sign detection based on synthetic training data to the performance of detection based on real-world training images. Viola-Jones detectors are created for 4 different traffic signs with both synthetic and real data, and varying numbers of training samples. T...

  3. Issues in Sign Language Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwitserlood, Inge; Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ge lexicography has thus far been a relatively obscure area in the world of lexicography. Therefore, this article will contain background information on signed languages and the communities in which they are used, on the lexicography of sign languages, the situation in the Netherlands as well...

  4. Concise Lexicon for Sign Linguistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Jan Nijen Twilhaar; Dr. Beppie van den Bogaerde

    2016-01-01

    This extensive, well-researched and clearly formatted lexicon of a wide variety of linguistic terms is a long overdue. It is an extremely welcome addition to the bookshelves of sign language teachers, interpreters, linguists, learners and other sign language users, and of course of the Deaf

  5. Modeling online social signed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Gu, Ke; Zeng, An; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2018-04-01

    People's online rating behavior can be modeled by user-object bipartite networks directly. However, few works have been devoted to reveal the hidden relations between users, especially from the perspective of signed networks. We analyze the signed monopartite networks projected by the signed user-object bipartite networks, finding that the networks are highly clustered with obvious community structure. Interestingly, the positive clustering coefficient is remarkably higher than the negative clustering coefficient. Then, a Signed Growing Network model (SGN) based on local preferential attachment is proposed to generate a user's signed network that has community structure and high positive clustering coefficient. Other structural properties of the modeled networks are also found to be similar to the empirical networks.

  6. Superfund fact sheet: The remedial program. Fact sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The fact sheet describes what various actions the EPA can take to clean up hazardous wastes sites. Explanations of how the criteria for environmental and public health risk assessment are determined and the role of state and local governments in site remediation are given. The fact sheet is one in a series providing reference information about Superfund issues and is intended for readers with no formal scientific training

  7. Abdominal X-ray signs of intra-intestinal drug smuggling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niewiarowski, Sylwia; Gogbashian, Andrew; Afaq, Asim; Kantor, Robin; Win, Zarni

    2010-05-01

    "Body packers" either swallow or insert drug filled packets rectally or vaginally in order to smuggle illicit drugs. AXR is used routinely to screen suspects for the presence of intra-intestinal drug packages. AXR diagnosis can be difficult as stool or gas within the intestine may resemble ingested foreign bodies. We identify the frequency and co-existence of several signs; tic-tac sign, rosette sign, double condom sign, dense surrounding material, density and discover a new sign; parallelism, which will aid in increasing the radiological accuracy. We retrospectively reviewed 285 AXRs performed for suspicion of drug smuggling during the period of March 2006-March 2009 to identify the frequency of these signs. Of the 285 AXRs performed 59 were positive, 221 negative and five were indeterminate. The tic-tac sign was present in 93%, double condom sign in 73%, dense surrounding wrapping material in 36% and parallelism in 27%. Sixty one percentage of drug packages were iso-dense to faeces and 39% hyperdense. Twenty percentage of the positive abdominal radiographs demonstrated one of the radiographic signs, 39% demonstrated two signs, 32% demonstrated three and 7% four. The most common radiographic sign combination was the tic-tac sign with either dense surrounding material or double condom sign. The most commonly encountered radiographic sign is the tic-tac sign, followed by the double condom sign and dense surrounding material. We also discover a new sign, "parallelism" which although uncommon is highly specific. Accuracy is further increased by comparing the density of packages to faeces and looking for the co-existence of multiple signs. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. The quantitative inspection of iron aluminide green sheet using transient thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, Michael L.; Hinders, Mark K.; Scorey, Clive; Winfree, William

    1999-01-01

    The recent development of manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of thin iron aluminide, FeAl, sheet requires advanced quantitative methods for on-line inspection. An understanding of the mechanisms responsible for flaws and the development of appropriate flaw detection methods are key elements in an effective quality management system. The first step in the fabrication of thin FeAl alloy sheet is the formation of a green sheet, either by cold rolling or tape casting FeAl powder mixed with organic binding agents. The finished sheet is obtained using a series of process steps involving binder elimination, densification, sintering, and annealing. Non-uniformities within the green sheet are the major contributor to material failure in subsequent sheet processing and the production of non-conforming finished sheet. Previous work has demonstrated the advantages of using active thermography to detect the flaws and heterogeneity within green powder composites (1)(2)(3). The production environment and physical characteristics of these composites provide for unique challenges in developing a rapid nondestructive inspection capability. Thermography is non-contact and minimizes the potential damage to the fragile green sheet. Limited access to the material also demands a one-sided inspection technique. In this paper, we will describe the application of thermography for 100% on-line inspection within an industrial process. This approach is cost competitive with alternative technologies, such as x-ray imaging systems, and provides the required sensitivity to the variations in material composition. The formation of green sheet flaws and their transformation into defects within intermediate and finished sheet products will be described. A green sheet conformance criterion will be presented which would significantly reduce the probability of processing poor quality green sheet which contributes to higher waste and inferior bulk alloy sheet

  9. 2012 Swimming Season Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    To help beachgoers make informed decisions about swimming at U.S. beaches, EPA annually publishes state-by-state data about beach closings and advisories for the previous year's swimming season. These fact sheets summarize that information by state.

  10. State Fact Sheets on COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search The CDC Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . COPD Homepage Data and Statistics Fact Sheets Publications Publications ...

  11. MIXED SIGNS IN THE SEMIOTICS OF ENGLISH EDUCATIONAL DISCOURSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharova Darya Anatolyevna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the linguosemiotic explication of nomination process in educational discourse by signs of different types – verbal, non-verbal, mixed. Verbal signs are presented by lexical units, nominating agents, clients, non/material resources, artifacts, processes, incentives and forms of pedagogical influence. The non-verbal signs include paralinguistic signs (gestures, facial expressions, postures of the participants of the educational process; color-semiotic signs (coloremas, in which the information-impacting vector is directed to a color indication of messages that is important for successful educational communication; visual elements representing traditional British values and concepts; sound signs, topographic signs, that add meaning to the overall significance of a mixed sign. In linguosemiotic system of educational discourse, the mixed signs form the most numerous group and are represented mainly by emblems, anthems and school songs of secondary schools. The author checks and verifies the hypothesis that the semiotics of the educational process in British secondary schools includes the extensive and complex system of mixed signs, which consist of two non-homogeneous parts – verbal and non-verbal – belonging to other sign systems rather than natural language and expressed via graphics, colors, music, etc. Linguistic analysis is applied to the study of the semiotic space of educational discourse. The article determines that in the context of educational communication, verbal, non-verbal and mixed signs form the unity of the linguistic and extralinguistic parameters, being in different relationships and presenting a multilayer intersection of lexical groups, graphic description, color schemes and music accompaniment.

  12. Australian Government Balance Sheet Management

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson Au-Yeung; Jason McDonald; Amanda Sayegh

    2006-01-01

    Since almost eliminating net debt, the Australian Government%u2019s attention has turned to the financing of broader balance sheet liabilities, such as public sector superannuation. Australia will be developing a significant financial asset portfolio in the %u2018Future Fund%u2019 to smooth the financing of expenses through time. This raises the significant policy question of how best to manage the government balance sheet to reduce risk. This paper provides a framework for optimal balance sh...

  13. Energy information sheets, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  14. Energy information sheets, September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The National Energy Information Center (NEIC), as part of its mission, provides energy information and referral assistance to Federal, State, and local governments, the academic community, business and industrial organizations, and the public. The Energy Information Sheets was developed to provide general information on various aspects of fuel production, prices, consumption, and capability. Additional information on related subject matter can be found in other Energy Information Administration (EIA) publications as referenced at the end of each sheet.

  15. Sign Inference for Dynamic Signed Networks via Dictionary Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Cen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mobile online social network (mOSN is a burgeoning research area. However, most existing works referring to mOSNs deal with static network structures and simply encode whether relationships among entities exist or not. In contrast, relationships in signed mOSNs can be positive or negative and may be changed with time and locations. Applying certain global characteristics of social balance, in this paper, we aim to infer the unknown relationships in dynamic signed mOSNs and formulate this sign inference problem as a low-rank matrix estimation problem. Specifically, motivated by the Singular Value Thresholding (SVT algorithm, a compact dictionary is selected from the observed dataset. Based on this compact dictionary, the relationships in the dynamic signed mOSNs are estimated via solving the formulated problem. Furthermore, the estimation accuracy is improved by employing a dictionary self-updating mechanism.

  16. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological 'complexity' and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological 'complexification'), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  17. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Cormier, Kearsy; Johnston, Trevor

    2018-01-01

    This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011), applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological ‘complexification’), the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005); in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored. PMID:29515506

  18. Sociolinguistic Typology and Sign Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Schembri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the possible relationship between proposed social determinants of morphological ‘complexity’ and how this contributes to linguistic diversity, specifically via the typological nature of the sign languages of deaf communities. We sketch how the notion of morphological complexity, as defined by Trudgill (2011, applies to sign languages. Using these criteria, sign languages appear to be languages with low to moderate levels of morphological complexity. This may partly reflect the influence of key social characteristics of communities on the typological nature of languages. Although many deaf communities are relatively small and may involve dense social networks (both social characteristics that Trudgill claimed may lend themselves to morphological ‘complexification’, the picture is complicated by the highly variable nature of the sign language acquisition for most deaf people, and the ongoing contact between native signers, hearing non-native signers, and those deaf individuals who only acquire sign languages in later childhood and early adulthood. These are all factors that may work against the emergence of morphological complexification. The relationship between linguistic typology and these key social factors may lead to a better understanding of the nature of sign language grammar. This perspective stands in contrast to other work where sign languages are sometimes presented as having complex morphology despite being young languages (e.g., Aronoff et al., 2005; in some descriptions, the social determinants of morphological complexity have not received much attention, nor has the notion of complexity itself been specifically explored.

  19. Numerical and experimental analysis of resistance projection welding of square nuts to sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Martins, Paulo A.F.

    2014-01-01

    Projection welding of nuts to sheets is a widely utilized manufacturing process in the automotive industry. The process entails challenges due the necessity of joining different sheet thicknesses and nut sizes made from dissimilar materials, and due to the fact of experiencing large local deforma...... of the square nut to the sheet under different operating conditions. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license...

  20. Nanostructure characterization of beta-sheet crystals in silk under various temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the nanostructure characterizations of β-sheet in silk fiber with different reaction temperatures. A molecular dynamic model is developed and simulated by Gromacs software packages. The results reveal the change rules of the number of hydrogen bonds in β-sheet under different temperatures. The best reaction temperature for the β-sheet crystals is also found. This work provides theoretical basis for the designing of materials based on silk.

  1. Application of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines to Sheet Metal Bending Process for Springback Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilan Rasim Aşkın

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An intelligent regression technique is applied for sheet metal bending processes to improve bending performance. This study is a part of another extensive study, automated sheet bending assistance for press brakes. Data related to material properties of sheet metal is collected in an online manner and fed to an intelligent system for determining the most accurate punch displacement without any offline iteration or calibration. The overall system aims to reduce the production time while increasing the performance of press brakes.

  2. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  3. The halo sign and peripancreatic fluid: useful CT signs of hypovolaemic shock complex in adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.F.; Hamilton, P.A.; Sarrazin, J.; Chu, P.; Benjaminov, O.; Lam, K.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To report two new, useful computed tomography (CT) signs of the hypovolaemic shock complex (HSC) in adults admitted after blunt abdominal trauma: the halo sign (ring of fluid around a collapsed intra-hepatic inferior vena cava (IVC)), and peripancreatic retroperitoneal fluid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images of 498 consecutive patients admitted after blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed, of which 27 had CT signs of the HSC. The CT images of these 27 patients were analysed. A control group of 101 patients examined using CT for suspected blunt abdominal trauma who did not have the HSC were chosen for comparison. RESULTS: The most common features involved the vascular compartment: diminished IVC diameter (n=27), a positive halo sign (n=21); diminished anteroposterior diameter of the aorta (n=13); and abnormal vascular enhancement (n=10). Peripancreatic retroperitoneal fluid in the absence of pancreatic injury, pancreatitis or pancreatic disease was observed in eight patients. Hollow visceral abnormalities included: diffuse increased mucosal enhancement of both the small and large bowel (n=19); diffuse thickening of the small bowel wall (n=11); and small bowel dilatation (n=7). Solid visceral abnormalities included both decreased and or increased enhancement. Several concomitant intra- and extra-abdominal injuries were also identified. CONCLUSION: In the setting of blunt abdominal trauma, early abdominal CT can show diffuse abnormalities due to the HSC, which occasionally may alert clinicians of unsuspected shock. Recognition of these signs as distinguished from injured viscera is important in order to avoid unnecessary laparotomy. Two new signs are described: the halo sign and peripancreatic retroperitoneal fluid

  4. The halo sign and peripancreatic fluid: useful CT signs of hypovolaemic shock complex in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.F.; Hamilton, P.A.; Sarrazin, J.; Chu, P.; Benjaminov, O.; Lam, K

    2005-05-01

    AIM: To report two new, useful computed tomography (CT) signs of the hypovolaemic shock complex (HSC) in adults admitted after blunt abdominal trauma: the halo sign (ring of fluid around a collapsed intra-hepatic inferior vena cava (IVC)), and peripancreatic retroperitoneal fluid. MATERIALS AND METHODS: CT images of 498 consecutive patients admitted after blunt abdominal trauma were reviewed, of which 27 had CT signs of the HSC. The CT images of these 27 patients were analysed. A control group of 101 patients examined using CT for suspected blunt abdominal trauma who did not have the HSC were chosen for comparison. RESULTS: The most common features involved the vascular compartment: diminished IVC diameter (n=27), a positive halo sign (n=21); diminished anteroposterior diameter of the aorta (n=13); and abnormal vascular enhancement (n=10). Peripancreatic retroperitoneal fluid in the absence of pancreatic injury, pancreatitis or pancreatic disease was observed in eight patients. Hollow visceral abnormalities included: diffuse increased mucosal enhancement of both the small and large bowel (n=19); diffuse thickening of the small bowel wall (n=11); and small bowel dilatation (n=7). Solid visceral abnormalities included both decreased and or increased enhancement. Several concomitant intra- and extra-abdominal injuries were also identified. CONCLUSION: In the setting of blunt abdominal trauma, early abdominal CT can show diffuse abnormalities due to the HSC, which occasionally may alert clinicians of unsuspected shock. Recognition of these signs as distinguished from injured viscera is important in order to avoid unnecessary laparotomy. Two new signs are described: the halo sign and peripancreatic retroperitoneal fluid.

  5. Complete plasma dropouts at Vela satellites during thinning of the plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Hones, E.W. Jr.; Venkatesan, D.; Akasofu, S.; Bame, S.J.

    1975-01-01

    Five satellite years of Vela data are examined for plasma sheet thinnings. Complete proton disappearances (plasma dropouts) are the main subject here. During such times, the Vela satellite is temporarily in the high-latitude tail lobe. The distribution of such plasma dropouts within the magnetotail suggests that the semithickness of the plasma sheet near midnight seldom reaches less than 1 R/sub E/ during substorms and that the dawn and dusk portions of the plasma sheet remain thicker than the midnight portion. But it is also shown that the plasma sheet occasionally becomes very thin near the dusk magnetopause. No such severe thinnings of the plasma sheet are found near the dawn magnetopause. Plasma dropouts can occur regardless of the sign of the Z component of the IMF, but their frequency of occurrence seems to be greater when the Z component is negative.Three plasma dropouts which occurred in the midnight sector at unusually large distances from the estimated position of the neutral sheet were observed during geomagnetic storms. It is likely that the midnight sector of the plasma sheet can become very thick (approx.18 R/sub E/) at certain times during the main phase of storms. Detailed measurements in the plasma sheet were obtained near the beginning of a geomagnetic storm whose sc triggered a substorm. A compression of the plasma sheet at X/sub SM/approx. =-15 R/sub E/ occurred about 10 min after the sc onset at the earth and about 5 min after the start of plasma sheet thinning associated with the sc-related substorm. If compression-thinning of the plasma sheet initiated this substorm, the triggering action must have occurred earthward of X/sub SM/approx. =-15 R/sub E/

  6. 3 CFR - Presidential Signing Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... basis of policy disagreements. At the same time, such signing statements serve a legitimate function in... United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other...

  7. Warning Signs of Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs - and act on them - by taking a first aid class and learning CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation). Your local hospital, ... Care For You Copyright © American College of Emergency Physicians ...

  8. Quantifiers in Russian Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kimmelman, V.; Paperno, D.; Keenan, E.L.

    2017-01-01

    After presenting some basic genetic, historical and typological information about Russian Sign Language, this chapter outlines the quantification patterns it expresses. It illustrates various semantic types of quantifiers, such as generalized existential, generalized universal, proportional,

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Legionnaires' Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov . Vital Signs Topics Covered Alcohol Antibiotic Resistance Cancer Cardiovascular Diseases Diseases & Conditions Food Safety Healthcare-associated Infections Healthy Living HIV / AIDS Injury, Violence & Safety Motor Vehicle Safety Obesity ...

  10. Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Diagnosing Dementia—Positive Signs Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... easy, affordable blood test that could accurately diagnose Alzheimer's disease (AD)—even before symptoms began to show? Researchers ...

  11. Single Sign On Internal (SSOi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Provides single sign-on solution for internal facing VA applications. Allows internal users access to a variety of VA systems and applications using a reduced set of...

  12. Aging changes in vital signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004019.htm Aging changes in vital signs To use the sharing ... Normal body temperature does not change much with aging. But as you get older, it becomes harder ...

  13. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.

  14. Single point incremental forming: Formability of PC sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formisano, A.; Boccarusso, L.; Carrino, L.; Lambiase, F.; Minutolo, F. Memola Capece

    2018-05-01

    Recent research on Single Point Incremental Forming of polymers has slightly covered the possibility of expanding the materials capability window of this flexible forming process beyond metals, by demonstrating the workability of thermoplastic polymers at room temperature. Given the different behaviour of polymers compared to metals, different aspects need to be deepened to better understand the behaviour of these materials when incrementally formed. Thus, the aim of the work is to investigate the formability of incrementally formed polycarbonate thin sheets. To this end, an experimental investigation at room temperature was conducted involving formability tests; varying wall angle cone and pyramid frusta were manufactured by processing polycarbonate sheets with different thicknesses and using tools with different diameters, in order to draw conclusions on the formability of polymer sheets through the evaluation of the forming angles and the observation of the failure mechanisms.

  15. Environmental Management Fact Sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    In recent years, the need for nuclear materials has decreased and the Department of Energy (DOE) has focused greater attention on cleaning up contamination left from past activities. The Office of Environmental Management (EM) within DOE is responsible for managing waste and cleaning up contamination at DOE sites across the nation. This collection…

  16. Kinematic parameters of signed verbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-10-01

    Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production ( Malaia & Wilbur, 2012a) and process these distinctions as part of the phonological structure of these verb classes in comprehension ( Malaia, Ranaweera, Wilbur, & Talavage, 2012). These studies are driven by the event visibility hypothesis by Wilbur (2003), who proposed that such use of kinematic features should be universal to sign language (SL) by the grammaticalization of physics and geometry for linguistic purposes. In a prior motion capture study, Malaia and Wilbur (2012a) lent support for the event visibility hypothesis in ASL, but there has not been quantitative data from other SLs to test the generalization to other languages. The authors investigated the kinematic parameters of predicates in Croatian Sign Language ( Hrvatskom Znakovnom Jeziku [HZJ]). Kinematic features of verb signs were affected both by event structure of the predicate (semantics) and phrase position within the sentence (prosody). The data demonstrate that kinematic features of motion in HZJ verb signs are recruited to convey morphological and prosodic information. This is the first crosslinguistic motion capture confirmation that specific kinematic properties of articulator motion are grammaticalized in other SLs to express linguistic features.

