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Sample records for showed significant enhancement

  1. Clinical significance of nerve root enhancement in contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the postoperative lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeon Soo; Lee, Eun Ja; Kang, Si Won; Choi, Eun Seok; Song, Chang June; Kim, Jong Chul

    2001-01-01

    To determine the significance of nerve root contrast enhancement in patients with residual or recurrent symptomatic postoperative lumbar spine. Eighty-eight patients with 116 postoperative lumbar disc lesions causing radiating back pain underwent enhanced MR imaging. Intradural nerve root enhancement was quantified by pixel measurement, and affected nerve roots were compared before and after contrast administration. Extradural nerve root enhancement was assessed visually, and nerve root enhancement and clinical symptoms were correlated. Associated lesions such as recurrent disc herniation, scar tissue, nerve root thickening and nerve root displacement were also evaluated. Of 26 cases (22.4%) involving intradural nerve root enhancement, 22 (84.6%) showed significant clinical symptoms (p=0.002). and of 59 (50.9%) demonstrating extradural enhancement, clinical symptoms showed significant correlation in 47 (79.7%) (p=0.001). Nerve root enhancement, including eleven cases where this was both intra-and extradural, showed highly significant association with clinical symptoms in 74 of the 116 cases (63.8%) (p=0.000). Among 33 cases (28.4%) of recurrent disc herniation, nerve root enhancement was observed in 28 (84.8%) and in 24 of these 28 (85.7%), significant correlation with clinical symptoms was observed (p=0.000). Where epidural fibrosis was present, correlation between nerve root enhancement and clinical symptoms was not significant (p>0.05). Nerve root thickening and displaced nerve root were, however, significantly associated with symptoms (87.2% and 88.6%, respectively). In patients with postoperative lumbar spine, the association between nerve root enhancement revealed by MRI and clinical symptoms was highly significant

  2. Double polymer sheathed carbon nanotube supercapacitors show enhanced cycling stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenqi; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shiting; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Yibin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices.Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05978j

  3. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  4. Clinical significance of quantitative analysis of facial nerve enhancement on MRI in Bell's palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mee Hyun; Kim, Jinna; Jeon, Ju Hyun; Cho, Chang Il; Yoo, Eun Hye; Lee, Won-Sang; Lee, Ho-Ki

    2008-11-01

    Quantitative analysis of the facial nerve on the lesion side as well as the normal side, which allowed for more accurate measurement of facial nerve enhancement in patients with facial palsy, showed statistically significant correlation with the initial severity of facial nerve inflammation, although little prognostic significance was shown. This study investigated the clinical significance of quantitative measurement of facial nerve enhancement in patients with Bell's palsy by analyzing the enhancement pattern and correlating MRI findings with initial severity of facial palsy and clinical outcome. Facial nerve enhancement was measured quantitatively by using the region of interest on pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted images in 44 patients diagnosed with Bell's palsy. The signal intensity increase on the lesion side was first compared with that of the contralateral side and then correlated with the initial degree of facial palsy and prognosis. The lesion side showed significantly higher signal intensity increase compared with the normal side in all of the segments except for the mastoid segment. Signal intensity increase at the internal auditory canal and labyrinthine segments showed correlation with the initial degree of facial palsy but no significant difference was found between different prognostic groups.

  5. Significantly enhanced thermal conductivity of indium arsenide nanowires via sulfur passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yucheng; Tang, Hao; Wang, Xiaomeng; Zhao, Yang; Fu, Qiang; Yang, Juekuan; Xu, Dongyan

    2017-10-16

    In this work, we experimentally investigated the effect of sulfur passivation on thermal transport in indium arsenide (InAs) nanowires. Our measurement results show that thermal conductivity can be enhanced by a ratio up to 159% by sulfur passivation. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements were performed on both unpassivated and S-passivated InAs nanowires to understand the mechanism of thermal conductivity enhancement. We observed a remarkable improvement in electrical conductivity upon sulfur passivation and a significant contribution of electrons to thermal conductivity, which account for the enhanced thermal conductivity of the S-passivated InAs nanowires.

  6. Contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct in MR imaging: its frequency and clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T.; Naganawa, S.; Fukatsu, H.; Sakurai, Y.; Ishigaki, T.; Aoki, I.; Ninomiya, A.; Nakashima, T.

    2003-01-01

    There have been no previous reports on contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct in magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and significance of this finding. Thirty-one patients (15 men and 16 women; age range 18-81 years) with otologic symptoms (sudden sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, or tinnitus) were examined using contrast-enhanced imaging on a 1.5-T MR scanner. The normal ear served as the control. Two radiologists evaluated contrast enhancement in the area of the cochlear aqueduct. Forty-eight of 62 ears (77.4%) showed contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct, but no significant differences in the frequency of contrast enhancement were observed between patients with and patients without vertigo, tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellopontine angle tumors, or a high-riding jugular bulb. In addition, no gender- or age-related differences were noted. Contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct was frequently observed, but the frequency of enhancement in symptomatic ears was not significantly higher than in control ears. The results of this study may prove helpful in avoiding unnecessary examinations and potential diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  7. Contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct in MR imaging: its frequency and clinical significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T; Naganawa, S; Fukatsu, H; Sakurai, Y; Ishigaki, T [Department of Radiology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, 65 Tsurumai-cho, 466-8550, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya (Japan); Aoki, I; Ninomiya, A [Medical Systems Company, Toshiba Corporation, Nasu Operations, Otawara-shi, Tochigi (Japan); Nakashima, T [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Shouwa-ku, Nagoya (Japan)

    2003-09-01

    There have been no previous reports on contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct in magnetic resonance imaging. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the frequency and significance of this finding. Thirty-one patients (15 men and 16 women; age range 18-81 years) with otologic symptoms (sudden sensorineural hearing loss, vertigo, or tinnitus) were examined using contrast-enhanced imaging on a 1.5-T MR scanner. The normal ear served as the control. Two radiologists evaluated contrast enhancement in the area of the cochlear aqueduct. Forty-eight of 62 ears (77.4%) showed contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct, but no significant differences in the frequency of contrast enhancement were observed between patients with and patients without vertigo, tinnitus, sensorineural hearing loss, cerebellopontine angle tumors, or a high-riding jugular bulb. In addition, no gender- or age-related differences were noted. Contrast enhancement of the cochlear aqueduct was frequently observed, but the frequency of enhancement in symptomatic ears was not significantly higher than in control ears. The results of this study may prove helpful in avoiding unnecessary examinations and potential diagnostic confusion. (orig.)

  8. Prior Exposure to Zika Virus Significantly Enhances Peak Dengue-2 Viremia in Rhesus Macaques

    OpenAIRE

    George, Jeffy; Valiant, William G.; Mattapallil, Mary J.; Walker, Michelle; Huang, Yan-Jang S.; Vanlandingham, Dana L.; Misamore, John; Greenhouse, Jack; Weiss, Deborah E.; Verthelyi, Daniela; Higgs, Stephen; Andersen, Hanne; Lewis, Mark G.; Mattapallil, Joseph J.

    2017-01-01

    Structural and functional homologies between the Zika and Dengue viruses? envelope proteins raise the possibility that cross-reactive antibodies induced following Zika virus infection might enhance subsequent Dengue infection. Using the rhesus macaque model we show that prior infection with Zika virus leads to a significant enhancement of Dengue-2 viremia that is accompanied by neutropenia, lympocytosis, hyperglycemia, and higher reticulocyte counts, along with the activation of pro-inflammat...

  9. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  10. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  11. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2015-01-01

    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular Velcro constructed from polymer loop brushes showing enhanced adhesion force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Han, Biao; Han, Lin; Li, Christopher; Department of Materials Science; Engineering Team; School of Biomedical Engineering, Science; Health Systems Team

    2015-03-01

    Molecular Velcro is commonly seen in biological systems as the formation of strong physical entanglement at molecular scale could induce strong adhesion, which is crucial to many biological processes. To mimic this structure, we designed, and fabricated polymer loop brushes using polymer single crystals with desired surface functionality and controlled chain folding. Compared with reported loop brushes fabricated using triblock copolymers, the present loop bushes have precise loop sizes, loop grafting density, and well controlled tethering locations on the solid surface. Atomic force microscopy-based force spectroscopy measurements using a polymer chain coated probe reveal that the adhesion force are significantly enhanced on the loop brush surface as compared with its single-strand counterpart. This study directly shows the effect of polymer brush conformation on their properties, and suggests a promising strategy for advanced polymer surface design.

  13. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-08-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses.

  14. Hepatic scar in a case of healed candidiasis showing prolonged enhancement on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuji; Yashiro, Naobumi

    1987-01-01

    A patient with acute myelocytic leukemia recovering from hepatic candidiasis after long-term administration of amphotericin B had large scar in the liver which showed prominent prolonged enhancement on postcontrast CT. Prolonged enhancement can occur in regions other than hepatic masses. (author)

  15. Colloidal graphite/graphene nanostructures using collagen showing enhanced thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Soumya; Dhar, Purbarun; Das, Sarit K; Ganguly, Ranjan; Webster, Thomas J; Nayar, Suprabha

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the exfoliation of natural graphite (GR) directly to colloidal GR/graphene (G) nanostructures using collagen (CL) was studied as a safe and scalable process, akin to numerous natural processes and hence can be termed “biomimetic”. Although the exfoliation and functionalization takes place in just 1 day, it takes about 7 days for the nano GR/G flakes to stabilize. The predominantly aromatic residues of the triple helical CL forms its own special micro and nanoarchitecture in acetic acid dispersions. This, with the help of hydrophobic and electrostatic forces, interacts with GR and breaks it down to nanostructures, forming a stable colloidal dispersion. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the colloid show the interaction between GR and CL on day 1 and 7. Differential interference contrast images in the liquid state clearly reveal how the GR flakes are entrapped in the CL fibrils, with a corresponding fluorescence image showing the intercalation of CL within GR. Atomic force microscopy of graphene-collagen coated on glass substrates shows an average flake size of 350 nm, and the hexagonal diffraction pattern and thickness contours of the G flakes from transmission electron microscopy confirm ≤ five layers of G. Thermal conductivity of the colloid shows an approximate 17% enhancement for a volume fraction of less than approximately 0.00005 of G. Thus, through the use of CL, this new material and process may improve the use of G in terms of biocompatibility for numerous medical applications that currently employ G, such as internally controlled drug-delivery assisted thermal ablation of carcinoma cells. PMID:24648728

  16. Colloidal graphite/graphene nanostructures using collagen showing enhanced thermal conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Soumya; Dhar, Purbarun; Das, Sarit K; Ganguly, Ranjan; Webster, Thomas J; Nayar, Suprabha

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the exfoliation of natural graphite (GR) directly to colloidal GR/graphene (G) nanostructures using collagen (CL) was studied as a safe and scalable process, akin to numerous natural processes and hence can be termed "biomimetic". Although the exfoliation and functionalization takes place in just 1 day, it takes about 7 days for the nano GR/G flakes to stabilize. The predominantly aromatic residues of the triple helical CL forms its own special micro and nanoarchitecture in acetic acid dispersions. This, with the help of hydrophobic and electrostatic forces, interacts with GR and breaks it down to nanostructures, forming a stable colloidal dispersion. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the colloid show the interaction between GR and CL on day 1 and 7. Differential interference contrast images in the liquid state clearly reveal how the GR flakes are entrapped in the CL fibrils, with a corresponding fluorescence image showing the intercalation of CL within GR. Atomic force microscopy of graphene-collagen coated on glass substrates shows an average flake size of 350 nm, and the hexagonal diffraction pattern and thickness contours of the G flakes from transmission electron microscopy confirm ≤ five layers of G. Thermal conductivity of the colloid shows an approximate 17% enhancement for a volume fraction of less than approximately 0.00005 of G. Thus, through the use of CL, this new material and process may improve the use of G in terms of biocompatibility for numerous medical applications that currently employ G, such as internally controlled drug-delivery assisted thermal ablation of carcinoma cells.

  17. Complete Au@ZnO core-shell nanoparticles with enhanced plasmonic absorption enabling significantly improved photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiqiang; Sun, Yugang; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Guozhu; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Dilong; Cai, Weiping; Li, Yue; Yang, Xianfeng; Li, Cuncheng

    2016-05-01

    Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic absorption in the visible range due to the Au NP cores. They also show a significantly improved photocatalytic performance in comparison with their single-component counterparts, i.e., the Au NPs and ZnO NPs. Moreover, the high catalytic activity of the as-synthesized Au@ZnO core-shell NPs can be maintained even after many cycles of photocatalytic reaction. Our results shed light on the fact that the Au@ZnO core-shell NPs represent a promising class of candidates for applications in plasmonics, surface-enhanced spectroscopy, light harvest devices, solar energy conversion, and degradation of organic pollutants.Nanostructured ZnO exhibits high chemical stability and unique optical properties, representing a promising candidate among photocatalysts in the field of environmental remediation and solar energy conversion. However, ZnO only absorbs the UV light, which accounts for less than 5% of total solar irradiation, significantly limiting its applications. In this article, we report a facile and efficient approach to overcome the poor wettability between ZnO and Au by carefully modulating the surface charge density on Au nanoparticles (NPs), enabling rapid synthesis of Au@ZnO core-shell NPs at room temperature. The resulting Au@ZnO core-shell NPs exhibit a significantly enhanced plasmonic

  18. Differences in MRI findings in cases showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwa, Kaichi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Miyasaka, Yoshio; Yada, Kenzoh; Kan, Shinichi; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between a brain abscess and a tumor, for both show ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The present authors have studied the benefit of MRI for the differential diagnosis of these two lesions. The subjects of this study were 6 cases of brain abscess and 10 cases of brain tumor, all of them showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The MRI findings were compared with those of the CT scan taken at almost the same time, especially focussing on the difference in the ring-enhancement. In 5 out of the 6 cases of brain abscess, T 2 -weighted MRI demonstrated a comparatively thin and homogeneous low-intensity, round rim. In the cases of brain tumor, however, none of the cases demonstrated this typical low-intensity, round rim; rather, in them the rim was thick and irregular. The authors can conclude that those MRI findings can serve as important differential diagnostic findings between brain abscess and tumor; also, MRI may be used as a landmark for terminating the administration of antibiotics in cases of brain abscess. (author)

  19. Perfusion magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy of cerebral gliomas showing imperceptible contrast enhancement on conventional magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, A.; Tripathi, R.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to evaluate the utility of perfusion MRI in cerebral gliomas showing imperceptible contrast enhancement on conventional MRI, and to evaluate the relationships of perfusion MRI and magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic results in these tumours. Twenty-two patients with histopathologically proven cerebral gliomas and showing insignificant contrast enhancement on conventional MR were included in the present study. All patients underwent perfusion MRI and MR spectroscopy on a 1.5-T MR system. Significant differences of the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) values and the choline : creatine ratios were noted between low-grade and anaplastic gliomas (P < 0.01). Good correlation was found between the rCBV values and the choline : creatine values (y = 0. 532x + 1.5643; r = 0.67). Perfusion MRI can be a useful tool in assessing the histopathological grade of non-contrast-enhancing cerebral gliomas. Along with MR spectroscopic imaging it can serve as an important technique for preoperative characterization of such gliomas, so that accurate targeting by stereotactic biopsies is possible. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  20. Adaptive memory: young children show enhanced retention of fitness-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary psychologists propose that human cognition evolved through natural selection to solve adaptive problems related to survival and reproduction, with its ultimate function being the enhancement of reproductive fitness. Following this proposal and the evolutionary-developmental view that ancestral selection pressures operated not only on reproductive adults, but also on pre-reproductive children, the present study examined whether young children show superior memory for information that is processed in terms of its survival value. In two experiments, we found such survival processing to enhance retention in 4- to 10-year-old children, relative to various control conditions that also required deep, meaningful processing but were not related to survival. These results suggest that, already in very young children, survival processing is a special and extraordinarily effective form of memory encoding. The results support the functional-evolutionary proposal that young children's memory is "tuned" to process and retain fitness-related information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO 2 ) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO 2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca 2+ decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO 2 . Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO 2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO 2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO 2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Affective significance enhances covert attention: roles of anxiety and word familiarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Manuel G; Eysenck, Michael W

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the processing of emotional words by covert attention, threat-related, positive, and neutral word primes were presented parafoveally (2.2 degrees away from fixation) for 150 ms, under gaze-contingent foveal masking, to prevent eye fixations. The primes were followed by a probe word in a lexical-decision task. In Experiment 1, results showed a parafoveal threat-anxiety superiority: Parafoveal prime threat words facilitated responses to probe threat words for high-anxiety individuals, in comparison with neutral and positive words, and relative to low-anxiety individuals. This reveals an advantage in threat processing by covert attention, without differences in overt attention. However, anxiety was also associated with greater familiarity with threat words, and the parafoveal priming effects were significantly reduced when familiarity was covaried out. To further examine the role of word knowledge, in Experiment 2, vocabulary and word familiarity were equated for low- and high-anxiety groups. In these conditions, the parafoveal threat-anxiety advantage disappeared. This suggests that the enhanced covert-attention effect depends on familiarity with words.

  3. Significance of Additional Non-Mass Enhancement in Patients with Breast Cancer on Preoperative 3T Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI of the Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yun Hee; Cho, Kyu Ran; Park, Eun Kyung; Seo, Bo Kyoung; Woo, Ok Hee; Cho, Sung Bum; Bae, Jeoung Won

    2016-01-01

    the index cancer (P = 0.006), and benignancy was higher in the contralateral breast (P = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, linear (P = 0.001) and segmental (P = 0.005) distributions were significant predictors of malignancy. The possibility of malignancy is strongly indicated when additional NME lesions show linear or segmental enhancement on preoperative 3T DCE-MRI in patients with recently diagnosed breast cancer

  4. The significance of delayed contrast-enhanced CT in chronic subdural hematomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, Hideharu; Ohya, Shigeru; Ueno, Junji; Watanabe, Saburo; Mikabe, Toshio

    1983-01-01

    We have previously, reported our delayed contrast-enhanced CT (DCECT) findings in traumatic subdural hygromas and chronic subdural hematomas. The purpose of this report is to clarify the relationship between the contrast media within subdural hematomas and the delayed enhancement. The clinical subjects were 35 cases of traumatic subdural hematomas. DCECT examinations were performed in all cases. The concentrations of the contrast media within the hematoma were measured during the operations. DCECT showed that the density of the hematomas increased 3 to 6 hours after the injection of the contrast media. The contrast media were detected within the hematomas a few hours after the injection. The contrast media were still present 24 hours after the injection, but disappeared in 48 hours. These findings suggest that contrast media go in and then come out of the subdural hematomas and that the main factor related to delayed enhancement is the concentration of the contrast media within the hematomas. DCECT examination may be most helpful in evaluating the dynamic changes in subdural collections. (author)

  5. Transformation of Lettuce with rol ABC Genes: Extracts Show Enhanced Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antidepressant, and Anticoagulant Activities in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Hammad; Dilshad, Erum; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-03-01

    Lettuce is an edible crop that is well known for dietary and antioxidant benefits. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rol ABC genes on antioxidant and medicinal potential of lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The transformed plants showed 91-102 % increase in total phenolic contents and 53-65 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared to untransformed plants. Total antioxidant capacity and total reducing power increased up to 112 and 133 % in transformed plants, respectively. Results of DPPH assay showed maximum 51 % increase, and lipid peroxidation assay exhibited 20 % increase in antioxidant activity of transformed plants compared to controls. Different in vivo assays were carried out in rats. The transgenic plants showed up to 80 % inhibition in both hot plate analgesic assay and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test, while untransformed plants showed only 45 % inhibition. Antidepressant and anticoagulant potential of transformed plants was also significantly enhanced compared to untransformed plants. Taken together, the present work highlights the use of rol genes to enhance the secondary metabolite production in lettuce and improve its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticoagulatory properties.

  6. Significant enhancement by biochar of caproate production via chain elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuhao; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Hua; Lü, Fan

    2017-08-01

    In this study, biochar was introduced into a chain elongation system to enhance the bioproduction of caproate and caprylate. The concentration of caproate increased to 21.1 g/L upon the addition of biochar, which is the highest level of caproate reported for such a system to date when ethanol was used as electron donor. The addition of biochar created a tougher system with more stable microorganism community structure for chain elongation, in which no obvious inhibition by products or substrates was observed, moreover, the lag phase was reduced 2.3-fold compared to the system without biochar. These reinforcement effect of biochar are attributed to the enhanced conductivity due to the significant enrichment of functional microorganisms via the microbial network surrounding smaller biochar particles, and via the adsorption on the rough surfaces or pores of larger particles, which facilitated electron transfer. Higher amounts of extracellular polymer substances and higher conductivity induced by biochar could contribute to the reinforcement effect in chain elongation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical significance of signal heterogeneity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Nobuhiro; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Moirta, Koichiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Kubo, Yuichiro; Aishima, Shinichi [Kyushu University, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Takayama, Yukihisa [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirabe, Ken [Kyushu University, Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2015-01-15

    To clarify the relationship between the biological behaviour of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging with a special focus on the signal heterogeneity. A total of 68 patients with 70 pathologically proven HCCs were enrolled. On the basis of the signal intensity in the hepatobiliary phase, the lesions were classified into three groups: group 1, homogeneous hypointensity (n = 44); group 2, heterogeneous hyperintensity (n = 20); and group 3, homogeneous hyperintensity (n = 6). The clinicopathological findings were compared among the three groups. The tumour size and the serum level of protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II (PIVKA-II) were significantly higher in group 2 compared to group 1 (p = 0.0155, p = 0.0215, respectively) and compared to group 3 (p = 0.0330, p = 0.0220, respectively). The organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 (OATP8) expression in group 2 and group 3 was significantly higher than in group 1 (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, respectively). Group 2 showed a significantly lower disease-free survival rate compared to group 1 (p = 0.0125), and group 2 was an independent prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p = 0.0308). HCCs in the hepatobiliary phase that are heterogeneously hyperintense on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging have more malignant potential than other types of HCCs. (orig.)

  8. MR findings of medulloblastomas and the significance of contrast enhanced MR of brain and spine for the staging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Dong Ik; Chung, Tae Sub; Lee, Yeon Hee; Suh, Jung Ho

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to analyze the MR findings of medulloblastoma, and to evaluate the subarachnoid dissemination and the significance of contrast enhanced MR of brain and spine for tumor staging. The preoperative brain MR studies of 18 patients (9 males, 9 females; mean age, 9.4 years) with surgically proved medulloblastomas were retrospectively reviewed to characterize these neoplasms with regard to their location, size, MR signal intensity, appearance after contrast enhancement, presence of cyst and necrosis, subarachnoid dissemination, and other associated findings. In 14 patients postoperative spine MR studies were evaluated for staging and therapeutic planning. The most frequent location of medulloblastoma was the inferior vermis and the mean tumor size was 4.1 x 3.6 x 3.9 cm. On T1-weighted image, medulloblastomas generally had low to intermediate signal, predominantly hypointense relative to white matter. On T2-weighted image, medulloblastomas showed moderately high signal, hyperintense relative to white matter. Inhomogeneous contrast enhancement was demonstrated in 13 patients(72.2%) after injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine(Gadolinium). Cyst and necrosis within the tumor were visualized in 15 patients(83.3%). Subarachnoid disseminations of medulloblastomas were noted in 11 patients(61.1%), of which 6 demonstrated intracranial and 2 intraspinal dissemination. Three had both intracranial and intraspinal dissemination. In nine cases with intracranial lesions, there were intraparenchymal mass formation(7), subarachnoid nodules(5), infundibular lesions(2) and diffuse gyral enhancement(1). In five cases with intraspinal lesions, there were extramedullary intradural small nodules(3), central canal nodules(2), intradural masses(1) and fine nodular and sheet-like leptomeningeal enhancement(1). Other associated findings included intratumoral hemorrhage(11.1%), peritumoral edema(44.4%), tonsillar herniation(44.4%), hydrocephalus(88.9%) and

  9. A nonself sugar mimic of the HIV glycan shield shows enhanced antigenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doores, Katie J.; Fulton, Zara; Hong, Vu; Patel, Mitul K.; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Wormald, Mark R.; Finn, M.G.; Burton, Dennis R.; Wilson, Ian A.; Davis, Benjamin G. (Scripps); (Oxford)

    2011-08-24

    Antibody 2G12 uniquely neutralizes a broad range of HIV-1 isolates by binding the high-mannose glycans on the HIV-1 surface glycoprotein, gp120. Antigens that resemble these natural epitopes of 2G12 would be highly desirable components for an HIV-1 vaccine. However, host-produced (self)-carbohydrate motifs have been unsuccessful so far at eliciting 2G12-like antibodies that cross-react with gp120. Based on the surprising observation that 2G12 binds nonproteinaceous monosaccharide D-fructose with higher affinity than D-mannose, we show here that a designed set of nonself, synthetic monosaccharides are potent antigens. When introduced to the terminus of the D1 arm of protein glycans recognized by 2G12, their antigenicity is significantly enhanced. Logical variation of these unnatural sugars pinpointed key modifications, and the molecular basis of this increased antigenicity was elucidated using high-resolution crystallographic analyses. Virus-like particle protein conjugates containing such nonself glycans are bound more tightly by 2G12. As immunogens they elicit higher titers of antibodies than those immunogenic conjugates containing the self D1 glycan motif. These antibodies generated from nonself immunogens also cross-react with this self motif, which is found in the glycan shield, when it is presented in a range of different conjugates and glycans. However, these antibodies did not bind this glycan motif when present on gp120.

  10. Feeding enhances skeletal growth and energetic stores of an Atlantic coral under significantly elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenkard, L.; Cohen, A. L.; McCorkle, D. C.; dePutron, S.; Zicht, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many corals living under the relatively acidic conditions of naturally high-CO2 reefs are calcifying as fast or faster than their conspecifics on naturally low CO2 reefs. These observations are inconsistent with most experimental work that shows a negative impact of ocean acidification on coral calcification. We investigated the link between coral nutritional (energetic) status and the calcification response to significantly elevated CO2. Juveniles of the Atlantic brooding coral, Favia fragum were reared for three weeks under fully crossed CO2 and feeding conditions: ambient (μar =1.6+-0.2) and high CO2 (μar =3.7+-0.3); fed and unfed. In most measured parameters, the effect of feeding is much stronger than the effect of CO2. Nutritionally enhanced (fed) corals, regardless of CO2 condition, have higher concentrations of total lipid and their skeletons are both significantly larger and more developmentally advanced than those of corals relying solely on autotrophy. In measurements of corallite weight, where the impact of CO2 is most apparent, no statistical difference is observed between unfed corals under ambient CO2 conditions and fed corals reared under 1600 ppm CO2. Our results suggest that coral energetic status, which can be enhanced by heterotrophic feeding but depleted by stressors such as bleaching, will play a key role in the coral response to ocean acidification and thus, in the resilience of reef ecosystems under climate change.

  11. Pulmonary spheral tuberculosis: features and clinical significance of spiral dynamic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Ruming; Ma Daqing; Li Tieyi; Chen Yi; Lu Fudong; Zhou Xinhua

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess the features and clinical significance of spiral dynamic CT in patients with pulmonary spheral tuberculosis. Methods: The 54 foci in 42 patients with pulmonary spheral tuberculosis were studied. Thin-sections at 2 mm thickness and 2 mm interval through the nodular center were obtained before and after administration of contrast material. Results: In 54 pulmonary spheral tuberculosis, maximum enhanced CT value in 51 (94.4%, 51/54) foci was less than 20 HU, and more than 20 HU in the other 3(5.6%, 3/54) foci. 27(50.0%, 27/54) foci showed no any enhancement, 24, (44%, 24/54) foci showed capsular enhancement, 1(1.9%, 1/54) focus showed peripheral enhancement and 2(3.7%, 2/54) foci showed extensive enhancement. The accuracy of the correct diagnosis was 25.9% in terms of plain CT and 94.4% in terms of enhanced CT scanning. The difference was significant (x 2 = 50.1, P < 0.05). The curative effect of extensive enhanced foci and peripheral enhanced foci was optimal, capsular enhanced foci was second, and non-enhanced foci was barely satisfactory. Conclusion: Spiral dynamic CT technique may improve the accuracy of diagnosing pulmonary spheral tuberculosis. No enhancement and/or capsular enhancement were suggestive of tuberculosis. The enhancing character of foci might contribute to assess the curative effect of anti-tuberculosis

  12. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis associated with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance showing lambda-type Bence Jones protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagao, Tomoaki; Okura, Takafumi; Miyoshi, Ken-Ichi; Watanabe, Sanae; Manabe, Seiko; Kurata, Mie; Irita, Jun; Fukuoka, Tomikazu; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2005-09-01

    A 79-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of leg edema due to a nephrotic syndrome. Urinary and serum immunoelectrophoresis showed positive for the lambda type of Bence Jones protein. A bone marrow aspiration test revealed mild plasmacytosis (6.4% of the total cells). These findings confirmed her diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). Her renal biopsy specimen revealed mild mesangial cell proliferation and an increase in the mesangial matrix. Immunofluorescence studies showed positive staining for IgG, IgA, C3, and kappa and lambda light chains in the capillary wall and mesangium area. Electron microscopy showed that the electron deposits in the thickened basement membrane were formed by randomly arranged 16- to 18-nm nonbranching fibrils. A Congo red stain for amyloid was negative. These findings corresponded with the diagnosis of fibrillary glomerulonephritis. Therefore, this case showed a rare combination of fibrillary glomerulonephritis and MGUS.

  13. Agonist anti-GITR antibody significantly enhances the therapeutic efficacy of Listeria monocytogenes-based immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrimali, Rajeev; Ahmad, Shamim; Berrong, Zuzana; Okoev, Grigori; Matevosyan, Adelaida; Razavi, Ghazaleh Shoja E; Petit, Robert; Gupta, Seema; Mkrtichyan, Mikayel; Khleif, Samir N

    2017-08-15

    We previously demonstrated that in addition to generating an antigen-specific immune response, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm)-based immunotherapy significantly reduces the ratio of regulatory T cells (Tregs)/CD4 + and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the tumor microenvironment. Since Lm-based immunotherapy is able to inhibit the immune suppressive environment, we hypothesized that combining this treatment with agonist antibody to a co-stimulatory receptor that would further boost the effector arm of immunity will result in significant improvement of anti-tumor efficacy of treatment. Here we tested the immune and therapeutic efficacy of Listeria-based immunotherapy combination with agonist antibody to glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) in TC-1 mouse tumor model. We evaluated the potency of combination on tumor growth and survival of treated animals and profiled tumor microenvironment for effector and suppressor cell populations. We demonstrate that combination of Listeria-based immunotherapy with agonist antibody to GITR synergizes to improve immune and therapeutic efficacy of treatment in a mouse tumor model. We show that this combinational treatment leads to significant inhibition of tumor-growth, prolongs survival and leads to complete regression of established tumors in 60% of treated animals. We determined that this therapeutic benefit of combinational treatment is due to a significant increase in tumor infiltrating effector CD4 + and CD8 + T cells along with a decrease of inhibitory cells. To our knowledge, this is the first study that exploits Lm-based immunotherapy combined with agonist anti-GITR antibody as a potent treatment strategy that simultaneously targets both the effector and suppressor arms of the immune system, leading to significantly improved anti-tumor efficacy. We believe that our findings depicted in this manuscript provide a promising and translatable strategy that can enhance the overall

  14. [Different aluminum adjuvants significantly enhances the effect of immunization on Brucella Omp31].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Rui; Xiang, Qingke; Liu, Zhongqi; Xiao, Fei; Yang, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of aluminum phosphate (AP) and aluminum hydroxide (AH) as adjuvants on Brucella outer membrane protein 31 (Omp31) in inducing humoral and cellular immune responses and immune protection. Methods AP and AH adjuvants were prepared and separately mixed with Brucella Omp31 protein to measure the adsorption rates. The AP- and AH-absorbed Omp31 protein were intraperitoneally injected into BLAB/c mice at 0, 2, and 4 weeks, and meanwhile, unabsorbed Omp31 protein and PBS were used as controls. The levels of serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract secretion sIgA were determined by ELISA at 0, 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Spleen cells were collected for culture at 6 weeks, and the cells were stimulated by Omp31 for 48 hours followed by the analysis of IFN-γ and IL-10 levels in the supernatants by ELISA, and the determination of lymphocyte proliferation by CCK-8 assay. The mice were challenged with Brucella at 6 weeks, and bacterial content in spleen tissue was determined 1 and 2 weeks later. Results AP and AH could absorb over 70% and 85% of the Omp31 protein, respectively, for solutions at all the tested concentrations. ELISA suggested that serum IgG, IgG1, IgG2a and genital tract sIgA levels peaked 2 weeks after the last immunization for both AP and AH groups, and antibody level was higher in the AP and AH groups than the control groups, and higher in the AH group than in the AP group. CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferating rate of lymphocytes induced by the AH group was significantly higher than that by the AP group, and the AH group also showed significantly higher IFN-γ level in the supernatant than the AP group, but no significant difference in IL-10 level. The AH group had remarkably lower bacterial load in the spleen than the AP group 2 weeks after challenged by Brucella 16M strain. Conclusion Both AP and AH adjuvants effectively enhanced immunogenicity and immune protection of the Brucella Omp31 protein, and AH was superior to AP in

  15. Hepatic enhancement on Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR imaging: comparison between cirrhotic and normal livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sang Soo; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Lim, Hyo Soon; Yoon, Woong; Seo, Jeong Jin; Park, Jin Gyoon

    2004-01-01

    To compare the enhancement features of hepatic parenchyma between cirrhotic and normal liver, using Gd-BOPTA-enhanced delayed MR imaging. The 60 patients (35 with cirrhotic and 25 with normal liver) included in our study underwent Gd-BOPTA-enhanced MR imaging using a 1.5T system with a phase-array multicoil. In all cases, T1-weighted in-phase and opposed-phase gradient-echo MR imaging was performed before and 60 minutes after intravenous administration of a bolus of Gd-BOPTA. All images were quantitatively analysed by comparing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and signal enhancement (SE) of cirrhotic and normal liver before and after contrast enhancement, and in cirrhotic patients, SNR and SE were also compared in terms of the Child-Pugh classification. For qualitative analysis, the hepatic enhancement patterns of cirrhotic and normal liver were classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous according to the consensual findings of two radiologists. At contrast-enhanced imaging, both cirrhotic (p<0.001) and normal liver (p<0.001) showed substantially increased SNR relative to unenhanced images, and the SNR of cirrhotic liver was significantly lower than that of normal livers at both in-phase (p<0.001) and opposed-phase (p<0.001) imaging. The SE of cirrhotic liver was significantly lower than that of normal liver (in-phase:p=0.002; opposed phase:p=0.011). Both Child-Pugh class A (p<0.001) and B (p<0.001) cirrhotic liver showed a substantial increase in SNR at contrast-enhanced imaging relative to unenhanced imaging and the SNR of Child-Pugh class A was significantly higher than that of Child-Pugh class B at both in-phase (p<0.001) and opposed-phase (p=0.022) imaging. In addition, the SE of class A was significantly higher than that of class B at in-phase imaging (p=0.004). Cirrhotic liver showed heterogeneous enhancement in 20 of 35 patients (57%), whereas normal liver showed homogeneous enhancement in all patients. At Gd-BOPTA-enhanced delayed MR imaging, cirrhotic liver

  16. Significantly enhanced memory effect in metallic glass by multistep training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M. X.; Luo, P.; Sun, Y. T.; Wen, P.; Bai, H. Y.; Liu, Y. H.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-11-01

    The state of metastable equilibrium glass can carry an imprint of the past and exhibit memory effect. As a hallmark of glassy dynamics, memory effect can affect glassy behavior as it evolves further upon time. Even though the physical picture of the memory effect has been well studied, it is unclear whether a glass can recall as many pieces of information as possible, and if so, how the glass will accordingly behave. We report that by fractionizing temperature interval, inserting multistep aging protocols, and optimizing the time of each temperature step, i.e., by imposing a multistep "training" on a prototypical P d40N i10C u30P20 metallic glass, the memory of the trained glass can be significantly strengthened, marked by a pronounced augment in potential energy. These findings provide a new guide for regulating the energy state of glass by enhancing the nonequilibrium behaviors of the memory effect and offer an opportunity to develop a clearer physical picture of glassy dynamics.

  17. Observation of Significant Quantum Efficiency Enhancement from a Polarized Photocathode with Distributed Bragg Reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shukui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Poelker, Matthew [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Stutzman, Marcy L. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Chen, Yiqiao [SVT Associates, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States); Moy, Aaron [SVT Associates, Inc., Eden Prairie, MN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Polarized photocathodes with higher Quantum efficiency (QE) would help to reduce the technological challenge associated with producing polarized beams at milliampere levels, because less laser light would be required, which simplifies photocathode cooling requirements. And for a given amount of available laser power, higher QE would extend the photogun operating lifetime. The distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) concept was proposed to enhance the QE of strained-superlattice photocathodes by increasing the absorption of the incident photons using a Fabry-Perot cavity formed between the front surface of the photocathode and the substrate that includes a DBR, without compromising electron polarization. Here we present recent results showing QE enhancement of a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode made with a DBR structure. Typically, a GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathode without DBR provides a QE of 1%, at a laser wavelength corresponding to peak polarization. In comparison, the GaAs/GaAsP strained-superlattice photocathodes with DBR exhibited an enhancement of over 2 when the incident laser wavelength was tuned to meet the resonant condition for the Fabry-Perot resonator.

  18. The development of adaptive memory: Young children show enhanced retention of animacy-related information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Alp; John, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Previous developmental work has indicated that animacy is a foundational ontogenetic category that is given priority already early in life. Here, we investigated whether such priority is also present in children's episodic memory, examining whether young children show enhanced retention of animacy-related information. Kindergartners and younger and older elementary school children were presented with fictitious (non)words (e.g., BULA, LAFE) paired with properties characteristic of humans (e.g., "likes music"), (nonhuman) animals (e.g., "builds nests"), and inanimate things (e.g., "has four edges") and were asked to rate the animacy status of each nonword. After a retention interval, a surprise recognition test for the nonwords was administered. We found enhanced recognition of nonwords paired with human and animal properties compared with (the same) nonwords paired with inanimate properties. The size of this animacy advantage was comparable across age groups, suggesting developmental invariance of the advantage over the age range examined (i.e., 4-11years). The results support a functional-evolutionary view on memory, suggesting that already young children's memory is "tuned" to process and retain animacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical significance of intraluminal contrast enhancement in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection. A black-blood MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppenrath, Eva; Lenz, Olga; Sommer, Nora; Treitl, Karla; Reiser, Maximilian [Munich Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology; Lummel, Nina [Univ. Hospital Klinikum rechts der Isar Munich, Munich (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology and Interventional Neuroradiology; Linn, Jennifer [Univ. Hospital Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Neuroradiology; Bamberg, Fabian [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Diagnostical and Interventional Radiology; Pfefferkorn, Thomas [Munich Univ. (Germany). Interdisciplinary Stroke Center Munich; Saam, Tobias [Radiology Center Rosenheim (Germany)

    2017-07-15

    Recent studies have suggested that intraluminal thrombi show contrast enhancement on carotid black-blood T1w MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of intraluminal contrast enhancement (iCE) regarding symptom status in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD). 33 consecutive patients (19 men) with sCAD received a brain MRI (DIFF, T2w, T2{sup *}w, FLAIR) and a multi-sequence 3T-MRI with fat-saturated high-resolution black-blood T1w-sequences pre- and post-contrast, contrast-enhanced MR angiography and TOF images of carotid and vertebral arteries. Presence/absence of iCE, vessel occlusion and vessel wall hematoma (hyperintense in T1w pre-contrast) were analysed by two radiologists in consensus decision. 44 of 132 analysed vessels had a vessel wall hematoma, consistent with sCAD. In 17 of 44 dissected vessels an acute ischemic stroke was found. 16 of 17 (94.1 %) vessels ipsilateral to ischemic stroke demonstrated iCE, compared to 9 of 44 (20.4 %) dissected vessels without stroke (P< 0.001). The presence/absence of iCE resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for ischemic stroke of 0.94, 0.67, 0.64, 0.95, and 0.77, respectively, and an odds ratio of 32.0. iCE, which is suggestive of intraluminal thrombus formation, is strongly correlated with ischemic symptoms in patients with sCAD.

  20. Clinical significance of intraluminal contrast enhancement in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection. A black-blood MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppenrath, Eva; Lenz, Olga; Sommer, Nora; Treitl, Karla; Reiser, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that intraluminal thrombi show contrast enhancement on carotid black-blood T1w MRI. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of intraluminal contrast enhancement (iCE) regarding symptom status in patients with spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD). 33 consecutive patients (19 men) with sCAD received a brain MRI (DIFF, T2w, T2"*w, FLAIR) and a multi-sequence 3T-MRI with fat-saturated high-resolution black-blood T1w-sequences pre- and post-contrast, contrast-enhanced MR angiography and TOF images of carotid and vertebral arteries. Presence/absence of iCE, vessel occlusion and vessel wall hematoma (hyperintense in T1w pre-contrast) were analysed by two radiologists in consensus decision. 44 of 132 analysed vessels had a vessel wall hematoma, consistent with sCAD. In 17 of 44 dissected vessels an acute ischemic stroke was found. 16 of 17 (94.1 %) vessels ipsilateral to ischemic stroke demonstrated iCE, compared to 9 of 44 (20.4 %) dissected vessels without stroke (P< 0.001). The presence/absence of iCE resulted in a sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for ischemic stroke of 0.94, 0.67, 0.64, 0.95, and 0.77, respectively, and an odds ratio of 32.0. iCE, which is suggestive of intraluminal thrombus formation, is strongly correlated with ischemic symptoms in patients with sCAD.

  1. Antenna-assisted enhanced transmission through subwavelength nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Sanshui; Peng, Liang; Mortensen, Asger

    2010-01-01

    By structural engineering of sub-wavelength apertures, we numerically demonstrate that transmission through apertures can be significantly enhanced. Based on equivalent circuit theory analysis, structured apertures are obtained with a 1900-fold transmission enhancement factor. We show that the en......By structural engineering of sub-wavelength apertures, we numerically demonstrate that transmission through apertures can be significantly enhanced. Based on equivalent circuit theory analysis, structured apertures are obtained with a 1900-fold transmission enhancement factor. We show...

  2. Citrobacter rodentium is an unstable pathogen showing evidence of significant genomic flux.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Petty

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen that causes attaching and effacing (A/E lesions. It shares a common virulence strategy with the clinically significant human A/E pathogens enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC and enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC and is widely used to model this route of pathogenesis. We previously reported the complete genome sequence of C. rodentium ICC168, where we found that the genome displayed many characteristics of a newly evolved pathogen. In this study, through PFGE, sequencing of isolates showing variation, whole genome transcriptome analysis and examination of the mobile genetic elements, we found that, consistent with our previous hypothesis, the genome of C. rodentium is unstable as a result of repeat-mediated, large-scale genome recombination and because of active transposition of mobile genetic elements such as the prophages. We sequenced an additional C. rodentium strain, EX-33, to reveal that the reference strain ICC168 is representative of the species and that most of the inactivating mutations were common to both isolates and likely to have occurred early on in the evolution of this pathogen. We draw parallels with the evolution of other bacterial pathogens and conclude that C. rodentium is a recently evolved pathogen that may have emerged alongside the development of inbred mice as a model for human disease.

  3. Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver: Correlation of relative hepatic enhancement, relative renal enhancement, and liver to kidneys enhancement ratio with serum hepatic enzyme levels and eGFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talakic, Emina; Steiner, Jürgen; Kalmar, Peter; Lutfi, Andre [Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Quehenberger, Franz [Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Documentation, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 2, 8036 Graz (Austria); Reiter, Ursula; Fuchsjäger, Michael [Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria); Schöllnast, Helmut, E-mail: helmut.schoellnast@medunigraz.at [Division of General Radiology, Department of Radiology, Medical University of Graz, Auenbruggerplatz 9, 8036 Graz (Austria)

    2014-04-15

    Objectives: To assess the correlation of relative hepatic enhancement (RHE), relative renal enhancement (RRE) and liver to kidneys enhancement ratio (LKR) with serum hepatic enzyme levels and eGFR in Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver and to assess threshold levels for predicting enhancement of the liver parenchyma. Methods: Data of 75 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI of the liver were collected. Images were obtained before contrast injection, during the early arterial phase, late arterial phase, venous phase, delayed phase, and hepatobiliary phase which was 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. Signal intensity of the liver and the kidneys in all phases was defined using region-of-interest measurements for relative enhancement calculation. Serum hepatic enzyme levels and eGFR were available in all patients. Spearman correlation test was used to test the correlation of RHE, RRE and LKR with serum hepatic enzyme levels and eGFR. Results: In the hepatobiliary phase all serum hepatic enzymes were significantly correlated with RHE; total bilirubin (TBIL) and cholin esterase (CHE) showed strongest correlations. TBIL and CHE were significantly correlated with RRE in the arterial phases. TBIL and CHE were significantly correlated with LKR in the arterial phase and hepatobiliary phase. eGFR showed no correlation. Conclusions: In Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI, TBIL and CHE levels may predict RHE, RRE and LKR.

  4. Analysis of ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Chung, Yong In; Chang, Kee Hyun [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1980-12-15

    A total of 83 cases with ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography were radiologically analyzed to determine the specific CT findings of the primary and metastatic brain tumor, inflammatory disease, resolving hematoma, and cerebral infarction. The brief results are as follows. Glioblastoma multiform show a characteristic thick or thin irregular ring enhancement with significant mass effect and surrounding edema. Most of the metastatic tumors also show irregular thick or thin walled ring enhancement with significant surrounding edema. Tumoral hemorrhage was observed in the metastatic melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The brain abscess usually show characteristic thin regular and smooth ring enhancement with moderate peripheral edema. The parasitic cysts also show thin regular ring enhancement with different degree of surrounding edema. Ring enhancement in resolving hematomas and cerebral infarctions usually occurs about 10-30 days after the onset of symptoms, which shows thin and regular ring pattern without significant surrounding edema.

  5. Analysis of ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Seung Jae; Chung, Yong In; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1980-01-01

    A total of 83 cases with ring enhancement in the cranial computed tomography were radiologically analyzed to determine the specific CT findings of the primary and metastatic brain tumor, inflammatory disease, resolving hematoma, and cerebral infarction. The brief results are as follows. Glioblastoma multiform show a characteristic thick or thin irregular ring enhancement with significant mass effect and surrounding edema. Most of the metastatic tumors also show irregular thick or thin walled ring enhancement with significant surrounding edema. Tumoral hemorrhage was observed in the metastatic melanoma, breast cancer, and lung cancer. The brain abscess usually show characteristic thin regular and smooth ring enhancement with moderate peripheral edema. The parasitic cysts also show thin regular ring enhancement with different degree of surrounding edema. Ring enhancement in resolving hematomas and cerebral infarctions usually occurs about 10-30 days after the onset of symptoms, which shows thin and regular ring pattern without significant surrounding edema

  6. DNA Methylation Profiling of Human Prefrontal Cortex Neurons in Heroin Users Shows Significant Difference between Genomic Contexts of Hyper- and Hypomethylation and a Younger Epigenetic Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Kozlenkov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We employed Illumina 450 K Infinium microarrays to profile DNA methylation (DNAm in neuronal nuclei separated by fluorescence-activated sorting from the postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC of heroin users who died from heroin overdose (N = 37, suicide completers (N = 22 with no evidence of heroin use and from control subjects who did not abuse illicit drugs and died of non-suicide causes (N = 28. We identified 1298 differentially methylated CpG sites (DMSs between heroin users and controls, and 454 DMSs between suicide completers and controls (p < 0.001. DMSs and corresponding genes (DMGs in heroin users showed significant differences in the preferential context of hyper and hypo DM. HyperDMSs were enriched in gene bodies and exons but depleted in promoters, whereas hypoDMSs were enriched in promoters and enhancers. In addition, hyperDMGs showed preference for genes expressed specifically by glutamatergic as opposed to GABAergic neurons and enrichment for axonogenesis- and synaptic-related gene ontology categories, whereas hypoDMGs were enriched for transcription factor activity- and gene expression regulation-related terms. Finally, we found that the DNAm-based “epigenetic age” of neurons from heroin users was younger than that in controls. Suicide-related results were more difficult to interpret. Collectively, these findings suggest that the observed DNAm differences could represent functionally significant marks of heroin-associated plasticity in the OFC.

  7. Motivationally Significant Stimuli Show Visual Prior Entry: Evidence for Attentional Capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Greg L.; Anderson, Adam A. K.; Pratt, Jay

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies that have found attentional capture effects for stimuli of motivational significance do not directly measure initial attentional deployment, leaving it unclear to what extent these items produce attentional capture. Visual prior entry, as measured by temporal order judgments (TOJs), rests on the premise that allocated attention…

  8. 2'-OMe-phosphorodithioate-modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherry Y; Yang, Xianbin; Gharpure, Kshipra M; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Egli, Martin; McGuire, Michael H; Nagaraja, Archana S; Miyake, Takahito M; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pecot, Chad V; Taylor, Morgan; Pradeep, Sunila; Sierant, Malgorzata; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Choi, Hyun J; Previs, Rebecca A; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N; Huang, Li; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Ivan, Cristina; Sehgal, Vasudha; Singhania, Richa; Han, Hee-Dong; Su, Chang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Dalton, Heather J; Kovvali, Chandra; Keyomarsi, Khandan; McMillan, Nigel A J; Overwijk, Willem W; Liu, Jinsong; Lee, Ju-Seog; Baggerly, Keith A; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ram, Prahlad T; Nawrot, Barbara; Sood, Anil K

    2014-03-12

    Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2'-O-Methyl (2'-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2'-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM domain containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumours following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumour effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types.

  9. Significant enhancement of magnetoresistance with the reduction of particle size in nanometer scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Kalipada; Dasgupta, P.; Poddar, A.; Das, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Physics of materials with large magnetoresistance (MR), defined as the percentage change of electrical resistance with the application of external magnetic field, has been an active field of research for quite some times. In addition to the fundamental interest, large MR has widespread application that includes the field of magnetic field sensor technology. New materials with large MR is interesting. However it is more appealing to vast scientific community if a method describe to achieve many fold enhancement of MR of already known materials. Our study on several manganite samples [La1−xCaxMnO3 (x = 0.52, 0.54, 0.55)] illustrates the method of significant enhancement of MR with the reduction of the particle size in nanometer scale. Our experimentally observed results are explained by considering model consisted of a charge ordered antiferromagnetic core and a shell having short range ferromagnetic correlation between the uncompensated surface spins in nanoscale regime. The ferromagnetic fractions obtained theoretically in the nanoparticles has been shown to be in the good agreement with the experimental results. The method of several orders of magnitude improvement of the magnetoresistive property will have enormous potential for magnetic field sensor technology. PMID:26837285

  10. Prognostic significance of contrast-enhanced CT attenuation value in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asayama, Yoshiki [Kyushu University, Department of Advanced Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Takayama, Yukihisa; Okamoto, Daisuke; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Departments of Clinical Radiology, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohtsuka, Takao [Kyushu University, Departments of Surgery and Oncology, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshizumi, Tomoharu [Kyushu University, Departments of Surgery and Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Aishima, Shinichi [Saga University, Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kyushu University, Departments of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan); Oda, Yoshinao [Kyushu University, Departments of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    To determine whether washout characteristics of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) could predict survival in patients with extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (EHC). This study collected 46 resected cases. All cases were examined by dynamic contrast study on multidetector-row CT. Region-of-interest measurements were obtained at the non-enhanced, portal venous phase and delayed phase in the tumour and were used to calculate the washout ratio as follows: [(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at delayed enhanced CT)/(attenuation value at portal venous phase CT - attenuation value at unenhanced CT)] x 100. On the basis of the median washout ratio, we classified the cases into two groups, a high-washout group and low-washout group. Associations between overall survival and various factors including washout rates were analysed. The median washout ratio was 29.4 %. Univariate analysis revealed that a lower washout ratio, venous invasion, lymphatic permeation and lymph node metastasis were associated with shorter survival. Multivariate analysis identified the lower washout ratio as an independent prognostic factor (hazard ratio, 3.768; p value, 0.027). The washout ratio obtained from the contrast-enhanced CT may be a useful imaging biomarker for the prediction of survival of patients with EHC. (orig.)

  11. Significant internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells emitting at ~350 nm via step quantum well structure design

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng; Sun, Haiding; Ajia, Idris A.; Roqan, Iman S.; Zhang, Daliang; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Li, Xiaohang

    2017-01-01

    Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at similar to 350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.

  12. Significant internal quantum efficiency enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells emitting at ~350 nm via step quantum well structure design

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Feng

    2017-05-03

    Significant internal quantum efficiency (IQE) enhancement of GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) emitting at similar to 350 nm was achieved via a step quantum well (QW) structure design. The MQW structures were grown on AlGaN/AlN/sapphire templates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). High resolution x-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) were performed, showing sharp interface of the MQWs. Weak beam dark field imaging was conducted, indicating a similar dislocation density of the investigated MQWs samples. The IQE of GaN/AlGaN MQWs was estimated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (TDPL). An IQE enhancement of about two times was observed for the GaN/AlGaN step QW structure, compared with conventional QW structure. Based on the theoretical calculation, this IQE enhancement was attributed to the suppressed polarization-induced field, and thus the improved electron-hole wave-function overlap in the step QW.

  13. SIGNIFICANT ENHANCEMENT OF H{sub 2} FORMATION IN DISK GALAXIES UNDER STRONG RAM PRESSURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Benjamin; Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2016-05-10

    We show for the first time that H{sub 2} formation on dust grains can be enhanced in disk galaxies under strong ram pressure (RP). We numerically investigate how the time evolution of H i and H{sub 2} components in disk galaxies orbiting a group/cluster of galaxies can be influenced by the hydrodynamical interaction between the gaseous components of the galaxies and the hot intracluster medium. We find that compression of H i caused by RP increases H{sub 2} formation in disk galaxies before RP rapidly strips H i, cutting off the fuel supply and causing a drop in H{sub 2} density. We also find that the level of this H{sub 2} formation enhancement in a disk galaxy under RP depends on the mass of its host cluster dark matter halo, the initial positions and velocities of the disk galaxy, and the disk inclination angle with respect to the orbital plane. We demonstrate that dust growth is a key factor in the evolution of the H i and H{sub 2} mass in disk galaxies under strong RP. We discuss how the correlation between H{sub 2} fractions and surface gas densities of disk galaxies evolves with time in the galaxies under RP. We also discuss whether galaxy-wide star formation rates (SFRs) in cluster disk galaxies can be enhanced by RP if the SFRs depend on H{sub 2} densities.

  14. Self-Assembled Complexes of Horseradish Peroxidase with Magnetic Nanoparticles Showing Enhanced Peroxidase Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Corgié, Stéphane C.

    2012-02-15

    Bio-nanocatalysts (BNCs) consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) self-assembled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) enhance enzymatic activity due to the faster turnover and lower inhibition of the enzyme. The size and magnetization of the MNPs affect the formation of the BNCs, and ultimately control the activity of the bound enzymes. Smaller MNPs form small clusters with a low affinity for the HRP. While the turnover for the bound fraction is drastically increased, there is no difference in the H 2O 2 inhibitory concentration. Larger MNPs with a higher magnetization aggregate in larger clusters and have a higher affinity for the enzyme and a lower substrate inhibition. All of the BNCs are more active than the free enzyme or the MNPs (BNCs > HRP ≤laquo; MNPs). Since the BNCs show surprising resilience in various reaction conditions, they may pave the way towards new hybrid biocatalysts with increased activities and unique catalytic properties for magnetosensitive enzymatic reactions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  16. Endothelial Protein C–Targeting Liposomes Show Enhanced Uptake and Improved Therapeutic Efficacy in Human Retinal Endothelial Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arta, Anthoula; Eriksen, Anne Z.; Melander, Fredrik

    2018-01-01

    PURPOSE. To determine whether human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) express the endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) and to realize its potential as a targeting moiety by developing novel single and dual corticosteroid–loaded functionalized liposomes that exhibit both enhanced uptake by H...... of cell tube formations in contrast to nontargeting liposomes. CONCLUSIONS. We show that HRECs express EPCR and this receptor could be a promising nanomedicine target in ocular diseases where the endothelial barrier of the retina is compromised....

  17. Mice Overexpressing Type 1 Adenylyl Cyclase Show Enhanced Spatial Memory Flexibility in the Absence of Intact Synaptic Long-Term Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Hongbing

    2013-01-01

    There is significant interest in understanding the contribution of intracellular signaling and synaptic substrates to memory flexibility, which involves new learning and suppression of obsolete memory. Here, we report that enhancement of Ca[superscript 2+]-stimulated cAMP signaling by overexpressing type 1 adenylyl cyclase (AC1) facilitated…

  18. Psychopaths show enhanced amygdala activation during fear conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas eSchultz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into primary and secondary psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional fearlessness, while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental deficit in amygdala function, and previous studies have provided support for a low-fear model of psychopathy. However, many of these studies fail to use appropriate screening procedures, use liberal inclusion criteria, or have used unconventional approaches to assay amygdala function. We measured brain activity with BOLD imaging in primary and secondary psychopaths and non-psychopathic control subjects during Pavlovian fear conditioning. In contrast to the low-fear model, we observed normal fear expression in primary psychopaths. Psychopaths also displayed greater differential BOLD activity in the amygdala relative to matched controls. Inverse patterns of activity were observed in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC for primary versus secondary psychopaths. Primary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in the dorsal and ventral ACC consistent with enhanced fear expression, while secondary psychopaths exhibited a pattern of activity in these regions consistent with fear inhibition. These results contradict the low-fear model of psychopathy and suggest that the low fear observed for psychopaths in previous studies may be specific to secondary psychopaths.

  19. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.

    2014-01-01

    identified as ‘core’ OTUs as they were found in all or almost all samples and accounted for almost 99 % of all sequences. The remaining OTUs were only sporadically found and only in small amounts. Cluster and factor analyses showed patterns of co-existence among the core species. Cluster analysis grouped...... the 21 core OTUs into three clusters: cluster 1 consisting of saprotrophs, cluster 2 consisting mainly of yeasts and saprotrophs and cluster 3 consisting of wheat pathogens. Principal component extraction showed that the Fusarium graminearum group was inversely related to OTUs of clusters 1 and 2....

  20. Persistent adrenal enhancement may be the earliest CT sign of significant hypovolaemic shock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, S.C.W.; Lee, R.; Tung, H.K.S.; Chan, F.L

    2003-04-01

    AIM: To report two cases of intense and persistent adrenal enhancement on computed tomography (CT) examinations of the abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two patients presented with septic shock, one due to pyogenic liver abscess and the other strangulated obturator hernia with gangrenous bowel. Both patients were resuscitated with fluid before undergoing unenhanced and enhanced CT. RESULTS: In both patients intravascular volume was not reduced as evident by normal calibre of the aorta and inferior vena cava. One patient had abnormal enhancement pattern in the liver and kidneys, suggesting hypoperfusion. The other patient had normal enhancement pattern of the other abdominal viscera. Both patient subsequently died with multi-organ failure. CONCLUSION: We propose that adrenal enhancement may be a sign of hyperperfusion in early stage of shock due to the crucial role of the adrenal glands in this clinical situation. This may not persist with further circulatory compromise due to vasoconstriction. If confirmed, its recognition has potential value of identifying a therapeutic window before irreversible shock set in.

  1. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Gold nanodisc arrays as near infrared metal-enhanced fluorescence platforms with tuneable enhancement factors

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, J.; Theodorou, I. G.; Centeno, A.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N. M.; Ryan, M. P.; Xie, F.

    2016-01-01

    Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is a physical effect through which the near-field interaction of fluorophores with metallic nanoparticles can lead to large fluorescence enhancement. MEF can be exploited in many fluorescence-based biomedical applications, with potentially significant improvement in detection sensitivity and contrast enhancement. Offering lower autofluorescence and minimal photoinduced damage, the development of effective and multifunctional MEF platforms in the near-infrared (NIR) region, is particularly desirable. In this work, the enhancement of NIR fluorescence caused by interaction with regular arrays of cylindrical gold (Au) nanoparticles (nanodiscs), fabricated through nanosphere lithography, is reported. Significant MEF of up to 235 times is obtained, with tuneable enhancement factors. The effect of array structure on fluorescence enhancement is investigated by semi-quantitatively de-convoluting excitation enhancement from emission enhancement, and modelling the local electric field enhancement. By considering arrays of Au nanodiscs with the same extinction maximum, it is shown that the excitation enhancement, due to increased electric field, is not significantly different for the particle sizes and separation distances considered. Rather, it is seen that the emission from the fluorophore is strongly enhanced, and is dependent on the topography, in particular particle size. The results show that the structural characteristics of Au nanodisc arrays can be manipulated to tune their enhancement factor, and hence their sensitivity.

  3. Gold nanodisc arrays as near infrared metal-enhanced fluorescence platforms with tuneable enhancement factors

    KAUST Repository

    Pang, J.