  17. On Jovian plasma sheet structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurana, K.K.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors evaluate several models of Jovian plasma sheet structure by determining how well they organize several aspects of the observed Voyager 2 magnetic field characteristics as a function of Jovicentric radial distance. It is shown that in the local time sector of the Voyager 2 outbound pass (near 0300 LT) the published hinged-magnetodisc models with wave (i.e., models corrected for finite wave velocity effects) are more successful than the published magnetic anomaly model in predicting locations of current sheet crossings. They also consider the boundary between the plasma sheet and the magnetotail lobe which is expected to vary slowly with radial distance. They use this boundary location as a further test of the models of the magnetotail. They show that the compressional MHD waves have much smaller amplitude in the lobes than in the plasma sheet and use this criterion to refine the identification of the plasma-sheet-lobe boundary. When the locations of crossings into and out of the lobes are examined, it becomes evident that the magnetic-anomaly model yields a flaring plasma sheet with a halfwidth of ∼ 3 R J at a radial distance of 20 R J and ∼ 12 R J at a radial distance of 100 R J . The hinged-magnetodisc models with wave, on the other hand, predict a halfwidth of ∼ 3.5 R J independent of distance beyond 20 R J . New optimized versions of the two models locate both the current sheet crossings and lobe encounters equally successfully. The optimized hinged-magnetodisc model suggests that the wave velocity decreases with increasing radial distance. The optimized magnetic anomaly model yields lower velocity contrast than the model of Vasyliunas and Dessler (1981)

  18. Adult Sail Sign: Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yu-Jin; Han, Daehee; Koh, Young Hwan; Zo, Joo Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Jeong Sang; Moon, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jong Seung; Chun, Eun Ju; Youn, Byung Jae; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo (Dept. of Radiology, Cheil General Hospital, Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (KR))

    2008-02-15

    Background: The sail sign is a well-known radiographic feature of the pediatric chest. This sign can be observed in an adult population as well, but for a different reason. Purpose: To investigate the sail sign appearing in adult chest radiography. Material and Methods: Based on two anecdotal adult cases in which frontal chest radiographs showed the sail sign, we prospectively screened radiographs of 10,238 patients to determine the incidence of the sail sign found in adults in their 40s or older. The cause of the sail sign was assessed using computed tomography (CT). Results: The sail sign was revealed in 10 (seven males, three females; median age 60.6 years) of 10,238 patients. Of these 10 patients with a sail sign on frontal radiographs, eight underwent CT. The frontal radiographs of these 10 patients showed a concave superior margin toward the lung in nine patients, a concave inferior margin in five, and a double-lined inferior margin in three. Lateral radiographs disclosed a focal opacity over the minor fissure in five of six patients, which was either fuzzy (n = 4) or sharp (n = 1) in its upper margin, and was sometimes double lined in the inferior margin (n = 3). CT revealed the anterior mediastinal fat to be the cause of the radiographic sail sign, which stretched laterally from the mediastinum to insinuate into the minor fissure. Conclusion: The incidence of sail sign on adult chest radiographs is about 0.1%. The sign is specific enough to eliminate the need for more sophisticated imaging

  19. Adult Sail Sign: Radiographic and Computed Tomographic Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yu-Jin; Han, Daehee; Koh, Young Hwan; Zo, Joo Hee; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Lee, Jeong Sang; Moon, Hyeon Jong; Kim, Jong Seung; Chun, Eun Ju; Y oun, Byung Jae; Lee, Chang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo

    2008-01-01

    Background: The sail sign is a well-known radiographic feature of the pediatric chest. This sign can be observed in an adult population as well, but for a different reason. Purpose: To investigate the sail sign appearing in adult chest radiography. Material and Methods: Based on two anecdotal adult cases in which frontal chest radiographs showed the sail sign, we prospectively screened radiographs of 10,238 patients to determine the incidence of the sail sign found in adults in their 40s or older. The cause of the sail sign was assessed using computed tomography (CT). Results: The sail sign was revealed in 10 (seven males, three females; median age 60.6 years) of 10,238 patients. Of these 10 patients with a sail sign on frontal radiographs, eight underwent CT. The frontal radiographs of these 10 patients showed a concave superior margin toward the lung in nine patients, a concave inferior margin in five, and a double-lined inferior margin in three. Lateral radiographs disclosed a focal opacity over the minor fissure in five of six patients, which was either fuzzy (n = 4) or sharp (n = 1) in its upper margin, and was sometimes double lined in the inferior margin (n = 3). CT revealed the anterior mediastinal fat to be the cause of the radiographic sail sign, which stretched laterally from the mediastinum to insinuate into the minor fissure. Conclusion: The incidence of sail sign on adult chest radiographs is about 0.1%. The sign is specific enough to eliminate the need for more sophisticated imaging

  20. Automobile sheet metal part production with incremental sheet forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail DURGUN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, effect of global warming is increasing drastically so it leads to increased interest on energy efficiency and sustainable production methods. As a result of adverse conditions, national and international project platforms, OEMs (Original Equipment Manufacturers, SMEs (Small and Mid-size Manufacturers perform many studies or improve existing methodologies in scope of advanced manufacturing techniques. In this study, advanced manufacturing and sustainable production method "Incremental Sheet Metal Forming (ISF" was used for sheet metal forming process. A vehicle fender was manufactured with or without die by using different toolpath strategies and die sets. At the end of the study, Results have been investigated under the influence of method and parameters used.Keywords: Template incremental sheet metal, Metal forming

  1. Forming properties and springback evaluation of copper beryllium sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, A.A.; Jen, K.P.; Chen, T.C.; Kondetimmamhalli, R.

    1995-01-01

    Copper beryllium (CuBe) alloys possess excellent strength and conductivity. They have become the most important materials used for producing high reliability connectors and interconnections for electrical and electronic applications. As demand for high connection density in electrical and electronic products grows, springback behaviors become increasingly critical in fabricating these miniaturized contact components from sheet base materials. In the present article, a study of the springback behavior of CuBe sheets under different heat treatments is presented, with the goal of providing reliable information needed for fabricating more intricate connection parts. Both experimental and analytical techniques were adopted. The tensile tester was first used to study the springback related tensile properties. The governing tensile parameters on springback were identified, and their variations for sheets with different heat treatments were studied. It was found that a bilinear constitutive relationship can be characterize the stress strain behavior of the CuBe alloy. A closed form solution based on this bilinear relationship was formulated to predict the springback for the CuBe sheets at bending conditions. A V-shaped bend tester having an interchangeable punch to accommodate multiple radii was designed and built to evaluate the springback properties of CuBe sheets. A good correlation was found between the analytical predictions and experimental data. A parametric study, as an example, was also performed to provide the springback information needed for designing complicated connectors

  2. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL AND ECONOMIC PROSPECTS FOR USAGE OF PULTRUDED COMPOSITE SHEET PILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BURYA Alexander I.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the description of pultruded composite sheet piles. The article covers the production technology, advantages over other traditional materials, as well as environmental and economic prospects for expanding of the usage of composite sheet piling.

  4. Multi-scale contact modeling of coated steels for sheet metal forming applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shisode, Meghshyam; Hazrati Marangalou, Javad; Mishra, Tanmaya; De Rooij, Matthijn; Van Den Boogaard, Ton; Bay, Niels; Nielsen, Chris V.

    2018-01-01

    Friction in sheet metal forming is a local phenomenon which depends on continuously evolving contact conditions during the forming process. This is mainly influenced by local contact pressure, surface textures of the sheet metal as well as the forming tool surface profile and material behavior. The

  5. The strength research of the adhesive joints of sheet structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research results of stress-strained condition of constructional sheet materials are given in the article. The strength dependence on type, configuration and sizes of adhesive joints is analyzed. The research of the strength dependence was made on the samples from bakelite plywood with the main types of adhesive joints ...

  6. Tearing resistance of some co-polyester sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ho Sung; Karger-Kocsis, Jozsef

    2004-01-01

    A three-zone model consisting of initial, evolutionary and stabilised plastic zones for tearing resistance was proposed for polymer sheets. An analysis with the model, based on the essential work of fracture (EWF) approach, was demonstrated to be capable for predicting specific total work of fracture along the tear path across all the plastic zones although accuracy of specific essential work of fracture is subject to improvement. Photo-elastic images were used for identification of plastic deformation sizes and profiles. Fracture mode change during loading was described in relation with the three zones. Tearing fracture behaviour of extruded mono- and bi-layer sheets of different types of amorphous co-polyesters and different thicknesses was investigated. Thick material exhibited higher specific total work of tear fracture than thin mono-layer sheet in the case of amorphous polyethylene terephthalate (PET). This finding was explained in terms of plastic zone size formed along the tear path, i.e., thick material underwent larger plastic deformation than thin material. When PET and polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG) were laminated with each other, specific total work of fracture of the bi-layer sheets was not noticeably improved over that of the constituent materials

  7. Observations on Mode I ductile tearing in sheet metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Naaman, Salim Abdallah; Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2013-01-01

    Cracked ductile sheet metals, subject to Mode I tearing, have been observed to display a variety of fracture surface morphologies depending on the material properties, and a range of studies on the fracture surface appearance have been published in the literature. Whereas classical fractures...

  8. Practical Application of Sheet Lead for Sound Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lead Industries Association, New York, NY.

    Techniques for improving sound barriers through the use of lead sheeting are described. To achieve an ideal sound barrier a material should consist of the following properties--(1) high density, (2) freedom from stiffness, (3) good damping capacity, and (4) integrity as a non-permeable membrane. Lead combines these desired properties to a greater…

  9. Monitoring dc stray current corrosion at sheet pile structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Steel is discarded by railway owners as a material for underground structures near railway lines, due to uncertainty over increased corrosion by DC stray currents stemming from the traction power system. This paper presents a large scale field test in which stray currents interference of a sheet

  10. Careers "Fact Sheets" for clinical engineering & biomedical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacela, A F

    1991-01-01

    Three Careers "Fact Sheets" include information on CE and BMET job titles, job descriptions, and certification. These materials are intended to aid in furthering professional recognition for Clinical Engineers and BMETs, and may be useful in communicating with Administration or Human Resources departments.

  11. Sucrose Treated Carbon Nanotube and Graphene Yarns and Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauti, Godfrey (Inventor); Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Consolidated carbon nanotube or graphene yarns and woven sheets are consolidated through the formation of a carbon binder formed from the dehydration of sucrose. The resulting materials, on a macro-scale are lightweight and of a high specific modulus and/or strength. Sucrose is relatively inexpensive and readily available, and the process is therefore cost-effective.

  12. Optimal swimming of a sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montenegro-Johnson, Thomas D; Lauga, Eric

    2014-06-01

    Propulsion at microscopic scales is often achieved through propagating traveling waves along hairlike organelles called flagella. Taylor's two-dimensional swimming sheet model is frequently used to provide insight into problems of flagellar propulsion. We derive numerically the large-amplitude wave form of the two-dimensional swimming sheet that yields optimum hydrodynamic efficiency: the ratio of the squared swimming speed to the rate-of-working of the sheet against the fluid. Using the boundary element method, we show that the optimal wave form is a front-back symmetric regularized cusp that is 25% more efficient than the optimal sine wave. This optimal two-dimensional shape is smooth, qualitatively different from the kinked form of Lighthill's optimal three-dimensional flagellum, not predicted by small-amplitude theory, and different from the smooth circular-arc-like shape of active elastic filaments.

  13. Integrated sign management system : ADOT maintenance group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The Arizona Department of Transportation (ADOT) maintains and manages an inventory of roadway signs. Before the implementation of this project, sign technicians maintained inventory records on individual laptops to track their daily sign maintenance ...

  14. Thematic sheets on the nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevissen, E.; Galle, Ch.; L'Hostis, V.; Millard, A.; Moulin, Ch.; Mauchien, P.; Vitart, X.; Rivalier, P.; Diop, Ch.; Boullis, B.; Feron, D.; Santarini, G.; Lieven, Th.; Laffont, G.; Cachon, L.; Moulin, C.

    2004-01-01

    This document presents eleven description sheets of researches realized in the CEA laboratories. The following topics are concerned: the diffusion of tritiated water, iodine 125 and chlorine 36 in the Meuse/Haute-Marne rocks of the underground laboratory of Bure; effect of the granulates nature on the thermal and hydro mechanics behavior of concrete at high temperature (60-450 C); first validation of a damage model for reinforced concrete affected by the corrosion of its reinforcements; analysis of pollutants traces; centrifuge extractors of the high activity laboratory; the advanced partitioning; the disadvantages of the Monte-Carlo method in the radiation protection domain; the Purex process; materials damage by enzymes; the acoustic emission applied for the materials corrosion; the helium circuits technology for the gas cooled reactors; high level speciation. (A.L.B.)

  15. Formability of porous tantalum sheet-metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nebosky, Paul S; Schmid, Steven R; Pasang, Timotius

    2009-01-01

    Over the past ten years, a novel cellular solid, Trabecular Metal T M , has been developed for use in the orthopaedics industry as an ingrowth scaffold. Manufactured using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on top of a graphite foam substrate, this material has a regular matrix of interconnecting pores, high strength, and high porosity. Manufacturing difficulties encourage the application of bending, stamping and forming technologies to increase CVD reactor throughput and reduce material wastes. In this study, the bending and forming behaviour of Trabecular Metal T M was evaluated using a novel camera-based system for measuring surface strains, since the conventional approach of printing or etching gridded patterns was not feasible. A forming limit diagram was obtained using specially fabricated 1.65 mm thick sheets. A springback coefficient was measured and modeled using effective hexagonal cell arrangements.

  16. Modelling the Antarctic Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Holm, A.

    2015-01-01

    to sea level high stands during past interglacial periods. A number of AIS models have been developed and applied to try to understand the workings of the AIS and to form a robust basis for future projections of the AIS contribution to sea level change. The recent DCESS (Danish Center for Earth System......The Antarctic ice sheet is a major player in the Earth’s climate system and is by far the largest depository of fresh water on the planet. Ice stored in the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) contains enough water to raise sea level by about 58 m, and ice loss from Antarctica contributed significantly...

  17. Sheet Beam Klystron Instability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.

    2009-01-01

    Using the principle of energy balance we develop a 2D theory for calculating growth rates of instability in a two-cavity model of a sheet beam klystron. An important ingredient is a TE-like mode in the gap that also gives a longitudinal kick to the beam. When compared with a self-consistent particle-in-cell calculation, with sheet beam klystron-type parameters, agreement is quite good up to half the design current, 65 A; at full current, however, other, current-dependent effects come in and the results deviate significantly

  18. The social balance sheet 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. Delhez; P. Heuse

    2005-01-01

    Each year, in the 4th quarter’s Economic Review, the National Bank examines the provisional results of the social balance sheets. As all the social balance sheets are not yet available for 2004, the study is based on a limited population of enterprises, compiled according to the principle of a constant sample. This population is made up of 38,530 enterprises employing around 1,331,000 workers in 2004. The main results of the analysis, in terms of employment, working hours, labour cost and tra...

  19. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  20. Compiling a Sign Language Dictionary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    As we began working on the Danish Sign Language (DTS) Dictionary, we soon realised the truth in the statement that a lexicographer has to deal with problems within almost any linguistic discipline. Most of these problems come down to establishing simple rules, rules that can easily be applied every...... – or are they homonyms?" and so on. Very often such questions demand further research and can't be answered sufficiently through a simple standard formula. Therefore lexicographic work often seems like an endless series of compromises. Another source of compromise arises when you set out to decide which information...... this dilemma, as we see DTS learners and teachers as well as native DTS signers as our target users. In the following we will focus on four problem areas with particular relevance for the sign language lexicographer: Sign representation Spoken languague equivalents and mouth movements Example sentences Partial...

  1. Characteristic CT signs in oligodendrogliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcu, H.; Vonofakos, D.; Hacker, H.

    1980-01-01

    Computed tomography offers valuable aid for improving the diagnostic capabilities for oligodendrogliomas. The authors have attempted to determine more precisely the CT characteristic signs for this type of tumor and to establish criteria for predicting malignancy grade. They can conclude that calcifications are the main signs which lead to the diagnosis of oligodendroglioma, as the most usual calcifying glioma. This finding was known before the CT era, but with the CT one can be more exact with regard to form, growth, number and density of the calcifications and especially the smallest of them, which are not to be seen on the conventional X-ray examination. The cyst formation is another feature of oligodendroglioma. The occurrence of contrast enhancement and cyst formation are the most characteristic signs of malignancy. (C.F.)

  2. Rolling induced size effects in elastic–viscoplastic sheet metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau

    2015-01-01

    sheet rolling, where a non-homogeneous material deformation takes place between the rollers. Large strain gradients develop where the rollers first come in contact with the sheet, and a higher order plasticity model is employed to illustrate their influence at small scales. The study reveals...... presented revolves around the rolling induced effect of visco-plasticity (ranging hot and cold rolling) in combination with strain gradient hardening – including both dissipative and energetic contributions. To bring out first order effects on rolling at small scale, the modeling efforts are limited to flat...

  3. Pearl necklace sign in diabetic macular edema: Evaluation and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirasagar Ajay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: (1 The purpose of this study was to describe significance and prevalence of the newly reported pearl necklace spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT sign, in diabetic macular edema (DMO, (2 to track the course of this sign over a period of at least 10 months. Materials and Methods: The pearl necklace SDOCT sign refers to hyperreflective dots in a contiguous ring around the inner wall of cystoid spaces in the retina, recently described for the first time in 21 eyes with chronic exudative maculopathy. A retrospective analysis was performed of SDOCT images of all patients presenting to the DMO referral clinic of a tertiary eye care center, over a period of 24 months. Images of patients displaying this sign were sequentially analyzed for at least 10 months to track the course of the sign. Results: Thirty-five eyes of 267 patients (13.1% were found to display the pearl necklace sign. Twenty-eight eyes responded to intravitreal ranibizumab treatment with resolution of edema. In 21 eyes, the dots coalesced to form a clump, visible in the infrared fundus photograph as hard exudates; in seven eyes, dots disappeared without leaving visible exudates. In three eyes, the sign was seen in subfoveal cystoid spaces, with subsequent development of hard exudates, and drop in visual acuity of 20 letters or more. Conclusion: Pearl necklace SDOCT sign is not infrequent in DMO. This sign is a precursor to hard exudates in the majority of cases. If this sign is seen subfoveally, drop in visual acuity can be expected, despite treatment.

  4. MR imaging of displaced meniscal tears of the knee. Importance of a 'disproportional posterior horn sign'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.C.; Hsu, C.Y.; Shih, T.T.F.; Huang, K.M.; Li, Y.W.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Meniscal tears associated with displaced fragments are clinically significant. We propose the 'disproportional posterior horn sign' as a supportive criterion to identify a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment on MR imaging studies. If the meniscal posterior horn in the central portion appears larger than that in the peripheral section, it is considered positive for 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. Material and Methods: MR images obtained in 42 patients with 43 lesions, confirmed to have displaced meniscal tears, were included in this study. The MR images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of the 'disproportional posterior horn sign', as well as the other known signs. Results: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' was seen in 9 (20.9%) of 43 lesions, including 1 lateral discoid meniscal tear, 5 lateral meniscal tears and 3 medial meniscal tears. Five of them also had other signs of a displaced meniscal fragment. However, the remaining 4 cases only exhibited the 'disproportional posterior horn sign'. For the other MR signs, the 'absent bow tie sign' was detected in 40 (93%) of 43 lesions, the 'flipped meniscus sign' in 27 (62.8%) of 43 lesions, the 'double posterior cruciate ligament sign' in 17 (39.5%) of 43 lesions and the 'notch fragment sign' in 22 (51.2%) of 43 lesions. Conclusion: The 'disproportional posterior horn sign' is helpful in demonstrating a posterocentrally displaced meniscal fragment, especially when other characteristic signs are unremarkable or absent

  5. Learning from Balance Sheet Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanlamai, Uthai; Soongswang, Oranuj

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study examines alternative visuals and their effect on the level of learning of balance sheet users. Executive and regular classes of graduate students majoring in information technology in business were asked to evaluate the extent of acceptance and enhanced capability of these alternative visuals toward their learning…

  6. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  7. A paper sheet phantom for scintigraphic planar imaging. Usefulness of pouch-laminated paper source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Akihiro; Soma, Tsutomu; Murase, Kenya; Teraoka, Satomi; Murakami, Tomonori; Kojima, Akihiro; Matsumoto, Masanori

    2007-01-01

    In order to perform experimental measurements for evaluation of imaging device's performance, data acquisition technique, and clinical images on scintigraphic imaging, many kinds of phantoms are employed. However, since these materials are acrylic and plastic, the thickness and quality of those materials cause attenuation and scatter in itself. We developed a paper sheet phantom sealed with a pouch laminator, which can be a true radioactive source in air. In this study, the paper sheet phantom was compared to the acrylic liver phantom, with the thickness of 2 cm, which is commercially available. The results showed that although some scatter counts were contained within the image of the acrylic liver phantom, there were few scattered photons in the paper sheet phantom image. Furthermore, this laminated paper sheet phantom made handling of the source and its waste easier. If the paper sheet phantom will be designed more sophisticatedly, it becomes a useful tool for planar imaging experiments. (author)

  8. Modified Unzipping Technique to Prepare Graphene Nano-Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Tamimi, B. H.; Farid, S. B. H.; Chyad, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    Graphene nano-sheets have been prepared via unzipping approach of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The method includes two chemical-steps, in which a multi-parameter oxidation step is performed to achieve unzipping the carbon nanotubes. Then, a reduction step is carried out to achieve the final graphene nano-sheets. In the oxidation step, the oxidant material was minimized and balanced with longer curing time. This modification is made in order to reduce the oxygen-functional groups at the ends of graphene basal planes, which reduce its electrical conductivity. In addition, a similar adjustment is achieved in the reduction step, i.e. the consumed chemicals is reduced which make the overall process more economic and eco-friendly. The prepared nano-sheets were characterized by atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. The average thickness of the prepared graphene was about 5.23 nm.

  9. Unraveling metamaterial properties in zigzag-base folded sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidini, Maryam; Paulino, Glaucio H

    2015-09-01

    Creating complex spatial objects from a flat sheet of material using origami folding techniques has attracted attention in science and engineering. In the present work, we use the geometric properties of partially folded zigzag strips to better describe the kinematics of known zigzag/herringbone-base folded sheet metamaterials such as Miura-ori. Inspired by the kinematics of a one-degree of freedom zigzag strip, we introduce a class of cellular folded mechanical metamaterials comprising different scales of zigzag strips. This class of patterns combines origami folding techniques with kirigami. Using analytical and numerical models, we study the key mechanical properties of the folded materials. We show that our class of patterns, by expanding on the design space of Miura-ori, is appropriate for a wide range of applications from mechanical metamaterials to deployable structures at small and large scales. We further show that, depending on the geometry, these materials exhibit either negative or positive in-plane Poisson's ratios. By introducing a class of zigzag-base materials in the current study, we unify the concept of in-plane Poisson's ratio for similar materials in the literature and extend it to the class of zigzag-base folded sheet materials.

  10. Hepatic dimple sign on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Ebihara, Reiko; Saida, Yukihisa

    1983-06-01

    The ''Dimple sign'' has been coined by Baltaxe et al. in 1974 and was said to be useful angiographic sign of avascular tumor. Similar dimple can be seen in the margin of the liver on CT examination of the hepatic tumors. We called this hepatic dimple sign and its clinical usefulness on CT examination was studied with 133 cases of hepatic tumors. Among 133 cases, there were 68 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 57 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 5 cases of hemangioma of the liver and 3 cases of hepatoblastoma. Hepatic dimple sign was recognized on 2 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 1 case of hemangioma, and 1 case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatic infiltration. Cases experienced in the affiliated hospitals were also studied. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma and a case of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated. These tumors were relativly large measuring over 5cm in the greatest diameter and low density areas were apparent on plain CT. Therefore, dimples in the hepatic margin seen in CT scan did not contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of the liver tumor in these cases. (author).

  11. Hepatic dimple sign on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kunihiko; Nakajima, Teiichi; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Ebihara, Reiko; Saida, Yukihisa

    1983-01-01

    The ''Dimple sign'' has been coined by Baltaxe et al. in 1974 and was said to be useful angiographic sign of avascular tumor. Similar dimple can be seen in the margin of the liver on CT examination of the hepatic tumors. We called this hepatic dimple sign and its clinical usefulness on CT examination was studied with 133 cases of hepatic tumors. Among 133 cases, there were 68 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 57 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 5 cases of hemangioma of the liver and 3 cases of hepatoblastoma. Hepatic dimple sign was recognized on 2 cases of metastatic liver tumor, 1 case of hemangioma, and 1 case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with hepatic infiltration. Cases experienced in the affiliated hospitals were also studied. A case of hepatocellular carcinoma and a case of metastatic liver tumor were evaluated. These tumors were relativly large measuring over 5cm in the greatest diameter and low density areas were apparent on plain CT. Therefore, dimples in the hepatic margin seen in CT scan did not contribute to the diagnostic accuracy of the liver tumor in these cases. (author)

  12. BOOMERANG SIGN - A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Boomerang sign is a transient abnormality at the level of splenium of corpus callosum in MRI seen in various conditions.[1-2] We do here report a case of malaria, which presented with the above findings. The transient appearance of such findings need not need any aggressive management, other than managing the underlying cause.

  13. Sign Languages of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This handbook provides information on some 38 sign languages, including basic facts about each of the languages, structural aspects, history and culture of the Deaf communities, and history of research. The papers are all original, and each has been specifically written for the volume by an expert...

  14. Vital Signs - Child Passenger Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the February 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Over the past 10 years, more than 9,000 children 12 and under died in motor vehicle crashes, and a third who died in 2011 weren't buckled up. Buckling up is the best way to reduce injuries and save lives.

  15. Laryngopyocele: signs on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaroglu, Hasan E-mail: hnazarog@dicle.edu.tr; Oezates, Mustafa; Uyar, Asur; Deger, Emin; Simsek, Masum

    2000-01-01

    A laryngocele is an air-filled dilation of the saccule of the larynx. An infected laryngocele is called a laryngopyocele. Our experience with a case of laryngopyocele with signs on computed tomography before and after antibiotic therapy is presented since laryngopyocele is more unusual.

  16. Laryngopyocele: signs on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroglu, Hasan; Oezates, Mustafa; Uyar, Asur; Deger, Emin; Simsek, Masum

    2000-01-01

    A laryngocele is an air-filled dilation of the saccule of the larynx. An infected laryngocele is called a laryngopyocele. Our experience with a case of laryngopyocele with signs on computed tomography before and after antibiotic therapy is presented since laryngopyocele is more unusual

  17. Heat Exchanger Tube to Tube Sheet Joints Corrosion Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iancu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the studies made by the authors above the tube to tube sheet fittings of heat exchanger with fixed covers from hydrofining oil reforming unit. Tube fittings are critical zones for heat exchangers failures. On a device made from material tube and tube sheet at real joints dimensions were establish axial compression force and traction force at which tube is extracted from expanded joint. Were used two shapes joints with two types of fittings surfaces, one with smooth hole of tube sheet and other in which on boring surface we made a groove. From extracted expanded tube zones were made samples for corrosion tests in order to establish the corrosion rate, corrosion potential and corrosion current in working mediums such as hydrofining oil and industrial water at different temperatures. The corrosion rate values and the temperature influence are important to evaluate joints durability and also the results obtained shows that the boring tube sheet shape with a groove on hole tube shape presents a better corrosion behavior then the shape with smooth hole tube sheet.

  18. Electrode material comprising graphene-composite materials in a graphite network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Harold H.; Lee, Jung K.

    2017-08-08

    A durable electrode material suitable for use in Li ion batteries is provided. The material is comprised of a continuous network of graphite regions integrated with, and in good electrical contact with a composite comprising graphene sheets and an electrically active material, such as silicon, wherein the electrically active material is dispersed between, and supported by, the graphene sheets.

  19. Hybrid Piezoelectric/Fiber-Optic Sensor Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mark; Qing, Xinlin

    2004-01-01

    Hybrid piezoelectric/fiber-optic (HyPFO) sensor sheets are undergoing development. They are intended for use in nondestructive evaluation and long-term monitoring of the integrity of diverse structures, including aerospace, aeronautical, automotive, and large stationary ones. It is anticipated that the further development and subsequent commercialization of the HyPFO sensor systems will lead to economic benefits in the form of increased safety, reduction of life-cycle costs through real-time structural monitoring, increased structural reliability, reduction of maintenance costs, and increased readiness for service. The concept of a HyPFO sensor sheet is a generalization of the concept of a SMART Layer(TradeMark), which is a patented device that comprises a thin dielectric film containing an embedded network of distributed piezoelectric actuator/sensors. Such a device can be mounted on the surface of a metallic structure or embedded inside a composite-material structure during fabrication of the structure. There is has been substantial interest in incorporating sensors other than piezoelectric ones into SMART Layer(TradeMark) networks: in particular, because of the popularity of the use of fiber-optic sensors for monitoring the "health" of structures in recent years, it was decided to incorporate fiber-optic sensors, giving rise to the concept of HyPFO devices.

  20. Whooping Cough (Pertussis) - Fact Sheet for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... months 4 through 6 years Fact Sheet for Parents Color [2 pages] Español: Tosferina (pertussis) The best ... according to the recommended schedule. Fact Sheets for Parents Diseases and the Vaccines that Prevent Them Chickenpox ...

  1. The Relationship Between Depression And Positive Signs In Chronic Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaoddini S S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of studies about relationship between depression and positive signs in schizophrenia are controversial and clarifying the nature of this association may be difficult. The aim of present study is to investigate relationship between depressive symptoms and positive signs, in acute phase of patients with chronic schizophrenia, who have been admitted in Roozbeh Hospital. Materials and Methods: Assessments were performed using the Beck depression Inventory for depression (subjectively and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS for psychotic symptoms. Results: The results demonstrated a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and positive signs in these patients. Also, a significant correlation existed between depression and these items: delusions, hallucinatory behavior, excitement, hostility. Conclusion: depressive symptoms and positive signs in schizophrenia may have a common underlying pathophysiological origin.

  2. 13 CFR 305.12 - Project sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Project sign. 305.12 Section 305... WORKS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT INVESTMENTS Requirements for Approved Projects § 305.12 Project sign. The... the construction period of a sign or signs at a conspicuous place at the Project site indicating that...

  3. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  4. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  5. A flexible tactile sensitive sheet using a hetero-core fiber optic sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Hosoki, A.; Watanabe, K.

    2014-05-01

    In this report, we have designed a tactile sensitive sheet based on a hetero-core fiber-optic sensor, which realize an areal sensing by using single sensor potion in one optical fiber line. Recently, flexible and wide-area tactile sensing technology is expected to applied to acquired biological information in living space and robot achieve long-term care services such as welfare and nursing-care and humanoid technology. A hetero-core fiber-optic sensor has several advantages such as thin and flexible transmission line, immunity to EMI. Additionally this sensor is sensitive to moderate bending actions with optical loss changes and is independent of temperature fluctuation. Thus, the hetero-core fiber-optic sensor can be suitable for areal tactile sensing. We measure pressure characteristic of the proposed sensitive sheet by changing the pressure position and pinching characteristic on the surface. The proposed tactile sensitive sheet shows monotonic responses on the whole sensitive sheet surface although different sensitivity by the position is observed at the sensitive sheet surface. Moreover, the tactile sensitive sheet could sufficiently detect the pinching motion. In addition, in order to realize the discrimination between pressure and pinch, we fabricated a doubled-over sensor using a set of tactile sensitive sheets, which has different kinds of silicon robbers as a sensitive sheet surface. In conclusion, the flexible material could be given to the tactile sensation which is attached under proposed sensitive sheet.

  6. Human platelet lysate supports the formation of robust human periodontal ligament cell sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bei-Min; Wu, Rui-Xin; Bi, Chun-Sheng; He, Xiao-Tao; Yin, Yuan; Chen, Fa-Ming

    2018-04-01

    The use of stem cell-derived sheets has become increasingly common in a wide variety of biomedical applications. Although substantial evidence has demonstrated that human platelet lysate (PL) can be used for therapeutic cell expansion, either as a substitute for or as a supplement to xenogeneic fetal bovine serum (FBS), its impact on cell sheet production remains largely unexplored. In this study, we manufactured periodontal ligament stem cell (PDLSC) sheets in vitro by incubating PDLSCs in sheet-induction media supplemented with various ratios of PL and FBS, i.e. 10% PL without FBS, 7.5% PL + 2.5% FBS, 5% PL + 5% FBS, 2.5% PL + 7.5% FBS or 10% FBS without PL. Cultures with the addition of all the designed supplements led to successful cell sheet production. In addition, all the resultant cellular materials exhibited similar expression profiles of matrix-related genes and proteins, such as collagen I, fibronectin and integrin β1. Interestingly, the cell components within sheets generated by media containing both PL and FBS exhibited improved osteogenic potential. Following in vivo transplantation, all sheets supported significant new bone formation. Our data suggest that robust PDLSC sheets can be produced by applying PL as either an alternative or an adjuvant to FBS. Further examination of the relevant influences of human PL that benefit cell behaviour and matrix production will pave the way towards optimized and standardized conditions for cell sheet production. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Sinus cut-off sign: A helpful sign in the CT diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture associated with pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karabulut, Nevzat; Yuncu, Gokhan; Sevinc, Serpil; Kiroglu, Yilmaz

    2006-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the 'sinus cut-off' sign at CT in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in patients with blunt abdominal trauma complicated with pleural effusion, and evaluate its utility in an experimental model. Between January 2004 and March 2005, we observed an unusual interruption of costophrenic sinus at CT in three patients with blunt abdominal trauma accompanied with pleural effusion. This observation prompted us to evaluate the utility of this sign in an experimental model. Laparotomically, we created 2 cm diapragmatic lacerations at each hemidiaphragm in two rabbits and pushed up the abdominal viscera with omentum through the defect. To simulate hemothorax, we also injected 5-10 mL of diluted contrast material into the pleural space. Using a dual-slice helical CT scanner, limited thoracoabdominal CT examination was performed before and after injection of intrapleural contrast material. The images were analyzed for the presence of CT signs for diaphragmatic injury. The left posterior costophrenic sulcus was interrupted in all of the three patients with left pleural effusion. While it was associated with other findings of diaphragmatic injury, the 'sinus cut-off sign' was the sole finding in one patient. The sinus cut-off sign was observed on the CT scans of 100% of the rabbits with a left and right sided diaphragmatic rupture. The 'sinus cut-off sign' is useful and can increase the CT detection of acute diaphragmatic injury associated with pleural effusion

  8. SPR Characteristics Curve and Distribution of Residual Stress in Self-Piercing Riveted Joints of Steel Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Rezwanul; Wong, Yat C.; Paradowska, Anna; Blacket, Stuart; Durandet, Yvonne

    2017-01-01

    Neutron diffraction was used to describe the residual stress distributions in self-piercing riveted (SPR) joints. The sheet material displayed a compressive residual stress near the joint, and the stress gradually became tensile in the sheet material far away from the joint. The stress in the rivet leg was lower in the thick joint of the softer steel sheet than in the thin joint of the harder steel sheet. This lower magnitude was attributed to the lower force gradient during the rivet flaring...

  9. Manifold free multiple sheet superplastic forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, John W.; Bridges, Robert L.

    2004-01-13

    Fluid-forming compositions in a container attached to enclosed adjacent sheets are heated to relatively high temperatures to generate fluids (gases) that effect inflation of the sheets. Fluid rates to the enclosed space between the sheets can be regulated by the canal from the container. Inflated articles can be produced by a continuous, rather than batch-type, process.

  10. On the possible eigenoscillations of neutral sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, W.A.; Costa, J.M. da; Aruquipa, E.G.; Sudano, J.P.

    1974-12-01

    A neutral sheet model with hyperbolic tangent equilibrium magnetic field and hyperbolic square secant density profiles is considered. It is shown that the equation for small oscillations takes the form of an eigenvalue oscillation problem. Computed eigenfrequencies of the geomagnetic neutral sheet were found to be in the range of the resonant frequencies of the geomagnetic plasma sheet computed by other authors

  11. Synthesis of Boron Nano wires, Nano tubes, and Nano sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.B.; Chou, T.; Iqbal, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The synthesis of boron nano wires, nano tubes, and nano sheets using a thermal vapor deposition process is reported. This work confirms previous research and provides a new method capable of synthesizing boron nano materials. The materials were made by using various combinations of MgB 2 , Mg(BH 4 ) 2 , MCM-41, NiB, and Fe wire. Unlike previously reported methods, a nanoparticle catalyst and a silicate substrate are not required for synthesis. Two types of boron nano wires, boron nano tubes, and boron nano sheets were made. Their morphology and chemical composition were determined through the use of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. These boron-based materials have potential for electronic and hydrogen storage applications.

  12. Start-up First Term Sheet: Stumbling Blocks to Avoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalyan Nataly D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Start-up relationships with business angel and/or venture capital are similar to a marriage – but with a divorce in mind. The latter necessitates a proper prenuptial agreement signing at the very beginning of the relations. In case of business angel and/or venture capital we are speaking about Term sheet, determining pricing, powers and duties of the board, as well as information, participation and protective rights for the partners. Standard Term sheet consists of three buckets of provisions, defining: (i terms impacting start-up valuation and economic division of profits and proceeds upon a liquidity event, (ii terms impacting control over decision making and (iii investor protection terms. This article focuses on financial and economic aspects of funding agreement, exposing some tricky parts of the Term sheet, threatening to transform potential win-win deals into rupture of relations, crash of the company or even legal battles. The results of the analysis are used to substantiate growing in popular appeal thesis that raising too much money can be detrimental for a startup.

  13. Arrangement for underground storage of materials of every kind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marek, O.; Seisenbacher, H.; Toth, L.

    1982-01-01

    Construction of a spheroidal tank, made of two sheets of concrete, used for underground storage. Space between inner and outer sheet is filled with a vibration absorbing material. The bottom of the outer sheet is made of material with lower rigidness, which allows the line of fault in cases of tectonic motions to slide off. (J.K.) [de

  14. Investigation of Forming Performance of Laminated Steel Sheets Using Finite Element Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wenning; Sun Xin; Ruokolainen, Robert; Gayden Xiaohong

    2007-01-01

    Laminated steel sheets have been used in automotive structures for reducing in-cabin noise. However, due to the marked difference in material properties of the different laminated layers, integrating laminated steel parts into the manufacturing processes can be challenging. Especially, the behavior of laminated sheets during forming processes is very different from that of monolithic steel sheets. During the deep-draw forming process, large shear deformation and corresponding high interfacial stress may initiate and propagate interfacial cracks between the core polymer and the metal skin, hence degrading the performance of the laminated sheets. In this paper, the formability of the laminated steel sheets is investigated by means of numerical analysis. The goal of this work is to gain insight into the relationship between the individual properties of the laminated sheet layers and the corresponding formability of the laminated sheet as a whole, eventually leading to reliable design and successful forming process development of such materials. Finite element analyses of laminate sheet forming are presented. Effects of polymer core thickness and viscoelastic properties of the polymer core, as well as punching velocity, are also investigated

  15. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavy, Petr; Egert, Josef

    This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion) from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  16. Thermal properties of highly structured composite and aluminium sheets in an aerodynamic tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulhavy Petr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the thermodynamic behaviour of heat shields - structured metal and composite plates. Experiments have been carried out in a wind tunnel with an additional heating, which simulates the heat source from engine or exhaust pipe and simultaneously the airflow generated during a car movement. The tested sheets with hexagonal structure were a standard commercial made of aluminium and a second manufactured by replication (lamination, diffusion from glass fabric. The airflow in a parallel way along the sheets was analysed experimentally in order to determine the heat transfer efficiency between surfaces of sheets and surrounding airflow. The temperature on the sheets was chosen to observe the effects of different sheets material, various heat power and airflow velocity. During the experiment a thermal input below the sheets and airflow velocity through the tunnel have been changed. The thermal field distribution on the metal sheet is different than in case of composite sheet. For the composite material the thermal field distribution was more homogeneous. This article describe briefly also methods of obtaining real composite geometry based on scanned data and their reconstruction for using in some future numerical models.

  17. Diet discussion begins for signing convention on physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    As a part of the amendment of the domestic laws required for signing the 'Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials', the government placed the bill for the partial amendment of the 'Law for the Regulations of Nuclear Source Materials, Nuclear Fuel Materials and Reactors' to the current session of the Diet, following the formal approval by the Cabinet on March 11. This bill provides for punishment in the case of endangering or threat related to the handling and use of nuclear materials. The Atomic Energy Commission proposed in December, last year the early signing of the Convention and the legislation on the antiterrorism and physical protection measures required for the signing. The amendment consists mainly of two parts: one stipulates the obligation for those who manage the handling of nuclear materials to take the proper measures for their physical protection, and the other stipulates the punishment of the crimes related to nuclear materials. Regarding the other amendment of the relevant domestic laws, the Criminal Law was partially amended in June, last year. The Aviation Act and the Ships Safety Act, both related to the transport of nuclear materials, will not be amended, but only the relevant Ministerial Ordinances will be revised. The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Materials came into force in February, 1987, and consists of 23 articles. (Kako, I.)