    2016-12-28

    Metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF) is a physical effect through which the near-field interaction of fluorophores with metallic nanoparticles can lead to large fluorescence enhancement. MEF can be exploited in many fluorescence-based biomedical applications, with potentially significant improvement in detection sensitivity and contrast enhancement. Offering lower autofluorescence and minimal photoinduced damage, the development of effective and multifunctional MEF platforms in the near-infrared (NIR) region, is particularly desirable. In this work, the enhancement of NIR fluorescence caused by interaction with regular arrays of cylindrical gold (Au) nanoparticles (nanodiscs), fabricated through nanosphere lithography, is reported. Significant MEF of up to 235 times is obtained, with tuneable enhancement factors. The effect of array structure on fluorescence enhancement is investigated by semi-quantitatively de-convoluting excitation enhancement from emission enhancement, and modelling the local electric field enhancement. By considering arrays of Au nanodiscs with the same extinction maximum, it is shown that the excitation enhancement, due to increased electric field, is not significantly different for the particle sizes and separation distances considered. Rather, it is seen that the emission from the fluorophore is strongly enhanced, and is dependent on the topography, in particular particle size. The results show that the structural characteristics of Au nanodisc arrays can be manipulated to tune their enhancement factor, and hence their sensitivity.

  4. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS FOR ENHANCING STRATEGIC AND TACTICAL PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Jalal Karim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Management Information Systems (MIS is the key factor to facilitate and attain efficient decision making in an organization. This research explores the extent to which management information systems implemented to make successful decisions at two selected financial organizations. The research examined whether the selected financial institutions of Bahrain vary as to the use of Management Information Systems leadership of decision making for strategic and tactical planning purposes. The research adapted the quantitative research design to examine two research hypotheses. A total of 190 forms were equally distributed to those who are working at different management levels at the selected organizations. The results of the research showed that MIS was primarily used to enhance strategic planning in both financial institutions. The regression analysis revealed that Tactical planning is found to have no effect on Decision Making, while Strategic planning has a clear effect on the Decision Making Effectiveness in both organizations

  5. Macroporous Inverse Opal-like MoxC with Incorporated Mo Vacancies for Significantly Enhanced Hydrogen Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Zhao, Xianglong; Mahmood, Javeed; Okyay, Mahmut Sait; Jung, Sun-Min; Ahmad, Ishfaq; Kim, Seok-Jin; Han, Gao-Feng; Park, Noejung; Baek, Jong-Beom

    2017-07-25

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is one of the most important pathways for producing pure and clean hydrogen. Although platinum (Pt) is the most efficient HER electrocatalyst, its practical application is significantly hindered by high-cost and scarcity. In this work, an Mo x C with incorporated Mo vacancies and macroporous inverse opal-like (IOL) structure (Mo x C-IOL) was synthesized and studied as a low-cost efficient HER electrocatalyst. The macroporous IOL structure was controllably fabricated using a facile-hard template strategy. As a result of the combined benefits of the Mo vacancies and structural advantages, including appropriate hydrogen binding energy, large exposed surface, robust IOL structure and fast mass/charge transport, the synthesized Mo x C-IOL exhibited significantly enhanced HER electrocatalytic performance with good stability, with performance comparable or superior to Pt wire in both acidic and alkaline solutions.

  6. Current lipid extraction methods are significantly enhanced adding a water treatment step in Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaojie; Zhao, Xinhe; Turcotte, François; Deschênes, Jean-Sébastien; Tremblay, Réjean; Jolicoeur, Mario

    2017-02-11

    Microalgae have the potential to rapidly accumulate lipids of high interest for the food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical and energy (e.g. biodiesel) industries. However, current lipid extraction methods show efficiency limitation and until now, extraction protocols have not been fully optimized for specific lipid compounds. The present study thus presents a novel lipid extraction method, consisting in the addition of a water treatment of biomass between the two-stage solvent extraction steps of current extraction methods. The resulting modified method not only enhances lipid extraction efficiency, but also yields a higher triacylglycerols (TAG) ratio, which is highly desirable for biodiesel production. Modification of four existing methods using acetone, chloroform/methanol (Chl/Met), chloroform/methanol/H 2 O (Chl/Met/H 2 O) and dichloromethane/methanol (Dic/Met) showed respective lipid extraction yield enhancement of 72.3, 35.8, 60.3 and 60.9%. The modified acetone method resulted in the highest extraction yield, with 68.9 ± 0.2% DW total lipids. Extraction of TAG was particularly improved with the water treatment, especially for the Chl/Met/H 2 O and Dic/Met methods. The acetone method with the water treatment led to the highest extraction level of TAG with 73.7 ± 7.3 µg/mg DW, which is 130.8 ± 10.6% higher than the maximum value obtained for the four classical methods (31.9 ± 4.6 µg/mg DW). Interestingly, the water treatment preferentially improved the extraction of intracellular fractions, i.e. TAG, sterols, and free fatty acids, compared to the lipid fractions of the cell membranes, which are constituted of phospholipids (PL), acetone mobile polar lipids and hydrocarbons. Finally, from the 32 fatty acids analyzed for both neutral lipids (NL) and polar lipids (PL) fractions, it is clear that the water treatment greatly improves NL-to-PL ratio for the four standard methods assessed. Water treatment of biomass after the first solvent extraction step

  7. Exploring the chemical enhancement for surface-enhanced Raman scattering with Au bowtie nanoantennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, David P.; Sundaramurthy, Arvind; Kinkhabwala, Anika; Schuck, P. James; Kino, Gordon S.; Moerner, W.E.

    2006-01-01

    Single metallic bowtie nanoantennas provide a controllable environment for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of adsorbed molecules. Bowties have experimentally measured electromagnetic enhancements, enabling estimation of chemical enhancement for both the bulk and the few-molecule regime. Strong fluctuations of selected Raman lines imply that a small number of p-mercaptoaniline molecules on a single bowtie show chemical enhancement >10 7 , much larger than previously believed, likely due to charge transfer between the Au surface and the molecule. This chemical sensitivity of SERS has significant implications for ultra-sensitive detection of single molecules

  8. PIXE analysis showed that the preirradiation enhanced recovery of bone marrow elements after challenging irradiation in C57BL/6N Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Yonezawa, M.; Nishiyama, F.

    2000-01-01

    Priming X-irradiation with 0.3-0.5 Gy induces radio-resistance in C57BL/6 strain of mice 2 weeks afterward. Elements in the bone marrow, sampled 11 days after challenging exposure to 5.0 Gy, were determined by PIXE. The challenging irradiation decreased Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn as well as dried bone marrow weight. The pre-irradiation enhanced recovery of these levels, indicating stimulated recovery of the metabolism int he tissue. Fe in both control (without pre-irradiation) and experimental groups increased to about twice the original value, showing elevated hemoglobin synthesis after challenging exposure. In previous studies we have reported that recovery of peripheral blood cell counts after sub-lethal irradiation was enhanced by the pre-irradiation. Further, study on accumulation of p53 and Bax proteins, which lead to apoptotic cell death, revealed that the pre-irradiation significantly suppressed accumulation of these proteins in the spleen after challenging irradiation with 3 Gy. These results and our present study suggest that the pre-irradiation decreased the spleen cell death, and favored re-growth of the spleen cells, resulting in stimulated recovery of metabolism for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow as well as in the spleen after challenging high dose irradiation. Stimulated recovery of Mg, P, S, K, Ca and Zn levels might indicate the importance of these elements in hematopoiesis. (author)

  9. Enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound versus contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huixiong; Chen Lida; Xie Xiaoyan; Xie Xiaohua; Xu Zuofeng; Liu Guangjian; Lin Manxia; Wang Zhu; Lu Mingde

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with pathologically proven hilar cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated by both low mechanical index CEUS and CECT. The enhancement feature of the tumor, portal vein infiltration, and lesion conspicuity on them was investigated. Results: In the arterial phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, and hypoenhancement, were 14 (43.8%), 14 (43.8%), and 4 (12.6%), on CEUS, and 12 (37.5%), 9 (28.1%), and 11 (34.4%), on CECT (P = 0.162). In portal phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hypoenhancement, isoenhancement, and hyperenhancement were 30 (93.8%), 1 (3.1%), and 1 (3.1%), on CEUS, and 23 (71.9%), 8 (25.0%), and 1 (3.1%), on CECT (P = 0.046). The detection rates for portal vein infiltration were 84.2% (16/19) for baseline ultrasound, 89.5% (17/19) for CEUS, and 78.9% (15/19) for CECT (all P > 0.05 between every two groups). CEUS significantly improved the lesion conspicuity in comparison with CECT. CEUS and CECT made correct diagnoses in 30 (93.8%) and 25 (78.1%) lesions prior to pathological examination (P = 0.125). Conclusion: The enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on CEUS was similar with that on CECT in arterial phase, whereas in portal phase hilar cholangiocarcinoma shows hypoenhancement more likely on CEUS. CEUS and CECT lead to similar results in evaluating portal vein infiltration and diagnosis of this entity.

  10. Enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound versus contrast-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Huixiong, E-mail: xuhuixiong@hotmail.co [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Chen Lida; Xie Xiaoyan; Xie Xiaohua; Xu Zuofeng; Liu Guangjian; Lin Manxia; Wang Zhu [Department of Medical Ultrasonics, The First Affiliated Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Ultrasound, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Lu Mingde, E-mail: lumd@21cn.co [Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, 58 Zhongshan Road 2, Guangzhou 510080 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Objective: To compare the enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with that on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with pathologically proven hilar cholangiocarcinomas were evaluated by both low mechanical index CEUS and CECT. The enhancement feature of the tumor, portal vein infiltration, and lesion conspicuity on them was investigated. Results: In the arterial phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hyperenhancement, isoenhancement, and hypoenhancement, were 14 (43.8%), 14 (43.8%), and 4 (12.6%), on CEUS, and 12 (37.5%), 9 (28.1%), and 11 (34.4%), on CECT (P = 0.162). In portal phase, the numbers of the lesions showing hypoenhancement, isoenhancement, and hyperenhancement were 30 (93.8%), 1 (3.1%), and 1 (3.1%), on CEUS, and 23 (71.9%), 8 (25.0%), and 1 (3.1%), on CECT (P = 0.046). The detection rates for portal vein infiltration were 84.2% (16/19) for baseline ultrasound, 89.5% (17/19) for CEUS, and 78.9% (15/19) for CECT (all P > 0.05 between every two groups). CEUS significantly improved the lesion conspicuity in comparison with CECT. CEUS and CECT made correct diagnoses in 30 (93.8%) and 25 (78.1%) lesions prior to pathological examination (P = 0.125). Conclusion: The enhancement pattern of hilar cholangiocarcinoma on CEUS was similar with that on CECT in arterial phase, whereas in portal phase hilar cholangiocarcinoma shows hypoenhancement more likely on CEUS. CEUS and CECT lead to similar results in evaluating portal vein infiltration and diagnosis of this entity.

  11. 2’f-OMe-phosphorodithioate modified siRNAs show increased loading into the RISC complex and enhanced anti-tumour activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Sherry Y.; Yang, Xianbin; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Hatakeyama, Hiroto; Egli, Martin; McGuire, Michael H.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Miyake, Takahito M.; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Pecot, Chad V.; Taylor, Morgan; Pradeep, Sunila; Sierant, Malgorzata; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Choi, Hyun J.; Previs, Rebecca A.; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Huang, Li; Martinez, Carlos; Hassell, Tom; Ivan, Cristina; Sehgal, Vasudha; Singhania, Richa; Han, Hee-Dong; Su, Chang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Dalton, Heather J.; Kowali, Chandra; Keyomarsi, Khandan; McMillan, Nigel A.J.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Liu, Jinsong; Lee, Ju-Seog; Baggerly, Keith A.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Ram, Prahlad T.; Nawrot, Barbara; Sood, Anil K.

    2014-01-01

    Improving small interfering RNA (siRNA) efficacy in target cell populations remains a challenge to its clinical implementation. Here, we report a chemical modification, consisting of phosphorodithioate (PS2) and 2’-O-Methyl (2’-OMe) MePS2 on one nucleotide that significantly enhances potency and resistance to degradation for various siRNAs. We find enhanced potency stems from an unforeseen increase in siRNA loading to the RNA-induced silencing complex, likely due to the unique interaction mediated by 2’-OMe and PS2. We demonstrate the therapeutic utility of MePS2 siRNAs in chemoresistant ovarian cancer mouse models via targeting GRAM Domain Containing 1B (GRAMD1B), a protein involved in chemoresistance. GRAMD1B silencing is achieved in tumors following MePS2-modified siRNA treatment, leading to a synergistic anti-tumor effect in combination with paclitaxel. Given the previously limited success in enhancing siRNA potency with chemically modified siRNAs, our findings represent an important advance in siRNA design with the potential for application in numerous cancer types. PMID:24619206

  12. ICAM-1-based rabies virus vaccine shows increased infection and activation of primary murine B cells in vitro and enhanced antibody titers in-vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Norton

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that live-attenuated rabies virus (RABV-based vaccines infect and directly activate murine and human primary B cells in-vitro, which we propose can be exploited to help develop a single-dose RABV-based vaccine. Here we report on a novel approach to utilize the binding of Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1 to its binding partner, Lymphocyte Function-associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1, on B cells to enhance B cell activation and RABV-specific antibody responses. We used a reverse genetics approach to clone, recover, and characterize a live-attenuated recombinant RABV-based vaccine expressing the murine Icam1 gene (rRABV-mICAM-1. We show that the murine ICAM-1 gene product is incorporated into virus particles, potentially exposing ICAM-1 to extracellular binding partners. While rRABV-mICAM-1 showed 10-100-fold decrease in viral titers on baby hamster kidney cells compared to the parental virus (rRABV, rRABV-mICAM-1 infected and activated primary murine B cells in-vitro more efficiently than rRABV, as indicated by significant upregulation of CD69, CD40, and MHCII on the surface of infected B cells. ICAM-1 expression on the virus surface was responsible for enhanced B cell infection since pre-treating rRABV-mICAM-1 with a neutralizing anti-ICAM-1 antibody reduced B cell infection to levels observed with rRABV alone. Furthermore, 100-fold less rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce antibody titers in immunized mice equivalent to antibody titers observed in rRABV-immunized mice. Of note, only 10(3 focus forming units (ffu/mouse of rRABV-mICAM-1 was needed to induce significant anti-RABV antibody titers as early as five days post-immunization. As both speed and potency of antibody responses are important in controlling human RABV infection in a post-exposure setting, these data show that expression of Icam1 from the RABV genome, which is then incorporated into the virus particle, is a promising strategy for the development of a

  13. Prolonged hypoxia increases survival even in Zebrafish (Danio rerio showing cardiac arrhythmia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renate Kopp

    Full Text Available Tolerance towards hypoxia is highly pronounced in zebrafish. In this study even beneficial effects of hypoxia, specifically enhanced survival of zebrafish larvae, could be demonstrated. This effect was actually more pronounced in breakdance mutants, which phenotypically show cardiac arrhythmia. Breakdance mutants (bre are characterized by chronically reduced cardiac output. Despite an about 50% heart rate reduction, they become adults, but survival rate significantly drops to 40%. Normoxic bre animals demonstrate increased hypoxia inducible factor 1 a (Hif-1α expression, which indicates an activated hypoxic signaling pathway. Consequently, cardiovascular acclimation, like cardiac hypertrophy and increased erythrocyte concentration, occurs. Thus, it was hypothesized, that under hypoxic conditions survival might be even more reduced. When bre mutants were exposed to hypoxic conditions, they surprisingly showed higher survival rates than under normoxic conditions and even reached wildtype values. In hypoxic wildtype zebrafish, survival yet exceeded normoxic control values. To specify physiological acclimation, cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured before hypoxia started (3 dpf, when the first differences in survival rate occurred (7 dpf and when survival rate plateaued (15 dpf. Hypoxic animals expectedly demonstrated Hif-1α accumulation and consequently enhanced convective oxygen carrying capacity. Moreover, bre animals showed a significantly enhanced heart rate under hypoxic conditions, which reached normoxic wildtype values. This improvement in convective oxygen transport ensured a sufficient oxygen and nutrient supply and was also reflected in the significantly higher mitochondrial activity. The highly optimized energy metabolism observed in hypoxic zebrafish larvae might be decisive for periods of higher energy demand due to organ development, growth and increased activity. However, hypoxia increased survival only during a

  14. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bohyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ajou University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  15. Enhancement patterns and pseudo-washout of hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bohyun; Byun, Jae Ho; Kim, Hyoung Jung; Won, Hyung Jin; Kim, So Yeon; Shin, Yong Moon; Kim, Pyo Nyun

    2016-01-01

    To compare the enhancement patterns and prevalence of pseudo-washout between rapidly and slowly enhancing hepatic haemangiomas on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) and healthy liver (HL). On gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI, the extent of intralesional arterial enhancement >50 % and ≤50 % of lesions was defined as rapid and slow enhancement, respectively. The enhancement patterns and presence of pseudo-washout during the portal venous phase (PVP) and transitional phase (TP) of 74 hepatic haemangiomas were retrospectively evaluated in the CLD and HL groups. Sequential changes of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were measured in unenhanced phase, PVP and TP. Irrespective of hepatic health status, pseudo-washout in TP was significantly more common in the rapidly enhancing haemangiomas (p ≤ 0.026). In both groups, rapidly enhancing haemangiomas showed complete or progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP, which either lasted or transformed to pseudo-washout in TP, whereas slowly enhancing haemangiomas showed progressive incomplete enhancement in PVP and TP. SNR of hepatic parenchyma continued to rise until TP, whereas that of portal vein and haemangioma falls in TP. Regardless of CLD, pseudo-washout in TP was more common in rapidly than in slowly enhancing haemangiomas, with enhancement patterns differing in the two subgroups. (orig.)

  16. Image enhancement filters significantly improve reading performance for low vision observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, T. B.

    1992-01-01

    As people age, so do their photoreceptors; many photoreceptors in central vision stop functioning when a person reaches their late sixties or early seventies. Low vision observers with losses in central vision, those with age-related maculopathies, were studied. Low vision observers no longer see high spatial frequencies, being unable to resolve fine edge detail. We developed image enhancement filters to compensate for the low vision observer's losses in contrast sensitivity to intermediate and high spatial frequencies. The filters work by boosting the amplitude of the less visible intermediate spatial frequencies. The lower spatial frequencies. These image enhancement filters not only reduce the magnification needed for reading by up to 70 percent, but they also increase the observer's reading speed by 2-4 times. A summary of this research is presented.

  17. Self-Assembled Complexes of Horseradish Peroxidase with Magnetic Nanoparticles Showing Enhanced Peroxidase Activity

    KAUST Repository

    Corgié , Sté phane C.; Kahawong, Patarawan; Duan, Xiaonan; Bowser, Daniel; Edward, Joseph B.; Walker, Larry P.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2012-01-01

    Bio-nanocatalysts (BNCs) consisting of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) self-assembled with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) enhance enzymatic activity due to the faster turnover and lower inhibition of the enzyme. The size and magnetization of the MNPs

  18. Significance of excipients to enhance the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs in oral solid dosage forms: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadlamudi, Manoj Kumar; Dhanaraj, Sangeetha

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays most of the drug substances are coming into the innovation pipeline with poor water solubility. Here, the influence of excipients will play a significant role to improve the dissolution of poorly aqueous soluble compounds. The drug substance needs to be dissolved in gastric fluids to get the better absorption and bioavailability of an orally administered drug. Dissolution is the rate-controlling stage for drugs which controls the rate and degree of absorption. Usually, poorly soluble oral administrated drugs show a slower dissolution rate, inconsistent and incomplete absorption which can lead to lower bioavailability. The low aqueous solubility of BCS class II and IV drugs is a major challenge in the drug development and delivery process. Several technologies have been used in an attempt to progress the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drug compounds which include solid dispersions, lipid-based formulations, micronization, solvent evaporation, co-precipitation, ordered mixing, liquid-solid compacts, solvent deposition inclusion complexation, and steam aided granulation. In fact, most of the technologies require excipient as a carrier which plays a significant role in improving the bioavailability using Hypromellose acetate succinate, Cyclodextrin, Povidone, Copovidone, Hydroxypropyl cellulose, Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, Crospovidone, Starch, Dimethylacetamide, Polyethylene glycol, Sodium lauryl sulfate, Polysorbate, Poloxamer. Mesoporous silica and so on. This review deliberates about the excipients significance on bioavailability enhancement of drug products in a single platform along with pragmatically proved applications so that user can able to select the right excipients as per the molecule.

  19. Electroactive biodegradable polyurethane significantly enhanced Schwann cells myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yaobin; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Shao, Yongpin; Ma, Peter X

    2016-05-01

    Myelination of Schwann cells (SCs) is critical for the success of peripheral nerve regeneration, and biomaterials that can promote SCs' neurotrophin secretion as scaffolds are beneficial for nerve repair. Here we present a biomaterials-approach, specifically, a highly tunable conductive biodegradable flexible polyurethane by polycondensation of poly(glycerol sebacate) and aniline pentamer, to significantly enhance SCs' myelin gene expression and neurotrophin secretion for peripheral nerve tissue engineering. SCs are cultured on these conductive polymer films, and the biocompatibility of these films and their ability to enhance myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion are successfully demonstrated. The mechanism of SCs' neurotrophin secretion on conductive films is demonstrated by investigating the relationship between intracellular Ca(2+) level and SCs' myelination. Furthermore, the neurite growth and elongation of PC12 cells are induced by adding the neurotrophin medium suspension produced from SCs-laden conductive films. These data suggest that these conductive degradable polyurethanes that enhance SCs' myelin gene expressions and sustained neurotrophin secretion perform great potential for nerve regeneration applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Significant enhancement of metal heat dissipation from mechanically exfoliated graphene nanosheets through thermal radiation effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxiong Hu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a facile approach to significantly enhance the heat dissipation potential of conventional aluminum (Al heat sinks by mechanically coating graphene nanosheets. For Al and graphene-coated Al heat sinks, the change in temperature with change in coating coverage, coating thickness and heat flux are studied. It is found that with the increase in coating coverage from 0 to 100%, the steady-state temperature is decreased by 5 °C at a heat flux of 1.8 W cm-1. By increasing the average thickness of graphene coating from 480 nm to 1900 nm, a remarkable temperature reduction up to 7 °C can be observed. Moreover, with the increase in heat flux from 1.2 W cm-1 to 2.4 W cm-1, the temperature difference between uncoated and graphene-coated samples increases from 1 °C to 6 °C. The thermal analysis and finite element simulation reveal that the thermal radiation plays a key role in enhancing the heat dissipation performance. The effect of heat convection remains weak owing to the low air velocity at surface-air boundary. This work provides a technological innovation in improving metal heat dissipation using graphene nanosheets.

  1. Evaluation of carotid vessel wall enhancement with image subtraction after gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardanelli, Francesco; Di Leo, Giovanni; Aliprandi, Alberto; Flor, Nicola; Papini, Giacomo D.E.; Roccatagliata, Luca; Cotticelli, Biagio; Nano, Giovanni; Cornalba, Gianpaolo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study was aimed at testing the value of image subtraction for evaluating carotid vessel wall enhancement in contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA). Materials and methods: IRB approval was obtained. The scans of 81 consecutive patients who underwent carotid MRA with 0.1 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine were reviewed. Axial carotid 3D T1-weighted fast low-angle shot sequence before and 3 min after contrast injection were acquired and subtracted (enhanced minus unenhanced). Vessel wall enhancement was assigned a four-point score using native or subtracted images from 0 (no enhancement) to 3 (strong enhancement). Stenosis degree was graded according to NASCET. Results: With native images, vessel wall enhancement was detected in 20/81 patients (25%) and in 20/161 carotids (12%), and scored 2.0 ± 0.6 (mean ± standard deviation); with subtracted images, in 21/81 (26%) and 22/161 (14%), and scored 2.5 ± 0.6, respectively (P < 0.001, Sign test). The overall stenosis degree distribution was: mild, 41/161 (25%); moderate, 77/161 (48%); severe, 43/161 (27%). Carotids with moderate stenosis showed vessel wall enhancement with a frequency (17/77, 22%) significantly higher than that observed in carotids with mild stenosis (1/41, 2%) (P = 0.005, Fisher exact test) and higher, even though with borderline significance (P = 0.078, Fisher exact test), than that observed in carotids with severe stenosis (4/43, 9%). Conclusion: Roughly a quarter of patients undergoing carotid MRA showed vessel wall enhancement. Image subtraction improved vessel wall enhancement conspicuity. Vessel wall enhancement seems to be an event relatively independent from the degree of stenosis. Further studies are warranted to define the relation between vessel wall enhancement and histopathology, inflammatory status, and instability.

  2. Carbon-tuned bonding method significantly enhanced the hydrogen storage of BN-Li complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qing-ming; Zhao, Lina; Luo, You-hua; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Li-xia; Zhao, Yuliang

    2011-11-01

    Through first-principles calculations, we found doping carbon atoms onto BN monolayers (BNC) could significantly strengthen the Li bond on this material. Unlike the weak bond strength between Li atoms and the pristine BN layer, it is observed that Li atoms are strongly hybridized and donate their electrons to the doped substrate, which is responsible for the enhanced binding energy. Li adsorbed on the BNC layer can serve as a high-capacity hydrogen storage medium, without forming clusters, which can be recycled at room temperature. Eight polarized H(2) molecules are attached to two Li atoms with an optimal binding energy of 0.16-0.28 eV/H(2), which results from the electrostatic interaction of the polarized charge of hydrogen molecules with the electric field induced by positive Li atoms. This practical carbon-tuned BN-Li complex can work as a very high-capacity hydrogen storage medium with a gravimetric density of hydrogen of 12.2 wt%, which is much higher than the gravimetric goal of 5.5 wt % hydrogen set by the U.S. Department of Energy for 2015.

  3. The vascular disrupting agent ZD6126 shows increased antitumor efficacy and enhanced radiation response in large, advanced tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Dietmar W.; Rojiani, Amyn M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: ZD6126 is a vascular-targeting agent that induces selective effects on the morphology of proliferating and immature endothelial cells by disrupting the tubulin cytoskeleton. The efficacy of ZD6126 was investigated in large vs. small tumors in a variety of animal models. Methods and Materials: Three rodent tumor models (KHT, SCCVII, RIF-1) and three human tumor xenografts (Caki-1, KSY-1, SKBR3) were used. Mice bearing leg tumors ranging in size from 0.1-2.0 g were injected intraperitoneally with a single 150 mg/kg dose of ZD6126. The response was assessed by morphologic and morphometric means as well as an in vivo to in vitro clonogenic cell survival assay. To examine the impact of tumor size on the extent of enhancement of radiation efficacy by ZD6126, KHT sarcomas of three different sizes were irradiated locally with a range of radiation doses, and cell survival was determined. Results: All rodent tumors and human tumor xenografts evaluated showed a strong correlation between increasing tumor size and treatment effect as determined by clonogenic cell survival. Detailed evaluation of KHT sarcomas treated with ZD6126 showed a reduction in patent tumor blood vessels that was ∼20% in small ( 90% in large (>1.0 g) tumors. Histologic assessment revealed that the extent of tumor necrosis after ZD6126 treatment, although minimal in small KHT sarcomas, became more extensive with increasing tumor size. Clonogenic cell survival after ZD6126 exposure showed a decrease in tumor surviving fraction from approximately 3 x 10 -1 to 1 x 10 -4 with increasing tumor size. When combined with radiotherapy, ZD6126 treatment resulted in little enhancement of the antitumor effect of radiation in small (<0.3 g) tumors but marked increases in cell kill in tumors larger than 1.0 g. Conclusions: Because bulky neoplastic disease is typically the most difficult to manage, the present findings provide further support for the continued development of vascular disrupting agents such as

  4. Quantitative evaluation of enhancement patterns in focal solid liver lesions with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haimerl

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The objective was to investigate the dynamic enhancement patterns in focal solid liver lesions after the administration of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA by means of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI including hepatobiliary phase (HP images 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Non-enhanced T1/T2-weighted as well as dynamic magnetic resonance (MR images during the arterial phase (AP, the portal venous phase (PVP, the late phase (LP, and the HP (20 min were obtained from 83 patients (54 male, 29 female, mean age 62.01 years with focal solid liver lesions. MRI was conducted by means of a 1.5-T system for 63 patients with malignant liver lesions (HCCs: n = 34, metastases: n = 29 and for 20 patients with benign liver lesions (FNH lesions: n = 14, hemangiomas: n = 3, adenomas: n = 3. For quantitative analysis, signal-to-noise ratios (SNR, contrast enhancement ratios (CER, lesion-to-liver contrast ratios (LLC, and signal intensity (SI ratios were measured. RESULTS: The SNR of liver parenchyma significantly increased in each dynamic phase after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration compared to the SNR of non-enhanced images (p<0.001. The CER of HCCs and metastases significantly decreased between LP and HP images (p = 0.0011, p<0.0001. However, FNH lesions did not show any significant difference, whereas an increased CER was found in hemangiomas. The mean LLCs of FNH lesions were significantly higher than those of HCCs and metastases. The LLC values of hemangiomas remained negative during the entire time course, whereas the LLC of adenomas indicated hyperintensity from the AP to the LP. Furthermore, adenomas showed hypointensity in HP images. CONCLUSION: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI may help diagnose focal solid liver lesions by evaluating their enhancement patterns.

  5. Detectability of hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison of Gd-DTPA-enhanced and SPIO-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Hyo Sung; Lee, Jeong Min; Kim In Hwan; Kim, Chong Soo; Han, Hyeun Young; Yoon, Kwon ha; Shin, Kyung Sook

    2000-01-01

    To compare the detectability of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE), SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted FISP, and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR images. In order to assess their hepatic lesions, 25 patients (20 men and 5 women) with HCC were enrolled in an MR study in which both gadolinium and Spiro were used. Since the lesions were most conspicuous during the phase of dynamic arterial dominant phase of dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging, this was the phase used for analysis. Images were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively, and to compare the diagnostic value of gadolinium-enhanced imaging with that of SPIO-enhanced imaging for the detection of HCCs, a receiver-operated characteristic curve was obtained. Qualitative analysis revealed a significantly higher percentage of signal loss and a higher liver-lesion contrast-to-noise ratio on SPIO-enhanced FISP imaging than on SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE imaging (p less than 0.05). It also showed that the lesions were most clearly visible on SPIO-enhanced FISP imaging (and significantly so), followed by SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE imaging, and dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging. Imaging artifacts were more prominent on SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE than on SPIO-enhanced PISF imaging or dynamic gadolinium-enhanced imaging (p less than 0.05). According to ROC analysis, SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted turbo spin echo (TSE) or SPIO-enhanced FISP imaging achieved higher accuracy than did dynamic gadolinium-enhanced FLASH imaging (p less than 0.05). For the detection of hepatocellular carcinomas, SPIO-enhanced MR imaging is better than gadolinium-enhanced FLASH imaging

  6. Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in various types of cardiomyopathies: Significance in differential diagnosis, clinical features and prognosis

    OpenAIRE

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-01-01

    The recent development of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques has allowed detailed analyses of cardiac function and tissue characterization with high spatial resolution. We review characteristic CMR features in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM and NICM), especially in terms of the location and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR in ICM shows segmental wall motion abnormalities or wall thinning in a particular coronary arterial territory, and the suben...

  7. Significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of N, W co-doped TiO2 nanomaterials for promising environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thind, Sapanbir S; Wu Guosheng; Tian Min; Chen Aicheng

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a mesoporous N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst was synthesized via a one-step solution combustion method, which utilized urea as the nitrogen source and sodium tungstate as the tungsten source. The photocatalytic activity of the N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalyst was significantly enhanced by a facile UV pretreatment approach and was evaluated by measuring the rate of photodegradation of Rhodamine B under both UV and visible (λ > 420) light. Following the UV pretreatment, the UV photocatalytic activity of the N, W co-doped TiO 2 was doubled. In terms of visible light activity, the UV pretreatment resulted in an extraordinary >12 fold improvement. In order to gain insight into this substantial enhancement, the N, W co-doped TiO 2 photocatalysts were studied using x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N 2 physisorption, UV–vis absorbance spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy prior to and following the UV pretreatment. Our experimental results have revealed that this significant augmentation of photocatalytic activity may be attributed to several synergetic factors, including increase of the specific surface area, reduction of the band gap energy and the removal of carbon impurities. (paper)

  8. Abducens nerve enhancement demonstrated by multiplanar reconstruction of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, T.; Adachi, M.; Sugai, Y.; Yamaguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, K.; Kato, T.

    2001-01-01

    We describe contrast enhancement of the cisternal portion of the abducens nerve and discuss its clinical significance. We examined 67 patients with ophthalmoplegia using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional (3D) MRI with multiplanar reconstruction along the nerves and found 16 patients (ten men, six women), aged 10-73 years (mean 34.4 years), with contrast enhancement of the abducens nerve. Of the 36 patients who had an abducens palsy, 14 (39 %) showed contrast enhancement. In the 16 patients, 23 abducens nerves enhanced; 13 were symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic at the time. The causes were disseminated tumour (1), an inflammatory process (3), trauma (2), ischaemia (2) and autoimmune diseases (8), such as the Miller Fisher syndrome, acute ophthalmoparesis, polyneuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Abducens and/or oculomotor nerve enhancement was the only abnormality on MRI in the patients with traumatic or ischaemic neuropathy or autoimmune diseases. There were 14 patients who recovered fully within 1-6 months after treatment, and resolution of the enhancement correlated well with recovery. (orig.)

  9. Abducens nerve enhancement demonstrated by multiplanar reconstruction of contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosoya, T.; Adachi, M.; Sugai, Y. [Dept. of Radiology, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan); Yamaguchi, K.; Yamaguchi, K. [Dept. of Ophthalmology, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan); Kato, T. [3. Dept. of Internal Medicine, Yamagata University School of Medicine (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    We describe contrast enhancement of the cisternal portion of the abducens nerve and discuss its clinical significance. We examined 67 patients with ophthalmoplegia using contrast-enhanced 3-dimensional (3D) MRI with multiplanar reconstruction along the nerves and found 16 patients (ten men, six women), aged 10-73 years (mean 34.4 years), with contrast enhancement of the abducens nerve. Of the 36 patients who had an abducens palsy, 14 (39 %) showed contrast enhancement. In the 16 patients, 23 abducens nerves enhanced; 13 were symptomatic and 10 asymptomatic at the time. The causes were disseminated tumour (1), an inflammatory process (3), trauma (2), ischaemia (2) and autoimmune diseases (8), such as the Miller Fisher syndrome, acute ophthalmoparesis, polyneuropathy and multiple sclerosis. Abducens and/or oculomotor nerve enhancement was the only abnormality on MRI in the patients with traumatic or ischaemic neuropathy or autoimmune diseases. There were 14 patients who recovered fully within 1-6 months after treatment, and resolution of the enhancement correlated well with recovery. (orig.)

  10. Intensity and Pattern of Enhancement on CESM: Prognostic Significance and its Relation to Expression of Podoplanin in Tumor Stroma - A Preliminary Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczynska, Elzbieta; Niemiec, Joanna; Heinze, Sylwia; Adamczyk, Agnieszka; Ambicka, Aleksandra; Marcyniuk, Paulina; Rudnicki, Wojciech; Mitus, Jerzy W; Dyczek, Sonia; Rys, Janusz; Sas-Korczynska, Beata

    2018-02-01

    It is possible that the degree of enhancement on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM), a new diagnostic method, might provide prognostic information for breast cancer patients. Therefore, in a group of 82 breast cancer patients, we analyzed the prognostic significance of degree and pattern of enhancement on CESM as well as its relation to: (a) breast cancer immunophenotype (based on ER/PR/HER2 status) (b) podoplanin expression in cancer stroma (lymphatic vessel density plus podoplanin-positivity of cancer-associated fibroblasts), and (c) other histological parameters. For each tumor the intensity of enhancement on CESM was qualitatively assessed as strong or weak/medium, while the pattern - as homogenous and heterogenous. Herein we report, for the first time, that strong and heterogenous enhancement on CESM was related to unfavorable disease-free survival of breast cancer patients (p=0.005). Moreover, the strong enhancement was more frequent in large and node-positive tumors (pT>1, pN>0) (p=0.002), as well as in carcinomas with podoplanin-sparse stroma (p=0.008). Intensity and pattern of enhancement on CESM might provide (together with the results of other diagnostic imaging methods) not only the confirmation of presence or absence of tumor, but also prognostic information. Copyright© 2018, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  11. Polypyridylruthenium(II complexes exert in vitro and in vivo nematocidal activity and show significant inhibition of parasite acetylcholinesterases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu Sundaraneedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over 4.5 billion people are at risk of infection with soil transmitted helminths and there are concerns about the development of resistance to the handful of frontline nematocides in endemic populations. We investigated the anti-nematode efficacy of a series of polypyridylruthenium(II complexes and showed they were active against L3 and adult stages of Trichuris muris, the rodent homologue of the causative agent of human trichuriasis, T. trichiura. One of the compounds, Rubb12-mono, which was among the most potent in its ability to kill L3 (IC50 = 3.1 ± 0.4 μM and adult (IC50 = 5.2 ± 0.3 μM stage worms was assessed for efficacy in a mouse model of trichuriasis by administering 3 consecutive daily oral doses of the drug 3 weeks post infection with the murine whipworm Trichuris muris. Mice treated with Rubb12-mono showed an average 66% reduction (P = 0.015 in faecal egg count over two independent trials. The drugs partially exerted their activity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterases, as worms treated in vitro and in vivo showed significant decreases in the activity of this class of enzymes. Our data show that ruthenium complexes are effective against T. muris, a model gastro-intestinal nematode and soil-transmitted helminth. Further, knowledge of the target of ruthenium drugs can facilitate modification of current compounds to identify analogues which are even more effective and selective against Trichuris and other helminths of human and veterinary importance. Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase, Trichuris muris, Ruthenium complex, Anthelmintic

  12. Enhancement of retronasal odors by taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Barry G; Nachtigal, Danielle; Hammond, Samuel; Lim, Juyun

    2012-01-01

    Psychophysical studies of interactions between retronasal olfaction and taste have focused most often on the enhancement of tastes by odors, which has been attributed primarily to a response bias (i.e., halo dumping). Based upon preliminary evidence that retronasal odors could also be enhanced by taste, the present study measured both forms of enhancement using appropriate response categories. In the first experiment, subjects rated taste ("sweet," "sour," "salty," and "bitter") and odor ("other") intensity for aqueous samples of 3 tastants (sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid) and 3 odorants (vanillin, citral, and furaneol), both alone and in taste-odor mixtures. The results showed that sucrose, but not the other taste stimuli, significantly increased the perceived intensity of all 3 odors. Enhancement of tastes by odors was inconsistent and generally weaker than enhancement of odors by sucrose. A second experiment used a flavored beverage and a custard dessert to test whether the findings from the first experiment would hold for the perception of actual foods. Adding sucrose significantly enhanced the intensity of "cherry" and "vanilla" flavors, whereas adding vanillin did not significantly enhance the intensity of sweetness. It is proposed that enhancement of retronasal odors by a sweet stimulus results from an adaptive sensory mechanism that serves to increase the salience of the flavor of nutritive foods. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation on changes of early renal function in patients with diabetic nephropathy with contrast-enhanced ultrasound and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xinmin; Jin Hong; Pan Liwen; Chen Hui; Liu Wei; Quan Xianyue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To quantitatively assess the parameter alteration of renal blood flow in patients with diabetic nephropathy (DN) with the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and to evaluate value of the technique in diagnosis of early renal function changes of DN patients. Methods: 40 diabetic patients were equally divided into two group according to Mogensen's staging criteria: normal albuminuria group (group Ⅰ) and early DN group (group Ⅱ); and 15 cases of healthy volunteers were used as control group (N group) (n=15). All subjects were performed renal CEUS perfusion imaging, and QontraXt image analysis software was applied to select the region of interest (ROI) in the renal cortex. Then the time intensity curve (TIC) and kidney blood perfusion parameters were collected. Results: The renal blood perfusion was clearly shown in real time CEUS; compared with N group, the time to peak (TTP), regional blood volume (RBV), and mean transit time (MTT) of the patients in group Ⅰ were increased, there were significant differences (P<0.05); but there were no significant differences of derived peak intensity (DPI) and regional blood flow (RBF) between two groups (P>0.05). Compared with group Ⅰ and N group, the RBV, TTP and MTT of the patients were increased, the DPI and RBF were reduced in group Ⅱ, there were significant differences (P<0.05). Conclusion: The CEUS technical analysis can be used in evaluating renal abnormality of the DN patients in early period by showing the changes of renal perfusion parameters. (authors)

  14. A pseudotype baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a T-Cell immunogen shows enhanced immunogenicity in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiangtao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control FMD. Currently, inactivated vaccine of FMDV has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. Development of a novel effective vaccine is must. Methods In the present study, two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses, one expressing the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter (CMV-IE, and the other the caspid plus a T-cell immunogen coding region under a CAG promoter were constructed, and their expression was characterized in mammalian cells. In addition, their immunogenicity in a mouse model was investigated. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by pseudotype baculovirus were compared with those of inactivated vaccine. Results Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA and indirect sandwich-ELISA (IS-ELISA showed both recombinant baculoviruses (with or without T-cell epitopes were transduced efficiently and expressed target proteins in BHK-21 cells. In mice, intramuscular inoculation of recombinants with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 PFU/mouse induced the production of FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-γ. Furthermore, recombinant baculovirus with T-cell epitopes had better immunogenicity than the recombinant without T-cell epitopes as demonstrated by significantly enhanced IFN-γ production (P P Conclusions These results indicate that pseudotype baculovirus-mediated gene delivery could be a alternative strategy to develop a new generation of vaccines against FMDV infection.

  15. An active principle of Nigella sativa L., thymoquinone, showing significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Alenazy, Awwad Khalaf; Alrowaili, Majed Gorayan; Basha, Jamith

    2017-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole. Standard, ATCC, strains of four anaerobic bacteria ( Clostridium difficile , Clostridium perfringens , Bacteroides fragilis , and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron ), were initially isolated on special Brucella agar base (with hemin and vitamin K). Then, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TQ and metronidazole were determined against these anaerobes when grown in Brucella agar, using serial agar dilution method according to the recommended guidelines for anaerobic organisms instructed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. TQ showed a significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria although much weaker than metronidazole. MICs of TQ and metronidazole against various anaerobic human pathogens tested were found to be between 10-160 mg/L and 0.19-6.25 mg/L, respectively. TQ controlled the anaerobic human pathogenic bacteria, which supports the use of N. sativa in the treatment of diarrhea in folk medicine. Further investigations are in need for determination of the synergistic effect of TQ in combination with metronidazole and the activity of derivatives of TQ against anaerobic infections.

  16. Significantly enhanced robustness and electrochemical performance of flexible carbon nanotube-based supercapacitors by electrodepositing polypyrrole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanli; Du, Lianhuan; Yang, Peihua; Sun, Peng; Yu, Xiang; Mai, Wenjie

    2015-08-01

    Here, we report robust, flexible CNT-based supercapacitor (SC) electrodes fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole (PPy) on freestanding vacuum-filtered CNT film. These electrodes demonstrate significantly improved mechanical properties (with the ultimate tensile strength of 16 MPa), and greatly enhanced electrochemical performance (5.6 times larger areal capacitance). The major drawback of conductive polymer electrodes is the fast capacitance decay caused by structural breakdown, which decreases cycling stability but this is not observed in our case. All-solid-state SCs assembled with the robust CNT/PPy electrodes exhibit excellent flexibility, long lifetime (95% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles) and high electrochemical performance (a total device volumetric capacitance of 4.9 F/cm3). Moreover, a flexible SC pack is demonstrated to light up 53 LEDs or drive a digital watch, indicating the broad potential application of our SCs for portable/wearable electronics.

  17. Significant Enhancement of Thermal Conductivity in Nanofibrillated Cellulose Films with Low Mass Fraction of Nanodiamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Na; Cui, Siqi; Hou, Xingshuang; Ding, Peng; Shi, Liyi

    2017-11-22

    High thermal conductive nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) hybrid films based on nanodiamond (ND) were fabricated by a facile vacuum filtration technique. In this issue, the thermal conductivity (TC) on the in-plane direction of the NFC/ND hybrid film had a significant enhancement of 775.2% at a comparatively low ND content (0.5 wt %). The NFC not only helps ND to disperse in the aqueous medium stably but also plays a positive role in the formation of the hierarchical structure. ND could form a thermal conductive pathway in the hierarchical structures under the intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Moreover, the hybrid films composed of zero-dimensional ND and one-dimensional NFC exhibit remarkable mechanical properties and optical transparency. The NFC/ND hybrid films possessing superior TC, mechanical properties, and optical transparency can open applications for portable electronic equipment as a lateral heat spreader.

  18. Diagnostic significance of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in thrombolytic treatment for acute myocardial infarction: its potential in assessing reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wall, E E; van Dijkman, P R; de Roos, A; Doornbos, J; van der Laarse, A; Manger Cats, V; van Voorthuisen, A E; Matheijssen, N A; Bruschke, A V

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic value of gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in patients treated by thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction was assessed in 27 consecutive patients who had a first acute myocardial infarction (14 anterior, 13 inferior) and who underwent thrombolytic treatment and coronary arteriography within 4 hours of the onset of symptoms. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed 93 hours (range 15-241) after the onset of symptoms. A Philips Gyroscan (0.5 T) was used, and spin echo measurements (echo time 30 ms) were made before and 20 minutes after intravenous injection of 0.1 mmol/kg gadolinium-DTPA. In all patients contrast enhancement of the infarcted areas was seen after Gd-DTPA. The signal intensities of the infarcted and normal values were used to calculate the intensity ratios. Mean (SD) intensity ratios after Gd-DTPA were significantly increased (1.15 (0.17) v 1.52 (0.29). Intensity ratios were higher in the 17 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging more than 72 hours after the onset of symptoms than in the 10 who underwent magnetic resonance imaging earlier, the difference being significantly greater after administration of Gd-DTPA (1.38 (0.12) v 1.61 (0.34). When patients were classified according to the site and size of the infarcted areas, or to reperfusion (n = 19) versus non-reperfusion (n = 8), the intensity ratios both before and after Gd-DTPA did not show significant differences. Magnetic resonance imaging with Gd-DTPA improved the identification of acutely infarcted areas, but with current techniques did not identify patients in whom thrombolytic treatment was successful. Images PMID:2310640

  19. Multivariable analysis of clinical influence factors on liver enhancement of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P.; Zeman, F.; Teufel, A.; Lang, S.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing Gd-EOB-DTPA liver uptake in patients with healthy liver parenchyma. A total of 124 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. The relative enhancement (RE) between plain and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors influencing the relative enhancement. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to their relative liver enhancement (HRE, RE ≥ 100 %; MRE, 100 % > RE > 50 %; NRE, RE ≤ 50 %) and were analyzed according to the relevant risk factors. Simple regression analyses revealed patient age, transaminases (AST, ALT, GGT), liver, spleen and delta-liver volume (the difference between the volumetrically measured liver volume and the estimated liver volume based on body weight) as significant factors influencing relative enhancement. In the multiple analysis the transaminase AST, spleen and delta liver volume remained significant factors influencing relative enhancement. Delta liver volume showed a significant difference between all analyzed groups. Liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends on a variety of factors. Body weight-adapted administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA may lead to inadequate liver enhancement after 20 minutes especially when the actual liver volume differs from the expected volume.

  20. Transudative vs exudative pleural effusions: differentiation using Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frola, C.; Cantoni, S.; Turtulici, I.; Leoni, C.; Loria, F.; Gaeta, M.; Derchi, L.E.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI to differentiate between exudative and transudative pleural effusions. An MRI examination was performed on 22 patients with different types of pleural effusion (10 transudative and 12 exudative effusions). T1-weighted SE images were obtained before and 20 min after administration of Gd-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). The degree of enhancement of pleural effusions was evaluated both by visual assessement and by quantitative analysis of images. None of 10 transudative effusions showed significative enhancement, whereas 10 of 12 exudative effusions showed enhancement (sensitivity 83 %, specificity 100 %, positive predictive value 100 %). The postcontrast signal intensity ratios (SIRs) of exudates were significantly higher than corresponding precontrast ratios (P = 0.0109) and the postcontrast SIRs of exudates were significantly higher than those of transudates (P = 0.0300). Exudative pleural effusions show a significant enhancement following administration of Gd-DTPA. We presume that this may be caused by increased pleural permeability and more rapid passage of a large amount of Gd-DTPA from the blood into the pleural fluid in case of exudative effusions. In our limited group of patients, signal enhancement proved the presence of an exudative effusion. Absence of signal enhancement suggests a transudate, but does not exclude an exudate. (orig.). With 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Nanodiamonds on tetrahedral amorphous carbon significantly enhance dopamine detection and cell viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, Emilia; Wester, Niklas; Holt, Katherine B; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Koskinen, Jari; Myllymäki, Vesa; Laurila, Tomi

    2017-02-15

    We hypothesize that by using integrated carbon nanostructures on tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), it is possible to take the performance and characteristics of these bioelectrodes to a completely new level. The integrated carbon electrodes were realized by combining nanodiamonds (NDs) with ta-C thin films coated on Ti-coated Si-substrates. NDs were functionalized with mixture of carboxyl and amine groups ND andante or amine ND amine , carboxyl ND vox or hydroxyl groups ND H and drop-casted or spray-coated onto substrate. By utilizing these novel structures we show that (i) the detection limit for dopamine can be improved by two orders of magnitude [from 10µM to 50nM] in comparison to ta-C thin film electrodes and (ii) the coating method significantly affects electrochemical properties of NDs and (iii) the ND coatings selectively promote cell viability. ND andante and ND H showed most promising electrochemical properties. The viability of human mesenchymal stem cells and osteoblastic SaOS-2 cells was increased on all ND surfaces, whereas the viability of mouse neural stem cells and rat neuroblastic cells was improved on ND andante and ND H and reduced on ND amine and ND vox. The viability of C6 cells remained unchanged, indicating that these surfaces will not cause excess gliosis. In summary, we demonstrated here that by using functionalized NDs on ta-C thin films we can significantly improve sensitivity towards dopamine as well as selectively promote cell viability. Thus, these novel carbon nanostructures provide an interesting concept for development of various in vivo targeted sensor solutions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. CT diagnostic significance of tuboovarian abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Tieqiao; Dong Jie; Xu Quanying; An Haiqin; Sang Chunyu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To analyze computed tomographic (CT) imaging features of tuboovarian abscess as well as to discuss CT diagnostic significance. Methods: Ten patients with tuboovarian abscess were performed CT enhancing scans. Results: Ten patients manifested thick-walled, cystic-solid complex adnexal mass and indistinct margins on CT imaging. Internal thick septations and layered enhancement of the mass border on CT contrast images were common. Associated findings of CT included thickening of' the uterosacral ligaments in 9 of 10 patients, increased attenuation of the presacral and perirectal fat secondary to edema in 9 patients, serpiginous structure corresponding to a dilated, pus-filled fallopian tube in 6 patients and fluid-filled within uterine cavity in 4 patients. On CT scans, the inflammatory infiltration of adnexal abscesses involved pelvic structure included adhesion with borders of uterus in 9 patients, adhesion with rectal or sigmoid in 4 patients and pelvic wall or bowel loop in 3 patients. Two cases with peritoneal thicken showed ascites on CT images and right adnexal tuboovarian abscess in 2 patients were associated with appendicitis. Conclusion: CT can reveal pelvic adjacent organs involvement or adhesion and inflammatory infihration of pelvic floor soft-tissues or fascial planes except showing cystic solid complex mass of adnexal location so that indicating characteristics and the extent of the suspected pelvic inflammatory diseases. CT can be valuable in difficult cases of gynecologic infective diseases. (authors)

  3. Growth/differentiation factor-5 significantly enhances periodontal wound healing/regeneration compared with platelet-derived growth factor-BB in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Rak; Wikesjö, Ulf M E; Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Young-Taek; Bastone, Patrizia; Pippig, Susanne D; Kim, Chong-Kwan

    2010-08-01

    Recombinant human growth/differentiation factor-5 (rhGDF-5) in a particulate beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) carrier is being evaluated to support periodontal regeneration. The objective of this study was to evaluate periodontal wound healing/regeneration following an established clinical (benchmark) protocol including surgical implantation of rhGDF-5/beta-TCP in comparison with that following implantation of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF) combined with a particulate beta-TCP biomaterial using an established canine defect model. Bilateral, 4 x 5 mm (width x depth), one-wall, critical-size, intrabony periodontal defects were surgically created at the mandibular second and fourth pre-molar teeth in five adult Beagle dogs. Defect sites were randomized to receive rhGDF-5/beta-TCP or the rhPDGF construct followed by wound closure for primary intention healing. The animals were sacrificed following an 8-week healing interval for histological and histometric examination. Clinical healing was generally uneventful. Sites receiving rhGDF-5/beta-TCP exhibited a significantly enhanced cementum formation compared with sites receiving the rhPDGF construct, averaging (+/-SD) 4.49+/-0.48 versus 2.72+/-0.91 mm (palveolar bone. Both protocols displayed beta-TCP residues apparently undergoing resorption. Application of both materials appears safe, as they were associated with limited, if any, adverse events. rhGDF-5/beta-TCP shows a significant potential to support/accelerate periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Application of rhGDF-5/beta-TCP appears safe and should be further evaluated in human clinical trials.

  4. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging: a non-invasive method to evaluate significant differences between malignant and normal tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudisch, Ansgar; Kremser, Christian; Judmaier, Werner; Zunterer, Hildegard; DeVries, Alexander F.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: An ever recurring challenge in diagnostic radiology is the differentiation between non-malignant and malignant tissue. Based on evidence that microcirculation of normal, non-malignant tissue differs from that of malignant tissue, the goal of this study was to assess the reliability of dynamic contrast-enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (dcMRI) for differentiating these two entities. Materials and methods: DcMRI data of rectum carcinoma and gluteus maximus muscles were acquired in 41 patients. Using an fast T1-mapping sequence on a 1.5-T whole body scanner, T1-maps were dynamically retrieved before, during and after constant rate i.v. infusion of a contrast medium (CM). On the basis of the acquired data sets, PI-values were calculated on a pixel-by-pixel basis. The relevance of spatial heterogeneities of microcirculation was investigated by relative frequency histograms of the PI-values. Results: A statistically significant difference between malignant and normal tissue was found for the mean PI-value (P < 0.001; 8.95 ml/min/100 g ± 2.45 versus 3.56 ml/min/100 g ± 1.20). Additionally relative frequency distributions of PI-values with equal class intervals of 2.5 ml/min/100 g revealed significant differences between the histograms of muscles and rectum carcinoma. Conclusion: We could show that microcirculation differences between malignant and normal, non-malignant tissue can be reliably assessed by non-invasive dcMRI. Therefore, dcMRI holds great promise in the aid of cancer assessment, especially in patients where biopsy is contraindicated

  5. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Akbar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Results: Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100 mg L-1 within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4 and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1. These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200 mg kg-1 within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76 mg-1 kg-1 d-1 with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069 d-1. These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200 mg L-1 was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5

  6. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander

    2016-01-01

    Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100mgL(-1)) within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4) and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1). These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200mgkg(-1)) within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76mg(-1)kg(-1)d(-1) with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069d(-1). These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200mgL(-1)) was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5.69mg(-1)kg(-1)d(-1)) in planted soil. The

  7. An Archaeosome-Adjuvanted Vaccine and Checkpoint Inhibitor Therapy Combination Significantly Enhances Protection from Murine Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity C. Stark

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Archaeosomes constitute archaeal lipid vesicle vaccine adjuvants that evoke a strong CD8+ T cell response to antigenic cargo. Therapeutic treatment of murine B16-ovalbumin (B16-OVA melanoma with archaeosome-OVA eliminates small subcutaneous solid tumors; however, they eventually resurge despite an increased frequency of circulating and tumor infiltrating OVA-CD8+ T cells. Herein, a number of different approaches were evaluated to improve responses, including dose number, interval, and the combination of vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors. Firstly, we found that tumor protection could not be enhanced by repetitive and/or delayed boosting to maximize the CD8+ T cell number and/or phenotype. The in vivo cytotoxicity of vaccine-induced OVA-CD8+ T cells was impaired in tumor-bearing mice. Additionally, tumor-infiltrating OVA-CD8+ T cells had an increased expression of programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1 compared to other organ compartments, suggesting impaired function. Combination therapy of tumor-bearing mice with the vaccine archaeosome-OVA, and α-CTLA-4 administered concurrently as well as α-PD-1 and an α-PD-L1 antibody administered starting 9 days after tumor challenge given on a Q3Dx4 schedule (days 9, 12, 15 and 18, significantly enhanced survival. Following multi-combination therapy ~70% of mice had rapid tumor recession, with no detectable tumor mass after >80 days in comparison to a median survival of 17–22 days for untreated or experimental groups receiving single therapies. Overall, archaeosomes offer a powerful platform for delivering cancer antigens when used in combination with checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapies.

  8. Mangafodipir trisodium-enhanced MRI of hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with histological characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Kim, M.-J.; Park, Y.N.; Lee, J.T.; Kim, B.R.; Chung, J.B.; Choi, J.S.; Kim, K.S.; Kim, K.W.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To define histopathological factors related to the degree of mangafodipir trisodium (MnDPDP) uptake in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods: In-phase and opposed-phase gradient-echo MRI images were obtained preoperatively in 37 patients with 38 HCCs before and 15-30 min after intravenous injection of MnDPDP. Subjective ratings of the enhancement degree, the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the lesion and the liver, and the contrast enhancement ratios (CER) were compared with histopathological factors. Results: The mean SNR of HCCs increased from 59.6 to 95.0 (CER = 59.5%), whereas that of the liver increased from 75.1 to 108.7 (CER = 45.2%). Eight HCCs showed mild enhancement, 11 moderate enhancement, and 15 strong enhancement. There was no visually perceptible enhancement in four HCCs (10.3%). The degree of MnDPDP enhancement was significantly related with the cell density ratio (p < .05) and monoclonal hepatocyte antibody positivity (p < 0.005), but not with size, growth type, cell type, histological type, cytokeratin 7, or cytokeratin 19. Well-differentiated HCC showed higher MnDPDP enhancement compared with higher grade HCCs, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The uptake of MnDPDP by HCC was correlated with hepatocyte antibody expression and the cellular density ratio. Well-differentiated HCC tended to show higher MnDPDP enhancement

  9. Value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in evaluation of hepatocellular carcinomas with atypical enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced multiphasic MDCT in patients with chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Su; Kim, Seong Hyun; Kang, Tae Wook; Song, Kyoung Doo; Choi, Dongil; Park, Cheol Keun

    2015-01-01

    (80/82, 97.6%). Thirty-eight HCCs (38/82, 46.3%) showed typical HCC enhancement pattern on dynamic MR images. There were no significant differences in the frequency and trend of signal intensity on T2WI, HBP images, DW images, and histopathologic grades with regard to the four CT density patterns (p < 0.05). No significant difference in mean ADC values between groups was identified (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced and DW MR imaging can help diagnose HCCs with atypical enhancement patterns on multiphasic CT in patients with chronic liver disease

  10. Value of gadoxetic acid-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in evaluation of hepatocellular carcinomas with atypical enhancement pattern on contrast-enhanced multiphasic MDCT in patients with chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Su [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Hyun, E-mail: kshyun@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Tae Wook; Song, Kyoung Doo; Choi, Dongil [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Cheol Keun [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, 50 Ilwon-dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    images (80/82, 97.6%). Thirty-eight HCCs (38/82, 46.3%) showed typical HCC enhancement pattern on dynamic MR images. There were no significant differences in the frequency and trend of signal intensity on T2WI, HBP images, DW images, and histopathologic grades with regard to the four CT density patterns (p < 0.05). No significant difference in mean ADC values between groups was identified (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Gadoxetic acid-enhanced and DW MR imaging can help diagnose HCCs with atypical enhancement patterns on multiphasic CT in patients with chronic liver disease.