  18. Magnetic field control of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain wall resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Roya, E-mail: royamajidi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788-15811 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, we have compared the resistance of the 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain walls in the presence of external magnetic field. The calculations are based on the Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. One-dimensional Neel-type domain walls between two domains whose magnetization differs by angle of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign are considered. The results indicate that the resistance of the 360 Degree-Sign DW is more considerable than that of the 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign DWs. It is also found that the domain wall resistance can be controlled by applying transverse magnetic field. Increasing the strength of the external magnetic field enhances the domain wall resistance. In providing spintronic devices based on magnetic nanomaterials, considering and controlling the effect of domain wall on resistivity are essential.

  19. Multifunctional smart composites with integrated carbon nanotube yarn and sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Devika; Hou, Guangfeng; Ng, Vianessa; Chaudhary, Sumeet; Paine, Michael; Moinuddin, Khwaja; Rabiee, Massoud; Cahay, Marc; Lalley, Nicholas; Shanov, Vesselin; Mast, David; Liu, Yijun; Yin, Zhangzhang; Song, Yi; Schulz, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Multifunctional smart composites (MSCs) are materials that combine the good electrical and thermal conductivity, high tensile and shear strength, good impact toughness, and high stiffness properties of metals; the light weight and corrosion resistance properties of composites; and the sensing or actuation properties of smart materials. The basic concept for MSCs was first conceived by Daniel Inman and others about 25 years ago. Current laminated carbon and glass fiber polymeric composite materials have high tensile strength and are light in weight, but they still lack good electrical and thermal conductivity, and they are sensitive to delamination. Carbon nanotube yarn and sheets are lightweight, electrically and thermally conductive materials that can be integrated into laminated composite materials to form MSCs. This paper describes the manufacturing of high quality carbon nanotube yarn and sheet used to form MSCs, and integrating the nanotube yarn and sheet into composites at low volume fractions. Various up and coming technical applications of MSCs are discussed including composite toughening for impact and delamination resistance; structural health monitoring; and structural power conduction. The global carbon nanotube overall market size is estimated to grow from 2 Billion in 2015 to 5 Billion by 2020 at a CAGR of 20%. Nanotube yarn and sheet products are predicted to be used in aircraft, wind machines, automobiles, electric machines, textiles, acoustic attenuators, light absorption, electrical wire, sporting equipment, tires, athletic apparel, thermoelectric devices, biomedical devices, lightweight transformers, and electromagnets. In the future, due to the high maximum current density of nanotube conductors, nanotube electromagnetic devices may also become competitive with traditional smart materials in terms of power density.

  20. Geometry of thin liquid sheet flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Calfo, Frederick D.; Mcconley, Marc W.; Mcmaster, Matthew S.; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    1994-01-01

    Incompresible, thin sheet flows have been of research interest for many years. Those studies were mainly concerned with the stability of the flow in a surrounding gas. Squire was the first to carry out a linear, invicid stability analysis of sheet flow in air and compare the results with experiment. Dombrowski and Fraser did an experimental study of the disintegration of sheet flows using several viscous liquids. They also detected the formulation of holes in their sheet flows. Hagerty and Shea carried out an inviscid stability analysis and calculated growth rates with experimental values. They compared their calculated growth rates with experimental values. Taylor studied extensively the stability of thin liquid sheets both theoretically and experimentally. He showed that thin sheets in a vacuum are stable. Brown experimentally investigated thin liquid sheet flows as a method of application of thin films. Clark and Dumbrowski carried out second-order stability analysis for invicid sheet flows. Lin introduced viscosity into the linear stability analysis of thin sheet flows in a vacuum. Mansour and Chigier conducted an experimental study of the breakup of a sheet flow surrounded by high-speed air. Lin et al. did a linear stability analysis that included viscosity and a surrounding gas. Rangel and Sirignano carried out both a linear and nonlinear invisid stability analysis that applies for any density ratio between the sheet liquid and the surrounding gas. Now there is renewed interest in sheet flows because of their possible application as low mass radiating surfaces. The objective of this study is to investigate the fluid dynamics of sheet flows that are of interest for a space radiator system. Analytical expressions that govern the sheet geometry are compared with experimental results. Since a space radiator will operate in a vacuum, the analysis does not include any drag force on the sheet flow.

  1. Graphene: powder, flakes, ribbons, and sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Dustin K; Tour, James M

    2013-10-15

    Graphene's unique physical and electrical properties (high tensile strength, Young's modulus, electron mobility, and thermal conductivity) have led to its nickname of "super carbon." Graphene research involves the study of several different physical forms of the material: powders, flakes, ribbons, and sheets and others not yet named or imagined. Within those forms, graphene can include a single layer, two layers, or ≤10 sheets of sp² carbon atoms. The chemistry and applications available with graphene depend on both the physical form of the graphene and the number of layers in the material. Therefore the available permutations of graphene are numerous, and we will discuss a subset of this work, covering some of our research on the synthesis and use of many of the different physical and layered forms of graphene. Initially, we worked with commercially available graphite, with which we extended diazonium chemistry developed to functionalize single-walled carbon nanotubes to produce graphitic materials. These structures were soluble in common organic solvents and were better dispersed in composites. We developed an improved synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) and explored how the workup protocol for the synthesis of GO can change the electronic structure and chemical functionality of the GO product. We also developed a method to remove graphene layers one-by-one from flakes. These powders and sheets of GO can serve as fluid loss prevention additives in drilling fluids for the oil industry. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) combine small width with long length, producing valuable electronic and physical properties. We developed two complementary syntheses of GNRs from multiwalled carbon nanotubes: one simple oxidative method that produces GNRs with some defects and one reductive method that produces GNRs that are less defective and more electrically conductive. These GNRs can be used in low-loss, high permittivity composites, as conductive reinforcement coatings on Kevlar

  2. Transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-11-01

    The two original versions of ‘invisibility’ cloaks (Leonhardt 2006 Science 312 1777-80 and Pendry et al 2006 Science 312 1780-2) show perfect cloaking but require unphysical singularities in material properties. A non-Euclidean version of cloaking (Leonhardt 2009 Science 323 110-12) was later presented to address these problems, using a very complicated non-Euclidean geometry. In this work, we combine the two original approaches to transformation optics into a more general concept: transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets. Our method is straightforward and can be utilized to design new kinds of cloaks that can work not only in the realm of geometric optics but also using wave optics. The physics behind this design is similar to that of the conformal cloak for waves. The resonances in the interior region make the phase delay disappear and induce the cloaking effect. Numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results.

  3. Transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2013-01-01

    The two original versions of ‘invisibility’ cloaks (Leonhardt 2006 Science 312 1777–80 and Pendry et al 2006 Science 312 1780–2) show perfect cloaking but require unphysical singularities in material properties. A non-Euclidean version of cloaking (Leonhardt 2009 Science 323 110–12) was later presented to address these problems, using a very complicated non-Euclidean geometry. In this work, we combine the two original approaches to transformation optics into a more general concept: transformation optics with artificial Riemann sheets. Our method is straightforward and can be utilized to design new kinds of cloaks that can work not only in the realm of geometric optics but also using wave optics. The physics behind this design is similar to that of the conformal cloak for waves. The resonances in the interior region make the phase delay disappear and induce the cloaking effect. Numerical simulations confirm our theoretical results. (paper)

  4. Casimir interactions between graphene sheets and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosdoff, D.; Woods, Lilia M.

    2011-01-01

    The Casimir force between graphene sheets and metamaterials is studied. Theoretical results based on the Lifshitz theory for layered, planar, two-dimensional systems in media are presented. We consider graphene-graphene, graphene-metamaterial, and metal-graphene-metamaterial configurations. We find that quantum effects of the temperature-dependent force are not apparent until the submicron range. In contrast to results with bulk dielectric and bulk metallic materials, no Casimir repulsion is found when graphene is placed on top of a magnetically active metamaterial substrate, regardless of the strength of the low-frequency magnetic response. In the case of the metal-graphene-metamaterial setting, repulsion between the metamaterial and the metal-graphene system is possible only when the dielectric response from the metal contributes significantly.

  5. The city as a sign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharlamov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    . This question is tackled through Jaan Valsiner’s notions of semiotic mediation and regulation. I specifically focus on spatial signs that humans use to regulate the meaning-making process that creates as meaningful what Georges Perec called species of spaces, such as towns and cities. “The city,” from...... this standpoint, becomes one of the most important signs that mediate and regulate our experience of environments we inhabit. I discuss a number of theoretical and methodological directions in which this framework could be further developed to revive the urban, or settlement, psychology, which failed to develop...... Werner, and Bernard Kaplan, and developed as cultural-developmental approach by Jaan Valsiner, the proposed framework centers on the experience of individual organismic relating to spatial environment. I draw on the work of Manuel Castells, Edward Soja, and Yi-Fu Tuan to conceptualize the emergence...

  6. Tension pneumocephalus: Mount Fuji sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulastya Sanyal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 13-year-old male was operated for a space occupying lesion in the brain. A noncontrast computed tomography scan done in the late postoperative period showed massive subdural air collection causing compression of bilateral frontal lobes with widening of interhemispheric fissure and the frontal lobes acquiring a peak like configuration - causing tension pneumocephalus-"Mount Fuji sign." Tension pneumocephalus occurs when air enters the extradural or intradural spaces in sufficient volume to exert a mass or pressure effect on the brain, leading to brain herniation. Tension pneumocephalus is a surgical emergency, which needs immediate intervention in the form of decompression of the cranial cavity by a burr hole or needle aspiration. The Mount Fuji sign differentiates tension pneumocephalus from pneumocephalus.

  7. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  8. Periodic folding of viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribe, Neil M.

    2003-09-01

    The periodic folding of a sheet of viscous fluid falling upon a rigid surface is a common fluid mechanical instability that occurs in contexts ranging from food processing to geophysics. Asymptotic thin-layer equations for the combined stretching-bending deformation of a two-dimensional sheet are solved numerically to determine the folding frequency as a function of the sheet’s initial thickness, the pouring speed, the height of fall, and the fluid properties. As the buoyancy increases, the system bifurcates from “forced” folding driven kinematically by fluid extrusion to “free” folding in which viscous resistance to bending is balanced by buoyancy. The systematics of the numerically predicted folding frequency are in good agreement with laboratory experiments.

  9. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  10. Vital Signs-Secondhand Smoke

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-02-03

    This podcast is based on the February 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Secondhand smoke kills more than 400 infants and 41,000 adult nonsmokers every year. Learn what can be done to prevent secondhand smoke exposure.  Created: 2/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 2/3/2015.

  11. Signed Networks in Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Leskovec, Jure; Huttenlocher, Daniel; Kleinberg, Jon

    2010-01-01

    Relations between users on social media sites often reflect a mixture of positive (friendly) and negative (antagonistic) interactions. In contrast to the bulk of research on social networks that has focused almost exclusively on positive interpretations of links between people, we study how the interplay between positive and negative relationships affects the structure of on-line social networks. We connect our analyses to theories of signed networks from social psychology. We find that the c...

  12. Vital Signs - Child Passenger Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-02-04

    This podcast is based on the February 2014 CDC Vital Signs report. Over the past 10 years, more than 9,000 children 12 and under died in motor vehicle crashes, and a third who died in 2011 weren't buckled up. Buckling up is the best way to reduce injuries and save lives.  Created: 2/4/2014 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 2/4/2014.

  13. Load Test in Sheet Pile

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Orlando Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    In this work, are discussed experiences in the use of mathematical modeling and testing in hydraulic engineering structures. For this purpose the results of load tests in sheet pile, evaluating horizontal and vertical deformations that occur in the same exposed. Comparisons between theoretical methods for calculating deformations and mathematical models based on the Finite Element Method are established. Finally, the coincidence between the numerical model and the results of the load test ful...

  14. CERN single sign on solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormancey, E

    2008-01-01

    The need for Single Sign On has always been restricted by the absence of cross platform solutions: a single sign on working only on one platform or technology is nearly useless. The recent improvements in Web Services Federation (WS-Federation) standard enabling federation of identity, attribute, authentication and authorization information can now provide real extended Single Sign On solutions. Various solutions have been investigated at CERN and now, a Web SSO solution using some parts of WS-Federation technology is available. Using the Shibboleth Service Provider module for Apache hosted web sites and Microsoft ADFS as the identity provider linked to Active Directory user, users can now authenticate on any web application using a single authentication platform, providing identity, user information (building, phone...) as well as group membership enabling authorization possibilities. A typical scenario: a CERN user can now authenticate on a Linux/Apache website using Windows Integrated credentials, and his Active Directory group membership can be checked before allowing access to a specific web page

  15. Ohm's law for a current sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, L. R.; Speiser, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The paper derives an Ohm's law for single-particle motion in a current sheet, where the magnetic field reverses in direction across the sheet. The result is considerably different from the resistive Ohm's law often used in MHD studies of the geomagnetic tail. Single-particle analysis is extended to obtain a self-consistency relation for a current sheet which agrees with previous results. The results are applicable to the concept of reconnection in that the electric field parallel to the current is obtained for a one-dimensional current sheet with constant normal magnetic field. Dissipated energy goes directly into accelerating particles within the current sheet.

  16. Experimental formability analysis of bondal sandwich sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Abdolvahed; Banabic, Dorel

    2018-05-01

    Metal/polymer/metal sandwich sheets have recently attracted the interests of industries like automotive industry. These sandwich sheets have superior properties over single-layer metallic sheets including good sound and vibration damping and light weight. However, the formability of these sandwich sheets should be enhanced which requires more research. In this paper, the formability of Bondal sheet (DC06/viscoelastic polymer/DC06 sandwich sheet) was studied through different types of experiments. The mechanical properties of Bondal were determined by uniaxial tensile tests. Hemispherical punch stretching and hydraulic bulge tests were carried out to determine the forming limit diagram (FLD) of Bondal. Furthermore, cylindrical and square cup drawing tests were performed in dry and oil lubricated conditions. These tests were conducted at different blank holding forces (BHFs). An interesting observation about Bondal sheet deep drawing was obtaining of higher drawing depths at dry condition in comparison with oil-lubricated condition.

  17. Buckling and stretching of thin viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kiely, Doireann; Breward, Chris; Griffiths, Ian; Howell, Peter; Lange, Ulrich

    2016-11-01

    Thin glass sheets are used in smartphone, battery and semiconductor technology, and may be manufactured by producing a relatively thick glass slab and subsequently redrawing it to a required thickness. The resulting sheets commonly possess undesired centerline ripples and thick edges. We present a mathematical model in which a viscous sheet undergoes redraw in the direction of gravity, and show that, in a sufficiently strong gravitational field, buckling is driven by compression in a region near the bottom of the sheet, and limited by viscous resistance to stretching of the sheet. We use asymptotic analysis in the thin-sheet, low-Reynolds-number limit to determine the centerline profile and growth rate of such a viscous sheet.

  18. Radiologic signs of detrusor instability in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo Teran, D.G.; Podesta, M.; Mendel, R.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To revalue radiologic signs of detrusor instability in children. Material and Methods: Retrospective analysis of videourodynamic studies performed in 85 children consulting for urinary incontinence and/or infection. Patients were free from neuropathic diseases, alterations of the urinary tract, previous surgery or anticholinergic treatment. Images of the bladder coinciding to the peaks of unstable detrusor contractions in patients with unstable bladders, and those at the end of filling in stable bladders were analyzed. Results: Bladder outlets were open in 38 patients and close in 47. Detrusor instability was found in 97 % of those with an open bladder outlet and in 36 % when close. Bladder outlets were open in all cases with contractions stronger than 60 cm.water. All 'spinning-top' urethras were associated to contractions stronger than 70 cm.water. Most false negatives (close bladder outlet in unstable bladders) corresponded to contractions lower than 30 cm.water. Different shapes of the bladder were found irrespective of detrusor instability. Conclusions: 1) An open bladder outlet observed during bladder filling is a reliable sign of significant detrusor instability in children without neuropathy; 2) It is highly specific of instability; 3) Most false negatives coincide with low amplitude contractions; 4) 'Spinning-top' images indicate strong contractions. (author)

  19. Useful signs for identification of the central sulcus in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco, E.; Domitrovic, L.; Ypa, P.; Gandarillas Baldelomar, B.; Fuentes, F.; Arcos, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To describe the frequency of appearance of the central sulcus localizing signs in magnetic resonance images (MRI). Material and method. The MRI of 60 adult patients (18-83 years) of both sexes (34 women / 26 men) with normal brains were studied. Axial T1 and T2 images were performed on a Phillips 1.5 tesla resonator. On the MRI we looked the following signs: union between the superior frontal sulcus and the precentral sulcus, sigmoidal hook, pars bracket, bifid post central sulcus, union between the intraparietal sulcus and the post central sulcus and, central sulcus reaching the midline. Mean frequencies were calculated. Results. The posterior part of the superior frontal sulcus joined the precentral sulcus in 95% of the cases. Sigmoidal hook sign was seen in 96.66% of the cases. Pars bracket sign was present in 95% of the observations. Bifid postcentral sulcus sign was seen in 65 % of cases. The postcentral gyrus was thinner than the precentral gyrus in 98.33% of the cases. Intraparietal sulcus joined with the postcentral gyrus in 88.33% of the cases. The central sulcus reached the midline in 86.66% of the observations. Conclusion. The signs described had a high frequency: they were found in 89.28% of the MRI studied. (authors)

  20. Aligned carbon nanotube-silicon sheets: a novel nano-architecture for flexible lithium ion battery electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kun; Yildiz, Ozkan; Bhanushali, Hardik; Wang, Yongxin; Stano, Kelly; Xue, Leigang; Zhang, Xiangwu; Bradford, Philip D

    2013-09-25

    Aligned carbon nanotube sheets provide an engineered scaffold for the deposition of a silicon active material for lithium ion battery anodes. The sheets are low-density, allowing uniform deposition of silicon thin films while the alignment allows unconstrained volumetric expansion of the silicon, facilitating stable cycling performance. The flat sheet morphology is desirable for battery construction. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Signs of the Times: Signage in the Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Carolyn

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the use of signs in libraries and lists 12 steps to create successful signage. Highlights include consistency, location, color, size, lettering, types of material, user needs, signage policy, planning, in-house fabrication versus vendors, and evaluation, A selected bibliography of 24 sources of information on library signage is included.…

  2. Process control for sheet-metal stamping process modeling, controller design and shop-floor implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yongseob; Ulsoy, A Galip

    2014-01-01

    Process Control for Sheet-Metal Stamping presents a comprehensive and structured approach to the design and implementation of controllers for the sheet metal stamping process. The use of process control for sheet-metal stamping greatly reduces defects in deep-drawn parts and can also yield large material savings from reduced scrap. Sheet-metal forming is a complex process and most often characterized by partial differential equations that are numerically solved using finite-element techniques. In this book, twenty years of academic research are reviewed and the resulting technology transitioned to the industrial environment. The sheet-metal stamping process is modeled in a manner suitable for multiple-input multiple-output control system design, with commercially available sensors and actuators. These models are then used to design adaptive controllers and real-time controller implementation is discussed. Finally, experimental results from actual shopfloor deployment are presented along with ideas for further...

  3. Basilar artery occlusion: Prognostic signs of severity on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre, E-mail: pierre-alexandre.poletti@hcuge.ch [Service of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Pereira, Vitor Mendes [Service of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of Toronto (Canada); Lovblad, Karl-Olof [Service of Neuroradiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Canel, Lucie [Service of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Sztajzel, Roman [Service of Neurology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Becker, Minerva [Service of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland); Perneger, Thomas [Division of Clinical Epidemiology, University Hospital of Geneva, 4 rue Gabrielle-Perret-Gentil, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); Platon, Alexandra [Service of Radiology, University Hospital of Geneva (Switzerland)

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • The main CT signs associated with basilar artery occlusion were analyzed. • CT sign of acute ischemic lesion is significantly associated with a bad outcome. • The site of the basilar artery occlusion is not associated to the patients’ outcome. - Abstract: Purpose: To determine the computed tomography (CT) signs that are predictive of the clinical outcome of basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Materials and methods: The study population consisted in 37 patients (14 women, 23 men, mean age: 63 years), admitted with onset of neurological deficit, starting 1–72 h prior to admission, who were diagnosed with BAO on the basis of a CT examination with intravenous contrast agent. The following signs were collected on CT scans performed on admission: clot density on noncontrast images, clot length, and clot location, as well as the presence of acute ischemic lesions. The results were compared against the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of patients at 3 months, favorable clinical outcome being defined as a mRS score ≤3. Results: The clinical outcome was favorable in 13 (35%) of the 37 patients and unfavorable in 24 (65%). Signs of acute ischemia were visible in 13 of the 24 patients with unfavorable outcome but in none of the 13 patients with favorable outcome (p < 0.001). None of the other CT signs analyzed were significantly correlated with clinical prognosis. Conclusion: Of all the CT signs analyzed, only the presence of signs of acute ischemia on the admission CT of patients with BAO was associated with poor prognosis.

  4. Sports Injury Prevention Tip Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this site from a secured browser on the server. Please enable scripts and reload this page. Early Career Pediatric Trainees Medical Students International HealthyChildren.org Become a Member Sign In Professional Resources Practice Transformation Economics of Healthcare Managing Your ...

  5. Evolution of new reflective materials for overhead highway signage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Unlighted highway signs using newly developed retroreflective materials were installed along the Gowanus Expressway. Photometric measurements of the signs were used to assess the visibility of the signs using the relative visual performance model. Th...

  6. Theoretical analysis of sound transmission loss through graphene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2014-01-01

    We examine the potential of using graphene sheets (GSs) as sound insulating materials that can be used for nano-devices because of their small size, super electronic, and mechanical properties. In this study, a theoretical analysis is proposed to predict the sound transmission loss through multi-layered GSs, which are formed by stacks of GS and bound together by van der Waals (vdW) forces between individual layers. The result shows that the resonant frequencies of the sound transmission loss occur in the multi-layered GSs and the values are very high. Based on the present analytical solution, we predict the acoustic insulation property for various layers of sheets under both normal incident wave and acoustic field of random incidence source. The scheme could be useful in vibration absorption application of nano devices and materials

  7. Theoretical analysis of sound transmission loss through graphene sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki, E-mail: natsuki@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan); Institute of Carbon Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Ni, Qing-Qing [Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, 3-15-1 Tokida, Ueda 386-8567 (Japan)

    2014-11-17

    We examine the potential of using graphene sheets (GSs) as sound insulating materials that can be used for nano-devices because of their small size, super electronic, and mechanical properties. In this study, a theoretical analysis is proposed to predict the sound transmission loss through multi-layered GSs, which are formed by stacks of GS and bound together by van der Waals (vdW) forces between individual layers. The result shows that the resonant frequencies of the sound transmission loss occur in the multi-layered GSs and the values are very high. Based on the present analytical solution, we predict the acoustic insulation property for various layers of sheets under both normal incident wave and acoustic field of random incidence source. The scheme could be useful in vibration absorption application of nano devices and materials.

  8. Biscrolling nanotube sheets and functional guests into yarns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Márcio D; Fang, Shaoli; Lepró, Xavier; Lewis, Chihye; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Carretero-González, Javier; Castillo-Martínez, Elizabeth; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Oh, Jiyoung; Rawat, Neema; Haines, Carter S; Haque, Mohammad H; Aare, Vaishnavi; Stoughton, Stephanie; Zakhidov, Anvar A; Baughman, Ray H

    2011-01-07

    Multifunctional applications of textiles have been limited by the inability to spin important materials into yarns. Generically applicable methods are demonstrated for producing weavable yarns comprising up to 95 weight percent of otherwise unspinnable particulate or nanofiber powders that remain highly functional. Scrolled 50-nanometer-thick carbon nanotube sheets confine these powders in the galleries of irregular scroll sacks whose observed complex structures are related to twist-dependent extension of Archimedean spirals, Fermat spirals, or spiral pairs into scrolls. The strength and electronic connectivity of a small weight fraction of scrolled carbon nanotube sheet enables yarn weaving, sewing, knotting, braiding, and charge collection. This technology is used to make yarns of superconductors, lithium-ion battery materials, graphene ribbons, catalytic nanofibers for fuel cells, and titanium dioxide for photocatalysis.

  9. Vital Signs-Trucker Safety

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-03-03

    This podcast is based on the March 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. In 2012 in the United States, about 317,000 motor vehicle crashes involved a large truck. Twenty-six thousand truck drivers and their passengers were injured in these crashes, and about 700 died. Learn what can be done to help truck drivers stay safe.  Created: 3/3/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/3/2015.

  10. Formation of sheeting joints in Yosemite National Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, S. J.

    2009-04-01

    The formation of sheeting joints (i.e., "exfoliation joints"), opening mode fractures subparallel to the Earth's surface, has been a classic unresolved problem in geology. Diverse new observations and analyses support the hypothesis that sheeting joints develop in response to a near-surface tension induced by compressive stresses parallel to a convex slope (hypothesis 1) rather than the conventional explanation that the joints form as a result of removal of overburden by erosion (hypothesis 2). The opening mode displacements across the joints together with the absence of mineral precipitates within the joints mean that sheeting joints open in response to a near-surface tension normal to the surface (N) rather than a pressurized fluid. An absolute tension must arise in the shallow subsurface if a plot of N as a function of depth normal to the surface (z) has a positive slope at the surface (z=0). The differential equations of static equilibrium require that this slope (derivative) equals k2 P22 + k3 P33 - ?g cosβ, where k2 and k3 are the principal curvatures of the surface, P22 and P33 are the respective surface-parallel normal stresses along the principal curvatures, ? is the material density, g is gravitational acceleration, and β is the slope. This derivative will be positive and sheeting joints can open if the surface-parallel stress in at least one direction is sufficiently compressive (negative) and the curvature in that direction is sufficiently convex (negative). Hypotheses 1 and 2 are being tested using geologic mapping and aerial LIDAR data from Yosemite National Park, California. The abundance of sheeting joints on convex ridges there, where erosion is a local minimum, coupled with their scarcity in the adjacent concave valleys, where erosion is a local maximum, is consistent with hypothesis 1 but inconsistent with hypothesis 2. At several sites with sheeting joints, measurements of the current topographic curvatures and the current surface

  11. Comparison of Swirl Sign and Black Hole Sign in Predicting Early Hematoma Growth in Patients with Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xin; Li, Qi; Yang, Wen-Song; Wei, Xiao; Hu, Xi; Wang, Xing-Chen; Zhu, Dan; Li, Rui; Cao, Du; Xie, Peng

    2018-01-29

    BACKGROUND Early hematoma growth is associated with poor outcome in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The swirl sign (SS) and the black hole sign (BHS) are imaging markers in ICH patients. The aim of this study was to compare the predictive value of these 2 signs for early hematoma growth. MATERIAL AND METHODS ICH patients were screened for the appearance of the 2 signs within 6 h after onset of symptoms. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth were assessed. The accuracy of the 2 signs in predicting early hematoma growth was analyzed by receiver-operator analysis. RESULTS A total of 200 patients were enrolled in this study. BHS was found in 30 (15%) patients, and SS was found in 70 (35%) patients. Of the 71 patients with early hematoma growth, BHS was found on initial computed tomography scans in 24 (33.8%) and SS in 33 (46.5%). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of BHS for predicting early hematoma growth were 33.8%, 95.3%, 80.0%, and 72.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of SS were 46.5%, 71.3%, 47.0%, and 71.0%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.646 for BHS and 0.589 for SS (P=0.08). Multivariate logistic regression showed that presence of BHS is an independent predictor of early hematoma growth. CONCLUSIONS The Black hole sign seems to be good predictor for hematoma growth. The presence of swirl sign on admission CT does not independently predict hematoma growth in patients with ICH.

  12. A Modified Porous Titanium Sheet Prepared by Plasma-Activated Sintering for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukimichi Tamaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a contamination-free porous titanium scaffold by a plasma-activated sintering within an originally developed TiN-coated graphite mold. The surface of porous titanium sheet with or without a coated graphite mold was characterized. The cell adhesion property of porous titanium sheet was also evaluated in this study. The peak of TiC was detected on the titanium sheet processed with the graphite mold without a TiN coating. Since the titanium fiber elements were directly in contact with the carbon graphite mold during processing, surface contamination was unavoidable event in this condition. The TiC peak was not detectable on the titanium sheet processed within the TiN-coated carbon graphite mold. This modified plasma-activated sintering with the TiN-coated graphite mold would be useful to fabricate a contamination-free titanium sheet. The number of adherent cells on the modified titanium sheet was greater than that of the bare titanium plate. Stress fiber formation and the extension of the cells were observed on the titanium sheets. This modified titanium sheet is expected to be a new tissue engineering material in orthopedic bone repair.

  13. knowledge about obstetric danger signs among preg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    about knowledge level of pregnant women on obstetric danger signs. The objective of this .... ple size formula for estimating a single population proportion with the ..... subjects mentioned vaginal bleeding as danger sign during pregnancy ...

  14. Chernobyl: before and after. Information sheet No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devine, J [comp.

    1986-01-01

    Complied in June 1986 the information sheet lists title, authors, and journal details and gives brief details of all relevant published articles. Part 1 concerns material relevant before the accident in April 1986 - the construction, design and safety of the Chernobyl RBMK nuclear power station (20 references). Part 2 lists articles published after the accident concerning the impact of the disaster on safety in the nuclear power industry (23 references).

  15. Porous fluoropolymeric fibrous sheet and method of manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G.E.; Cockshott, I.D.; McAloon, K.T.

    1978-11-28

    A method of preparing a porous sheet product comprises the step of introducing a spinning liquid comprising an organic fiber forming polymeric material into an electric field whereby fibers are drawn from the liquid to an electrode and collecting the fibers so produced upon the electrode. PTFE and other fluorinated polymer mats produced by the electrostatic process are useful as electrolytic cell diaphragms, battery separators, etc. 4 figures, 3 tables

  16. Strontium-90 fluoride data sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-06-01

    This report is a compilation of available data and appropriate literature references on the properties of strontium-90 fluoride and nonradioactive strontium fluoride. The objective of the document is to compile in a single source pertinent data to assist potential users in the development, licensing, and use of /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/-fueled radioisotope heat sources for terrestrial power conversion and thermal applications. The report is an update of the Strontium-90 Fluoride Data Sheet (BNWL-2284) originally issued in April 1977.

  17. Vietnamese Hurricane Response Fact Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Các tờ dữ kiện được cung cấp nơi đây mô tả vai trò của EPA trong việc đáp ứng với bão và cách các chương trình cụ thể cung cấp sự hỗ trợ. The Vietnamese fact sheets provided here describe EPA's role in a hurricane response.

  18. Method of preventing contaminations in radioactive material handling facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Shunji.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the contamination on the floor surface of working places by laying polyvinyl butyral sheets over the floor surface, replacing when the sheets are contaminated, followed by burning. Method: Polyvinyl butyral sheets comprising 50 - 70 mol% of butyral component are laid in a radioactive material handling facility, radioactive materials are handled on the polyvinyl butyral sheets and the sheets are replaced when contaminated. The polyvinyl butyral sheets used contain 62 - 68 mol% of butyral component and has 0.03 - 0.2 mm thickness. The contaminated sheets are subjected to burning processing. This can surely collect radioactive materials and the sheets have favorable burnability, releasing no corrosive or deleterious gases. In addition, they are inexpensive and give no hindrance to the workers walking. (Takahashi, M.)

  19. Signed Young Modules and Simple Specht Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Danz, Susanne; Lim, Kay Jin

    2015-01-01

    By a result of Hemmer, every simple Specht module of a finite symmetric group over a field of odd characteristic is a signed Young module. While Specht modules are parametrized by partitions, indecomposable signed Young modules are parametrized by certain pairs of partitions. The main result of this article establishes the signed Young module labels of simple Specht modules. Along the way we prove a number of results concerning indecomposable signed Young modules that are of independent inter...

  20. Irreducible Specht modules are signed Young modules

    OpenAIRE

    Hemmer, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Recently Donkin defined signed Young modules as a simultaneous generalization of Young and twisted Young modules for the symmetric group. We show that in odd characteristic, if a Specht module $S^\\lambda$ is irreducible, then $S^\\lambda$ is a signed Young module. Thus the set of irreducible Specht modules coincides with the set of irreducible signed Young modules. This provides evidence for our conjecture that the signed Young modules are precisely the class of indecomposable self-dual module...

  1. Development of a low energy micro sheet forming machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razali, A. R.; Ann, C. T.; Shariff, H. M.; Kasim, N. I.; Musa, M. A.; Ahmad, A. F.

    2017-10-01

    It is expected that with the miniaturization of materials being processed, energy consumption is also being `miniaturized' proportionally. The focus of this study was to design a low energy micro-sheet-forming machine for thin sheet metal application and fabricate a low direct current powered micro-sheet-forming machine. A prototype of low energy system for a micro-sheet-forming machine which includes mechanical and electronic elements was developed. The machine was tested for its performance in terms of natural frequency, punching forces, punching speed and capability, energy consumption (single punch and frequency-time based). Based on the experiments, the machine can do 600 stroke per minute and the process is unaffected by the machine's natural frequency. It was also found that sub-Joule of power was required for a single stroke of punching/blanking process. Up to 100micron thick carbon steel shim was successfully tested and punched. It concludes that low power forming machine is feasible to be developed and be used to replace high powered machineries to form micro-products/parts.

  2. Benchmark Testing of the Largest Titanium Aluminide Sheet Subelement Conducted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Krause, David L.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate wrought titanium aluminide (gamma TiAl) as a viable candidate material for the High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) exhaust nozzle, an international team led by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field successfully fabricated and tested the largest gamma TiAl sheet structure ever manufactured. The gamma TiAl sheet structure, a 56-percent subscale divergent flap subelement, was fabricated for benchmark testing in three-point bending. Overall, the subelement was 84-cm (33-in.) long by 13-cm (5-in.) wide by 8-cm (3-in.) deep. Incorporated into the subelement were features that might be used in the fabrication of a full-scale divergent flap. These features include the use of: (1) gamma TiAl shear clips to join together sections of corrugations, (2) multiple gamma TiAl face sheets, (3) double hot-formed gamma TiAl corrugations, and (4) brazed joints. The structural integrity of the gamma TiAl sheet subelement was evaluated by conducting a room-temperature three-point static bend test.

  3. Thin lead sheets in the decorative features in Pavia Charterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Chiara; Realini, Marco; Sansonetti, Antonio; Rampazzi, Laura; Casadio, Francesca

    2006-01-01

    The facade of the church of the Pavia Charterhouse, built at the end of the 15th century, shows outstanding decorative features made of different stone materials, such as marbles, breccias and sandstones. Magnificent ornamental elements are made of thin lead sheets, and some marble slabs are inlaid with them. Metal elements are shaped in complex geometric and phytomorphic design, to form a Greek fret in black contrasting with the white Carrara marble. Lead pins were fixed to the back of the thin lead sheets with the aim of attaching the metal elements to the marble; in so doing the pins and the lead sheets constitute a single piece of metal. In some areas, lead elements have been lost, and they have been substituted with a black plaster, matching the colour of the metal. To the authors' knowledge, this kind of decorative technique is rare, and confirms the refinement of Renaissance Lombard architecture. This work reports on the results of an extensive survey of the white, orange and yellowish layers, which are present on the external surface of the lead. The thin lead sheets have been characterized and their state of conservation has been studied with the aid of Optical Microscopy, SEM-EDS, FTIR and Raman analyses. Lead sulphate, lead carbonates and oxides have been identified as decay products.

  4. The Forming of AISI 409 sheets for fan blade manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foroni, F. D.; Menezes, M. A.; Moreira Filho, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    The necessity of adapting the standardized fan models to conditions of higher temperature has emerged due to the growth of concern referring to the consequences of the gas expelling after the Mont Blanc tunnel accident in Italy and France, where even though, with 100 fans in operation, 41 people died. The objective of this work is to present an alternative to the market standard fans considering a new technology in constructing blades. This new technology introduces the use of the stainless steel AISI 409 due to its good to temperatures of gas exhaust from tunnels in fire situation. The innovation is centered in the process of a deep drawing of metallic sheets in order to keep the ideal aerodynamic superficies for the fan ideal performance. Through the impression of circles on the sheet plane it is shown, experimentally, that, during the pressing process, the more deformed regions on the sheet plane of the blade can not reach the deformation limits of the utilized sheet material

  5. Formability of aluminium sheets manufactured by solid state recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kore, A. S.; Nayak, K. C.; Date, P. P.

    2017-09-01

    Conventional recycling practices for non-ferrous metallic scrap involves melting followed by purification. This practice is suitable for recycling when the large volume of scrap is available. Though such recycling reduces consumption of diminishing metallic resources, high energy requirement and material loss during melting and purification limit its applicability. In the present work, manufacturing of solid state recycled aluminium sheet by hot rolling is explored and its formability characterized. Aluminium chips were divided into smaller particles (1~2mm) by crushing. After stress relief annealing, chips were cold compacted into square slabs (75*75mm section) of different thicknesses. Another similar set of slabs was made by hot compaction. The compacted slabs were hot rolled over a number of passes at 400°C. Each slab was reduced to approximately 90% thickness to get the sheet thickness in the range of 0.6 to 1.5 mm. Microstructure revealed good interface bonding between the chip particles. Mechanical properties of the sheet from room temperature up to 200°C and at different strain rates were characterized by a number of tensile tests. Circular blanks from sheet were drawn into cylindrical cups and strain distribution was observed along different directions of rolling using circle grid analysis.

  6. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  7. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  8. Phonological Similarity in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Ursula; Corina, David

    2002-01-01

    Investigates deaf and hearing subjects' ratings of American Sign Language (ASL) signs to assess whether linguistic experience shapes judgments of sign similarity. Findings are consistent with linguistic theories that posit movement and location as core structural elements of syllable structure in ASL. (Author/VWL)

  9. Generating potentially nilpotent full sign patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, I.J.; Olesky, D.D.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.; Vander Meulen, K.N.

    2009-01-01

    A sign pattern is a matrix with entries in {+,-, 0}. A full sign pattern has no zero entries. The refined inertia of a matrix pattern is defined and techniques are developed for constructing potentially nilpotent full sign patterns. Such patterns are spectrally arbitrary. These techniques can also

  10. Feature Size Effect on Formability of Multilayer Metal Composite Sheets under Microscale Laser Flexible Forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer metal composite sheets possess superior properties to monolithic metal sheets, and formability is different from monolithic metal sheets. In this research, the feature size effect on formability of multilayer metal composite sheets under microscale laser flexible forming was studied by experiment. Two-layer copper/nickel composite sheets were selected as experimental materials. Five types of micro molds with different diameters were utilized. The formability of materials was evaluated by forming depth, thickness thinning, surface quality, and micro-hardness distribution. The research results showed that the formability of two-layer copper/nickel composite sheets was strongly influenced by feature size. With feature size increasing, the effect of layer stacking sequence on forming depth, thickness thinning ratio, and surface roughness became increasingly larger. However, the normalized forming depth, thickness thinning ratio, surface roughness, and micro-hardness of the formed components under the same layer stacking sequence first increased and then decreased with increasing feature size. The deformation behavior of copper/nickel composite sheets was determined by the external layer. The deformation extent was larger when the copper layer was set as the external layer.

  11. AI applications in sheet metal forming

    CERN Document Server

    Hussein, Hussein

    2017-01-01

    This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industri...

  12. Dynamics of Radially Expanding Liquid Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Nayanika; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2018-04-01

    The process of atomization often involves ejecting thin liquid sheets at high speeds from a nozzle that causes the sheet to flap violently and break up into fine droplets. The flapping of the liquid sheet has long been attributed to the sheet's interaction with the surrounding gas phase. Here, we present experimental evidence to the contrary and show that the flapping is caused by the thinning of the liquid sheet as it spreads out from the nozzle exit. The measured growth rates of the waves agree remarkably well with the predictions of a recent theory that accounts for the sheet's thinning but ignores aerodynamic interactions. We anticipate these results to not only lead to more accurate predictions of the final drop-size distribution but also enable more efficient designs of atomizers.

  13. 75 FR 70289 - Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...)] Certain Coated Paper Suitable For High-Quality Print Graphics Using Sheet-Fed Presses From China and... paper suitable for high-quality print graphics using sheet-fed presses (``certain coated paper'') from... paper industry is materially injured by reason of imports of the subject merchandise from China and...