  11. Gd-enhanced MR imaging of the herniated lumbar disc: patterns of enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwag, Hyon Joo; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Hyae Young; Kim, Yoo Kyung; Kim, Ah Young; Chung, Eun Chul

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the patterns of enhancement of the herniated lumbar disc with Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. Out of 65 patients, 103 lumbar discs diagnosed to be herniated by MR image were retrospectively analyzed. The MR imaging was performed with 1.5 T MR unit, using T1-and T2-weighted sagittal and axial spin echo techniques. Contrast-enhanced T1 weighted sagittal and axial images were performed after intravenous injection of Gadopentetate-dimeglumine(Magnevist, Shering) (0.1 mmol/kg). Contrast enhancement was seen in 66 cases(64%). Thirteen cases of bulging disc were not enhanced. Twenty-eight cases of protruded disc showed intraannular enchantment in 23 cases, peripheral linear and irregular enhancement in each of one case, and nonenhancement in three cases. Fifty-seven cases of extruded disc showed irregular enhancement in 14 cases, peripheral linear enhancement in 12 cases, peripheral ring enhancement in five cases and intraannular enhancement in five cases. All five cases of sequestered disc showed peripheral ring enhancement. Protruded discs show intraannular enhancement frequently and sequestered discs usually show peripheral ring enhancement. Enhanced MR imaging may be helpful to evaluate the type of herniated lumbar disc and relationship among disc material, nerve root and thecal sac

  12. Different histopathological subtypes of Hodgkin lymphoma show significantly different levels of FDG uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Loft, Annika; Hansen, Mads

    2006-01-01

    ) patients, 20.8 g/ml in 11 mixed cellularity (MC) patients, and 19.5 g/ml in four patients with unclassified classical HL (CHL-NOS), (ANOVA, p = 0.011). Out of 780 sites (600 lymph node regions plus 180 organs), 208 sites were found to be affected with HL. Mean SUV(max) was 8.3 g/ml in the 12 sites with NLP......, 11.2 g/ml in the 147 sites affected with NS, 14.6 g/ml in the 36 sites with MC, and 13.1 g/ml in the 13 sites with CHL-NOS (ANOVA, p = 0.002). There is a significant difference in FDG/glucose uptake between the different histopathological subtypes of HL....

  13. Enhanced transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery: effect of chemical enhancers and electrical assistance on in vitro sCT buccal permeation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dong-Ho; Chun, Kyeung-Hwa; Jeon, Sang-Ok; Kang, Jeong-Won; Lee, Sangkil

    2011-10-01

    This study investigates the combined effect of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance on transbuccal salmon calcitonin (sCT) delivery, using fresh swine buccal tissue. We placed 200 IU (40 μg/mL) of each sCT formulation--containing various concentrations of ethanol, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and sodium deoxyglycocholate (SDGC)--onto the donor part of a Franz diffusion cell. Then, 0.5 mA/cm(2) of fixed anodal current was applied alone or combined with chemical enhancers. The amount of permeated sCT was analyzed using an ELISA kit, and biophysical changes of the buccal mucosa were investigated using FT-IR spectroscopy, and hematoxylin-eosin staining methods were used to evaluate histological alteration of the buccal tissues. The flux (J(s)) of sCT increased with the addition of absorption enhancer groups, but it was significantly enhanced by the application of anodal iontophoresis (ITP). FT-IR study revealed that all groups caused an increase in lipid fluidity but only the groups containing SDGC showed statistically significant difference. Although the histological data of SDGC groups showed a possibility for tissue damage, the present enhancing methods appear to be safe. In conclusion, the combination of absorption enhancers and electrical assistance is a potential strategy for the enhancement of transbuccal sCT delivery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The defense-responsive genes showing enhanced and repressed expression after pathogen infection in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Bin(周斌); PENG; Kaiman(彭开蔓); CHU; Zhaohui(储昭晖); WANG; Shiping(王石平); ZHANG; Qifa(张启发)

    2002-01-01

    Despite large numbers of studies about defense response, processes involved in the resistance of plants to incompatible pathogens are still largely uncharacterized. The objective of this study was to identify genes involved in defense response by cDNA array analysis and to gain knowledge about the functions of the genes involved in defense response. Approximately 20000 rice cDNA clones were arrayed on nylon filters. RNA samples isolated from different rice lines after infection with incompatible strains or isolates of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae or Pyricularia grisea, respectively, were used to synthesize cDNA as probes for screening the cDNA arrays. A total of 100 differentially expressed unique sequences were identified from 5 pathogen-host combinations. Fifty-three sequences were detected as showing enhanced expression and 47 sequences were detected as showing repressed expression after pathogen infection. Sequence analysis revealed that most of the 100 sequences had various degrees of homology with genes in databases which encode or putatively encode transcription regulating proteins, translation regulating proteins, transport proteins, kinases, metabolic enzymes, and proteins involved in other functions. Most of the genes have not been previously reported as being involved in the disease resistance response in rice. The results from cDNA arrays, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, and RNA gel blot analysis suggest that activation or repression of most of these genes might occur commonly in the defense response.

  15. Peripheral blood cells from children with RASopathies show enhanced spontaneous colonies growth in vitro and hyperactive RAS signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaipa, G; Bugarin, C; Cianci, P; Sarno, J; Bonaccorso, P; Biondi, A; Selicorni, A

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in genes coding for molecules involved in the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway are the hallmarks of a newly classified family of autosomal dominant syndromes termed RASopathies. Myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), in particular, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, can lead to potentially severe complications in children with Noonan syndrome (NS). We studied 27 children with NS or other RASopathies and 35 age-matched children as control subjects. Peripheral blood (PB) cells from these patients were studied for in vitro colony-forming units (CFUs) activity, as well as for intracellular phosphosignaling. Higher spontaneous growth of both burst-forming units-erythroid (BFU-E) and CFU-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies from RAS-mutated patients were observed as compared with control subjects. We also observed a significantly higher amount of GM-colony-stimulating factor-induced p-ERK in children with RASopathies. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that PB cells isolated from children suffering from NS or other RASopathies without MPD display enhanced BFU-E and CFU-GM colony formation in vitro. The biological significance of these findings clearly awaits further studies. Collectively, our data provide a basis for further investigating of only partially characterized hematological alterations present in children suffering from RASopathies, and may provide new markers for progression toward malignant MPD in these patients

  16. Predicting IDH mutation status of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas based on contrast-enhanced CT features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yong [Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Chen, Jun [Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Pathology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Kong, Weiwei [Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Oncology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Mao, Liang; Qiu, Yudong [Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Hepatopancreatobiliary Surgery, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Kong, Wentao [Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Ultrasonography, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhou, Qun [Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital Clinical College of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Radiology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Zhou, Zhengyang; Zhu, Bin; He, Jian [Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Department of Radiology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China); Wang, Zhongqiu [Jiangsu Province Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, the Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Department of Radiology, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2018-01-15

    To explore the difference in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) features of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) with different isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status. Clinicopathological and contrast-enhanced CT features of 78 patients with 78 ICCs were retrospectively analysed and compared based on IDH mutation status. There were 11 ICCs with IDH mutation (11/78, 14.1%) and 67 ICCs without IDH mutation (67/78, 85.9%). IDH-mutated ICCs showed intratumoral artery more often than IDH-wild ICCs (p = 0.023). Most ICCs with IDH mutation showed rim and internal enhancement (10/11, 90.9%), while ICCs without IDH mutation often appeared diffuse (26/67, 38.8%) or with no enhancement (4/67, 6.0%) in the arterial phase (p = 0.009). IDH-mutated ICCs showed significantly higher CT values, enhancement degrees and enhancement ratios in arterial and portal venous phases than IDH-wild ICCs (all p < 0.05). The CT value of tumours in the portal venous phase performed best in distinguishing ICCs with and without IDH mutation, with an area under the curve of 0.798 (p = 0.002). ICCs with and without IDH mutation differed significantly in arterial enhancement mode, and the tumour enhancement degree on multiphase contrast-enhanced CT was helpful in predicting IDH mutation status. (orig.)

  17. The significant adhesion enhancement of Ag–polytetrafluoroethylene antibacterial coatings by using of molecular bridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Ruijie, E-mail: guoruijie@tyut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030024 (China); Yin, Guangda; Sha, Xiaojuan [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030024 (China); Zhao, Qi [Division of Mechanical Engineering and Mechatronics, University of Dundee, Dundee, DD1 4HN (United Kingdom); Wei, Liqiao; Wang, Huifang [Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (Taiyuan University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Taiyuan, 030024 (China)

    2015-06-30

    Highlights: • The more effective coupling agent is employed to modify surface. • S–Ag displays more intensive bond strength than that of N–Ag. • The coatings possess the highest level of adhesion. - Abstract: Weak adhesion between the metal-based antibacterial coatings and polymer substrates limits their clinical applications; surface modification is an effective way to solve this intrinsic problem. In this study, UV irradiation was employed to activate the inert silicon rubber substrates, and the grafting of coupling agent (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane into the UV-irradiated substrates generated reactive surface containing −SH groups. During electroless plating S which has lone pair electrons anchored Ag{sup +} and produced antibacterial coatings with improved adhesion. The grafting of (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxy silane into silicon rubber was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The adhesion was tested by American Society of Testing Materials (ASTM D 3359-02). Surface elements content and distribution were observed and analyzed by X-ray energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS). The antibacterial performance was characterized by inhibition halo test and shake flash method. The results showed that the as-prepared composite Ag–polytetrafluoroethylene coatings possessed remarkably enhanced adhesion and superior antibacterial activity.

  18. Distribution of late gadolinium enhancement in various types of cardiomyopathies: Significance in differential diagnosis, clinical features and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Sano, Makoto; Suwa, Kenichiro; Saitoh, Takeji; Nobuhara, Mamoru; Saotome, Masao; Urushida, Tsuyoshi; Katoh, Hideki; Hayashi, Hideharu

    2014-07-26

    The recent development of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) techniques has allowed detailed analyses of cardiac function and tissue characterization with high spatial resolution. We review characteristic CMR features in ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathies (ICM and NICM), especially in terms of the location and distribution of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR in ICM shows segmental wall motion abnormalities or wall thinning in a particular coronary arterial territory, and the subendocardial or transmural LGE. LGE in NICM generally does not correspond to any particular coronary artery distribution and is located mostly in the mid-wall to subepicardial layer. The analysis of LGE distribution is valuable to differentiate NICM with diffusely impaired systolic function, including dilated cardiomyopathy, end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), cardiac sarcoidosis, and myocarditis, and those with diffuse left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy including HCM, cardiac amyloidosis and Anderson-Fabry disease. A transient low signal intensity LGE in regions of severe LV dysfunction is a particular feature of stress cardiomyopathy. In arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia, an enhancement of right ventricular (RV) wall with functional and morphological changes of RV becomes apparent. Finally, the analyses of LGE distribution have potentials to predict cardiac outcomes and response to treatments.

  19. Enhanced sulfidation xanthate flotation of malachite using ammonium ions as activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dandan; Ma, Wenhui; Mao, Yingbo; Deng, Jiushuai; Wen, Shuming

    2017-05-18

    In this study, ammonium ion was used to enhance the sulfidation flotation of malachite. The effect of ammonium ion on the sulfidation flotation of malachite was investigated using microflotation test, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) analysis, zeta potential measurements, and scanning electron microscope analysis (SEM). The results of microflotation test show that the addition of sodium sulfide and ammonium sulfate resulted in better sulfidation than the addition of sodium sulfide alone. The results of ICP analysis indicate that the dissolution of enhanced sulfurized malachite surface is significantly decreased. Zeta potential measurements indicate that a smaller isoelectric point value and a large number of copper-sulfide films formed on the malachite surface by enhancing sulfidation resulted in a large amount of sodium butyl xanthate absorbed onto the enhanced sulfurized malachite surface. EDS semi-quantitative analysis and XPS analysis show that malachite was easily sulfurized by sodium sulfide with ammonium ion. These results show that the addition of ammonium ion plays a significant role in the sulfidation of malachite and results in improved flotation performance.

  20. In search of East Asian self-enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Steven J; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2007-02-01

    A meta-analysis of published cross-cultural studies of self-enhancement reveals pervasive and pronounced differences between East Asians and Westerners. Across 91 comparisons, the average cross-cultural effect was d = .84. The effect emerged in all 30 methods, except for comparisons of implicit self-esteem. Within cultures, Westerners showed a clear self-serving bias (d = .87), whereas East Asians did not (d = -.01), with Asian Americans falling in between (d = .52). East Asians did self-enhance in the methods that involved comparing themselves to average but were self-critical in other methods. It was hypothesized that this inconsistency could be explained in that these methods are compromised by the "everyone is better than their group's average effect" (EBTA). Supporting this rationale, studies that were implicated by the EBTA reported significantly larger self-enhancement effect for all cultures compared to other studies. Overall, the evidence converges to show that East Asians do not self-enhance.

  1. Enhancing the Effectiveness of Significant Event Analysis: Exploring Personal Impact and Applying Systems Thinking in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Paul; McNaughton, Elaine; Bruce, David; Holly, Deirdre; Forrest, Eleanor; Macleod, Marion; Kennedy, Susan; Power, Ailsa; Toppin, Denis; Black, Irene; Pooley, Janet; Taylor, Audrey; Swanson, Vivien; Kelly, Moya; Ferguson, Julie; Stirling, Suzanne; Wakeling, Judy; Inglis, Angela; McKay, John; Sargeant, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Significant event analysis (SEA) is well established in many primary care settings but can be poorly implemented. Reasons include the emotional impact on clinicians and limited knowledge of systems thinking in establishing why events happen and formulating improvements. To enhance SEA effectiveness, we developed and tested "guiding tools" based on human factors principles. Mixed-methods development of guiding tools (Personal Booklet-to help with emotional demands and apply a human factors analysis at the individual level; Desk Pad-to guide a team-based systems analysis; and a written Report Format) by a multiprofessional "expert" group and testing with Scottish primary care practitioners who submitted completed enhanced SEA reports. Evaluation data were collected through questionnaire, telephone interviews, and thematic analysis of SEA reports. Overall, 149/240 care practitioners tested the guiding tools and submitted completed SEA reports (62.1%). Reported understanding of how to undertake SEA improved postintervention (P systems issues (85/123, 69.1%), while most found the Report Format clear (94/123, 76.4%) and would recommend it (88/123, 71.5%). Most SEA reports adopted a systems approach to analyses (125/149, 83.9%), care improvement (74/149, 49.7), or planned actions (42/149, 28.2%). Applying human factors principles to SEA potentially enables care teams to gain a systems-based understanding of why things go wrong, which may help with related emotional demands and with more effective learning and improvement.

  2. A Novel Peptide from Soybean Protein Isolate Significantly Enhances Resistance of the Organism under Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heran Ma

    Full Text Available Recent studies have indicated that protein hydrolysates have broad biological effects. In the current study we describe a novel antioxidative peptide, FDPAL, from soybean protein isolate (SPI. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize an antioxidative peptide from SPI and determine its antioxidative mechanism. LC-MS/MS was used to isolate and identify the peptide from SPI. The sequence of the peptide was determined to be Phe-Asp-Pro-Ala-Leu (FDPAL, 561 Da. FDPAL can cause significant enhancement of resistance to oxidative stress both in cells as well as simple organisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans, FDPAL can up-regulate the expression of certain genes associated with resistance. The antioxidant activity of this peptide can be attributed to the presence of a specific amino acid sequence. Results from our work suggest that FDPAL can facilitate potential applications of proteins carrying this sequence in the nutraceutical, bioactive material and clinical medicine areas, as well as in cosmetics and health care products.

  3. Enhancement characteristics of retroperitoneal lymphomatous lymph nodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagtvedt, Trond; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Kolbenstvedt, Alf; Aaloekken, Trond Mogens; Graff, Bjoern Anton; Holte, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of CT enhancement of lymphomatous lymph nodes (LLN) of the neck and the mediastinum showed that the LLN had lower enhancement values than normal lymph nodes. Purpose: To elucidate the contrast medium enhancement curves of LLN in the retroperitoneum by comparing the curves of LLN with those of normal lymph nodes, to test whether differences between these curves could be of diagnostic value, and to compare the present enhancement curves of LLN of the retroperitoneum with the curves of LLN of the neck and the mediastinum from previous similar investigations. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with LLN of the retroperitoneum (three with Hodgkin's lymphoma [HL]) and 21 control patients with sarcomas and thus presumably normal retroperitoneal nodes underwent dynamic CT examinations. The previous, similar investigation of lymph nodes of the neck comprised 28 patients with LLN and the investigation of mediastinal lymph nodes comprised 24 patients with LLN. Results: The enhancement curves of the retroperitoneal LLN had significantly lower attenuation than those of the retroperitoneal control nodes. A combination of peak contrast value and time to peak adjusted to total body weight yielded a diagnostic accuracy which at the best showed a sensitivity of 90.5% with a specificity of 82.6%. The LLN of the retroperitoneum had higher attenuation values than corresponding nodes of the mediastinum but no significant difference was found between LLN of the retroperitoneum and LLN of the neck in previous similar investigations. Conclusion: The comparison of enhancement curves of retroperitoneal LLN with retroperitoneal control nodes showed a marked similarity with and substantiates our previous findings in lymph nodes of the neck and of the mediastinum. The best diagnostic accuracy was achieved by combining the parameters peak contrast value and time to peak and adjusting these values to the body weight. Peak enhancement of the

  4. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO3−δ ceramics originating from nonuniform distribution of Pr dopants

    KAUST Repository

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh

    2014-05-12

    Recently, we have reported a significant enhancement ( >70% at 500 °C) in the thermoelectric power factor (PF) of bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics employing a novel synthesis strategy which led to the highest ever reported values of PF among doped polycrystalline SrTiO3. It was found that the formation of Pr-rich grain boundary regions gives rise to an enhancement in carrier mobility. In this Letter, we investigate the electronic and thermal transport in Sr1− x Pr x TiO3 ceramics in order to determine the optimum doping concentration and to evaluate the overall thermoelectric performance. Simultaneous enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor and reduction in thermal conductivity in these samples resulted in more than 30% improvement in the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values. Maximum ZT value of 0.35 was obtained at 500 °C.

  5. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO3−δ ceramics originating from nonuniform distribution of Pr dopants

    KAUST Repository

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; He, Jian; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tritt, Terry M.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have reported a significant enhancement ( >70% at 500 °C) in the thermoelectric power factor (PF) of bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO3 ceramics employing a novel synthesis strategy which led to the highest ever reported values of PF among doped polycrystalline SrTiO3. It was found that the formation of Pr-rich grain boundary regions gives rise to an enhancement in carrier mobility. In this Letter, we investigate the electronic and thermal transport in Sr1− x Pr x TiO3 ceramics in order to determine the optimum doping concentration and to evaluate the overall thermoelectric performance. Simultaneous enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor and reduction in thermal conductivity in these samples resulted in more than 30% improvement in the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values. Maximum ZT value of 0.35 was obtained at 500 °C.

  6. Performance monitoring and error significance in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endrass, Tanja; Schuermann, Beate; Kaufmann, Christan; Spielberg, Rüdiger; Kniesche, Rainer; Kathmann, Norbert

    2010-05-01

    Performance monitoring has been consistently found to be overactive in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The present study examines whether performance monitoring in OCD is adjusted with error significance. Therefore, errors in a flanker task were followed by neutral (standard condition) or punishment feedbacks (punishment condition). In the standard condition patients had significantly larger error-related negativity (ERN) and correct-related negativity (CRN) ampliudes than controls. But, in the punishment condition groups did not differ in ERN and CRN amplitudes. While healthy controls showed an amplitude enhancement between standard and punishment condition, OCD patients showed no variation. In contrast, group differences were not found for the error positivity (Pe): both groups had larger Pe amplitudes in the punishment condition. Results confirm earlier findings of overactive error monitoring in OCD. The absence of a variation with error significance might indicate that OCD patients are unable to down-regulate their monitoring activity according to external requirements. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Significant enhancement in volumetric and gravimetric capacitance of Cu-TiO2/PPY composite for supercapacitor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purty, B.; Choudhary, R. B.

    2018-04-01

    Copper doped titanium dioxide-polypyrrole (Cu-TiO2/PPY) composite was successfully synthesized via chemical oxidative in-situ polymerization process. The structural and morphological properties of Cu-TiO2/PPY composite were investigated using X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy(TEM) techniques. The electrochemical properties of as-synthesized composite were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge discharge (GCD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) techniques. The novel Cu-TiO2/PPY composite showed enhanced volumetric capacitance ˜714 F cm-1 and gravimetric capacitance ˜674 F g-1 at 1 A g-1. In addition an excellent coulombic efficiency and comparabley low charge transfer resistance than pure PPY suggests improved supercapacitive performance of Cu-TiO2/PPY composite as an electrode material.

  8. Avascular necrosis of femoral head: findings of contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yong Moon; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Young Min

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the findings and the role of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in avascular necrosis of femoral head. Sixteen patients with avascular necorsis of femoral head were examined with MRI. T1-weighted and T2-weighted image and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. Enhancing characteristics of the necrotic area and synovium were determined. Also a change of the disease extent after enhancement was assessed. Twenty seven avascular necrosis of the femoral head including 11 cases of bilateral lesion were detected. Fifteen cases revealed collapse of the femoral head. The portions of the lesion with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images showed contrast enhancement in 15 cases. However, the potions with low signal intensities both on T1 and T2-weighted images showed enhancement in one case. There was no significant change of the disease extent after enhancement. Synovium showed enhancement in 18 cases, and joint effusion was detected in 23 cases. Contrast enhanced MR images may be helpful in predicting histopathologic findings of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, but not useful for evaluating the extent of disease

  9. Avascular necrosis of femoral head: findings of contrast-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong Moon; Kang, Heung Sik; Kim, Chu Wan; Kim, Hee Joong; Kim, Young Min [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-06-15

    To evaluate the findings and the role of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in avascular necrosis of femoral head. Sixteen patients with avascular necorsis of femoral head were examined with MRI. T1-weighted and T2-weighted image and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted images were obtained. Enhancing characteristics of the necrotic area and synovium were determined. Also a change of the disease extent after enhancement was assessed. Twenty seven avascular necrosis of the femoral head including 11 cases of bilateral lesion were detected. Fifteen cases revealed collapse of the femoral head. The portions of the lesion with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images showed contrast enhancement in 15 cases. However, the potions with low signal intensities both on T1 and T2-weighted images showed enhancement in one case. There was no significant change of the disease extent after enhancement. Synovium showed enhancement in 18 cases, and joint effusion was detected in 23 cases. Contrast enhanced MR images may be helpful in predicting histopathologic findings of avascular necrosis of the femoral head, but not useful for evaluating the extent of disease.

  10. Emulsion oil droplet size significantly affects satiety: A pre-ingestive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Aaron M; Norton, Jennifer E; Yeomans, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that the manipulation of oil droplet size within oil-in-water emulsions significantly affects sensory characteristics, hedonics and expectations of food intake, independently of energy content. Smaller oil droplets enhanced perceived creaminess, increased Liking and generated greater expectations of satiation and satiety, indicating that creaminess is a satiety-relevant sensory cue within these systems. This paper extends these findings by investigating the effect of oil droplet size (d4,3: 2 and 50 μm) on food intake and appetite. Male participants (n = 34 aged 18-37; BMI of 22.7 ± 1.6 kg/m(2); DEBQ restricted eating score of 1.8 ± 0.1.) completed two test days, where they visited the laboratory to consume a fixed-portion breakfast, returning 3 h later for a "drink", which was the emulsion preload containing either 2 or 50 μm oil droplets. This was followed 20 min later with an ad libitum pasta lunch. Participants consumed significantly less at the ad libitum lunch after the preload containing 2 μm oil droplets than after the 50 μm preload, with an average reduction of 12% (62.4 kcal). Despite the significant differences in intake, no significant differences in sensory characteristics were noted. The findings show that the impact that an emulsion has on satiety can be enhanced without producing significantly perceivable differences in sensory properties. Therefore, by introducing a processing step which results in a smaller droplets, emulsion based liquid food products can be produced that enhance satiety, allowing covert functional redesign. Future work should consider the mechanism responsible for this effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Feasibility of enhancing short-chain fatty acids production from sludge anaerobic fermentation at free nitrous acid pretreatment: Role and significance of Tea saponin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xuran; Zhao, Jianwei; Wang, Dongbo; Wang, Qilin; Li, Xiaoming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guangming

    2018-04-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), raw substrates for biodegradable plastic production and preferred carbon source for biological nutrients removal, can be produced from anaerobic fermentation of waste activated sludge (WAS). This paper reports a new, high-efficient and eco-friendly strategy, i.e., using free nitrous acid (FNA) pretreatment combined with Tea saponin (TS), to enhance SCFA production. Experimental results showed 0.90 mg/L FNA pretreatment and 0.05 g/g total suspended solids TS addition (FNA + TS) not only significantly increased SCFA production to 315.3 ± 8.8 mg COD/g VSS (5.52, 1.76 and 1.93 times higher than that from blank, solo FNA and solo TS, respectively) but also shortened fermentation time to 4 days. Mechanism investigations revealed that FNA pretreatment combined with TS cause a positive synergetic effect on sludge solubilization, resulting in more release of organics. It was also found that the combination benefited hydrolysis and acidogenesis processes but inhibited the methanogenesis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M A; Campana, M G; Whitten, M; Edwards, C J; Jones, H; Barrett, E; Cassidy, R; Nisbet, R E R; Hill, E W; Howe, C J; Binns, M

    2011-04-23

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to 'A Royal Mare'). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized.

  13. The cosmopolitan maternal heritage of the Thoroughbred racehorse breed shows a significant contribution from British and Irish native mares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, M. A.; Campana, M. G.; Whitten, M.; Edwards, C. J.; Jones, H.; Barrett, E.; Cassidy, R.; Nisbet, R. E. R.; Hill, E. W.; Howe, C. J.; Binns, M.

    2011-01-01

    The paternal origins of Thoroughbred racehorses trace back to a handful of Middle Eastern stallions, imported to the British Isles during the seventeenth century. Yet, few details of the foundation mares were recorded, in many cases not even their names (several different maternal lineages trace back to ‘A Royal Mare’). This has fuelled intense speculation over their origins. We examined mitochondrial DNA from 1929 horses to determine the origin of Thoroughbred foundation mares. There is no evidence to support exclusive Arab maternal origins as some historical records have suggested, or a significant importation of Oriental mares (the term used in historic records to refer to Middle East and western Asian breeds including Arab, Akhal-Teke, Barb and Caspian). Instead, we show that Thoroughbred foundation mares had a cosmopolitan European heritage with a far greater contribution from British and Irish Native mares than previously recognized. PMID:20926431

  14. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Fukatsu, Hiroshi; Ishigaki, Takeo; Nakashima, Tsutomu; Ichinose, Nobuyasu

    2002-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac in patients with sudden hearing loss. Forty consecutive patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (20 males and 20 females; age range 11-82 years), 40 age-matched control subjects, and 5 patients with Meniere's disease were examined using the same imaging protocol on a 1.5-T MR system. Pre- and post-contrast-enhanced T1-weighted 3D spoiled gradient-echo sequence (3D SPGR; TR/TE=23/10 ms, no. of excitations=1, flip angle=30 ) images were obtained using a voxel size of 0.6 x 0.7 x 0.8 mm 3 . Contrast enhancement in the area of the endolymphatic sac was assessed by two radiologists, and the frequency of contrast enhancement was compared between the three study groups. Enhancement of the ipsilateral endolymphatic sac was observed in 30 of the 40 patients with sudden hearing loss (75%). Twenty of these 30 patients also showed enhancement on the contralateral side, and 1 patient showed enhancement only on the contralateral side. Only 1 of the 5 patients with Meniere's disease showed enhancement. Nine of the 40 control subjects (22.5%) showed enhancement (bilateral enhancement in 5 subjects, unilateral in 4). The frequency of enhancement in patients with sudden hearing loss was significantly higher than that in control subjects (P<0.0001) or patients with Meniere's disease (P<0.05). The frequency of contrast enhancement of the endolymphatic sac is significantly increased in patients with sudden hearing loss, but further study is necessary to clarify the relationship between this finding and the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. (orig.)

  15. Significantly enhanced piezoelectricity in low-temperature sintered Aurivillius-type ceramics with ultrahigh Curie temperature of 800 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Kai; Huang, Chengcheng; Guo, Dong

    2017-01-01

    We report an Aurivillius-type piezoelectric ceramic (Ca 1−2x (LiCe) x Bi 4 Ti 3.99 Zn 0.01 O 15 ) that has an ultrahigh Curie temperature (T c ) around 800 °C and a significantly enhanced piezoelectric coefficient (d 33 ), comparable to that of textured ceramics fabricated using the complicated templating method. Surprisingly, the highest d 33 of 26 pC/N was achieved at an unexpectedly low sintering temperature (T s ) of only 920 °C (∼200 °C lower than usual) despite the non-ideal density. Study of different synthesized samples indicates that a relatively low T s is crucial for suppressing Bi evaporation and abnormal grain growth, which are indispensable for high resistivity and effective poling due to decreased carrier density and restricted anisotropic conduction. Because the layered structure is sensitive to lattice defects, controlled Bi loss is considered to be crucial for maintaining structural order and spontaneous polarization. This low-T s system is very promising for practical applications due to its high piezoelectricity, low cost and high reproducibility. Contrary to our usual understanding, the results reveal that a delicate balance of density, Bi loss and grain morphology achieved by adjusting the sintering temperature is crucial for the enhancing performance in Aurivillius-type high- T c ceramics. (paper)

  16. Estimating significances of differences between slopes: A new methodology and software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco M. N. C. S. Vieira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Determining the significance of slope differences is a common requirement in studies of self-thinning, ontogeny and sexual dimorphism, among others. This has long been carried out testing for the overlap of the bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals of the slopes. However, the numerical random re-sampling with repetition favours the occurrence of re-combinations yielding largely diverging slopes, widening the confidence intervals and thus increasing the chances of overlooking significant differences. To overcome this problem a permutation test simulating the null hypothesis of no differences between slopes is proposed. This new methodology, when applied both to artificial and factual data, showed an enhanced ability to differentiate slopes.

  17. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional

  18. Affective picture modulation: valence, arousal, attention allocation and motivational significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Jorge; Carvalho, Sandra; Galdo-Alvarez, Santiago; Alves, Jorge; Sampaio, Adriana; Gonçalves, Oscar F

    2012-03-01

    The present study analyses the modulatory effects of affective pictures in the early posterior negativity (EPN), the late positive potential (LPP) and the human startle response on both the peripheral (eye blink EMG) and central neurophysiological levels (Probe P3), during passive affective pictures viewing. The affective pictures categories were balanced in terms of valence (pleasant; unpleasant) and arousal (high; low). The data shows that EPN may be sensitive to specific stimulus characteristics (affective relevant pictures versus neutral pictures) associated with early stages of attentional processing. In later stages, the heightened attentional resource allocation as well as the motivated significance of the affective stimuli was found to elicit enhanced amplitudes of slow wave processes thought to be related to enhanced encoding, namely LPP,. Although pleasant low arousing pictures were effective in engaging the resources involved in the slow wave processes, the highly arousing affective stimuli (pleasant and unpleasant) were found to produce the largest enhancement of the LPP, suggesting that high arousing stimuli may are associated with increased motivational significance. Additionally the response to high arousing stimuli may be suggestive of increased motivational attention, given the heightened attentional allocation, as expressed in the P3 probe, especially for the pleasant pictures. The hedonic valence may then serve as a mediator of the attentional inhibition to the affective priming, potentiating or inhibiting a shift towards defensive activation, as measured by the startle reflex. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of liver cirrhosis on liver enhancement at Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verloh, N., E-mail: niklas.verloh@stud.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Haimerl, M.; Rennert, J.; Müller-Wille, R.; Nießen, C. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Kirchner, G. [Department of Gastroenterology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Scherer, M.N. [Department of Surgery, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany); Schreyer, A.G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Regensburg, Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in enhancement effects of liver parenchyma between normal and cirrhotic livers on dynamic, Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3 T. Materials and methods: 93 patients with normal (n = 54) and cirrhotic liver (n = 39; Child–Pugh class A, n = 18; B, n = 16; C, n = 5) underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with liver specific contrast media at 3 T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before contrast injection, in the arterial phase (AP), in the late arterial phase (LAP), in the portal venous phase (PVP), and in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) after 20 min. The relative enhancement (RE) of the signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was calculated for all phases. Results: Mean RE was significantly different among all evaluated groups in the hepatobiliary phase and with increasing severity of liver cirrhosis, a decreasing, but still significant reduction of RE could be shown. Phase depending changes of RE for each group were observed. In case of non-cirrhotic liver or Child–Pugh Score A cirrhosis mean RE showed a significant increase between AP, LAP, PVP and HBP. For Child–Pugh B + C cirrhosis RE increased until PVP, however, there was no change in case of B cirrhosis (p = 0.501) and significantly reduced in case of C cirrhosis (p = 0.043) during HBP. Conclusion: RE of liver parenchyma is negatively affected by increased severity of liver cirrhosis, therefore diagnostic value of HBP could be limited in case of Child Pugh B + C cirrhosis.

  20. Impact of liver cirrhosis on liver enhancement at Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Rennert, J.; Müller-Wille, R.; Nießen, C.; Kirchner, G.; Scherer, M.N.; Schreyer, A.G.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess differences in enhancement effects of liver parenchyma between normal and cirrhotic livers on dynamic, Gd-EOB-DTPA enhanced MRI at 3 T. Materials and methods: 93 patients with normal (n = 54) and cirrhotic liver (n = 39; Child–Pugh class A, n = 18; B, n = 16; C, n = 5) underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with liver specific contrast media at 3 T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before contrast injection, in the arterial phase (AP), in the late arterial phase (LAP), in the portal venous phase (PVP), and in the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) after 20 min. The relative enhancement (RE) of the signal intensity of the liver parenchyma was calculated for all phases. Results: Mean RE was significantly different among all evaluated groups in the hepatobiliary phase and with increasing severity of liver cirrhosis, a decreasing, but still significant reduction of RE could be shown. Phase depending changes of RE for each group were observed. In case of non-cirrhotic liver or Child–Pugh Score A cirrhosis mean RE showed a significant increase between AP, LAP, PVP and HBP. For Child–Pugh B + C cirrhosis RE increased until PVP, however, there was no change in case of B cirrhosis (p = 0.501) and significantly reduced in case of C cirrhosis (p = 0.043) during HBP. Conclusion: RE of liver parenchyma is negatively affected by increased severity of liver cirrhosis, therefore diagnostic value of HBP could be limited in case of Child Pugh B + C cirrhosis

  1. Investigation of RF-enhanced plasma potentials on Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoukov, R.; Whyte, D.G.; Brunner, D.; Cziegler, I.; LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B.; Myra, J.; Terry, J.; Wukitch, S.

    2013-01-01

    Radio frequency (RF) sheath rectification is a leading mechanism suspected of causing anomalously high erosion of plasma facing materials in RF-heated plasmas on Alcator C-Mod. An extensive experimental survey of the plasma potential (Φ P ) in RF-heated discharges on C-Mod reveals that significant Φ P enhancement (>100 V) is found on outboard limiter surfaces, both mapped and not mapped to active RF antennas. Surfaces that magnetically map to active RF antennas show Φ P enhancement that is, in part, consistent with the recently proposed slow wave rectification mechanism. Surfaces that do not map to active RF antennas also experience significant Φ P enhancement, which strongly correlates with the local fast wave intensity. In this case, fast wave rectification is a leading candidate mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement

  2. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Nadeem

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Foxtail millet (FM [Setaria italica (L. Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such “excessive” protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  3. Foxtail Millet [Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] Grown under Low Nitrogen Shows a Smaller Root System, Enhanced Biomass Accumulation, and Nitrate Transporter Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Faisal; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Wang, Ruifeng; Han, Jienan; Shen, Qi; Chang, Feiran; Diao, Xianmin; Zhang, Fusuo; Li, Xuexian

    2018-01-01

    Foxtail millet (FM) [ Setaria italica (L.) Beauv.] is a grain and forage crop well adapted to nutrient-poor soils. To date little is known how FM adapts to low nitrogen (LN) at the morphological, physiological, and molecular levels. Using the FM variety Yugu1, we found that LN led to lower chlorophyll contents and N concentrations, and higher root/shoot and C/N ratios and N utilization efficiencies under hydroponic culture. Importantly, enhanced biomass accumulation in the root under LN was in contrast to a smaller root system, as indicated by significant decreases in total root length; crown root number and length; and lateral root number, length, and density. Enhanced carbon allocation toward the root was rather for significant increases in average diameter of the LN root, potentially favorable for wider xylem vessels or other anatomical alterations facilitating nutrient transport. Lower levels of IAA and CKs were consistent with a smaller root system and higher levels of GA may promote root thickening under LN. Further, up-regulation of SiNRT1.1, SiNRT2.1, and SiNAR2.1 expression and nitrate influx in the root and that of SiNRT1.11 and SiNRT1.12 expression in the shoot probably favored nitrate uptake and remobilization as a whole. Lastly, more soluble proteins accumulated in the N-deficient root likely as a result of increases of N utilization efficiencies. Such "excessive" protein-N was possibly available for shoot delivery. Thus, FM may preferentially transport carbon toward the root facilitating root thickening/nutrient transport and allocate N toward the shoot maximizing photosynthesis/carbon fixation as a primary adaptive strategy to N limitation.

  4. An enhanced topologically significant directed random walk in cancer classification using gene expression datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Sen Seah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Microarray technology has become one of the elementary tools for researchers to study the genome of organisms. As the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer is being increasingly appreciated through genomic analysis, cancerous classification is an emerging important trend. Significant directed random walk is proposed as one of the cancerous classification approach which have higher sensitivity of risk gene prediction and higher accuracy of cancer classification. In this paper, the methodology and material used for the experiment are presented. Tuning parameter selection method and weight as parameter are applied in proposed approach. Gene expression dataset is used as the input datasets while pathway dataset is used to build a directed graph, as reference datasets, to complete the bias process in random walk approach. In addition, we demonstrate that our approach can improve sensitive predictions with higher accuracy and biological meaningful classification result. Comparison result takes place between significant directed random walk and directed random walk to show the improvement in term of sensitivity of prediction and accuracy of cancer classification.

  5. An enhanced fractal image denoising algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jian; Ye Zhongxing; Zou Yuru; Ye Ruisong

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant development in image denoising using fractal-based method. This paper presents an enhanced fractal predictive denoising algorithm for denoising the images corrupted by an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) by using quadratic gray-level function. Meanwhile, a quantization method for the fractal gray-level coefficients of the quadratic function is proposed to strictly guarantee the contractivity requirement of the enhanced fractal coding, and in terms of the quality of the fractal representation measured by PSNR, the enhanced fractal image coding using quadratic gray-level function generally performs better than the standard fractal coding using linear gray-level function. Based on this enhanced fractal coding, the enhanced fractal image denoising is implemented by estimating the fractal gray-level coefficients of the quadratic function of the noiseless image from its noisy observation. Experimental results show that, compared with other standard fractal-based image denoising schemes using linear gray-level function, the enhanced fractal denoising algorithm can improve the quality of the restored image efficiently

  6. Significant performance enhancement in AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor by high-κ organic dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ze-Gao, Wang; Yuan-Fu, Chen; Cao, Chen; Ben-Lang, Tian; Fu-Tong, Chu; Xing-Zhao, Liu; Yan-Rong, Li

    2010-01-01

    The electrical properties of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with and without high-κ organic dielectrics are investigated. The maximum drain current I D max and the maximum transconductance g m max of the organic dielectric/AlGaN/GaN structure can be enhanced by 74.5%, and 73.7% compared with those of the bare AlGaN/GaN HEMT, respectively. Both the threshold voltage V T and g m max of the dielectric/AlGaN/GaN HEMT are strongly dielectric-constant-dependent. Our results suggest that it is promising to significantly improve the performance of the AlGaN/GaN HEMT by introducing the high-κ organic dielectric. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  7. Enhanced photocurrent in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells via shape controlled three-dimensional nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilali, Mohamed M; Banerjee, Sanjay; Sreenivasan, S V; Yang Shuqiang; Miller, Mike; Xu, Frank

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we have explored manufacturable approaches to sub-wavelength controlled three-dimensional (3D) nano-patterns with the goal of significantly enhancing the photocurrent in amorphous silicon solar cells. Here we demonstrate efficiency enhancement of about 50% over typical flat a-Si thin-film solar cells, and report an enhancement of 20% in optical absorption over Asahi textured glass by fabricating sub-wavelength nano-patterned a-Si on glass substrates. External quantum efficiency showed superior results for the 3D nano-patterned thin-film solar cells due to enhancement of broadband optical absorption. The results further indicate that this enhanced light trapping is achieved with minimal parasitic absorption losses in the deposited transparent conductive oxide for the nano-patterned substrate thin-film amorphous silicon solar cell configuration. Optical simulations are in good agreement with experimental results, and also show a significant enhancement in optical absorption, quantum efficiency and photocurrent. (paper)

  8. The Research of Histogram Enhancement Technique Based on Matlab Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Histogram enhancement technique has been widely applied as a typical pattern in digital image processing. The paper is based on Matlab software, through the two ways of histogram equalization and histogram specification technologies to deal with the darker images, using two methods of partial equilibrium and mapping histogram to transform the original histograms, thereby enhanced the image information. The results show that these two kinds of techniques both can significantly improve the image quality and enhance the image feature.

  9. Natural convection in nano-fluids: Are the thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects significant in nano-fluid heat transfer enhancement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Zoubida; Abu-Nada, Eiyad; Oztop, Hakan F.; Mataoui, Amina

    2012-01-01

    Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow of CuO-Water nano-fluids is studied using the Rayleigh-Benard problem. A two component non-homogenous equilibrium model is used for the nano-fluid that incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Variable thermal conductivity and variable viscosity are taken into account in this work. Finite volume method is used to solve governing equations. Results are presented by streamlines, isotherms, nano-particle distribution, local and mean Nusselt numbers and nano-particle profiles at top and bottom side. Comparison of two cases as absence of Brownian and thermophoresis effects and presence of Brownian and thermophoresis effects showed that higher heat transfer is formed with the presence of Brownian and thermophoresis effect. In general, by considering the role of thermophoresis and Brownian motion, an enhancement in heat transfer is observed at any volume fraction of nano-particles. However, the enhancement is more pronounced at low volume fraction of nano-particles and the heat transfer decreases by increasing nano-particle volume fraction. On the other hand, by neglecting the role of thermophoresis and Brownian motion, deterioration in heat transfer is observed and this deterioration elevates by increasing the volume fraction of nano-particles. (authors)

  10. Angiogenesis and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of benign and malignant breast lesions: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Peifang; Bao Runxian; Niu Yun; Yu Yong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether dynamic contrast enhanced MRI features of early-phase enhancement rate, enhancement amplitude, and signal intensity (SI) time course are associated with the microvessel density (MVD) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression of malignant and benign breast lesions. Methods: Thirty-eight patients with histopathologically verified breast lesions underwent dynamic contrast enhanced MRI. SI changes during dynamic scanning were assessed quantitatively. Early-phase enhancement rate and enhancement amplitude were calculated. Time-SI curves of the lesions were obtained and classified according to their shapes as type I (which was steady enhancement to the end of the dynamic data acquisition at 7.5 min), type II (plateau of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement), or type III (washout of SI after avid initial contrast enhancement). the mean MVD and VEGF expression of the lesions were measured with immuno-histochemical staining method in all the histologic specimens by pathologists without the knowledge of the results of the MR examination. The relationships among dynamic contrast enhanced MRI features, MVD, and VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions were analyzed. Results: Histology revealed 21 malignancies and 17 benign lesions. The mean MVD and VEGF expression for 21 malignant lesions were statistically higher than the mean MVD and VEGF expression for 17 benign lesions. High VEGF expression of benign and malignant breast lesions showed an association with increased MVD. Among all 38 lesions, greater (> 60%) MR early-phase enhancement rate and time-SI curve type II and III showed an association with increased MVD and higher VEGF expression level. All the differences mentioned above showed statistical significance except that the difference between VEGF expression and the distribution of curve types had no statistical significance. No significant relationships were observed between the mean of enhancement

  11. Investigation of RF-enhanced plasma potentials on Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoukov, R., E-mail: ochoukov@psfc.mit.edu [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Whyte, D.G.; Brunner, D. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cziegler, I. [Center for Energy Research, UCSD, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); LaBombard, B.; Lipschultz, B. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Myra, J. [Lodestar Research Corporation, 2400 Central Avenue P-5, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Terry, J.; Wukitch, S. [PSFC MIT, NW17, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Radio frequency (RF) sheath rectification is a leading mechanism suspected of causing anomalously high erosion of plasma facing materials in RF-heated plasmas on Alcator C-Mod. An extensive experimental survey of the plasma potential (Φ{sub P}) in RF-heated discharges on C-Mod reveals that significant Φ{sub P} enhancement (>100 V) is found on outboard limiter surfaces, both mapped and not mapped to active RF antennas. Surfaces that magnetically map to active RF antennas show Φ{sub P} enhancement that is, in part, consistent with the recently proposed slow wave rectification mechanism. Surfaces that do not map to active RF antennas also experience significant Φ{sub P} enhancement, which strongly correlates with the local fast wave intensity. In this case, fast wave rectification is a leading candidate mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement.

  12. Mice expressing a "hyper-sensitive" form of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1 show modestly enhanced alcohol preference and consumption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Marcus

    Full Text Available We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a "hyper-sensitive" form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6% but not higher concentrations of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice show similar taste preference for sucrose and quinine, exhibit normal sensitivity to the hypothermic and ataxic effects of ethanol, and have normal blood ethanol concentrations following administration of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants develop robust conditioned place preference for ethanol (2 g/kg, morphine (10 mg/kg, and cocaine (10 mg/kg, demonstrating that drug reward is not changed in S426A/S430A mutants. Precipitated morphine withdrawal is also unchanged in opioid-dependent S426A/S430A mutant mice. Although ethanol consumption is modestly changed by enhanced CB1 signaling, reward, tolerance, and acute sensitivity to ethanol and morphine are normal in this model.

  13. Role of field-induced nanostructures, zippering and size polydispersity on effective thermal transport in magnetic fluids without significant viscosity enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinod, Sithara; Philip, John

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic nanofluids or ferrofluids exhibit extraordinary field dependant tunable thermal conductivity (k), which make them potential candidates for microelectronic cooling applications. However, the associated viscosity enhancement under an external stimulus is undesirable for practical applications. Further, the exact mechanism of heat transport and the role of field induced nanostructures on thermal transport is not clearly understood. In this paper, through systematic thermal, rheological and microscopic studies in 'model ferrofluids', we demonstrate for the first time, the conditions to achieve very high thermal conductivity to viscosity ratio. Highly stable ferrofluids with similar crystallite size, base fluid, capping agent and magnetic properties, but with slightly different size distributions, are synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction, small angle X-ray scattering, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, vibrating sample magnetometer, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetry. The average hydrodynamic diameters of the particles were 11.7 and 10.1 nm and the polydispersity indices (σ), were 0.226 and 0.151, respectively. We observe that the system with smaller polydispersity (σ = 0.151) gives larger k enhancement (130% for 150 G) as compared to the one with σ = 0.226 (73% for 80 G). Further, our results show that dispersions without larger aggregates and with high density interfacial capping (with surfactant) can provide very high enhancement in thermal conductivity, with insignificant viscosity enhancement, due to minimal interfacial losses. We also provide experimental evidence for the effective heat conduction (parallel mode) through a large number of space filling linear aggregates with high aspect ratio. Microscopic studies reveal that the larger particles act as nucleating sites and facilitate lateral aggregation (zippering) of linear chains that considerably reduces the number density of space

  14. Gadolinium-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging with endorectal coil for local staging of rectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamakawa, Mitsuharu; Kawaai, Yuriko; Shirase, Ryuji

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of dynamic gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with endorectal coil for assessing tumor invasion based on simple classification criteria. A total of 58 patients with operable primary rectal cancer underwent preoperative MRI. An enhancement pattern in Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI with regard to tumor penetration was clarified. Retrospectively, two observers independently scored T2-weighted MRI and T2-weighted MRI combined with Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI for tumor penetration using the following criteria: With Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI, T1 tumors showed an early enhanced line around the tumor as rim enhancement; T2 tumors appeared as black lines or double layers, as the muscularis propria kept its integrity; T3 tumors showed partial discontinuity of the muscularis propria as a dotted line and a perforated area as an interrupted line. A confidence level scoring system was used, and receiver operating characteristic curves were generated. There were no significant differences at the T1 stage. There were significant differences for observer 1 (P=0.001 for observer 1) at the T2 stage. There were significant differences for both observers (P=0.001 for observer 1 and P=0.005 for observer 2) at the T3 stage. Our criteria for Gd-enhanced dynamic MRI were effective for T3 stage tumors. (author)

  15. Distinguishing enhancing from nonenhancing renal masses with dual-source dual-energy CT: iodine quantification versus standard enhancement measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascenti, Giorgio; Mileto, Achille; Krauss, Bernhard; Gaeta, Michele; Blandino, Alfredo; Scribano, Emanuele; Settineri, Nicola; Mazziotti, Silvio

    2013-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of iodine quantification and standard enhancement measurements in distinguishing enhancing from nonenhancing renal masses. The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study conducted from data found in institutional patient databases and archives. Seventy-two renal masses were characterised as enhancing or nonenhancing using standard enhancement measurements (in HU) and iodine quantification (in mg/ml). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of standard enhancement measurements and iodine quantification were calculated from χ (2) tests of contingency with histopathology or imaging follow-up as the reference standard. Difference in accuracy was assessed by means of McNemar analysis. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for standard enhancement measurements and iodine quantification were 77.7 %, 100 %, 100 %, 81.8 %, 89 % and 100 %, 94.4 %, 94.7, 100 % and 97 %, respectively. The McNemar analysis showed that the accuracy of iodine quantification was significantly better (P < 0.001) than that of standard enhancement measurements. Compared with standard enhancement measurements, whole-tumour iodine quantification is more accurate in distinguishing enhancing from nonenhancing renal masses. • Enhancement of renal lesions is important when differentiating benign from malignant tumours. • Dual-energy CT offers measurement of iodine uptake rather than mere enhancement values. • Whole-tumour iodine quantification seems more accurate than standard CT enhancement measurements.

  16. Myocardial enhancement pattern in patients with acute myocardial infarction on two-phase contrast-enhanced Ecg-gated multidetector-row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, S.M.; Seo, J.B.; Hong, M.K.; Do, K.H.; Lee, S.H.; Lee, J.S.; Song, J.W.; Park, S.J.; Park, S.W.; Lim, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the myocardial enhancement pattern of the left ventricle on two-phase contrast-enhanced electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) images in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). METHODS: Two-phase contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT examinations were performed in 16 patients with AMI. The presence, location and pattern of myocardial enhancement were evaluated. MDCT findings were compared with the catheter angiographic results. RESULTS: Subendocardial (n=9) or transmural (n=6) area of early perfusion defects of the myocardium was detected in 15 of 16 patients (94%) on early-phase CT images. Variable delayed myocardial enhancement patterns on late-phase CT images were observed in 12 patients (75%): (1) subendocardial residual perfusion defect and subepicardial late enhancement (n=6); (2) transmural late enhancement (n=1); (3) isolated subendocardial late enhancement (n=1); and (4) isolated subendocardial residual perfusion defect (n=2). On catheter angiography, 14 of 15 corresponding coronary arteries showed significant stenosis. CONCLUSION: Variable abnormal myocardial enhancement pattern was seen on two-phase, contrast-enhanced ECG-gated MDCT in patients with AMI. Assessment of myocardial attenuation on CT angiography gives additional information of the location and extent of infarction

  17. Clinical and biological significance of hepatoma-derived growth factor in Ewing's sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Fenfen; Shi, Huijuan; Zhen, Tiantian; Dai, Sujuan; Kang, Lili; Liang, Yingjie; Wang, Jin; Han, Anjia

    2013-11-01

    We sought to investigate the clinicopathological significance and biological function of hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) in Ewing's sarcoma. Our results showed that HDGF expression is up-regulated in Ewing's sarcoma. Nuclear HDGF expression is significantly associated with tumour volume (p Ewing's sarcoma cell growth, proliferation and enhances tumourigenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, HDGF knock-down causes cell cycle arrest and enhanced sensitization to serum starvation-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, recombinant HDGF promotes proliferation and colony formation of Ewing's sarcoma cells. Ninety-eight candidate HDGF downstream genes were identified in Ewing's sarcoma cells using cDNA microarray analysis. In addition, we found that HDGF knock-down inhibited FLI1 expression in Ewing's sarcoma cells at the mRNA and protein levels. Our findings suggest that HDGF exhibits oncogenic properties and may be a novel prognostic factor in Ewing's sarcoma. Targeting HDGF might be a potential therapeutic strategy for Ewing's sarcoma. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Prognostic value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, U; Kopka, L; Brinck, U; Korabiowska, M; Schauer, A; Grabbe, E

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in patients with breast cancer. A total of 190 patients with breast cancer (37 noninvasive carcinomas, 153 invasive carcinomas) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR mammography preoperatively. Using 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sequences (2D FLASH) were obtained repeatedly one time before and five times after IV administration of 0.1 mmol gadopentetate-dimeglumine per kilogram body weight. The findings on MR imaging were correlated with histopathologically defined prognostic factors (histological type, tumor size, tumor grading, metastasis in lymph nodes). In addition, immunohistochemically defined prognostic factors (c-erbB-1, c-erbB-2, p53, Ki-67) were correlated with the signal increase on MR mammogram in 40 patients. There was no significant correlation between the findings on MR mammography and the histopathological type of carcinoma, the grading, and the lymphonodular status. Noninvasive carcinomas showed a higher rate of moderate (38 %) or low (27 %) enhancement on MR imaging than invasive carcinomas (6 and 3 %). The results on MR mammography and the results of immunohistochemical stainings did not correlate significantly. Noninvasive carcinomas showed significantly lower enhancement than invasive carcinomas. However, the signal behavior of contrast-enhanced MR mammography is not related to established histopathological prognostic parameters as subtyping, grading, nodal status, and the expression of certain oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes.

  19. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound features of histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia: diagnostic performance compared with contrast-enhanced CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Li-Da; Liu, Guang-Jian; Xu, Zuo-Feng; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Lu-Yao; Lu, Ming-De; Shen, Shun-Li

    2013-01-01

    To investigate and compare contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the characterisation of histologically proven focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) with contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT). CEUS was performed in 85 patients with 85 histologically proven FNHs. Enhancement, centrifugal filling, spoke-wheel arteries, feeding artery and central scarring were reviewed and correlated with lesion size or liver background. Independent factors for predicting FNH from other focal liver lesions (FLLs) were evaluated. Forty-seven FLLs with CECT were randomly selected for comparison of diagnostic performance with CEUS. Centrifugal filling was more common (P = 0.002) and the significant predictor (P = 0.003) in FNHs ≤3 cm. Lesion size or liver background has no significant influence on the detection rate of the spoke-wheel arteries and feeding artery (P > 0.05). Central scarring was found in 42.6 % of FNHs ≥3 cm (P = 0.000). The area under the ROC curve, sensitivity and specificity showed no significant differences between CEUS and CECT (P > 0.05), except that the sensitivity of CEUS was better for reader 1 (P = 0.041). CEUS is valuable in characterising centrifugal filling signs or spoke wheels in small FNHs and should be employed as the first-line imaging technique for diagnosis of FNH. (orig.)

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma on MR diffusion weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Aisheng; Zuo Changjing; Tian Jianming; Lu Jianping; Wang Jian; Wang Li; Wang Fei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the findings of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging. Methods: Eighty one patients with chronic hepatitis or liver cirrhosis underwent both DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI studies of the liver for HCC detection. MR data of were retrospectively analyzed. Two observers determined in consensus the location and the number of focal lesions. The signal manifestation of the lesions on DWI and dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR imaging were analyzed. Results: DWI and Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images detected 122 HCCs and 14 benign lesions. One hundred and sixteen HCCs (95.1%) showed hyperintensity on DWI and 6 HCCs in patients with severe cirrhosis showed isointensity. One hundred and five HCCs (86.1%) revealed hypointensity, 11 HCCs (9.0%) showed isointensity and 6 HCCs (4.9%) exhibited hyperintensity on T 1 weighted images. On Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images, 101 HCCs(82.8%) were significantly enhanced on arterial phase and 99 HCCs showed hypointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Twenty HCCs (16.4%), 18 of 20 less than 20 mm in diameter, showed isointensity on arterial phase and hyperintensity on DWI. Eight of 14 benign lesions showed hyperintensity and 6 isointensity on DWI. Five benign lesions with hypointensity on T 1 weighted images without contrast and hyperintensity on DWI showed no enhancement on Gd-DTPA-enhanced MR images; 6 benign lesions with isointensity on both T 1 weighted imaging without contrast and DWI exhibited avid enhancement on arterial phase and isointensty on portal and equilibrium phases; one of the two benign lesions, with isointensity before and after contrast images and hyperintentiy on DWI, was a regenerative nodule; another regenerative nodule with hyperintensity on both T 1 weighted images without contrast and DWI was greatly enhanced on arterial phase and showed isointensity on portal and equilibrium phases. Conclusions: Most of the HCCs were greatly enhanced on arterial phase on Gd-DTPA-enhanced

  1. Application of Serratia marcescens RZ-21 significantly enhances peanut yield and remediates continuously cropped peanut soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hai-Yan; Yang, Bo; Wang, Hong-Wei; Yang, Qi-Yin; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-15

    Continuous cropping practices cause a severe decline in peanut yield. The aim of this study was to investigate the remediation effect of Serratia marcescens on continuously cropped peanut soil. A pot experiment was conducted under natural conditions to determine peanut agronomic indices, soil microorganism characteristics, soil enzyme activities and antagonism ability to typical pathogens at different growth stages. Four treatments were applied to red soil as follows: an active fermentation liquor of S. marcescens (RZ-21), an equivalent sterilized fermentation liquor (M), an equivalent fermentation medium (P) and distilled water (CK). S. marcescens significantly inhibited the two typical plant pathogens Fusarium oxysporum A1 and Ralstonia solanacearum B1 and reduced their populations in rhizosphere soil. The RZ-21 treatment significantly increased peanut yield, vine dry weight, root nodules and taproot length by 62.3, 33, 72 and 61.4% respectively, followed by the M treatment. The P treatment also increased root nodules and root length slightly. RZ-21 also enhanced the activities of soil urease, sucrase and hydrogen peroxidase at various stages. In addition, RZ-21 and M treatments increased the average population of soil bacteria and decreased the average population of fungi in the three critical peanut growth stages, except for M in the case of the fungal population at flowering, thus balancing the structure of the soil microorganism community. This is the first report of S. marcescens being applied to continuously cropped peanut soil. The results suggest that S. marcescens RZ-21 has the potential to improve the soil environment and agricultural products and thus allow the development of sustainable management practices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Basivertebral plexus enhancement at MR imaging after Gd-DTPA administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronstein, A.D.; Cohen, W.A.; Maravilla, K.R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a study to identify noncontrast versus post-Gd-DTPA MR images of the spine, we analyzed the basivertebral plexus. The authors postulate that there are consistent patterns of enhancement specific with Gd-DTPA. This is a retrospective examination of the normal appearance and enhancement patterns of the basivertebral plexus in 805 vertebrae of 30 patients who underwent pre- and post-Gd-DTPA T1-weighted sagittal MR imaging of the spine. All patients show enhancement of the basivertebral plexus in a significant number of vertebrae when pre-and postcontrast images are compared

  3. Subendometrial enhancement and peritumoral enhancement for assessing endometrial cancer on dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Shinya; Kido, Aki; Baba, Tsukasa; Fujimoto, Koji; Daido, Sayaka; Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo; Togashi, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We have assessed the peritumoral enhancement (PTE), which mimics SEE on DCE. •We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SEE for the myometrial invasion and the frequency of PTE. •We assessed the relationship between these enhancements and important pathologic factors. •PTE Type 1 is the main factor causing the overestimation of myometrial invasion using SEE on DCE. •PTE Type 2 correlates the myometrial invasion and may play an important role in the diagnosis of LVSI. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of subendometrial enhancement (SEE) in assessing the myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, the frequency and clinical significance of peritumoral enhancement (PTE) on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging. Materials and methods: MR images of 147 patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively analyzed for intact SEE and PTEs: Type 1, a focal early enhancement peritumorally, and Type 2, an irregular thin-layered early intense enhancement peritumorally. Two radiologists independently assessed intact SEE and PTEs on DCE imaging and compared the lesions by the presence and depth of myometrial invasion, grade, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis. The relationship between SEE, PTEs, and each factor was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for SEE. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for myometrial invasion based on SEE disruption on DCE were 96.6%, 32.1–46.4%, 85.8–88.5%, 69.2–76.5%, and 84.4–87.1%. According to multivariate analysis, SEE significantly predicted myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). PTE Type 2 significantly predicted myometrial invasion presence (p < 0.05) and depth (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Diagnosis of myometrial invasion only by using SEE might be difficult on DCE-MRI due to the

  4. Subendometrial enhancement and peritumoral enhancement for assessing endometrial cancer on dynamic contrast enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Shinya [Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological and Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago (Japan); Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Kido, Aki, E-mail: akikido@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Baba, Tsukasa [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Fujimoto, Koji; Daido, Sayaka [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Matsumura, Noriomi; Konishi, Ikuo [Departments of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Togashi, Kaori [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We have assessed the peritumoral enhancement (PTE), which mimics SEE on DCE. •We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of SEE for the myometrial invasion and the frequency of PTE. •We assessed the relationship between these enhancements and important pathologic factors. •PTE Type 1 is the main factor causing the overestimation of myometrial invasion using SEE on DCE. •PTE Type 2 correlates the myometrial invasion and may play an important role in the diagnosis of LVSI. -- Abstract: Objectives: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of subendometrial enhancement (SEE) in assessing the myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer, the frequency and clinical significance of peritumoral enhancement (PTE) on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) imaging. Materials and methods: MR images of 147 patients with endometrial cancer were retrospectively analyzed for intact SEE and PTEs: Type 1, a focal early enhancement peritumorally, and Type 2, an irregular thin-layered early intense enhancement peritumorally. Two radiologists independently assessed intact SEE and PTEs on DCE imaging and compared the lesions by the presence and depth of myometrial invasion, grade, lymphovascular space involvement (LVSI), and lymph node metastasis. The relationship between SEE, PTEs, and each factor was analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for SEE. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and diagnostic accuracy for myometrial invasion based on SEE disruption on DCE were 96.6%, 32.1–46.4%, 85.8–88.5%, 69.2–76.5%, and 84.4–87.1%. According to multivariate analysis, SEE significantly predicted myometrial invasion (p < 0.0001). PTE Type 2 significantly predicted myometrial invasion presence (p < 0.05) and depth (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Diagnosis of myometrial invasion only by using SEE might be difficult on DCE-MRI due to the

  5. Plasmonic versus dielectric enhancement in thin-film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dühring, Maria Bayard; Mortensen, N. Asger; Sigmund, Ole

    2012-01-01

    to its metallic counterpart. We show that the enhanced normalized short-circuit current for a cell with silicon strips can be increased 4 times compared to the best performance for strips of silver, gold, or aluminium. For this particular case, the simple dielectric grating may outperform its plasmonic......Several studies have indicated that broadband absorption of thin-film solar cells can be enhanced by use of surface-plasmon induced resonances of metallic parts like strips or particles. The metallic parts may create localized modes or scatter incoming light to increase absorption in thin......-film semiconducting material. For a particular case, we show that coupling to the same type of localized slab-waveguide modes can be obtained by a surface modulation consisting of purely dielectric strips. The purely dielectric device turns out to have a significantly higher broadband enhancement factor compared...

  6. Effects of selenylation modification on immune-enhancing activity of garlic polysaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulei Qiu

    Full Text Available The garlic polysaccharide was modified by HNO3-Na2SeO3 method according to orthogonal design L9(3(4 to obtain nine selenizing garlic polysaccharides, sGPS1-sGPS9. Their effects on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation in vitro were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that sGPSs could significantly promote lymphocytes proliferation, sGPS3, sGPS5 and sGPS6 presented stronger efficacy. In vivo experiment, 14-day-old chickens were injected respectively with sGPS3, sGPS5 and sGPS6 when they were vaccinated with ND vaccine taking unmodified GPS as control. The results showed that three sGPSs could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titer, IFN-γ and IL-2 contents. These results indicated that selenylation modification could significantly enhance the immune-enhancing activity of GPS, sGPS6 possessed the best efficacy and could be as a candidate drug of immunoenhancer. Its optimal modification conditions were 400 mg of sodium selenite for 500 mg of GPS, reaction temperature of 70°C and reaction time of 6 h.

  7. Efficacy of Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Shinya; Aoki, Toshikazu; Konishi, Tokuji; Nakano, Takeshi; Yamakado, Kyoichiro; Sakuma, Hajime; Takeda, Kann; Nakagawa, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    The cabability of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to detect tissue characterization or myocardial degeneration process of the hypertrophied myocardium was evaluated in 15 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. T1-weighted MR images were obtained with a 1.5 T MR unit by using ECG-gated spin-echo techniques. MR images were visually reviewed before and after enhancement of Gd-DTPA. Four patients had an increase in signal intensity mainly in the endocardium of the left ventricular septum on non-enhanced MR images, 3 of whom had widespread high intensity in addition to two-thirds of the wall. Gd-DTPA enhanced-MR images showed high intensity over the whole septum in 5 patients and also in the antero-lateral endocardium in 4 patients. Decreased intensity on non-enhanced MR images, as shown in 4 patients, became clear on enhanced-MR images. According to findings on enhanced-MR images, signal intensity was defined as normal (N), septum (S), and diffuse (D). Patients in Group D tended to be younger and have more frequently family history. Regarding both interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular posterior wall thickness, there was no significant difference among the three groups. Both left ventricular diastolic diameter and left ventricular systolic diameter were significantly larger in Group D than the other two groups. Left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in both Group S and Group D. Widespread abnormal intensity on Gd-DTPA enhanced MR images was associated with findings similar to dilated cardiomyopathy, such as dilated left ventricular lumen and decreased ejection fraction. Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging seemed to be useful for visualizing myocardial degeneration in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.(N.K.)

  8. Motor imagery enhancement paradigm using moving rubber hand illusion system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsu Song; Jonghyun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Motor imagery (MI) has been widely used in neurorehabilitation and brain computer interface. The size of event-related desynchronization (ERD) is a key parameter for successful motor imaginary rehabilitation and BCI adaptation. Many studies have used visual guidance for enhancement/ amplification of motor imagery ERD amplitude, but their enhancements were not significant. We propose a novel ERD enhancing paradigm using body-ownership illusion, or also known as rubber hand illusion (RHI). The system was made by motorized, moving rubber hand which can simulate wrist extension. The amplifying effects of the proposed RHI paradigm were evaluated by comparing ERD sizes of the proposed paradigm with motor imagery and actual motor execution paradigms. The comparison result shows that the improvement of ERD size due to the proposed paradigm was statistically significant (pparadigms.

  9. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4(+) permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4(+) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranathunge, Kosala; El-Kereamy, Ashraf; Gidda, Satinder; Bi, Yong-Mei; Rothstein, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4(+)). The NH4(+) uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4(+) transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4(+) uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4(+) assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4(+) permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4(+) content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4(+) fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4(+) contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4(+) levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions.

  10. AMT1;1 transgenic rice plants with enhanced NH4 + permeability show superior growth and higher yield under optimal and suboptimal NH4 + conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The major source of nitrogen for rice (Oryza sativa L.) is ammonium (NH4 +). The NH4 + uptake of roots is mainly governed by membrane transporters, with OsAMT1;1 being a prominent member of the OsAMT1 gene family that is known to be involved in NH4 + transport in rice plants. However, little is known about its involvement in NH4 + uptake in rice roots and subsequent effects on NH4 + assimilation. This study shows that OsAMT1;1 is a constitutively expressed, nitrogen-responsive gene, and its protein product is localized in the plasma membrane. Its expression level is under the control of circadian rhythm. Transgenic rice lines (L-2 and L-3) overexpressing the OsAMT1;1 gene had the same root structure as the wild type (WT). However, they had 2-fold greater NH4 + permeability than the WT, whereas OsAMT1;1 gene expression was 20-fold higher than in the WT. Analogous to the expression, transgenic lines had a higher NH4 + content in the shoots and roots than the WT. Direct NH4 + fluxes in the xylem showed that the transgenic lines had significantly greater uptake rates than the WT. Higher NH4 + contents also promoted higher expression levels of genes in the nitrogen assimilation pathway, resulting in greater nitrogen assimilates, chlorophyll, starch, sugars, and grain yield in transgenic lines than in the WT under suboptimal and optimal nitrogen conditions. OsAMT1;1 also enhanced overall plant growth, especially under suboptimal NH4 + levels. These results suggest that OsAMT1;1 has the potential for improving nitrogen use efficiency, plant growth, and grain yield under both suboptimal and optimal nitrogen fertilizer conditions. PMID:24420570

  11. Poly(lactic-co-glycolide) polymer constructs cross-linked with human BMP-6 and VEGF protein significantly enhance rat mandible defect repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anusuya; Fishero, Brian A; Christophel, J Jared; Li, Ching-Ju; Kohli, Nikita; Lin, Yong; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun

    2016-04-01

    We have previously shown that the combined delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP-6) induces significantly more bone formation than that induced by the delivery of any single factor or a combination of any two factors. We now determine whether the exogenous addition of VEGF and BMP-6 is sufficient for bone healing when MSCs are not provided. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLAGA) microsphere-based three-dimensional scaffolds (P) were fabricated by thermal sintering of PLAGA microspheres. The scaffolds were chemically cross-linked with 200 ng recombinant human VEGF (P(VEGF)) or BMP-6 (P(BMP-6)) or both (P(VEGF+BMP-6)) by the EDC-NHS-MES method. Release of the proteins from the scaffolds was detected for 21 days in vitro which confirmed their comparable potential to supply the proteins in vivo. The scaffolds were delivered to a critical-sized mandibular defect created in 32 Sprague Dawley rats. Significant bone regeneration was observed only in rats with P(VEGF+BMP-6) scaffolds at weeks 2, 8 and 12 as revealed by micro-computer tomography. Vascular ingrowth was higher in the P(VEGF+BMP-6) group as seen by microfil imaging than in other groups. Trichrome staining revealed that a soft callus formed in P(VEGF), P(BMP-6) and P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not in P. MSCs isolated from rat femurs displayed expression of the bone-specific marker osteocalcin when cultured with P(VEGF), P(BMP-6), or P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not with P. Robust mineralization and increased alkaline phosphatase gene expression were seen in rat MSCs when cultured on P(VEGF+BMP-6) but not on P, P(VEGF), or P(BMP-6). Thus, unlike the delivery of VEGF or BMP-6 alone, the combined delivery of VEGF and BMP-6 to the bone defect significantly enhanced bone repair through the enhancement of angiogenesis and the differentiation of endogenously recruited MSCs into the bone repair site.

  12. The first F-ring modified ciguatoxin analogue showing significant toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yuuki; Lee, Nayoung; Oshiro, Naomasa; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Yamashita, Shuji; Inoue, Masayuki; Hirama, Masahiro

    2010-05-07

    Ciguatoxins, the principal causative toxins of ciguatera seafood poisoning, are potent neurotoxic polycyclic ethers. We report herein the total synthesis of a 10-membered F-ring analogue of 51-hydroxyCTX3C, which constitutes the first example of an F-ring modified ciguatoxin that exhibits potent cytotoxicity as well as mouse acute toxicity.

  13. Higgs enhancement for the dark matter relic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harz, Julia; Petraki, Kalliopi

    2018-04-01

    We consider the long-range effect of the Higgs on the density of thermal-relic dark matter. While the electroweak gauge boson and gluon exchange have been previously studied, the Higgs is typically thought to mediate only contact interactions. We show that the Sommerfeld enhancement due to a 125 GeV Higgs can deplete TeV-scale dark matter significantly and describe how the interplay between the Higgs and other mediators influences this effect. We discuss the importance of the Higgs enhancement in the minimal supersymmetric standard model and its implications for experiments.

  14. Enhanced transpiration rate in the high pigment 1 tomato mutant and its physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, R F; Aidar, S T; Azevedo, R A; Dodd, I C; Peres, L E P

    2011-05-01

    Tomato high pigment (hp) mutants represent an interesting horticultural resource due to their enhanced accumulation of carotenoids, flavonoids and vitamin C. Since hp mutants are known for their exaggerated light responses, the molecules accumulated are likely to be antioxidants, recruited to deal with light and others stresses. Further phenotypes displayed by hp mutations are reduced growth and an apparent disturbance in water loss. Here, we examined the impact of the hp1 mutation and its near isogenic line cv Micro-Tom (MT) on stomatal conductance (gs), transpiration (E), CO(2) assimilation (A) and water use efficiency (WUE). Detached hp1 leaves lost water more rapidly than control leaves, but this behaviour was reversed by exogenous abscisic acid (ABA), indicating the ability of hp1 to respond to this hormone. Although attached hp1 leaves had enhanced gs, E and A compared to control leaves, genotypic differences were lost when water was withheld. Both instantaneous leaf-level WUE and long-term whole plant WUE did not differ between hp1 and MT. Our results indicate a link between exaggerated light response and water loss in hp1, which has important implications for the use of this mutant in both basic and horticultural research. © 2011 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  15. Enhancing Raman signals with an interferometrically controlled AFM tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oron-Carl, Matti; Krupke, Ralph

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate the upgrade of a commercial confocal Raman microscope into a tip-enhanced Raman microscope/spectroscopy system (TERS) by integrating an interferometrically controlled atomic force microscope into the base of an existing upright microscope to provide near-field detection and thus signal enhancement. The feasibility of the system is demonstrated by measuring the Raman near-field enhancement on thin PEDOT:PSS films and on carbon nanotubes within a device geometry. An enhancement factor of 2–3 and of 5–6 is observed, respectively. Moreover, on a nanotube device we show local conductivity measurement and its correlation to Raman and topography recordings. Upgrading an existing upright confocal Raman microscope in the demonstrated way is significantly cheaper than purchasing a complete commercial TERS system. (paper)

  16. Prognostic value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in patients with breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Kopka, L.; Brinck, U.; Korabiowska, M.; Schauer, A.; Grabbe, E.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of contrast-enhanced MR mammography in patients with breast cancer. A total of 190 patients with breast cancer (37 noninvasive carcinomas, 153 invasive carcinomas) underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MR mammography preoperatively. Using 1.5-T unit, T1-weighted sequences (2D FLASH) were obtained repeatedly one time before and five times after IV administration of 0.1 mmol gadopentetate-dimeglumine per kilogram body weight. The findings on MR imaging were correlated with histopathologically defined prognostic factors (histological type, tumor size, tumor grading, metastasis in lymph nodes). In addition, immunohistochemically defined prognostic factors (c-erbB-1,c-erbB-2, p53, Ki-67) were correlated with the signal increase on MR mammogram in 40 patients. There was no significant correlation between the findings on MR mammography and the histopathological type of carcinoma, the grading, and the lymphonodular status. Noninvasive carcinomas showed a higher rate of moderate (38 %) or low (27 %) enhancement on MR imaging than invasive carcinomas (6 and 3 %). The results on MR mammography and the results of immunohistochemical stainings did not correlate significantly. Noninvasive carcinomas showed significantly lower enhancement than invasive carcinomas. However, the signal behavior of contrast-enhanced MR mammography is not related to established histopathological prognostic parameters as subtyping, grading, nodal status, and the expression of certain oncogenes/tumor suppressor genes. (orig.). With 5 tabs

  17. Mice expressing a “hyper-sensitive” form of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) show modestly enhanced alcohol preference and consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonek, Maciej; Zee, Michael L.; Farnsworth, Jill C.; Amin, Randa A.; Andrews, Mary-Jeanette; Davis, Brian J.; Mackie, Ken; Morgan, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    We recently characterized S426A/S430A mutant mice expressing a desensitization-resistant form of the CB1 receptor. These mice display an enhanced response to endocannabinoids and ∆9-THC. In this study, S426A/S430A mutants were used as a novel model to test whether ethanol consumption, morphine dependence, and reward for these drugs are potentiated in mice with a “hyper-sensitive” form of CB1. Using an unlimited-access, two-bottle choice, voluntary drinking paradigm, S426A/S430A mutants exhibit modestly increased intake and preference for low (6%) but not higher concentrations of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants and wild-type mice show similar taste preference for sucrose and quinine, exhibit normal sensitivity to the hypothermic and ataxic effects of ethanol, and have normal blood ethanol concentrations following administration of ethanol. S426A/S430A mutants develop robust conditioned place preference for ethanol (2 g/kg), morphine (10 mg/kg), and cocaine (10 mg/kg), demonstrating that drug reward is not changed in S426A/S430A mutants. Precipitated morphine withdrawal is also unchanged in opioid-dependent S426A/S430A mutant mice. Although ethanol consumption is modestly changed by enhanced CB1 signaling, reward, tolerance, and acute sensitivity to ethanol and morphine are normal in this model. PMID:28426670

  18. Distinct epigenetic signatures elucidate enhancer-gene relationships that delineate CIMP and non-CIMP colorectal cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Allen; Teo, Jing Xian; Ban, Kenneth H K

    2016-05-10

    Epigenetic changes, like DNA methylation, affect gene expression and in colorectal cancer (CRC), a distinct phenotype called the CpG island methylator phenotype ("CIMP") has significantly higher levels of DNA methylation at so-called "Type C loci" within the genome. We postulate that enhancer-gene pairs are coordinately controlled through DNA methylation in order to regulate the expression of key genes/biomarkers for a particular phenotype.Firstly, we found 24 experimentally-validated enhancers (VISTA enhancer browser) that contained statistically significant (FDR-adjusted q-value of CIMP versus non-CIMP CRCs. Of these, the methylation of 2 enhancers, 1702 and 1944, were found to be very well correlated with the methylation of the genes Wnt3A and IGDCC3, respectively, in two separate and independent datasets.We show for the first time that there are indeed distinct and dynamic changes in the methylation pattern of specific enhancer-gene pairs in CRCs. Such a coordinated epigenetic event could be indicative of an interaction between (1) enhancer 1702 and Wnt3A and (2) enhancer 1944 and IGDCC3. Moreover, our study shows that the methylation patterns of these 2 enhancer-gene pairs can potentially be used as biomarkers to delineate CIMP from non-CIMP CRCs.

  19. Cognitive enhancement by self-regulation of endogenous oscillations with neurofeedback

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enriquez Geppert, Stefanie; Huster, René J; Ros, Tomas; Wood, Guilherme; Colzato, Lorenza

    2017-01-01

    In the last years, innovations in technology and methodology, as well as increased knowledge about cortical oscillations have significantly impacted the advancement of new neurofeedback approaches. As such, sham-controlled studies, showing evidence for enhanced performance of cognition after

  20. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sonika; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII) specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13), overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid), and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content) and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas.

  1. In planta Transformed Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. Plants, Overexpressing the SbNHX1 Gene Showed Enhanced Salt Endurance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonika Pandey

    Full Text Available Cumin is an annual, herbaceous, medicinal, aromatic, spice glycophyte that contains diverse applications as a food and flavoring additive, and therapeutic agents. An efficient, less time consuming, Agrobacterium-mediated, a tissue culture-independent in planta genetic transformation method was established for the first time using cumin seeds. The SbNHX1 gene, cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata was transformed in cumin using optimized in planta transformation method. The SbNHX1 gene encodes a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter and is involved in the compartmentalization of excess Na+ ions into the vacuole and maintenance of ion homeostasis Transgenic cumin plants were confirmed by PCR using gene (SbNHX1, uidA and hptII specific primers. The single gene integration event and overexpression of the gene were confirmed by Southern hybridization and competitive RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines L3 and L13 showed high expression of the SbNHX1 gene compared to L6 whereas moderate expression was detected in L5 and L10 transgenic lines. Transgenic lines (L3, L5, L10 and L13, overexpressing the SbNHX1 gene, showed higher photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoid, and lower electrolytic leakage, lipid peroxidation (MDA content and proline content as compared to wild type plants under salinity stress. Though transgenic lines were also affected by salinity stress but performed better compared to WT plants. The ectopic expression of the SbNHX1 gene confirmed enhanced salinity stress tolerance in cumin as compared to wild type plants under stress condition. The present study is the first report of engineering salt tolerance in cumin, so far and the plant may be utilized for the cultivation in saline areas.

  2. Caffeine Markedly Enhanced Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Erkang; Wu Lijun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that incubation with 2 mM caffeine enhanced significantly the MN (micronucleus) formation in both the 1 cGy α-particle irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions. Moreover, caffeine treatment made the non-irradiated bystander cells more sensitive to damage signals. Treated by c-PTIO(2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)- 4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide), a nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, the MN frequencies were effectively inhibited, showing that nitric oxide might be very important in mediating the enhanced damage. These results indicated that caffeine enhanced the low dose α-particle radiation-induced damage in irradiated and non-irradiated bystander regions, and therefore it is important to investigate the relationship between the radiosensitizer and radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBE). (ion beam bioengineering)

  3. Significantly Enhanced Dielectric Performances and High Thermal Conductivity in Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Based Composites Enabled by SiC@SiO2 Core-Shell Whiskers Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dalong; Wang, Yao; Song, Silong; Liu, Song; Deng, Yuan

    2017-12-27

    Design of composites with ordered fillers arrangement results in anisotropic performances with greatly enhanced properties along a specific direction, which is a powerful tool to optimize physical properties of composites. Well-aligned core-shell SiC@SiO 2 whiskers in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) matrix has been achieved via a modified spinning approach. Because of the high aspect ratio of SiC whiskers, strong anisotropy and significant enhancement in dielectric constant were observed with permittivity 854 along the parallel direction versus 71 along the perpendicular direction at 20 vol % SiC@SiO 2 loading, while little increase in dielectric loss was found due to the highly insulating SiO 2 shell. The anisotropic dielectric behavior of the composite is perfectly understood macroscopically to have originated from anisotropic intensity of interfacial polarization based on an equivalent circuit model of two parallel RC circuits connected in series. Furthermore, finite element simulations on the three-dimensional distribution of local electric field, polarization, and leakage current density in oriented SiC@SiO 2 /PVDF composites under different applied electrical field directions unambiguously revealed that aligned core-shell SiC@SiO 2 whiskers with a high aspect ratio significantly improved dielectric performances. Importantly, the thermal conductivity of the composite was synchronously enhanced over 7 times as compared to that of PVDF matrix along the parallel direction at 20 vol % SiC@SiO 2 whiskers loading. This study highlights an effective strategy to achieve excellent comprehensive properties for high-k dielectrics.

  4. N-glycan engineering of a plant-produced anti-CD20-hIL-2 immunocytokine significantly enhances its effector functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marusic, Carla; Pioli, Claudio; Stelter, Szymon; Novelli, Flavia; Lonoce, Chiara; Morrocchi, Elena; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Salzano, Anna Maria; Scaloni, Andrea; Donini, Marcello

    2018-03-01

    Anti-CD20 recombinant antibodies are among the most promising therapeutics for the treatment of B-cell malignancies such as non-Hodgkin lymphomas. We recently demonstrated that an immunocytokine (2B8-Fc-hIL2), obtained by fusing an anti-CD20 scFv-Fc antibody derived from C2B8 mAb (rituximab) to the human interleukin 2 (hIL-2), can be efficiently produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. The purified immunocytokine (IC) bearing a typical plant protein N-glycosylation profile showed a CD20 binding activity comparable to that of rituximab and was efficient in eliciting antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) of human PBMC against Daudi cells, indicating its fuctional integrity. In this work, the immunocytokine devoid of the typical xylose/fucose N-glycosylation plant signature (IC-ΔXF) and the corresponding scFv-Fc-ΔXF antibody not fused to the cytokine, were obtained in a glyco-engineered ΔXylT/FucT N. benthamiana line. Purification yields from agroinfiltrated plants amounted to 20-35 mg/kg of leaf fresh weight. When assayed for interaction with FcγRI and FcγRIIIa, IC-ΔXF exhibited significantly enhanced binding affinities if compared to the counterpart bearing the typical plant protein N-glycosylation profile (IC) and to rituximab. The glyco-engineered recombinant molecules also exhibited a strongly improved ADCC and complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Notably, our results demonstrate a reduced C1q binding of xylose/fucose carrying IC and scFv-Fc compared to versions that lack these sugar moieties. These results demonstrate that specific N-glycosylation alterations in recombinant products can dramatically affect the effector functions of the immunocytokine, resulting in an overall improvement of the biological functions and consequently of the therapeutic potential. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal E-mail: sunarerdem@yahoo.com; Bayar, Ulku; Erdem, L. Oktay; Barut, Aykut; Gundogdu, Sadi; Kaya, Erdal

    2004-07-01

    Objective: to determine the enhancement behaviour of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging and to compare these data with those of normal ovulating controls. Method: 24 women with PCOS and 12 controls underwent DCE-MR imaging. Dynamic images were acquired before and after injection of a contrast bolus at 30 s and the min of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. On postprocessing examination: (i) the ovarian volumes; (ii) the signal intensity value of each ovary per dynamic study; (iii) early-phase enhancement rate; (iv) time to peak enhancement (T{sub p}); and (v) percentage of washout of 5th min were determined. Data of the ovaries of the women with PCOS and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: the mean values of T{sub p} were found to be significantly lower in women with PCOS than in controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the mean values of ovarian volume, the early-phase enhancement rate, and percentage of washout of 5th min of ovaries were significantly higher in PCOS patients (p<0.05). Examination of the mean signal intensity-time curve revealed the ovaries in women with PCOS showed a faster and greater enhancement and wash-out. Conclusion: the enhancement behaviour of ovaries of women with PCOS may be significantly different from those of control subjects on DCE-MR imaging examination. In our experience, it is a valuable modality to highlight the vascularization changes in ovarian stroma with PCOS. We believe that improved DCE-MR imaging techniques may also provide us additional parameters in the diagnosis and treatment strategies of PCOS.

  6. Polycystic ovary syndrome: dynamic contrast-enhanced ovary MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdem, C. Zuhal; Bayar, Ulku; Erdem, L. Oktay; Barut, Aykut; Gundogdu, Sadi; Kaya, Erdal

    2004-01-01

    Objective: to determine the enhancement behaviour of the ovaries in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (DCE-MR) imaging and to compare these data with those of normal ovulating controls. Method: 24 women with PCOS and 12 controls underwent DCE-MR imaging. Dynamic images were acquired before and after injection of a contrast bolus at 30 s and the min of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5. On postprocessing examination: (i) the ovarian volumes; (ii) the signal intensity value of each ovary per dynamic study; (iii) early-phase enhancement rate; (iv) time to peak enhancement (T p ); and (v) percentage of washout of 5th min were determined. Data of the ovaries of the women with PCOS and controls were compared with Mann-Whitney U-test. Results: the mean values of T p were found to be significantly lower in women with PCOS than in controls (p<0.05). On the other hand, the mean values of ovarian volume, the early-phase enhancement rate, and percentage of washout of 5th min of ovaries were significantly higher in PCOS patients (p<0.05). Examination of the mean signal intensity-time curve revealed the ovaries in women with PCOS showed a faster and greater enhancement and wash-out. Conclusion: the enhancement behaviour of ovaries of women with PCOS may be significantly different from those of control subjects on DCE-MR imaging examination. In our experience, it is a valuable modality to highlight the vascularization changes in ovarian stroma with PCOS. We believe that improved DCE-MR imaging techniques may also provide us additional parameters in the diagnosis and treatment strategies of PCOS

  7. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  8. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  9. Incidentally Detected Enhancing Breast Lesions on Chest Computed Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wen Chiung; Hsu, Hsian He; Yu, Jyh Cherng; Hsu, Giu Cheng; Yu, Cheng Ping; Chang, Tsun Hou; Huang, Guo Shu; Li, Chao Shiang

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the nature and imaging appearance of incidental enhancing breast lesions detected on a routine contrast-enhanced chest CT. Twenty-three patients with incidental enhancing breast lesions on contrast-enhanced chest CT were retrospectively reviewed. The breast lesions were reviewed by unenhanced and enhanced CT, and evaluated by observing the shapes, margins, enhancement patterns and backgrounds of breast lesions. A histopathologic diagnosis or long-term follow-up served as reference standard. Sixteen (70%) patients had malignant breast lesions and seven (30%) had benign lesions. In 10 patients, the breast lesions were exclusively detected on contrast-enhanced CT. Using unenhanced CT, breast lesions with fi broglandular backgrounds were prone to be obscured (p < 0.001). Incidental primary breast cancer showed an non-significant trend of a higher percentage irregular margin (p = 0.056). All of the four incidental breast lesions with non-mass-like enhancement were proven to be malignant. Routine contrast-enhanced chest CT can reveal sufficient details to allow for the detection of unsuspected breast lesions, in which some cases may be proven as malignant. An irregular margin of incidental enhancing breast lesion can be considered a suggestive sign of malignancy

  10. Clinical significance of pneumatosis intestinalis - correlation of MDCT-findings with treatment and outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treyaud, Marc-Olivier; Duran, Rafael; Knebel, Jean-Francois; Meuli, Reto A.; Schmidt, Sabine [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Zins, Marc [Fondation Hopital St Joseph, Department of Radiology, Paris (France)

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate the clinical significance of pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) including the influence on treatment and outcome. Two radiologists jointly reviewed MDCT-examinations of 149 consecutive emergency patients (53 women, mean age 64, range 21-95) with PI of the stomach (n = 4), small (n = 68) and/or large bowel (n = 96). PI extension, distribution and possibly associated porto-mesenteric venous gas (PMVG) were correlated with other MDCT-findings, risk factors, clinical management, laboratory, histopathology, final diagnosis and outcome. The most frequent cause of PI was intestinal ischemia (n = 80,53.7 %), followed by infection (n = 18,12.1 %), obstructive (n = 12,8.1 %) and non-obstructive (n = 10,6.7 %) bowel dilatation, unknown aetiologies (n = 8,5.4 %), drugs (n = 8,5.4 %), inflammation (n = 7,4.7 %), and others (n = 6,4 %). Neither PI distribution nor extension significantly correlated with underlying ischemia. Overall mortality was 41.6 % (n = 62), mostly related to intestinal ischemia (p = 0.003). Associated PMVG significantly correlated with underlying ischemia (p = 0.009), as did the anatomical distribution of PMVG (p = 0.015). Decreased mural contrast-enhancement was the only other MDCT-feature significantly associated with ischemia (p p < 0.001). Elevated white blood count significantly correlated with ischemia (p = 0.03). In emergency patients, ischemia remains the most common aetiology of PI, showing the highest mortality. PI with associated PMVG is an alerting sign. PI together with decreased mural contrast-enhancement indicates underlying ischemia. (orig.)

  11. Chocolate: A Heart-healthy Food? Show Me the Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Sandra M.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

    2002-01-01

    Cocoa and chocolate foods produced by appropriate methods can contribute significant amounts of heart-healthy flavanols to the diet. These flavanols may enhance cardiovascular health by delaying blood clotting, improving vascular endothelial function, and helping to moderate inflammation. The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.

  12. Theoretical study on a novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle for household refrigerator-freezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Mengliu; Wang, Xiao; Yu, Jianlin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle is proposed. • The novel cycle is evaluated by using the developed mathematical model. • The results show the performances of the novel cycle could be significantly improved. • The novel cycle shows its promise in household refrigerator-freezers applications. - Abstract: In this study, a novel dual-nozzle ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle is presented for dual evaporator household refrigerator-freezers. The proposed ejector equipped with two nozzles can efficiently recover the expansion work from cycle throttling processes and enhance cycle performances. The performances of the novel cycle are evaluated by using the developed mathematical model, and then compared with that of the conventional ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle and basic vapor-compression refrigeration cycle. The simulation results show that for the given operating conditions, the coefficient of performance (COP) of the novel cycle using refrigerant R134a is improved by 22.9–50.8% compared with that of the basic vapor-compression refrigeration cycle, and the COP improvement is 10.5–30.8% larger than that of the conventional ejector enhanced refrigeration cycle. The further simulation results of the novel cycle using refrigerant R600a indicate that the cycle COP and volumetric refrigeration capacity could be significantly improved

  13. Vasovist-enhanced MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyen, M.; Shamsi, K.; Schoenberg, S.O.

    2006-01-01

    Vasovist (MS-325) is the first intravascular contrast agent approved for use with magnetic resonance angiography in the European Union. Vasovist reversibly binds to albumin, providing extended intravascular enhancement compared to existing extracellular magnetic resonance contrast agents. Prior to approval, Vasovist underwent extensive testing to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drug; the clinical trials program included blinded, placebo-controlled dose ranging, efficacy in a variety of vascular beds (AIOD, renal, pedal), examination of potential drug interaction with warfarin and comparison with XRA. The clinical trials show that Vasovist-enhanced MR angiography is safe and well-tolerated in patients with vascular disease, effective for the detection of vascular stenosis and aneurysms, significantly more accurate (both more sensitive and specific) than non-contrast MR angiography for the diagnosis of vascular stenoses, and similar to conventional angiography for the overall characterization of vascular disease, without the need for catheterization. (orig.)

  14. Vasovist-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyen, M. [Univ. Medical Center, Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany); Shamsi, K. [Berlex Lab., Inc., Montville, NJ (United States); Schoenberg, S.O. [Dept. of Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospitals Grosshadern, Munich (Germany)

    2006-02-15

    Vasovist (MS-325) is the first intravascular contrast agent approved for use with magnetic resonance angiography in the European Union. Vasovist reversibly binds to albumin, providing extended intravascular enhancement compared to existing extracellular magnetic resonance contrast agents. Prior to approval, Vasovist underwent extensive testing to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the drug; the clinical trials program included blinded, placebo-controlled dose ranging, efficacy in a variety of vascular beds (AIOD, renal, pedal), examination of potential drug interaction with warfarin and comparison with XRA. The clinical trials show that Vasovist-enhanced MR angiography is safe and well-tolerated in patients with vascular disease, effective for the detection of vascular stenosis and aneurysms, significantly more accurate (both more sensitive and specific) than non-contrast MR angiography for the diagnosis of vascular stenoses, and similar to conventional angiography for the overall characterization of vascular disease, without the need for catheterization. (orig.)

  15. Experiential training for enhancing intercultural sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sachin

    2013-01-01

    This project aims to enhance intercultural sensitivity using cross-cultural movies and focused group discussions with invited guests. Both treatment and control groups consisted of 9 Caucasian participants. The researcher conducted 8 group sessions with the participants of treatment group. Pre and post intervention data were collected on the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale. Results show that there was a significant increase in the participants' scores in the treatment group and not a significant difference in participants' pre and post scores in the control group. Further analysis on the five different dimensions of the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale was also conducted.

  16. PERSONALITY DOES NOT INFLUENCE EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD ENHANCEMENT AMONG FEMALE EXERCISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood

  17. Bioavailability of Lumefantrine Is Significantly Enhanced with a Novel Formulation Approach, an Outcome from a Randomized, Open-Label Pharmacokinetic Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Jay Prakash; Leong, F Joel; Chen, Lan; Kalluri, Sampath; Koradia, Vishal; Stein, Daniel S; Wolf, Marie-Christine; Sunkara, Gangadhar; Kota, Jagannath

    2017-09-01

    The artemether-lumefantrine combination requires food intake for the optimal absorption of lumefantrine. In an attempt to enhance the bioavailability of lumefantrine, new solid dispersion formulations (SDF) were developed, and the pharmacokinetics of two SDF variants were assessed in a randomized, open-label, sequential two-part study in healthy volunteers. In part 1, the relative bioavailability of the two SDF variants was compared with that of the conventional formulation after administration of a single dose of 480 mg under fasted conditions in three parallel cohorts. In part 2, the pharmacokinetics of lumefantrine from both SDF variants were evaluated after a single dose of 480 mg under fed conditions and a single dose of 960 mg under fasted conditions. The bioavailability of lumefantrine from SDF variant 1 and variant 2 increased up to ∼48-fold and ∼24-fold, respectively, relative to that of the conventional formulation. Both variants demonstrated a positive food effect and a less than proportional increase in exposure between the 480-mg and 960-mg doses. Most adverse events (AEs) were mild to moderate in severity and not suspected to be related to the study drug. All five drug-related AEs occurred in subjects taking SDF variant 2. No clinically significant treatment-emergent changes in vital signs, electrocardiograms, or laboratory blood assessments were noted. The solid dispersion formulation enhances the lumefantrine bioavailability to a significant extent, and SDF variant 1 is superior to SDF variant 2. Copyright © 2017 Jain et al.

  18. Structure of health-enhancing behavior in adolescence: a latent-variable approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, J E; Jessor, R; Costa, F M

    1993-12-01

    The structure of the interrelations among a variety of health-enhancing behaviors was examined using structural equation modeling analyses of questionnaire data from 1,280 middle school students and 2,219 high school students. The health-enhancing behaviors included seat belt use, adequate hours of sleep, attention to healthy diet, adequate exercise, low sedentary behavior, and regular toothbrushing. In the middle school sample, all of the health-enhancing behaviors correlated significantly but modestly with each other, except for sleep with toothbrushing. In the high school sample, all but three of the 15 correlations among the behaviors were significant. The results further show that a single underlying factor can account for the modest correlations among these health-enhancing behaviors in both samples. The generality of the single-factor model was also established for male, female, White, Hispanic, and Black students at each school level. These findings provide some support for the existence of health-related lifestyles in adolescence.

  19. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  20. Transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa) with increased sucrose phosphate synthase activity shows enhanced growth when grown under N2-fixing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebril, Sayed; Seger, Mark; Villanueva, Fabiola Muro; Ortega, Jose Luis; Bagga, Suman; Sengupta-Gopalan, Champa

    2015-10-01

    Overexpression of SPS in alfalfa is accompanied by early flowering, increased plant growth and an increase in elemental N and protein content when grown under N2-fixing conditions. Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.3.1.14) is the key enzyme in the synthesis of sucrose in plants. The outcome of overexpression of SPS in different plants using transgenic approaches has been quite varied, but the general consensus is that increased SPS activity is associated with the production of new sinks and increased sink strength. In legumes, the root nodule is a strong C sink and in this study our objective was to see how increasing SPS activity in a legume would affect nodule number and function. Here we have transformed alfalfa (Medicago sativa, cv. Regen SY), with a maize SPS gene driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter. Our results showed that overexpression of SPS in alfalfa, is accompanied by an increase in nodule number and mass and an overall increase in nitrogenase activity at the whole plant level. The nodules exhibited an increase in the level of key enzymes contributing to N assimilation including glutamine synthetase and asparagine synthetase. Moreover, the stems of the transformants showed higher level of the transport amino acids, Asx, indicating increased export of N from the nodules. The transformants exhibited a dramatic increase in growth both of the shoots and roots, and earlier flowering time, leading to increased yields. Moreover, the transformants showed an increase in elemental N and protein content. The overall conclusion is that increased SPS activity improves the N status and plant performance, suggesting that the availability of more C in the form of sucrose enhances N acquisition and assimilation in the nodules.

  1. Intraspecific responses of 188 rice cultivars to enhanced UVB radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Q.; Peng, A.; Chavez, A.Q.; Vergara, B.S.

    1994-01-01

    Phytotron studies were conducted to determine the intraspecific variation in sensitivity of rice (Oryza sativa L.) to enhanced UVB and to test the hypothesis that rice cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB radiation are more tolerant to enhanced UVB. Out of the 188 rice cultivars (from various rice growing regions and ecosystems) tested, 143 had significantly reduced plant height, 52 had smaller leaf area, 61 had lower plant dry weight and 41 had less tiller number under elevated UVB radiation (13.0 kJ m −2 day −1 ) for 3 weeks. Six cultivars showed significant positive growth response to enhanced UVB radiation, although the mechanism is not clear at present. These six cultivars were from the summer rice crop of Bangladesh and from high elevation rice areas where prevailing UVB radiation is most likely to be greater. However, there was no correlation between the dry matter changes under enhanced UVB and the ambient UVB level at the origin of the cultivar across the 188 cultivars tested. Therefore, cultivars originating from regions with higher ambient UVB are not necessarily more tolerant to enhanced UVB radiation. (author)

  2. MRI enhancing patterns of non-meningioma meningeal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Xiaofeng; Ding Juan; Xiao Xiangsheng; Shi Zengru; Yu Hong; Gu Qian

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the MRI appearances of meningeal diseases and to study MRI diagnostic value of enhancing patterns in different meningeal processes. Methods: Sixty-one patients with integrated clinical data, including 27 infectious meningitis, 4 inflammatory meningitis (2 eosinophilic granuloma, 1 Wegener granuloma, and 1 unknown etiological factor), 12 meningeal metastasis, 2 meningeal lymphoma, 8 cerebrovascular disease, and 8 postoperative changes, were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were examined on MRI before and after contrast administration. Results: (1) MR plain scan: positive findings of plain scan were revealed in only 3 cases, including 1 linear meningeal thickening pattern and 2 nodular pattern. (2) MR enhancement: All cases showed 3 kinds of enhancing patterns: 19 dural-arachnoid pattern, 32 pia-arachnoid pattern, and 10 total meninges pattern, respectively. Conclusion: Different meningeal diseases have different MR imaging manifestations. Creating the enhancement patterns of various diseases can have great clinical significance. (authors)

  3. Pool Boiling Enhancement of R-123 Using Perforated Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nae-Hyun [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we investigate the pool boiling enhancement caused by perforated plates on top of a smooth surface. We conduct tests using R-123 at atmospheric pressure. It was shown that perforated plates significantly enhanced the pool boiling of the smooth surface. The reason may be attributed to the increased bubble contact area between the plates. The results showed that the enhancement ratio was dependent on the heat flux. At high heat flux, the enhancement ratio increased as the porosity increased. However, at low heat flux, the enhancement ratio decreased as the porosity increased. For the present investigation, the optimum configuration had a pore diameter of 2.0 mm, pore pitch of 2.5 mm×5.0 mm or 5.0 mm×5.0 mm, and a gap width of 0.5 mm, which yielded heat-transfer coefficients that are close to those of GEWA-T. The optimum porosity for R-123 was significantly larger than that of water or ethanol. The reason for this may be the large liquid-to-vapor density ratio along with the small latent heat of vaporization of R-123. The perforated plates yielded smaller boiling hysteresis compared with that of the smooth surface.

  4. A Significant Enhancement of Cluster Formation of Krypton and Xenon Gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bingchen

    2001-01-01

    @@ Clusters of rare gases have currently become a kind of widely used targets in the study of high-intensity laser interaction with matter[1,2]. However, a good understanding of the cluster media is vital if results from laser-cluster interaction experiments are to be interpreted correctly. During the course of investigation of the time history of a cluster jet generated in supersonic expansion of rare gases into vaccum through a supersonic conical nozzle (26 mm long, opening angle 5°) by time resolving Rayleigh scattering measurements in which a 532 nm 0.3 mJ laser beam was used, we find that the general trend of argon clusters is similar to that reported by R.A. Smith et al.[3]. However, the picture for Krypton and Xenon gases is completely different. A two-peak structure of the scattered light intensity, instead of a single-peak one, has been revealed. It is interesting to note that the second peak is much more stronger than the first one. As an example, Fig.1 shows the time history of Xen clusters produced at a gas backing pressure P0=3 atm. In the Figure, the peak intensity of the second peak is surprisingly 62 times higher than the first one, indicating that the average cluster size c in the latter case is increased about 62 times under the assumption that during the expansion process all the atoms in the gas condensate into clusters. The result, which is believed to be related to a double gas ejection via the pulsed valve′s two adjacent openings, is of significant importance since this effect would be promising for applications in which very large size clusters are required while a relatively modest vacuum maintains. Meanwhile, this finding may provide us with the opportunity of a further understanding into the nucleation mechanism of expanding gases in a nozzle.

  5. MRI diagnosis of pituitary abscess and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shuang; Qian Ruiling; Tang Zhiwei; Liu Ke; Huang Yong; Li Xi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the MR features of pituitary abscess. Methods: The MR features of 14 eases of pituitary abscess proved by surgical pathology and clinical treatments were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Pre-contrast MR showed hypointense heterogeneous intensity on T 1 WI in 12 cases and iso-hyperintense on T 1 WI in 2 cases, hyperintense on T 2 WI in all cases. Post-gadolinium MR showed the ring-like enhancement around the uneven edge of abscess and the surrounding enhanced meninges connecting to the focus. The normal pituitary could not be identified in all 14 cases. The MR specific findings include the fluid-fluid level, nodule on the edge and the enhanced patchy shadow. Conclusions: The pituitary abscess has specific findings on MR examination, which can be used to combine with clinical symptoms to achieve the diagnosis before operation, so that the cases could be treated with antibiotic without operation. (authors)

  6. A recyclable Au(I) catalyst for selective homocoupling of arylboronic acids: significant enhancement of nano-surface binding for stability and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Haitao; Wang, Jianhui

    2010-08-01

    Au nanoparticles stabilized by polystyrene-co-polymethacrylic acid microspheres (PS-co-PMAA) were prepared and characterized via X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The Au nanoparticles supported on the microspheres showed highly selective catalytic activity for homo-coupling reactions of arylboronic acids in a system of aryl-halides and arylboronic acids. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra of the catalyst shows large amounts of Au(I) complexes band to the surface of the Au nanoparticles, which contributes to the selective homocoupling of the arylboronic acids. More importantly, this supported Au complex is a highly recyclable catalyst. The supported Au catalyst can be recycled and reused at least 6 times for a phenylboronic acid reactant, whereas the parent complex shows very low catalytic activity for this compound. The high catalytic activity of this material is attributed to: (1) the high surface to volume ratio which leads to more active sites being exposed to reactants; (2) the strong surface binding of the Au nanoparticle to the Au(I) complexes, which enhances both the stability and the catalytic activity of these complexes.

  7. Oxygen-enhanced MRI of the lungs. Intraindividual comparison between 1.5 and 3 Tesla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, Olaf; Thieme, S.F.; Maxien, D.; Nikolaou, K.; Reiser, M.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Fink, C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility of oxygen-enhanced MRI of the lung at 3 Tesla and to compare signal characteristics with 1.5 Tesla. Materials and Methods: 13 volunteers underwent oxygen-enhanced lung MRI at 1.5 and 3 T with a T 1-weighted single-slice non-selective inversion-recovery single-shot half-Fourier fast-spin-echo sequence with simultaneous respiratory and cardiac triggering in coronal orientation. 40 measurements were acquired during room air breathing and subsequently during oxygen breathing (15 L/min, close-fitting face-mask). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the lung tissue was determined with a difference image method. The image quality of all acquisitions was visually assessed. The mean values of the oxygen-induced relative signal enhancement and its regional coefficient of variation were calculated and the signal enhancement was displayed as color-coded parameter maps. Oxygen-enhancement maps were visually assessed with respect to the distribution and heterogeneity of the oxygen-related signal enhancement at both field strengths. Results: The mean relative signal enhancement due to oxygen breathing was 13 % (± 5.6 %) at 1.5 T and of 9.0 % (± 8.0 %) at 3 T. The regional coefficient of variation was significantly higher at 3 T. Visual and quantitative assessment of the enhancement maps showed considerably less homogeneous distribution of the signal enhancement at 3 T. The SNR was not significantly different but showed a trend to slightly higher values (increase of about 10 %) at 3 T. Conclusion: Oxygen-enhanced pulmonary MRI is feasible at 3 Tesla. However, signal enhancement is currently more heterogeneous and slightly lower at 3 T. (orig.)

  8. Bare and protected sputtered-noble-metal films for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaga, David; Bonhommeau, Sébastien

    2014-11-01

    Sputtered silver and gold films with different surface morphologies have been prepared and coated with a benzenethiol self-assembled monolayer. Rough noble metal films showed strong Raman features assigned to adsorbed benzenethiol molecules upon irradiation over a wide energy range in the visible spectrum, which disclosed the occurrence of a significant surface-enhanced Raman scattering with maximal enhancement factors as high as 6 × 106. In addition, the adsorption of ethanethiol onto silver surfaces hinders their corrosion over days while preserving mostly intact enhancement properties of naked silver. This study may be applied to develop stable and efficient metalized probes for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

  9. A Significant Increase of RNAi Efficiency in Human Cells by the CMV Enhancer with a tRNAlys Promoter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Weiwei

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is the process of mRNA degradation induced by double-stranded RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Different types of promoters, such as U6, H1, tRNA, and CMV, have been used to control the inhibitory effect of RNAi expression vectors. In the present study, we constructed two shRNA expression vectors, respectively, controlled by tRNAlys and CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoters. Compared to the vectors with tRNAlys or U6 promoter, the vector with a CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter silenced pokemon more efficiently on both the mRNA and the protein levels. Meanwhile, the silencing of pokemon inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, but the induction of apoptosis of MCF7 cells was not observed. We conclude that the CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter may be a powerful tool in driving intracellular expression of shRNA which can efficiently silence targeted gene.

  10. A Significant Increase of RNAi Efficiency in Human Cells by the CMV Enhancer with a tRNAlys Promoter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiwei, Ma; Zhenhua, Xie; Feng, Liu; Hang, Ning; Yuyang, Jiang

    2009-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the process of mRNA degradation induced by double-stranded RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Different types of promoters, such as U6, H1, tRNA, and CMV, have been used to control the inhibitory effect of RNAi expression vectors. In the present study, we constructed two shRNA expression vectors, respectively, controlled by tRNAlys and CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoters. Compared to the vectors with tRNAlys or U6 promoter, the vector with a CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter silenced pokemon more efficiently on both the mRNA and the protein levels. Meanwhile, the silencing of pokemon inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, but the induction of apoptosis of MCF7 cells was not observed. We conclude that the CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter may be a powerful tool in driving intracellular expression of shRNA which can efficiently silence targeted gene. PMID:19859553

  11. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering on periodic metal nanotips with tunable sharpness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Nicholas C; Sun, C-H; Arya, Ajay; Jiang Peng; Jiang Bin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a scalable bottom-up technology for producing periodic gold nanotips with tunable sharpness as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Inverted silicon pyramidal pits, which are templated from non-close-packed colloidal crystals prepared by a spin-coating technology, are used as structural templates to replicate arrays of polymer nanopyramids with nanoscale sharp tips. The deposition of a thin layer of gold on the polymer nanopyramids leads to the formation of SERS-active substrates with a high enhancement factor (up to 10 8 ). The thickness of the deposited metal determines the sharpness of the nanotips and the resulting Raman enhancement factor. Finite-element electromagnetic modeling shows that the nanotips can significantly enhance the local electromagnetic field and the sharpness of nanotips greatly affects the SERS enhancement.

  12. Clinical evaluation of contrast-enhanced digital mammography and contrast enhanced tomosynthesis--Comparison to contrast-enhanced breast MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chen-Pin; Lewin, John M; Chiang, Chia-Ling; Hung, Bao-Hui; Yang, Tsung-Lung; Huang, Jer-Shyung; Liao, Jia-Bin; Pan, Huay-Ben

    2015-12-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced digital mammography (CEDM) and contrast-enhanced tomosynthesis (CET) to dynamic contrast enhanced breast MRI (DCE-MRI) using a multireader-multicase study. Institutional review board approval and informed consents were obtained. Total 185 patients (mean age 51.3) with BI-RADS 4 or 5 lesions were evaluated before biopsy with mammography, tomosynthesis, CEDM, CET and DCE-MRI. Mediolateral-oblique and cranio-caudal views of the target breast CEDM and CET were acquired at 2 and 4 min after contrast agent injection. A mediolateral-oblique view of the non-target breast was taken at 6 min. Each lesion was scored with forced BI-RADS categories by three readers. Each reader interpreted lesions in the following order: mammography, tomosynthesis, CEDM, CET, and DCE-MRI during a single reading session. Histology showed 81 cancers and 144 benign lesions in the study. Of the 81 malignant lesions, 44% (36/81) were invasive and 56% (45/81) were non-invasive. Areas under the ROC curve, averaged for the 3 readers, were as follows: 0.897 for DCE-MRI, 0.892 for CET, 0.878 for CEDM, 0.784 for tomosynthesis and 0.740 for mammography. Significant differences in AUC were found between the group of contrast enhanced modalities (CEDM, CET, DCE-MRI) and the unenhanced modalities (all p0.05). CET and CEDM may be considered as an alternative modality to MRI for following up women with abnormal mammography. All three contrast modalities were superior in accuracy to conventional digital mammography with or without tomosynthesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transepithelial Transport of Curcumin in Caco-2 Cells Is significantly Enhanced by Micellar Solubilisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Jan; Schiborr, Christina; Kocher, Alexa; Meins, Jürgen; Behnam, Dariush; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Abdel-Tawab, Mona

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin, the active constituent of Curcuma longa L. (family Zingiberaceae), has gained increasing interest because of its anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, and anti-rheumatic properties associated with good tolerability and safety up to very high doses of 12 g. Nanoscaled micellar formulations on the base of Tween 80 represent a promising strategy to overcome its low oral bioavailability. We therefore aimed to investigate the uptake and transepithelial transport of native curcumin (CUR) vs. a nanoscaled micellar formulation (Sol-CUR) in a Caco-2 cell model. Sol-CUR afforded a higher flux than CUR (39.23 vs. 4.98 μg min -1  cm -2 , respectively). This resulted in a higher P app value of 2.11 × 10 -6  cm/s for Sol-CUR compared to a P app value of 0.56 × 10 -6  cm/s for CUR. Accordingly a nearly 9.5 fold higher amount of curcumin was detected on the basolateral side at the end of the transport experiments after 180 min with Sol-CUR compared to CUR. The determined 3.8-fold improvement in the permeability of curcumin is in agreement with an up to 185-fold increase in the AUC of curcumin observed in humans following the oral administration of the nanoscaled micellar formulation compared to native curcumin. The present study demonstrates that the enhanced oral bioavailability of micellar curcumin formulations is likely a result of enhanced absorption into and increased transport through small intestinal epithelial cells.

  14. MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma. Associations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabuki, Takayuki; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Shirasaki, Yoshinori; Hiraki, Yoshio [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MR characteristics of renal cell carcinomas against histologic findings and to assess the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings. Fifty-four patients (56 lesions) were examined by MR imaging and then underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of all lesions was renal cell carcinoma. All MR examinations were performed as dynamic studies using the same 1.5-T scanner. MR characteristics were compared against pathologic findings after resection, and the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings were then assessed. A significant correlation was observed between tumor grade and tumor enhancement, with G3 lesions tending to show little enhancement. Regardless of the histologic classification, G3 tumors were found to contain highly heterotypic cancer cells and very few vessels by histopathologic examination. No significant correlations were noted between the other MR characteristics and pathologic findings. Renal cell carcinomas showing little enhancement tend to be highly malignant lesions based on the pathologic findings. Special consideration is required for these tumors with regard to the selection of surgical intervention and follow-up observation. (author)

  15. MR imaging of renal cell carcinoma. Associations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabuki, Takayuki; Togami, Izumi; Kitagawa, Takahiro; Sasai, Nobuya; Tsushima, Tomoyasu; Shirasaki, Yoshinori; Hiraki, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the MR characteristics of renal cell carcinomas against histologic findings and to assess the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings. Fifty-four patients (56 lesions) were examined by MR imaging and then underwent partial or radical nephrectomy. The pathologic diagnosis of all lesions was renal cell carcinoma. All MR examinations were performed as dynamic studies using the same 1.5-T scanner. MR characteristics were compared against pathologic findings after resection, and the correlations among signal intensity, tumor enhancement, and pathologic findings were then assessed. A significant correlation was observed between tumor grade and tumor enhancement, with G3 lesions tending to show little enhancement. Regardless of the histologic classification, G3 tumors were found to contain highly heterotypic cancer cells and very few vessels by histopathologic examination. No significant correlations were noted between the other MR characteristics and pathologic findings. Renal cell carcinomas showing little enhancement tend to be highly malignant lesions based on the pathologic findings. Special consideration is required for these tumors with regard to the selection of surgical intervention and follow-up observation. (author)

  16. Functional analysis of limb transcriptional enhancers in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Mark J; Wang, Ying; Deng, Jian Min; Swinton, Paul G; Wei, Caimiao; Guindani, Michele; Schwartz, Robert J; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptional enhancers are genomic sequences bound by transcription factors that act together with basal transcriptional machinery to regulate gene transcription. Several high-throughput methods have generated large datasets of tissue-specific enhancer sequences with putative roles in developmental processes. However, few enhancers have been deleted from the genome to determine their roles in development. To understand the roles of two enhancers active in the mouse embryonic limb bud we deleted them from the genome. Although the genes regulated by these enhancers are unknown, they were selected because they were identified in a screen for putative limb bud-specific enhancers associated with p300, an acetyltransferase that participates in protein complexes that promote active transcription, and because the orthologous human enhancers (H1442 and H280) drive distinct lacZ expression patterns in limb buds of embryonic day (E) 11.5 transgenic mice. We show that the orthologous mouse sequences, M1442 and M280, regulate dynamic expression in the developing limb. Although significant transcriptional differences in enhancer-proximal genes in embryonic limb buds accompany the deletion of M1442 and M280 no gross limb malformations during embryonic development were observed, demonstrating that M1442 and M280 are not required for mouse limb development. However, M280 is required for the development and/or maintenance of body size; M280 mice are significantly smaller than controls. M280 also harbors an "ultraconserved" sequence that is identical between human, rat, and mouse. This is the first report of a phenotype resulting from the deletion of an ultraconserved element. These studies highlight the importance of determining enhancer regulatory function by experiments that manipulate them in situ and suggest that some of an enhancer's regulatory capacities may be developmentally tolerated rather than developmentally required. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Transgenic wheat expressing Thinopyrum intermedium MYB transcription factor TiMYB2R-1 shows enhanced resistance to the take-all disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Yang, Lihua; Zhou, Xianyao; Zhou, Miaoping; Lu, Yan; Ma, Lingjian; Ma, Hongxiang; Zhang, Zengyan

    2013-05-01

    The disease take-all, caused by the fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis, is one of the most destructive root diseases of wheat worldwide. Breeding resistant cultivars is an effective way to protect wheat from take-all. However, little progress has been made in improving the disease resistance level in commercial wheat cultivars. MYB transcription factors play important roles in plant responses to environmental stresses. In this study, an R2R3-MYB gene in Thinopyrum intermedium, TiMYB2R-1, was cloned and characterized. The gene sequence includes two exons and an intron. The expression of TiMYB2R-1 was significantly induced following G. graminis infection. An in vitro DNA binding assay proved that TiMYB2R-1 protein could bind to the MYB-binding site cis-element ACI. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was localized in the nucleus. TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat plants were generated, characterized molecularly, and evaluated for take-all resistance. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed that TiMYB2R-1 was integrated into the genomes of three independent transgenic wheat lines by distinct patterns and the transgene was heritable. Reverse transcription-PCR and western blot analyses revealed that TiMYB2R-1 was highly expressed in the transgenic wheat lines. Based on disease response assessments for three successive generations, the significantly enhanced resistance to take-all was observed in the three TiMYB2R-1-overexpressing transgenic wheat lines. Furthermore, the transcript levels of at least six wheat defence-related genes were significantly elevated in the TiMYB2R-1 transgenic wheat lines. These results suggest that engineering and overexpression of TiMYB2R-1 may be used for improving take-all resistance of wheat and other cereal crops.

  18. Radiation dose of aircrews during a solar proton event without ground-level enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kataoka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A significant enhancement of radiation doses is expected for aircrews during ground-level enhancement (GLE events, while the possible radiation hazard remains an open question during non-GLE solar energetic particle (SEP events. Using a new air-shower simulation driven by the proton flux data obtained from GOES satellites, we show the possibility of significant enhancement of the effective dose rate of up to 4.5 μSv h−1 at a conventional flight altitude of 12 km during the largest SEP event that did not cause a GLE. As a result, a new GOES-driven model is proposed to give an estimate of the contribution from the isotropic component of the radiation dose in the stratosphere during non-GLE SEP events.

  19. Human microRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors show significantly different biological patterns: from functions to targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNAs which play essential roles in many important biological processes. Therefore, their dysfunction is associated with a variety of human diseases, including cancer. Increasing evidence shows that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor suppressors, and although there is great interest in research into these cancer-associated miRNAs, little is known about them. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of putative human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We found that miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors clearly show different patterns in function, evolutionary rate, expression, chromosome distribution, molecule size, free energy, transcription factors, and targets. For example, miRNA oncogenes are located mainly in the amplified regions in human cancers, whereas miRNA tumor suppressors are located mainly in the deleted regions. miRNA oncogenes tend to cleave target mRNAs more frequently than miRNA tumor suppressors. These results indicate that these two types of cancer-associated miRNAs play different roles in cancer formation and development. Moreover, the patterns identified here can discriminate novel miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors with a high degree of accuracy. This study represents the first large-scale bioinformatic analysis of human miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Our findings provide help for not only understanding of miRNAs in cancer but also for the specific identification of novel miRNAs as miRNA oncogenes and tumor suppressors. In addition, the data presented in this study will be valuable for the study of both miRNAs and cancer.

  20. Surface plasmon enhanced quantum transport in a hybrid metal nanoparticle array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Lin; Nan, Yali; Xu, Shang; Zhang, Sishi; Han, Min

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid Pd–Ag nanoparticle arrays composed of randomly distributed Pd nanoparticles in dense packing and a small number of dispersed Ag nanoparticles were fabricated with controlled coverage. Photo-enhanced conductance was observed in the nanoparticle arrays. Largest enhancement, which can be higher than 20 folds, was obtained with 450 nm light illumination. This wavelength was found to correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles. Electron transport measurements showed there were significant Coulomb blockade in the nanoparticle arrays and the blockade could be overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field of Ag nanoparticles induced by light illumination. - Highlights: • We study photo-enhanced electron conductance of a hybrid Pd–Ag nanoparticle array. • The light-induced conductance enhancement is as high as 20 folds at 10 K. • The enhancement is correlate with the surface plasmon resonance of Ag nanoparticles. • Coulomb blockades is overcome with the surface plasmon enhanced local field

  1. Microbial enhancement of non-Darcy flow: Theoretical consideration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Jianxin; Schneider, D.R.

    1995-12-31

    In the near well-bore region and perforations, petroleum fluids usually flow at high velocities and may exhibit non-Darcy-flow behavior. Microorganisms can increase permeability and porosity by removing paraffin or asphaltene accumulations. They can also reduce interfacial tension by producing biosurfactants. These changes can significantly affect non-Darcy flow behavior. Theoretical analysis shows that microbial activities can enhance production by decreasing the turbulence pressure drop and in some cases increasing the drag force exerted to the oil phase. This implies that the effects of microbial activities on non-Darcy flow are important and should be considered in the evaluation of microbial well stimulation and enhanced oil recovery.