  14. Shape Optimization of Swimming Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkening, J.; Hosoi, A.E.

    2005-03-01

    The swimming behavior of a flexible sheet which moves by propagating deformation waves along its body was first studied by G. I. Taylor in 1951. In addition to being of theoretical interest, this problem serves as a useful model of the locomotion of gastropods and various micro-organisms. Although the mechanics of swimming via wave propagation has been studied extensively, relatively little work has been done to define or describe optimal swimming by this mechanism.We carry out this objective for a sheet that is separated from a rigid substrate by a thin film of viscous Newtonian fluid. Using a lubrication approximation to model the dynamics, we derive the relevant Euler-Lagrange equations to optimize swimming speed and efficiency. The optimization equations are solved numerically using two different schemes: a limited memory BFGS method that uses cubic splines to represent the wave profile, and a multi-shooting Runge-Kutta approach that uses the Levenberg-Marquardt method to vary the parameters of the equations until the constraints are satisfied. The former approach is less efficient but generalizes nicely to the non-lubrication setting. For each optimization problem we obtain a one parameter family of solutions that becomes singular in a self-similar fashion as the parameter approaches a critical value. We explore the validity of the lubrication approximation near this singular limit by monitoring higher order corrections to the zeroth order theory and by comparing the results with finite element solutions of the full Stokes equations.

  15. Magnetic properties of sheet silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballet, O.; Coey, J.M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Susceptibility, magnetisation and Moessbauer measurements are reported for a representative selection of 2:1 layer phyllosilicates. Eight samples from the mica, vermiculite and smectite groups include examples diluted in iron which are paramagnetic at all temperatures, as well as iron-rich silicates which order magnetically below 10 K. Anisotropic susceptibility of crystals of muscovite, biotite and vermiculite is quantitatively explained with a model where the Fe 2+ ions lie in sites of effective trigonal symmetry, the trigonal axis lying normal to the sheets. The ferrous ground state is an orbital singlet. Ferric iron gives an isotropic contribution to the susceptibility. Fe 2+ -Fe 2+ exchange interactions are ferromagnetic with Gapprox. equal to2 K, whereas Fe 3+ -Fe 3+ coupling is antiferromagnetic in the purely ferric minerals. A positive paramagnetic Curie temperature for glauconite may be attributable to Fe 2+ → Fe 3+ charge transfer. Magnetic order was found to set in inhomogeneously for glauconite at 1-7 K. One biotite sample showed an antiferromagnetic transition at Tsub(N) = 7 K marked by a well-defined susceptibility maximum. Its magnetic structure, consisting of ferromagnetic sheets with moments in their planes coupled antiferromagnetically by other, weak interactions, resembles that found earlier for the 1:1 mineral greenalite. (orig.)

  16. The Effect of Grinding and Polishing Procedure of Tool Steels in Sheet Metal Forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, F.; Bergström, J.; Krakhmalev, P.

    2010-01-01

    The surface finish of tools in sheet metal forming has a large influence on the performance of the forming tool. Galling, concern of wear in sheet metal forming, is a severe form of adhesive wear where sheet material is transferred on to the tool surface. By polishing the tools to a fine surface ...... 40 and Vanadis 6 and up to ten different grinding and polishing treatments were tested against AISI 316 stainless steel. The tests showed that an optimum surface preparation might be found at the transition between abrasive and adhesive wear....

  17. Study on antioxidant experiment on forged steel tube sheet and tube hole for steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zong Hai; Wang Detai; Ding Yang

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant experiment on forged steel tube sheet and tube hole for steam generator was studied and the influence of different simulated heat treatments on the antioxidant performance of tube sheet and tube hole was made. The influence of different antioxidant methods on the size of tube hole was drawn. Furthermore, the change of size and weight of 18MnD5 forged steel tube sheet on the condition of different simulated heat treatments was also studied. The analytical results have proved reference information for the use of 18MnD5 material and for key processes of processing tube hole and wearing and expanding U-style tube. (authors)

  18. Determination of the forming limit diagram of zinc electro-galvanized steel sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Fracz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Forming limit curves (FLC of deep drawing steel sheets have been determined experimentally and calculated on the base of the material tensile properties following the Hill, Swift, Marciniak-Kuczyński and Sing-Rao methods. Only the FLC modeled from a singly linear forming limit stress curve exhibits good consistence with experimental curve. It was established that a linearized limit stress locus describes adequately the actual localized neck conditions for the material chosen in this study. The quantitative X-ray microanalysis of the Fe contents in the sheet surface layer composition was used to determine cracking limit curve (CLC of electro-galvanized steel sheet. The change in zinc layer (and base sheet metal thickness was used as a criteria in calculation of the CLC.

  19. Predicting Pulsar Scintillation from Refractive Plasma Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, Dana; Pen, Ue-Li

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic and secondary spectra of many pulsars show evidence for long-lived, aligned images of the pulsar that are stationary on a thin scattering sheet. One explanation for this phenomenon considers the effects of wave crests along sheets in the ionized interstellar medium, such as those due to Alfvén waves propagating along current sheets. If these sheets are closely aligned to our line-of-sight to the pulsar, high bending angles arise at the wave crests and a selection effect causes alignment of images produced at different crests, similar to grazing reflection off of a lake. Using geometric optics, we develop a simple parameterized model of these corrugated sheets that can be constrained with a single observation and that makes observable predictions for variations in the scintillation of the pulsar over time and frequency. This model reveals qualitative differences between lensing from overdense and underdense corrugated sheets: Only if the sheet is overdense compared to the surrounding interstellar medium can the lensed images be brighter than the line-of-sight image to the pulsar, and the faint lensed images are closer to the pulsar at higher frequencies if the sheet is underdense, but at lower frequencies if the sheet is overdense.

  20. Preliminary Investigation of Impact on Multiple-Sheet Structures and an Evaluation of the Meteoroid Hazard to Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nysmith, C. Robert; Summers, James L.

    1961-01-01

    Small pyrex glass spheres, representative of stoney meteoroids, were fired into 2024-T3 aluminum alclad multiple-sheet structures at velocities to 11,000 feet per second to evaluate the effectiveness of multisheet hull construction as a means of increasing the resistance of a spacecraft to meteoroid penetrations. The results of these tests indicate that increasing the number of sheets in a structure while keeping the total sheet thickness constant and increasing the spacing between sheets both tend to increase the penetration resistance of a structure of constant weight per unit area. In addition, filling the space between the sheets with a light filler material was found to substantially increase structure penetration resistance with a small increase in weight. An evaluation of the meteoroid hazard to space vehicles is presented in the form of an illustrative-example for two specific lunar mission vehicles, a single-sheet, monocoque hull vehicle and a glass-wool filled, double-sheet hull vehicle. The evaluation is presented in terms of the "best" and the "worst" conditions that might be expected as determined from astronomical and satellite measurements, high-speed impact data, and hypothesized meteoroid structures and compositions. It was observed that the vehicle flight time without penetration can be increased significantly by use of multiple-sheet rather than single-sheet hull construction with no increase in hull weight. Nevertheless, it is evident that a meteoroid hazard exists, even for the vehicle with the selected multiple-sheet hull.

  1. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y. [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets.

  2. Design of Helical Self-Piercing Rivet for Joining Aluminum Alloy and High-Strength Steel Sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, W. Y.; Kim, D. B.; Park, J. G; Kim, D. H.; Kim, K. H.; Lee, I. H.; Cho, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    A self-piercing rivet (SPR) is a mechanical component for joining dissimilar material sheets such as those of aluminum alloy and steel. Unlike conventional rivets, the SPR directly pierces sheets without the need for drilling them beforehand. However, the regular SPR can undergo buckling when it pierces a high-strength steel sheet, warranting the design of a helical SPR. In this study, the joining and forging processes using the helical SPR were simulated using the commercial FEM code, DEFORM-3D. High-tensile-strength steel sheets of different strengths were joined with aluminum alloy sheets using the designed helical SPR. The simulation results were found to agree with the experimental results, validating the optimal design of a helical SPR that can pierce high-strength steel sheets

  3. The Way of the Sign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    The Way of the Sign is a book about extraction, about reducing methods of inquiry to the bare bones. It guides students through 10 schools of theory and criticism. The focus is on ‘asking’ each theory to give its best in the simplest way, by making us see what is at stake and how we might respond...... to it. In simple Socratic dialogues, Elias invents scenarios: ‘What is happening?’ Deconstruction asks. And we answer with it: ‘We are buying a mythology.’ ‘How does it make us feel?’ ‘Dumb.’ ‘What is happening?’ Marxism asks. And we answer with it: ‘The rich cheat us.’ ‘How does it make us feel...

  4. Electronic traffic signs: Reflecting upon its transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbaiza Martin, A.E.; Alba, A.L.; Hernando Mazon, A.; Blanch Mico, M.T.

    2016-07-01

    In our days we face a fundamental issue concerning road signs. We may display contents in vertical and horizontal format (static signs, variable message signs, road markings), either on a post, a gantry or a dashboard. And we foresee a coming age where the excellent matrix resolution of painted signs will be truly approached by the resolution of full matrix displays. But we also risk a babel context threatening the universal approach encouraged by international catalogues as the 1968 Convention (ECE/TRANS/196, 2007). And the fundamental risk comes from our decisions regarding how the transition from the contents and formats displayed on static message signs to the ones displayed on electronic signs (in gantries or dashboards) should be. Our work explores this issue specifically, considering the transition from Advance Direction Signs (static message signs, class G, 1 in the 1968 Convention) to what could be termed Advance Location Signs (signs concerning the location of variable events with regards to certain landmarks) developed as an adaptation of the G, 1 class to electronic traffic signs.(Author)

  5. Compression deformation behaviors of sheet metals at various clearances and side forces

    OpenAIRE

    Zhan Mei; Wang Xianxian; Cao Jian; Yang He

    2015-01-01

    Modeling sheet metal forming operations requires understanding of plastic behaviors of sheet metals along non-proportional strain paths. The plastic behavior under reversed uniaxial loading is of particular interest because of its simplicity of interpretation and its application to material elements drawn over a die radius and underwent repeated bending. However, the attainable strain is limited by failures, such as buckling and in-plane deformation, dependent on clearances and side forces. I...

  6. Mechanical characterization and constitutive modeling of Mg alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekonen, M. Nebebe; Steglich, D.; Bohlen, J.; Letzig, D.; Mosler, J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Material characterization of the Mg alloys AZ31 and ZE10 at elevated temperatures. ► Distortion of the yield locus does not depend on the strain rate. ► Novel constitutive model suitable for the analysis of sheet forming of magnesium. ► Strain-dependent r-values are included within the model. ► The model is thermodynamically consistent and accounts for distortional hardening. - Abstract: In this paper, an experimental mechanical characterization of the magnesium alloys ZE10 and AZ31 is performed and a suitable constitutive model is established. The mechanical characterization is based on uniaxial tensile tests. In order to avoid poor formability at room temperature, the tests were conducted at elevated temperature (200 °C). The uniaxial tensile tests reveal sufficient ductility allowing sheet forming processes at this temperature. The differences in yield stresses and plastic strain ratios (r-values) confirm the anisotropic response of the materials under study. The constitutive model is established so that the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloys such as anisotropy and compression-tension asymmetry can be accommodated. This model is thermodynamically consistent, incorporates rate effect, is formulated based on finite strain plasticity theory and is applicable in sheet forming simulations of magnesium alloys. More precisely, a model originally proposed by Cazacu and Barlat in 2004 and later modified to account for the evolution of the material anisotropy is rewritten in a thermodynamically consistent framework. The calibrated constitutive model is shown to capture the characteristic mechanical features observed in magnesium alloy sheets.

  7. New developments in tribomechanical modeling of automotive sheet steel forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandeparkar, Tushar; Chezan, Toni; van Beeck, Jeroen

    2018-05-01

    Forming of automotive sheet metal body panels is a complex process influenced by both the material properties and contact conditions in the forming tooling. Material properties are described by the material constitutive behavior and the material flow into the forming die can be described by the tribological system. This paper investigates the prediction accuracy of the forming process using the Tata Steel state of the art description of the material constitutive behavior in combination with different friction models. A cross-die experiment is used to investigate the accuracy of local deformation modes typically seen in automotive sheet metal forming operations. Results of advanced friction models as well as the classical Coulomb friction description are compared to the experimentally measured strain distribution and material draw-in. Two hot-dip galvanized coated steel forming grades were used for the investigations. The results show that the accuracy of the simulation is not guaranteed by the advanced friction models for the entire investigated blank holder force range, both globally and locally. A measurable difference between the calculated and measured local strains is seen for both studied models even in the case where the global indicator, i.e. the draw-in, is well predicted.

  8. Images in pediatrics: the thymic sail sign and thymic wave sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Nuno D; Sousa, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The authors present a radiographic image portraying the "thymic sail sign" and the "thymic wave sign," both normal findings in infant radiographs and present a short description of these signs. These are distinguished from pathologic findings such as the "spinnaker-sail sign" in pneumomediastinum.

  9. Forming limit and fracture mechanism of ferritic stainless steel sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Le; Barlat, Frederic; Ahn, Deok Chan; Bressan, Jose Divo

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Forming limit curves of two ferritic stainless steel sheets were well predicted. → Failure occurs by necking in uniaxial and plane strain tension for both materials. → Failure occurs by shearing in balanced biaxial tension for both materials. → Strain rate sensitivity does not affect the limit strains a lot for both materials. → Strain rate sensitivity likely influences the failure mode for both materials. - Abstract: In this work, the forming limit curves (FLCs) of two ferritic stainless steel sheets, AISI409L and AISI430, were predicted with the Marciniak-Kuczynski (MK) and Bressan-William-Hill (BWH) models, combined with the Yld2000-2d yield function and the Swift hardening law. Uniaxial tension, disk compression and hydraulic bulge tests were performed to determine the yield loci and hardening curves of both materials. Meanwhile, the strain rate sensitivity (SRS) coefficient was measured through uniaxial tension tests carried out at different strain rates. Out-of-plane stretching tests were conducted in sheet specimens to obtain the surface limit strains under different linear strain paths. Micrographs of the specimens fractured in different stress states were obtained by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The overall results show that the BWH model can predict the FLC better than the MK model, and that the SRS does not have much effect on the limit strains for both materials. The predicted FLCs and micrograph analysis both indicate that failure occurs by surface localized necking in uniaxial and plane strain tension states, whereas it occurs by localized shearing in the through thickness direction in balanced biaxial tension state.

  10. Communication failures in patient sign-out and suggestions for improvement: a critical incident analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, V; Johnson, J; Lovinger, D; Humphrey, H J; Meltzer, D O

    2005-12-01

    The transfer of care for hospitalized patients between inpatient physicians is routinely mediated through written and verbal communication or "sign-out". This study aims to describe how communication failures during this process can lead to patient harm. In interviews employing critical incident technique, first year resident physicians (interns) described (1) any adverse events or near misses due to suboptimal preceding patient sign-out; (2) the worst event due to suboptimal sign-out in which they were involved; and (3) suggestions to improve sign-out. All data were analyzed and categorized using the constant comparative method with independent review by three researchers. Twenty six interns caring for 82 patients were interviewed after receiving sign-out from another intern. Twenty five discrete incidents, all the result of communication failures during the preceding patient sign-out, and 21 worst events were described. Inter-rater agreement for categorization was high (kappa 0.78-1.00). Omitted content (such as medications, active problems, pending tests) or failure-prone communication processes (such as lack of face-to-face discussion) emerged as major categories of failed communication. In nearly all cases these failures led to uncertainty during decisions on patient care. Uncertainty may result in inefficient or suboptimal care such as repeat or unnecessary tests. Interns desired thorough but relevant face-to-face verbal sign-outs that reviewed anticipated issues. They preferred legible, accurate, updated, written sign-out sheets that included standard patient content such as code status or active and anticipated medical problems. Communication failures during sign-out often lead to uncertainty in decisions on patient care. These may result in inefficient or suboptimal care leading to patient harm.

  11. Sign Language and Language Acquisition in Man and Ape. New Dimensions in Comparative Pedolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fred C. C., Ed.

    A collection of research materials on sign language and primatology is presented here. The essays attempt to show that: sign language is a legitimate language that can be learned not only by humans but by nonhuman primates as well, and nonhuman primates have the capability to acquire a human language using a different mode. The following…

  12. Your Official U.S. Constitution Sign-On Information and Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Conference of Christians and Jews, New York, NY.

    These learning materials are centered around the idea that each individual should "sign" the U.S. Constitution. A facsimile of the U.S. Constitution is included in each learning packet for students to sign. Section 1 contains five teaching modules on the constitutional process that can be used with any subject. The first two modules,…

  13. Heated Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing of Magnesium Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Gerrit

    In order to reduce fuel consumption efforts have been made to decrease the weight of automobile constructions by increasing the use of lightweight materials. In this field of application magnesium alloys are important because of their low density. A promising alternative to large surfaced and thin die casting parts has been found in construction parts that are manufactured by sheet metal forming of magnesium. Magnesium alloys show a limited formability at room temperature. A considerable improvement of formability can be achieved by heating the material. Formability increases above a temperature of approximately T = 225 °C.

  14. IMPACT OF STRAIN RATE ON MICROALLOYED STEEL SHEET BREAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mihaliková

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Strain rate is a significant external factor and its influence on material behavior in forming process is a function of its internal structure. The contribution is analysis of the impact of loading rate from 1.6 x 10-4 ms-1 to 24 ms-1 to changes in the fracture of steel sheet used for bodywork components in cars. Experiments were performed on samples taken from HC420LA grade strips produced by cold rolling and hot dip galvanizing. Material strength properties were compared based on measured values, and changes to fracture surface character were observed.

  15. Buckling of Aluminium Sheet Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegadekatte, Vishwanath; Shi, Yihai; Nardini, Dubravko

    Wrinkling is one of the major defects in sheet metal forming processes. It may become a serious obstacle to implementing the forming process and assembling the parts, and may also play a significant role in the wear of the tool. Wrinkling is essentially a local buckling phenomenon that results from compressive stresses (compressive instability) e.g., in the hoop direction for axi-symmetric systems such as beverage cans. Modern beverage can is a highly engineered product with a complex geometry. Therefore in order to understand wrinkling in such a complex system, we have started by studying wrinkling with the Yoshida buckling test. Further, we have studied the buckling of ideal and dented beverage cans under axial loading by laboratory testing. We have modelled the laboratory tests and also the imperfection sensitivity of the two systems using finite element method and the predictions are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  16. 46 CFR 232.4 - Balance sheet accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Balance sheet accounts. 232.4 Section 232.4 Shipping... ACTIVITIES UNIFORM FINANCIAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Balance Sheet § 232.4 Balance sheet accounts. (a.... (b) Purpose of balance sheet accounts. The balance sheet accounts are intended to disclose the...

  17. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not use the device. Include warning statements in marketing materials about the risk of using the device. ... MB] en Español [PDF – 1.16 MB] CDC Digital Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Language: ...

  18. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide…

  19. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon

    1997-01-01

    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  20. Antibubbles and fine cylindrical sheets of air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beilharz, D.; Guyon, A.; Li, E.Q.; Thoraval, Marie-Jean; Thoroddsen, S.T.

    2015-01-01

    Drops impacting at low velocities onto a pool surface can stretch out thin hemispherical sheets of air between the drop and the pool. These air sheets can remain intact until they reach submicron thicknesses, at which point they rupture to form a myriad of microbubbles. By impacting a

  1. Molding cork sheets to complex shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, M. H.; Simpson, W. G.; Walker, H. M.

    1977-01-01

    Partially cured cork sheet is easily formed to complex shapes and then final-cured. Temperature and pressure levels required for process depend upon resin system used and final density and strength desired. Sheet can be bonded to surface during final cure, or can be first-formed in mold and bonded to surface in separate step.

  2. Prediction of formability of aluminum alloy 5454 sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chan Il; Yang, Seung Han; Kim, Young Suk

    2012-01-01

    In the automobile industry, reducing the weight is the most important objective for reducing air pollution and improving the fuel efficiency. For this reason, the application of aluminum sheets is increasing. When the sheets are applied to the automobile, using inappropriate variables for the material, product design, and press processing can generate tearing, wrinkling, and spring back problems, which are the main types of failure in the manufacturing process. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce these failures by harmonizing the many variables and strictly managing the processes. In this research, we study the theoretical plasticity instability of Al5454 and obtain the forming limit diagram (FLD) using MATLAB. Moreover, we compare the theoretical FLD with an experimental FLD obtained from a stretching test

  3. Cold Forming of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fann, Kaung-Jau; Su, Jhe-Yung

    2018-03-01

    Ni-Ti shape memory alloy has two specific properties, superelasiticity and shape memory effect, and thus is widely applied in diverse industries. To extend its further application, this study attempts to investigate the feasibility of cold forming its sheet blank especially under a bi-axial tensile stress state. Not only experiments but also a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) with DEFORM 2D was conducted in this study. The material data for FEA was accomplished by the tensile test. An Erichsen-like cupping test was performed as well to determine the process parameter for experiment setup. As a result of the study, the Ni-Ti shape memory alloy sheet has a low formability for cold forming and shows a relative large springback after releasing the forming load.