  2. Diltiazem enhances tumor blood flow: MRI study in a murine tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muruganandham, M.; Kasiviswanathan, A.; Jagannathan, N.R.; Raghunathan, P.; Jain, P.C.; Jain, V.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Diltiazem, a calcium-channel blocker, is known to differentially influence the radiation responses of normal and murine tumor tissues. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, the effects of diltiazem on the radiation response of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) in mice have been investigated, and the hemodynamic changes induced by diltiazem in tumor and normal muscle have been studied using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Methods and Materials: Ehrlich ascites tumors were grown subcutaneously in Swiss albino strain A mice. Dynamic gadodiamide and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) contrast enhanced 1 H MR imaging studies of EAT and normal muscle were performed after administration of diltiazem in mice using a 4.7 Tesla MR scanner. Tumor radiotherapy experiments (total dose = 10 Gy, 0.4-0.5 Gy/min, single fraction) were carried out with 30 min preadministration of diltiazem (27.5 or 55 mg/kg i.p.) to EAT-bearing mice using a teletherapy machine. Results: The diltiazem+ radiation treated group showed significant tumor regression (in congruent with 65% of the animals) and enhanced animal survival. MR-gadodiamide contrast kinetics revealed a higher magnitude of signal enhancement in diltiazem treated groups as compared to the controls. The observed changes in the magnitude of kinetic parameters were the same for both tumor and normal muscle. BOLD-MR images at 30 min after diltiazem administration showed a 25% and 8% (average) intensity enhancement from their basal values in tumor and normal muscle regions, respectively. The control group showed no significant changes. Conclusion: The present studies demonstrate the radiosensitization potential of diltiazem in the mice EAT model. The enhanced radiation response observed with diltiazem correlates with the diltiazem-induced increase in tumor blood flow (TBF) and tumor oxygenation. The present results also demonstrate the applications of BOLD-MR measurements in investigating the alterations in tumor

  3. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells express the pericyte marker 3G5 in culture and show enhanced chondrogenesis in hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasim S; Adesida, Adetola B; Tew, Simon R; Lowe, Emma T; Hardingham, Timothy E

    2010-06-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells are a potential source of cells for the repair of articular cartilage defects. Hypoxia has been shown to improve chondrogenesis in some cells. In this study, bone marrow-derived stem cells were characterized and the effects of hypoxia on chondrogenesis investigated. Adherent bone marrow colony-forming cells were characterized for stem cell surface epitopes, and then cultured as cell aggregates in chondrogenic medium under normoxic (20% oxygen) or hypoxic (5% oxygen) conditions. The cells stained strongly for markers of adult mesenchymal stem cells, and a high number of cells were also positive for the pericyte marker 3G5. The cells showed a chondrogenic response in cell aggregate cultures and, in lowered oxygen, there was increased matrix accumulation of proteoglycan, but less cell proliferation. In hypoxia, there was increased expression of key transcription factor SOX6, and of collagens II and XI, and aggrecan. Pericytes are a candidate stem cell in many tissue, and our results show that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells express the pericyte marker 3G5. The response to chondrogenic culture in these cells was enhanced by lowered oxygen tension. This has important implications for tissue engineering applications of bone marrow-derived stem cells. (c) 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Enhanced activation of the left hemisphere promotes normative decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corser, Ryan; Jasper, John D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that enhanced activation of the left cerebral hemisphere reduces risky-choice, attribute, and goal-framing effects relative to enhanced activation of the right cerebral hemisphere. The present study sought to extend these findings and show that enhanced activation of the left hemisphere also reduces violations of other normative principles, besides the invariance principle. Participants completed ratio bias (Experiment 1, N = 296) and base rate neglect problems (Experiment 2, N = 145) under normal (control) viewing or with the right or left hemisphere primarily activated by imposing a unidirectional gaze. In Experiment 1 we found that enhanced left hemispheric activation reduced the ratio bias relative to normal viewing and a group experiencing enhanced right hemispheric activation. In Experiment 2 enhanced left hemispheric activation resulted in using base rates more than normal viewing, but not significantly more than enhanced right hemispheric activation. Results suggest that hemispheric asymmetries can affect higher-order cognitive processes, such as decision-making biases. Possible theoretical accounts are discussed as well as implications for dual-process theories.

  5. Enhancement of Edge-based Image Quality Measures Using Entropy for Histogram Equalization-based Contrast Enhancement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. R. Kurmasha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An Edge-based image quality measure (IQM technique for the assessment of histogram equalization (HE-based contrast enhancement techniques has been proposed that outperforms the Absolute Mean Brightness Error (AMBE and Entropy which are the most commonly used IQMs to evaluate Histogram Equalization based techniques, and also the two prominent fidelity-based IQMs which are Multi-Scale Structural Similarity (MSSIM and Information Fidelity Criterion-based (IFC measures. The statistical evaluation results show that the Edge-based IQM, which was designed for detecting noise artifacts distortion, has a Person Correlation Coefficient (PCC > 0.86 while the others have poor or fair correlation to human opinion, considering the Human Visual Perception (HVP. Based on HVP, this paper propose an enhancement to classic Edge-based IQM by taking into account the brightness saturation distortion which is the most prominent distortion in HE-based contrast enhancement techniques. It is tested and found to have significantly well correlation (PCC > 0.87, Spearman rank order correlation coefficient (SROCC > 0.92, Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE < 0.1054, and Outlier Ratio (OR = 0%.

  6. Value of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI in assessing liver function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Lili

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo explore the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI specifically enhanced with gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA in assessing the liver function in general population. MethodsUpper abdominal MRI images and Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced images, as well as some clinical information, were collected from 41 cases meeting the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Taking the spleen as the control organ, liver-spleen signal intensity contrast (SIliver/spleen and relative liver enhancement (RLE were calculated at 10 min and 20 min after injecting Gd-EOB-DTPA. Differences were evaluated using the independent-samples t-test or Mann-Whitney U test. Corrections were analyzed via Spearman’s rank correlation. ResultsBoth SIliver/spleen at 10 min and 20 min after injection of contrast agent were correlated with Child classification (P<0.05. SIliver/spleen at 20 min had a greater correlation coefficient (r=-0.526 than that at 10 min. The SIliver/spleen with plain scan had no significant correlation with Child classification (P>0.05. RLE at 20 min, but not at 10 min, was correlated with Child classification (r=-0.362, P=0049. Between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups, SIliver/spleen showed no significant difference (P>0.05. However, SIliver/spleen at 10 min and 20 min, as well as RLE20 min, showed significant differences between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups (P<0.05. SIliver/spleen at 20 min also exhibited a significant difference between the elevated and normal ALT and TBil groups (both P<0.05. ConclusionGd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI can monitor liver function changes, and SIliver/spleen at 20 min may have an important value in assessing the liver function in general population.

  7. Meningeal enhancement on MRI after craniotomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Motohiro; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamashima, Tetsumori; Yamashita, Junkoh; Suzuki, Masayuki

    1991-01-01

    Gd-DPTA-enhanced MR images in 94 patients who had undergone craniotomy were studied, with particular attention paid to the meningeal enhancement. Such enhancement was noted in 26 of the 94 (27.6%) in the portion surrounding the craniotomy site. Meningeal enhancement, presumably of the subdural neomembrane, was apparent as a third line of a high signal intensity on T 1 -weighted MR images. The outer two high-intensity lines were derived from fat in the subcutaneous tissues of the scalp and fat in the bone marrow of the calvaria. We designated this characteristic enhancement as a 'triple white line'. Of the 26 patients with meningeal enhancement, 22 cases (23.4%) showed such a 'triple white line', 11 cases (11.7%) showed falx enhancement, and 12 cases (12.8%) showed tentorial enhancement. The intervals between surgery and the appearance of the meningeal enhancement ranged from 4 days to 88 weeks. A small amount of bleeding into the dura-arachnoid interface induced by surgery might result in the subdural neomembrane, as has previously been reported. This neomembrane might be enhanced by the leakage of Gd-DTPA through the proliferating capillaries. As meningeal enhancement occurs in approximately a third of the cases following craniotomy, much care should be taken in the differential diagnosis of the infection, inflammation, and metastasis or dissemination of malignant brain tumors. (author)

  8. Evaluation of a Mathematical Model for Digital Image Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geha, Hassem; Nasseh, Ibrahim; Noujeim, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the detected number of holes on a stepwedge on images resulting from the application of the 5th degree polynomial model compared to the images resulting from the application of linear enhancement. Material and Methods : A 10-step aluminum step wedge with holes randomly drilled on each step was exposed with three different kVp and five exposure times per kVp on a Schick33(®) sensor. The images were enhanced by brightness/contrast adjustment, histogram equalization and with the 5th degree polynomial model and compared to the original non-enhanced images by six observers in two separate readings. Results : There was no significant difference between the readers and between the first and second reading. There was a significant three-factor interaction among Method, Exposure time, and kVp in detecting holes. The overall pattern was: "Poly" results in the highest counts, "Original" in the lowest counts, with "B/C" and "Equalized" intermediate. Conclusion : The 5th degree polynomial model showed more holes when compared to the other modalities.

  9. The complicated substrates enhance the microbial diversity and zinc leaching efficiency in sphalerite bioleaching system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yunhua; Xu, YongDong; Dong, Weiling; Liang, Yili; Fan, Fenliang; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Xian; Niu, Jiaojiao; Ma, Liyuan; She, Siyuan; He, Zhili; Liu, Xueduan; Yin, Huaqun

    2015-12-01

    This study used an artificial enrichment microbial consortium to examine the effects of different substrate conditions on microbial diversity, composition, and function (e.g., zinc leaching efficiency) through adding pyrite (SP group), chalcopyrite (SC group), or both (SPC group) in sphalerite bioleaching systems. 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis showed that microbial community structures and compositions dramatically changed with additions of pyrite or chalcopyrite during the sphalerite bioleaching process. Shannon diversity index showed a significantly increase in the SP (1.460), SC (1.476), and SPC (1.341) groups compared with control (sphalerite group, 0.624) on day 30, meanwhile, zinc leaching efficiencies were enhanced by about 13.4, 2.9, and 13.2%, respectively. Also, additions of pyrite or chalcopyrite could increase electric potential (ORP) and the concentrations of Fe3+ and H+, which were the main factors shaping microbial community structures by Mantel test analysis. Linear regression analysis showed that ORP, Fe3+ concentration, and pH were significantly correlated to zinc leaching efficiency and microbial diversity. In addition, we found that leaching efficiency showed a positive and significant relationship with microbial diversity. In conclusion, our results showed that the complicated substrates could significantly enhance microbial diversity and activity of function.

  10. Gadopentetate-dimeglumine-enhanced MR imaging of osteonecrosis and osteochondritis dissecans of the elbow: initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiss, J.; Adam, G.; Casser, R.; Urhahn, R.; Guenther, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on seven patients with aseptic osteonecrosis (n=4) and osteochondritis dissecans (OCD; n=3) of the elbow. Precontrast MRI was superior to plain radiographs, which did not show any abnormality in three cases of osteonecrosis. On gadopentetate-dimeglumine-enhanced T1-weighted images, which were obtained in three patients with osteonecrosis and three patients with OCD, all cases of osteonecrosis demonstrated homogeneous enhancement of the lesions. All cases of OCD were diagnosed on plain radiographs. On MRI one showed significant enhancement of the loose body. In another case an incompletely enhancing loose body was surrounded by a diffusely enhancing region. In the third patient only a small marginal enhancement of the defect was observed. Our results suggest that MRI can improve the accuracy in diagnosis of aseptic osteonecrosis of the elbow. The use of gadopentetate dimeglumine allows the viability of the lesions or the loose bodies to be demonstrated and reparative tissue to be detected. (orig.)

  11. Ficus Deltoidea Enhance Glucose Uptake Activity in Cultured Muscle Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainah Adam; Shafii Khamis; Amin Ismail; Muhajir Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Ficus deltoidea or locally known as Mas cotek is one of the common medicinal plants used in Malaysia. Our previous studies showed that this plant have blood glucose lowering effect. Glucose uptake into muscle and adipocytes cells is one of the known mechanisms of blood glucose lowering effect. This study was performed to evaluate the effect of Ficus deltoidea on glucose uptake activity into muscle cells. The cells were incubated with Ficus deltoidea extracts either alone or combination with insulin. Amount of glucose uptake by L6 myotubes was determined using glucose tracer, 2-deoxy-(1- 3 H 1 )-glucose. The results showed that Ficus deltoidea extracts at particular doses enhanced basal or insulin-mediated glucose uptake into muscle cells significantly. Hot aqueous extract enhanced glucose uptake at the low concentration (10 μg/ ml) whereas methanolic extract enhanced glucose uptake at low and high concentrations. Methanolic extract also mimicked insulin activity during enhancing glucose uptake into L^ muscle cells. Glucose uptake activity of Ficus deltoidea could be attributed by the phenolic compound presence in the plant. This study had shown that Ficus deltoidea has the ability to enhance glucose uptake into muscle cells which is partly contributed the antidiabetic activity of this plant. (author)

  12. Multivariable analysis of clinical influence factors on liver enhancement of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3T MRI; Multivariable Analyse klinischer Einflussfaktoren auf die Signalintensitaet bei Gd-EOB-DTPA 3T-MRT der Leber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verloh, N.; Haimerl, M.; Stroszczynski, C.; Fellner, C.; Wiggermann, P. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Zeman, F. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Center for Clinical Trials; Teufel, A. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Gastroenterology; Lang, S. [University Hospital Regensburg (Germany). Dept. of Surgery

    2015-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify clinical factors influencing Gd-EOB-DTPA liver uptake in patients with healthy liver parenchyma. A total of 124 patients underwent contrast-enhanced MRI with a hepatocyte-specific contrast agent at 3T. T1-weighted volume interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) sequences with fat suppression were acquired before and 20 minutes after contrast injection. The relative enhancement (RE) between plain and contrast-enhanced signal intensity was calculated. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate clinical factors influencing the relative enhancement. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to their relative liver enhancement (HRE, RE ≥ 100 %; MRE, 100 % > RE > 50 %; NRE, RE ≤ 50 %) and were analyzed according to the relevant risk factors. Simple regression analyses revealed patient age, transaminases (AST, ALT, GGT), liver, spleen and delta-liver volume (the difference between the volumetrically measured liver volume and the estimated liver volume based on body weight) as significant factors influencing relative enhancement. In the multiple analysis the transaminase AST, spleen and delta liver volume remained significant factors influencing relative enhancement. Delta liver volume showed a significant difference between all analyzed groups. Liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase depends on a variety of factors. Body weight-adapted administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA may lead to inadequate liver enhancement after 20 minutes especially when the actual liver volume differs from the expected volume.

  13. Oral bioavailability enhancement and hepatoprotective effects of thymoquinone by self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Mohd Abul; Raish, Mohammad; Ahmed, Ajaz; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Mohsin, Kazi; Alshamsan, Aws; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad I; Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-07-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a poorly water soluble bioactive compound which shows poor oral bioavailability upon oral administration. Due to poor aqueous solubility and bioavailability of TQ, various self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) of TQ were developed and evaluated for enhancement of its hepatoprotective effects and oral bioavailability. Hepatoprotective and pharmacokinetic studies of TQ suspension and TQ-SNEDDS were carried out in rat models. Different SNEDDS formulations of TQ were developed and thermodynamically stable TQ-SNEDDS were characterized for physicochemical parameters and evaluated for drug release studies via dialysis membrane. Optimized SNEDDS formulation of TQ was selected for further evaluation of in vivo evaluation. In vivo hepatoprotective investigations showed significant hepatoprotective effects for optimized TQ-SNEDDS in comparison with TQ suspension. The oral administration of optimized SNEDDS showed significant improvement in in vivo absorption of TQ in comparison with TQ suspension. The relatively bioavailability of TQ was enhanced 3.87-fold by optimized SNEDDS in comparison with TQ suspension. The results of this research work indicated the potential of SNEDDS in enhancing relative bioavailability and therapeutic effects of natural bioactive compounds such as TQ. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy enhancement after LASIK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bryan S; Gupta, Preeya K; Davis, Elizabeth A; Hardten, David R

    2014-08-01

    To report the outcomes of photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) enhancement after LASIK for patients diagnosed as having hyperopic and myopic refractive errors. In this retrospective case series at a single private practice in the United States, all patients undergoing PRK enhancement after LASIK were identified. Patients with visually significant cataract, non-plano targets, and follow-up of fewer than 226 days were excluded. The primary outcome measure was uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) with secondary measures of corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and postoperative refractive error. Linear regression analysis was performed for actual versus targeted change in spherical equivalent. Mean UDVA improved from 20/39 to 20/24 for hyperopes (n = 14; P vs 25%, P = .14). Linear regression showed a tendency toward overtreatment in the myopic group. PRK is safe and highly effective for patients who previously underwent LASIK and in whom the surgeon would prefer not to perform a flap-lift enhancement. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Copolymers enhance selective bacterial community colonization for potential root zone applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Vy T H; Murugaraj, Pandiyan; Mathes, Falko; Tan, Boon K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Murphy, Daniel V; Mainwaring, David E

    2017-11-21

    Managing the impact of anthropogenic and climate induced stress on plant growth remains a challenge. Here we show that polymeric hydrogels, which maintain their hydrous state, can be designed to exploit functional interactions with soil microorganisms. This microbial enhancement may mitigate biotic and abiotic stresses limiting productivity. The presence of mannan chains within synthetic polyacrylic acid (PAA) enhanced the dynamics and selectivity of bacterial ingress in model microbial systems and soil microcosms. Pseudomonas fluorescens exhibiting high mannan binding adhesins showed higher ingress and localised microcolonies throughout the polymeric network. In contrast, ingress of Bacillus subtilis, lacking adhesins, was unaltered by mannan showing motility comparable to bulk liquids. Incubation within microcosms of an agricultural soil yielded hydrogel populations significantly increased from the corresponding soil. Bacterial diversity was markedly higher in mannan containing hydrogels compared to both control polymer and soil, indicating enhanced selectivity towards microbial families that contain plant beneficial species. Here we propose functional polymers applied to the potential root zone which can positively influence rhizobacteria colonization and potentially plant growth as a new approach to stress tolerance.

  16. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Tanaka, Teruyuki

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  17. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okuda

    Full Text Available Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5 gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be

  18. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of the Cdkl5 knockout mice revealed significant enhancement in anxiety- and fear-related behaviors and impairment in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Kosuke; Takao, Keizo; Watanabe, Aya; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    Mutations in the Cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 (CDKL5) gene cause severe neurodevelopmental disorders. Recently we have generated Cdkl5 KO mice by targeting exon 2 on the C57BL/6N background, and demonstrated postsynaptic overaccumulation of GluN2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus. In the current study, we subjected the Cdkl5 KO mice to a battery of comprehensive behavioral tests, aiming to reveal the effects of loss of CDKL5 in a whole perspective of motor, emotional, social, and cognition/memory functions, and to identify its undetermined roles. The neurological screen, rotarod, hot plate, prepulse inhibition, light/dark transition, open field, elevated plus maze, Porsolt forced swim, tail suspension, one-chamber and three-chamber social interaction, 24-h home cage monitoring, contextual and cued fear conditioning, Barnes maze, and T-maze tests were applied on adult Cdkl5 -/Y and +/Y mice. Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a mild alteration in the gait. Analyses of emotional behaviors revealed significantly enhanced anxiety-like behaviors of Cdkl5 -/Y mice. Depressive-like behaviors and social interaction of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were uniquely altered. The contextual and cued fear conditioning of Cdkl5 -/Y mice were comparable to control mice; however, Cdkl5 -/Y mice showed a significantly increased freezing time and a significantly decreased distance traveled during the pretone period in the altered context. Both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory were significantly impaired. The morphometric analysis of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons revealed impaired dendritic arborization and immature spine development in Cdkl5 -/Y mice. These results indicate that CDKL5 plays significant roles in regulating emotional behaviors especially on anxiety- and fear-related responses, and in both acquisition and long-term retention of spatial reference memory, which suggests that focus and special attention should be paid to the

  19. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the detection of acute haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piironen, A.; Kivisaari, R.; Pitkaeranta, P.; Poutanen, V.P.; Laippala, P.; Laurila, P.; Kivisaari, L.

    1997-01-01

    Eleven piglets with haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis and nine piglets with oedematous pancreatitis were imaged using a multi-breath-hold TurboFLASH (TR 6.5 ms, TE 3 ms, TI 300 ms, flip angle 8 , three slices) pre-excited T1-weighted sequence with an IV bolus injection of gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA, 0.3 mmol/kg) as a contrast agent to show dynamic contrast enhancement of the pancreas by MRI. All piglets were imaged according to the same protocol before inducing the disease. Following the IV Gd-DTPA bolus, time-enhancement curve of the pancreas during haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis was significantly lower than during oedematous pancreatitis. The enhancement curves for the healthy piglets and piglets with oedematous pancreatitis did not differ significantly. Each piglet served as its own control. Because the results of this initial study are similar to those obtained with contrast-enhanced CT, we conclude that our results may encourage further clinical trials, and contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI may be an alternative to the established method of CT for diagnosing acute haemorrhagic necrotizing pancreatitis. (orig.). With 3 figs

  20. Enhanced MRI in lumbar disc herniation. Study on the types of herniation and histological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Sadao; Okamura, Yuji; Honda, Eiichiro; Takazawa, Shunji; Ohno, Ryuichi; Yasuma, Tsuguo

    1999-01-01

    In the cases which had surgery after enhanced MRI, prolapsed form of hernia and the usefulness of enhanced MRI were examined. The patients were 13 males (14 intervertebral discs) and 5 females (6 intervertebral discs) with lumber disc herniation. The lumber disc herniation was classified into 3 types reference to Macnab's classification; SE (protrusion and subligamentous extrusion), TE (transligamentous extrusion) and SEQ (sequestration). Prolapsed forms were identified in 20 intervertebral discs. Enhanced MRI showed positive in 9 intervertebral discs (SE 1, TE 4 and SEQ 4) and showed negative in 11 discs (SE 10 and TE 1). As for the period from development to enhanced MRI, the significant difference wasn't recognized between positive group and negative group. The diagnostic rate of enhanced MRI was 88.9% (8/9) in sensitivity, 90.9% (10/11) in specificity and 90.0% (18/20) in accuracy. In enhanced MRI, engorged epidural venous plexus was also imaged, and minute change as only annular tear couldn't be detected. Looking from 2 directions crossing at right angles, the effect of contrast enhancement should be judged. (K.H.)

  1. Dural enhancement with primary calvarial lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, E; Martí-Bonmatí, L; Ricart, V; Pérez-Ebrí, M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate the pathological and imaging features of dural enhancement and meningeal sign ("dural tail") on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images from patients with primary calvarial lesions as well to assess the accuracy of MR imaging in predicting dural invasion. Thirty-two calvarial tumors studied with contrast-enhanced MR imaging and histopathological examination of the dural specimens were reviewed. Sixteen patients presented dural enhancement, eight with tumor invasion. Tumoral invasion of the dura was observed in one case without enhancement. Malignant lesions showed enhanced dura more commonly than benign lesions (P=0.02). Nodular and discontinuous dural enhancement was statistically associated with dural invasion (P=0.05). Dural tail did not show a specific pathological association. Meningeal enhancement is a nonspecific reaction to calvarial lesions unless nodular and discontinuous. False-negative and -positive cases of dural invasion imply some limitation of contrast-enhanced MR imaging in predicting dural invasion by calvarial neoplasms.

  2. Dural enhancement with primary calvarial lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, E. [Clinica Quiron, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Marti-Bonmati, L. [Clinica Quiron, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Ricart, V. [Hospital de la Ribera, Department of Radiology, Valencia (Spain); Perez-Ebri, M. [Hospital Universitario Dr. Peset, Department of Pathology, Valencia (Spain)

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to relate the pathological and imaging features of dural enhancement and meningeal sign (''dural tail'') on contrast-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images from patients with primary calvarial lesions as well to assess the accuracy of MR imaging in predicting dural invasion. Thirty-two calvarial tumors studied with contrast-enhanced MR imaging and histopathological examination of the dural specimens were reviewed. Sixteen patients presented dural enhancement, eight with tumor invasion. Tumoral invasion of the dura was observed in one case without enhancement. Malignant lesions showed enhanced dura more commonly than benign lesions (P=0.02). Nodular and discontinuous dural enhancement was statistically associated with dural invasion (P=0.05). Dural tail did not show a specific pathological association. Meningeal enhancement is a nonspecific reaction to calvarial lesions unless nodular and discontinuous. False-negative and -positive cases of dural invasion imply some limitation of contrast-enhanced MR imaging in predicting dural invasion by calvarial neoplasms. (orig.)

  3. Macrophage imaging by USPIO-enhanced MR for the differentiation of infectious osteomyelitis and aseptic vertebral inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bierry, Guillaume [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France); University Louis Pasteur, EA 3432, Strasbourg (France); Jehl, Francois [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Department of Bacteriology, Strasbourg (France); University Louis Pasteur, EA 3432, Strasbourg (France); Boehm, Nelly [University Louis Pasteur, Institute of Histology, Faculty of Medicine, Strasbourg (France); University Louis Pasteur, INSERM U666, Strasbourg (France); Robert, Philippe [Guerbet Research, Roissy (France); Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Stephane [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Strasbourg (France)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate USPIO-enhanced MR imaging for the differentiation of vertebral infectious osteomyelitis and sterile inflammation. Vertebral osteomyelitis and sterile vertebral inflammation were induced in two groups of six rabbits each. MRI examinations were performed including unenhanced and gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated SE T1w sequences. Once endplate enhancement was observed on the T1 gadolinium-enhanced MR sequence, a second MRI examination (SE T1w sequence) was performed 24 h after USPIO administration (45 {mu}mol Fe/kg). MR imaging was correlated with histopathological findings (macrophage immunostaining and Perls Prussian blue staining). On gadolinium-enhanced T1 sequences, a significant SNR increase in vertebral endplates was present in both groups without significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.26). On USPIO-enhanced T1 sequences, a significant SNR increase was only observed in the infection group (P = 0.03) with a significant difference in SNR between the infection and the sterile-inflammation groups (P = 0.002). Infected areas presented replacement of bone marrow by an intense macrophage infiltration, some being iron-loaded. Sterile inflammation showed a replacement of bone marrow by inflammatory tissue with only rare macrophages without any Perls blue staining. USPIO-enhanced MR imaging can distinguish infectious osteomyelitis from sterile vertebral inflammation due to different macrophage distributions in the two lesions. (orig.)

  4. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  5. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  6. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Wei; Baby, Rakhi Raghavan; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2013-01-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active

  7. Evaluation of the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Tao [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Xihai [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Liu Xin [Paul C. Lauterbur Biomedical Imaging Center, Institute of Biomedical and Health Engineering, Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Science, Shenzhen 518067 (China); Gao Jianhua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhao Shaohong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Li Xin; Zhou Weihua [Department of Radiology, The General Hospital of Chinese People' s Armed Police Forces, Number 69, Yong Ding Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Cai Zulong [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China); Zhang Weiguo [Cardiovascular and Neurological Consulting Institute, 6771 San Fernando, Irving, TX 75039 (United States); Yang Li, E-mail: Yangli301@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Chinese People' s Liberation Army General Hospital, Number 28, Fu Xing Road, Hai Dian District, Beijing (China)

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque using contrast-enhanced MR angiography (CE-MRA) and investigate the association between unstable angina pectoris (UAP) and early enhancement of the plaque. Methods: Forty-one patients presenting with angina pectoris and demonstrating single-vessel disease with non-calcified plaque and significant coronary stenosis ({>=}50%) on CTA were consecutively recruited for coronary CE-MRA. Contrast-to-noise ratio of the culprit plaque guided by CTA was measured on a cross-sectional multi-planar reconstruction image of the plaque on both pre- and post-CE-MRA. A 50% increasing of CNR was defined as plaque enhancement. The association between early enhancement of the plaques and UAP was analyzed. Results: Thirty-seven non-calcified plaques with significant coronary stenosis were detected in the 37 patients on MRA. 4 subjects were excluded because coronary atherosclerotic plaques were inadequate for identification on MRA. Of the 37 patients, 18 patients had UAP and other 19 patients presented stable angina pectoris (SAP). Of the 37 plaques on CE-MRA, 13 and 24 plaques presented early enhancement and no enhancement, respectively. Of the 13 early-enhanced plaques, 11 (85%) and 2 (15%) were found in the patients with UAP and SAP, respectively (p < 0.01). Of the 37 patients, 11 (61%) with UAP and 2 (11%) with SAP had early-enhanced plaques, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion: CE-MRA allows detection of early enhancement of coronary atherosclerotic plaque. The early enhancement is common in unstable angina and could be a sign of vulnerability.

  8. Physically Active Men Show Better Semen Parameters than Their Sedentary Counterparts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalinde-Acevedo, Paula C; Mayorga-Torres, B Jose Manuel; Agarwal, Ashok; du Plessis, Stefan S; Ahmad, Gulfam; Cadavid, Ángela P; Cardona Maya, Walter D

    2017-10-01

    The quality of semen depends upon several factors such as environment, life style, physical activity, age, and occupation. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the conventional and functional semen parameters in men practicing vigorous physical activity to those of sedentary men. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, semen samples of 17 physically active men and 15 sedentary men were collected for analysis. Semen analysis was performed according to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, while functional parameters were evaluated by flow cytometry. Results showed that several semen parameters (semen volume, viability, progressive motility, total motility, normal morphology, and moribund cells) were superior in the physically active group in comparison with the sedentary group. Semen parameters such as viability, progressive motility and total motility, as well as the percentage of moribund spermatozoa were significantly different between both groups. However, sperm DNA damage, lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial potential were not significantly different among the groups. Nevertheless, the physical activity shows better semen parameters than sedentary group. Taken together, our results demonstrate that regular physical activity has beneficial impact in sperm fertility parameters and such a life style can enhance the fertility status of men. Copyright© by Royan Institute. All rights reserved.

  9. Transdermal and transbuccal drug delivery systems: enhancement using iontophoretic and chemical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Longsheng; Silva, Sérgio M C; Damaj, Bassam B; Martin, Richard; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2011-12-12

    We investigated the enhancement effect of chemical enhancers and iontophoresis on the in vitro transdermal and transbuccal delivery of lidocaine HCl (LHCl), nicotine hydrogen tartrate (NHT), and diltiazem HCl (DHCl) using porcine skin and buccal tissues. Dodecyl 2-(N,N-dimethylamino) propionate (DDAIP), dodecyl-2-(N,N-dimethylamino) propionate hydrochloride (DDAIP HCl), N-(4-bromobenzoyl)-S,S-dimethyliminosulfurane (Br-iminosulfurane), and azone (laurocapram) were used as chemical enhancers. The study results showed that the application of iontophoresis at either 0.1 mA or 0.3 mA significantly enhanced transdermal and transmucosal delivery of LHCl, NHT and DHCl. It was also demonstrated that iontophoresis had a more pronounced enhancement effect on transdermal delivery than on transbuccal delivery of LHCl, NHT and DHCl. In addition, DDAIP HCl was found to be the most effective enhancer for transbuccal delivery of LHCl and NHT. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differential diagnosis of single metastatic liver cancer and solitary necrotic nodule of the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Jing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the value of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS in the differential diagnosis of single metastatic hepatic carcinoma (MHC and solitary necrotic nodule of the liver (SNNL. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for 12 patients with single MHC and 16 patients with SNNL who showed circular enhancement in arterial phase on CEUS. Age, size of lesion, and findings of two-dimensional gray-scale ultrasound and CEUS were compared between the two groups. The two-independent-samples t-test was used for comparison between groups, and the paired t-test was used for comparison within each group. ResultsThe MHC group had a significantly higher mean age than the SNNL group (60.2±11.3 years vs 41.0±9.1 years, t=4.970, P<0.001. The mean diameter of lesion was 2.86±1.22 cm in the MHC group and 2.97±0.96 cm in the SNNL group, and showed no significant difference between the two groups (t=-0.269, P=0.790. In the MHC group, the lesions had complex and uneven echoes and blurred boundaries, while in the SNNL group, most lesions were in the right lobe and were hypoechoic with clear boundaries. No blood flow signals were detected on CDFI in these two groups. Both groups had circular enhancement around the lesions in arterial phase on CEUS, and the mean thickness showed a significant difference between the MHC group and the SNNL group (5.00±1.69 mm vs 2.37±0.87 mm, t=5.374, P<0001. In the MHC group, the area in lesions without enhancement in delayed phase was significantly larger than that in arterial phase (t=-4.508, P=0001, while in the SNNL group, the area in lesions without enhancement showed no significant difference between delayed phase and arterial phase (t=-0.449, P=0.660. ConclusionThe thickness of circular enhancement in arterial phase on CEUS and the presence or absence of the enlargement in the area without enhancement contributes to the differential diagnosis of single MHC and SNNL.

  11. Quantitative 2- and 3-dimensional analysis of pharmacokinetic model-derived variables for breast lesions in dynamic, contrast-enhanced MR mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, E.A.M.; Jaeger, H.J.; Maderwald, S.; Muehler, A.; Kimmig, R.; Forsting, M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: 2- and 3-dimensional evaluation of quantitative pharmacokinetic parameters derived from the Tofts model modeling dynamic contrast enhancement of lesions in MR mammography. Materials and methods: In 95 patients, MR mammography revealed 127 suspicious lesions. The initial rate of enhancement was coded by color intensity, the post-initial enhancement change is coded by color hue. 2D and 3D analysis of distribution of color hue and intensity, vascular permeability and extracellular volume were performed. Results: In 2D, malignant lesions showed significant higher number of bright red, medium red, dark red, bright green, medium green, dark green and bright blue pixels than benign lesions. In 3D, statistical significant differences between malignant and benign lesions was found for all this parameters. Vascular permeability was significant higher in malignant lesions than in benign lesions. Regression model using the 3D data found that the best discriminator between malignant and benign lesions was combined number of voxels and medium green pixels, with a sensitivity of 79.4% and a specificity of 83.1%. Conclusions: Quantitative analysis of pharmacokinetic variables of contrast kinetics showed significant differences between malignant and benign lesions. 3D analysis showed superior diagnostic differentiation between malignant and benign lesions than 2D analysis. The parametric analysis using a pharmacokinetic model allows objective analysis of contrast enhancement in breast lesions

  12. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suriguga,; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun, E-mail: yizc@buaa.edu.cn

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation. - Highlights: • Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. • COMT-catalyzed methylation acted as detoxication of catechol. • COMT involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation.

  13. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suriguga,; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation. - Highlights: • Catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation. • COMT-catalyzed methylation acted as detoxication of catechol. • COMT involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation

  14. Correlation between enhancement characteristics of MR mammography and capillary density of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poellinger, Alexander; El-Ghannam, Sahra; Diekmann, Susanne; Fischer, Thomas; Kristiansen, Glen; Fritzsche, Florian; Fallenberg, Eva; Morawietz, Lars; Diekmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We correlate capillary density of breast lesions with MRM. • Capillary density correlates with tumor enhancement for all lesions. • However no such correlation exists for the malignant or benign groups separately. • Mean vessel number of lymphatic vessels do not correlate with tumor enhancement.These results might be of help in the workup of MR-guided breast biopsies. • These results might be of help in the workup of MR-guided breast biopsies. - Abstract: Objective: To correlate capillary density of breast lesions using the markers D2-40, CD31, and CD34 with early and late enhancement of magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study, and informed consent was available from all patients. The study included 64 women with 66 histologically proven breast lesions (41 malignant, 25 benign). MR-enhancement 1 min after contrast medium administration was determined in the tumor (I t1 /I t0 ratio) and in comparison to the surrounding tissue (I t1 /I t1-fat ratio). Capillary density was quantified based on immunohistological staining with D2-40, CD31, and CD34 in breast tumors and surrounding breast tissue. Mean capillary densities were correlated with contrast enhancement in the tumor and surrounding breast tissue. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to test whether lesions with different MR enhancement patterns differed in terms of capillary density. Results: For CD34, there was statistically significant correlation between capillary density and tumor enhancement (r = 0.329, p = 0.012), however not for the malignant or benign groups separately. Mean vessel number identified by staining with D2-40 and CD31 did not correlate significantly with tumor enhancement (D2-40: r = −0.188, p = 0.130; CD31: r = 0.095, p = 0.448). There were no statistically significant differences in capillary density between breast lesions with delayed enhancement or a plateau and lesions showing washout (Kruskal

  15. Correlation between enhancement characteristics of MR mammography and capillary density of breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellinger, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.poellinger@charite.de [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); El-Ghannam, Sahra; Diekmann, Susanne; Fischer, Thomas [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Kristiansen, Glen [Universitätsklinikum Bonn, Department of Pathology, Sigmund-Freud-Str. 25, D-53127 Bonn (Germany); Fritzsche, Florian [Institut für Histologie und Zytologie, Bahnhofplatz 11, Postfach, 9101 Herisau (Switzerland); Fallenberg, Eva [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Morawietz, Lars [Diagnostik Ernst von Bergmann GmbH, Charlottenstr. 72, 14467 Potsdam (Germany); Diekmann, Felix [Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We correlate capillary density of breast lesions with MRM. • Capillary density correlates with tumor enhancement for all lesions. • However no such correlation exists for the malignant or benign groups separately. • Mean vessel number of lymphatic vessels do not correlate with tumor enhancement.These results might be of help in the workup of MR-guided breast biopsies. • These results might be of help in the workup of MR-guided breast biopsies. - Abstract: Objective: To correlate capillary density of breast lesions using the markers D2-40, CD31, and CD34 with early and late enhancement of magnetic resonance mammography (MRM). Materials and methods: The local ethics committee approved this study, and informed consent was available from all patients. The study included 64 women with 66 histologically proven breast lesions (41 malignant, 25 benign). MR-enhancement 1 min after contrast medium administration was determined in the tumor (I{sub t1}/I{sub t0} ratio) and in comparison to the surrounding tissue (I{sub t1}/I{sub t1-fat} ratio). Capillary density was quantified based on immunohistological staining with D2-40, CD31, and CD34 in breast tumors and surrounding breast tissue. Mean capillary densities were correlated with contrast enhancement in the tumor and surrounding breast tissue. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to test whether lesions with different MR enhancement patterns differed in terms of capillary density. Results: For CD34, there was statistically significant correlation between capillary density and tumor enhancement (r = 0.329, p = 0.012), however not for the malignant or benign groups separately. Mean vessel number identified by staining with D2-40 and CD31 did not correlate significantly with tumor enhancement (D2-40: r = −0.188, p = 0.130; CD31: r = 0.095, p = 0.448). There were no statistically significant differences in capillary density between breast lesions with delayed enhancement or a plateau and lesions showing

  16. Value of fast dynamic enhanced MR imaging for the differential diagnosis between ovarian fibroma and subserosal leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Jun; Wang Xiaomei; Xu Jianmin; Xu Hongli; Feng Xiaofeng; Gong Jingshan; Ling Rennan; Rao Zibin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of dynamic enhanced MRI in the differential diagnosis between subserosal uterine leiomyoma and ovarian fibroma which were iso-signal and low signal ones on T 2 WI. Methods: Plain and dynamic enhanced MRI findings of 45 patients with histologically proved subserosal leiomyoma or ovarian fibroma were analyzed. There were 35 cases of subserosal leiomyoma and 10 cases of ovarian fibroma. The enhancement index of early phase (100 sec after the contrast medial administration) and the time to peak during 200 sec after the contrast administration (TTP 200 ) were analyzed. Results: On plain scanning, both subserosal leiomyoma and ovarian fibrioma appeared similarly as intrapelvic masses with low signal on T 2 WI. On Gadolinium dynamic enhancement, subserosal leiomyomas showed early and evident enhancement while ovarian fibroma showed delayed and moderate enhancement. The difference of the enhancement index of early phase and TTP 200 was statistically significant (P<0.001). Conclusion: Gadolinium dynamic enhanced MR imaging was helpful in the differential diagnosis between subserosal uterine leiomyoma and ovarian fibroma by the difference in the enhancement pattern

  17. Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement peripheral to the hepatic hemangioma : two-phase spiral CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyoung Won; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Ah Young; Lee, Hyun Ju; Song, Chi Sung; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2000-01-01

    To determine the incidence of hepatic hemangiomas associated with wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements adjacent to the tumors as seen on two-phase spiral CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase and to characterize the two-phase spiral CT findings of those hemangiomas. One hundred and eight consecutive hepatic hemangiomas in 63 patients who underwent two-phase spiral CT scanning during an 11-month period were included in this study. Two-phase spiral CT scans were obtained during the hepatic arterial phase (30-second delay) and portal venous phase (65-second delay) after injection of 120 mL of contrast material at a rate of 3 mL/sec. We evaluated the frequency with which wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement was adjacent to the hemangiomas during the hepatic arterial phase and divided hemangiomas into two groups according to whether or not wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement was noted (Group A and Group B). The presence of such enhancement in hemangiomas was correlated with tumor size and the grade of intratumoral enhancement. In 24 of 108 hemangiomas, wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement adjacent to hepatic tumors was seen on two-phase CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase. Mean hemangioma size was 22mm in group A and 24mm in group B. There was no statistically significant relationship between lesion size and the presence of wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancement adjacent to a hemangioma. In 91.7% and 100% of tumors in Group A, and in 9.6% and 17.8% in Group B, hemangiomas showed more than 50% intratumoral enhancement during the arterial and portal venous phase, respectively. Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements peripheral to hepatic hemangiomas was more frequently found in tumors showing more than 50% intratumoral enhancement during these two phases (p less than 0.01). Wedge-shaped parenchymal enhancements is not uncommonly seen adjacent to hepatic hemangiomas on two-phase spiral CT images obtained during the hepatic arterial phase. A

  18. Chronological evaluation of liver enhancement in patients with chronic liver disease at Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced 3-T MR imaging. Does liver function correlate with enhancement?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shinichi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Awai, Kazuo; Nakaura, Takeshi; Morita, Kosuke

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the chronological relationship between scan delay and liver enhancement for the hepatobiliary phase on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and evaluate the effects of liver function on liver enhancement. Hepatobiliary-phase images were retrospectively evaluated in 125 patients with chronic liver disease. Hepatobiliary phase images were obtained at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after injection. We calculated relative liver enhancement (RLE) at t min after injection by dividing the signal intensity (SI) of the liver at t min by precontrast SI. We compared RLE values at 5, 10, 15, and 20 min and evaluated the detectability of focal hepatic lesions. We analyzed the effect of liver function on RLE with the generalized linear model. There was not significant difference in RLE and lesion detectability at 15 and 20 min. RLE in the Child-Pugh C group was significantly lower than in the Child-Pugh A and B groups. The serum albumin level and prothrombin time were significantly correlated with the liver enhancement. A delay time of 15 min for the hepatobiliary phase was thought to be adequate in patients with mild liver dysfunction. The serum albumin level and prothrombin time would be predictive of liver enhancement in the hepatobiliary phase. (author)

  19. No Need for Templates in the Auditory Enhancement Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcagno, Samuele; Semal, Catherine; Demany, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    The audibility of a target tone in a multitone background masker is enhanced by the presentation of a precursor sound consisting of the masker alone. There is evidence that precursor-induced neural adaptation plays a role in this perceptual enhancement. However, the precursor may also be strategically used by listeners as a spectral template of the following masker to better segregate it from the target. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring the audibility of a target tone in a multitone masker after the presentation of precursors which, in some conditions, were made dissimilar to the masker by gating their components asynchronously. The precursor and the following sound were presented either to the same ear or to opposite ears. In either case, we found no significant difference in the amount of enhancement produced by synchronous and asynchronous precursors. In a second experiment, listeners had to judge whether a synchronous multitone complex contained exactly the same tones as a preceding precursor complex or had one tone less. In this experiment, listeners performed significantly better with synchronous than with asynchronous precursors, showing that asynchronous precursors were poorer perceptual templates of the synchronous multitone complexes. Overall, our findings indicate that precursor-induced auditory enhancement cannot be fully explained by the strategic use of the precursor as a template of the following masker. Our results are consistent with an explanation of enhancement based on selective neural adaptation taking place at a central locus of the auditory system.

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Comparison between gadolinium and ironoxide enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castoldi, M.C.; Fauda, V.; Scaramuzza, D.; Vergnaghi, D.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose of this work is to compare prospectively dynamic gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO)-enhanced MRI for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Twenty-five patients with histologically proven HCC and liver cirrhosis (28% of them in B or C Child class) underwent dynamic Gd-enhanced MRI and, a few days later, (mean interval: three days) SPIO-enhanced MRI. Only patients with availability of clinical and imaging follow-up for at least seven months were enrolled in this prospective study. MR images were reviewed by two independent radiologists. The readers scored each lesion for the presence of HCC and assigned confidence levels based on a five-grade scale: 1, definitely or almost definitely absent; 2, possibly present; 3, probably present; 4, definitely present; 5, definitely present with optimal liver/lesion contrast or good liver/lesion contrast and morphological signs (intact capsule, intranodular septa, extracapsular infiltration), useful for locoregional treatment planning. A positive diagnostic value was assessed for scores of 3 or higher. Gd-enhanced and SPIO-enhanced MRI found 44 lesions. Eight of twelve lesions visible with a single contrast agent measured less than 1 cm in diameter. HCC detectability was 75% with Gd-enhanced MRI and 97.7% with SPIO-enhanced MRI. SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE images showed significantly higher diagnostic value than SPIO-enhanced T1-T2*GRE images only in three cases, while nodule morphological characteristics (capsule, septa, different cell differentiation components) were better depicted by TSE images. In thi study the combined use of SPIO-enhanced T2-weighted TSE and T1-T2*-weighted GRE sequences showed higher sensitivity than gadolinium-enhanced GRE dynamic imaging (97.7% versus 75%). These results are at least partly related to our study conditions, that is: 1)MRI was performed with a 1T system, 2) both axial and sagittal SPIO-enhanced imaging were performed with respiratory

  1. Study on influence over approaching a market in the international trade by enhancing the international environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Park, Joon Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The focal point of connecting trade and environment is what kind of influence over a national competitiveness of a national economy can be brought by enhancing environmental regulations. Traditionally it was accepted that the enhancement of environmental policy had a negative impact on competitiveness. However, recent study results show that the enhancement of environmental policy can strengthen industrial competitiveness for a long term. This study analyzes the significance of enhancing the international environmental regulation from a developing country's standpoint in association with this. 27 refs., 8 tabs.

  2. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi

    1983-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology and Internal Medicine-Geriatrics, Postbus 85500, Postbox: E.03.511, GA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-09-05

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  4. Intravenous contrast injection significantly affects bone mineral density measured on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pompe, Esther; Willemink, Martin J.; Dijkhuis, Gawein R.; Verhaar, Harald J.J.; Hoesein, Firdaus A.A.M.; Jong, Pim A. de

    2015-01-01

    The objective is to evaluate the effect of intravenous contrast media on bone mineral density (BMD) assessment by comparing unenhanced and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) examinations performed for other indications. One hundred and fifty-two patients (99 without and 53 with malignant neoplasm) who underwent both unenhanced and two contrast-enhanced (arterial and portal venous phase) abdominal CT examinations in a single session between June 2011 and July 2013 were included. BMD was evaluated on the three examinations as CT-attenuation values in Hounsfield Units (HU) in the first lumbar vertebra (L1). CT-attenuation values were significantly higher in both contrast-enhanced phases, compared to the unenhanced phase (p < 0.01). In patients without malignancies, mean ± standard deviation (SD) HU-values increased from 128.8 ± 48.6 HU for the unenhanced phase to 142.3 ± 47.2 HU for the arterial phase and 147.0 ± 47.4 HU for the portal phase (p < 0.01). In patients with malignancies, HU-values increased from 112.1 ± 38.1 HU to 126.2 ± 38.4 HU and 130.1 ± 37.3 HU (p < 0.02), respectively. With different thresholds to define osteoporosis, measurements in the arterial and portal phase resulted in 7-25 % false negatives. Our study showed that intravenous contrast injection substantially affects BMD-assessment on CT and taking this into account may improve routine assessment of low BMD in nonquantitative CT. (orig.)

  5. Delayed enhanced MRI in intraparenchymal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi, Takahiko; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Takeshima, Toshikazu

    1991-01-01

    Delayed enhanced MRI was performed on 20 intraparenchymal tumors, and these findings were compared with those of early enhanced MRI. Using the spin-echo technique (SE: 400-500/20 msec), early scans were obtained 5 minutes, and delayed scans were obtained 60 minutes, after the intravenous injection of 0.1 nmol of gadolinium-DTPA/Kg. We discussed the changes in the delayed scan with regard to the change in the pattern of enhancement and the boundary of enhancement. In these twenty intraparenchymal tumors, there were three low-grade astrocytomas, two anaplastic astrocytomas, seven glioblastomas, and eight metastatic tumors. The changes in the enhanced pattern showed three types as follows: Type I: heterogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans; Type II: heterogeneous enhancement in early scan and homogeneous enhancement in delayed scan; Type III: homogeneous enhancement in both early and delayed scans. Most malignant tumors, such as glioblastomas (6/8), anaplastic astrocytomas (2/2), and metastatic tumors (7/8), revealed Type I, although low-grade astrocytomas showed Type II (3/2) and Type III (1/3). The heterogeneous enhancement in delayed scan was found in malignant tumors and in low-grade astrocytoma; even if the early scan revealed heterogeneous enhancement, the delayed scan showed homogeneous enhancement. In the delayed scan, most enhanced boundaries spread out of the boundaries in the early scan. Glioblastomas spread markedly in the delayed scan, although none of the low-grade astrocytomas, anaplastic astrocytomas, or metastases revealed marked spreading. We called these marked increases in the delayed scan a 'spreading sign' and thought that this sign was specific to glioblastomas. Recently some authors have emphasized the usefulness of serial scans. Delayed enhanced MRI 60 minutes after the administration of a contrast medium was here found also to be useful for the accurate diagnosis for brain tumors. (author)

  6. A novel multi-drug metronomic chemotherapy significantly delays tumor growth in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliamonte, Maria; Petrizzo, Annacarmen; Napolitano, Maria; Luciano, Antonio; Rea, Domenica; Barbieri, Antonio; Arra, Claudio; Maiolino, Piera; Tornesello, Marialina; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Buonaguro, Franco M; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2016-02-24

    The tumor immunosuppressive microenvironment represents a major obstacle to an effective tumor-specific cellular immune response. In the present study, the counterbalance effect of a novel metronomic chemotherapy protocol on such an immunosuppressive microenvironment was evaluated in a mouse model upon sub-cutaneous ectopic implantation of B16 melanoma cells. The chemotherapy consisted of a novel multi-drug cocktail including taxanes and alkylating agents, administered in a daily metronomic fashion. The newly designed strategy was shown to be safe, well tolerated and significantly efficacious. Treated animals showed a remarkable delay in tumor growth and prolonged survival as compared to control group. Such an effect was directly correlated with CD4(+) T cell reduction and CD8(+) T cell increase. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the percentage of both CD25(+)FoxP3(+) and CD25(+)CD127(low) regulatory T cell population was found both in the spleens and in the tumor lesions. Finally, the metronomic chemotherapy induced an intrinsic CD8(+) T cell response specific to B16 naturally expressed Trp2 TAA. The novel multi-drug daily metronomic chemotherapy evaluated in the present study was very effective in counterbalancing the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. Consequently, the intrinsic anti-tumor T cell immunity could exert its function, targeting specific TAA and significantly containing tumor growth. Overall, the results show that this represents a promising adjuvant approach to significantly enhance efficacy of intrinsic or vaccine-elicited tumor-specific cellular immunity.

  7. Relationship Enhancement with Premarital Couples: An Assessment of Effects on Relationship Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Carl A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Assessed the effects of a relationship enhancement program on the relationship adjustment; trust and intimacy; empathy, warmth and genuineness; and communication of premarital couples (N=25). Results showed that following training the experimental group, relative to the control group, made significant increases on all dependent variables. (Author)

  8. Gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging: Differentiation between early-enhancing non-tumorous lesions and hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goshima, Satoshi, E-mail: gossy@par.odn.ne.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Department of Radiology Services, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Watanabe, Haruo; Kondo, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Nozomi; Kawada, Hiroshi [Department of Radiology, Gifu University Hospital, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan); Shiratori, Yoshimune [Department of Medical Informatics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Onozuka, Minoru [Department of Physiology and Neuroscience, Kanagawa Dental College, Yokosuka (Japan); Moriyama, Noriyuki [Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center Hospital, Tsukiji (Japan); Bae, Kyongtae T. [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively assess imaging features that help differentiate early-enhancing non-tumorous (EN) hepatic lesions from hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) on gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging. Materials and methods: Our institutional review board approved this retrospective study. We reviewed the studies of 158 patients (92 men and 65 women; age range: 29-91; mean age: 65.6 years) with chronic liver damage, who underwent gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MR imaging at 3T MR scanner. Hypervascular lesions identified during the hepatic artery phase were selected for a study cohort. The location, shape, size (maximum diameter and maximum area), and contrast enhancement signal intensity characteristics of the lesions were evaluated, then compared between the EN and HCC lesions. Results: A total of 65 EN lesions (range: 3-60 mm, mean: 13.6 {+-} 10.6 mm) from 35 patients and 33 HCCs (range: 9-61 mm, mean: 19.3 {+-} 12.6 mm) from 20 patients were identified. Lesions were more frequently round or oval in shape for HCCs (n = 29; 88%) than ENs (n = 26; 40%) (P < 0.01). Unexpectedly, some ENs (n = 12; 18%) showed hypointensity on hepatocyte-phase, and 6 (50%) of them were T2 hyperintense. For lesions smaller than 2 cm (9 ENs and 21 HCCs) on hepatic arterial-phase images, the mean area of hypointensity in hepatocyte-phase (54.2 {+-} 33.1 mm{sup 2}) was significantly smaller than those of the corresponding hyperintensity in hepatic arterial-phase (97.1 {+-} 42.0 mm{sup 2}) for EN lesions (P = 0.019), whereas no significant difference in area was found for HCCs. Conclusion: EN lesions may occasionally present with hypointensity during the hepatocyte-phase; presenting a diagnostic dilemma. In this situation, EN lesions may be differentiated from HCCs when a hypointense area in hepatocyte-phase is smaller than the corresponding hypervascular area in hepatic-arterial phase.

  9. The role of catechol-O-methyltransferase in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriguga; Li, Xiao-Fei; Li, Yang; Yu, Chun-Hong; Li, Yi-Ran; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2013-12-15

    Catechol is widely used in pharmaceutical and chemical industries. Catechol is also one of phenolic metabolites of benzene in vivo. Our previous study showed that catechol improved erythroid differentiation potency of K562 cells, which was associated with decreased DNA methylation in erythroid specific genes. Catechol is a substrate for the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)-mediated methylation. In the present study, the role of COMT in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells was investigated. Benzidine staining showed that exposure to catechol enhanced hemin-induced hemoglobin accumulation and induced mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes in K562 cells. Treatment with catechol caused a time- and concentration-dependent increase in guaiacol concentration in the medium of cultured K562 cells. When COMT expression was knocked down by COMT shRNA expression in K562 cells, the production of guaiacol significantly reduced, and the sensitivity of K562 cells to cytotoxicity of catechol significantly increased. Knockdown of COMT expression by COMT shRNA expression also eliminated catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. In addition, the pre-treatment with methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-methionine or its demethylated product S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine induced a significant increase in hemin-induced Hb synthesis in K562 cells and the mRNA expression of erythroid specific genes. These findings indicated that O-methylation catalyzed by COMT acted as detoxication of catechol and involved in catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells, and the production of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine partly explained catechol-enhanced erythroid differentiation. © 2013.

  10. Enhanced phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankong, P; Visoottiviseth, P; Khokiattiwong, S

    2007-08-01

    In an attempt to clean up arsenic (As) contaminated soil, the effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer and rhizosphere microbes on arsenic accumulation by the silverback fern, Pityrogramma calomelanos, were investigated in both greenhouse and field experiments. Field experiments were conducted in Ron Phibun District, an As-contaminated area in Thailand. Soil (136-269 microg As g(-1)) was collected there and used in the greenhouse experiment. Rhizosphere microbes (bacteria and fungi) were isolated from roots of P. calomelanos growing in Ron Phibun District. The results showed that P-fertilizer significantly increased plant biomass and As accumulation of the experimental P. calomelanos. Rhizobacteria increased significantly the biomass and As content of the test plants. Thus, P-fertilizer and rhizosphere bacteria enhanced As-phytoextraction. In contrast, rhizofungi reduced significantly As concentration in plants but increased plant biomass. Therefore, rhizosphere fungi exerted their effects on phytostabilization.

  11. Peripheral visual performance enhancement by neurofeedback training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenya; Wan, Feng; Lou, Chin Ian; Vai, Mang I; Rosa, Agostinho

    2013-12-01

    Peripheral visual performance is an important ability for everyone, and a positive inter-individual correlation is found between the peripheral visual performance and the alpha amplitude during the performance test. This study investigated the effect of alpha neurofeedback training on the peripheral visual performance. A neurofeedback group of 13 subjects finished 20 sessions of alpha enhancement feedback within 20 days. The peripheral visual performance was assessed by a new dynamic peripheral visual test on the first and last training day. The results revealed that the neurofeedback group showed significant enhancement of the peripheral visual performance as well as the relative alpha amplitude during the peripheral visual test. It was not the case in the non-neurofeedback control group, which performed the tests within the same time frame as the neurofeedback group but without any training sessions. These findings suggest that alpha neurofeedback training was effective in improving peripheral visual performance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show evidence for performance improvement in peripheral vision via alpha neurofeedback training.

  12. Study on influence over approaching a market in the international trade by enhancing the international environmental regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang In; Park, Joon Young [Korea Environment Institute, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The focal point of connecting trade and environment is what kind of influence over a national competitiveness of a national economy can be brought by enhancing environmental regulations. Traditionally it was accepted that the enhancement of environmental policy had a negative impact on competitiveness. However, recent study results show that the enhancement of environmental policy can strengthen industrial competitiveness for a long term. This study analyzes the significance of enhancing the international environmental regulation from a developing country's standpoint in association with this. 27 refs., 8 tabs.

  13. Focal brachial enhancement deficit: a normal anatomic variant?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Nicholas [Memorial Hermann, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); Saverino, Benjamin [Missouri PC, Radiology Specialists of St. Joseph, St. Joseph, MO (United States); Cai, Chunyan [The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Internal Medicine, McGovern Medical School, Houston, TX (United States); The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Biostatistics/Epidemiology/Research/Design Core, Center for Clinical and Translational Sciences, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-10-15

    To identify the incidence of brachialis enhancement deficits (BEDs) on contrast-enhanced elbow MRIs and determine if there is an association between the presence of BEDs and presenting symptoms, other imaging findings, or patient positioning. Elbow MRIs from 138 patients (64 males, mean age 45.3 years) were reviewed. The presence, size, and degree of enhancement of BEDs as well as degree of elbow flexion, relative degree of forearm rotation, and additional finding of pathology on the MRI were recorded. BEDs were found in 54 % (75/138) of contrast-enhanced elbow MRIs. No statistically significant difference was seen between age, gender, presenting symptoms and the presence of BEDs. The BEDs varied considerably in size and degree of diminished enhancement compared to adjacent muscle. There was a very significant correlation between degree of elbow flexion and presence of BEDs (p < 0.0001) and a significant inverse correlation between cross-sectional size of BEDs and degree of flexion (p < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between BED enhancement difference and degree of flexion and no significant correlation between degree of forearm rotation and cross-sectional area or enhancement difference of the BEDs. No correlation was found between the presence of BEDs and other pathology present on the MRI. BEDs are a common, likely asymptomatic phenomenon seen on post contrast elbow MRIs. The etiology of BEDs is uncertain, but they may represent a vascular phenomenon related to elbow flexion causing diminished enhancement related to brachialis compression. (orig.)

  14. Metal-enhanced fluorescence exciplex emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongxia; Mali, Buddha L; Geddes, Chris D

    2012-01-01

    In this letter, we report the first observation of metal-enhanced exciplex fluorescence, observed from anthracene in the presence of diethylaniline. Anthracene in the presence of diethylaniline in close proximity to Silver Island Films (SIFs) shows enhanced monomer and exciplex emission as compared to a non-silvered control sample containing no silver nanoparticles. Our findings suggest two complementary methods for the enhancement: (i) surface plasmons can radiate coupled monomer and exciplex fluorescence efficiently, and (ii) enhanced absorption (enhanced electric near-field) further facilitates enhanced emission. Our exciplex studies help us to further understand the complex photophysics of the metal-enhanced fluorescence technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Background enhancement in breast MR: Correlation with breast density in mammography and background echotexture in ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Eun Sook; Lee, Byung Hee; Choi, Hye Young; Kim, Rock Bum; Noh, Woo-Chul

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether background enhancement on MR was related to mammographic breast density or ultrasonographic background echotexture in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Materials and methods: We studied 142 patients (79 premenopausal, 63 postmenopausal) who underwent mammography, ultrasonography, and breast MR. We reviewed the mammography for overall breast density of the contralateral normal breast according to the four-point scale of the BI-RADS classification. Ultrasound findings were classified as homogeneous or heterogeneous background echotexture according to the BI-RADS lexicon. We rated background enhancement on a contralateral breast MR into four categories based on subtraction images: absent, mild, moderate, and marked. All imaging findings were interpreted independently by two readers without knowledge of menstrual status, imaging findings of other modalities. Results: There were significant differences between the premenopausal and postmenopausal group in distribution of mammographic breast density, ultrasonographic background echotexture, and degree of background enhancement. Regarding the relationship between mammographic density and background enhancement, there was no significant correlation. There was significant relationship between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in both premenopausal and postmenopausal groups. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between ultrasonographic background echotexture and background enhancement in MR regardless of menopausal status. Interpreting breast MR, or scheduling for breast MR of women showing heterogeneous background echotexture needs more caution.

  16. Significant efficiency enhancement in thin film solar cells using laser beam-induced graphene transparent conductive electrodes

    OpenAIRE

    Thekkekara, L. V.; Cai, Bouyan

    2018-01-01

    Thin film solar cells have been attractive for decades in advanced green technology platforms due to its possibilities to be integrated with buildings and on-chip applications. However, the bottleneck issues involved to consider the current solar cells as a major electricity source includes the lower efficiencies and cost-effectiveness. We numerically demonstrate the concept of the absorption enhancement in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells using the laser beam-induced graphene material...

  17. Ductile electroactive biodegradable hyperbranched polylactide copolymers enhancing myoblast differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Meihua; Wang, Ling; Guo, Baolin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Y Eugene; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-01

    Myotube formation is crucial to restoring muscular functions, and biomaterials that enhance the myoblast differentiation into myotubes are highly desirable for muscular repair. Here, we report the synthesis of electroactive, ductile, and degradable copolymers and their application in enhancing the differentiation of myoblasts to myotubes. A hyperbranched ductile polylactide (HPLA) was synthesized and then copolymerized with aniline tetramer (AT) to produce a series of electroactive, ductile and degradable copolymers (HPLAAT). The HPLA and HPLAAT showed excellent ductility with strain to failure from 158.9% to 42.7% and modulus from 265.2 to 758.2 MPa. The high electroactivity of the HPLAAT was confirmed by UV spectrometer and cyclic voltammogram measurements. These HPLAAT polymers also showed improved thermal stability and controlled biodegradation rate compared to HPLA. Importantly, when applying these polymers for myotube formation, the HPLAAT significantly improved the proliferation of C2C12 myoblasts in vitro compared to HPLA. Furthermore, these polymers greatly promoted myogenic differentiation of C2C12 cells as measured by quantitative analysis of myotube number, length, diameter, maturation index, and gene expression of MyoD and TNNT. Together, our study shows that these electroactive, ductile and degradable HPLAAT copolymers represent significantly improved biomaterials for muscle tissue engineering compared to HPLA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhanced MRI in lumbar disc herniation. Study on the types of herniation and histological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Sadao; Okamura, Yuji; Honda, Eiichiro; Takazawa, Shunji [Misato Junshin Hospital, Saitama (Japan); Ohno, Ryuichi; Yasuma, Tsuguo

    1999-06-01

    In the cases which had surgery after enhanced MRI, prolapsed form of hernia and the usefulness of enhanced MRI were examined. The patients were 13 males (14 intervertebral discs) and 5 females (6 intervertebral discs) with lumber disc herniation. The lumber disc herniation was classified into 3 types reference to Macnab's classification; SE (protrusion and subligamentous extrusion), TE (transligamentous extrusion) and SEQ (sequestration). Prolapsed forms were identified in 20 intervertebral discs. Enhanced MRI showed positive in 9 intervertebral discs (SE 1, TE 4 and SEQ 4) and showed negative in 11 discs (SE 10 and TE 1). As for the period from development to enhanced MRI, the significant difference wasn't recognized between positive group and negative group. The diagnostic rate of enhanced MRI was 88.9% (8/9) in sensitivity, 90.9% (10/11) in specificity and 90.0% (18/20) in accuracy. In enhanced MRI, engorged epidural venous plexus was also imaged, and minute change as only annular tear couldn't be detected. Looking from 2 directions crossing at right angles, the effect of contrast enhancement should be judged. (K.H.)

  19. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Can gravity waves significantly impact PSC occurrence in the Antarctic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Woollands

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A combination of POAM III aerosol extinction and CHAMP RO temperature measurements are used to examine the role of atmospheric gravity waves in the formation of Antarctic Polar Stratospheric Clouds (PSCs. POAM III aerosol extinction observations and quality flag information are used to identify Polar Stratospheric Clouds using an unsupervised clustering algorithm.

    A PSC proxy, derived by thresholding Met Office temperature analyses with the PSC Type Ia formation temperature (TNAT, shows general agreement with the results of the POAM III analysis. However, in June the POAM III observations of PSC are more abundant than expected from temperature threshold crossings in five out of the eight years examined. In addition, September and October PSC identified using temperature thresholding is often significantly higher than that derived from POAM III; this observation probably being due to dehydration and denitrification. Comparison of the Met Office temperature analyses with corresponding CHAMP observations also suggests a small warm bias in the Met Office data in June. However, this bias cannot fully explain the differences observed.

    Analysis of CHAMP data indicates that temperature perturbations associated with gravity waves may partially explain the enhanced PSC incidence observed in June (relative to the Met Office analyses. For this month, approximately 40% of the temperature threshold crossings observed using CHAMP RO data are associated with small-scale perturbations. Examination of the distribution of temperatures relative to TNAT shows a large proportion of June data to be close to this threshold, potentially enhancing the importance of gravity wave induced temperature perturbations. Inspection of the longitudinal structure of PSC occurrence in June 2005 also shows that regions of enhancement are geographically associated with the Antarctic Peninsula; a known mountain wave "hotspot". The

  1. Gadolinium-DTPA enhancement of regional lymph nodes of lung cancer in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Naomichi; Yamaguchi, Yutaka

    1991-01-01

    Enhanced MR imagings were performed on thirty-one patients with lung cancer by intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg Gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA). A spin-echo pulse sequence (SE 400/40) with 0.5-T MR system was used. The Gd-DTPA enhancement of lymph nodes was studied for 67 nodes (29 metastatic lymph nodes and 38 non-metastatic lymph nodes) on the hilar and mediastinal region. The mean signal intensity of metastatic lymph nodes was enhanced higher than that of non-metastatic lymph nodes (p<0.001). On the criterion of the signal intensity change (the cutoff point: 800 S.I) at 5 minutes after administration, the diagnostic rates on retrospective study showed a sensitivity of 79 %, a specificity of 84 % and an overall accuracy of 82%. These data show higher rates than those of the size criteria. This study suggests a significant potential for improved detection of lymph node metastasis of lung cancer with Gd-DTPA enhanced MR imaging. (author)

  2. Subconscious detection of threat as reflected by an enhanced response bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windmann, S; Krüger, T

    1998-12-01

    Neurobiological and cognitive models of unconscious information processing suggest that subconscious threat detection can lead to cognitive misinterpretations and false alarms, while conscious processing is assumed to be perceptually and conceptually accurate and unambiguous. Furthermore, clinical theories suggest that pathological anxiety results from a crude preattentive warning system predominating over more sophisticated and controlled modes of processing. We investigated the hypothesis that subconscious detection of threat in a cognitive task is reflected by enhanced "false signal" detection rather than by selectively enhanced discrimination of threat items in 30 patients with panic disorder and 30 healthy controls. We presented a tachistoscopic word-nonword discrimination task and a subsequent recognition task and analyzed the data by means of process-dissociation procedures. In line with our expectations, subjects of both groups showed more false signal detection to threat than to neutral stimuli as indicated by an enhanced response bias, whereas indices of discriminative sensitivity did not show this effect. In addition, patients with panic disorder showed a generally enhanced response bias in comparison to healthy controls. They also seemed to have processed the stimuli less elaborately and less differentially. Results are consistent with the assumption that subconscious threat detection can lead to misrepresentations of stimulus significance and that pathological anxiety is characterized by a hyperactive preattentive alarm system that is insufficiently controlled by higher cognitive processes. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  3. Integration of Bass Enhancement and Active Noise Control System in Automobile Cabin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of digital signal processing technologies, consumers are more concerned with the quality of multimedia entertainment in automobiles. In order to meet this demand, an audio enhancement system is needed to improve bass reproduction and cancel engine noise in the cabins. This paper presents an integrated active noise control system that is based on frequency-sampling filters to track and extract the bass information from the audio signal, and a multifrequency active noise equalizer to tune the low-frequency engine harmonics to enhance the bass reproduction. In the noise cancellation mode, a maximum of 3 dB bass enhancement can be achieved with significant noise suppression, while higher bass enhancement can be achieved in the bass enhance mode. The results show that the proposed system is effective for solving both the bass audio reproduction and the noise control problems in automobile cabins.

  4. Enhancing the Photoluminescence Emission of Conjugated MEH-PPV by Light Processing

    KAUST Repository

    Botiz, Ioan

    2014-04-09

    We show here that treatment of thin films of conjugated polymers by illumination with light leads to an increase of the intensity of their photoluminescence by up to 42%. The corresponding enhancement of absorbance was much less pronounced. We explain this significant enhancement of photoluminescence by a planarization of the conjugated polymer chains induced by photoexcitations even below the glass transition temperature, possibly due to an increased conjugation length. Interestingly, the photoluminescence remains at the enhanced level for more than 71 h after treatment of the films by illumination with light, likely due to the fact that below the glass transition temperature no restoring force could return the conjugated chains into their initial conformational state. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  5. Pool boiling CHF enhancement by micro/nanoscale modification of zircaloy-4 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Lee, Chan; Kim, Hyungdae; Jo, HangJin; Kang, SoonHo; Kim, Joonwon; Shin, Jeongseob; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Consideration of the critical heat flux (CHF) requires difficult compromises between economy and safety in many types of thermal systems, including nuclear power plants. Much research has been directed towards enhancing the CHF, and many recent studies have revealed that the significant CHF enhancement in nanofluids is due to surface deposition of nanoparticles. The surface deposition of nanoparticles influenced various surface characteristics. This fact indicated that the surface wettability is a key parameter for CHF enhancement and so is the surface morphology. In this study, surface wettability of zircaloy-4 used as cladding material of fuel rods in nuclear power plants was modified using surface treatment technique (i.e. anodization). Pool boiling experiments of distilled water on the prepared surfaces was conducted at atmospheric and saturated conditions to examine effects of the surface modification on CHF. The experimental results showed that CHF of zircaloy-4 can be significantly enhanced by the improvement in surface wettability using the surface modification, but only the wettability effect cannot explain the CHF increase on the treated zircaloy-4 surfaces completely. It was found that below a critical value of contact angle (10 o ), micro/nanostructures created by the surface treatment increased spreadability of liquid on the surface, which could lead to further increase in CHF even beyond the prediction caused only by the wettability improvement. These micro/nanostructures with multiscale on heated surface induced more significant CHF enhancement than it based on the wettability effect, due to liquid spreadability.

  6. Contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasound characteristics in hypervascular breast tumors: comparison with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamo, L.; Fischer, U.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced color Doppler ultrasound (CE-US) in comparison with contrast-enhanced MR imaging (CE-MRI) in the discrimination of hypervascularized breast tumors. An additional CE-US of the breast was preoperatively performed in 40 patients with a hypervascular breast lesion detected on CE-MRI. The presence of blood flow signals and the morphological characteristics of the vessels in the breast lesions were evaluated pre- and post-contrast administration, as well as the dynamic aspects of the Doppler signal, including time interval to maximum signal enhancement and persistence of the signal enhancement. Twenty-three carcinomas and 17 fibroadenomas were explored. Considering initial signal enhancement > 100 % after the administration of contrast material as a criterion suggesting malignancy, CE-MRI showed a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 76.5 % in the detection of malignant breast tumors. Color Doppler signals were consistently demonstrated in all carcinomas and in 68.7 % of fibroadenomas after the administration of Levovist, with CE-US showing a sensitivity of 95.6 % and a specificity of 5.9 %. Neither the mean number of vessels per tumor, nor the location of vessels, the time to maximum increase of the Doppler signal or the persistence of signal enhancement showed significant differences between benign and malignant lesions. Additional CE-US does not increase the low specificity of MRI in patients with hypervascularized breast tumors. (orig.)

  7. Enhanced absorption of graphene in the visible region by use of plasmonic nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashemi, Mahdieh; Farzad, Mahmood Hosseini; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    Low absorption of graphene in the visible range of the spectrum makes it difficult to uniquely benefit from this material in ultra-fast optoelectronic applications. We numerically propose to utilize patterned metallic nanostructures to increase light absorption in single-layer graphene. Simulation...... results show that excitation of surface plasmon resonances in the metallic nanostructures significantly enhances the local electromagnetic field near the graphene layer, therefore leading to a dramatic enhancement of the absorption in the graphene layer itself. Broadband high optical absorption can...

  8. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: Assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed, E-mail: dr_m_hamdy2006@hotmail.co [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kremser, Christian, E-mail: christian.kremser@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pallwein, Leo, E-mail: leo.pallwein-prettner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Aigner, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.Aigner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schocke, Michael, E-mail: michael.schocke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Peschel, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.peschel@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pedross, Florian, E-mail: florian.pedross@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Medical Statistics Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pinggera, Germar-Michael, E-mail: germar.pinggera@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Christian, E-mail: christian.wolf@bkh-reutte.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Alsharkawy, Mostafa A.M., E-mail: drmostafamri@yahoo.co [Assiut University, Radiology Dept., Assiut (Egypt); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Frauscher, Ferdinand, E-mail: ferdinand.frauscher@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12 h before and 12 h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p < 0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p < 0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  9. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the penis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, K; De Mouy, E H; Lee, B E

    1994-04-01

    To determine the enhancement patterns of the penis at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Sequential contrast material-enhanced MR images of the penis in a flaccid state were obtained in 16 volunteers (12 with normal penile function and four with erectile dysfunction). Subjects with normal erectile function showed gradual and centrifugal enhancement of the corpora cavernosa, while those with erectile dysfunction showed poor enhancement with abnormal progression. Sequential contrast-enhanced MR imaging provides additional morphologic information for the evaluation of erectile dysfunction.

  10. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. No Need for Templates in the Auditory Enhancement Effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Carcagno

    Full Text Available The audibility of a target tone in a multitone background masker is enhanced by the presentation of a precursor sound consisting of the masker alone. There is evidence that precursor-induced neural adaptation plays a role in this perceptual enhancement. However, the precursor may also be strategically used by listeners as a spectral template of the following masker to better segregate it from the target. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis by measuring the audibility of a target tone in a multitone masker after the presentation of precursors which, in some conditions, were made dissimilar to the masker by gating their components asynchronously. The precursor and the following sound were presented either to the same ear or to opposite ears. In either case, we found no significant difference in the amount of enhancement produced by synchronous and asynchronous precursors. In a second experiment, listeners had to judge whether a synchronous multitone complex contained exactly the same tones as a preceding precursor complex or had one tone less. In this experiment, listeners performed significantly better with synchronous than with asynchronous precursors, showing that asynchronous precursors were poorer perceptual templates of the synchronous multitone complexes. Overall, our findings indicate that precursor-induced auditory enhancement cannot be fully explained by the strategic use of the precursor as a template of the following masker. Our results are consistent with an explanation of enhancement based on selective neural adaptation taking place at a central locus of the auditory system.

  12. Fusion of protegrin-1 and plectasin to MAP30 shows significant inhibition activity against dengue virus replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussin A Rothan

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1 and plectasin (PLSN were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50 0.5±0.1 μM. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 μM. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities.

  13. WCK 5107 (Zidebactam) and WCK 5153 Are Novel Inhibitors of PBP2 Showing Potent "β-Lactam Enhancer" Activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Including Multidrug-Resistant Metallo-β-Lactamase-Producing High-Risk Clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, Bartolome; Barcelo, Isabel M; Bhagwat, Sachin; Patel, Mahesh; Bou, German; Papp-Wallace, Krisztina M; Bonomo, Robert A; Oliver, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Zidebactam and WCK 5153 are novel β-lactam enhancers that are bicyclo-acyl hydrazides (BCH), derivatives of the diazabicyclooctane (DBO) scaffold, targeted for the treatment of serious infections caused by highly drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. In this study, we determined the penicillin-binding protein (PBP) inhibition profiles and the antimicrobial activities of zidebactam and WCK 5153 against Pseudomonas aeruginosa , including multidrug-resistant (MDR) metallo-β-lactamase (MBL)-producing high-risk clones. MIC determinations and time-kill assays were conducted for zidebactam, WCK 5153, and antipseudomonal β-lactams using wild-type PAO1, MexAB-OprM-hyperproducing ( mexR ), porin-deficient ( oprD ), and AmpC-hyperproducing ( dacB ) derivatives of PAO1, and MBL-expressing clinical strains ST175 ( bla VIM-2 ) and ST111 ( bla VIM-1 ). Furthermore, steady-state kinetics was used to assess the inhibitory potential of these compounds against the purified VIM-2 MBL. Zidebactam and WCK 5153 showed specific PBP2 inhibition and did not inhibit VIM-2 (apparent K i [ K i app ] > 100 μM). MICs for zidebactam and WCK 5153 ranged from 2 to 32 μg/ml (amdinocillin MICs > 32 μg/ml). Time-kill assays revealed bactericidal activity of zidebactam and WCK 5153. LIVE-DEAD staining further supported the bactericidal activity of both compounds, showing spheroplast formation. Fixed concentrations (4 or 8 μg/ml) of zidebactam and WCK 5153 restored susceptibility to all of the tested β-lactams for each of the P. aeruginosa mutant strains. Likewise, antipseudomonal β-lactams (CLSI breakpoints), in combination with 4 or 8 μg/ml of zidebactam or WCK 5153, resulted in enhanced killing. Certain combinations determined full bacterial eradication, even with MDR MBL-producing high-risk clones. β-Lactam-WCK enhancer combinations represent a promising β-lactam "enhancer-based" approach to treat MDR P. aeruginosa infections, bypassing the need for MBL inhibition. Copyright © 2017

  14. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of atypical hepatic Echinococcus alveolarisinfestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etlik, Oemer; Arslan, Halil; Harman, Mustafa; Temizoez, Osman; Bay, Ali; Koesem, Mustafa; Dogan, Ekrem

    2005-01-01

    Diagnosis of liver infestation by Echinococcus alveolaris(EA) is based on serological and radiological findings. In this report, we present a 15-year-old girl with atypical hepatic EA infestation showing central punctate calcifications and contrast enhancement on the portal and late phases of CT and MRI. CT showed a hypodense mass involving more than half of the liver with prominent central calcifications. MRI revealed hypointense signal of the infiltrative mass on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Contrast enhancement is a unique finding in hepatic EA infestation that may cause difficulties with diagnosis. MRI may provide invaluable information in the diagnosis of EA infestation of the liver, either by disclosing the infiltrative pattern of infestation without significant effect to vascular structures, or by the signal characteristics. (orig.)

  15. Contrast-enhanced CT and MRI findings of atypical hepatic Echinococcus alveolarisinfestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etlik, Oemer; Arslan, Halil; Harman, Mustafa; Temizoez, Osman [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Van (Turkey); Bay, Ali [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatrics, Van (Turkey); Koesem, Mustafa [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Van (Turkey); Dogan, Ekrem [Yuzuncu Yil University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Van (Turkey)

    2005-05-01

    Diagnosis of liver infestation by Echinococcus alveolaris(EA) is based on serological and radiological findings. In this report, we present a 15-year-old girl with atypical hepatic EA infestation showing central punctate calcifications and contrast enhancement on the portal and late phases of CT and MRI. CT showed a hypodense mass involving more than half of the liver with prominent central calcifications. MRI revealed hypointense signal of the infiltrative mass on both T1- and T2-weighted images. Contrast enhancement is a unique finding in hepatic EA infestation that may cause difficulties with diagnosis. MRI may provide invaluable information in the diagnosis of EA infestation of the liver, either by disclosing the infiltrative pattern of infestation without significant effect to vascular structures, or by the signal characteristics. (orig.)

  16. The perils of moral enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrijević Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of biotechnological enhancement of people for non-medical purposes is not unambiguous. A gap that may arise between the “cognitive” and so-called “moral” enhancement points precisely to this fact. This article shows that, contrary to the intentions of its supporters, the idea according to which moral enhancement has precedence over cognitive enhancement is essentially just a new form of undermining human freedom. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41004

  17. Intracavitary brachytherapy significantly enhances local control of early T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: the existence of a dose-tumor-control relationship above conventional tumoricidal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teo, Peter Man Lung; Leung, Sing Fai; Lee, Wai Yee; Zee, Benny

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To study the efficacy of intracavitary brachytherapy (ICT) in early T-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: All T1 and T2 (nasal infiltration) NPC treated with a curative intent from 1984 to 1996 were analyzed (n = 509). One hundred sixty-three patients were given ICT after radical external radiotherapy (ERT) (Group A). They were compared with 346 patients treated by ERT alone (Group B). The ERT delivered the tumoricidal dose (uncorrected BED-10 ≥75 Gy) to the primary tumor and did not differ between the two groups in technique or dosage. The ICT delivered a dose of 18-24 Gy in 3 fractions over 15 days to a point 1 cm perpendicular to the midpoint of the plane of the sources. ICT was used to treat local persistence diagnosed at 4-6 weeks after ERT (n = 101) or as an adjuvant for the complete responders to ERT (n = 62). Results: The two groups did not differ in patients' age or sex, rate of distant metastasis, rate of regional failure, overall survival, or the follow-up duration. However, Group A had significantly more T2 lesions and Group B had significantly more advanced N-stages. Local failure was significantly less (crude rates 6.75% vs. 13.0%; 5-year actuarial rates 5.40% vs. 10.3%) and the disease-specific mortality was significantly lower (crude rates 14.1 % vs. 21.7%; 5-year actuarial rates 11.9% vs. 16.4%) in Group A compared to Group B. Multivariate analysis showed that the ICT was the only significant prognostic factor predictive for fewer local failures (Cox regression p = 0.0328, risk ratio = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.256-0.957). However, when ICT was excluded from the Cox regression model, the total physical dose or the total BED-10 uncorrected for tumor repopulation during the period of radiotherapy became significant in predicting ultimate local failure rate. The two groups were comparable in the incidence rates of each individual chronic radiation complication and the actuarial cumulative rate of

  18. Plasmon-enhanced fluorescence near nonlocal metallic nanospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tserkezis, Christos; Stefanou, N.; Wubs, Martijn

    Spontaneous emission and fluorescence of organic molecules are known to strongly depend on the local electromagnetic environment. Plasmonic nanoparticles are widely explored as templates for controlling light-matter interactions, and can be tailored to optimize the fluorescence rate (Ȗem......) and the generalized nonlocal optical response (GNOR) theory [2] shows that a significant decrease in fluorescence enhancement is obtained for emitters close to small metallic nanospheres or thin metallic nanoshells, while the optimum emitter position is also affected. In this respect, our recent work introduces...

  19. Enhancement of the Laser Transmission Weldability between Polyethylene and Polyoxymethylene by Plasma Surface Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixia Liu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to their large compatibility difference, polyethylene (PE and polyoxymethylene (POM cannot be welded together by laser transmission welding. In this study, PE and POM are pretreated using plasma that significantly enhances their laser transmission welding strength. To understand the mechanism underlying the laser welding strength enhancement, surface modification is analyzed using contact angle measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM, optical microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. Characterization results show that the plasma surface treatment improves the surface free energy, significantly enhancing the wettability of the materials. The increase in surface roughness and the generation of homogeneous bubbles contribute to the formation of mechanical micro-interlocking. The oxygen-containing groups introduced by the oxygen plasma treatment improve the compatibility of PE and POM, and facilitate the diffusion and entanglement of molecular chains and the formation of van der Waals force.

  20. Robust enhancement of high harmonic generation via attosecond control of ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Barry D; Krüger, Michael; Pedatzur, Oren; Orenstein, Gal; Azoury, Doron; Dudovich, Nirit

    2018-04-02

    High-harmonic generation (HHG) is a powerful tool to generate coherent attosecond light pulses in the extreme ultraviolet. However, the low conversion efficiency of HHG at the single atom level poses a significant practical limitation for many applications. Enhancing the efficiency of the process defines one of the primary challenges in the application of HHG as an advanced XUV source. In this work, we demonstrate a new mechanism, which in contrast to current methods, enhances the HHG conversion efficiency purely on a single particle level. We show that using a bichromatic driving field, sub-optical-cycle control and enhancement of the tunnelling ionization rate can be achieved, leading to enhancements in HHG efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. Our method advances the perspectives of HHG spectroscopy, where isolating the single particle response is an essential component, and offers a simple route toward scalable, robust XUV sources.

  1. A human intervention study with foods containing natural Ah-receptor agonists does not significantly show AhR-mediated effects as measured in blood cells and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Pim W J; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Baykus, Hakan; Aarts, Jac M M J G; Hoogenboom, Ron L A P; van Schooten, Frederik J; de Kok, Theo M C M

    2008-10-22

    Binding and activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is thought to be an essential step in the toxicity of the environmental pollutants dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs. However, also a number of natural compounds, referred to as NAhRAs (natural Ah-receptor agonists), which are present in, for example, fruits and vegetables, can bind and activate this receptor. To study their potential effects in humans, we first investigated the effect of the prototypical AhR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) on gene expression in ex vivo exposed freshly isolated human lymphocytes, and compared the resulting gene expression profile with those caused by the well-known NAhRA indolo[3,2-b]carbazole (ICZ), originating from cruciferous vegetables, and by a hexane extract of NAhRA-containing grapefruit juice (GJE). Only ICZ induced a gene expression profile similar to TCDD in the lymphocytes, and both significantly up-regulated CYP1B1 and TIPARP (TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase) mRNA. Next, we performed a human intervention study with NAhRA-containing cruciferous vegetables and grapefruit juice. The expression of the prototypical AhR-responsive genes CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and NQO1 in whole blood cells and in freshly isolated lymphocytes was not significantly affected. Also enzyme activities of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) and xanthine oxidase (XO), as judged by caffeine metabolites in urine, were unaffected, except for a small down-regulation of NAT2 activity by grapefruit juice. Examination of blood plasma with DR CALUX showed a 12% increased AhR agonist activity 3 and 24 h after consumption of cruciferous vegetables, but did not show a significant effect of grapefruit juice consumption. We conclude that intake of NAhRAs from food may result in minor AhR-related effects measurable in human blood and urine.

  2. Delayed-enhancement MRI of apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: assessment of the intramural distribution and comparison with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Yasuo; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kumita, Shinichiro; Takayama, Morimasa; Kitamura, Mitsunobu

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is reported to show patchy midwall myocardial hyper enhancement on delayed-enhancement magnetic resonance imaging (DE-MRI). The intramural distribution of myocardial hyper enhancement and its correlation with clinical symptoms, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac function have not been described for symptomatic apical HCM. Purpose: To evaluate the features and significance of myocardial hyper enhancement on DE-MRI in symptomatic apical HCM. Material and Methods: Thirteen patients with symptomatic apical HCM and their 65 apical segments were investigated. Myocardial hyper enhancement and regional and global functional parameters were determined with MRI. We investigated the intramural distribution and frequencies of this myocardial hyper enhancement and compared them with the patients' clinical symptoms, the presence of ventricular arrhythmias, and cine MRI. Results: Eight (61.5%) patients with symptomatic apical HCM displayed apical myocardial hyper enhancement, and 22 (33.8%) of the 65 apical segments examined showed myocardial hyper enhancement. Of the myocardial hyper enhancement observed, 81.8% showed a subendocardial pattern.The Hyperenhanced apical myocardium had a lower percentage of systolic myocardial thickening, and was associated with serious symptoms (e.g. syncope) and ventricular arrhythmias. Conclusion: Patients with symptomatic apical HCM showed myocardial hyper enhancement involving the subendocardial layer, which might be related to regional systolic dysfunction, serious clinical symptoms, and ventricular arrhythmias

  3. Surfactant-enhanced flushing enhances colloid transport and alters macroporosity in diesel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhuo; Tang, Xiang-Yu; Nishimura, Taku; Katou, Hidetaka; Liu, Hui-Yun; Qing, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Soil contamination by diesel has been often reported as a result of accidental spillage, leakage and inappropriate use. Surfactant-enhanced soil flushing is a common remediation technique for soils contaminated by hydrophobic organic chemicals. In this study, soil flushing with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS, an anionic surfactant) was conducted for intact columns (15cm in diameter and 12cm in length) of diesel-contaminated farmland purple soil aged for one year in the field. Dynamics of colloid concentration in column outflow during flushing, diesel removal rate and resulting soil macroporosity change by flushing were analyzed. Removal rate of n-alkanes (representing the diesel) varied with the depth of the topsoil in the range of 14%-96% while the n-alkanes present at low concentrations in the subsoil were completely removed by LAS-enhanced flushing. Much higher colloid concentrations and larger colloid sizes were observed during LAS flushing in column outflow compared to water flushing. The X-ray micro-computed tomography analysis of flushed and unflushed soil cores showed that the proportion of fine macropores (30-250μm in diameter) was reduced significantly by LAS flushing treatment. This phenomenon can be attributed to enhanced clogging of fine macropores by colloids which exhibited higher concentration due to better dispersion by LAS. It can be inferred from this study that the application of LAS-enhanced flushing technique in the purple soil region should be cautious regarding the possibility of rapid colloid-associated contaminant transport via preferential pathways in the subsurface and the clogging of water-conducting soil pores. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The Value of Significant Learning Strategies in Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Charles M.

    2012-01-01

    Learning taxonomies can assist faculty in developing course structures that promote enhanced student learning in the cognitive and affective domains. Significant Learning is one approach to course design that allows for development in six key areas: Foundational Knowledge, Application, Integration, Human Dimension, Caring, and Learning How to…

  5. Sleep enhances memory consolidation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Anna; Hill, Catherine M; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Dimitriou, Dagmara

    2014-06-01

    Sleep is an active state that plays an important role in the consolidation of memory. It has been found to enhance explicit memories in both adults and children. However, in contrast to adults, children do not always show a sleep-related improvement in implicit learning. The majority of research on sleep-dependent memory consolidation focuses on adults; hence, the current study examined sleep-related effects on two tasks in children. Thirty-three typically developing children aged 6-12 years took part in the study. Actigraphy was used to monitor sleep. Sleep-dependent memory consolidation was assessed using a novel non-word learning task and the Tower of Hanoi cognitive puzzle, which involves discovering an underlying rule to aid completion. Children were trained on the two tasks and retested following approximately equal retention intervals of both wake and sleep. After sleep, children showed significant improvements in performance of 14% on the non-word learning task and 25% on the Tower of Hanoi task, but no significant change in score following the wake retention interval. Improved performance on the Tower of Hanoi may have been due to children consolidating explicit aspects of the task, for example rule-learning or memory of previous sequences; thus, we propose that sleep is necessary for consolidation of explicit memory in children. Sleep quality and duration were not related to children's task performance. If such experimental sleep-related learning enhancement is generalizable to everyday life, then it is clear that sleep plays a vital role in children's educational attainment. © 2013 European Sleep Research Society.

  6. A Novel Solubility-Enhanced Rubusoside-Based Micelles for Increased Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meiying; Dai, Tongcheng; Feng, Nianping

    2017-04-01

    Many anti-cancer drugs have a common problem of poor solubility. Increasing the solubility of the drugs is very important for its clinical applications. In the present study, we revealed that the solubility of insoluble drugs was significantly enhanced by adding rubusoside (RUB). Further, it was demonstrated that RUB could form micelles, which was well characterized by Langmuir monolayer investigation, transmission electron microscopy, atomic-force microscopy, and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. The RUB micelles were ellipsoid with the horizontal distance of 25 nm and vertical distance of 1.2 nm. Insoluble synergistic anti-cancer drugs including curcumin and resveratrol were loaded in RUB to form anti-cancer micelles RUB/CUR + RES. MTT assay showed that RUB/CUR + RES micelles had more significant toxicity on MCF-7 cells compared to RUB/CUR micelles + RUB/RES micelles. More importantly, it was confirmed that RUB could load other two insoluble drugs together for remarkably enhanced anti-cancer effect compared to that of RUB/one drug + RUB/another drug. Overall, we concluded that RUB-based micelles could efficiently load insoluble drugs for enhanced anti-cancer effect.

  7. Capacitance enhancement of polyaniline coated curved-graphene supercapacitors in a redox-active electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Rakhi, R. B.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2013-05-01

    We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles).We show, for the first time, a redox-active electrolyte in combination with a polyaniline-coated curved graphene active material to achieve significant enhancement in the capacitance (36-92% increase) compared to supercapacitors that lack the redox-active contribution from the electrolyte. The supercapacitors based on the redox-active electrolyte also exhibit excellent rate capability and very long cycling performance (>50 000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental section, supporting figures including SEM, TEM, XPS, BET, CV and CD curves and a summary table of capacitance. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00773a

  8. Do enhanced states exist? Boosting cognitive capacities through an action video-game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhevnikov, Maria; Li, Yahui; Wong, Sabrina; Obana, Takashi; Amihai, Ido

    2018-04-01

    This research reports the existence of enhanced cognitive states in which dramatic temporary improvements in temporal and spatial aspects of attention were exhibited by participants who played (but not by those who merely observed) action video-games meeting certain criteria. Specifically, Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that the attentional improvements were exhibited only by participants whose skills matched the difficulty level of the video game. Experiment 2 showed that arousal (as reflected by the reduction in parasympathetic activity and increase in sympathetic activity) is a critical physiological condition for enhanced cognitive states and corresponding attentional enhancements. Experiment 3 showed that the cognitive enhancements were transient, and were no longer observed after 30 min of rest following video-gaming. Moreover, the results suggest that the enhancements were specific to tasks requiring visual-spatial focused attention, but not distribution of spatial attention as has been reported to improve significantly and durably as a result of long-term video-game playing. Overall, the results suggest that the observed enhancements cannot be simply due to the activity of video-gaming per se, but might rather represent an enhanced cognitive state resulting from specific conditions (heightened arousal in combination with active engagement and optimal challenge), resonant with what has been described in previous phenomenological literature as "flow" (Csikszentmihalyi, 1975) or "peak experiences" (Maslov, 1962). The findings provide empirical evidence for the existence of the enhanced cognitive states and suggest possibilities for consciously accessing latent resources of our brain to temporarily boost our cognitive capacities upon demand. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between morphological features and kinetic patterns of enhancement of the dynamic breast magnetic resonance imaging and clinico-pathological and biological factors in invasive breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Guinea, Oscar; Andicoechea, Alejandro; González, Luis O; González-Reyes, Salomé; Merino, Antonio M; Hernández, Luis C; López-Muñiz, Alfonso; García-Pravia, Paz; Vizoso, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of breast cancer and its clinicopathological and biological factors. Dynamic MRI parameters of 68 invasive breast carcinomas were investigated. We also analyzed microvessel density (MVD), estrogen and progesterone receptor status, and expression of p53, HER2, ki67, VEGFR-1 and 2. Homogeneous enhancement was significantly associated with smaller tumor size (T1: < 2 cm) (p = 0.015). Tumors with irregular or spiculated margins had a significantly higher MVD than tumors with smooth margins (p = 0.038). Tumors showing a maximum enhancement peak at two minutes, or longer, after injecting the contrast, had a significantly higher MVD count than those which reached this point sooner (p = 0.012). The percentage of tumors with vascular invasion or high mitotic index was significantly higher among those showing a low percentage (≤ 150%) of maximum enhancement before two minutes than among those ones showing a high percentage (>150%) of enhancement rate (p = 0.016 and p = 0.03, respectively). However, there was a significant and positive association between the mitotic index and the peak of maximum intensity (p = 0.036). Peritumor inflammation was significantly associated with washout curve type III (p = 0.042). Variations in the early phase of dynamic MRI seem to be associated with parameters indicatives of tumor aggressiveness in breast cancer

  10. Enhanced localized fluorescence in plasmonic nanoantennae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakker, R.M.; Yuan, H.-K.; Liu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    in fluorescence that reaches 100 times enhancement. Near-field excitation shows enhanced fluorescence from a single nanoantenna localized in a subwavelength area of similar to 0.15 mu m(2). The polarization of enhanced emission is along the main antenna axis. These observed experimental results are important...

  11. A saturation hypothesis to explain both enhanced and impaired learning with enhanced plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Vu, TD Barbara; Zhao, Grace Q; Lahiri, Subhaneil; Kimpo, Rhea R; Lee, Hanmi; Ganguli, Surya; Shatz, Carla J; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2017-01-01

    Across many studies, animals with enhanced synaptic plasticity exhibit either enhanced or impaired learning, raising a conceptual puzzle: how enhanced plasticity can yield opposite learning outcomes? Here, we show that the recent history of experience can determine whether mice with enhanced plasticity exhibit enhanced or impaired learning in response to the same training. Mice with enhanced cerebellar LTD, due to double knockout (DKO) of MHCI H2-Kb/H2-Db (KbDb−/−), exhibited oculomotor learning deficits. However, the same mice exhibited enhanced learning after appropriate pre-training. Theoretical analysis revealed that synapses with history-dependent learning rules could recapitulate the data, and suggested that saturation may be a key factor limiting the ability of enhanced plasticity to enhance learning. Optogenetic stimulation designed to saturate LTD produced the same impairment in WT as observed in DKO mice. Overall, our results suggest that the recent history of activity and the threshold for synaptic plasticity conspire to effect divergent learning outcomes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20147.001 PMID:28234229

  12. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF STAR FORMATION ENHANCEMENT IN CLOSE MAJOR-MERGER GALAXY PAIRS SINCE z = 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, C. K.; Shupe, D. L.; Bock, J.; Bridge, C.; Cooray, A.; Lu, N.; Schulz, B.; Béthermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Elbaz, D.; Le Floc'h, E.; Riguccini, L.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Conley, A.; Franceschini, A.; Marsden, G.; Oliver, S. J.; Pozzi, F.

    2012-01-01

    The infrared (IR) emission of 'M * galaxies' (10 10.4 ≤ M star ≤ 10 11.0 M ☉ ) in galaxy pairs, derived using data obtained in Herschel (PEP/HerMES) and Spitzer (S-COSMOS) surveys, is compared to that of single-disk galaxies in well-matched control samples to study the cosmic evolution of the star formation enhancement induced by galaxy-galaxy interaction. Both the mean IR spectral energy distribution and mean IR luminosity of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in SFG+SFG (S+S) pairs in the redshift bin of 0.6 < z < 1 are consistent with no star formation enhancement. SFGs in S+S pairs in a lower redshift bin of 0.2 < z < 0.6 show marginal evidence for a weak star formation enhancement. Together with the significant and strong sSFR enhancement shown by SFGs in a local sample of S+S pairs (obtained using previously published Spitzer observations), our results reveal a trend for the star formation enhancement in S+S pairs to decrease with increasing redshift. Between z = 0 and z = 1, this decline of interaction-induced star formation enhancement occurs in parallel with the dramatic increase (by a factor of ∼10) of the sSFR of single SFGs, both of which can be explained by the higher gas fraction in higher-z disks. SFGs in mixed pairs (S+E pairs) do not show any significant star formation enhancement at any redshift. The difference between SFGs in S+S pairs and in S+E pairs suggests a modulation of the sSFR by the intergalactic medium (IGM) in the dark matter halos hosting these pairs.

  13. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound of focal nodular hyperplasia: a matter of size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertin, Caroline [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Egels, Sophie; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Wagner, Mathilde [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Vilgrain, Valerie [Hopital Beaujon APHP, Radiology Department, Clichy (France); Universite Paris Diderot, INSERM, UMR 1149, Laboratoire IPMA, Centre de Recherche sur l' Inflammation, Faculte de Medecine X Bichat, Paris (France); Lucidarme, Olivier [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere APHP, Radiology Department, Paris (France); Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS UMR 7371, INSERM UMRS 1146, Laboratoire d' Imagerie Biomedicale, Paris (France); Groupe Hospitalier Pitie-Salpetriere - Charles Foix, Service de Radiologie Polyvalente et Oncologique, Paris (France)

    2014-10-15

    To assess the contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) frequencies of centrifugal enhancement, spoke-wheel sign and central scar in focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) as a function of lesion size. Ninety-four FNHs were retrospectively reviewed to assess their largest diameter and enhancement pattern, including centrifugal enhancement from one central artery, spoke-wheel sign, diffuse or centripetal enhancement, central scar and late-phase washout. Mean FNH-lesion size was 3.7 ± 2.1 cm. Only 43.6 % of FNHs had centrifugal enhancement, with a spoke-wheel pattern (23.4 %) or without (20.2 %), while 56.4 % showed diffuse or centripetal enhancement. Centrifugal enhancement was observed in 73.9 % of FNHs ≤3.1 cm and 14.6 % of FNHs >3.1 cm (P < 10{sup -4}). Size and frequency of centrifugal enhancement were negatively correlated (r = -0.57, P < 10{sup -4}). The spoke-wheel pattern was also seen more frequently in smaller (37 %) than in larger FNHs (10.4 %) (P < 10{sup -3}). Late-phase washout was described in 5.3 % of FNHs and was not size-dependent. Lesions with a central scar were larger than those without, respectively, 5.7 ± 1.7 and 3.6 ± 2.0 cm (P = 0.012). Typical centrifugal enhancement yielding a confident FNH diagnosis is seen significantly more frequently when the lesion is ≤3.1 cm. (orig.)

  14. Significantly enhanced electrochemical performance of lithium titanate anode for lithium ion battery by the hybrid of nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiyi, Li; Yuanyuan, Jiang; Xiaoyan, Zhou; Zaijun, Li; Zhiguo, Gu; Guangli, Wang; Junkang, Liu

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The study reported a facile synthesis of Li4Ti5O12/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots (LTO/N,S-GQDs). The unique architecture and the introduction of N,S-GQDs create both ultrafast electron transfer and electrolyte transport. The as-prepared LTO/N,S-GQDs anode provides prominent advantage of specific capacity, high-rate performance and cycle stability. - Highlights: • We reported a new lithium titanate/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots hybrid • The synthesis creates a crystalline interconnected porous framework composed of nanoscale LTO • The unique architecture achieves to maximize the rate performance and enhance the power density • Introduction of N,S-GQDs greatly enhances the electron transfer and the storage lithium capacity • The hybrid anode provides an excellent electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries - ABSTRACT: The paper reported a facile synthesis of lithium titanate/nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene quantum dots(LTO/N,S-GQDs). Tetrabutyl titanate was dissolved in tertbutanol and heated to refluxing state by microwave irradiation. Then, lithium acetate was added into the mixed solution to produce LTO precursor. The precursor was hybridized with N,S-GQDs in ethanol. Followed by drying and thermal annealing at 500 °C in Ar/H_2 to obtain LTO/N,S-GQDs. The synthesis creates fully crystalline interconnected porous framework composed of nanoscale LTO crystals. The unique architecture achieves to maximize the high-rate performance and enhance the power density. More importantly, the introduction of N,S-GQDs don't almost influence on the electrolyte transport, but greatly improve the electron transfer and the storage lithium capacity. The LTO/N,S-GQDs anode exhibits remarkably enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium ion battery. The specific discharge capacity is 254.2 mAh g"−"1 at 0.1C and 126.5 mAh g"−"1 at 10C. The capacity remains 96.9% at least after 2000 cycles

  15. Enhanced phytoextraction of chromium by the aquatic macrophyte Potamogeton pusillus in presence of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monferrán, Magdalena V.; Pignata, María L.; Wunderlin, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The aquatic macrophyte, Potamogeton pusillus was evaluated for the removal of Cu 2+ and Cr +6 from aqueous solutions during 15 days phytoextraction experiments. Results show that P. pusillus is capable of accumulating substantial amount of Cu and Cr from individual solutions (either Cu 2+ or Cr +6 ). Significant correlations between metal removal and bioaccumulation were obtained. Roots and leaves accumulated the highest amount of Cu and Cr followed by stems. The bioaccumulation of Cr was significantly enhanced in the presence of Cu, showing a synergic effect on Cr +6 removal, presenting a good alternative for the removal of these metals from polluted aquifers. To the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report on both enhanced phytoextraction of Cr +6 in presence of Cu +2 and bioaccumulation of these heavy metals by P. pusillus. - Highlights: ► First report on enhanced phytoextraction of Cr +6 in the presence of Cu +2 by P. pusillus. ► P. pusillus can be a good candidate for phytoremediation of contaminated water bodies. ► Roots and leaves presented higher accumulation, suggesting that they are in charge of metal uptake. - We report enhanced effect of Cu +2 upon phytoextraction of Cr +6 by Potamogeton pusillus from water. Metals accumulation occurs mainly in roots and leaves of this aquatic plant.

  16. PrivateRide: A Privacy-Enhanced Ride-Hailing Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Anh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years, we have witnessed a rise in the popularity of ride-hailing services (RHSs, an online marketplace that enables accredited drivers to use their own cars to drive ride-hailing users. Unlike other transportation services, RHSs raise significant privacy concerns, as providers are able to track the precise mobility patterns of millions of riders worldwide. We present the first survey and analysis of the privacy threats in RHSs. Our analysis exposes high-risk privacy threats that do not occur in conventional taxi services. Therefore, we propose PrivateRide, a privacy-enhancing and practical solution that offers anonymity and location privacy for riders, and protects drivers’ information from harvesting attacks. PrivateRide lowers the high-risk privacy threats in RHSs to a level that is at least as low as that of many taxi services. Using real data-sets from Uber and taxi rides, we show that PrivateRide significantly enhances riders’ privacy, while preserving tangible accuracy in ride matching and fare calculation, with only negligible effects on convenience. Moreover, by using our Android implementation for experimental evaluations, we show that PrivateRide’s overhead during ride setup is negligible. In short, we enable privacy-conscious riders to achieve levels of privacy that are not possible in current RHSs and even in some conventional taxi services, thereby offering a potential business differentiator.

  17. Enhanced UWB Radio Channel Model for Short-Range Communication Scenarios Including User Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, Istvan Zsolt; Nguyen, Tuan Hung; Eggers, Patrick Claus F.

    2005-01-01

    channel model represents an enhancement of the existing IEEE 802.15.3a/4a PAN channel model, where antenna and user-proximity effects are not included. Our investigations showed that significant variations of the received wideband power and time-delay signal clustering are possible due the human body...

  18. Anticancer and enhanced antimicrobial activity of biosynthesizd silver nanoparticles against clinical pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeshkumar, Shanmugam; Malarkodi, Chelladurai; Vanaja, Mahendran; Annadurai, Gurusamy

    2016-07-01

    The present investigation shows the biosynthesis of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles using culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and study the effect of enhanced antimicrobial activity, anticancer activity against pathogenic bacteria, fungi and cancer cell lines. Silver nanoparticles was synthesized by adding 1 mM silver nitrate into the 100 ml of 24 h freshly prepared culture supernatant of Enterococcus sp. and were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM), Selected Area Diffraction X-Ray (SAED), Energy Dispersive X Ray (EDX) and Fourier Transform Infra red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were impregnated with commercial antibiotics for evaluation of enhanced antimicrobial activity. Further these synthesized silver nanoparticles were assessed for its anticancer activity against cancer cell lines. In this study crystalline structured nanoparticles with spherical in the size ranges from 10 to 80 nm and it shows excellent enhanced antimicrobial activity than the commercial antibiotics. The in vitro assay of silver nanoparticles on anticancer have great potential to inhibit the cell viability. Amide linkages and carboxylate groups of proteins from Enterococcus sp. may bind with silver ions and convert into nanoparticles. The activities of commercial antibiotics were enhanced by coating silver nanoparticles shows significant improved antimicrobial activity. Silver nanoparticles have the great potential to inhibit the cell viability of liver cancer cells lines (HepG2) and lung cancer cell lines (A549).

  19. Psychopaths Show Enhanced Amygdala Activation during Fear Conditioning

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Douglas H.; Balderston, Nicholas L.; Baskin-Sommers, Arielle R.; Larson, Christine L.; Helmstetter, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by emotional deficits and a failure to inhibit impulsive behavior and is often subdivided into “primary” and “secondary” psychopathic subtypes. The maladaptive behavior related to primary psychopathy is thought to reflect constitutional “fearlessness,” while the problematic behavior related to secondary psychopathy is motivated by other factors. The fearlessness observed in psychopathy has often been interpreted as reflecting a fundamental d...

  20. Glycoengineering of therapeutic antibodies enhances monocyte/macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herter, Sylvia; Birk, Martina C; Klein, Christian; Gerdes, Christian; Umana, Pablo; Bacac, Marina

    2014-03-01

    Therapeutic Abs possess several clinically relevant mechanisms of action including perturbation of tumor cell signaling, activation of complement-dependent cytotoxicity, Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), Ab-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), and induction of adaptive immunity. In view of the important role of phagocytic lineage cells in the mechanism of action of therapeutic Abs, we analyzed FcγR receptor-dependent effector functions of monocytes and macrophages triggered by glycoengineered (GE) Abs (having enhanced FcγRIIIa [CD16a] binding affinity) versus their wild-type (WT) counterparts under different experimental conditions. We first defined the precise FcγR repertoire on classical and nonclassical intermediate monocytes--M1 and M2c macrophage populations. We further show that WT and GE Abs display comparable binding and induce similar effector functions (ADCC and ADCP) in the absence of nonspecific, endogenous IgGs. However, in the presence of these IgGs (i.e., in a situation that more closely mimics physiologic conditions), GE Abs display significantly superior binding and promote stronger monocyte and macrophage activity. These data show that in addition to enhancing CD16a-dependent NK cell cytotoxicity, glycoengineering also enhances monocyte and macrophage phagocytic and cytotoxic activities through enhanced binding to CD16a under conditions that more closely resemble the physiologic setting.

  1. Amplification of Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Due to Substrate-Mediated Localized Surface Plasmons in Gold Nanodimers

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Weisheng

    2017-03-28

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is ubiquitous in chemical and biochemical sensing, imaging and identification. Maximizing SERS enhancement is a continuous effort focused on the design of appropriate SERS substrates. Here we show that significant improvement in a SERS signal can be achieved with substrates combining localized surface plasmon resonances and a nonresonant plasmonic substrate. By introducing a continuous gold (Au) film underneath Au nanodimers antenna arrays, an over 10-fold increase in SERS enhancement is demonstrated. Triangular, rectangle and disc dimers were studied, with bowtie antenna providing highest SERS enhancement. Simulations of electromagnetic field distributions of the Au nanodimers on the Au film support the observed enhancement dependences. The hybridization of localized plasmonic modes with the image modes in a metal film provides a straightforward way to improve SERS enhancement in designer SERS substrate.

  2. Gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid enhanced magnetic resonance imagings in cardiomyopathic hamsters. Histopathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Hiroko

    1995-01-01

    To assess the significance of gadolinium diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, the findings were correlated with histopathological findings in cardiomyopathic hamsters (Bio 14.6). In hamsters given 1 mBq of Gd-DTPA, autoradiography revealed uptake of Gd-DTPA corresponding to the fibrotic tissue. According to the degree of fibrosis and inflammation, the tissue was graded into three. The ratio of contrast enhancement in the fibrotic area to that in the normal area was significantly higher in grade 1 than grades 2 and 3, and in grade 2 than grade 3. Next, hamsters in various age groups were given 0.2 mmol/kg intravenously. In the age group of 2-5 month, contrast enhancement was homogeneously observed in the entire myocardium. In the age group of 8-10 years, it was entirely observed, partly with heterogeneous enhancement. In the age group of 11-12 years, contrast enhancement was not different from that in the normal hamsters. Histological examination revealed that fibrosis changed from grade 1 through grade 3 with advancing age. In conclusion, MR imaging for myocardiopathy showed signal intensity reflecting the fibrotic tissue. Contrast enhancement of MR imaging was stronger when much more inflammatory cells were involved and fibrotic tissues were filled with much more blood vessels. Thus MR imaging may be a promising tool for evaluating the severity of myocardiopathy. (N.K.)

  3. The macrophage activation marker sCD163 combined with markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) score predicts clinically significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl, T D; McGrail, R; Møller, H J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Noninvasive identification of significant portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis is needed in hepatology practice. AIM: To investigate whether the combination of sCD163 as a hepatic inflammation marker and the fibrosis markers of the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis score (ELF) can...... predict portal hypertension in patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We measured sCD163 and the ELF components (hyaluronic acid, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and procollagen-III aminopeptide) in two separate cohorts of cirrhosis patients that underwent hepatic vein catheterisation. To test...... the predictive accuracy we developed a CD163-fibrosis portal hypertension score in an estimation cohort (n = 80) and validated the score in an independent cohort (n = 80). A HVPG ≥10 mmHg was considered clinically significant. RESULTS: Both sCD163 and the ELF components increased in a stepwise manner...

  4. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, Qiang, E-mail: kongqiang0531@hotmail.com [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China); Ngo, Huu Hao [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia); Shu, Li [School of Engineering, Faculty of Science, Engineering and Built Environment, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Fu, Rong-shu; Jiang, Chun-hui [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China); Miao, Ming-sheng, E-mail: mingshengmiao@163.com [College of Life Science, Shandong Normal University, 88 Wenhua Donglu, Jinan 250014, Shandong (China)

    2014-08-30

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used firstly to enhance the aerobic granulation. • ZVI significantly decreased the start-up time of the aerobic granulation. • ZVI had the function of enhancing organic material diversity identified by 3-D EEM. • ZVI could enhance the diversity of microbial community. - Abstract: This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe{sup 2+} dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation.

  5. Enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron in sequencing batch airlift reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Qiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Shu, Li; Fu, Rong-shu; Jiang, Chun-hui; Miao, Ming-sheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Zero-valent iron (ZVI) was used firstly to enhance the aerobic granulation. • ZVI significantly decreased the start-up time of the aerobic granulation. • ZVI had the function of enhancing organic material diversity identified by 3-D EEM. • ZVI could enhance the diversity of microbial community. - Abstract: This study elucidates the enhancement of aerobic granulation by zero-valent iron (ZVI). A reactor augmented with ZVI had a start-up time of aerobic granulation (43 days) that was notably less than that for a reactor without augmentation (64 days). The former reactor also had better removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Moreover, the mature granules augmented with ZVI had better physical characteristics and produced more extracellular polymeric substances (especially of protein). Three-dimensional-excitation emission matrix fluorescence showed that ZVI enhanced organic material diversity. Additionally, ZVI enhanced the diversity of the microbial community. Fe 2+ dissolution from ZVI helped reduce the start-up time of aerobic granulation and increased the extracellular polymeric substance content. Conclusively, the use of ZVI effectively enhanced aerobic granulation

  6. MRI enhancement of the facial nerve with Gd-DTPA, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Masahiro

    1993-01-01

    Although there have recently been numerous reports of enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy, the mechanism of enhancement remains largely unknown. In the present study, animal models with experimentally induced facial paralysis were prepared, and the vascular permeabilities of normal and damaged facial nerves were assessed using Evans blue albumin (EBA) as a tracer. The Gd-DTPA contents in normal and compressively damaged facial nerves were also investigated. In the normal intratemporal facial nerve, EBA remained in the vessels, and did not leak into the endoneurium. In contrast, vascular permeability was very high in the epineurium and the geniculate ganglion which showed leakage of large amounts of EBA from vessels. At the site of compression in the damaged nerve, EBA leakage was also seen in the endoneurism, indicating accentuated vascular permeability. This accentuation of vascular permeability shifted toward the distal side. However, no EBA leakage was seen on the side proximal to the site of compression. Significantly higher Gd-DTPA contents were obtained in the facial nerve on the paralytic side than in that on the normal side (p<0.001). As for differences between the distal and proximal sides, the distal side had a significantly higher Gd-DTPA content (p<0.01). Assessment of vascular permeability with EBA revealed accentuated vascular permeability on the side distal to the site of compression. These results showed the presence of a blood nerve barrier (BNB) in the facial nerve. Furthermore, the present findings suggest that the enhancement of the facial nerve on the affected side is caused by BNB destruction due to nerve damage and subsequent Gd-DTPA leakage from the vessels. Furthermore, it is suggested that the facial nerve enhancement appears to occur mainly on the distal side of the damaged portion of the nerve. (author)

  7. Dual-phase contrast enhancement multi-slice CT in grading pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yan; Liu Jianyu; Zhu Xiang

    2013-01-01

    , 4 of them were with endocrine abnormality, and the other 4 were not. Five of them complained of abdominal pain while the other 3 did not. Six of them had no hepatic metastasis, and 2 of them had. Both of the 2 patients with NET in G3 did not have any endocrine abnormality, and one of them complained abdominal pain. Both of them were with hepatic metastasis. There was no difference between groups that whether or not endocrine syndrome and abdominal pain was presented (χ"2 = 2.238, 0.713, P = 0.318, 1.000), while hepatic metastasis was of significant differences (χ"2 = 9.516, P = 0.003). Tumor location, distinct outline, necrosis and/or calcification were not significantly different. Tumor enhancement showed a probable trend of decrease in group of higher grade. A1 decreased from (126.4 ± 45.7) HU to (38.7 ± 8.5) HU ((χ"2 = 7.254, P= 0.027), A2 decreased from (94.1 ± 31.1) HU to (22.8 ± 14.0) HU ((χ"2 = 7.323, P = 0.026) and AP1 dropped from 80.6 HU (-21.8 — 169.7 HU) to -36.7 HU (-41.6 — -31.7 HU) ((χ"2 = 6.778, P = 0.034). All of the indices mentioned above were of significant difference and the other indices showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Quantitative assessment of their enhancement patterns may provide useful information to preoperative grading of pancreatic NET, and tumors in a higher grade may show poorer enhancement. (authors)

  8. Contrast enhancement pattern in MR imaging of acute cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Deok; Cho, Mee Young; Lee, Chae Guk; Song, Dong Hoon

    1994-01-01

    To present the enhancement pattern of acute cerebral or cerebellar cortical infarctions aged 1-3 days on MR. Contrast-enhanced MR images of 26 patients with acute cerebral or cerebellar ischemic events were retrospectively reviewed. MR was performed within 3 days after ictus. Contrast enhancement in the area of infarction was observed in 61.5% (16/26) on MR. Of these 50% (13/26) showed non-parenchymal enhancement (NPE) representing either vascular or leptomeningeal enhancement, 7.7% (2/26) showed parenchymal enhancement (PE), and 2.8% (1/26) showed both NPE and PE. The earliest enhancement was seen in images obtained 12 hours after the onset of symptoms and appeared as NPE. One patient showed NPE without apparent high signal intensity at the corresponding area on T2-weighted images. In 38.5% (10/26), there was no enhancement. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging may be needed in acute ischemic infarction, because NPE may be seen as the earliest MR finding of acute cortical infraction aged 1-3 days

  9. Contrast enhancement pattern in MR imaging of acute cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Deok; Cho, Mee Young; Lee, Chae Guk; Song, Dong Hoon [Inje University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-08-15

    To present the enhancement pattern of acute cerebral or cerebellar cortical infarctions aged 1-3 days on MR. Contrast-enhanced MR images of 26 patients with acute cerebral or cerebellar ischemic events were retrospectively reviewed. MR was performed within 3 days after ictus. Contrast enhancement in the area of infarction was observed in 61.5% (16/26) on MR. Of these 50% (13/26) showed non-parenchymal enhancement (NPE) representing either vascular or leptomeningeal enhancement, 7.7% (2/26) showed parenchymal enhancement (PE), and 2.8% (1/26) showed both NPE and PE. The earliest enhancement was seen in images obtained 12 hours after the onset of symptoms and appeared as NPE. One patient showed NPE without apparent high signal intensity at the corresponding area on T2-weighted images. In 38.5% (10/26), there was no enhancement. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging may be needed in acute ischemic infarction, because NPE may be seen as the earliest MR finding of acute cortical infraction aged 1-3 days.

  10. Dual-energy computed tomography for the assessment of early treatment effects of regorafenib in a preclinical tumor model: comparison with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and conventional contrast-enhanced single-energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, Gesine; Hamm, Bernd; Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus; Huppertz, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The potential diagnostic value of dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) compared to dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and conventional contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) in the assessment of early regorafenib treatment effects was evaluated in a preclinical setting. A rat GS9L glioma model was examined with contrast-enhanced dynamic DE-CT measurements (80 kV/140 kV) for 4 min before and on days 1 and 4 after the start of daily regorafenib or placebo treatment. Tumour time-density curves (0-240 s, 80 kV), DE-CT (60 s) derived iodine maps and the DCE-CT (0-30 s, 80 kV) based parameters blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability (PMB) were calculated and compared to conventional CE-CT (60 s, 80 kV). The regorafenib group showed a marked decrease in the tumour time-density curve, a significantly lower iodine concentration and a significantly lower PMB on day 1 and 4 compared to baseline, which was not observed for the placebo group. CE-CT showed a significant decrease in tumour density on day 4 but not on day 1. The DE-CT-derived iodine concentrations correlated with PMB and BV but not with BF. DE-CT allows early treatment monitoring, which correlates with DCE-CT. Superior performance was observed compared to single-energy CE-CT. circle Regorafenib treatment response was evaluated by CT in a rat tumour model. (orig.)