  4. A System of Test Methods for Sheet Metal Forming Tribology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Olsson, David Dam; Andreasen, Jan Lasson

    2007-01-01

    Sheet metal forming of tribologically difficult materials such as stainless steel, Al-alloys and Ti-alloys or forming in tribologically difficult operations like ironing, punching or deep drawing of thick plate requires often use of environmentally hazardous lubricants such as chlorinated paraffin...... oils in order to avoid galling. The present paper describes a systematic research in the development of new, environmentally harmless lubricants focusing on the lubricant testing aspects. A system of laboratory tests has been developed to study the lubricant performance under the very varied conditions...... appearing in different sheet forming operations such as stamping, deep drawing, ironing and punching. The laboratory tests have been especially designed to model the conditions in industrial production....

  5. CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Toolkit American College of Nurse-Midwives – Alcohol and Pregnancy The Arc’s FASD Prevention Project NIH’s National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) NIH/NIAAA Fact Sheet: Fetal Alcohol Exposure ...

  6. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  7. Pressure balance between lobe and plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumjohann, W.; Paschmann, G.; Luehr, H.

    1990-01-01

    Using eight months of AMPTE/IRM plasma and magnetic field data, the authors have done a statistical survey on the balance of total (thermal and magnetic) pressure in the Earth's plasma sheet and tail lobe. About 300,000 measurements obtained in the plasma sheet and the lobe were compared for different levels of magnetic activity as well as different distances from the Earth. The data show that lobe and plasma sheet pressure balance very well. Even in the worst case they do not deviate by more than half of the variance in the data itself. Approximately constant total pressure was also seen during a quiet time pass when IRM traversed nearly the whole magnetotail in the vertical direction, from the southern hemisphere lobe through the neutral sheet and into the northern plasma sheet boundary layer

  8. Testing and modelling of industrial tribo-systems for sheet metal forming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Kasper Leth; Nielsen, Peter Søe; Bay, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Galling is a well-known problem in sheet metal forming of tribological difficult materials such as stainless steel. In this work new, environmentally friendly lubricants and wear resistant tool materials are tested in a laboratory environment using a strip reduction test as well as in a real...

  9. Misleading signs in acute vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Sean; Mossman, Stuart Scott

    2018-04-01

    The acute vestibular syndrome is common and usually has a benign cause. Sometimes, however, even experienced neurologists can find it difficult to determine the cause clinically. Furthermore, neuroimaging is known to be insensitive.We describe two cases of acute vestibular syndrome where conflicting clinical findings contributed to a delay in making the correct diagnosis. The first patient with symptomatic vertigo had signs consistent with horizontal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo but also had an abnormal horizontal head impulse test, superficially suggesting acute vestibular neuritis but later accounted for by the finding of a vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma). The second patient also had an abnormal horizontal head impulse test, with skew deviation suggesting stroke as the cause. However, later assessment identified that a long-standing fourth nerve palsy was the true cause for her apparent skew. We discuss potential errors that can arise when assessing such patients and highlight ways to avoid them. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. A tour in sign language

    CERN Document Server

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    In early May, CERN welcomed a group of deaf children for a tour of Microcosm and a Fun with Physics demonstration.   On 4 May, around ten children from the Centre pour enfants sourds de Montbrillant (Montbrillant Centre for Deaf Children), a public school funded by the Office médico-pédagogique du canton de Genève, took a guided tour of the Microcosm exhibition and were treated to a Fun with Physics demonstration. The tour guides’ explanations were interpreted into sign language in real time by a professional interpreter who accompanied the children, and the pace and content were adapted to maximise the interaction with the children. This visit demonstrates CERN’s commitment to remaining as widely accessible as possible. To this end, most of CERN’s visit sites offer reduced-mobility access. In the past few months, CERN has also welcomed children suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum (a genetic disorder causing extreme sensiti...

  11. Incidence of contralateral versus ipsilateral neurological signs associated with lateralised Hansen type I disc extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.D.; Newell, S.M.; Budsberg, S.C.; Bennett, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Asymmetrical neurological signs were noted in 50 dogs presenting with Hansen type I thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Thoracolumbar myelograms and surgical decompression were performed in all cases. Dogs were divided into two groups (acute and chronic) based on the duration of clinical signs prior to presentation to the University of Georgia. Lateralising extradural cord compressive lesions were noted on all myelograms. In the acute group, 35 per cent of the dogs had asymmetrical neurological signs contralateral to the myelographic and surgical lesion, while in the chronic group only 11 per cent had neurological signs contralateral to the lesion. There was found to be no significant difference in frequency of contralateral asymmetrical clinical signs between the two groups (Fischer's exact test; P = 0.095). The high frequency of contralateral signs documents the importance of thoracolumbar myelography for accurate localisation of the disc material before decompressive surgery

  12. Stiffness management of sheet metal parts using laser metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambach, Markus; Sviridov, Alexander; Weisheit, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Tailored blanks are established solutions for the production of load-adapted sheet metal components. In the course of the individualization of production, such semi-finished products are gaining importance. In addition to tailored welded blanks and tailored rolled blanks, patchwork blanks have been developed which allow a local increase in sheet thickness by welding, gluing or soldering patches onto sheet metal blanks. Patchwork blanks, however, have several limitations, on the one hand, the limited freedom of design in the production of patchwork blanks and, on the other hand, the fact that there is no optimum material bonding with the substrate. The increasing production of derivative and special vehicles on the basis of standard vehicles, prototype production and the functionalization of components require solutions with which semi-finished products and sheet metal components can be provided flexibly with local thickenings or functional elements with a firm metallurgical bond to the substrate. An alternative to tailored and patchwork blanks is, therefore, a free-form reinforcement applied by additive manufacturing via laser metal deposition (LMD). By combining metal forming and additive manufacturing, stiffness can be adapted to the loads based on standard components in a material-efficient manner and without the need to redesign the forming tools. This paper details a study of the potential of stiffness management by LMD using a demonstrator part. Sizing optimization is performed and part distortion is taken into account to find an optimal design for the cladding. A maximum stiffness increase of 167% is feasible with only 4.7% additional mass. Avoiding part distortion leads to a pareto-optimal design which achieves 95% more stiffness with 6% added mass.

  13. An electronic dictionary of Danish Sign Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Compiling sign language dictionaries has in the last 15 years changed from most often being simply collecting and presenting signs for a given gloss in the surrounding vocal language to being a complicated lexicographic task including all parts of linguistic analysis, i.e. phonology, phonetics......, morphology, syntax and semantics. In this presentation we will give a short overview of the Danish Sign Language dictionary project. We will further focus on lemma selection and some of the problems connected with lemmatisation....

  14. Folded Sheet Versus Transparent Sheet Models for Human Symmetry Judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ninio

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the mysteries of human symmetry perception, reaction time data were collected on the detection of symmetry or repetition violations, in the context of short term visual memory studies. The histograms for reaction time distributions are rather narrow in the case of symmetry judgments. Their analysis was performed in terms of a simple kinetic model of a mental process in two steps, a slow one for the construction of the representation of the images to be compared, and a fast one, in the 50 ms range, for the decision. There was no need for an additional ‘mental rotation’ step. Symmetry seems to facilitate the construction step. I also present here original stimuli showing a color equalization effect across a symmetry axis, and its counterpart in periodic patterns. According to a “folded sheet model”, when a shape is perceived, the brain automatically constructs a mirror-image representation of the shape. Based in part on the reaction time analysis, I present here an alternative “transparent sheet” model in which the brain constructs a single representation, which can be accessed from two sides, thus generating simultaneously a pattern and its mirror-symmetric partner. Filtering processes, implied by current models of symmetry perception could intervene at an early stage, by nucleating the propagation of similar perceptual groupings in the two symmetric images.

  15. Radiation protecting clothing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mio, Kotaro; Ijiri, Yasuo.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To provide radiation protecting clothing materials excellent in mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, flexibility and flexing strength. Constitution: The radiation protecting clothing materials according to this invention has pure lead sheets comprising a thin pure lead foil of 50 to 150 μm and radiation resistant organic materials, for example, polyethylene with high neutron shielding effect disposed to one or both surfaces thereof. The material are excellent in the repeating bending fatigue and mechanical strength, corrosion resistance and flexibility and, accordingly, radiation protecting clothings prepared by using them along or laminating them also possess these excellent characteristics. Further, they are excellent in the handlability, particularly, durability to the repeated holding and extension, as well as are preferable in the physical movability and feeling upon putting. The clothing materials may be cut into an appropriate size, or stitched into clothings made by radiation-resistant materials. In this case, pure lead sheets are used in lamination. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Graphene Sheet Content in Wood Char Powders during Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Jia Liou; Wu-Jang Huang

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative characterization of the graphene sheet content in carbon-containing materials is arguable and has not yet been developed.The authors report on a feasible method to characterize graphene sheet content quantitatively in pyrolized carbon materials using an X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectrometer.A direct carbonation at 300 ℃ followed by catalytic pyrolysis (heat-treatment temperature was set at 700-1400 ℃)under a vacuum condition was used for turning wood waste into pyrolized wood char powders.The graphene content in the samples was calculated through an analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the carbon (100) crystal plane at around 42°-43° in XRD.Results showed that the FWHM and the calculated graphene sheet content of pyrolized wood char powders depended on the heat-treatment temperature,and the FWHM of wood char powder with well-developed graphene sheets (100%) was determined to be 5.0.In addition,the trend to 100% graphene sheet-contained pyrolized carbon powder was obtained at a heattreatment temperature of 2700 ℃.The resistivity of the wood char powder with 100% graphene sheets was predicted to be 0.01 Ω cm,close to our experimental data of 0.012 and 0.006 Ω cm for commercial graphite and graphene products,respectively.

  17. Probabilistic Design in a Sheet Metal Stamping Process under Failure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buranathiti, Thaweepat; Cao, Jian; Chen, Wei; Xia, Z. Cedric

    2005-01-01

    Sheet metal stamping processes have been widely implemented in many industries due to its repeatability and productivity. In general, the simulations for a sheet metal forming process involve nonlinearity, complex material behavior and tool-material interaction. Instabilities in terms of tearing and wrinkling are major concerns in many sheet metal stamping processes. In this work, a sheet metal stamping process of a mild steel for a wheelhouse used in automobile industry is studied by using an explicit nonlinear finite element code and incorporating failure analysis (tearing and wrinkling) and design under uncertainty. Margins of tearing and wrinkling are quantitatively defined via stress-based criteria for system-level design. The forming process utilizes drawbeads instead of using the blank holder force to restrain the blank. The main parameters of interest in this work are friction conditions, drawbead configurations, sheet metal properties, and numerical errors. A robust design model is created to conduct a probabilistic design, which is made possible for this complex engineering process via an efficient uncertainty propagation technique. The method called the weighted three-point-based method estimates the statistical characteristics (mean and variance) of the responses of interest (margins of failures), and provide a systematic approach in designing a sheet metal forming process under the framework of design under uncertainty

  18. Investigation into springback characteristics of two HSS sheets during cold v-bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Gang; Gao, Wei-Ran [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-16

    Considering the safety and the light-weight structure, there is an increasing requirement of high strength steel (HSS) sheets in the automotive industry. The high-precise prediction of the springback depends on constitutive equations and their corresponding material parameters. In order to investigate the springback of HSS sheets, DP590 and B280VK, their constitutive behaviors were analyzed based on the sheet tension tests. With respect to the constitutive equation, the Voce model is more proper to two hot-rolled steels, DP590 and B280VK, than the Swift model. Two steels are all saturated hardening, and the degree of hardening decreases with the strain. The cold v-banding tests of two HSS sheets were carried out for evaluation of springback characteristics. Results of v-bending experiments showed that the springback angle increases with the bending along 45°, 90° and 0° to the rolling direction of steel in turn.

  19. Investigation into springback characteristics of two HSS sheets during cold v-bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Gang; Gao, Wei-Ran

    2013-01-01

    Considering the safety and the light-weight structure, there is an increasing requirement of high strength steel (HSS) sheets in the automotive industry. The high-precise prediction of the springback depends on constitutive equations and their corresponding material parameters. In order to investigate the springback of HSS sheets, DP590 and B280VK, their constitutive behaviors were analyzed based on the sheet tension tests. With respect to the constitutive equation, the Voce model is more proper to two hot-rolled steels, DP590 and B280VK, than the Swift model. Two steels are all saturated hardening, and the degree of hardening decreases with the strain. The cold v-banding tests of two HSS sheets were carried out for evaluation of springback characteristics. Results of v-bending experiments showed that the springback angle increases with the bending along 45°, 90° and 0° to the rolling direction of steel in turn

  20. 77 FR 72905 - Pipeline Safety: Random Drug Testing Rate; Contractor MIS Reporting; and Obtaining DAMIS Sign-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration [Docket ID... DAMIS Sign-In Information AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT..., hazardous liquid, and carbon dioxide pipelines and operators of liquefied natural gas facilities must...

  1. Tube sheet design for PFBR steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1991-01-01

    Top and bottom tube sheets of PFBR Steam Generators have been analysed with 3D and axisymmetric models using CASTEM Programs. Analysis indicates that the effects of piping reactions at the inlet/outlet nozzles on the primary stresses in the tube sheets are negligible and the asymmetricity of the deformation pattern introduced in the tube sheet by the presence of inlet/outlet and manhole nozzles is insignificant. The minimum tube sheet thicknesses for evaporator and reheater are 135 mm and 75 mm respectively. Further analysis has indicated the minimum fillet radius at the junction of tube sheet and dished end should be 20 mm. Simplified methodology has been developed to arrive at the number of thermal baffles required to protect the tube sheet against fatigue damage due to thermal transient. This method has been applied to PFBR steam generators to determine the required number of thermal baffles. For protecting the bottom tube sheet of evaporator against the thermal shock due to feed water and secondary pump trip, one thermal shield is found to be sufficient. Further analysis is required to decide upon the actual number to take care of the severe thermal transient, following the event of sudden dumping of water/steam, immediately after the sodium-water reaction. (author)

  2. Data base of radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hama, Yoshimasa; Sunazuka, Hideo; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kakuta, Tsunemi.

    1987-01-01

    In the data base of radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials, the data format contains such items as to give the summary; the data sheet contains the data in concrete form of respective properties from the references; the sheet of references contains the references in the former two. In the above three, there are attached code No., data sheet No., reference No. and key words. In the three areas as radiation-resistant dielectric and insulating materials, i.e., organic materials, inorganic materials and optical fibers, the following are explained: data format, data sheet and objectives. (Mori, K.)

  3. Thermomechanical processing of plasma sprayed intermetallic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajaligol, Mohammad R.; Scorey, Clive; Sikka, Vinod K.; Deevi, Seetharama C.; Fleischhauer, Grier; Lilly, Jr., A. Clifton; German, Randall M.

    2001-01-01

    A powder metallurgical process of preparing a sheet from a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as an iron, nickel or titanium aluminide. The sheet can be manufactured into electrical resistance heating elements having improved room temperature ductility, electrical resistivity, cyclic fatigue resistance, high temperature oxidation resistance, low and high temperature strength, and/or resistance to high temperature sagging. The iron aluminide has an entirely ferritic microstructure which is free of austenite and can include, in weight %, 4 to 32% Al, and optional additions such as .ltoreq.1% Cr, .gtoreq.0.05% Zr .ltoreq.2% Ti, .ltoreq.2% Mo, .ltoreq.1% Ni, .ltoreq.0.75% C, .ltoreq.0.1% B, .ltoreq.1% submicron oxide particles and/or electrically insulating or electrically conductive covalent ceramic particles, .ltoreq.1% rare earth metal, and/or .ltoreq.3% Cu. The process includes forming a non-densified metal sheet by consolidating a powder having an intermetallic alloy composition such as by roll compaction, tape casting or plasma spraying, forming a cold rolled sheet by cold rolling the non-densified metal sheet so as to increase the density and reduce the thickness thereof and annealing the cold rolled sheet. The powder can be a water, polymer or gas atomized powder which is subjecting to sieving and/or blending with a binder prior to the consolidation step. After the consolidation step, the sheet can be partially sintered. The cold rolling and/or annealing steps can be repeated to achieve the desired sheet thickness and properties. The annealing can be carried out in a vacuum furnace with a vacuum or inert atmosphere. During final annealing, the cold rolled sheet recrystallizes to an average grain size of about 10 to 30 .mu.m. Final stress relief annealing can be carried out in the B2 phase temperature range.

  4. Ivy signs on FLAIR images before and after STA-MCA anastomosis in patients with Moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ideguchi, Reiko; Enokizono, Mikako; Uetani, Masataka (Dept. of Radiological Sciences, Nagasaki Univ. Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki (Japan)), e-mail: qqtt37gd9@forest.ocn.ne.jp; Morikawa, Minoru (Dept. of Radiology, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)); Ogawa, Yoji (Dept. of Radiology, Hanwa Daini Senboku Hospital, Osaka (Japan)); Nagata, Izumi (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan))

    2011-04-15

    Background: Leptomeningeal high signal intensity (ivy sign) on fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) MR imaging is one of the features of Moyamoya disease. However, the correlation between ivy sign and cerebral perfusion status has not been fully evaluated. Purpose: To characterize ivy sign on FLAIR images in Moyamoya disease and compare this finding with hemodynamic alterations on perfusion single-photon emission CT (SPECT) obtained before and after bypass surgery. Material and Methods: Sixteen patients with angiographically confirmed Moyamoya disease who underwent superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) anastomosis were included in the study. The presence of ivy sign on FLAIR images was classified as 'negative', 'minimal' and 'positive'. We evaluated the relationship between ivy sign and findings of SPECT, including cerebral vascular reserve (CVR) before and after surgery. Results: Minimal or positive ivy sign was seen in 13 (81%) of 16 patients, and 21 (66%) of 32 hemispheres. CVR in the areas with positive or minimal ivy sign was lower than that in the areas with negative ivy sign. After STA-MCA anastomosis, ivy sign disappeared or decreased in all 21 hemispheres demonstrating ivy sign. SPECT demonstrated apparent hemodynamic improvement in areas demonstrating disappearance or decrease of ivy sign. Conclusion: Ivy sign on FLAIR image is seen in areas with decreased cerebral perfusion. The sign is useful for non-invasive assessment of cerebral hemodynamic status before and after surgery

  5. Significance of satellite sign and spot sign in predicting hematoma expansion in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhiyuan; Zheng, Jun; Ali, Hasan; Guo, Rui; Li, Mou; Wang, Xiaoze; Ma, Lu; Li, Hao; You, Chao

    2017-11-01

    Hematoma expansion is related to poor outcome in spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Recently, a non-enhanced computed tomography (CT) based finding, termed the 'satellite sign', was reported to be a novel predictor for poor outcome in spontaneous ICH. However, it is still unclear whether the presence of the satellite sign is related to hematoma expansion. Initial computed tomography angiography (CTA) was conducted within 6h after ictus. Satellite sign on non-enhanced CT and spot sign on CTA were detected by two independent reviewers. The sensitivity and specificity of both satellite sign and spot sign were calculated. Receiver-operator analysis was conducted to evaluate their predictive accuracy for hematoma expansion. This study included 153 patients. Satellite sign was detected in 58 (37.91%) patients and spot sign was detected in 38 (24.84%) patients. Among 37 patients with hematoma expansion, 22 (59.46%) had satellite sign and 23 (62.16%) had spot sign. The sensitivity and specificity of satellite sign for prediction of hematoma expansion were 59.46% and 68.97%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of spot sign were 62.16% and 87.07%, respectively. The area under the curve (AUC) of satellite sign was 0.642 and the AUC of spot sign was 0.746. (P=0.157) CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the satellite sign is an independent predictor for hematoma expansion in spontaneous ICH. Although spot sign has the higher predictive accuracy, satellite sign is still an acceptable predictor for hematoma expansion when CTA is unavailable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gesture, sign, and language: The coming of age of sign language and gesture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Brentari, Diane

    2017-01-01

    How does sign language compare with gesture, on the one hand, and spoken language on the other? Sign was once viewed as nothing more than a system of pictorial gestures without linguistic structure. More recently, researchers have argued that sign is no different from spoken language, with all of the same linguistic structures. The pendulum is currently swinging back toward the view that sign is gestural, or at least has gestural components. The goal of this review is to elucidate the relationships among sign language, gesture, and spoken language. We do so by taking a close look not only at how sign has been studied over the past 50 years, but also at how the spontaneous gestures that accompany speech have been studied. We conclude that signers gesture just as speakers do. Both produce imagistic gestures along with more categorical signs or words. Because at present it is difficult to tell where sign stops and gesture begins, we suggest that sign should not be compared with speech alone but should be compared with speech-plus-gesture. Although it might be easier (and, in some cases, preferable) to blur the distinction between sign and gesture, we argue that distinguishing between sign (or speech) and gesture is essential to predict certain types of learning and allows us to understand the conditions under which gesture takes on properties of sign, and speech takes on properties of gesture. We end by calling for new technology that may help us better calibrate the borders between sign and gesture.