  11. Dual-energy computed tomography for the assessment of early treatment effects of regorafenib in a preclinical tumor model: comparison with dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and conventional contrast-enhanced single-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch, Gesine; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Jost, Gregor; Pietsch, Hubertus [Bayer Healthcare, MR and CT Contrast Media Research, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander [Imaging Science Institute Charite - Siemens, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    The potential diagnostic value of dual-energy computed tomography (DE-CT) compared to dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) and conventional contrast-enhanced CT (CE-CT) in the assessment of early regorafenib treatment effects was evaluated in a preclinical setting. A rat GS9L glioma model was examined with contrast-enhanced dynamic DE-CT measurements (80 kV/140 kV) for 4 min before and on days 1 and 4 after the start of daily regorafenib or placebo treatment. Tumour time-density curves (0-240 s, 80 kV), DE-CT (60 s) derived iodine maps and the DCE-CT (0-30 s, 80 kV) based parameters blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability (PMB) were calculated and compared to conventional CE-CT (60 s, 80 kV). The regorafenib group showed a marked decrease in the tumour time-density curve, a significantly lower iodine concentration and a significantly lower PMB on day 1 and 4 compared to baseline, which was not observed for the placebo group. CE-CT showed a significant decrease in tumour density on day 4 but not on day 1. The DE-CT-derived iodine concentrations correlated with PMB and BV but not with BF. DE-CT allows early treatment monitoring, which correlates with DCE-CT. Superior performance was observed compared to single-energy CE-CT. circle Regorafenib treatment response was evaluated by CT in a rat tumour model. (orig.)

  12. The Role of Therapeutic Mentoring in Enhancing Outcomes for Youth in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara B.; Pryce, Julia M.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Effective service interventions greatly enhance the well-being of foster youth. A study of 262 foster youth examined one such intervention, therapeutic mentoring. Results showed that mentored youth improved significantly in the areas of family and social functioning, school behavior, and recreational activities, as well as in the reduction of…

  13. MEETING REPORT: OMG Technical Committee Meeting in Orlando, FL, sees significant enhancement to CORBA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-06-01

    The Object Management Group (OMG) Platform Technology Committee (PTC) ratified its support for a new asynchronous messaging service for CORBA at OMG's recent Technical Committee Meeting in Orlando, FL. The meeting, held from 8 - 12 June, saw the PTC send the Messaging Service out for a final vote among the OMG membership. The Messaging Service, which will integrate Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) with CORBA, will give CORBA a true asynchronous messaging capability - something of great interest to users and developers. Formal adoption of the specification will most likely occur by the end of the year. The Messaging Service The Messaging Service, when adopted, will be the world's first standard for Message Oriented Middleware and will give CORBA a true asynchronous messaging capability. Asynchronous messaging allows developers to build simpler, richer client environments. With asynchronous messaging there is less need for multi-threaded clients because the Asynchronous Method Invocation is non-blocking, meaning the client thread can continue work while the application waits for a reply. David Curtis, Director of Platform Technology for OMG, said: `This messaging service is one of the more valuable additions to CORBA. It enhances CORBA's existing asynchronous messaging capabilities which is a feature of many popular message oriented middleware products. This service will allow better integration between ORBs and MOM products. This enhanced messaging capability will only make CORBA more valuable for builders of distributed object systems.' The Messaging Service is one of sixteen technologies currently being worked on by the PTC. Additionally, seventeen Revision Task Forces (RTFs) are working on keeping OMG specifications up to date. The purpose of these Revision Task Forces is to take input from the implementors of OMG specifications and clarify or make necessary changes based on the implementor's input. The RTFs also ensure that the specifications remain up to date

  14. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced

  15. Enhancement of tumor radioresponse by combined chemotherapy in murine hepatocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung Hee; Suh, Chang Ok

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify drugs that can enhance radioresponse of murine hepatocarcinoma. C3H/HeJ mice bearing 8 mm tumors of murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-l, were treated with 25 Gy radiation and one of the following drugs: 5-Fu, 150 mg/kg; adriamycin, 8 mg/kg; cisplatin, 6 mg/kg; paclitaxel, 40 mg/kg; and gemcitabine, 50 mg/kg. Tumor response to the treatment was determined by tumor growth delay assay and by enhancement factor. Apoptotic level was assessed in tissue sections. Expression of regulating molecules was analyzed by western blotting for p53, 8c1-2, Sax, Bel-XL, Bd-XS, and p21 WAF1/CIP1 . Among the drugs tested, only gemcitabine enhanced the antitumor effect of radiation, with enhancement factor of 1.6. Induction of apoptosis by a combination of gerncitabine and radiation was shown as only additive level. In analysis of radiation-induced expression of regulating molecules, the most significant change by combining gemcitabine was activation of p21 WAF1/CIP1 . Gemcitabine is the first drug showing an enhancement of radioresponse in murine hepatocarcinoma, when combined with radiation. The key element of enhancement is thought to be p21 WAF1/CIP1

  16. Enhancement of tumor radioresponse by combined chemotherapy in murine hepatocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Jin Sil; Kim, Sung Hee; Suh, Chang Ok [College of Medicine, Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify drugs that can enhance radioresponse of murine hepatocarcinoma. C3H/HeJ mice bearing 8 mm tumors of murine hepatocarcinoma, HCa-l, were treated with 25 Gy radiation and one of the following drugs: 5-Fu, 150 mg/kg; adriamycin, 8 mg/kg; cisplatin, 6 mg/kg; paclitaxel, 40 mg/kg; and gemcitabine, 50 mg/kg. Tumor response to the treatment was determined by tumor growth delay assay and by enhancement factor. Apoptotic level was assessed in tissue sections. Expression of regulating molecules was analyzed by western blotting for p53, 8c1-2, Sax, Bel-XL, Bd-XS, and p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}. Among the drugs tested, only gemcitabine enhanced the antitumor effect of radiation, with enhancement factor of 1.6. Induction of apoptosis by a combination of gerncitabine and radiation was shown as only additive level. In analysis of radiation-induced expression of regulating molecules, the most significant change by combining gemcitabine was activation of p21 {sup WAF1/CIP1}. Gemcitabine is the first drug showing an enhancement of radioresponse in murine hepatocarcinoma, when combined with radiation. The key element of enhancement is thought to be p21{sup WAF1/CIP1}.

  17. Cabri 3D - assisted collaborative learning to enhance junior high school students’ spatial ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntazhimah; Miatun, A.

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine the enhancement of spatial ability of junior high school students who learned through Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning. The methodology of this study was the nonequivalent group that was conducted to students of the eighth grade in a junior high school as a population. Samples consisted one class of the experimental group who studied with Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and one class as a control group who got regular learning activity. The instrument used in this study was a spatial ability test. Analyzing normalized gain of students’ spatial ability based on mathemathical prior knowledge (MPK) and its interactions was tested by two-way ANOVA at a significance level of 5% then continued with using Post Hoc Scheffe test. The research results showed that there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with Cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning, there was significant difference in enhancement of the spatial ability between students who learnt with cabri 3D assisted collaborative learning and students who got regular learning in terms of MPK and there is no significant interaction between learning (Cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning and regular learning) with students’ MPK (high, medium, and low) toward the enhancement of students’ spatial abilities. From the above findings, it can be seen that cabri-3D assisted collaborative learning could enhance spatial ability of junior high school students.

  18. Printable luminescent down shifter for enhancing efficiency and stability of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettle, J.; Bristow, N.; Gethin, D.T.

    2016-01-01

    monitoring, using a 16-cell monolithically connected OPV module. By applying the LDS layer, a ~5% relative enhancement in photocurrent is observed for both sets of devices. More significantly, indoor light soaking tests on single cell devices without encapsulation showed an 850% enhancement in the measured...... half-life (T50%). The OPV modules were encapsulated and tested for outdoor stability over a 70 day period in the Negev desert, Israel. The modules made with the LDS filter are shown to match the stability of those made with a commercial UV filter and outperform the modules with no filter applied...

  19. Mutual enhancement of IL-2 and IL-7 on DNA vaccine immunogenicity mainly involves regulations on their receptor expression and receptor-expressing lymphocyte generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yonghong; Liang, Shuang; Li, Xiujin; Wang, Liyue; Zhang, Jianlou; Xu, Jian; Huo, Shanshan; Cao, Xuebin; Zhong, Zhenyu; Zhong, Fei

    2015-07-09

    Our previous study showed that IL-2 and IL-7 could mutually enhance the immunogenicity of canine parvovirus VP2 DNA vaccine, although the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here, we used the OVA gene as a DNA vaccine in a mouse model to test their enhancement on DNA vaccine immunogenicity and to explore the molecular mechanism. Results showed that both IL-2 and IL-7 genes significantly increased the immunogenicity of OVA DNA vaccine in mice. Co-administration of IL-2 and IL-7 genes with OVA DNA significantly increased OVA-specific antibody titers, T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production compared with IL-2 or IL-7 alone, confirming that IL-2 and IL-7 mutually enhanced DNA vaccine immunogenicity. Mechanistically, we have shown that IL-2 significantly stimulated generation of IL-7 receptor-expressing lymphocytes, and that IL-7 significantly induced IL-2 receptor expression. These results contribute to an explanation of the mechanism of the mutual effects of IL-2 and IL-7 on enhancing DNA vaccine immunogenicity and provided a basis for further investigation on their mutual effects on adjuvant activity and immune regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of Ag Nanocubes with Different Corner Shape on the Absorption Enhancement in Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of corner shape of silver (Ag nanocubes (NCs on optical absorptions of organic solar cells (OSCs are theoretically investigated by finite element method (FEM calculations. The absorption of sun light in the active layer is calculated. Significant absorption enhancements have been demonstrated in metallic region with different shapes of Ag NCs, among them corner radius (R is zero result in the best light absorption performance of up to 55% enhancement with respect to bare OSCs. The origins of increased absorption are believed to be the effects of the huge electric field enhancement and increased scattering upon the excitation of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR. Apart from using R=0, we show that R=3, 6, and 11.29 of Ag NCs in metallic region of active layer may also result in the maximum comparable absorption enhancement of 49%, 41%, and 28%, respectively. In addition, a significant effect of the period of NCs is observed.

  1. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle

  2. Effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Vivan Young Jean; KIm, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Jung [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    To evaluate the effect of the menstrual cycle on background parenchymal enhancement observed on breast MRIs in Korean women, and to suggest an optimal period for scheduling breast MRIs. Between March and December 2012, 214 premenopausal breast cancer patients who underwent breast MRIs for preoperative evaluation were included. Levels of background parenchymal enhancement were retrospectively compared according to the menstrual cycle. There was no significant difference between levels of background parenchymal enhancement (minimal, mild, moderate, and marked) according to the weeks of the menstrual cycle. However, the 1st and 2nd week of the menstrual cycle showed a significantly higher proportion of patients with minimal background parenchymal enhancement than the 3rd and 4th week of the menstrual cycle (47.0% vs. 32.0%; p = 0.025). For screening purposes and for the follow-up of Korean breast cancer patients, breast MRIs should be performed during the 1st or 2nd week of the menstrual cycle.

  3. Neuro-Behcet's syndrome with contrast enhancement on brain computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Tobimatsu, Shozo; Itoyama, Yasuto; Goto, Ikuo; Kuroiwa, Yoshigoro

    1986-01-01

    Two cases of neuro-Behcet's syndrome (N-B) with contrast enhancement (enhancement) on brain computed tomography (CT) are reported. Case 1. A 34-year-old man, who had a history of recurrent aphthous stomatitis, developed a left inferior homonymous quadrantanopsia. CT scans showed a large lucent area with a ring-like enhancement (3 cm in diameter) lesion in the right parietooccipital region. When he developed a left hemiplegia, CT scans showed a irregular lucent area with heterogenous enhancement lesions in the right basal ganglia and midbrain. Case 2. A 38-year-old woman, who had a history of recurrent aphthous stomatitis and genital ulcer, developed mental confusion. CT scans showed a large lucent area with a homogenous marked round enhancement lesion in the left basal ganglia. When she developed generalized convulsion, CT scans showed a large lucent area with a heterogenous irregular enhancement lesion in the right occipital lobe. Enhancement lesions were observed in the area corresponded to their neurological symptoms during acute exacerbations and disappeared within three months. Our cases suggest that N-B with acute exacerbations could show transient enhancement on CT. (author)

  4. Early versus late GD-DTPA MRI enhancement in experimental glioblastomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Paolo; Tambalo, Stefano; Fiorini, Silvia; Merigo, Flavia; Daducci, Alessandro; Nicolato, Elena; Conti, Giamaica; Degrassi, Anna; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina

    2011-03-01

    To compare early versus late enhancement in two glioblastoma models characterized by different infiltrative/edematous patterns. Three weeks after inoculation into nude mice of U87MG and U251 cells, T1-weighted images were acquired early (10.5 min), intermediate (21 min) and late (30.5 min) after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA at 300 μ mol/kg dosage. EARLY(TH) and LATE(TH) were the corresponding volumes with an enhancement higher than a threshold TH, defined by the mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) on a contralateral healthy area. ADD(TH) was the enhancing volume found in LATE(TH) but not in EARLY(TH). T2 imaging of both tumors was performed, and T2 mapping of U251. In all tumors, LATE(TH) was significantly higher than EARLY(TH) for TH ranging from μ+σ to μ+5σ. The ADD(TH) /EARLY(TH) ratio was not significantly different when U251 and U87MG tumors were compared. In the U87MG tumors, some enhancement was observed outside the regularly demarcated T2-hyperintense area. In the U251 tumors, irregularly T2 demarcated, a large portion of ADD(μ+3σ) had normal T2 values. At histology, U251 showed a higher infiltrative pattern than U87MG. In these models, the increase over time in the enhancing volume did not depend on the different infiltrative/edematous patterns and was not closely related with edema. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Intracranial arterial wall enhancement using gadolinium-enhanced 3D black-blood T1-weighted imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Koichi, E-mail: k-takano@fukuoka-u.ac.jp; Hida, Kosuke; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Yoshimitsu, Kengo

    2017-01-15

    Purpose: We investigated the enhancement of the intracranial arterial walls with gadolinium-enhanced, black-blood three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging (Gd-3DBB) by using an improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (iMSDE)—prepared volumetric isotropic turbo spin-echo acquisition (VISTA). Methods: A total of 115 patients underwent FLAIR, 3D-TOF-MRA and Gd-3DBB with a 1.5-T scanner. The degree and distribution of the arterial wall enhancement on Gd-3DBB was assessed. The association of the degree of wall enhancement with brain infarction/ischemic lesions on FLAIR, luminal changes on 3D-TOF-MRA, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) was investigated by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Strong enhancement of the arterial walls was observed in 77 vertebral arteries (33.5%), 4 basilar arteries (3.5%), 31 supraclinoid internal carotid arteries (ICAs) (13.5%) and 8 middle cerebral arteries (3.5%). In addition, 221 intrapetrous ICAs (96.1%) showed strong enhancement. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate analyses showed that the patient age was independently associated with the strong wall enhancement of the arteries for both the posterior (OR, 1.088; 95% CI, 1.034–1.146) and the anterior circulation (OR, 1.098, 95% CI 1.029–1.172). In addition, the presence of the supratentorial brain infarctions was independently associated with the strong wall enhancement in the anterior circulation excluding the intrapetrous ICAs (OR, 4.097; 95% CI, 1.483–11.319). Conclusions: Although the arterial wall enhancement on the Gd-3DBB probably reflects normal aging, the enhancement in the anterior circulation might be related to brain infarctions. On the other hand, the intrapetrous ICA enhancement is considered a nonspecific finding and should not be mistaken for arterial pathologies such as atherosclerosis or arteritis.

  6. Intracranial arterial wall enhancement using gadolinium-enhanced 3D black-blood T1-weighted imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Koichi; Hida, Kosuke; Kuwabara, Yasuo; Yoshimitsu, Kengo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated the enhancement of the intracranial arterial walls with gadolinium-enhanced, black-blood three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging (Gd-3DBB) by using an improved motion-sensitized driven-equilibrium (iMSDE)—prepared volumetric isotropic turbo spin-echo acquisition (VISTA). Methods: A total of 115 patients underwent FLAIR, 3D-TOF-MRA and Gd-3DBB with a 1.5-T scanner. The degree and distribution of the arterial wall enhancement on Gd-3DBB was assessed. The association of the degree of wall enhancement with brain infarction/ischemic lesions on FLAIR, luminal changes on 3D-TOF-MRA, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) was investigated by univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses. Results: Strong enhancement of the arterial walls was observed in 77 vertebral arteries (33.5%), 4 basilar arteries (3.5%), 31 supraclinoid internal carotid arteries (ICAs) (13.5%) and 8 middle cerebral arteries (3.5%). In addition, 221 intrapetrous ICAs (96.1%) showed strong enhancement. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate analyses showed that the patient age was independently associated with the strong wall enhancement of the arteries for both the posterior (OR, 1.088; 95% CI, 1.034–1.146) and the anterior circulation (OR, 1.098, 95% CI 1.029–1.172). In addition, the presence of the supratentorial brain infarctions was independently associated with the strong wall enhancement in the anterior circulation excluding the intrapetrous ICAs (OR, 4.097; 95% CI, 1.483–11.319). Conclusions: Although the arterial wall enhancement on the Gd-3DBB probably reflects normal aging, the enhancement in the anterior circulation might be related to brain infarctions. On the other hand, the intrapetrous ICA enhancement is considered a nonspecific finding and should not be mistaken for arterial pathologies such as atherosclerosis or arteritis.

  7. Detection of Enhanced Central Mass-to-light Ratios in Low-mass Early-type Galaxies: Evidence for Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechetti, Renuka; Seth, Anil; Cappellari, Michele; McDermid, Richard; den Brok, Mark; Mieske, Steffen; Strader, Jay

    2017-11-01

    We present dynamical measurements of the central mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of a sample of 27 low-mass early-type {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies. We consider all {{ATLAS}}3{{D}} galaxies with 9.7 text{}}M/L{{s}} are higher than dynamical {\\text{}}M/L{{s}} derived at larger radii and stellar population estimates of the galaxy centers in ˜80% of galaxies, with a median enhancement of ˜14% and a statistical significance of 3.3σ. We show that the enhancement in the central M/L is best described either by the presence of black holes in these galaxies or by radial initial mass function variations. Assuming a black hole model, we derive black hole masses for the sample of galaxies. In two galaxies, NGC 4458 and NGC 4660, the data suggest significantly overmassive black holes, while in most others only upper limits are obtained. We also show that the level of M/L enhancements we see in these early-type galaxy nuclei are consistent with the larger enhancements seen in ultracompact dwarf galaxies (UCDs), supporting the scenario where massive UCDs are created by stripping galaxies of these masses.

  8. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain revisited with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasali, N.; Cubuk, R.; Aricak, M.; Ozarar, M.; Saydam, B.; Nur, H.; Tuncbilek, N.

    2012-01-01

    displacement. Another significant difference was found between the average time versus SI ratio curves of the four groups. In consequence of the comparison made between the joints classified as painful and painless on the basis of the clinical data, one more significant difference was observed according to the mean SI ratios of the groups without taking the TMJ disc position into account. Conclusion: The contrast enhancement patterns in the retrodiscal tissues of the painful joints showed significant differences in comparison with the painless joints. This result supports the hypothesis defending that inflammation and increased vascularity are responsible from the TMJ pain. Besides, the measurements from the retrodiscal tissues of the joints with partial displacement show significant difference between the signals of the displaced and non-displaced parts of the joints. Dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging revealed that different disc malpositions create different contrast enhancement patterns. On this basis, it is assessed that the types of the disc malpositions, which are believed to be acquired pathologies, are correlated with the retrodiscal inflammation degrees.

  9. Correlative Study of Angiogenesis and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.; Gao, Z.Q.; Yan, X.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the correlation between contrast-enhancement patterns on dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and angiogenesis by analyzing microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and P53 protein expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Material and Methods: MRI was performed with a GE Signa 5T MR scanner using SE and FMPSPGR sequences in 30 patients (38 lesions) during the period October 1998 to March 2000. All had histopathologically proven HCC. MR images were reviewed/analyzed retrospectively. The 30 patients were between 35 and 65 years of age. SE T1WI, PDWI, and T2WI were acquired initially. The FMPSPGR sequence was acquired in the same position. The DCE-MRI was performed in the arterial, portal vein, and delay phase after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA. The specimens were stained immunohistochemically for CD34, VEGF, and P53. MVD was highlighted by anti-CD34 antibody staining. The enhancement features of HCC lesions were studied correlatively with the tumor MVD, VEGF, and P53 expression at protein level. Results: In the arterial phase, the results showed that MVD of HCC in the high-enhancement group (229.76±80.96) was higher than that in the equal-enhancement (173.09±61.38) and low-enhancement groups (153.00±108.58) (P <0.01, respectively). VEGF expression of HCC in the high-enhancement group (68.42%) was higher than that in the equal-enhancement (36.36%) and low-enhancement groups (38.89%) (P <0.05, respectively). In the portal vein phase, MVD of HCC in the enhancement group (259.80±93.30) was higher than that in the non-enhancement group (178.64±92.65) (P <0.05). No significant correlation was found between VEGF expression and the enhancement feature in the portal vein phase. In the delay phase, MVD of HCC in the ring-enhancement group (269.06±57.89) was significantly higher than that in the non-ring-enhancement group (144.10±88.90) (P <0.01). There was a significant difference in VEGF

  10. GMP-grade platelet lysate enhances proliferation and migration of tenon fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Augusto; Scafetta, Gaia; Siciliano, Camilla; Carnevale, Roberto; Rosa, Paolo; Coccia, Andrea; Mangino, Giorgio; Bordin, Antonella; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Pierelli, Luca; Lendaro, Eugenio; Ragona, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs), widely employed as in vitro model for many ophthalmological studies, are routinely cultured with FBS. Platelet Lysate (PL), a hemoderivate enriched with growth factors and cytokines has been largely tested in several clinical applications and as substitute of FBS in culture. Here, we investigate whether PL can exert biological effects on TF populations similarly to other cell types. Results show that PL significantly enhances cell proliferation and migration vs. FBS, without influencing cell size/granularity. Upregulation of EGF, VEGF, KDR, MMP2-9, FAK mRNA levels also occurs and phosphorylation of AKT but not of ERK1/2 is significantly enhanced. The inhibition of the PI3kinase/AKT pathway with the specific inhibitor wortmannin, decreases PL-induced cell migration but not proliferation. Condition supernatants containing PL show increased bioavailability of Nitric Oxide and reduced levels of 8-Iso-PGF2-alpha, correlating with cell proliferation and migration. Pro-angiogenic/inflammatory soluble factors (GRO, Angiogenin, EGF, I-309, PARC) are exclusively or greater expressed in media containing PL than FBS. GMP-grade PL preparations positively influence in vitro biological effects of TFs representing a suitable and safer alternative to FBS.

  11. Crack/cocaine users show more family problems than other substance users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Ferreira Moura

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:To evaluate family problems among crack/cocaine users compared with alcohol and other substance users.METHODS:A cross-sectional multi-center study selected 741 current adult substance users from outpatient and inpatient Brazilian specialized clinics. Subjects were evaluated with the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index, and 293 crack users were compared with 126 cocaine snorters and 322 alcohol and other drug users.RESULTS:Cocaine users showed more family problems when compared with other drug users, with no significant difference between routes of administration. These problems included arguing (crack 66.5%, powder cocaine 63.3%, other drugs 50.3%, p= 0.004, having trouble getting along with partners (61.5%×64.6%×48.7%, p= 0.013, and the need for additional childcare services in order to attend treatment (13.3%×10.3%×5.1%, p= 0.002. Additionally, the majority of crack/cocaine users had spent time with relatives in the last month (84.6%×86.5%×76.6%, p= 0.011.CONCLUSIONS:Brazilian treatment programs should enhance family treatment strategies, and childcare services need to be included.

  12. Human and Animal Isolates of Yersinia enterocolitica Show Significant Serotype-Specific Colonization and Host-Specific Immune Defense Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaake, Julia; Kronshage, Malte; Uliczka, Frank; Rohde, Manfred; Knuuti, Tobias; Strauch, Eckhard; Fruth, Angelika; Wos-Oxley, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is a human pathogen that is ubiquitous in livestock, especially pigs. The bacteria are able to colonize the intestinal tract of a variety of mammalian hosts, but the severity of induced gut-associated diseases (yersiniosis) differs significantly between hosts. To gain more information about the individual virulence determinants that contribute to colonization and induction of immune responses in different hosts, we analyzed and compared the interactions of different human- and animal-derived isolates of serotypes O:3, O:5,27, O:8, and O:9 with murine, porcine, and human intestinal cells and macrophages. The examined strains exhibited significant serotype-specific cell binding and entry characteristics, but adhesion and uptake into different host cells were not host specific and were independent of the source of the isolate. In contrast, survival and replication within macrophages and the induced proinflammatory response differed between murine, porcine, and human macrophages, suggesting a host-specific immune response. In fact, similar levels of the proinflammatory cytokine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) were secreted by murine bone marrow-derived macrophages with all tested isolates, but the equivalent interleukin-8 (IL-8) response of porcine bone marrow-derived macrophages was strongly serotype specific and considerably lower in O:3 than in O:8 strains. In addition, all tested Y. enterocolitica strains caused a considerably higher level of secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 by porcine than by murine macrophages. This could contribute to limiting the severity of the infection (in particular of serotype O:3 strains) in pigs, which are the primary reservoir of Y. enterocolitica strains pathogenic to humans. PMID:23959720

  13. The Effectiveness of Matrix Model in Relapse Prevention and Coping Skills Enhancement in Participants with Substance Dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Farnam

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Matrix model in relapse prevention and enhancement of coping skills in participants with opiate substance dependency. Method: In a semi-experimental study, 23 participants with diagnosis of opiate dependency who successfully detoxified, selected by cluster random sampling and they were divided into two experimental and control groups. The experimental group received 32 sessions of Matrix model training and the control group did not receive any treatment. All subjects were assessed by alcohol abuse coping response inventory (AACRI and Morphine test before treatment, randomly during treatment, after treatment, and after 3-months follow up stage. Results: The results showed that experimental and control groups had a significant differed in relapse rates. In addition, Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA showed a significant difference between two groups in coping skills enhancement at periods of post test and follow up. Conclusion: With consideration of the results of the present study indicated that matrix model is effective in relapse prevention and coping skills enhancement in people with opiate substance dependency.

  14. Heat transfer enhancement on nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, M.; Guibai, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer with additives that was investigated experimentally. More than fifteen kinds of additives were chosen and tested. Eight kinds of effective additives which can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer were selected. Experimental results showed that boiling heat transfer coefficient of water was increased by 1 to 5 times and that of R-113 was increased by 1 to 4 times when trace amount additives were put in the two boiling liquids. There exist optimum concentrations for the additives, respectively, which can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer rate best. In order to analyze the mechanism of the enhancement of boiling heat transfer with additives, the surface tension and the bubble departure diameter were measured. The nucleation sites were investigated by use of high-speed photograph. Experimental results showed that nucleation sites increase with additive amount increasing and get maximum. Increasing nucleation sites is one of the most important reason why nucleate boiling heat transfer can be enhanced with additives

  15. Metabolic remodeling agents show beneficial effects in the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahnke Vanessa E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.

  16. Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanowire arrays with a large lattice constant for photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chenxi; Povinelli, Michelle L

    2009-10-26

    In this paper, we use the transfer matrix method to calculate the optical absorptance of vertically-aligned silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays. For fixed filling ratio, significant optical absorption enhancement occurs when the lattice constant is increased from 100 nm to 600 nm. The enhancement arises from an increase in field concentration within the nanowire as well as excitation of guided resonance modes. We quantify the absorption enhancement in terms of ultimate efficiency. Results show that an optimized SiNW array with lattice constant of 600 nm and wire diameter of 540 nm has a 72.4% higher ultimate efficiency than a Si thin film of equal thickness. The enhancement effect can be maintained over a large range of incidence angles.

  17. Age distribution of human gene families shows significant roles of both large- and small-scale duplications in vertebrate evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xun; Wang, Yufeng; Gu, Jianying

    2002-06-01

    The classical (two-round) hypothesis of vertebrate genome duplication proposes two successive whole-genome duplication(s) (polyploidizations) predating the origin of fishes, a view now being seriously challenged. As the debate largely concerns the relative merits of the 'big-bang mode' theory (large-scale duplication) and the 'continuous mode' theory (constant creation by small-scale duplications), we tested whether a significant proportion of paralogous genes in the contemporary human genome was indeed generated in the early stage of vertebrate evolution. After an extensive search of major databases, we dated 1,739 gene duplication events from the phylogenetic analysis of 749 vertebrate gene families. We found a pattern characterized by two waves (I, II) and an ancient component. Wave I represents a recent gene family expansion by tandem or segmental duplications, whereas wave II, a rapid paralogous gene increase in the early stage of vertebrate evolution, supports the idea of genome duplication(s) (the big-bang mode). Further analysis indicated that large- and small-scale gene duplications both make a significant contribution during the early stage of vertebrate evolution to build the current hierarchy of the human proteome.

  18. Diagnostic Accuracy of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Characterizing Lung Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inan, Nagihan; Arslan, Arzu; Donmez, Muhammed; Sarisoy, Hasan Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Imaging plays a critical role not only in the detection, but also in the characterization of lung masses as benign or malignant. Objectives To determine the diagnostic accuracy of dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. Patients and Methods Ninety-four masses were included in this prospective study. Five dynamic series of T1-weighted spoiled gradient echo (FFE) images were obtained, followed by a T1-weighted FFE sequence in the late phase (5th minutes). Contrast enhancement patterns in the early (25th second) and late (5th minute) phase images were evaluated. For the quantitative evaluation, signal intensity (SI)-time curves were obtained and the maximum relative enhancement, wash-in rate, and time-to-peak enhancement of masses in both groups were calculated. Results The early phase contrast enhancement patterns were homogeneous in 78.2% of the benign masses, while heterogeneous in 74.4% of the malignant tumors. On the late phase images, 70.8% of the benign masses showed homogeneous enhancement, while most of the malignant masses showed heterogeneous enhancement (82.4%). During the first pass, the maximum relative enhancement and wash-in rate values of malignant masses were significantly higher than those of the benign masses (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The cutoff value at 15% yielded a sensitivity of 85.4%, specificity of 61.2%, and positive predictive value of 68.7% for the maximum relative enhancement. Conclusion Contrast enhancement patterns and SI-time curve analysis of MRI are helpful in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant lung masses. PMID:27703654

  19. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm2(CoCuFeZr)17 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Ranu; Schütz, G.; Bhatt, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm 2 (CoCuFeZr) 17 films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H C ) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700 °C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism

  20. Enhanced nitrogen availability in karst ecosystems by oxalic acid release in the rhizosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujing ePan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In karst ecosystems, a high level of CaCO3 enhances the stabilization of soil organic matter (SOM and causes nitrogen (N and/or phosphorus (P limitation in plants. Oxalic acid has been suggested to be involved in the nutrient-acquisition strategy of plants because its addition can temporarily relieve nutrient limitation. Therefore, understanding how oxalic acid drives N availability may help support successful vegetation restoration in the karst ecosystems of southwest China. We tested a model suggested by Clarholm et al. (2015 where oxalate reacts with Ca bridges in SOM, thus exposing previously protected areas to enzymatic attacks in a way that releases N for local uptake. We studied the effects of oxalic acid, microbial biomass C (MBC, and β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG on potential N mineralization rates in rhizosphere soils of four plant species (two shrubs and two trees in karst areas. The results showed that rhizosphere soils of shrubs grown on formerly deforested land had significantly lower oxalic acid concentrations and NAG activity than that of trees in a 200-year-old forest. The levels of MBC in rhizosphere soils of shrubs were significantly lower than those of trees in the growing season, but the measure of shrubs and trees were similar in the non-growing season; the potential N mineralization rates showed a reverse pattern. Positive relationships were found among oxalic acid, MBC, NAG activity, and potential N mineralization rates for both shrubs and trees. This indicated that oxalic acid, microbes, and NAG may enhance N availability for acquisition by plants. Path analysis showed that oxalic acid enhanced potential N mineralization rates indirectly through inducing microbes and NAG activities. We found that the exudation of oxalic acid clearly provides an important mechanism that allows plants to enhance nutrient acquisition in karst ecosystems.

  1. Correlation of contrast agent kinetics between iodinated contrast-enhanced spectral tomosynthesis and gadolinium-enhanced MRI of breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froeling, Vera; Diekmann, Felix; Renz, Diane M.; Fallenberg, Eva M.; Steffen, Ingo G.; Diekmann, Susanne; Schmitzberger, Florian F.; Lawaczeck, Ruediger

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of contrast agent kinetics in contrast-enhanced MRI (CE-MRI) with gadolinium-containing contrast agents offers the opportunity to predict breast lesion malignancy. The goal of our study was to determine if similar patterns exist for spectral contrast-enhanced digital breast tomosynthesis (CE-DBT) using an iodinated contrast agent. The protocol of our prospective study was approved by the relevant institutional review board and the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. All patients provided written informed consent. We included 21 women with a mean age of 62.4 years. All underwent ultrasound-guided biopsy of a suspect breast lesion, spectral CE-DBT and CE-MRI. For every breast lesion, contrast agent kinetics was assessed by signal intensity-time curves for spectral CE-DBT and CE-MRI. Statistical comparison used Cohen's kappa and Spearman's rho test. Spearman's rho of 0.49 showed significant (P = 0.036) correlation regarding the contrast agent kinetics in signal intensity-time curves for spectral CE-DBT and CE-MRI. Cohen's kappa indicated moderate agreement (kappa = 0.438). There is a statistically significant correlation between contrast agent kinetics in the signal intensity-time curves for spectral CE-DBT and CE-MRI. Observing intralesional contrast agent kinetics in spectral CE-DBT may aid evaluation of malignant breast lesions. (orig.)

  2. The effectiveness of a serious game to enhance empathy for care workers for people with disabilities: A parallel randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterkenburg, P S; Vacaru, V S

    2018-04-04

    Empathic care is fundamental in healthcare settings and is associated to several positive outcomes for care workers (i.e. burnout, compassion satisfaction) and patients (i.e. therapeutic alliance, trust, wellbeing). Yet, studies showed a decrease in empathy in care workers, which is argued to be a product of personal distress. Thus, interventions should aim at enhancing empathy in care workers working for vulnerable populations to ensure optimal client-carer relationships. The current study investigates the effectiveness of the serious game "The world of EMPA" in enhancing empathy in care workers for people with disabilities, and tests the effect of personal distress on empathy change post intervention. We conducted a superiority parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) and tested 224 participants in two conditions: the experimental group (n = 111) played a serious game and the control group (n = 113) read a digital information package about disabilities. Participants were assessed on empathy and personal distress prior to and after the intervention. Main results showed that the serious game did not significantly enhance empathy in care workers, whereas reading a digital information package yield a significant decrease in empathy. Exploratory analysis showed that the serious game decreased significantly personal distress in care-workers. This study showed that while the serious game "The world of EMPA" did not enhance empathy, it resulted in a decrease in personal distress in care workers for people with disabilities. Further evidence should corroborate these findings to unveil the mechanisms of this intervention and the long-term effects on personal distress. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. BNFL Magnox - Upgrades and enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udbinac, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the past, generic models, restrictive budgets,and general shortages of resources have limited the scope of the UK's older Magnox simulators. Nevertheless, the simulators evolved slowly over time, becoming more like their reference plants, as resources became available. Three years ago, the Training and Development Branch of Magnox Electric plc took a giant leap, investing significant resources into the modernization of their training simulators. New hardware was built, including a new simulator room. The simulator software was ported from Unix running on outdated servers to new servers running Microsoft Windows NT. Perhaps most significantly, major model enhancements were made to key plant systems to significantly increase the likeness of each simulator to its reference plant. The upgrade to NT, the addition of state-of-the-art instructor stations, and some of the model enhancements were achieved with SimPort, an all-inclusive simulation package provided by DS and S. This paper will provide a more detailed view of the Magnox modular simulators, including how they are used and how they have benefited from the enhancements and upgrades implemented during the project. (author)

  4. Tundra permafrost thaw causes significant shifts in energy partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Stiegler

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Permafrost, a key component of the arctic and global climate system, is highly sensitive to climate change. Observed and ongoing permafrost degradation influences arctic hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry, and models predict that rapid warming is expected to significantly reduce near-surface permafrost and seasonally frozen ground during the 21st century. These changes raise concern of how permafrost thaw affects the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere. However, associated impacts of permafrost thaw on the surface energy balance and possible feedbacks on the climate system are largely unknown. In this study, we show that in northern subarctic Sweden, permafrost thaw and related degradation of peat plateaus significantly change the surface energy balance of three peatland complexes by enhancing latent heat flux and, to less degree, also ground heat flux at the cost of sensible heat flux. This effect is valid at all radiation levels but more pronounced at higher radiation levels. The observed differences in flux partitioning mainly result from the strong coupling between soil moisture availability, vegetation composition, albedo and surface structure. Our results suggest that ongoing and predicted permafrost degradation in northern subarctic Sweden ultimately result in changes in land–atmosphere coupling due to changes in the partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes. This in turn has crucial implications for how predictive climate models for the Arctic are further developed.

  5. Significant Factors Determining E-government Adoption in Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Mohd Idris

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that low adoption rate among citizens has been hindering the optimization of e-Government services especially in developing countries. Hence, one of the critical measures that has to be undertaken is to identify and overcome possible barriers to further facilitate a higher rate of adoption. A multistage stratified sampling was used in this study to collect data from 1000 respondents, both user and non-user residing in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. This state was chosen as to provide a better understanding of low adoption when issues of basic facilities have been successfully overcome. An exploratory factor analysis was performed to identify latent constructs and seven key factors were identified. A multiple regression model was subsequently used to analyze significant factors in determining the willingness to use e-Government services. The determinants are language barrier, educational level, secure, format, easy to use, enjoyable, reliable, visual appeal and infrastructure. The result shows significant variables that act as barriers to adoption are reliable, enjoyable, easy to use, secure, and language used. The constraints pointed out in the open ended questions mainly focus on the issue of accessibility, ease of use and awareness. Overcoming these obstacles is therefore crucial in order to enhance the usage of e-Government services which consequently will improve the quality of public administration in Malaysia.

  6. Diagnositc value of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Shim, Jeong Won [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-10-01

    To assess the usefulness of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (3D-DMRI) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and to determine the most useful parameter for this diagnosis. Using a 1.0T MR unit, (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlaugen, Germany), 3D-DMRI (TR/TE=3D30/12) with Gd-DTPA was performed in 38 cases of breast cancer, 22 of fibroadenoma, and in three normal volunteers. We retrospectively evaluated the findings according to the speed on dynamic study and maximal amount of contrast enhancement during the delayed phase;we calculated the contrast index and morphology of the cancers and compared diagnostic accuracy among these three diagnostic parameters. On conventional spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference of signal intensity between benign fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma. Rapid contrast enhancement (within one minute) was noted in 35 breast cancer lesions (92.1%), but relatively low and slow contrast enhancement (after five minutes) was noted in three such lesions (7.9%). Gradual contrast enhancement was noted in 21 lesions of fibroadenoma(95.5%), but a moderate degree of rapid contrast enhancement (from three to five minutes) was noted in the other case (7.9%). of On the delayed enhanced phase of 3D-DMRI, the maximal amount of contrast enhancement showed no significant difference between fibroadenoma and cancer. On 3D-DMRI, an irregular, spiculated border, with high contrast enhancement was noted in all cases of breast cancer, in particular, irregular thick peripheral contrast enhancement with central necrosis was noted 11cases(28.9%). For the diagnosis of breast cancer, 3D-DMRI is a useful technique. Among the diagnostic criteria of speed, maximal amount of contrast enhancement and morphology, morphologic change after contrast enhancement study was the most useful diagnostic parameter.=20.

  7. Diagnositc value of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Hai Jung; Lee, Yul; Chung, Bong Wha; Shim, Jeong Won

    1997-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of 3D-gradient echo dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (3D-DMRI) in the diagnosis of breast cancer and to determine the most useful parameter for this diagnosis. Using a 1.0T MR unit, (Magnetom, Siemens, Erlaugen, Germany), 3D-DMRI (TR/TE=3D30/12) with Gd-DTPA was performed in 38 cases of breast cancer, 22 of fibroadenoma, and in three normal volunteers. We retrospectively evaluated the findings according to the speed on dynamic study and maximal amount of contrast enhancement during the delayed phase;we calculated the contrast index and morphology of the cancers and compared diagnostic accuracy among these three diagnostic parameters. On conventional spin-echo T1-and T2-weighted images, there was no significant difference of signal intensity between benign fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma. Rapid contrast enhancement (within one minute) was noted in 35 breast cancer lesions (92.1%), but relatively low and slow contrast enhancement (after five minutes) was noted in three such lesions (7.9%). Gradual contrast enhancement was noted in 21 lesions of fibroadenoma(95.5%), but a moderate degree of rapid contrast enhancement (from three to five minutes) was noted in the other case (7.9%). of On the delayed enhanced phase of 3D-DMRI, the maximal amount of contrast enhancement showed no significant difference between fibroadenoma and cancer. On 3D-DMRI, an irregular, spiculated border, with high contrast enhancement was noted in all cases of breast cancer, in particular, irregular thick peripheral contrast enhancement with central necrosis was noted 11cases(28.9%). For the diagnosis of breast cancer, 3D-DMRI is a useful technique. Among the diagnostic criteria of speed, maximal amount of contrast enhancement and morphology, morphologic change after contrast enhancement study was the most useful diagnostic parameter.=20

  8. Quantitative analysis of enhanced malignant and benign lesions on contrast-enhanced spectral mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chih-Ying; Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Cheung, Yun-Chung; Lin, Yu-Ching; Lo, Yung-Feng; Lin, GiGin; Chen, Shin-Cheh; Ng, Shu-Hang

    2018-02-27

    To retrospectively analyze the quantitative measurement and kinetic enhancement among pathologically proven benign and malignant lesions using contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM). We investigated the differences in enhancement between 44 benign and 108 malignant breast lesions in CESM, quantifying the extent of enhancements and the relative enhancements between early (between 2-3 min after contrast medium injection) and late (3-6 min) phases. The enhancement was statistically stronger in malignancies compared to benign lesions, with good performance by the receiver operating characteristic curve [0.877, 95% confidence interval (0.813-0.941)]. Using optimal cut-off value at 220.94 according to Youden index, the sensitivity was 75.9%, specificity 88.6%, positive likelihood ratio 6.681, negative likelihood ratio 0.272 and accuracy 82.3%. The relative enhancement patterns of benign and malignant lesions, showing 29.92 vs 73.08% in the elevated pattern, 7.14 vs 92.86% in the steady pattern, 5.71 vs 94.29% in the depressed pattern, and 80.00 vs 20.00% in non-enhanced lesions (p < 0.0001), respectively. Despite variations in the degree of tumour angiogenesis, quantitative analysis of the breast lesions on CESM documented the malignancies had distinctive stronger enhancement and depressed relative enhancement patterns than benign lesions. Advances in knowledge: To our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the feasibility of quantifying lesion enhancement on CESM. The quantities of enhancement were informative for assessing breast lesions in which the malignancies had stronger enhancement and more relative depressed enhancement than the benign lesions.

  9. Mast Cells Can Enhance Resistance to Snake and Honeybee Venoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Martin; Piliponsky, Adrian M.; Chen, Ching-Cheng; Lammel, Verena; Åbrink, Magnus; Pejler, Gunnar; Tsai, Mindy; Galli, Stephen J.

    2006-07-01

    Snake or honeybee envenomation can cause substantial morbidity and mortality, and it has been proposed that the activation of mast cells by snake or insect venoms can contribute to these effects. We show, in contrast, that mast cells can significantly reduce snake-venom-induced pathology in mice, at least in part by releasing carboxypeptidase A and possibly other proteases, which can degrade venom components. Mast cells also significantly reduced the morbidity and mortality induced by honeybee venom. These findings identify a new biological function for mast cells in enhancing resistance to the morbidity and mortality induced by animal venoms.

  10. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography depicts small tumor vessels for the evaluation of pancreatic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Yuko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Takaki, Akinobu; Ishida, Etsuji; Ogawa, Tsuneyoshi; Kuwaki, Kenji; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the diagnosis of pancreatic tumors. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with Levovist was performed on 62 consecutive patients (53 with pancreatic cancer, 4 with islet cell tumor, 3 with inflammatory pancreatic tumor, and 2 with metastatic tumor). The vascular and perfusion image phases of the tumors were evaluated and compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Results: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography showed tumor vessels around and/or in the tumor at the vascular image phase in 79% of pancreatic cancer patients (42/53). At the perfusion image phase, 96% of pancreatic cancers (51/53) were classified as hypo-enhancement type. However, tiny spotty or irregular heterogeneous enhanced lesions were found in 84% of hypo-enhanced pancreatic cancer patients (43/51). The presence of small vessels at the vascular image phase was closely correlated with the presence of these intratumor regional enhanced lesions at the perfusion image phase (κ coefficient = 0.42). The sensitivity of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (100%) for pancreatic cancer was superior to that of contrast-enhanced computed tomography (91%), but no significant difference was observed between the two (McNemar test: p = 0.063). Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with Levovist successfully visualizes fine vessels and enhancement in pancreatic tumors, and is useful for evaluating pancreatic tumors

  11. Nerve growth factor enhances cough via a central mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hashim, Ahmed Z; Jaffal, Sahar M; Al-Rashidi, Fatma T; Luqmani, Yunus A; Akhtar, Saghir

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms involved in enhanced cough induced by central and inhaled NGF in guinea pigs were investigated. Cough and airway function were assessed by plethysmography following inhaled or intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) NGF treatment. Expression of TrkA and/or TRPV1 was determined in bronchi and/or brainstem by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. I.c.v. and inhaled NGF enhanced citric acid induced-cough and airway obstruction. Pretreatment (i.c.v.) with antagonists of TrkA (K252a) or TRPV1 (IRTX) significantly reduced both the NGF (i.c.v.) enhanced cough and airway obstruction whereas the NK1 antagonist (FK888) inhibited only cough. The H1 antagonist (cetirizine) did not affect either. Inhaled NGF increased phosphorylation of TrkA receptors in the bronchi but not the brainstem at 0.5h post-treatment. TrkA mRNA was elevated at 0.5h in the bronchi and at 24h in the brainstem while TRPV1 mRNA was elevated from 0.5h to 24h in brainstem and at 24h in the bronchi. Pretreatment (i.c.v.) with IRTX, but not K252a, significantly inhibited the inhaled NGF-enhanced cough. Central NGF administration enhances cough and airway obstruction by mechanisms dependent on central activation of TrkA, TRPV1 and NK1 receptors while inhaled NGF enhances cough via a mechanism dependent on central TRPV1 and not TrkA receptors. These data show that NGF, in addition to its effects on the airways, has an important central mechanism of action in the enhancement of cough. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting NGF signaling in both the airways and CNS may be more effective in the management of cough. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Coal and potash flotation enhancement using a clay binder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, D.; Chen, G.L.; Zhou, X.H.; Zhao, C.; Fan, M.M.; Aron, M.; Wright, J. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The adverse effects of clay particles on coal and mineral processing operations such as gravity separation, flotation, filtration and thickening are well known in the mining industry. In particular, the presence of ultra-fine clay particles deteriorates froth flotation performance, which has been attributed to slime coatings that inhibit bubble attachment and to adsorption of the frother and/or collector by the clay particles. The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a clay binding agent developed by Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc. in enhancing coal and mineral flotation performance. Mechanical flotation tests were carried out using coal and potash samples. Process parameters investigated included slurry solids percentage, impeller rotation speed, binder dosage, etc. Flotation results show that the use of GP reagents significantly enhanced flotation efficiency under different conditions. The required binder dosage and conditioning time were about 0.45 kg/t and 0.5 to 1 minute, respectively. More significant improvements in process performance were observed at higher solids percentage and higher impeller rotation speed.

  13. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-05-01

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  14. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard; Strachan, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement

  15. Optimal Ge/SiGe nanofin geometries for hole mobility enhancement: Technology limit from atomic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vedula, Ravi Pramod; Mehrotra, Saumitra; Kubis, Tillmann; Povolotskyi, Michael; Klimeck, Gerhard [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Strachan, Alejandro, E-mail: strachan@purdue.edu [School of Materials Engineering and Birck Nanotechnology Center, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    We use first principles simulations to engineer Ge nanofins for maximum hole mobility by controlling strain tri-axially through nano-patterning. Large-scale molecular dynamics predict fully relaxed, atomic structures for experimentally achievable nanofins, and orthogonal tight binding is used to obtain the corresponding electronic structure. Hole transport properties are then obtained via a linearized Boltzmann formalism. This approach explicitly accounts for free surfaces and associated strain relaxation as well as strain gradients which are critical for quantitative predictions in nanoscale structures. We show that the transverse strain relaxation resulting from the reduction in the aspect ratio of the fins leads to a significant enhancement in phonon limited hole mobility (7× over unstrained, bulk Ge, and 3.5× over biaxially strained Ge). Maximum enhancement is achieved by reducing the width to be approximately 1.5 times the height and further reduction in width does not result in additional gains. These results indicate significant room for improvement over current-generation Ge nanofins, provide geometrical guidelines to design optimized geometries and insight into the physics behind the significant mobility enhancement.

  16. Enhanced Graphene Photodetector with Fractal Metasurface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jieran; Wang, Di; DeVault, Clayton

    2016-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a broadband, polarization-independent photodetector by integrating graphene with a fractal Cayley tree metasurface. Our measurements show an almost uniform, tenfold enhancement in photocurrent generation due to the fractal metasurface structure.......We designed and fabricated a broadband, polarization-independent photodetector by integrating graphene with a fractal Cayley tree metasurface. Our measurements show an almost uniform, tenfold enhancement in photocurrent generation due to the fractal metasurface structure....

  17. Vessel Enhancement and Segmentation of 4D CT Lung Image Using Stick Tensor Voting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Tan; Hao, Yang; Jingli, Shi; Xuan, Yang

    2016-12-01

    Vessel enhancement and segmentation plays a significant role in medical image analysis. This paper proposes a novel vessel enhancement and segmentation method for 4D CT lung image using stick tensor voting algorithm, which focuses on addressing the vessel distortion issue of vessel enhancement diffusion (VED) method. Furthermore, the enhanced results are easily segmented using level-set segmentation. In our method, firstly, vessels are filtered using Frangi's filter to reduce intrapulmonary noises and extract rough blood vessels. Secondly, stick tensor voting algorithm is employed to estimate the correct direction along the vessel. Then the estimated direction along the vessel is used as the anisotropic diffusion direction of vessel in VED algorithm, which makes the intensity diffusion of points locating at the vessel wall be consistent with the directions of vessels and enhance the tubular features of vessels. Finally, vessels can be extracted from the enhanced image by applying level-set segmentation method. A number of experiments results show that our method outperforms traditional VED method in vessel enhancement and results in satisfied segmented vessels.

  18. Computer-enhanced thallium scintigrams in asymptomatic men with abnormal exercise tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhl, G.S.; Kay, T.N.; Hickman, J.R. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The use of treadmill testing in asymptomatic patients and those with an atypical chest pain syndrome is increasing, yet the proportion of false positive stress electrocardiograms increases as the prevalence of disease decreases. To determine the diagnostic accuracy of computer-enhanced thallium perfusion scintigraphy in this subgroup of patients, multigated thallium scans were obtained after peak exercise and 3 or 4 hours after exercise and the raw images enhanced by a computer before interpretations were made. The patient group consisted of 191 asymptomatic U.S. Air force aircrewmen who had an abnormal exercise electrocardiogram. Of these, 135 had normal coronary angiographic findings, 15 had subcritical coronary stenosis (less than 50 percent diameter narrowing) and 41 had significant coronary artery disease. Use of computer enhancement resulted in only four false positive and two false negative scintigrams. The small subgroup with subcritical coronary disease had equivocal results on thallium scintigraphy, 10 men having abnormal scans and 5 showing no defects. The clinical significance of such subcritical disease in unclear, but it can be detected with thallium scintigraphy. Thallium scintigrams that have been enhanced by readily available computer techniques are an accurate diagnostic tool even in asymptomatic patients with an easily interpretable abnormal maximal stress electrocardiogram. Thallium scans can be effectively used in counseling asymptomatic patients on the likelihood of their having coronary artery disease

  19. Investigation on the Enhanced Oxidation of Ferritic/Martensitic Steel P92 in Pure Steam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juntao Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation of ferritic/martensitic steel P92 was investigated in pure oxygen and in pure steam at 600–800 °C by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The results showed that the oxidation of P92 was significantly enhanced and multilayer scale with an outer iron oxides layer formed in pure steam. At 700 °C, the gas switch markedly influenced the scaling kinetics and scale microstructure. It was supposed that the higher affinity of iron to steam would be attributed to the enhanced oxidation of P92 in pure steam, and the much easier transport of hydroxyl would account for the significant difference induced by gas switch.

  20. Enhancement and inhibition effects on the corneal permeability of timolol maleate: Polymers, cyclodextrins and chelating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Isabel; Vázquez, José Antonio; Pastrana, Lorenzo; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2017-08-30

    This study investigates how both bioadhesive polymers (chitosan, hyaluronic acid and alginate) and permeability enhancers (ethylene glycol- bis(2-aminoethylether)- N, N, N', N'- tetraacetic acid (EGTA) and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin) influence the permeability of the anti-glaucoma drug timolol maleate through ex vivo bovine corneas. Our results showed that only the permeability enhancers alone were able to increase drug permeability, whereas the polymers significantly reduced drug permeation, and however, they increased the pre-corneal residence of timolol. Ternary systems (polymer-enhancer-drug) showed a reduced drug permeability compared to the polymers alone. Fluorescence microscopy analysis of the epithelium surface confirmed there was no evidence of epithelial disruption caused by these formulations, suggesting that polymer-enhancer interactions reduce drug solubilization and counteract the disruptive effect of the permeability enhancers on the surface of the cornea. Further mucoadhesive tests, revealed a stable interaction of chitosan and hyaluronic acid with the epithelium, while alginate showed poor mucoadhesive properties. The differences in mucoadhesion correlated with the permeability of timolol maleate observed, i.e. formulations containing mucoadhesive polymers showed lower drug permeabilities. The results of the present study indicate polymers acting as an additional barrier towards drug permeability which is even more evident in the presence of permeability enhancers like EGTA and hydroxypropyl-ß-cyclodextrin. Then, this study highlights the need to adequately select additives intended for ocular applications since interactions between them can have opposite results to what expected in terms of drug permeability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Moderate running and plyometric training during off-season did not show a significant difference on soccer-related high-intensity performances compared with no-training controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Daisuke; Suzuki, Tomohiro; Yasumatsu, Mikinobu; Akimoto, Takayuki

    2012-12-01

    Several investigators have reported the effects of reduced training and interrupted training on athletic performance, but few reports are available for soccer players. The purpose of this study was to examine, using the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 (YoYoIR2) test and sprint performance, the effects on soccer players of a reduced training program consisting of either moderate running training, plyometric training. After the completion of a competitive season, 29 male soccer players were divided into 3 groups: the running group (n = 13), the plyometric group (n = 11), and the control group (n = 5). Both training groups completed either running or plyometric training sessions 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks, whereas the control group was not allowed to perform any training. The subjects performed YoYoIR2 and 20-m sprint tests before (pre) and after (post) the experimental period. Neither training group showed any significant training effects on the YoYoIR2 performance or 20-m sprint times compared with the control group. This study suggests that neither endurance running nor plyometric training 2 d·wk(-1) for 3 weeks has a significant effect on high-intensity performance compared with a nontraining regimen. However, our results do not support complete inactivity. These results may have important implications for the management of training cessation for a few weeks.

  2. The role of attention and relatedness in emotionally enhanced memory

    OpenAIRE

    Talmi, Deborah; Schimmack, Ulrich; Paterson, Theone; Moscovitch, Morris

    2007-01-01

    Examining the positive and negative pictures separately revealed that emotionally enhanced memory (EEM) for positive pictures was mediated by attention, with no significant influence of emotional arousal, whereas the reverse was true of negative pictures. Consistent with this finding, in Experiment 2 EEM for negative pictures was found even when task emphasis was manipulated so that equivalent attention was allocated to negative and neutral pictures. The results show that attention and semant...

  3. USign--a security enhanced electronic consent model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Xie, Mengjun; Bian, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Electronic consent becomes increasingly popular in the healthcare sector given the many benefits it provides. However, security concerns, e.g., how to verify the identity of a person who is remotely accessing the electronic consent system in a secure and user-friendly manner, also arise along with the popularity of electronic consent. Unfortunately, existing electronic consent systems do not pay sufficient attention to those issues. They mainly rely on conventional password based authentication to verify the identity of an electronic consent user, which is far from being sufficient given that identity theft threat is real and significant in reality. In this paper, we present a security enhanced electronic consent model called USign. USign enhances the identity protection and authentication for electronic consent systems by leveraging handwritten signatures everyone is familiar with and mobile computing technologies that are becoming ubiquitous. We developed a prototype of USign and conducted preliminary evaluation on accuracy and usability of signature verification. Our experimental results show the feasibility of the proposed model.

  4. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology. PMID:26861509

  5. Nanocaged enzymes with enhanced catalytic activity and increased stability against protease digestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhao; Fu, Jinglin; Dhakal, Soma; Johnson-Buck, Alexander; Liu, Minghui; Zhang, Ting; Woodbury, Neal W.; Liu, Yan; Walter, Nils G.; Yan, Hao

    2016-02-01

    Cells routinely compartmentalize enzymes for enhanced efficiency of their metabolic pathways. Here we report a general approach to construct DNA nanocaged enzymes for enhancing catalytic activity and stability. Nanocaged enzymes are realized by self-assembly into DNA nanocages with well-controlled stoichiometry and architecture that enabled a systematic study of the impact of both encapsulation and proximal polyanionic surfaces on a set of common metabolic enzymes. Activity assays at both bulk and single-molecule levels demonstrate increased substrate turnover numbers for DNA nanocage-encapsulated enzymes. Unexpectedly, we observe a significant inverse correlation between the size of a protein and its activity enhancement. This effect is consistent with a model wherein distal polyanionic surfaces of the nanocage enhance the stability of active enzyme conformations through the action of a strongly bound hydration layer. We further show that DNA nanocages protect encapsulated enzymes against proteases, demonstrating their practical utility in functional biomaterials and biotechnology.

  6. Enhancement of the facial nerve at MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebarski, S.S.; Telian, S.; Niparko, J.

    1990-01-01

    In the few cases studied, normal facial nerves are reported to show no MR enhancement. Because this did not fit clinical experience, the authors designed a retrospective imaging review with anatomic correlation. Between June 1989 and June 1990, 175 patients underwent focused temporal bone MR imaging before and after administration of intravenous gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.1 mmol/kg). Exclusion criteria for the study included facial nerve dysfunction (subjective or objective); facial nerve mass; central nervous system infection, inflammation, or trauma; neurofibromatosis; or previous cranial surgery of any type. The following sequences were reviewed: GE 1.5-T axial spin-echo TR 567 msec, TE 20 msec, 256 x 192, 2.0 excitations, 20-cm field of view, 3-mm section thickness. Imaging analysis was a side-by side comparison of the images and region-of-interest quantified signal intensity. Anatomic correlation included a comparison with dissection and axial histologic sections. Ninety-three patients (aged 15-75 years) were available for imaging analysis after the exclusionary criteria were applied. With 46 patients (92 facial nerves) analyzed, they found that 76 nerves (83%) showed easily visible gadopentetate dimeglumine enhancement, especially about the geniculate ganglia. Sixteen (17%) of the 92 nerves did not show visible enhancement, but region-of-interest analysis showed increased intensity after gadopentetate dimeglumine administration. Sixteen patients (42%) showed right-to-left asymmetry in facial nerve enhancement. The facial nerves showed enhancement in the geniculate, tympanic, and fallopian portions; the facial nerve within the IAC showed no enhancement. This corresponded exactly with the topographic features of a circummeural arterial/venous plexus seen on the anatomic preparations

  7. Enhanced light output from the nano-patterned InP semiconductor substrate through the nanoporous alumina mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Seok; Jang, Byung Jin; Lee, Woo Young; Oh, Yoo-Mi; Park, Sun-Woo; Woo, Deokha

    2012-07-01

    A significant enhancement in the light output from nano-patterned InP substrate covered with a nanoporous alumina mask was observed. A uniform nanohole array on an InP semiconductor substrate was fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE), using the nanoporous alumina mask as a shadow mask. The light output property of the semiconductor substrate was investigated via photoluminescence (PL) intensity measurement. The InP substrate with a nanohole array showed a more enhanced PL intensity compared with the raw InP substrate without a nanohole structure. After ICP-RIE etching, the light output from the nanoporous InP substrate covered with a nanoporous alumina mask showed fourfold enhanced PL intensity compared with the raw InP substrate. These results can be used as a prospective method for increasing the light output efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  8. Quantum mechanical limit to plasmonic enhancement as observed by surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenqi; Crozier, Kenneth B

    2014-10-14

    Plasmonic nanostructures enable light to be concentrated into nanoscale 'hotspots', wherein the intensity of light can be enhanced by orders of magnitude. This plasmonic enhancement significantly boosts the efficiency of nanoscale light-matter interactions, enabling unique linear and nonlinear optical applications. Large enhancements are often observed within narrow gaps or at sharp tips, as predicted by the classical electromagnetic theory. Only recently has it become appreciated that quantum mechanical effects could emerge as the feature size approaches atomic length-scale. Here we experimentally demonstrate, through observations of surface-enhanced Raman scattering, that the emergence of electron tunnelling at optical frequencies limits the maximum achievable plasmonic enhancement. Such quantum mechanical effects are revealed for metallic nanostructures with gap-widths in the single-digit angstrom range by correlating each structure with its optical properties. This work furthers our understanding of quantum mechanical effects in plasmonic systems and could enable future applications of quantum plasmonics.