  7. Plasma sheet behavior during substorms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Auroral or magnetic substorms are periods of enhanced auroral and geomagnetic activity lasting one to a few hours that signify increased dissipation of energy from the magnetosphere to the earth. Data acquired during the past decade from satellites in the near-earth sector of the magnetotail have suggested that during a substorm part of the plasma sheet is severed from earth by magnetic reconnection, forming a plasmoid, i.e., a body of plasma and closed magnetic loops, that flows out of the tail into the solar wind, thus returning plasma and energy that have earlier been accumulated from the solar wind. Very recently this picture has been dramatically confirmed by observations, with the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the magnetotail 220 R/sub E/ from earth, of plasmoids passing that location in clear delayed response to substorms. It now appears that plasmoid release is a fundamental process whereby the magnetosphere gives up excess stored energy and plasma, much like comets are seen to do, and that the phenomena of the substorm seen at earth are a by-product of that fundamental process

  8. Radiation dominated relativistic current sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroschek, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic Current Sheets (RCS) feature plasma instabilities considered as potential key to magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation in Poynting flux dominated plasma flows. We show in a series of kinetic plasma simulations that the physical nature of non-linear RCS evolution changes in the presence of incoherent radiation losses: In the ultra-relativistic regime (i.e. magnetization parameter sigma = 104 defined as the ratio of magnetic to plasma rest frame energy density) the combination of non-linear RCS dynamics and synchrotron emission introduces a temperature anisotropy triggering the growth of the Relativistic Tearing Mode (RTM). As direct consequence the RTM prevails over the Relativistic Drift Kink (RDK) Mode as competitive RCS instability. This is in contrast to the previously studied situation of weakly relativistic RCS (sigma ∼ 1) where the RDK is dominant and most of the plasma is thermalized. The simulations witness the typical life cycle of ultra-relativistic RCS evolving from a violent radiation induced collapse towards a radiation quiescent state in rather classical Sweet-Parker topology. Such a transition towards Sweet-Parker configuration in the late non-linear evolution has immediate consequences for the efficiency of magnetic energy dissipation and non-thermal particle generation. Ceasing dissipation rates directly affect our present understanding of non-linear RCS evolution in conventional striped wind scenarios. (author)

  9. Transition from Sign-Reversed to Sign-Preserved Cooper-Pairing Symmetry in Sulfur-Doped Iron Selenide Superconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qisi; Park, J T; Feng, Yu; Shen, Yao; Hao, Yiqing; Pan, Bingying; Lynn, J W; Ivanov, A; Chi, Songxue; Matsuda, M; Cao, Huibo; Birgeneau, R J; Efremov, D V; Zhao, Jun

    2016-05-13

    An essential step toward elucidating the mechanism of superconductivity is to determine the sign or phase of the superconducting order parameter, as it is closely related to the pairing interaction. In conventional superconductors, the electron-phonon interaction induces attraction between electrons near the Fermi energy and results in a sign-preserved s-wave pairing. For high-temperature superconductors, including cuprates and iron-based superconductors, prevalent weak coupling theories suggest that the electron pairing is mediated by spin fluctuations which lead to repulsive interactions, and therefore that a sign-reversed pairing with an s_{±} or d-wave symmetry is favored. Here, by using magnetic neutron scattering, a phase sensitive probe of the superconducting gap, we report the observation of a transition from the sign-reversed to sign-preserved Cooper-pairing symmetry with insignificant changes in T_{c} in the S-doped iron selenide superconductors K_{x}Fe_{2-y}(Se_{1-z}S_{z})_{2}. We show that a rather sharp magnetic resonant mode well below the superconducting gap (2Δ) in the undoped sample (z=0) is replaced by a broad hump structure above 2Δ under 50% S doping. These results cannot be readily explained by simple spin fluctuation-exchange pairing theories and, therefore, multiple pairing channels are required to describe superconductivity in this system. Our findings may also yield a simple explanation for the sometimes contradictory data on the sign of the superconducting order parameter in iron-based materials.

  10. Segmentation of British Sign Language (BSL): Mind the gap!

    OpenAIRE

    Orfanidou, E.; McQueen, J.; Adam, R.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    This study asks how users of British Sign Language (BSL) recognize individual signs in connected sign sequences. We examined whether this is achieved through modality-specific or modality-general segmentation procedures. A modality-specific feature of signed languages is that, during continuous signing, there are salient transitions between sign locations. We used the sign-spotting task to ask if and how BSL signers use these transitions in segmentation. A total of 96 real BSL signs were prec...

  11. World-sheet gauge fields in superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porrati, M.; Tomboulis, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate the introduction of world-sheet 2-dimensional gauge fields in a manner consistent with world-sheet supersymmetry. We obtain the effective string action resulting from the exact integration over the world-sheet gauge fields to show that it generally describes string models with spontaneous breaking of gauge symmetries with continuous breaking parameters. We examine the question of spacetime supersymmetry spontaneous breaking, and show that breaking with continuous, in particular arbitrarily small breaking parameters does not occur; only breaking for discrete values of parameters is possible. (orig.)

  12. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  13. Bifurcation of Jovian magnetotail current sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Israelevich

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple crossings of the magnetotail current sheet by a single spacecraft give the possibility to distinguish between two types of electric current density distribution: single-peaked (Harris type current layer and double-peaked (bifurcated current sheet. Magnetic field measurements in the Jovian magnetic tail by Voyager-2 reveal bifurcation of the tail current sheet. The electric current density possesses a minimum at the point of the Bx-component reversal and two maxima at the distance where the magnetic field strength reaches 50% of its value in the tail lobe.

  14. Material Safety Data Sheet, MSDS D0211, Revision 5

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    Partly Contents: Chemical Product Identification, Composition and Information on ingredients, First Aid Measures, Fire-Fighting Measures, Accidental Release Measures, Handling and Storage, Exposure Controls, Personal...

  15. Root resorption: Focus on signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Kjaer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper summarizes the different conditions, which have a well-known influence on the resorption of tooth roots, exemplified by trauma and orthodontic treatment. The concept of the paper is to summarize and explain symptoms and signs of importance for avoiding resorption during orthodontic treatment. The Hypothesis: The hypothesis in this paper is that three different tissue layers covering the root in the so-called periroot sheet can explain signs and symptoms of importance for avoiding root resorption during orthodontic treatment. These different tissue layers are; outermost - an ectodermal tissue layer (Malassez′s epithelium, a middle layer - composed by the collagen-mesodermal tissue layer, and an innermost root-close innervation layer. Abnormalities in one of these tissue layers are thought to cause inflammatory processes in the periodontal membrane comparable to inflammatory processes provoked by trauma and orthodontic pressure. Inflammatory reactions are followed by resorptive processes in the periroot sheet and along the root surface. Evaluation of the Hypothesis: Different morphologies in the dentition are signs of abnormal epithelium or an abnormal mesodermal layer. It has formerly been demonstrated how demyelinization of the myelin sheaths in the peripheral nerves close to the root provoke resorption. Accordingly, conditions affecting these tissue layers can be associated not only with different morphologies but also with general symptoms and diseases (e.g., ectodermal dysplasia and hypophosphatasia.

  16. Electro-thermo-mechanical coupling analysis of deep drawing with resistance heating for aluminum matrix composites sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhang, Tuoda; Wang, Bo

    2013-05-01

    Recently, electro-plastic forming to be a focus of attention in materials hot processing research area, because it is a sort of energy-saving, high efficient and green manufacturing technology. An electro-thermo-mechanical model can be adopted to carry out the sequence simulation of aluminum matrix composites sheet deep drawing via electro-thermal coupling and thermal-mechanical coupling method. The first step of process is resistance heating of sheet, then turn off the power, and the second step is deep drawing. Temperature distribution of SiCp/2024Al composite sheet by resistance heating and sheet deep drawing deformation were analyzed. During the simulation, effect of contact resistances, temperature coefficient of resistance for electrode material and SiCp/2024Al composite on temperature distribution were integrally considered. The simulation results demonstrate that Sicp/2024Al composite sheet can be rapidly heated to 400° in 30s using resistances heating and the sheet temperature can be controlled by adjusting the current density. Physical properties of the electrode materials can significantly affect the composite sheet temperature distribution. The temperature difference between the center and the side of the sheet is proportional to the thermal conductivity of the electrode, the principal cause of which is that the heat transfers from the sheet to the electrode. SiCp/2024Al thin-wall part can be intactly manufactured at strain rate of 0.08s-1 and the sheet thickness thinning rate is limited within 20%, which corresponds well to the experimental result.

  17. Signs, dispositions, and semiotic scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Eliseo

    2015-12-01

    In theoretical work we distinguish living beings from inanimate objects on the basis of some paramount attributes, such as agency and autonomy. These abstract features are not directly accessible to our scrutiny, but we surmise their nature through observation of the purpose-oriented behavior of organisms. I intend to show that organismal purposefulness springs from the intrinsic, constitutive kind of finality that is the hallmark of all semiotic transactions. To this aim I develop a dispositionalist account of organismal causation based on a distinction between two kinds of causal dispositions: fixed (efficient) dispositions and traveling dispositions. Fixed dispositions are rigidly attached to physical structures and processes; these are the dispositions regularly invoked in current discussions of causal explanation. Traveling dispositions are able to move freely from one location to another by becoming embodied into suitable supporting media. I introduce these notions to articulate a view of semiosis I deem best suited to the life sciences, and contend that sign tokens are vehicles of traveling dispositions. This account places the origin of purposive behavior at the interaction of physical and semiotic causation. To properly motivate the discussion I briefly review some recent developments in the philosophy of science concerning various forms of causation invoked by scientists across disciplines to frame explanations and make predictions. The ensuing discussion gives particular prominence to mechanistic (as distinct from mechanicist) explanatory accounts of biological phenomena. This review is followed by a brief characterization of a "nomological machine," a comprehensive schema introduced and developed by Nancy Cartwright with the goal of explaining causal mechanisms in a general setting. By capitalizing on this model's heuristic virtues I seek to formulate a compelling view of the interactions between physical and semiotic causation at play in semiotic

  18. Indoor sign recognition for the blind

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kunene, D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available that is faster and more reliable. We first segment the signs by colour, and then by shape recognition. The sign-type classification is done using a tree search structure that enables the use of iterative contour descriptors like the speeded-up-robust features...

  19. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  20. Research Ethics in Sign Language Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…

  1. Visual cortex entrains to sign language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, Geoffrey; Lu, Jenny; Nusbaum, Howard C; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Casasanto, Daniel

    2017-06-13

    Despite immense variability across languages, people can learn to understand any human language, spoken or signed. What neural mechanisms allow people to comprehend language across sensory modalities? When people listen to speech, electrophysiological oscillations in auditory cortex entrain to slow ([Formula: see text]8 Hz) fluctuations in the acoustic envelope. Entrainment to the speech envelope may reflect mechanisms specialized for auditory perception. Alternatively, flexible entrainment may be a general-purpose cortical mechanism that optimizes sensitivity to rhythmic information regardless of modality. Here, we test these proposals by examining cortical coherence to visual information in sign language. First, we develop a metric to quantify visual change over time. We find quasiperiodic fluctuations in sign language, characterized by lower frequencies than fluctuations in speech. Next, we test for entrainment of neural oscillations to visual change in sign language, using electroencephalography (EEG) in fluent speakers of American Sign Language (ASL) as they watch videos in ASL. We find significant cortical entrainment to visual oscillations in sign language sign is strongest over occipital and parietal cortex, in contrast to speech, where coherence is strongest over the auditory cortex. Nonsigners also show coherence to sign language, but entrainment at frontal sites is reduced relative to fluent signers. These results demonstrate that flexible cortical entrainment to language does not depend on neural processes that are specific to auditory speech perception. Low-frequency oscillatory entrainment may reflect a general cortical mechanism that maximizes sensitivity to informational peaks in time-varying signals.

  2. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  3. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Alcohol Facts » Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...

  4. Signs of Cocaine Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Cocaine (Coke, Crack) Facts » Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...

  5. Signs of Painkiller Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Pain Medicine (Oxy, Vike) Facts » Signs of Pain Medicine Abuse and Addiction Signs of Pain Medicine Abuse and Addiction Listen © ...

  6. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Heroin (Smack, Junk) Facts » Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Listen Heroin ...

  7. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Marijuana (Weed, Pot) Facts » Signs of Marijuana Use and Addiction Signs of Marijuana Use and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...

  8. Sign Detection Theory and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Offers characterization of sign-transmission which is more general than conventional signal-transmission theory. Concepts and terminology, formal description of individual communications process, reconciliation with classical signal-detection theory, applications of sign-detection formalism to information retrieval on MEDLINE database, and a…

  9. Signs: een wetenschappelijk tijdschrift in transatlantisch perspectief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieme van der Poel

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Het Amerikaanse feministische tijdschrift Signs is een belangrijke bron voor de receptie van het Franse feminisme in Amerika. Bovendien geeft het een indruk van het verschil tussen de academische, Amerikaanse vrouwenstudies enerzijds, en de literair en politiek getinte Franse vrouwenbeweging anderzijds. Ieme van der Poel analyseert de jaargangen van Signs tussen 1975 en 1981 vanuit deze gezichtspunten.

  10. Smartphone Based Traffic Sign Inventory and Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Road signs are an important part of the infrastructure and are needed to ensure smooth and : safe traffic flow. Faded, occluded, damaged or vandalized signs can confuse or misinform : drivers and lead to unsafe driving behavior. E.g. if a driver is n...

  11. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Stroke Deaths

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the September 2017 CDC Vital Signs report. Each year, more than 140,000 people die and many survivors face disability. Eighty percent of strokes are preventable. Learn the signs of stroke and how to prevent them.

  12. 23 CFR 750.707 - Nonconforming signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... was lawfully erected but does not comply with the provisions of State law or State regulations passed... affected by the State law or regulations. For example, paper signs nailed to trees, abandoned signs and the... abandonment or discontinuance. Where a State establishes a period of more than one (1) year as a reasonable...

  13. Infant Sign Training and Functional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normand, Matthew P.; Machado, Mychal A.; Hustyi, Kristin M.; Morley, Allison J.

    2011-01-01

    We taught manual signs to typically developing infants using a reversal design and caregiver-nominated stimuli. We delivered the stimuli on a time-based schedule during baseline. During the intervention, we used progressive prompting and reinforcement, described by Thompson et al. (2004, 2007), to establish mands. Following sign training, we…

  14. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VitalSigns – Childhood Obesity [PSA – 0:60 seconds] VitalSigns – Obesidad en niños: [PODCAST – 1:15 minutes] Childhood Overweight ... Prevention and Control MedlinePlus – Obesity in Children MedlinePlus – Obesidad en niños Top of Page Get Email Updates ...

  15. Words Recognized as Units: Systematic Signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, John

    1997-01-01

    This historical article proposes that students with deafness in the early grades should be taught easy and familiar words by appropriate sign-language gestures on the fingers and by writing, and that the simple rules of grammar should be explained in the signs in the order of the words. (CR)

  16. Tritium in Exit Signs | RadTown USA | US EPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-07

    Many exit signs contain tritium to light the sign without batteries or electricity. Using tritium in exit signs allows the sign to remain lit if the power goes out. Tritium is most dangerous when it is inhaled or swallowed. Never tamper with a tritium exit sign. If a tritium exit sign is broken, leave the area immediately and notify the building maintenance staff.

  17. Machining of the nuclear tube sheet with small hole diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lifeng

    2010-01-01

    Regarding the tube sheet for the heat exchanger of Qinshan Phase II extension project, its material is 00Cr19Ni10 forgings, the tube sheet thickness is 125 mm, requiring 178-φ10.35 0 +0.05 hole, the tube array shall take the shape of equilateral triangle, the center distance is 15 mm, and the tube hole roughness is Ra 3.2. The guide sleeve shall be adopted for positioning prior to machining of the high precision small hole of the thick tube sheet, and the gun drill and BTA drill shall be adopted for testing, finally BTA drilling with internal chip removal shall be adopted, this method shall overcome the disadvantage factor of BTA drilling and shall be the new approach for drilling. The diameter of BTA drill is φ10.34 mm. The machined hole diameter shall be φ10.375-φ10.355 mm. The ellipticity of the tube hole shall be less than 0.01 mm, the pipe bridge dimension shall be 4.6 mm, conforming to the requirement of the drawing. The paper presents the precautions during machining so as to provide the reference for the similar pipe hole machining in the future. (author)

  18. Singular Sheet Etching of Graphene with Oxygen Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haider Al-Mumen; Fubo Rao; Wen Li; Lixin Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a simple and controllable post-synthesis method for engineering the number of graphene layers based on oxygen plasma etching. Singular sheet etching(SSE) of graphene was achieved with the optimum process duration of 38 seconds. As a demonstration of this SSE process, monolayer graphene films were produced from bilayer graphenes. Experimental investigations verified that the oxygen plasma etching removes a single layer graphene sheet in an anisotropic fashion rather than anisotropic mode. In addition,etching via the oxygen plasma at the ground electrodes introduced fewer defects to the bottom graphene layer compared with the conventional oxygen reactive ion etching using the powered electrodes. Such defects can further be reduced with an effective annealing treatment in an argon environment at 900-1000?C. These results demonstrate that our developed SSE method has enabled a microelectronics manufacturing compatible way for single sheet precision subtraction of graphene layers and a potential technique for producing large size graphenes with high yield from multilayer graphite materials.

  19. Singular Sheet Etching of Graphene with Oxygen Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haider Al-Mumen; Fubo Rao; Wen Li; Lixin Dong

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a simple and controllable post-synthesis method for engineering the number of graphene layers based on oxygen plasma etching. Singular sheet etching (SSE) of graphene was achieved with the optimum process duration of 38 seconds. As a demonstration of this SSE process, monolayer graphene films were produced from bilayer graphenes. Experimental investigations verified that the oxygen plasma etching removes a single layer graphene sheet in an anisotropic fashion rather than anisotropic mode. In addition, etching via the oxygen plasma at the ground electrodes introduced fewer defects to the bottom graphene layer compared with the conventional oxygen reactive ion etching using the powered electrodes. Such defects can further be reduced with an effective annealing treatment in an argon environment at 900-1000◦C. These results demonstrate that our developed SSE method has enabled a microelectronics manufacturing compatible way for single sheet precision subtraction of graphene layers and a potential technique for producing large size graphenes with high yield from multilayer graphite materials.

  20. Studies in Cup Drawing Behavior of Polymer Laminated Sheet Metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnagmi, M.; Jain, M.; Bruhis, M.; Nielsen, K.

    2011-08-01

    Axisymmetric deep drawing behavior of a polymer laminated sheet metal (PLSM) is investigated using an axisymmetric cup drawing test. PLSMs are of interest as a replacement for painted finishes for automotive applications as they have the potential to achieve good quality long lasting and aesthetically appealing surfaces on stamped parts. However, there is limited understanding of PLSMs in automotive deep drawing situations to produce complex 3-D parts. The tests are carried out using well-controlled, laboratory-based, dual-action, servo-hydraulic forming presses under blank-holder force and punch displacement control conditions. An optical strain mapping system is used to measure the surface strains (and to construct 3D strain maps) from the film side of the deformed samples for a range of forming conditions. Deep drawing characteristics such as punch load versus punch displacement traces, strain distribution along the cup profile, flange wrinkling and fracture characteristics are experimentally assessed for stainless steel-plastic film laminated sheet materials. Also the effect of lamination pressure on wrinkling and delamination is investigated for a decorative pressure sensitive adhesive film affixed to the stainless steel sheet.