  9. Novel cytokinin derivatives do not show negative effects on root growth and proliferation in submicromolar range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Podlešáková

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When applied to a nutrition solution or agar media, the non-substituted aromatic cytokinins caused thickening and shortening of the primary root, had an inhibitory effect on lateral root branching, and even showed some negative effects on development of the aerial part at as low as a 10 nanomolar concentration. Novel analogues of aromatic cytokinins ranking among topolins substituted on N9-atom of adenine by tetrahydropyranyl or 4-chlorobutyl group have been prepared and tested in standardized cytokinin bioassays [1]. Those showing comparable activities with N(6-benzylaminopurine were further tested in planta. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The main aim of the study was to explain molecular mechanism of function of novel cytokinin derivatives on plant development. Precise quantification of cytokinin content and profiling of genes involved in cytokinin metabolism and perception in treated plants revealed several aspects of different action of m-methoxytopolin base and its substituted derivative on plant development. In contrast to standard cytokinins, N9- tetrahydropyranyl derivative of m-topolin and its methoxy-counterpart showed the negative effects on root development only at three orders of magnitude higher concentrations. Moreover, the methoxy-derivative demonstrates a positive effect on lateral root branching and leaf emerging in a nanomolar range of concentrations, in comparison with untreated plants. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Tetrahydropyranyl substitution at N9-position of cytokinin purine ring significantly enhances acropetal transport of a given cytokinins. Together with the methoxy-substitution, impedes accumulation of non-active cytokinin glucoside forms in roots, allows gradual release of the active base, and has a significant effect on the distribution and amount of endogenous isoprenoid cytokinins in different plant tissues. The utilization of novel aromatic cytokinin derivatives can distinctively improve expected

  10. Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Yijun [Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Department of Electronic Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zhu, Jinfeng, E-mail: nanoantenna@hotmail.com [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2015-01-26

    Enhancement and manipulation of light absorption in graphene is a significant issue for applications of graphene-based optoelectronic devices. In order to achieve this purpose in the visible region, we demonstrate a design of a graphene optical absorber inspired by metal-dielectric-metal metamaterial for perfect absorption of electromagnetic waves. The optical absorbance ratios of single and three atomic layer graphene are enhanced up to 37.5% and 64.8%, respectively. The graphene absorber shows polarization-dependence and tolerates a wide range of incident angles. Furthermore, the peak position and bandwidth of graphene absorption spectra are tunable in a wide wavelength range through a specific structural configuration. These results imply that graphene in combination with plasmonic perfect absorbers have a promising potential for developing advanced nanophotonic devices.

  11. Enhancement of Jahani (Firouzabad salt dome lithological units, using principal components analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houshang Pourcaseb

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, principal components analysis was used to investigate lithological characteristics of Jahani salt dome, Firouzabad. The spectral curves of rocks in the study area show that the evaporate rocks have the highest reflectance at specified wavelengths. The highest reflection has been seen in gypsum and white salt, while minimal reflection can be observed in the igneous rocks from the region. The results show that PCs have significantly low information. It is clear that PC1 shows more information in the highest variance while PC2 has less information. Regional geological map and field controls show compatibility between the enhanced zones and outcrops in the field.

  12. Penetration enhancer-containing vesicles (PEVs) as carriers for cutaneous delivery of minoxidil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Simona; Manconi, Maria; Sinico, Chiara; Valenti, Donatella; Fadda, Anna Maria

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of a few different penetration enhancers to produce elastic vesicles with soy lecithin and the influence of the obtained vesicles on in vitro (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil. To this purpose, so-called Penetration Enhancer-containing Vesicles (PEVs) were prepared as dehydrated-rehydrated vesicles by using soy lecithin and different amounts of three penetration enhancers, 2-(2-ethoxyethoxy)ethanol (Transcutol), capryl-caproyl macrogol 8-glyceride (Labrasol), and cineole. Soy lecithin liposomes, without penetration enhancers, were used as control. Prepared formulations were characterized in terms of size distribution, morphology, zeta potential, and vesicle deformability. The influence of PEVs on (trans)dermal delivery of minoxidil was studied by in vitro diffusion experiments through newborn pig skin in comparison with traditional liposomes and ethanolic solutions of the drug also containing each penetration enhancer. A skin pre-treatment study using empty PEVs and conventional liposomes was also carried out. Results showed that all the used penetration enhancers were able to give more deformable vesicles than conventional liposomes with a good drug entrapment efficiency and stability. In vitro skin penetration data showed that PEVs were able to give a statistically significant improvement of minoxidil deposition in the skin in comparison with classic liposomes and penetration enhancer-containing drug ethanolic solutions without any transdermal delivery. Moreover, the most deformable PEVs, prepared with Labrasol and cineole, were also able to deliver to the skin a higher total amount of minoxidil than the PE alcoholic solutions thus suggesting that minoxidil delivery to the skin was strictly correlated to vesicle deformability, and therefore to vesicle composition.

  13. Dynamic and delayed contrast enhancement in upper abdominal MRI studies: Comparison of gadoxetic acid and gadobutrol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zizka, Jan [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Sokolska 581, CZ-500 05 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: zizka@fnhk.cz; Klzo, Ludovit [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Sokolska 581, CZ-500 05 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiri [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Mrklovsky, Milan [Department of Radiology and Imaging Centre Pardubice, Regional Hospital, Kyjevska 44, CZ-530 01 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Bukac, Josef [Department of Biophysics, Medical Faculty, Charles University, Simkova 870, CZ-500 38 Hradec Kralove (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Objective: To prospectively compare contrast properties of extracelullar (gadobutrol) and hepatospecific (gadoxetic acid) contrast agents in upper abdominal MRI studies. Materials and methods: Standardized (0.1 ml/kg) dose of gadobutrol (56 subjects) and gadoxetic acid (51 subjects) was administered intravenously by MRI-compatible injector at 2 ml/s, followed by 20 ml saline flush. MR signal intensity changes (SIC) between precontrast scans and arterial phase, portal venous phase, equilibrium, and delayed scans at 10 and 20 min were measured in abdominal aorta, portal vein, common bile duct, liver, and spleen. Mean SIC values for gadobutrol and gadoxetic acid were compared by a two-sample t-test with p-value <0.05 considered significant. Results: In abdominal aorta, the mean SIC in the arterial phase did not significantly differ between gadobutrol (330%) and gadoxetic acid (295%). In portal vein, the mean SIC in the portal venous phase significantly differed between gadobutrol (267%) and gadoxetic acid (176%). Liver parenchyma enhancement was significantly higher for gadobutrol than for gadoxetic acid in both arterial phase (28 versus 13%) and portal venous phase (81 versus 46%). On the contrary, gadobutrol reached significantly lower mean SIC in the liver on delayed scans at 10 min (47 versus 59%) and 20 min (40 versus 67%), as well as in common bile duct at 10 min (54 versus 133%) and 20 min (57 versus 457%), respectively. In the spleen, mean SIC for gadobutrol was significantly higher at all phases. Conclusion: Gadobutrol showed superior enhancement of upper abdominal structures in the dynamic phases whereas gadoxetic acid showed better enhancement of the hepatobiliary structures on delayed scans.

  14. Regulation of the neuropathy-associated Pmp22 gene by a distal super-enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantera, Harrison; Moran, John J; Hung, Holly A; Pak, Evgenia; Dutra, Amalia; Svaren, John

    2018-05-16

    Peripheral nerve myelination is adversely affected in the most common form of the hereditary peripheral neuropathy called Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease. This form, classified as CMT1A, is caused by a 1.4 Mb duplication on chromosome 17, which includes the abundantly expressed Schwann cell myelin gene, Peripheral Myelin Protein 22 (PMP22). This is one of the most common copy number variants causing neurological disease. Overexpression of Pmp22 in rodent models recapitulates several aspects of neuropathy, and reduction of Pmp22 in such models results in amelioration of the neuropathy phenotype. Recently we identified a potential super-enhancer approximately 90-130 kb upstream of the Pmp22 transcription start sites. This super-enhancer encompasses a cluster of individual enhancers that have the acetylated histone H3K27 active enhancer mark, and coincides with smaller duplications identified in patients with milder CMT1A-like symptoms, where the PMP22 coding region itself was not part of the duplication. In this study, we have utilized genome editing to create a deletion of this super-enhancer to determine its role in Pmp22 regulation. Our data show a significant decrease in Pmp22 transcript expression using allele-specific internal controls. Moreover, the P2 promoter of the Pmp22 gene, which is used in other cell types, is affected, but we find that the Schwann cell-specific P1 promoter is disproportionately more sensitive to loss of the super-enhancer. These data show for the first time the requirement of these upstream enhancers for full Pmp22 expression.

  15. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi

    2012-09-01

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  16. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A' iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); School of Chemicals and Material Engineering, NUST Islamabad (Pakistan); Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  17. Electron beam irradiation of gemstone for color enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, Sarada; Ghazali, Zulkafli; Hashim, Siti A'iasah; Ahmad, Shamshad; Jusoh, Mohd Suhaimi

    2012-01-01

    Numerous treatment of gemstones has been going on for hundreds of years for enhancing color and clarity of gems devoid of these attributes. Whereas previous practices included fraudulent or otherwise processes to achieve the color enhancement, the ionizing radiation has proven to be a reliable and reproducible technique. Three types of irradiation processes include exposure to gamma radiation, electron beam irradiation and the nuclear power plants. Electron Beam Irradiation of Gemstone is a technique in which a gemstone is exposed to highly ionizing radiation electron beam to knock off electrons to generate color centers culminating in introduction of deeper colors. The color centers may be stable or unstable. Below 9MeV, normally no radioactivity is introduced in the exposed gems. A study was conducted at Electron Beam Irradiation Centre (Alurtron) for gemstone color enhancement by using different kind of precious gemstones obtained from Pakistan. The study shows that EB irradiation not only enhances the color but can also improves the clarity of some type of gemstones. The treated stones included kunzite, tourmaline, topaz, quartz, aquamarine and cultured pearls. Doses ranging from 25 kGy to 200 KGy were employed to assess the influence of doses on color and clarity and to select the optimum doses. The samples used included both the natural and the faceted gemstones. It is concluded that significant revenue generation is associated with the enhancement of the color in clarity of gemstones which are available at very cheap price in the world market.

  18. Impact significance determination-Designing an approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how best to go about determining the significance of impacts has, to date, only been addressed in a partial and preliminary way. The assumption tends to be made that it is either only necessary to provide explicit, justified reasons for a judgment about significance and/or to explicitly apply a prescribed procedure-a procedure usually involving the staged application of thresholds and/or criteria. The detailed attributes, strengths and limitations of such approaches and possible alternative approaches have yet to be explored systematically. This article addresses these deficiencies by analyzing the characteristics, specific methods and positive and negative tendencies of three general impact significance determination approaches-the technical approach, the collaborative approach and the reasoned argumentation approach. A range of potential composite approaches are also described. With an enhanced understanding of these approaches, together with potential combinations, EIA practitioners and other EIA participants can be in a better position to select an approach appropriate to their needs, to reinforce the positive tendencies and offset the negative tendencies of the selected approach and to combine the best qualities of more than one approach

  19. FDG-PET/contrast-enhanced CT as a post-treatment tool in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: comparison with FDG-PET/non-contrast-enhanced CT and contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suenaga, Yuko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Sugimura, Kazuro [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Kobe (Japan); Ishihara, Takeaki; Sasaki, Ryohei [Kobe University Graduate, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Kobe (Japan); Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi [Kobe University Graduate, School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Kobe (Japan); Minamikawa, Tsutomu [Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kobe (Japan); Kiyota, Naomi [Kobe University Hospital, Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Kobe (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate the accuracy of PET/CT using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) with IV contrast for suspected recurrent head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). One hundred and seventy patients previously treated for HNSCC underwent PET/CT, consisting of non-contrast-enhanced and contrast-enhanced CT, to investigate suspected recurrence. Diagnostic performance of PET/contrast-enhanced CT (PET/ceCT), PET/non-contrast-enhanced CT (PET/ncCT) and contrast-enhanced CT (ceCT) for local or regional recurrence, distant metastasis, overall recurrence and second primary cancer was evaluated. The reference standard included histopathology, treatment change and imaging follow-up. The patient-based areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for ceCT, PET/ncCT and PET/ceCT were 0.82, 0.96 and 0.98 for local recurrence, 0.73, 0.86 and 0.86 for regional recurrence, 0.86, 0.91 and 0.92 for distant metastasis, 0.72, 0.86 and 0.87 for overall recurrence, and 0.86, 0.89 and 0.91 for a second primary cancer. Both PET/ceCT and PET/ncCT statistically showed larger AUC than ceCT for recurrence, and the difference between PET/ceCT and PET/ncCT for local recurrence reached a significant level (p = 0.039). The accuracy of PET/ceCT for diagnosing overall recurrence was high, irrespective of the time interval after the last treatment (83.3-94.1 %). FDG-PET/CT was a more accurate HNSCC restaging tool than ceCT. The added value of ceCT at FDG-PET/CT is minimal. (orig.)

  20. Impacts of chemical enhancers on skin permeation and deposition of terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdal, Meryem Sedef; Peköz, Ayca Yıldız; Aksu, Buket; Araman, Ahmet

    2014-08-01

    The addition of chemical enhancers into formulations is the most commonly employed approach to overcome the skin barrier. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of vehicle and chemical enhancers on the skin permeation and accumulation of terbinafine, an allylamine antifungal drug. Terbinafine (1% w/w) was formulated as a Carbopol 934 P gel formulation in presence and absence of three chemical enhancers, nerolidol, dl-limonene and urea. Terbinafine distribution and deposition in stratum corneum (SC) and skin following 8-h ex vivo permeation study was determined using a sequential tape stripping procedure. The conformational order of SC lipids was investigated by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Nerolidol containing gel formulation produced significantly higher enhancement in terbinafine permeation through skin and its skin accumulation was increased. ATR-FTIR results showed enhancer induced lipid bilayer disruption in SC. Urea resulted in enhanced permeation of terbinafine across the skin and a balanced distribution to the SC was achieved. But, dl-limonene could not minimize the accumulation of terbinafine in the upper SC. Nerolidol dramatically improved the skin permeation and deposition of terbinafine in the skin that might help to optimize targeting of the drug to the epidermal sites as required for both of superficial and deep cutaneous fungal infections.

  1. The 130 GeV gamma-ray line and Sommerfeld enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jing; Zhou, Yu-Feng

    2013-01-01

    Recently, possible indications of line spectral features in the Fermi-LAT photon spectrum towards the galactic center have been reported. If the distinct line features arise from dark matter (DM) annihilation into γX(X = γ,Z 0 or h 0 ), the corresponding annihilation cross-section is unnaturally large for typical loop-induced radiative processes. On the other hand, it is still too small to be responsible for the observed DM relic density. We show that the mechanism of Sommerfeld enhancement with scalar force-carrier can provide a simple solution to these puzzles. The possibly large Sommerfeld enhancement of the cross-section for s-wave DM annihilation can significantly reduce the required effective couplings between DM and charged particles in typical loop diagrams. The DM particles necessarily annihilate into scalar force-carriers through tree-level p-wave process, which can dominate the total DM annihilation cross-section at freeze out, resulting in the correct thermal relic density, but has subdominant contributions to the DM annihilation today due to velocity suppression. We perform detailed analysis on the effects of p-wave Sommerfeld enhancement on freeze out. The results show that with the constraints from the thermal relic density, the required effective couplings can be reduced by an order of magnitude

  2. Simulating Surface-Enhanced Hyper-Raman Scattering Using Atomistic Electrodynamics-Quantum Mechanical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongwei; Chulhai, Dhabih V; Jensen, Lasse

    2016-12-13

    Surface-enhanced hyper-Raman scattering (SEHRS) is the two-photon analogue of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which has proven to be a powerful tool to study molecular structures and surface enhancements. However, few theoretical approaches to SEHRS exist and most neglect the atomistic descriptions of the metal surface and molecular resonance effects. In this work, we present two atomistic electrodynamics-quantum mechanical models to simulate SEHRS. The first is the discrete interaction model/quantum mechanical (DIM/QM) model, which combines an atomistic electrodynamics model of the nanoparticle with a time-dependent density functional theory description of the molecule. The second model is a dressed-tensors method that describes the molecule as a point-dipole and point-quadrupole object interacting with the enhanced local field and field-gradients (FG) from the nanoparticle. In both of these models, the resonance effects are treated efficiently by means of damped quadratic response theory. Using these methods, we simulate SEHRS spectra for benzene and pyridine. Our results show that the FG effects in SEHRS play an important role in determining both the surface selection rules and the enhancements. We find that FG effects are more important in SEHRS than in SERS. We also show that the spectral features of small molecules can be accurately described by accounting for the interactions between the molecule and the local field and FG of the nanoparticle. However, at short distances between the metal and molecule, we find significant differences in the SEHRS enhancements predicted using the DIM/QM and the dressed-tensors methods.

  3. An Enhanced TIMESAT Algorithm for Estimating Vegetation Phenology Metrics from MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bin; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Wolfe, Robert E.; Gao, Feng; Ederer, Gregory A.; Nightingale, Joanne; Pedelty, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    An enhanced TIMESAT algorithm was developed for retrieving vegetation phenology metrics from 250 m and 500 m spatial resolution Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation indexes (VI) over North America. MODIS VI data were pre-processed using snow-cover and land surface temperature data, and temporally smoothed with the enhanced TIMESAT algorithm. An objective third derivative test was applied to define key phenology dates and retrieve a set of phenology metrics. This algorithm has been applied to two MODIS VIs: Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). In this paper, we describe the algorithm and use EVI as an example to compare three sets of TIMESAT algorithm/MODIS VI combinations: a) original TIMESAT algorithm with original MODIS VI, b) original TIMESAT algorithm with pre-processed MODIS VI, and c) enhanced TIMESAT and pre-processed MODIS VI. All retrievals were compared with ground phenology observations, some made available through the National Phenology Network. Our results show that for MODIS data in middle to high latitude regions, snow and land surface temperature information is critical in retrieving phenology metrics from satellite observations. The results also show that the enhanced TIMESAT algorithm can better accommodate growing season start and end dates that vary significantly from year to year. The TIMESAT algorithm improvements contribute to more spatial coverage and more accurate retrievals of the phenology metrics. Among three sets of TIMESAT/MODIS VI combinations, the start of the growing season metric predicted by the enhanced TIMESAT algorithm using pre-processed MODIS VIs has the best associations with ground observed vegetation greenup dates.

  4. Pumilio2-deficient mice show a predisposition for epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Follwaczny

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disease that is caused by abnormal hypersynchronous activities of neuronal ensembles leading to recurrent and spontaneous seizures in human patients. Enhanced neuronal excitability and a high level of synchrony between neurons seem to trigger these spontaneous seizures. The molecular mechanisms, however, regarding the development of neuronal hyperexcitability and maintenance of epilepsy are still poorly understood. Here, we show that pumilio RNA-binding family member 2 (Pumilio2; Pum2 plays a role in the regulation of excitability in hippocampal neurons of weaned and 5-month-old male mice. Almost complete deficiency of Pum2 in adult Pum2 gene-trap mice (Pum2 GT causes misregulation of genes involved in neuronal excitability control. Interestingly, this finding is accompanied by the development of spontaneous epileptic seizures in Pum2 GT mice. Furthermore, we detect an age-dependent increase in Scn1a (Nav1.1 and Scn8a (Nav1.6 mRNA levels together with a decrease in Scn2a (Nav1.2 transcript levels in weaned Pum2 GT that is absent in older mice. Moreover, field recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons show a tendency towards a reduced paired-pulse inhibition after stimulation of the Schaffer-collateral-commissural pathway in Pum2 GT mice, indicating a predisposition to the development of spontaneous seizures at later stages. With the onset of spontaneous seizures at the age of 5 months, we detect increased protein levels of Nav1.1 and Nav1.2 as well as decreased protein levels of Nav1.6 in those mice. In addition, GABA receptor subunit alpha-2 (Gabra2 mRNA levels are increased in weaned and adult mice. Furthermore, we observe an enhanced GABRA2 protein level in the dendritic field of the CA1 subregion in the Pum2 GT hippocampus. We conclude that altered expression levels of known epileptic risk factors such as Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and GABRA2 result in enhanced seizure susceptibility and manifestation of epilepsy in the

  5. Polycrystalline Si nanoparticles and their strong aging enhancement of blue photoluminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shikuan; Cai, Weiping; Zeng, Haibo; Li, Zhigang

    2008-07-01

    Nearly spherical polycrystalline Si nanoparticles with 20 nm diameter were fabricated based on laser ablation of silicon wafer immersed in sodium dodecyl sulfate aqueous solution. Such Si nanoparticles consist of disordered areas and ultrafine grains of 3 nm in mean size and exhibit significant photoluminescence in blue region. Importantly, aging at ambient air leads to continuing enhancement of the emission (more than 130 times higher in 16 weeks) showing stable and strong blue emission. This aging enhancement is attributed to progressive passivation of nonradiative Pb centers corresponding to silicon dangling bonds on the particles' surface. This study could be helpful in pushing Si into optoelectronic field and Si-based full color display, biomedical tagging, and flash memories.

  6. Realistic-contact-induced enhancement of rectifying in carbon-nanotube/graphene-nanoribbon junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Li, Xiao-Fei; Wang, Ling-Ling; Xu, Liang; Luo, Kai-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Carbon-nanotube/graphene-nanoribbon junctions were recently fabricated by the controllable etching of single-walled carbon-nanotubes [Wei et al., Nat. Commun. 4, 1374 (2013)] and their electronic transport properties were studied here. First principles results reveal that the transmission function of the junctions show a heavy dependence on the shape of contacts, but rectifying is an inherent property which is insensitive to the details of contacts. Interestingly, the rectifying ratio is largely enhanced in the junction with a realistic contact and the enhancement is insensitive to the details of contact structures. The stability of rectifying suggests a significant feasibility to manufacture realistic all-carbon rectifiers in nanoelectronics

  7. FDG-avid portal vein tumor thrombosis from hepatocellular carcinoma in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canh Nguyen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we aimed to describe the characteristics of portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT, complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. Methods: In this retrospective study, 9 HCC patients with FDG-avid PVTT were diagnosed by contrast-enhanced fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT, which is a combination of dynamic liver CT scan, multiphase imaging, and whole-body PET scan. PET and CT DICOM images of patients were imported into the PET/CT imaging system for the re-analysis of contrast enhancement and FDG uptake in thrombus, the diameter of the involved portal vein, and characteristics of liver tumors and metastasis. Results: Two patients with previously untreated HCC and 7 cases with previously treated HCC had FDG-avid PVTT in contrast-enhanced FDG PET/CT scan. During the arterial phase of CT scan, portal vein thrombus showed contrast enhancement in 8 out of 9 patients (88.9%. PET scan showed an increased linear FDG uptake along the thrombosed portal vein in all patients. The mean greatest diameter of thrombosed portal veins was 1.8 ± 0.2 cm, which was significantly greater than that observed in normal portal veins (P<0.001. FDG uptake level in portal vein thrombus was significantly higher than that of blood pool in the reference normal portal vein (P=0.001. PVTT was caused by the direct extension of liver tumors. All patients had visible FDG-avid liver tumors in contrast-enhanced images. Five out of 9 patients (55.6% had no extrahepatic metastasis, 3 cases (33.3% had metastasis of regional lymph nodes, and 1 case (11.1% presented with distant metastasis. The median estimated survival time of patients was 5 months. Conclusion: The intraluminal filling defect consistent with thrombous within the portal vein, expansion of the involved portal vein, contrast enhancement, and linear increased FDG uptake of the thrombus extended from liver tumor are

  8. Usefulness of percentage enhancement washout value calculated on unenhanced, contrast-enhanced, and delayed enhanced CT in adrenal masses: adenoma versus metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Kyung Myung; Lee, Sung Yong; Lee, Keun Ho

    2003-01-01

    To determine the usefulness of percentage enhancement washout value calculated on unenhanced, enhanced and delayed enhanced CT scans for the characterization of adrenal masses. Forty adrenal masses less than 5 cm in size were assessed using a protocol consisting of unenhanced CT, enhanced CT 60 seconds after intravenous administration of contrast material, and delayed enhanced CT at 10 minutes. The CT attenuation value of adrenal tumors was estimated on each scan, and percentage enhancement washout value was calculated as follows:[(attenuation value at enhanced CT-attenuation value at delayed CT)/ (attenuation value at enhanced CT-attenuation value at unenhanced CT)x100]. An adrenal mass was considered benign if its percentage enhancement washout value was at the threshold value, set to 60% and 50%, or higher. The accuracy of the procedure was determined by comparing its findings with the final clinical diagnosis. Twenty-nine massess were benign and 11 were malignant. The mean percentage enhancement washout value of the former was significantly higher than that of the latter (66.7% vs. 21.8%; p<0.01). All adenomas except one had a washout value of more than 50%. With a percentage washout threshold of 60%, 35 of 40 lesions were correctly characterized as benign or malignant [sensitivity 82.7% (24/29), specificity 100% (11/11), accuracy 87.5% (35/40)]; with a threshold of 50%, 39 of 40 lesions were correctly characterized [(sensitivity 96.5% (28/29), specificity 100% (11/11), accuracy 97.5% (39/40)]. Percentage enhancement washout values are useful for characterizing an adrenal mass as benign or malignant. For characterization, a threshold value of 50% was more accurate than one of 60%

  9. Evaluation of Enhanced Low Dose Rate Sensitivity in Discrete Bipolar Junction Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dakai; Ladbury Raymond; LaBel, Kenneth; Topper, Alyson; Ladbury, Raymond; Triggs, Brian; Kazmakites, Tony

    2012-01-01

    We evaluate the low dose rate sensitivity in several families of discrete bipolar transistors across device parameter, quality assurance level, and irradiation bias configuration. The 2N2222 showed the most significant low dose rate sensitivity, with low dose rate enhancement factor of 3.91 after 100 krad(Si). The 2N2907 also showed critical degradation levels. The devices irradiated at 10 mrad(Si)/s exceeded specifications after 40 and 50 krad(Si) for the 2N2222 and 2N2907 devices, respectively.

  10. The impact of emotion on perception: bias or enhanced processing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, René; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Rotteveel, Mark

    2006-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that emotionally significant stimuli are often better identified than neutral stimuli. It is not clear, however, whether these results are due to enhanced perceptual processing or to a bias favoring the identification of emotionally significant stimuli over neutral stimuli. The present study used a two-alternative forced-choice perceptual identification task to disentangle the effects of bias and enhanced processing. We found that emotionally significant targets were better identified than neutral targets. In contrast, the emotional significance of the foil alternative had no effect on performance. The present results support the hypothesis that perceptual encoding of emotionally significant stimuli is enhanced.

  11. Histopathologic diversity of gastric cancers: Relationship between enhancement pattern on dynamic contrast-enhanced CT and histological type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurumaru, Daisuke; Miyasaka, Mitsutoshi; Muraki, Toshio; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Oki, Eiji; Oda, Yoshinao; Honda, Hiroshi

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of contrast-enhanced computed tomography gastrography (CE-CTG) to predict the histological type of gastric cancer. We analyzed 47 consecutive patients with resectable advanced gastric cancer preoperatively evaluated by multiphasic dynamic contrast-enhanced CT. Two radiologists independently reviewed the CT images and they determined the peak enhancement phase, and then measured the CT attenuation value of the gastric lesion for each phase. The histological types of gastric cancers were assigned to three groups as differentiated-type, undifferentiated-type, and mixed-type. We compared the peak enhancement phase of the three types and compared the CT attenuation values in each phase. The peak enhancement was significantly different between the three types of gastric cancers for both readers (reader 1, p=0.001; reader 2, p=0.009); most of the undifferentiated types had peak enhancement in the delayed phase. The CT attenuation values of undifferentiated type were significantly higher than those of differentiated or mixed type in the delayed phase according to both readers (reader 1, p=0.002; reader 2, p=0.004). CE-CTG could provide helpful information in diagnosing the histological type of gastric cancers preoperatively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR of the prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia: correlation with angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Xinchu; Shen Junkang; Lu Zhian; Zhou Lijuan; Yang Xiaochun; Wang Guanzhong; Zhang Caiyuan; Wang Shuizhen; Qian Minghui; Chan Yuxi; Qian Nong; Xiang Jianpo; Pan Changjie; Rong Weiliang; Chen Jianguo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the role of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnose of prostatic cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and to determine the correlation between dynamic MRI findings with angiogenesis. Methods: Thirty-two cases of prostatic cancer and 40 cases of BPH underwent dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. All the patients in this study were diagnosed by histopathology. The results of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were evaluated by early-phase enhancement parameters and time-signal intensity curves (SI-T curves), and the curves were classified according to their shapes as type I, which had steady enhancement; type II, plateau of signal intensity; and type III, washout of signal intensity. The pathologic specimens of region of interest (ROI ) were obtained, and HE staining, immunohistochemical vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and microvessel density (MVD) measurements were performed. The relationships among dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI features, VEGF, and MVD expression were analyzed. Results: In the early-phase enhancement parameters of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, onset time, maximum signal intensity, and early-phase enhancement rate differed between prostatic cancer and BPH (P<0.01, 0.05, 0.01), but there were some overlaps between them. The intermediate and late post-contrast periods were characterized with the lesion SI-T curves. The SI-T curve of prostatic cancer was mainly type III (21 cases). Type II could be seen in both prostatic cancer (8 cases) and BPH (19 cases). Type I most appeared in BPH (18 cases). The distributions proved to have significant difference (P<0.001). The mean VEGF and MVD level of 32 prostatic cancer patients were significantly higher than those of 40 BPH patients (P<0.001). MVD level of prostatic cancer and BPH showed an association with VEGF level (P<0.01). The maximum signal intensity and early-phase enhancement rate in both prostatic cancer and BPH showed an association

  13. Ionic enhancement of silica surface nanowear in electrolyte solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-11-20

    The nanoscale wear and friction of silica and silicon nitride surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions were investigated by using sharp atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever tips coated with silicon nitride. Measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions of varying pH and in monovalent and divalent cation chloride and nitrate solutions. The silica surface was shown to wear strongly in solutions of high pH (≈11.0), as expected, but the presence of simple cations, such as Cs+ and Ca2+, was shown to dramatically effect the wear depth and friction force for the silica surface. In the case of monovalent cations, their hydration enthalpies correlated well with the wear and friction. The weakest hydrated cation of Cs+ showed the most significant enhancement of wear and friction. In the case of divalent cations, a complex dependence on the type of cation was found, where the type of anion was also seen to play an important role. The CaCl2 solution showed the anomalous enhancement of wear depth and friction force, although the solution of Ca(NO3)2 did not. The present results obtained with an AFM tip were also compared with previous nanotribology studies of silica surfaces in electrolyte solutions, and possible molecular mechanisms as to why cations enhance the wear and friction were also discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  14. Ionic enhancement of silica surface nanowear in electrolyte solutions

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Teramoto, Naofumi; McNamee, Cathy E.; Marston, Jeremy; Higashitani, Ko

    2012-01-01

    The nanoscale wear and friction of silica and silicon nitride surfaces in aqueous electrolyte solutions were investigated by using sharp atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever tips coated with silicon nitride. Measurements were carried out in aqueous solutions of varying pH and in monovalent and divalent cation chloride and nitrate solutions. The silica surface was shown to wear strongly in solutions of high pH (≈11.0), as expected, but the presence of simple cations, such as Cs+ and Ca2+, was shown to dramatically effect the wear depth and friction force for the silica surface. In the case of monovalent cations, their hydration enthalpies correlated well with the wear and friction. The weakest hydrated cation of Cs+ showed the most significant enhancement of wear and friction. In the case of divalent cations, a complex dependence on the type of cation was found, where the type of anion was also seen to play an important role. The CaCl2 solution showed the anomalous enhancement of wear depth and friction force, although the solution of Ca(NO3)2 did not. The present results obtained with an AFM tip were also compared with previous nanotribology studies of silica surfaces in electrolyte solutions, and possible molecular mechanisms as to why cations enhance the wear and friction were also discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  15. Contrast enhanced CT of spinal cord angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takahiko; Ebitani, Tsutomu; Honma, Takao; Sofue, Muroto; Nakamura, Shigeru

    1982-01-01

    Contrast enhanced CT on 6 patients with spinal cord angioma showed enhancement in 2 of them. The conditions to produce contrast enhancement were the window width of 100 - 200, and the window level of 0 - 50. In spinal cord angioma, contrast enhanced CT is presently only an adjunct to angiography and myelography. Nevertheless, contrast enhanced CT is useful in the screening test for spinal cord angioma, in the patients who are nonindicated to angiography, and in the postoperative follow-up. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Postoperative enhancement on breast MRI: Time course and pattern of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Mary C; Sharda, Radhika G

    2018-04-23

    Expected postoperative enhancement on breast MRI can appear similar to enhancement seen in recurrent or residual malignancy. Our aim was to assess the time course and patterns of enhancement at the surgical site, thereby helping to distinguish between benign and malignant postoperative enhancement. In 200 MRI scans performed in 153 patients after breast conservation treatment, 43 after surgical excision of atypia, and 4 patients after benign excisional biopsy were categorized by postoperative time interval. We defined 4 patterns of morphologic enhancement on MRI: cavity wall/seroma (Pattern I); thin linear (Pattern II); mass (Pattern III); and fat necrosis (Pattern IV). Of 200 MRI scans, 66 (33%) demonstrated enhancement at the surgical site. Enhancement typically decreased through the postoperative follow-up period. Enhancement was observed in 41% (28/68) of cases beyond the 18-month interval but was uncommon after 5 years. Pattern III enhancement was the morphologic pattern seen most commonly with malignancy (5/19 cases, 26%). When associated with delayed washout kinetics, it was even more strongly predictive of malignancy (4/5 cases, 80%). In patients with a history of excisional biopsy and no prior radiation treatment, the percentage of MRI scans showing enhancement was significantly lower than (21% vs 49% with P-value .0027) in patients who had undergone radiation. Enhancement at the surgical site occurred in one-third of cases up to 5 years after surgery, particularly in patients who underwent both radiation and surgery. Mass enhancement, particularly in conjunction with delayed washout kinetics, is most predictive of malignancy and should prompt biopsy or re-excision. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Enhanced anastomotic healing by Daikenchuto (TJ-100) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Toshiaki; Kawada, Kenji; Hirai, Kenjiro; Toda, Kosuke; Iwamoto, Masayoshi; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2018-01-18

    Daikenchuto (DKT), a traditional Japanese medicine, is widely used to treat various gastrointestinal disorders. This study aimed to investigate whether DKT could promote the anastomotic healing in a rat model. Pedicled colonic segments were made in left colon by ligation of the feeding arteries, and then intestinal continuity was restored. Colonic blood flow was analyzed by using ICG fluorescence imaging: Fmax, Tmax, T1/2, and Slope were calculated. Anastomotic leakage (AL) was found in 6 of 19 rats (31.6%) in the control group, whereas in 1 of 16 rats (6.2%) in the DKT group. The Fmax and Slope of DKT group were significantly higher than those of control group. DKT could promote the anastomotic healing, with the higher bursting pressure on postoperative day (POD) 2 and 5, the larger granulation thickness on POD 5, and neoangiogenesis on POD 5. Histological examination showed DKT exhibited a decreased inflammatory cell infiltration, enhanced fibroblast infiltration, and enhanced collagen density on POD 5. In the DKT group, the levels of TGFβ1 on POD 2 and VEGFα on POD5 were significantly higher, whereas the level of TNFα on POD 2 was significantly lower. Therefore, DKT could be effective for the prevention of AL following colorectal surgery.

  18. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  19. Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT: initial experience in children and young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2017-01-01

    Clinical utility of myocardial delayed enhancement CT has not been reported in children and young adults. To describe initial experience of myocardial delayed enhancement CT regarding image quality, radiation dose and identification of myocardial lesions in children and young adults. Between August 2013 and November 2016, 29 consecutive children and young adults (median age 16 months) with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality underwent arterial- and delayed-phase cardiac CT at our institution. We measured CT densities in normal myocardium, left ventricular cavity, and arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing myocardial lesions. We then compared the extent of delayed hyperenhancing lesions with delayed-enhancement MRI or thallium single-photon emission CT. Normal myocardium and left ventricular cavity showed significantly higher CT numbers on arterial-phase CT than on delayed-phase CT (t-test, P<0.0001). Contrast-to-noise ratios of the arterial and delayed hypo-enhancing and delayed hyperenhancing lesions on CT were 26.7, 17.6 and 18.7, respectively. Delayed-phase CT findings were equivalent to those of delayed-enhancement MRI in all cases (7/7) and to those of thallium single-photon emission CT in 70% (7/10). Myocardial delayed-enhancement CT can be added to evaluate myocardial lesions in select children and young adults with suspected coronary artery or myocardial abnormality. (orig.)

  20. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  1. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  2. Enhancing gene delivery of adeno-associated viruses by cell-permeable peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarong Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus type 2 (AAV2 is considered a promising gene delivery vector and has been extensively applied in several disease models; however, inefficient transduction in various cells and tissues has limited its widespread application in many areas of gene therapy. In this study, we have developed a general, but efficient, strategy to enhance viral transduction, both in vitro and in vivo, by incubating viral particles with cell-permeable peptides (CPPs. We show that CPPs increase internalization of viral particles into cells by facilitating both energy-independent and energy-dependent endocytosis. Moreover, CPPs can significantly enhance the endosomal escape process of viral particles, thus enhancing viral transduction to those cells that have exhibited very low permissiveness to AAV2 infection as a result of impaired intracellular viral processing. We also demonstrated that this approach could be applicable to other AAV serotypes. Thus, the membrane-penetrating ability of CPPs enables us to generate an efficient method for enhanced gene delivery of AAV vectors, potentially facilitating its applicability to human gene therapy.

  3. Evaluation of the aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index and enhanced liver fibrosis tests to detect significant fibrosis due to chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, John R; Stevenson, Heather L; Kasturi, Krishna S; Naniwadekar, Ashutosh; Parkes, Julie; Cross, Richard; Rosenberg, William M; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Snyder, Ned

    2014-04-01

    The assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C patients is important for prognosis and making decisions regarding antiviral treatment. Although liver biopsy is considered the reference standard for assessing hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C, it is invasive and associated with sampling and interobserver variability. Serum fibrosis markers have been utilized as surrogates for a liver biopsy. We completed a prospective study of 191 patients in which blood draws and liver biopsies were performed on the same visit. Using liver biopsies the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values for both aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI) and enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) were determined. The patients were divided into training and validation patient sets to develop and validate a clinically useful algorithm for differentiating mild and significant fibrosis. The area under the ROC curve for the APRI and ELF tests for the training set was 0.865 and 0.880, respectively. The clinical sensitivity in separating mild (F0-F1) from significant fibrosis (F2-F4) was 80% and 86.0% with a clinical specificity of 86.7% and 77.8%, respectively. For the validation sets the area under the ROC curve for the APRI and ELF tests was, 0.855 and 0.780, respectively. The clinical sensitivity of the APRI and ELF tests in separating mild (F0-F1) from significant (F2-F4) fibrosis for the validation set was 90.0% and 70.0% with a clinical specificity of 73.3% and 86.7%, respectively. There were no differences between the APRI and ELF tests in distinguishing mild from significant fibrosis for either the training or validation sets (P=0.61 and 0.20, respectively). Using APRI as the primary test followed by ELF for patients in the intermediate zone, would have decreased the number of liver biopsies needed by 40% for the validation set. Overall, use of our algorithm would have decreased the number of patients who needed a liver biopsy

  4. In vitro percutaneous absorption enhancement of granisetron by chemical penetration enhancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nanxi; Cun, Dongmei; Li, Wei; Ma, Xu; Sun, Lin; Xi, Honglei; Li, Li; Fang, Liang

    2013-04-01

    Granisetron (GRN), a potent antiemetic agent, is frequently used to prevent nausea and vomiting induced by cancer cytotoxic chemotherapy and radiation therapy. As part of our efforts to further modify the physicochemical properties of this market drug, with the ultimate goal to formulate a better dosage form for GRN, this work was carried out to improve its permeability in vitro. The permeation behavior of GRN in isopropyl myristate (IPM) was investigated across excised rabbit abdominal skin and the enhancing activities of three novel O-acylmenthol derivatives synthesized in our laboratory as well as five well-known chemical enhancers were evaluated. It was found that the steady-state flux of granisetron free base (GRN-B) was about 26-fold higher than that of granisetron hydrochloride (GRN-H). The novel enhancer, 2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexyl heptanoate (M-HEP), was observed to provide the most significant enhancement for the absorption of GRN-B. When incorporated in the donor solution with the optimal enhancer M-HEP, the steady-state flux of GRN-B increased from (196.44 ± 12.03) μg·cm⁻²·h⁻¹ to (1044.95 ± 71.99) μg·cm⁻²·h⁻¹ (P < 0.01). These findings indicated that the application of chemical enhancers was an effective approach to increase the percutaneous absorption of GRN in vitro.

  5. Persistent renal enhancement after intra-arterial versus intravenous iodixanol administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Shinn-Huey; Wang, Zhen J.; Kuo, Jonathan; Cabarrus, Miguel; Fu Yanjun; Aslam, Rizwan; Yee, Judy; Zimmet, Jeffrey M.; Shunk, Kendrick; Elicker, Brett; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the clinical significance of persistent renal enhancement after iodixanol administration. Methods: We retrospectively studied 166 consecutive patients who underwent non-enhanced abdominopelvic CT within 7 days after receiving intra-arterial (n = 99) or intravenous (n = 67) iodixanol. Renal attenuation was measured for each non-enhanced CT scan. Persistent renal enhancement was defined as CT attenuation >55 Hounsfield units (HU). Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) was defined as a rise in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dL within 5 days after contrast administration. Results: While the intensity and frequency of persistent renal enhancement was higher after intra-arterial (mean CT attenuation of 73.7 HU, seen in 54 of 99 patients, or 55%) than intravenous contrast material administration (51.8 HU, seen in 21 of 67, or 31%, p < 0.005), a multivariate regression model showed that the independent predictors of persistent renal enhancement were a shorter time interval until the subsequent non-enhanced CT (p < 0.001); higher contrast dose (p < 0.001); higher baseline serum creatinine (p < 0.01); and older age (p < 0.05). The route of contrast administration was not a predictor of persistent renal enhancement in this model. Contrast-induced nephropathy was noted in 9 patients who received intra-arterial (9%) versus 3 who received intravenous iodixanol (4%), and was more common in patients with persistent renal enhancement (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Persistent renal enhancement at follow-up non-contrast CT suggests a greater risk for contrast-induced nephropathy, but the increased frequency of striking renal enhancement in patients who received intra-arterial rather than intravenous contrast material also reflects the larger doses of contrast and shorter time to subsequent follow-up CT scanning for such patients.

  6. Enhancement of abdominal structures on MRI at 1.5 and 3 T: a retrospective intraindividual crossover comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlObaidy, Mamdoh [King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Department of Radiology, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Ramalho, Miguel; Velloni, Fernanda; Matos, Antonio P.; Herman, Kevin; Semelka, Richard C. [University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Radiology, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To quantitatively compare the extent of enhancement of abdominal structures on MRI in an intraindividual fashion at 1.5 and 3 T. HIPAA-compliant, retrospective, longitudinal, intraindividual, crossover study, with waived informed consent, of consecutive individuals scanned at both 1.5 and 3 T closed-bore magnets using gadobenate dimeglumine during different phases of enhancement at tightly controlled arterial phase timing. Quantitative ROI measurements and qualitative sub-phase arterial phase assignments were independently performed by two radiologists. Qualitative discrepancies were resolved by a senior radiologist. Final population included 60 patients [41 female and 19 male; age, 49.35 ± 18.31 years (range 16-81); weight, 78.88 ± 20.3 kg (range 44.5-136)]. Similar enhancement peak patterns were noted at both field strengths. Interobserver agreement of quantitative evaluations was substantial. Significantly higher amplitudes of enhancement peaks were noted for all abdominal solid organs during all phases at 3 T, except for the pancreas (p = 0.17-0.30). Significantly higher amplitudes of enhancement peaks of the abdominal aorta at 1.5 T were noted. Similar peak patterns of enhancement for abdominal structures were observed at 1.5 and 3 T, with solid abdominal organs showing a higher percentage enhancement at 3 T, while unexpectedly higher aortic higher percentage enhancement was observed at 1.5 T. (orig.)

  7. Mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma: Enhancement patterns in the arterial phase of dynamic hepatic CT - Correlation with clinicopathological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Nobuhiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Nishie, Akihiro; Ishigami, Kousei; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Daisuke; Moirta, Koichiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Takayama, Yukihisa [Kyushu University, Department of Radiology Informatics and Network, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Shirabe, Ken [Kyushu University, Department of Surgery and Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Aishima, Shinichi [Saga University Hospital, Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Saga City, Saga (Japan); Wang, Huanlin; Oda, Yoshinao [Kyushu University, Department of Anatomic Pathology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    To evaluate the relationship between the enhancement pattern of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs) in the hepatic arterial phase (HAP) of dynamic hepatic CT and the clinicopathological findings with special reference to the perihilar type and the peripheral type. Forty-seven patients with pathologically proven ICCs were enrolled. Based on the enhancement pattern in the HAP, the lesions were classified into three groups: a hypovascular group (n=13), rim-enhancement group (n=18), and hypervascular group (n=16). The clinicopathological findings were compared among the three groups. Perihilar-type ICCs were significantly more frequently observed in the hypovascular group than in the rim-enhancement and hypervascular groups (p=0.006 and p <0.001, respectively). Lymphatic invasion, perineural invasion, and biliary invasion were significantly more frequent in the hypovascular group than the rim- enhancement group (p=0.001, p=0.025 and p=0.029, respectively) or hypervascular group (p <0.001, p <0.001 and p=0.025, respectively). Patients with hypovascular lesions showed significantly poorer disease-free survival than patients with rim-enhancing or hypervascular lesions (p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). Hypovascularity was an independent preoperative prognostic factor for disease-free survival (p<0.001). Hypovascular ICCs in the HAP tend to be of perihilar type and to have more malignant potential than other ICCs. (orig.)

  8. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  9. Significant blockade of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases by MGCD516 (Sitravatinib), a novel small molecule inhibitor, shows potent anti-tumor activity in preclinical models of sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Parag P; Ivy, Kathryn S; Musi, Elgilda; de Stanchina, Elisa; Schwartz, Gary K

    2016-01-26

    Sarcomas are rare but highly aggressive mesenchymal tumors with a median survival of 10-18 months for metastatic disease. Mutation and/or overexpression of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) including c-Met, PDGFR, c-Kit and IGF1-R drive defective signaling pathways in sarcomas. MGCD516 (Sitravatinib) is a novel small molecule inhibitor targeting multiple RTKs involved in driving sarcoma cell growth. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of MGCD516 both in vitro and in mouse xenograft models in vivo. MGCD516 treatment resulted in significant blockade of phosphorylation of potential driver RTKs and induced potent anti-proliferative effects in vitro. Furthermore, MGCD516 treatment of tumor xenografts in vivo resulted in significant suppression of tumor growth. Efficacy of MGCD516 was superior to imatinib and crizotinib, two other well-studied multi-kinase inhibitors with overlapping target specificities, both in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report describing MGCD516 as a potent multi-kinase inhibitor in different models of sarcoma, superior to imatinib and crizotinib. Results from this study showing blockade of multiple driver signaling pathways provides a rationale for further clinical development of MGCD516 for the treatment of patients with soft-tissue sarcoma.

  10. Dynamic oxygen-enhanced MRI of cerebrospinal fluid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha M Mehemed

    Full Text Available Oxygen causes an increase in the longitudinal relaxation rate of tissues through its T1-shortening effect owing to its paramagnetic properties. Due to such effects, MRI has been used to study oxygen-related signal intensity changes in various body parts including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF space. Oxygen enhancement of CSF has been mainly studied using MRI sequences with relatively longer time resolution such as FLAIR, and T1 value calculation. In this study, fifteen healthy volunteers were scanned using fast advanced spin echo MRI sequence with and without inversion recovery pulse in order to dynamically track oxygen enhancement of CSF. We also focused on the differences of oxygen enhancement at sulcal and ventricular CSF. Our results revealed that CSF signal after administration of oxygen shows rapid signal increase in both sulcal CSF and ventricular CSF on both sequences, with statistically significant predominant increase in sulcal CSF compared with ventricular CSF. CSF is traditionally thought to mainly form from the choroid plexus in the ventricles and is absorbed at the arachnoid villi, however, it is also believed that cerebral arterioles contribute to the production and absorption of CSF, and controversy remains in terms of the precise mechanism. Our results demonstrated rapid oxygen enhancement in sulcal CSF, which may suggest inhaled oxygen may diffuse into sulcal CSF space rapidly probably due to the abundance of pial arterioles on the brain sulci.

  11. Detection of hepatocellular carcinoma by Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MRI: Comparison with triple phase 64 detector row helical CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akai, Hiroyuki; Kiryu, Shigeru; Matsuda, Izuru; Satou, Jirou; Takao, Hidemasa; Tajima, Taku; Watanabe, Yasushi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Akahane, Masaaki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the diagnostic performance of Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI with that of triple phase 64-MDCT in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and methods: Thirty-four patients with 52 surgically proven lesions underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI and triple phase 64-MDCT. Two observers independently evaluated MR and CT imaging on a lesion-by-lesion basis. Sensitivity, positive and negative predictive values and reproducibility were evaluated. The diagnostic accuracy of each modality was assessed with alternative-free response receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: Both observers showed higher sensitivity in detecting lesions with MRI compared to CT, however, only the difference between the two imaging techniques for observer 2 was significant (P = 0.034). For lesions 1 cm or smaller, MRI and CT showed equal sensitivity (both 62.5%) with one observer, and MRI proved superior to CT with the other observer (MRI 75% vs. CT 56.3%), but the latter difference was not significant (P = 0.083). The difference in positive and negative predictive value between the two imaging techniques for each observer was not significant (P > 0.05). The areas under the ROC curve for each observer were 0.843 and 0.861 for MRI vs. 0.800 and 0.833 for CT and the differences were not significant. Reproducibility was higher using MRI for both observers, but the result was not significant (MRI 32/33 vs. CT 29/33, P = 0.083). Conclusion: Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI tended to show higher diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity and reproducibility compared to triple phase 64-MDCT in the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma, however statistical significance was not achieved.

  12. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement of liver hemangiomas: A possible atypical appearance on contrast-enhanced US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo; Taibbi, Adele; Galia, Massimo; Lo Re, Giuseppe; La Grutta, Ludovico; Grassi, Roberto; Midiri, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To report the prevalence and to describe the atypical centrifugal (inside-out) appearance of contrast-enhancement of liver hemangiomas on contrast-enhanced sonography. Materials and methods: Baseline and SonoVue-enhanced ultrasonography of 92 patients with 158 liver hemangiomas - considered atypical at grey-scale examination and confirmed by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound follow-up - were reviewed in consensus by two experienced radiologists, who evaluated baseline echogenicity and the dynamic enhancement pattern of each lesion looking for the presence of central enhancing foci in the arterial phase followed by a centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement in the portal-venous and late phases. Results: After administration of SonoVue, 12/158 hemangiomas (7.6%) (size range: 1-7 cm; mean: 3.2 cm) in seven patients (5 women, 2 men; age range: 34-71 years, mean: 50.8 years) showed a central enhancing focus in the arterial phase followed by a centrifugal enhancement in the portal-venous and late phases. In all cases centrifugal enhancement was incomplete at contrast-enhanced sonography, whereas computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging were able to depict a complete and homogeneous fill-in. Conclusion: Radiologist should be aware that centrifugal (inside-out) appearance on contrast-enhanced sonography is a rare but possible feature of liver hemangioma

  14. Centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement of liver hemangiomas: A possible atypical appearance on contrast-enhanced US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartolotta, Tommaso Vincenzo [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Via Del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: tv.bartolotta@unipa.it; Taibbi, Adele [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Via Del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: taibbi_adele@yahoo.it; Galia, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Via Del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: mgalia@yahoo.com; Lo Re, Giuseppe [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Via Del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: giuseppe.lore12@tin.it; La Grutta, Ludovico [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Via Del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: lagrutta@mbox.infcom.it; Grassi, Roberto [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Piazza Miraglia, 80138 Naples (Italy)], E-mail: roberto.grassi@libero.it; Midiri, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of Palermo, Via Del Vespro 127, 90127 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: mmidiri@hotmail.com

    2007-12-15

    Objective: To report the prevalence and to describe the atypical centrifugal (inside-out) appearance of contrast-enhancement of liver hemangiomas on contrast-enhanced sonography. Materials and methods: Baseline and SonoVue-enhanced ultrasonography of 92 patients with 158 liver hemangiomas - considered atypical at grey-scale examination and confirmed by computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound follow-up - were reviewed in consensus by two experienced radiologists, who evaluated baseline echogenicity and the dynamic enhancement pattern of each lesion looking for the presence of central enhancing foci in the arterial phase followed by a centrifugal (inside-out) enhancement in the portal-venous and late phases. Results: After administration of SonoVue, 12/158 hemangiomas (7.6%) (size range: 1-7 cm; mean: 3.2 cm) in seven patients (5 women, 2 men; age range: 34-71 years, mean: 50.8 years) showed a central enhancing focus in the arterial phase followed by a centrifugal enhancement in the portal-venous and late phases. In all cases centrifugal enhancement was incomplete at contrast-enhanced sonography, whereas computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging were able to depict a complete and homogeneous fill-in. Conclusion: Radiologist should be aware that centrifugal (inside-out) appearance on contrast-enhanced sonography is a rare but possible feature of liver hemangioma.

  15. Multisensory integration produces an initial response enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Rowland

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The brain has evolved the ability to integrate information across the senses in order to improve the detection and disambiguation of biologically significant events. This multisensory synthesis of information leads to faster (and more accurate behavioral responses, yet the underlying neural mechanisms by which these responses are speeded are as yet unclear. The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the temporal properties of multisensory enhancement in the physiological responses of neuron in the superior colliculus (SC. Of specific interest was the temporal evolution of their responses to individual modality-specific stimuli as well as to cross-modal combinations of these stimuli. The results demonstrate that cross-modal stimuli typically elicit faster, more robust, and more reliable physiological responses than do their modality-specific component stimuli. Response measures sensitive to the time domain showed that these multisensory responses were enhanced from their very onset, and that the acceleration of the enhancement was greatest within the first 40 ms (or 50% of the response. The latter half of the multisensory response was typically only as robust and informative as predicted by a linear combination of the unisensory component responses. These results may reveal some of the key physiological changes underlying many of the SC-mediated behavioral benefits of multisensory integration.

  16. Aloe Gel Enhances Angiogenesis in Healing of Diabetic Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djanggan Sargowo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic micro and macroangiophathy lead to the incident of diabetic foot ulcers characterized by an increased number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs and decreased function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs. This fact is correlated with ischemia and diabetic wound healing failure. Aloe vera gel is known to be able to stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression and activity by enhancing nitric oxide (NO production as a result of nitric oxide synthase (NOS enzyme activity. Aloe vera is a potential target to enhancing angiogenesis in wound healing. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to explore the major role of Aloe vera gel in wound healing of diabetic ulcers by increasing the level of EPCs, VEGF, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, as well as by reducing the level of CECs involved in angiogenesis process of diabetic ulcers healing. METHODS: The experimental groups was divided into five subgroups consisting of non diabetic wistar rats, diabetic rats without oral administration of aloe gel, and treatment subgroup (diabetic rats with 30, 60 and 120 mg/day of aloe gel doses for 14 days. All subgroups were wounded and daily observation was done on the wounds areas. Measurement of the number of EPCs (CD34, and CECs (CD45 and CD146 was done by flow cytometry, followed by measurement of VEGF and eNOS expression on dermal tissue by immunohistochemical method on day 0 and day 14 after treatment. The quantitative data were analyzed by One-Way ANOVA and Linear Regression, with a confidence interval 5% and significance level (p<0.05 using SPSS 16 software to compare the difference and correlation between wound diameters, number of EPCs and CECs as well as the levels of VEGF and eNOS. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that aloe gel oral treatment in diabetic wistar rats was able to accelerate the wound healing process. It was shown by significant reduction of wound diameter (0.27±0.02; the

  17. Contrast enhanced MRI findings of ductal carcinoma in situ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bong Joo; Cha, Eun Suk; Kim, Hyeon Sook; Suh, Young Jin; Choi, Hyun Joo

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe characteristic contrast enhanced MR mammographic findings of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and also DCIS with microinvasion. From January 2000 to July 2005, 32 women with 33 lesions affected by DCIS or DCIS with microinvasion underwent contrast enhanced MRI, and they were then retrospectively evaluated. All the patients had previously undergone mammography and ultrasonography. All the findings of mammography, ultrasonography (US), and MRI were analyzed by using an ACR BI-RADS lexicon. All 33 cases were enhanced on the enhanced MR images. A smooth margined homogeneous enhanced mass was seen in the two (2/33) cases, and nonmass enhancement was seen in 31 (31/33) cases. Among the non-mass enhancement, focal enhancement (7/31), ductal enhancement (5/31), segmental enhancement (9/31), and regional enhancement (10/31) were observed. On the kinetic study, a wash-out pattern (10/33), a plateau pattern (20/33), and a persistent pattern (3/33) were demonstrated. No significant differences were noted between the pure and microinvasive DCIS. There is no significant difference between pure and microinvasive DCIS. However, contrast enhanced MR images can demonstrate occult foci, multifocal lesion and the tumor extent of DCIS on mammogram or ultrasonogram

  18. Making lasting memories: Remembering the significant

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Although forgetting is the common fate of most of our experiences, much evidence indicates that emotional arousal enhances the storage of memories, thus serving to create, selectively, lasting memories of our more important experiences. The neurobiological systems mediating emotional arousal and memory are very closely linked. The adrenal stress hormones epinephrine and corticosterone released by emotional arousal regulate the consolidation of long-term memory. The amygdala plays a critical role in mediating these stress hormone influences. The release of norepinephrine in the amygdala and the activation of noradrenergic receptors are essential for stress hormone-induced memory enhancement. The findings of both animal and human studies provide compelling evidence that stress-induced activation of the amygdala and its interactions with other brain regions involved in processing memory play a critical role in ensuring that emotionally significant experiences are well-remembered. Recent research has determined that some human subjects have highly superior autobiographic memory of their daily experiences and that there are structural differences in the brains of these subjects compared with the brains of subjects who do not have such memory. Understanding of neurobiological bases of such exceptional memory may provide additional insights into the processes underlying the selectivity of memory. PMID:23754441

  19. Dibasic Ammonium Phosphate Application Enhances Aromatic Compound Concentration in Bog Bilberry Syrup Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Yang Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nitrogen deficiency always causes bog bilberry syrup wine to have a poor sensory feature. This study investigated the effect of nitrogen source addition on volatile compounds during bog bilberry syrup wine fermentation. The syrup was supplemented with 60, 90, 120 or 150 mg/L dibasic ammonium phosphate (DAP before fermentation. Results showed that an increase of DAP amounts accelerated fermentation rate, increased alcohol content, and decreased sugar level. Total phenol and total flavonoid content were also enhanced with the increase of DAP amounts. A total of 91 volatile compounds were detected in the wine and their concentrations were significantly enhanced with the increase of DAP. Ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, phenethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate, ethyl decanoate, isobutanol, isoamyl alcohol, levo-2,3-butanediol, 2-phenylethanol, meso-2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid exhibited a significant increase of their odor activity value (OAV with the